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Sample records for grandmother cell coding

  1. More on Grandmother Cells and the Biological Implausibility of PDP Models of Cognition: A Reply to Plaut and McClelland (2010) and Quian Quiroga and Kreiman (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Plaut and McClelland (2010) and Quian Quiroga and Kreiman both challenged my characterization of localist and distributed representations. They also challenged the biological plausibility of grandmother cells on conceptual and empirical grounds. This reply addresses these issues in turn. The premise of my argument is that grandmother cells in…

  2. On the Biological Plausibility of Grandmother Cells: Implications for Neural Network Theories in Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated…

  3. Matrilateral Bias in Human Grandmothering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Daly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Children receive more care and resources from their maternal grandmothers than from their paternal grandmothers. This asymmetry is the “matrilateral bias” in grandmaternal investment. Here, we synopsize the evolutionary theories that predict such a bias, and review evidence of its cross-cultural generality and magnitude. Evolutionists have long maintained that investing in a daughter’s child yields greater fitness returns, on average, than investing in a son’s child because of paternity uncertainty: the son’s putative progeny may have been sired by someone else. Recent theoretical work has identified an additional natural selective basis for the matrilateral bias that may be no less important: supporting grandchildren lightens the load on their mother, increasing her capacity to pursue her fitness in other ways, and if she invests those gains either in her natal relatives or in children of a former or future partner, fitness returns accrue to the maternal, but not the paternal, grandmother. In modern democracies, where kinship is reckoned bilaterally and no postmarital residence norms restrict grandmaternal access to grandchildren, many studies have found large matrilateral biases in contact, childcare, and emotional closeness. In other societies, patrilineal ideology and postmarital residence with the husband’s kin (virilocality might be expected to have produced a patrilateral bias instead, but the available evidence refutes this hypothesis. In hunter-gatherers, regardless of professed norms concerning kinship and residence, mothers get needed help at and after childbirth from their mothers, not their mothers-in-law. In traditional agricultural and pastoral societies, patrilineal and virilocal norms are common, but young mothers still turn to their natal families for crucial help, and several studies have documented benefits, including reduced child mortality, associated with access to maternal, but not paternal, grandmothers. Even

  4. Becoming a Grandmother: Maternal Grandmothers' Mental Health, Perceived Costs, and Personal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomo, Shirley Ben; Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Findler, Liora; Sivan, Eyal; Dolizki, Mordechay

    2010-01-01

    Although becoming a grandmother represents an important transition in a woman's life, it has received scant research attention. This study used the model of growth developed by Schaefer and Moos in an attempt to identify personal and environmental resources that may contribute to a first-time maternal grandmother's mental health and her…

  5. Grandmothers' advice about disciplining grandchildren: is it accepted by mothers, and does its rejection influence grandmothers' subsequent guidance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, A M; Passman, R H

    1991-06-01

    To test whether maternal grandmothers' advice affects mothers' punishing of their children and whether mothers' disciplinary actions influence subsequent suggestions by these grandmothers, 40 three-generational families were examined. After receiving advice purportedly from the grandmothers, mothers rewarded and punished their 10-year-olds' successes and errors on a task. Participants were in separate rooms so that simulated information about the grandmothers' advice, mothers' disciplinary decisions, and children's performances could be systematically manipulated under controlled conditions. The grandmothers' sham "suggestions" to mothers about punishing appeared either to begin leniently but progressively intensify or to start harshly but gradually mollify. Information to grandmothers about the mothers' "punishing" likewise either became increasingly severe or indulgent. All children, however, appeared to continue performing uniformly. Mothers generally modified their disciplining to correspond to the grandmothers' apparent advice, and grandmothers' actual suggestions conformed toward the mothers' simulated discipline. Grandmothers appear to be one of many influences affecting mothers' decisions about their children.

  6. Mothers' Mobility after Separation : Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Marjolijn; de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  7. Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and transmitters of indegenous values: ecomaternalistic approach. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... It further calls for the retrieval of the said hidden histories of women which would hopefully be a lesson for the contemporary and future women.

  8. Mothers' Mobility after Separation: Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Merz, E.-M.

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  9. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-06-10

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (years) had 8 times lower mortality risk if the grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters' inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother's own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter's reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan.

  10. Children on the Autism Spectrum: Grandmother Involvement and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alison; Winograd, Greta; Verkuilen, Jay; Fish, Marian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated associations between the presence of a child with autism or Asperger's disorder in the family, family functioning and grandmother experiences with the goal of better understanding grandparent involvement in the lives of grandchildren on the autism spectrum and their families. Methods: Mothers and grandmothers of…

  11. Intergenerational Parenting from the Perspective of African American Grandmothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Priscilla A.

    2005-01-01

    Grandmothers primarily responsible for caring for their grandchildren possess strengths and confront challenges. To gain insight into intergenerational parenting, 17 African American grandmothers were interviewed. Based on a qualitative content analysis, seven strategies emerged: maintaining effective communication, taking a strong role in the…

  12. Surrogate mothers: aboriginal grandmothers raising grandchildren in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting.

  13. A double concern: Grandmothers' experiences when a small grandchild is critically ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Grandmothers play an active part in family health and illness, but so far they are peripheral in both nursing and nursing research. This article addresses grandmothers' lived experiences when a small grandchild is critically ill. A convenience sample of 7 grandmothers was interviewed once...

  14. Emotional strain in caregiving among African American grandmothers raising their grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Francine; Jones, Samuel; Speakes-Lewis, Amandia

    2011-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately represented in the number of grandparents raising their grandchildren. Using Role Strain Theory and Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, this study examines how older grandmothers fare relative to their younger counterparts. Eighty-five custodial African American grandmothers, aged 33-88 years old, completed demographic questionnaires and scales of Role Demand, Emotional Strain, Caregiving Strain Index, and Level of Care. Results showed older grandmothers experienced less emotional and caregiving strain relative to younger grandmothers. Furthermore, married grandmothers experienced less caregiving strain, and their age did not insulate them from the strain associated with the level of care. Implications are discussed.

  15. 10386 engaging fathers and grandmothers to improve maternal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terry

    This paper describes the planning, design, and implementation of a four-phased evaluation study on the impact of engaging fathers or grandmothers in improving diets of mothers and feeding practices of infants and young children in a rural setting in western Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent.

  16. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Carthron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.

  17. The "invisible caregiver": multicaregiving among diabetic African-American grandmothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Particle In Cell Codes on Highly Parallel Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tableman, Adam

    2014-10-01

    We describe strategies and examples of Particle-In-Cell Codes running on Nvidia GPU and Intel Phi architectures. This includes basic implementations in skeletons codes and full-scale development versions (encompassing 1D, 2D, and 3D codes) in Osiris. Both the similarities and differences between Intel's and Nvidia's hardware will be examined. Work supported by grants NSF ACI 1339893, DOE DE SC 000849, DOE DE SC 0008316, DOE DE NA 0001833, and DOE DE FC02 04ER 54780.

  19. Factors influencing happiness of the grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Powwattana, Arpaporn

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 400 grandmothers, aged 50-79 years, who raised their grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected through a structured interview from April to July 2009 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Multiple regression analysis. Nearly half (46.8%) of grandmothers raising grandchildren had high level of happiness, followed by moderate level (40.4%) and low level (12.8%). The factors, which significantly influenced the happiness of the grandmothers, were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p-value happiness of the grandmothers by 48.1%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of happiness among grandmothers. The factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote happiness of grandmothers, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the grandmother's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  20. Optimization of Particle-in-Cell Codes on RISC Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decyk, Viktor K.; Karmesin, Steve Roy; Boer, Aeint de; Liewer, Paulette C.

    1996-01-01

    General strategies are developed to optimize particle-cell-codes written in Fortran for RISC processors which are commonly used on massively parallel computers. These strategies include data reorganization to improve cache utilization and code reorganization to improve efficiency of arithmetic pipelines.

  1. Computer-assisted Particle-in-Cell code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S.; Boonmee, C.; Teramoto, T.; Drska, L.; Limpouch, J.; Liska, R.; Sinor, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a new approach for an electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code development by a computer: in general PIC codes have a common structure, and consist of a particle pusher, a field solver, charge and current density collections, and a field interpolation. Because of the common feature, the main part of the PIC code can be mechanically developed on a computer. In this report we use the packages FIDE and GENTRAN of the REDUCE computer algebra system for discretizations of field equations and a particle equation, and for an automatic generation of Fortran codes. The approach proposed is successfully applied to the development of 1.5-dimensional PIC code. By using the generated PIC code the Weibel instability in a plasma is simulated. The obtained growth rate agrees well with the theoretical value. (author)

  2. Pregnancy, microchimerism, and the maternal grandmother.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary S Gammill

    Full Text Available A WOMAN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE OFTEN HARBORS A SMALL NUMBER OF FOREIGN CELLS, REFERRED TO AS MICROCHIMERISM: a preexisting population of cells acquired during fetal life from her own mother, and newly acquired populations from her pregnancies. An intriguing question is whether the population of cells from her own mother can influence either maternal health during pregnancy and/or the next generation (grandchildren.Microchimerism from a woman's (i.e. proband's own mother (mother-of-the-proband, MP was studied in peripheral blood samples from women followed longitudinally during pregnancy who were confirmed to have uncomplicated obstetric outcomes. Women with preeclampsia were studied at the time of diagnosis and comparison made to women with healthy pregnancies matched for parity and gestational age. Participants and family members were HLA-genotyped for DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci. An HLA polymorphism unique to the woman's mother was identified, and a panel of HLA-specific quantitative PCR assays was employed to identify and quantify microchimerism. Microchimerism from the MP was identified during normal, uncomplicated pregnancy, with a peak concentration in the third trimester. The likelihood of detection increased with advancing gestational age. For each advancing trimester, there was a 12.7-fold increase in the probability of detecting microchimerism relative to the prior trimester, 95% confidence intervals 3.2, 50.3, p<0.001. None of the women with preeclampsia, compared with 30% of matched healthy women, had microchimerism (p = 0.03.These results show that microchimerism from a woman's own mother is detectable in normal pregnancy and diminished in preeclampsia, supporting the previously unexplored hypothesis that MP microchimerism may be a marker reflecting healthy maternal adaptation to pregnancy.

  3. What Do Grandmothers Think about Self-Esteem? American and Taiwanese Folk Theories Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Grace E.; Sandel, Todd L.; Miller, Peggy J.; Wang, Su-hua

    2005-01-01

    The study investigates European American and Taiwanese grandmothers' folk theories of childrearing and self-esteem, building on an earlier comparison of mothers from the same families. Adopting methods that privilege local meanings, we bring grandmothers' voices into the conversation about childrearing, thereby contributing to a deeper…

  4. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  5. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  6. Grandmother Coresidence, Maternal Orphans, and School Enrollment in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Erin M.; Short, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa has brought renewed attention to the role of grandmothers as caregivers of children. Using 2004 Lesotho Demographic and Health Survey data, the authors examine the relationship between coresidence with a grandmother and child schooling in Lesotho, a country with one of the highest rates of HIV infection.…

  7. Cell-assembly coding in several memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y

    1998-01-01

    The present paper discusses why the cell assembly, i.e., an ensemble population of neurons with flexible functional connections, is a tenable view of the basic code for information processes in the brain. The main properties indicating the reality of cell-assembly coding are neurons overlaps among different assemblies and connection dynamics within and among the assemblies. The former can be detected as multiple functions of individual neurons in processing different kinds of information. Individual neurons appear to be involved in multiple information processes. The latter can be detected as changes of functional synaptic connections in processing different kinds of information. Correlations of activity among some of the recorded neurons appear to change in multiple information processes. Recent experiments have compared several different memory processes (tasks) and detected these two main properties, indicating cell-assembly coding of memory in the working brain. The first experiment compared different types of processing of identical stimuli, i.e., working memory and reference memory of auditory stimuli. The second experiment compared identical processes of different types of stimuli, i.e., discriminations of simple auditory, simple visual, and configural auditory-visual stimuli. The third experiment compared identical processes of different types of stimuli with or without temporal processing of stimuli, i.e., discriminations of elemental auditory, configural auditory-visual, and sequential auditory-visual stimuli. Some possible features of the cell-assembly coding, especially "dual coding" by individual neurons and cell assemblies, are discussed for future experimental approaches. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  8. Independent rate and temporal coding in hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxter, John; Burgess, Neil; O'Keefe, John

    2003-10-23

    In the brain, hippocampal pyramidal cells use temporal as well as rate coding to signal spatial aspects of the animal's environment or behaviour. The temporal code takes the form of a phase relationship to the concurrent cycle of the hippocampal electroencephalogram theta rhythm. These two codes could each represent a different variable. However, this requires the rate and phase to vary independently, in contrast to recent suggestions that they are tightly coupled, both reflecting the amplitude of the cell's input. Here we show that the time of firing and firing rate are dissociable, and can represent two independent variables: respectively the animal's location within the place field, and its speed of movement through the field. Independent encoding of location together with actions and stimuli occurring there may help to explain the dual roles of the hippocampus in spatial and episodic memory, or may indicate a more general role of the hippocampus in relational/declarative memory.

  9. Beliefs of mothers, nannies, grandmothers and daycare providers concerning childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Seidl-de-Moura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the greater inclusion of women in the job market, the division of childcare has become increasingly more common. This paper’s aim was to analyze potential differences among distinct profiles of caregivers regarding the valuation of Keller’s parenting systems. A total of 120 caregivers (mothers, grandmothers, nannies and daycare educators of children younger than one year of age participated in a semi-structured interview. Significant differences were found among the caregivers in regard to the importance they assigned to the different systems: face-to-face, body stimulation and basic care. Education also significantly influenced the valorization of face-to-face and basic care systems. The conclusion is that the caregivers presented a mixed parental style, both distal, enabling the experience of autonomy and separation, and proximal, valuing greater interpersonal relationships. This study sought to contribute to understanding the trajectories used to the development of self when different actors are involved in childcare.

  10. Collective Sensing of β-Cells Generates the Metabolic Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Korošak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Major part of a pancreatic islet is composed of β-cells that secrete insulin, a key hormone regulating influx of nutrients into all cells in a vertebrate organism to support nutrition, housekeeping or energy storage. β-cells constantly communicate with each other using both direct, short-range interactions through gap junctions, and paracrine long-range signaling. However, how these cell interactions shape collective sensing and cell behavior in islets that leads to insulin release is unknown. When stimulated by specific ligands, primarily glucose, β-cells collectively respond with expression of a series of transient Ca2+ changes on several temporal scales. Here we reanalyze a set of Ca2+ spike trains recorded in acute rodent pancreatic tissue slice under physiological conditions. We found strongly correlated states of co-spiking cells coexisting with mostly weak pairwise correlations widespread across the islet. Furthermore, the collective Ca2+ spiking activity in islet shows on-off intermittency with scaling of spiking amplitudes, and stimulus dependent autoassociative memory features. We use a simple spin glass-like model for the functional network of a β-cell collective to describe these findings and argue that Ca2+ spike trains produced by collective sensing of β-cells constitute part of the islet metabolic code that regulates insulin release and limits the islet size.

  11. Mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in families with incarcerated mothers: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother's jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers' release and community reentry. Forty mother-grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother-grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for understanding mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children's functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed.

  12. Regulatory Non-Coding RNAs in Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The most part of our genome encodes for RNA transcripts are never translated into proteins. These include families of RNA molecules with a regulatory function, which can be arbitrarily subdivided in short (less than 200 nucleotides and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. MicroRNAs, which act post-transcriptionally to repress the function of target mRNAs, belong to the first group. Included in the second group are multi-exonic and polyadenylated long ncRNAs (lncRNAs, localized either in the nucleus, where they can associate with chromatin remodeling complexes to regulate transcription, or in the cytoplasm, acting as post-transcriptional regulators. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, represent useful systems for modeling normal development and human diseases, as well as promising tools for regenerative medicine. To fully explore their potential, however, a deep understanding of the molecular basis of stemness is crucial. In recent years, increasing evidence of the importance of regulation by ncRNAs in pluripotent cells is accumulating. In this review, we will discuss recent findings pointing to multiple roles played by regulatory ncRNAs in ESC and iPSCs, where they act in concert with signaling pathways, transcriptional regulatory circuitries and epigenetic factors to modulate the balance between pluripotency and differentiation.

  13. Love Is True-Blue: Grandmothering in Rita Williams-Garcia's "One Crazy Summer" and "P.S. Be Eleven"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, KaaVonia; Branyon, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Recent images of President Obama's mother-in-law, Mrs. Marian Robinson, caring for her granddaughters in the White House are a powerful reminder of the prominence that grandmothers have had in African American communities. The significance of the grandmother figure can also be seen in award-winning literature for young adolescents such as in Rita…

  14. Babushki as Surrogate Wives: How Single Mothers and Grandmothers Negotiate the Division of Labor in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Utrata, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Much like husbands and wives, single mothers and grandmothers struggle over the sharing of paid work and “second shift†responsibilities. Using in-depth interview and ethnographic data from Russia, this article applies elements of Hochschild’s (1989) framework to illuminate sites of tension and reciprocity among single mothers and their children’s grandmothers, or babushki, demonstrating that women’s negotiations across the generational divide resemble those between husbands and wive...

  15. Involvement of Grandmothers in Caring for Children with Autism in the Philippines: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin Kim A. Arnilla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study looked into the lived experiences of Filipino grandmothers rearing children with autism (CWA focusing particularly on the extent of their involvement. The study used Interpretative P henomenological Analysis (IPA through interview and storytelling of eight (8 Filipino grandmothers. Analysis of data generated three themes such as “I watch him every time his parents are out” (physical involvement, “I hope one day he‟ll be okey” (emoti onal involvement and “Financially, I gave whatever I have” (financial involvement. The study attempts to explain the extent of involvement of grandmothers in rearing children with autism across these dimensions. Physical involvement is bounded by physica l strength, emotional involvement is bounded by self - restraint and financial involvement is bounded by financial capability. The caring and nurturing nature of Filipino grandmothers is translated to their physical, emotional and financial involvement in re aring their grandchildren from conception to adulthood. Filipino children with autism as described in this study had issues covering the broad categories of deficits in social communication and social interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of beha vior and interests. Given the atypicalities and the inherent impediments experienced by those in the lower socio - economic status, intervention programs can be created and implemented to address them.

  16. LASER-R a computer code for reactor cell and burnup calculations in neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristian, I.; Cirstoiu, B.; Dumitrache, I.; Cepraga, D.

    1976-04-01

    The LASER-R code is an IBM 370/135 version of the Westinghouse code, LASER, based on the THERMOS and MUFT codes developped by Poncelet. It can be used to perform thermal reactor cell calculations and burnup calculations. The cell exhibits 3-4 concentric areas: fuel, cladding, moderator and scattering ring. Besides directions for use, a short description of the physical model, numerical methods and output is presented

  17. Spike and burst coding in thalamocortical relay cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Zeldenrust

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian thalamocortical relay (TCR neurons switch their firing activity between a tonic spiking and a bursting regime. In a combined experimental and computational study, we investigated the features in the input signal that single spikes and bursts in the output spike train represent and how this code is influenced by the membrane voltage state of the neuron. Identical frozen Gaussian noise current traces were injected into TCR neurons in rat brain slices as well as in a validated three-compartment TCR model cell. The resulting membrane voltage traces and spike trains were analyzed by calculating the coherence and impedance. Reverse correlation techniques gave the Event-Triggered Average (ETA and the Event-Triggered Covariance (ETC. This demonstrated that the feature selectivity started relatively long before the events (up to 300 ms and showed a clear distinction between spikes (selective for fluctuations and bursts (selective for integration. The model cell was fine-tuned to mimic the frozen noise initiated spike and burst responses to within experimental accuracy, especially for the mixed mode regimes. The information content carried by the various types of events in the signal as well as by the whole signal was calculated. Bursts phase-lock to and transfer information at lower frequencies than single spikes. On depolarization the neuron transits smoothly from the predominantly bursting regime to a spiking regime, in which it is more sensitive to high-frequency fluctuations. The model was then used to elucidate properties that could not be assessed experimentally, in particular the role of two important subthreshold voltage-dependent currents: the low threshold activated calcium current (IT and the cyclic nucleotide modulated h current (Ih. The ETAs of those currents and their underlying activation/inactivation states not only explained the state dependence of the firing regime but also the long-lasting concerted dynamic action of the two

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior.

  19. BCG: a computer code for calculating neutron spectra and criticality in cells of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, S.B.; Caldeira, A.D.; Garcia, R.D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The BCG code for determining the space and energy neutron flux distribution and criticality of fast reactor cylindrical cells is discussed. The code solves the unidimensional neutron transport equation together with interface current relations at each energy point in an unionized energy grid prepared for the cell and at an arbitrary number of spatial zones. While the spatial resolution is user specified, the energy dependence of the flux distribution is resolved according to the degree of variation in the reconstruced total microscopic cross sections of the atomic species in the cell. Results for a simplified fuel cell illustrate the high resolution and accuracy that can be obtained with the code. (author) [pt

  20. Confidentiality of 2D Code using Infrared with Cell-level Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Teraura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical information media printed on paper use printing materials to absorb visible light. There is a 2D code, which may be encrypted but also can possibly be copied. Hence, we envisage an information medium that cannot possibly be copied and thereby offers high security. At the surface, the normal 2D code is printed. The inner layers consist of 2D codes printed using a variety of materials, which absorb certain distinct wavelengths, to form a multilayered 2D code. Information can be distributed among the 2D codes forming the inner layers of the multiplex. Additionally, error correction at cell level can be introduced.

  1. Maternal Grandmothers Do Go the Extra Mile: Factoring Distance and Lineage into Differential Contact with Grandchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V. Pollet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted from an evolutionary perspective have documented differential investment in grandchildren by lineage. The majority of these studies have used retrospective ratings by grandchildren, but only a fraction of these studies have examined actual grandparental behavior. Here we focus on the interaction between distance and lineage on face-to-face contact with a (random grandchild in a large scale sample. Our main prediction is that maternal grandparents are significantly more willing to travel in order to see their grandchild. While controlling for initiative of contact, urbanization, sex and age of the grandchild, educational attainment, marital status and age we found a significant interaction between distance and grandparent type on frequency of contact with a grandchild. Maternal grandmothers were significantly more inclined than paternal grandfathers and grandmothers to maintain frequent face-to-face contact, as distance between grandparent and grandchild increased. The results are discussed with reference to evolutionary theories of grandparental investment.

  2. African American grandmother raising grandchildren: a phenomenological perspective of marginalized women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Bene, Susan B

    2010-08-01

    More African American grandmothers are becoming caregivers for their grandchildren when the parents are unable or unwilling to provide care. This qualitative study used hermeneutic phenomenology based on in-dept interviews with 15 African American women who have assumed the role of caregivers. The following themes, with subthemes emerged regarding this new role for the grandmothers: Finding a Voice to Match Medical Needs, The Role of the Confidante: The Power of the Group, The Relationship with the Biological Parents, and Legal Issues. These finding provide rich understand. These findings provide rich understanding of the African American women and the challenges they face related to culture, race, lack of political voice and power, and limited resources--in essence, the impact of marginalization in society. The underlying point is the potential impact on this population and the degree to which the health profession can draw on an interdisciplinary model to frame, analyze and dress future health care problems in marginalized African American women.

  3. Further Explorations of the "Western Mind". Euro-American and German Mothers' and Grandmothers' Ethnotheories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Keller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to disentangle the conception of independence as the dominant sociocultural orientation of care giving in Western postmodern societies sometimes referred to as the "Western mind." Mothers and grandmothers in Los Angeles, USA and Berlin, Germany were interviewed about their socialization goals and their ideas of good parenting with respect to a three months old baby using a semi-structured picture card interview technique. The analysis was based on qualitative content analysis. All participants share equally independent and interdependent socialization goals. They also have a common understanding about which care giving practices are important. There is, however, a cultural difference with respect to their conception of care giving. German participants share a holistic view in that they expect breastfeeding, body contact and Beschäftigung ("dealing with the child" to be composed of closeness and stimulation that facilitates relational closeness as well as healthy mental/psychological development. Los Angeles mothers and grandmothers share a functionalistic view (with the exception of breastfeeding in that they conceive of different care giving practices differently with distinct developmental outcomes (breastfeeding is for health, playing is for stimulating cognitive development, bodily proximity is for soothing. All participants share an understanding that (motor over-stimulation is not good for children's development. Grandmothers and mothers basically do not differ in their views as the grandmothers seem to have in part adopted their daughters' opinions. Results are discussed with respect to contextual factors, especially women's participation in the labor force. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060159

  4. BCG: a code for calculating pointwise neutron spectra and criticality in fast reactor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, S.B.; Caldeira, A.D.; Garcia, R.D.M.

    1988-02-01

    The BCG code for determining the space and energy neutron flux distribution and criticality of fast reactor cylindrical cells is presented. The code solves the unidimensional neutron transport equation together with interface current relations at each energy in an unionized grid prepared for the cell and at an arbitrary number of spatial zones. While the spatial resolution is user specified, the energy dependence of the flux distribution is resolved according to the degree of variation in the reconstructed total microscopic cross sections of the atomic species in the cell. Results for a defined sample problem illustrate the high resolution and accuracy that can be obtained with the code. (author) [pt

  5. Development of 2D particle-in-cell code to simulate high current, low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A code for 2D space-charge dominated beam dynamics study in beam trans- port lines is developed. The code is used for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of z-uniform beam in a channel containing solenoids and drift space. It can also simulate a transport line where quadrupoles are used for focusing the beam.

  6. Extracellular vesicle associated long non-coding RNAs functionally enhance cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hewson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells communicate with one another to create microenvironments and share resources. One avenue by which cells communicate is through the action of exosomes. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are released by one cell and taken up by neighbouring cells. But how exosomes instigate communication between cells has remained largely unknown. We present evidence here that particular long non-coding RNA molecules are preferentially packaged into exosomes. We also find that a specific class of these exosome associated non-coding RNAs functionally modulate cell viability by direct interactions with l-lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB, high-mobility group protein 17 (HMG-17, and CSF2RB, proteins involved in metabolism, nucleosomal architecture and cell signalling respectively. Knowledge of this endogenous cell to cell pathway, those proteins interacting with exosome associated non-coding transcripts and their interacting domains, could lead to a better understanding of not only cell to cell interactions but also the development of exosome targeted approaches in patient specific cell-based therapies. Keywords: Non-coding RNA, Extracellular RNA, Exosomes, Retroelement, Pseudogene

  7. Safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.P.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation in the UK, Europe and internationally. Management of health and safety in the UK is discussed, and the characteristics of phosphoric acid (PAFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MCFC), solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells are described. Fuel cell power plant standards and manufacture in the UK, design and operational considerations, end of life disposal, automotive fuel cell system, and fuelling and vehicular concerns are explored, and standards, legislation and codes of practice are explained in the appendix.

  8. BOA, Beam Optics Analyzer A Particle-In-Cell Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Thuc

    2007-01-01

    The program was tasked with implementing time dependent analysis of charges particles into an existing finite element code with adaptive meshing, called Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA). BOA was initially funded by a DOE Phase II program to use the finite element method with adaptive meshing to track particles in unstructured meshes. It uses modern programming techniques, state-of-the-art data structures, so that new methods, features and capabilities are easily added and maintained. This Phase II program was funded to implement plasma simulations in BOA and extend its capabilities to model thermal electrons, secondary emissions, self magnetic field and implement a more comprehensive post-processing and feature-rich GUI. The program was successful in implementing thermal electrons, secondary emissions, and self magnetic field calculations. The BOA GUI was also upgraded significantly, and CCR is receiving interest from the microwave tube and semiconductor equipment industry for the code. Implementation of PIC analysis was partially successful. Computational resource requirements for modeling more than 2000 particles begin to exceed the capability of most readily available computers. Modern plasma analysis typically requires modeling of approximately 2 million particles or more. The problem is that tracking many particles in an unstructured mesh that is adapting becomes inefficient. In particular memory requirements become excessive. This probably makes particle tracking in unstructured meshes currently unfeasible with commonly available computer resources. Consequently, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. is exploring hybrid codes where the electromagnetic fields are solved on the unstructured, adaptive mesh while particles are tracked on a fixed mesh. Efficient interpolation routines should be able to transfer information between nodes of the two meshes. If successfully developed, this could provide high accuracy and reasonable computational efficiency.

  9. The responsibility continuum: never primary, coresident and caregiver--heterogeneity in the African-American grandmother experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rosalyn D; Ensminger, Margaret E; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2005-01-01

    This article examines diversity among 542 African-American grandmothers from the Woodlawn Longitudinal Study. Women were categorized on the basis of their household composition, degree of care provided to grandchildren, and status of primary caregiver to grandchildren during lifetime. Overall, 67.7% of the sample engaged in parenting and exchange behaviors at high or moderate levels. Twenty-seven percent of the sample coresided with and provided care to grandchildren, 28% did not coreside but had been primary caregivers in the past, and 45% did not coreside and had never been primarily responsible for a grandchild. Heterogeneity was found among seven grandmother types on economic measures, life events, and grandchild characteristics. Grandmothers with earlier primary responsibility and those currently in homes of three or more generations were associated with poor outcomes. Policy and practice can be informed by additional research on status, context, and timing of assumption of responsibilities for grandchildren.

  10. Intergenerational Relationships in Cross-Cultural Comparison: How Social Networks Frame Intergenerational Relations between Mothers and Grandmothers in Japan, Korea, China, Indonesia, Israel, Germany, and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Bernhard; Suckow, Jana

    2006-01-01

    The article explores the relevance of intergenerational relationships within the overall network of young mothers and grandmothers in seven societies: Japan, Korea, China, Indonesia, Turkey, Israel, and Germany. The empirical base is 2,945 named network members in 249 pairs of interviews of grandmothers and their daughters from a cross-cultural…

  11. Development of a relativistic Particle In Cell code PARTDYN for linear accelerator beam transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadte, D., E-mail: deepraj@rrcat.gov.in [LPD, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Patidar, C.B.; Pal, M.K. [MAASD, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2017-04-11

    A relativistic Particle In Cell (PIC) code PARTDYN is developed for the beam dynamics simulation of z-continuous and bunched beams. The code is implemented in MATLAB using its MEX functionality which allows both ease of development as well higher performance similar to a compiled language like C. The beam dynamics calculations carried out by the code are compared with analytical results and with other well developed codes like PARMELA and BEAMPATH. The effect of finite number of simulation particles on the emittance growth of intense beams has been studied. Corrections to the RF cavity field expressions were incorporated in the code so that the fields could be calculated correctly. The deviations of the beam dynamics results between PARTDYN and BEAMPATH for a cavity driven in zero-mode have been discussed. The beam dynamics studies of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) using PARTDYN have been presented.

  12. Object-Oriented Parallel Particle-in-Cell Code for Beam Dynamics Simulation in Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.; Decky, V.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present an object-oriented three-dimensional parallel particle-in-cell code for beam dynamics simulation in linear accelerators. A two-dimensional parallel domain decomposition approach is employed within a message passing programming paradigm along with a dynamic load balancing. Implementing object-oriented software design provides the code with better maintainability, reusability, and extensibility compared with conventional structure based code. This also helps to encapsulate the details of communications syntax. Performance tests on SGI/Cray T3E-900 and SGI Origin 2000 machines show good scalability of the object-oriented code. Some important features of this code also include employing symplectic integration with linear maps of external focusing elements and using z as the independent variable, typical in accelerators. A successful application was done to simulate beam transport through three superconducting sections in the APT linac design

  13. Association of teen mothers' and grandmothers' parenting capacities with child development: A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Damali; Gross, Deborah; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2017-12-01

    Children born to teen mothers may experience less responsive and supportive parenting and are at heightened risk for a range of social, developmental, and health issues. There is literature to support the positive impact of grandmothers on teen parents and their children. However, what if the teen's mother is also limited in her parenting capacities? How do parenting capacities across these two generations of mothers affect the developing child? In this ongoing study we are examining two important aspects of parenting capacities, attachment quality and executive functioning, in teen mothers (TM) and their biological, co- residing mothers or grandmothers (GM or GGM). Both are essential components of effective parenting, but little is known about their impact on young children's development when raised by two generations of parents. In a cross- sectional, descriptive design, a convenience sample of 50 TM/GM dyads with children 1 to 3 years old is being recruited from two urban teen-tot clinics. Participants complete a paper-and-pencil measure of attachment quality and a computerized measure of multiple aspects of executive function (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A standardized maternal report measure is used to assess child developmental status. The biggest challenges of the study thus far include recruitment and transience of the study population. Progress to date and experiences from recruitment and data collection are discussed, as well as successful strategies to address challenges. © 2017 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Preliminary development of thermal nuclear cell homogenization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su'ud, Z.; Shafii, M. A.; Yudha, S. P.; Waris, A.; Rijal, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cell homogenization for thermal reactors usually include three main parts, i.e., fast energy resonance part which usually adopt narrow resonance approximation to treat the resonance, low (intermediate) energy region in which the resonance can not be treated accurately using NR approximation and therefore we should use intermediate resonance treatment, and thermal energy region (very low) in which the effect of thermal must be treated properly. In n this study the application of the intermediate resonance approximation treatment for low energy nuclear resonance is discussed. The method is iterative based. As a sample the method is applied in U-235 low lying resonance and the result is presented and discussed.

  15. Implementing particle-in-cell plasma simulation code on the BBN TC2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturtevant, J.E.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The BBN TC2000 is a multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) machine that combines a physically distributed memory with a logically shared memory programming environment using the unique Butterfly switch. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) plasma simulations model the interaction of charged particles with electric and magnetic fields. This paper describes the implementation of both a 1-D electrostatic and a 2 1/2-D electromagnetic PIC (particle-in-cell) plasma simulation code on a BBN TC2000. Performance is compared to implementations of the same code on the shared memory Sequent Balance and distributed memory Intel iPSC hypercube

  16. Methods for Using Small Non-Coding RNAs to Improve Recombinant Protein Expression in Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Inwood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce recombinant proteins by utilizing different “cell factories” revolutionized the biotherapeutic and pharmaceutical industry. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are the dominant industrial producer, especially for antibodies. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK, while not being as widely used as CHO cells, are used where CHO cells are unable to meet the needs for expression, such as growth factors. Therefore, improving recombinant protein expression from mammalian cells is a priority, and continuing effort is being devoted to this topic. Non-coding RNAs are RNA segments that are not translated into a protein and often have a regulatory role. Since their discovery, major progress has been made towards understanding their functions. Non-coding RNA has been investigated extensively in relation to disease, especially cancer, and recently they have also been used as a method for engineering cells to improve their protein expression capability. In this review, we provide information about methods used to identify non-coding RNAs with the potential of improving recombinant protein expression in mammalian cell lines.

  17. Coding of auditory temporal and pitch information by hippocampal individual cells and cell assemblies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y

    2002-01-01

    This study reports how hippocampal individual cells and cell assemblies cooperate for neural coding of pitch and temporal information in memory processes for auditory stimuli. Each rat performed two tasks, one requiring discrimination of auditory pitch (high or low) and the other requiring discrimination of their duration (long or short). Some CA1 and CA3 complex-spike neurons showed task-related differential activity between the high and low tones in only the pitch-discrimination task. However, without exception, neurons which showed task-related differential activity between the long and short tones in the duration-discrimination task were always task-related neurons in the pitch-discrimination task. These results suggest that temporal information (long or short), in contrast to pitch information (high or low), cannot be coded independently by specific neurons. The results also indicate that the two different behavioral tasks cannot be fully differentiated by the task-related single neurons alone and suggest a model of cell-assembly coding of the tasks. Cross-correlation analysis among activities of simultaneously recorded multiple neurons supported the suggested cell-assembly model.Considering those results, this study concludes that dual coding by hippocampal single neurons and cell assemblies is working in memory processing of pitch and temporal information of auditory stimuli. The single neurons encode both auditory pitches and their temporal lengths and the cell assemblies encode types of tasks (contexts or situations) in which the pitch and the temporal information are processed.

  18. Particle-in-Cell Codes for plasma-based particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Basic principles of particle-in-cell (PIC ) codes with the main application for plasma-based acceleration are discussed. The ab initio full electromagnetic relativistic PIC codes provide the most reliable description of plasmas. Their properties are considered in detail. Representing the most fundamental model, the full PIC codes are computationally expensive. The plasma-based acceler- ation is a multi-scale problem with very disparate scales. The smallest scale is the laser or plasma wavelength (from one to hundred microns) and the largest scale is the acceleration distance (from a few centimeters to meters or even kilometers). The Lorentz-boost technique allows to reduce the scale disparity at the costs of complicating the simulations and causing unphysical numerical instabilities in the code. Another possibility is to use the quasi-static approxi- mation where the disparate scales are separated analytically.

  19. Progress of laser-plasma interaction simulations with the particle-in-cell code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakagami, Hitoshi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Taguchi, Toshihiro

    2005-01-01

    As the laser-plasma interaction is a non-equilibrium, non-linear and relativistic phenomenon, we must introduce a microscopic method, namely, the relativistic electromagnetic PIC (Particle-In-Cell) simulation code. The PIC code requires a huge number of particles to validate simulation results, and its task is very computation-intensive. Thus simulation researches by the PIC code have been progressing along with advances in computer technology. Recently, parallel computers with tremendous computational power have become available, and thus we can perform three-dimensional PIC simulations for the laser-plasma interaction to investigate laser fusion. Some simulation results are shown with figures. We discuss a recent trend of large-scale PIC simulations that enable direct comparison between experimental facts and computational results. We also discharge/lightning simulations by the extended PIC code, which include various atomic and relaxation processes. (author)

  20. photon-plasma: A modern high-order particle-in-cell code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugbølle, Troels; Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Nordlund, Åke

    2013-01-01

    We present the photon-plasma code, a modern high order charge conserving particle-in-cell code for simulating relativistic plasmas. The code is using a high order implicit field solver and a novel high order charge conserving interpolation scheme for particle-to-cell interpolation and charge deposition. It includes powerful diagnostics tools with on-the-fly particle tracking, synthetic spectra integration, 2D volume slicing, and a new method to correctly account for radiative cooling in the simulations. A robust technique for imposing (time-dependent) particle and field fluxes on the boundaries is also presented. Using a hybrid OpenMP and MPI approach, the code scales efficiently from 8 to more than 250.000 cores with almost linear weak scaling on a range of architectures. The code is tested with the classical benchmarks particle heating, cold beam instability, and two-stream instability. We also present particle-in-cell simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and new results on radiative collisionless shocks

  1. Pin cell discontinuity factors in the transient 3-D discrete ordinates code TORT-TD - 237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of generalized equivalence theory to the time-dependent 3-D discrete ordinates neutron transport code TORT-TD. The introduction of pin cell discontinuity factors into the discrete ordinates transport equation is described by assuming a linear dependence of the homogenized neutron angular flux within a pin cell which may be discontinuous at the interfaces to adjacent cells. The homogenized flux discontinuity at cell interfaces is expressed by pin cell discontinuity factors which in turn are determined from fuel assembly lattice calculations using HELIOS. Application of TORT-TD to the all rods in state of the PWR MOX/UO 2 Core Transient Benchmark with pin cell homogenized nuclear cross sections demonstrate the potential of pin cell discontinuity factors to reduce pin cell homogenization errors. (authors)

  2. Relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting with random network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Lu; Sun, Fan; Xiao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting system using random network codes, where the focus is on devising efficient scheduling algorithms between relay and base stations. Two scheduling algorithms are proposed based on different feedback strategies; namely, a one-step scheduling...

  3. Integrated Analysis of Long Noncoding RNA and Coding RNA Expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a complex dynamic biological process that includes multiple steps of genetic and epigenetic alterations, aberrant expression of noncoding RNA, and changes in the expression profiles of coding genes. We call the collection of those perturbations in genome space the “cancer initiatome.” Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are pervasively transcribed in the genome and they have key regulatory functions in chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Spatiotemporal variation in the expression of lncRNAs has been observed in development and disease states, including cancer. A few dysregulated lncRNAs have been studied in cancers, but the role of lncRNAs in the cancer initiatome remains largely unknown, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. We conducted a genome-wide screen of the expression of lncRNAs and coding RNAs from ESCC and matched adjacent nonneoplastic normal tissues. We identified differentially expressed lncRNAs and coding RNAs in ESCC relative to their matched normal tissue counterparts and validated the result using polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, we identified differentially expressed lncRNAs that are co-located and co-expressed with differentially expressed coding RNAs in ESCC and the results point to a potential interaction between lncRNAs and neighboring coding genes that affect ether lipid metabolism, and the interaction may contribute to the development of ESCC. These data provide compelling evidence for a potential novel genomic biomarker of esophageal squamous cell cancer.

  4. Load-balancing techniques for a parallel electromagnetic particle-in-cell code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLIMPTON,STEVEN J.; SEIDEL,DAVID B.; PASIK,MICHAEL F.; COATS,REBECCA S.

    2000-01-01

    QUICKSILVER is a 3-d electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation code developed and used at Sandia to model relativistic charged particle transport. It models the time-response of electromagnetic fields and low-density-plasmas in a self-consistent manner: the fields push the plasma particles and the plasma current modifies the fields. Through an LDRD project a new parallel version of QUICKSILVER was created to enable large-scale plasma simulations to be run on massively-parallel distributed-memory supercomputers with thousands of processors, such as the Intel Tflops and DEC CPlant machines at Sandia. The new parallel code implements nearly all the features of the original serial QUICKSILVER and can be run on any platform which supports the message-passing interface (MPI) standard as well as on single-processor workstations. This report describes basic strategies useful for parallelizing and load-balancing particle-in-cell codes, outlines the parallel algorithms used in this implementation, and provides a summary of the modifications made to QUICKSILVER. It also highlights a series of benchmark simulations which have been run with the new code that illustrate its performance and parallel efficiency. These calculations have up to a billion grid cells and particles and were run on thousands of processors. This report also serves as a user manual for people wishing to run parallel QUICKSILVER.

  5. Load-balancing techniques for a parallel electromagnetic particle-in-cell code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Seidel, David B.; Pasik, Michael F.; Coats, Rebecca S.

    2000-01-01

    QUICKSILVER is a 3-d electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation code developed and used at Sandia to model relativistic charged particle transport. It models the time-response of electromagnetic fields and low-density-plasmas in a self-consistent manner: the fields push the plasma particles and the plasma current modifies the fields. Through an LDRD project a new parallel version of QUICKSILVER was created to enable large-scale plasma simulations to be run on massively-parallel distributed-memory supercomputers with thousands of processors, such as the Intel Tflops and DEC CPlant machines at Sandia. The new parallel code implements nearly all the features of the original serial QUICKSILVER and can be run on any platform which supports the message-passing interface (MPI) standard as well as on single-processor workstations. This report describes basic strategies useful for parallelizing and load-balancing particle-in-cell codes, outlines the parallel algorithms used in this implementation, and provides a summary of the modifications made to QUICKSILVER. It also highlights a series of benchmark simulations which have been run with the new code that illustrate its performance and parallel efficiency. These calculations have up to a billion grid cells and particles and were run on thousands of processors. This report also serves as a user manual for people wishing to run parallel QUICKSILVER

  6. Simulation code for the interaction of 14 MeV neutrons on cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, M.L.; Alard, J.P.; Dionet, C.; Arnold, J.; Tchirkov, A.; Meunier, H.; Bodez, V.; Rapp, M.; Verrelle, P

    2002-07-01

    The structure of the survival curve of melanoma cells irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons displays unusual features at very low dose rate where a marked increase in cell killings at 0.05 Gy is followed by a plateau for survival from 0.1 to 0.32 Gy. In parallel a simulation code was constructed for the interaction of 14 MeV neutrons with cellular cultures. The code describes the interaction of the neutrons with the atomic nuclei of the cellular medium and of the external medium (flask culture and culture medium), and is used to compute the deposited energy into the cell volume. It was found that the large energy transfer events associated with heavy charged recoil can occur and that a large part of the energy deposition events are due to recoil protons emitted from the external medium. It is suggested that such events could partially explain the experimental results. (author)

  7. Color-coded Live Imaging of Heterokaryon Formation and Nuclear Fusion of Hybridizing Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takuro; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of cancer cells has been studied for over half a century. However, the steps involved after initial fusion between cells, such as heterokaryon formation and nuclear fusion, have been difficult to observe in real time. In order to be able to visualize these steps, we have established cancer-cell sublines from the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma, one expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B in the nucleus and a red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and the other subline expressing RFP in the nucleus (mCherry) linked to histone H2B and GFP in the cytoplasm. The two reciprocal color-coded sublines of HT-1080 cells were fused using the Sendai virus. The fused cells were cultured on plastic and observed using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Multi-nucleate (heterokaryotic) cancer cells, in addition to hybrid cancer cells with single-or multiple-fused nuclei, including fused mitotic nuclei, were observed among the fused cells. Heterokaryons with red, green, orange and yellow nuclei were observed by confocal imaging, even in single hybrid cells. The orange and yellow nuclei indicate nuclear fusion. Red and green nuclei remained unfused. Cell fusion with heterokaryon formation and subsequent nuclear fusion resulting in hybridization may be an important natural phenomenon between cancer cells that may make them more malignant. The ability to image the complex processes following cell fusion using reciprocal color-coded cancer cells will allow greater understanding of the genetic basis of malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. A feed-forward spiking model of shape-coding by IT cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August eRomeo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize a shape is linked to figure-ground organization. Cell preferences appear to be correlated across contrast-polarity reversals and mirror reversals of polygon displays, but not so much across figure-ground (FG reversals. Here we present a network structure which explains both shape-coding by IT cells and the suppression of responses to figure-ground reversed stimuli. In the model figure-ground discrimination is achieved much before shape discrimination, that is itself evidenced by the difference in the spiking onsets of a couple of cells selective for two image categories.

  9. Color-Coded Imaging of Syngeneic Orthotopic Malignant Lymphoma Interacting with Host Stromal Cells During Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuro; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Shimizu, Masahito; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    The EL4 cell line was previously derived from a lymphoma induced in a C57/BL6 mouse by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. In a previous study, EL4 lymphoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (EL4-RFP) were established and injected into the tail vein of C57/BL6 green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. Metastasis was observed at multiple sites which were also enriched with host GFP-expressing stromal cells. In the present study, our aim was to establish an orthotopic model of EL4-RFP. In the present study, EL4-RFP lymphoma cells were injected in the spleen of C57/BL6 GFP transgenic mice as an orthotopic model of lymphoma. Resultant primary tumor and metastases were imaged with the Olympus FV1000 scanning laser confocal microscope. EL4-RFP metastasis was observed 21 days later. EL4-RFP tumors in the spleen (primary injection site), liver, supra-mediastinum lymph nodes, abdominal lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung were visualized by color-coded imaging. EL4-RFP metastases in the liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow in C57/BL6 GFP mice were rich in GFP stromal cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and normal lymphocytes derived from the host animal. Small tumors were observed in the spleen, which were rich in host stromal cells. In the lung, no mass formation of lymphoma cells occurred, but lymphoma cells circulated in lung peripheral blood vessels. Phagocytosis of EL4-RFP lymphoma cells by macrophages, as well as dendritic cells and fibroblasts, were observed in culture. Color-coded imaging of the lymphoma microenvironment suggests an important role of stromal cells in lymphoma progression and metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. The use of electromagnetic particle-in-cell codes in accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.

    1988-12-01

    The techniques developed for the numerical simulation of plasmas have numerous applications relevant to accelerators. The operation of many accelerator components involves transients, interactions between beams and rf fields, and internal plasma oscillations. These effects produce non-linear behavior which can be represented accurately by particle in cell (PIC) simulations. We will give a very brief overview of the algorithms used in PIC Codes. We will examine the range of parameters over which they are useful. We will discuss the factors which determine whether a two or three dimensional simulation is most appropriate. PIC codes have been applied to a wide variety of diverse problems, spanning many of the systems in a linear accelerator. We will present a number of practical examples of the application of these codes to areas such as guns, bunchers, rf sources, beam transport, emittance growth and final focus. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Development of improved methods for the LWR lattice physics code EPRI-CELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Wright, R.Q.; Barhen, J.

    1982-07-01

    A number of improvements have been made by ORNL to the lattice physics code EPRI-CELL (E-C) which is widely used by utilities for analysis of power reactors. The code modifications were made mainly in the thermal and epithermal routines and resulted in improved reactor physics approximations and more efficient running times. The improvements in the thermal flux calculation included implementation of a group-dependent rebalance procedure to accelerate the iterative process and a more rigorous calculation of interval-to-interval collision probabilities. The epithermal resonance shielding methods used in the code have been extensively studied to determine its major approximations and to examine the sensitivity of computed results to these approximations. The study has resulted in several improvements in the original methodology

  12. Kinetic parameters evaluation of PWRs using static cell and core calculation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahanbin, Ali; Malmir, Hessam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study, we have calculated effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime in PWRs. ► New software has been developed to link the WIMS, BORGES and CITATION codes in Visual C computer programming language. ► This software is used for calculation of the kinetic parameters in a typical VVER-1000 and NOK Beznau reactor. ► The ratios ((β eff ) i )/((β eff ) core ) , which are the important input data for the reactivity accident analysis, are also calculated. - Abstract: In this paper, evaluation of the kinetic parameters (effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime) in PWRs, using static cell and core calculation codes, is reported. A new software has been developed to link the WIMS, BORGES and CITATION codes in Visual C computer programming language. Using the WIMS cell calculation code, multigroup microscopic cross-sections and number densities of different materials can be generated in a binary file. By the use of BORGES code, these binary-form cross-sections and number densities are converted to a format readable by the CITATION core calculation code, by which the kinetic parameters can be finally obtained. This software is used for calculation of the kinetic parameters in a typical VVER-1000 and NOK Beznau reactor. The ratios ((β eff ) i )/((β eff ) core ) , which are the important input data for the reactivity accident analysis, are also calculated. Benchmarking of the results against the final safety analysis report (FSAR) of the aforementioned reactors shows very good agreements with these published documents.

  13. A general concurrent algorithm for plasma particle-in-cell simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Decyk, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a new algorithm for implementing plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation codes on concurrent processors with distributed memory. This algorithm, named the general concurrent PIC algorithm (GCPIC), has been used to implement an electrostatic PIC code on the 33-node JPL Mark III Hypercube parallel computer. To decompose at PIC code using the GCPIC algorithm, the physical domain of the particle simulation is divided into sub-domains, equal in number to the number of processors, such that all sub-domains have roughly equal numbers of particles. For problems with non-uniform particle densities, these sub-domains will be of unequal physical size. Each processor is assigned a sub-domain and is responsible for updating the particles in its sub-domain. This algorithm has led to a a very efficient parallel implementation of a well-benchmarked 1-dimensional PIC code. The dominant portion of the code, updating the particle positions and velocities, is nearly 100% efficient when the number of particles is increased linearly with the number of hypercube processors used so that the number of particles per processor is constant. For example, the increase in time spent updating particles in going from a problem with 11,264 particles run on 1 processor to 360,448 particles on 32 processors was only 3% (parallel efficiency of 97%). Although implemented on a hypercube concurrent computer, this algorithm should also be efficient for PIC codes on other parallel architectures and for large PIC codes on sequential computers where part of the data must reside on external disks. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  14. Comparative static simulations of a CANDU6 cell using different transport codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoub, M.; Koclas, J., E-mail: mehdi.mahjoub@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The solution of the time dependent Boltzmann equation remains quite a challenge. We are in the process of developing such a method using the stochastic Monte Carlo approach for two reasons: First, at the cell level, we will be able to obtain time dependent homogenized cross sections for use in full core diffusion calculations. Second, the Monte Carlo methods are scalable to perform full core if and when appropriate computer resources become available. The Time dependent approach will be concretized a new module that will be added to an existing Monte Carlo code. As a first step towards this goal, we need to choose the initial Monte Carlo code to be used as start point. For this reason, we have compared results concerning the void reactivity of a fresh fuel CANDU6 cell, using two Monte Carlo codes, namely VTT developed SERPENT and MIT developed OpenMC together with the deterministic DRAGON code. Several libraries are used in this comparison. We conclude that OpenMC is a good candidate for implementation of a time dependent simulation. (author)

  15. How Well Does the “Safety Net” Work for Family Safety Nets? Economic Survival Strategies Among Grandmother Caregivers in Severe Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShawnDa Pittman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using qualitative data collected from fifty-eight African American grandmothers raising grandchildren in skipped-generation households (SGHs, I reveal how and why women in non-normative families, lacking legal protections and publicly recognized authority as parents, must negotiate risk in pursuit of resources. I demonstrate that these grandmothers struggle for economic survival while seeking simultaneously to minimize the risk of losing their grandchildren and maximize their chances of receiving public assistance. I argue that grandmothers in SGHs face significant challenges obtaining government benefits owing to policy eligibility guidelines, street-level implementation, and family dynamics. Ultimately, I illustrate how the severe deprivation experienced by these grandmothers is exacerbated by their exclusion from safety net programs that could help them support the children in their care.

  16. Use of fluorescent proteins and color-coded imaging to visualize cancer cells with different genetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins are very bright and available in spectrally-distinct colors, enable the imaging of color-coded cancer cells growing in vivo and therefore the distinction of cancer cells with different genetic properties. Non-invasive and intravital imaging of cancer cells with fluorescent proteins allows the visualization of distinct genetic variants of cancer cells down to the cellular level in vivo. Cancer cells with increased or decreased ability to metastasize can be distinguished in vivo. Gene exchange in vivo which enables low metastatic cancer cells to convert to high metastatic can be color-coded imaged in vivo. Cancer stem-like and non-stem cells can be distinguished in vivo by color-coded imaging. These properties also demonstrate the vast superiority of imaging cancer cells in vivo with fluorescent proteins over photon counting of luciferase-labeled cancer cells.

  17. First experience with particle-in-cell plasma physics code on ARM-based HPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Xavier; Soba, Alejandro; Sánchez, Edilberto; Mantsinen, Mervi; Mateo, Sergi; Cela, José M.; Castejón, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we will explore the feasibility of porting a Particle-in-cell code (EUTERPE) to an ARM multi-core platform from the Mont-Blanc project. The used prototype is based on a system-on-chip Samsung Exynos 5 with an integrated GPU. It is the first prototype that could be used for High-Performance Computing (HPC), since it supports double precision and parallel programming languages.

  18. Calculation of anisotropic few-group constants in asymptotic cells: the code ANICELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devenyi, A.

    1985-10-01

    The theoretical background of the ANICELL computer program together with a user's manual is presented. ANICELL is a nuclear reactor neutron transport code which solves the traditional asymptotic and the so-called tilted flux transport problems in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry using linearly anisotropic scattering. The method of solution used is the first flight collision probability technique. Few-group constants including radial and axial diffusion coefficients for the cell are also prepared by the program. (author)

  19. Grandmothers as gems of genetic wisdom: exploring South African traditional beliefs about the causes of childhood genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Watermeyer, Jennifer; MacDonald, Carol; Moabelo, Colleen

    2010-02-01

    With its diverse cultural and linguistic profile, South Africa provides a unique context to explore contextual influences on the process of genetic counseling. Prior research suggests intergenerational differences regarding models of causation which influence treatment-seeking paths. This pilot study therefore aimed to explore South African traditional beliefs regarding common childhood genetic disorders. Three focus groups were conducted with fifteen grandmothers from different cultural backgrounds in an urban community. Questions pertained to the role of the grandmother, traditional beliefs regarding causes of genetic disorders, explanations of heredity, and prevention and management of genetic disorders. Results indicate a variety of cultural explanations for causes of childhood genetic disorders. These causes can be classified into categories related to lifestyle, behavior, social issues, culture, religion, genetic, and familial causes. Prevention and treatment issues are also highlighted. These findings have implications for genetic counseling practice, which needs to include a greater focus on cultural issues.

  20. Changes in the Coding and Non-coding Transcriptome and DNA Methylome that Define the Schwann Cell Repair Phenotype after Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur-Farraj, Peter J; Morgan, Claire C; Adamowicz, Martyna; Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Fazal, Shaline V; Beucher, Anthony; Razzaghi, Bonnie; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristjan R; Aitman, Timothy J

    2017-09-12

    Repair Schwann cells play a critical role in orchestrating nerve repair after injury, but the cellular and molecular processes that generate them are poorly understood. Here, we perform a combined whole-genome, coding and non-coding RNA and CpG methylation study following nerve injury. We show that genes involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition are enriched in repair cells, and we identify several long non-coding RNAs in Schwann cells. We demonstrate that the AP-1 transcription factor C-JUN regulates the expression of certain micro RNAs in repair Schwann cells, in particular miR-21 and miR-34. Surprisingly, unlike during development, changes in CpG methylation are limited in injury, restricted to specific locations, such as enhancer regions of Schwann cell-specific genes (e.g., Nedd4l), and close to local enrichment of AP-1 motifs. These genetic and epigenomic changes broaden our mechanistic understanding of the formation of repair Schwann cell during peripheral nervous system tissue repair. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Grandmother's smoking when pregnant with the mother and asthma in the grandchild: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Håberg, Siri E; Karlstad, Øystein; Nafstad, Per; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche

    2015-03-01

    A trans-generational influence of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure on asthma development has been proposed but the evidence remains sparse. We examined the grandmother's smoking when pregnant with the mother in relation to asthma outcomes in the grandchild (current asthma at 36 months (N=53 169, cases=3013), current asthma at 7 years (N=25 394, cases=1265) and dispensed asthma medications at 7 years in the Norwegian Prescription Database (N=45 607, cases=1787)) within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). We calculated adjusted RR (adj. RR) and 95% CIs using log binomial regression. A total of 23.5% of mothers reported that their mother smoked when pregnant with them. The grandmother's smoking when pregnant with the mother was positively associated with asthma at 36 months (adj. RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.24)), asthma at 7 years (adj. RR 1.21 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.37)) and dispensed asthma medications at 7 years (adj. RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.26)). This positive association did not differ significantly by the mother's smoking status when pregnant with the child (p values for multiplicative interaction >0.1). The grandmother's smoking when pregnant with the mother increased the risk of asthma in the grandchild independent of the mother's smoking status. However, given limited information on the grandmother's socioeconomic status, asthma status and other factors, unmeasured confounding may be present. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Application Of WIMS Code To Calculation Kartini Reactor Parameters By Pin-Cell And Cluster Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumarsono, Bambang; Tjiptono, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis UZrH fuel element parameters calculation in Kartini Reactor by WIMS Code has been done. The analysis is done by pin cell and cluster method. The pin cell method is done as a function percent burn-up and by 8 group 3 region analysis and cluster method by 8 group 12 region analysis. From analysis and calculation resulted K ∼ = 1.3687 by pin cell method and K ∼ = 1.3162 by cluster method and so deviation is 3.83%. By pin cell analysis as a function percent burn-up at the percent burn-up greater than 59.50%, the multiplication factor is less than one (k ∼ < 1) it is mean that the fuel element reactivity is negative

  3. Insight into the Role of Long Non-coding RNAs During Osteogenesis in Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Sibei; Zhou, Yachuan; He, Xinyu; Wan, Mian; Du, Wei; Xu, Xin; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xuedong; Zheng, Liwei

    2018-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Instead of being "transcriptional noise", lncRNAs are emerging as a key modulator in various biological processes and disease development. Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from various adult tissues, such as bone marrow and dental tissues. The differentiation processes into multiple lineages, such as osteogenic differentiation, are precisely orchestrated by molecular signals in both genetic and epigenetic ways. Recently, several lines of evidence suggested the role of lncRNAs participating in cell differentiation through the regulation of gene transcriptions. And the involvement of lncRNAs may be associated with initiation and progression of mesenchymal stem cell-related diseases. We aimed at addressing the role of lncRNAs in the regulation of osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and dental tissues, and discussing the potential utility of lncRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for mesenchymal stem cell-related diseases. Numerous lncRNAs were differentially expressed during osteogenesis or odontogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, and some of them were confirmed to be able to regulate the differentiation processes through the modifications of chromatin, transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. LncRNAs were also associated with some diseases related with pathologic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. LncRNAs involve in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow and dental tissuederived mesenchymal stem cells, and they could become promising therapeutic targets and prognosis parameters. However, the mechanisms of the role of lncRNAs are still enigmatic and require further investigation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard eSchütz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFPChAT and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFPChAT cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFPChAT cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFPChAT cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1 was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFPChAT cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT. EGFPChAT cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5, and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1 and 2 (COX2. The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFPChAT cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFPChAT brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  5. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Burkhard; Jurastow, Innokentij; Bader, Sandra; Ringer, Cornelia; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Diener, Martin; Kummer, Wolfgang; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Weihe, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFP (ChAT) ) and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFP (ChAT) cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFP (ChAT) cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFP (ChAT) cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1) was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFP (ChAT) cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). EGFP (ChAT) cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18), transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1) and 2 (COX2). The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFP (ChAT) cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFP (ChAT) brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  6. The experience of being a grandmother who is the primary caregiver for her HIV-positive grandchild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliandro, G; Hughes, C

    1998-01-01

    The number of grandparents assuming care for their grandchildren is increasing, and this affects grandparents both positively and negatively. The current study builds on an earlier study of the effects of social support, stress, and level of illness on caregiving of children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that identified both positive and negative effects of caregiving. To identify the lived experience of African American and Latino grandmothers as the primary caregivers for their grandchildren who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected or have AIDS and to identify the similarities and differences between the two groups. Using Van Manen's method for hermeneutical phenomenological research, the lived experiences of 10 African American and Latino grandmothers who were the primary caregivers for their HIV-positive grandchildren were investigated. Additionally, the similarities and differences between the two groups were studied. Four themes identified were (a) upholding the primacy of the family, (b) living in the child-centered present, (c) being strong as mature women, and (d) living within a constricting environment. Twelve subthemes expanded and clarified the meaning of these themes. Although there were differences related to family structure and cultural backgrounds, the grandmothers were more alike than different.

  7. Deploying electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) codes on Xeon Phi accelerators boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of the phenomena involved in several relevant plasma physics scenarios, where highly nonlinear and kinetic processes dominate, makes purely theoretical descriptions impossible. Further understanding of these scenarios requires detailed numerical modeling, but fully relativistic particle-in-cell codes such as OSIRIS are computationally intensive. The quest towards Exaflop computer systems has lead to the development of HPC systems based on add-on accelerator cards, such as GPGPUs and more recently the Xeon Phi accelerators that power the current number 1 system in the world. These cards, also referred to as Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) offer peak theoretical performances of >1 TFlop/s for general purpose calculations in a single board, and are receiving significant attention as an attractive alternative to CPUs for plasma modeling. In this work we report on our efforts towards the deployment of an EM-PIC code on a Xeon Phi architecture system. We will focus on the parallelization and vectorization strategies followed, and present a detailed performance evaluation of code performance in comparison with the CPU code.

  8. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Liu, Yun; Xiao, Haifeng; Xu, Guanghui

    2017-07-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) utilize a wide variety of mechanisms to regulate RNAs or proteins on the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. Accumulating studies have identified numerous LncRNAs to exert critical effects on different physiological processes, genetic disorders, and human diseases. Both clinical tissues from breast cancer patients and cultured cells were used for the qRT-PCR analysis. Specific siRNAs were included to assess the roles of TUG1 with cell viability assay, transwell assay, and cell apoptosis assay, respectively. The expression of TUG1 was enhanced in breast cancerous tissues and in highly invasive breast cancer cell lines and was associated with clinical variables, including tumor size, distant metastasis and TNM staging. Knockdown of TUG1 significantly slowed down cell proliferation, cell migration, and invasion in breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436. In addition, cell apoptotic rate was shown to increase upon siTUG1 treatment as evidenced by increases of the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. The identification of TUG1 as a critical mediator of breast cancer progression implied that it might serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in clinic.

  9. Beam Dynamics in an Electron Lens with the Warp Particle-in-cell Code

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio; Redaelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are a mature technique for beam manipulation in colliders and storage rings. In an electron lens, a pulsed, magnetically confined electron beam with a given current-density profile interacts with the circulating beam to obtain the desired effect. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for beam-beam compensation, for abort-gap clearing, and for halo scraping. They will be used in RHIC at BNL for head-on beam-beam compensation, and their application to the Large Hadron Collider for halo control is under development. At Fermilab, electron lenses will be implemented as lattice elements for nonlinear integrable optics. The design of electron lenses requires tools to calculate the kicks and wakefields experienced by the circulating beam. We use the Warp particle-in-cell code to study generation, transport, and evolution of the electron beam. For the first time, a fully 3-dimensional code is used for this purpose.

  10. Progress on the Development of the hPIC Particle-in-Cell Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Cameron; Hayes, Alyssa; Khaziev, Rinat; Marcinko, Stephen; Curreli, Davide; Laboratory of Computational Plasma Physics Team

    2017-10-01

    Advancements were made in the development of the kinetic-kinetic electrostatic Particle-in-Cell code, hPIC, designed for large-scale simulation of the Plasma-Material Interface. hPIC achieved a weak scaling efficiency of 87% using the Algebraic Multigrid Solver BoomerAMG from the PETSc library on more than 64,000 cores of the Blue Waters supercomputer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The code successfully simulates two-stream instability and a volume of plasma over several square centimeters of surface extending out to the presheath in kinetic-kinetic mode. Results from a parametric study of the plasma sheath in strongly magnetized conditions will be presented, as well as a detailed analysis of the plasma sheath structure at grazing magnetic angles. The distribution function and its moments will be reported for plasma species in the simulation domain and at the material surface for plasma sheath simulations. Membership Pending.

  11. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra P Ross, Thomas J WebsterSchool of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H2SO4 for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone–implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study

  12. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexandra P; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone-implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study provides a viable method to anodize an already color coded, anodized titanium alloy to potentially increase bone growth for numerous implant applications.

  13. Grandmothers migrating, working and caring: Latvian women between survival and self-realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Russell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the circumstances surrounding the migration of older Latvian women and their multi-dimensional lives as economic migrants and as distant carers and supporters of diverse family members who remain in Latvia. In post-Soviet Latvia, especially since the 2008 financial crisis and the austerity measures which took away hope for a decent old-age pension, older women migrate abroad in order to salvage their economic wellbeing and support their multi-generation families, which can run to four generations – their children and grandchildren plus, often, their elderly parents. Migration enables these women to maintain multidirectional flows of care and also to achieve economic and psychosocial independence. Therefore, care practices that reach four generations put the figure of the grandmother at the core of transnational care relations. Research evidence for this paper comprises 50 in-depth interviews with older Latvian migrant women aged from their mid-40s to their late 60s in the UK and elsewhere. The paper demonstrates the complexity and richness of these women’s working lives, built around enhanced economic wellbeing, multiple and transnational caring responsibilities, and a new sense of self-worth and empowerment.

  14. Expression of a novel non-coding mitochondrial RNA in human proliferating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Jaime; Burzio, Veronica; Villota, Claudio; Landerer, Eduardo; Martinez, Ronny; Santander, Marcela; Martinez, Rodrigo; Pinto, Rodrigo; Vera, María I; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa L; Burzio, Luis O

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we reported the presence in mouse cells of a mitochondrial RNA which contains an inverted repeat (IR) of 121 nucleotides (nt) covalently linked to the 5' end of the mitochondrial 16S RNA (16S mtrRNA). Here, we report the structure of an equivalent transcript of 2374 nt which is over-expressed in human proliferating cells but not in resting cells. The transcript contains a hairpin structure comprising an IR of 815 nt linked to the 5' end of the 16S mtrRNA and forming a long double-stranded structure or stem and a loop of 40 nt. The stem is resistant to RNase A and can be detected and isolated after digestion with the enzyme. This novel transcript is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and several evidences suggest that the transcript is synthesized in mitochondria. The expression of this transcript can be induced in resting lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Moreover, aphidicolin treatment of DU145 cells reversibly blocks proliferation and expression of the transcript. If the drug is removed, the cells re-assume proliferation and over-express the ncmtRNA. These results suggest that the expression of the ncmtRNA correlates with the replicative state of the cell and it may play a role in cell proliferation.

  15. Fluorogenic RNA Mango aptamers for imaging small non-coding RNAs in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autour, Alexis; C Y Jeng, Sunny; D Cawte, Adam; Abdolahzadeh, Amir; Galli, Angela; Panchapakesan, Shanker S S; Rueda, David; Ryckelynck, Michael; Unrau, Peter J

    2018-02-13

    Despite having many key roles in cellular biology, directly imaging biologically important RNAs has been hindered by a lack of fluorescent tools equivalent to the fluorescent proteins available to study cellular proteins. Ideal RNA labelling systems must preserve biological function, have photophysical properties similar to existing fluorescent proteins, and be compatible with established live and fixed cell protein labelling strategies. Here, we report a microfluidics-based selection of three new high-affinity RNA Mango fluorogenic aptamers. Two of these are as bright or brighter than enhanced GFP when bound to TO1-Biotin. Furthermore, we show that the new Mangos can accurately image the subcellular localization of three small non-coding RNAs (5S, U6, and a box C/D scaRNA) in fixed and live mammalian cells. These new aptamers have many potential applications to study RNA function and dynamics both in vitro and in mammalian cells.

  16. Altered expression of long non-coding RNAs during genotoxic stress-induced cell death in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Sun, Shanquan; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Jin; Zhuo, Fei; Qiu, Guoping; Xu, Shiye; Jiang, Xuli

    2015-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a recently discovered class of non-coding genes, are transcribed throughout the genome. Emerging evidence suggests that lncRNAs may be involved in modulating various aspects of tumor biology, including regulating gene activity in response to external stimuli or DNA damage. No data are available regarding the expression of lncRNAs during genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and/or necrosis in human glioma cells. In this study, we detected a change in the expression of specific candidate lncRNAs (neat1, GAS5, TUG1, BC200, Malat1, MEG3, MIR155HG, PAR5, and ST7OT1) during DNA damage-induced apoptosis in human glioma cell lines (U251 and U87) using doxorubicin (DOX) and resveratrol (RES). We also detected the expression pattern of these lncRNAs in human glioma cell lines under necrosis induced using an increased dose of DOX. Our results reveal that the lncRNA expression patterns are distinct between genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human glioma cells. The sets of lncRNA expressed during genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis were DNA-damaging agent-specific. Generally, MEG3 and ST7OT1 are up-regulated in both cell lines under apoptosis induced using both agents. The induction of GAS5 is only clearly detected during DOX-induced apoptosis, whereas the up-regulation of neat1 and MIR155HG is only found during RES-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. However, TUG1, BC200 and MIR155HG are down regulated when necrosis is induced using a high dose of DOX in both cell lines. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the distinct regulation of lncRNAs may possibly involve in the process of cellular defense against genotoxic agents.

  17. A Color-coded Imageable Syngeneic Mouse Model of Stromal-cell Recruitment by Metastatic Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuro; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Shibata, Yuhei; Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Shimizu, Masahito; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    A syngeneic color-coded imageable lymphoma model has been developed to visualize recruitment of host stromal cells by malignant lymphoma during metastasis. The EL4 cell line was previously derived from a lymphoma induced in a C57/BL6 mouse by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. EL4 lymphoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (EL4-RFP) were initially established. EL4-RFP cells were subsequently injected into the tail vein of C57/BL6-GFP transgenic mice. EL4-RFP metastasis was observed in the lymph nodes of the upper mediastinum and in the liver 28 days after cell injection. Large EL4-RFP liver metastases in C57/BL6-GFP mice contained GFP-expressing stromal cells derived from the host. In addition, EL4-RFP lymphoma metastasis was formed in peri-gastric lymph nodes, which were also enriched in host GFP-expressing cells. Furthermore, EL4-RFP lymphoma cells were also observed in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of C57/BL6-GFP transgenic mice, where they were associated with GFP-expressing host cells. Lymph node, liver and bone marrow metastases were found approximately 4 weeks after transplantation and all RFP-expressing metastases were highly enriched in GFP-expressing host stromal cells. This model of malignant lymphoma can be used to study early tumor development, metastasis, and the role of the stroma, as well as for discovery and evaluation of novel therapeutics for this treatment-resistant disease. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Long Non-Coding RNA MEG3 Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs play important roles in diverse biological processes, such as cell growth, apoptosis and migration. Although downregulation of lncRNA maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3 has been identified in several cancers, little is known about its role in prostate cancer progression. The aim of this study was to detect MEG3 expression in clinical prostate cancer tissues, investigate its biological functions in the development of prostate cancer and the underlying mechanism. Methods: MEG3 expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR in both tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 21 prostate cancer patients. The effects of MEG3 on PC3 and DU145 cells were assessed by MTT assay, colony formation assay, western blot and flow cytometry. Transfected PC3 cells were transplanted into nude mice, and the tumor growth curves were determined. Results: MEG3 decreased significantly in prostate cancer tissues relative to adjacent normal tissues. MEG3 inhibited intrinsic cell survival pathway in vitro and in vivo by reducing the protein expression of Bcl-2, enhancing Bax and activating caspase 3. We further demonstrated that MEG3 inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulatory protein Cyclin D1 and induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Conclusions: Our study presents an important role of MEG3 in the molecular etiology of prostate cancer and implicates the potential application of MEG3 in prostate cancer therapy.

  19. First experience with particle-in-cell plasma physics code on ARM-based HPC systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, Xavier; Soba, Alejandro; Sánchez, Edilberto; Mantsinen, Mervi; Mateo, Sergio; Cela, José M.; Castejón, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we will explore the feasibility of porting a Particle-in-cell code (EUTERPE) to an ARM multi-core platform from the Mont-Blanc project. The used prototype is based on a system-on-chip Samsung Exynos 5 with an integrated GPU. It is the first prototype that could be used for High-Performance Computing (HPC), since it supports double precision and parallel programming languages. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Com- munity's Seventh...

  20. Particle-in-Cell Code BEAMPATH for Beam Dynamics Simulations in Linear Accelerators and Beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A code library BEAMPATH for 2 - dimensional and 3 - dimensional space charge dominated beam dynamics study in linear particle accelerators and beam transport lines is developed. The program is used for particle-in-cell simulation of axial-symmetric, quadrupole-symmetric and z-uniform beams in a channel containing RF gaps, radio-frequency quadrupoles, multipole lenses, solenoids and bending magnets. The programming method includes hierarchical program design using program-independent modules and a flexible combination of modules to provide the most effective version of the structure for every specific case of simulation. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented

  1. Particle-in-Cell Code BEAMPATH for Beam Dynamics Simulations in Linear Accelerators and Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batygin, Y.

    2004-10-28

    A code library BEAMPATH for 2 - dimensional and 3 - dimensional space charge dominated beam dynamics study in linear particle accelerators and beam transport lines is developed. The program is used for particle-in-cell simulation of axial-symmetric, quadrupole-symmetric and z-uniform beams in a channel containing RF gaps, radio-frequency quadrupoles, multipole lenses, solenoids and bending magnets. The programming method includes hierarchical program design using program-independent modules and a flexible combination of modules to provide the most effective version of the structure for every specific case of simulation. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented.

  2. Parallel treatment of simulation particles in particle-in-cell codes on SUPRENUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seldner, D.

    1990-02-01

    This report contains the program documentation and description of the program package 2D-PLAS, which has been developed at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe in the Institute for Data Processing in Technology (IDT) under the auspices of the BMFT. 2D-PLAS is a parallel program version of the treatment of the simulation particles of the two-dimensional stationary particle-in-cell code BFCPIC which has been developed at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. This parallel version has been designed for the parallel computer SUPRENUM. (orig.) [de

  3. Results of comparative RBMK neutron computation using VNIIEF codes (cell computation, 3D statics, 3D kinetics). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, A.N.; Zhitnik, A.K.; Zvenigorodskaya, O.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In conformity with the protocol of the Workshop under Contract {open_quotes}Assessment of RBMK reactor safety using modern Western Codes{close_quotes} VNIIEF performed a neutronics computation series to compare western and VNIIEF codes and assess whether VNIIEF codes are suitable for RBMK type reactor safety assessment computation. The work was carried out in close collaboration with M.I. Rozhdestvensky and L.M. Podlazov, NIKIET employees. The effort involved: (1) cell computations with the WIMS, EKRAN codes (improved modification of the LOMA code) and the S-90 code (VNIIEF Monte Carlo). Cell, polycell, burnup computation; (2) 3D computation of static states with the KORAT-3D and NEU codes and comparison with results of computation with the NESTLE code (USA). The computations were performed in the geometry and using the neutron constants presented by the American party; (3) 3D computation of neutron kinetics with the KORAT-3D and NEU codes. These computations were performed in two formulations, both being developed in collaboration with NIKIET. Formulation of the first problem maximally possibly agrees with one of NESTLE problems and imitates gas bubble travel through a core. The second problem is a model of the RBMK as a whole with imitation of control and protection system controls (CPS) movement in a core.

  4. Computation of a Canadian SCWR unit cell with deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrisson, G.; Marleau, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian SCWR has the potential to achieve the goals that the generation IV nuclear reactors must meet. As part of the optimization process for this design concept, lattice cell calculations are routinely performed using deterministic codes. In this study, the first step (self-shielding treatment) of the computation scheme developed with the deterministic code DRAGON for the Canadian SCWR has been validated. Some options available in the module responsible for the resonance self-shielding calculation in DRAGON 3.06 and different microscopic cross section libraries based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data file have been tested and compared to a reference calculation performed with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT under the same conditions. Compared to SERPENT, DRAGON underestimates the infinite multiplication factor in all cases. In general, the original Stammler model with the Livolant-Jeanpierre approximations are the most appropriate self-shielding options to use in this case of study. In addition, the 89 groups WIMS-AECL library for slight enriched uranium and the 172 groups WLUP library for a mixture of plutonium and thorium give the most consistent results with those of SERPENT. (authors)

  5. Benchmarking of epithermal methods in the lattice-physics code EPRI-CELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Wright, R.Q.; Barhen, J.; Rothenstein, W.; Toney, B.

    1982-01-01

    The epithermal cross section shielding methods used in the lattice physics code EPRI-CELL (E-C) have been extensively studied to determine its major approximations and to examine the sensitivity of computed results to these approximations. The study has resulted in several improvements in the original methodology. These include: treatment of the external moderator source with intermediate resonance (IR) theory, development of a new Dancoff factor expression to account for clad interactions, development of a new method for treating resonance interference, and application of a generalized least squares method to compute best-estimate values for the Bell factor and group-dependent IR parameters. The modified E-C code with its new ENDF/B-V cross section library is tested for several numerical benchmark problems. Integral parameters computed by EC are compared with those obtained with point-cross section Monte Carlo calculations, and E-C fine group cross sections are benchmarked against point-cross section descrete ordinates calculations. It is found that the code modifications improve agreement between E-C and the more sophisticated methods. E-C shows excellent agreement on the integral parameters and usually agrees within a few percent on fine-group, shielded cross sections

  6. The factors influencing young mothers' infant feeding decisions: the views of healthcare professionals and voluntary workers on the role of the baby's maternal grandmother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernie, Kate

    2014-04-01

    Increasing rates of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is important to ensure that infants achieve "optimal growth, development, and health" and could generate over £40 million in annual savings for the National Health Service. Interventions targeting young mothers are recommended because of low breastfeeding rates. Women's mothers have been identified as potential influences on whether women choose to breastfeed. This study explored health, social, and voluntary care professionals' perceptions of young mothers' attitudes to breastfeeding and the role of maternal grandmothers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine professionals working with young mothers. Thematic analysis was used to interpret data and identify key themes. Professionals felt that prevalent attitudes among young mothers who bottle fed were that breastfeeding is embarrassing, deviant from the social norm, and detrimental to their social life and relationships but that women understand the health benefits. Grandmothers were identified as important influences on some women, and, in particular, concerns were raised that grandmothers sometimes undermined intentions to breastfeed by offering to bottle feed infants. However, potential problems with involving grandmothers in breastfeeding promotion strategies were identified, and more pressing issues were raised, particularly inadequate postnatal support for young mothers. Professionals recognize grandmothers as an important influence and source of support for many mothers but identified other priorities for interventions, particularly improving the level of support in postnatal care. Their ultimate focus is to build positive relationships with women and empower them to make informed decisions.

  7. Non-coding RNAs as epigenetic regulator of glioma stem-like cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke eKatsushima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas show heterogeneous histological features. These distinct phenotypic states are thought to be associated with the presence of glioma stem cells (GSCs, which are highly tumorigenic and self-renewing sub-population of tumor cells that have different functional characteristics. Differentiation of GSCs may be regulated by multi-tiered epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate the expression of thousands of genes. One such regulatory mechanism involves functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs; a large number of ncRNAs have been identified and shown to regulate the expression of genes associated with cell differentiation programs. Given the roles of miRNAs in cell differentiation, it is possible they are involved in the regulation of gene expression networks in GSCs that are important for the maintenance of the pluripotent state and for directing differentiation. Here, we review recent findings on ncRNAs associated with GSC differentiation and discuss how these ncRNAs contribute to the establishment of tissue heterogeneity during glioblastoma tumor formation.

  8. Selective expression of long non-coding RNAs in a breast cancer cell progression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Kirsten M; Tye, Coralee E; Page, Natalie A; Fritz, Andrew J; Stein, Janet L; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S

    2018-02-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are acknowledged as regulators of cancer biology and pathology. Our goal was to perform a stringent profiling of breast cancer cell lines that represent disease progression. We used the MCF-10 series, which includes the normal-like MCF-10A, HRAS-transformed MCF-10AT1 (pre-malignant), and MCF-10CA1a (malignant) cells, to perform transcriptome wide sequencing. From these data, we have identified 346 lncRNAs with dysregulated expression across the progression series. By comparing lncRNAs from these datasets to those from an additional set of cell lines that represent different disease stages and subtypes, MCF-7 (early stage, luminal), and MDA-MB-231 (late stage, basal), 61 lncRNAs that are associated with breast cancer progression were identified. Querying breast cancer patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we selected a lncRNA, IGF-like family member 2 antisense RNA 1 (IGFL2-AS1), of potential clinical relevance for functional characterization. Among the 61 lncRNAs, IGFL2-AS1 was the most significantly decreased. Our results indicate that this lncRNA plays a role in downregulating its nearest neighbor, IGFL1, and affects migration of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the lncRNAs we identified provide a valuable resource to mechanistically and clinically understand the contribution of lncRNAs in breast cancer progression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. SHARP: A Spatially Higher-order, Relativistic Particle-in-cell Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, Mohamad; Broderick, Avery E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Pfrommer, Christoph [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Lamberts, Astrid [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Puchwein, Ewald, E-mail: mshalaby@live.ca [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-20

    Numerical heating in particle-in-cell (PIC) codes currently precludes the accurate simulation of cold, relativistic plasma over long periods, severely limiting their applications in astrophysical environments. We present a spatially higher-order accurate relativistic PIC algorithm in one spatial dimension, which conserves charge and momentum exactly. We utilize the smoothness implied by the usage of higher-order interpolation functions to achieve a spatially higher-order accurate algorithm (up to the fifth order). We validate our algorithm against several test problems—thermal stability of stationary plasma, stability of linear plasma waves, and two-stream instability in the relativistic and non-relativistic regimes. Comparing our simulations to exact solutions of the dispersion relations, we demonstrate that SHARP can quantitatively reproduce important kinetic features of the linear regime. Our simulations have a superior ability to control energy non-conservation and avoid numerical heating in comparison to common second-order schemes. We provide a natural definition for convergence of a general PIC algorithm: the complement of physical modes captured by the simulation, i.e., those that lie above the Poisson noise, must grow commensurately with the resolution. This implies that it is necessary to simultaneously increase the number of particles per cell and decrease the cell size. We demonstrate that traditional ways for testing for convergence fail, leading to plateauing of the energy error. This new PIC code enables us to faithfully study the long-term evolution of plasma problems that require absolute control of the energy and momentum conservation.

  10. Matlab Source Code for Species Transport through Nafion Membranes in Direct Ethanol, Direct Methanol, and Direct Glucose Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    JH, Summerfield; MW, Manley

    2016-01-01

    A simple simulation of chemical species movement is presented. The species traverse a Nafion membrane in a fuel cell. Three cells are examined: direct methanol, direct ethanol, and direct glucose. The species are tracked using excess proton concentration, electric field strength, and voltage. The Matlab computer code is provided.

  11. Automatic choroid cells segmentation and counting based on approximate convexity and concavity of chain code in fluorescence microscopic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weihua; Chen, Xinjian; Zhu, Weifang; Yang, Lei; Cao, Zhaoyuan; Chen, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a method based on the Freeman chain code to segment and count rhesus choroid-retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF/6A) automatically for fluorescence microscopy images. The proposed method consists of four main steps. First, a threshold filter and morphological transform were applied to reduce the noise. Second, the boundary information was used to generate the Freeman chain codes. Third, the concave points were found based on the relationship between the difference of the chain code and the curvature. Finally, cells segmentation and counting were completed based on the characteristics of the number of the concave points, the area and shape of the cells. The proposed method was tested on 100 fluorescence microscopic cell images, and the average true positive rate (TPR) is 98.13% and the average false positive rate (FPR) is 4.47%, respectively. The preliminary results showed the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. DELIGHT-B/REDEL, point reactivity burnup code for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Ryuiti; Watanabe, Takashi.

    1977-03-01

    Code DELIGHT-2 was previously developed to analyze cell burnup characteristics and to produce few-group constants for core burnup calculation in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. In the code, burnup dependency of the burnable poison, boron-10, is considered with the homogeneous model of space. In actuality, however, the burnable poison is used as homogeneous rods or uniform rods of small granular poison and graphite, to control the reactivity and power distribution. Precise analysis of the burnup characteristics is thus difficult because of the heterogeneity due to the configuration of poison rods. In cell burnup calculation, the DELIGHT-B, which is a modification of DELIGHT-2, takes into consideration this heterogeneous effect. The auxiliary code REDEL, a reduction of DELIGHT-B, used in combination with 3 dimensional diffusion code CITATION, is for core burnup calculation with the macro-scopic cross section model. (auth.)

  13. Numerical simulation of Ge solar cells using D-AMPS-1D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Marcela, E-mail: barrera@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Rubinelli, Francisco [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC)-CONICET, Gueemes 3450, Santa Fe 3000 (Argentina); Rey-Stolle, Ignacio [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense 30, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pla, Juan [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    A solar cell is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. When light with photon energies greater than the band gap is absorbed by a semiconductor material, free electrons and free holes are generated by optical excitation in the material. The main characteristic of a photovoltaic device is the presence of internal electric field able to separate the free electrons and holes so they can pass out of the material to the external circuit before they recombine. Numerical simulation of photovoltaic devices plays a crucial role in their design, performance prediction, and comprehension of the fundamental phenomena ruling their operation. The electrical transport and the optical behavior of the solar cells discussed in this work were studied with the simulation code D-AMPS-1D. This software is an updated version of the one-dimensional (1D) simulation program Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Devices (AMPS) that was initially developed at The Penn State University, USA. Structures such as homojunctions, heterojunctions, multijunctions, etc., resulting from stacking layers of different materials can be studied by appropriately selecting characteristic parameters. In this work, examples of cells simulation made with D-AMPS-1D are shown. Particularly, results of Ge photovoltaic devices are presented. The role of the InGaP buffer on the device was studied. Moreover, a comparison of the simulated electrical parameters with experimental results was performed.

  14. Numerical simulation of Ge solar cells using D-AMPS-1D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, Marcela; Rubinelli, Francisco; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio; Plá, Juan

    2012-01-01

    A solar cell is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. When light with photon energies greater than the band gap is absorbed by a semiconductor material, free electrons and free holes are generated by optical excitation in the material. The main characteristic of a photovoltaic device is the presence of internal electric field able to separate the free electrons and holes so they can pass out of the material to the external circuit before they recombine. Numerical simulation of photovoltaic devices plays a crucial role in their design, performance prediction, and comprehension of the fundamental phenomena ruling their operation. The electrical transport and the optical behavior of the solar cells discussed in this work were studied with the simulation code D-AMPS-1D. This software is an updated version of the one-dimensional (1D) simulation program Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Devices (AMPS) that was initially developed at The Penn State University, USA. Structures such as homojunctions, heterojunctions, multijunctions, etc., resulting from stacking layers of different materials can be studied by appropriately selecting characteristic parameters. In this work, examples of cells simulation made with D-AMPS-1D are shown. Particularly, results of Ge photovoltaic devices are presented. The role of the InGaP buffer on the device was studied. Moreover, a comparison of the simulated electrical parameters with experimental results was performed.

  15. Systematically profiling and annotating long intergenic non-coding RNAs in human embryonic stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xing; Hou, Mei; Ding, Yang; Li, Zhaohui; Ren, Lichen; Gao, Ge

    2013-01-01

    While more and more long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) were identified to take important roles in both maintaining pluripotency and regulating differentiation, how these lincRNAs may define and drive cell fate decisions on a global scale are still mostly elusive. Systematical profiling and comprehensive annotation of embryonic stem cells lincRNAs may not only bring a clearer big picture of these novel regulators but also shed light on their functionalities. Based on multiple RNA-Seq datasets, we systematically identified 300 human embryonic stem cell lincRNAs (hES lincRNAs). Of which, one forth (78 out of 300) hES lincRNAs were further identified to be biasedly expressed in human ES cells. Functional analysis showed that they were preferentially involved in several early-development related biological processes. Comparative genomics analysis further suggested that around half of the identified hES lincRNAs were conserved in mouse. To facilitate further investigation of these hES lincRNAs, we constructed an online portal for biologists to access all their sequences and annotations interactively. In addition to navigation through a genome browse interface, users can also locate lincRNAs through an advanced query interface based on both keywords and expression profiles, and analyze results through multiple tools. By integrating multiple RNA-Seq datasets, we systematically characterized and annotated 300 hES lincRNAs. A full functional web portal is available freely at http://scbrowse.cbi.pku.edu.cn. As the first global profiling and annotating of human embryonic stem cell lincRNAs, this work aims to provide a valuable resource for both experimental biologists and bioinformaticians.

  16. Implementation of a 3D plasma particle-in-cell code on a MIMD parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Lyster, P.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) code has been implemented on the Intel Delta MIMD parallel supercomputer using the General Concurrent PIC algorithm. The GCPIC algorithm uses a domain decomposition to divide the computation among the processors: A processor is assigned a subdomain and all the particles in it. Particles must be exchanged between processors as they move. Results are presented comparing the efficiency for 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional partitions of the three dimensional domain. This algorithm has been found to be very efficient even when a large fraction (e.g. 30%) of the particles must be exchanged at every time step. On the 512-node Intel Delta, up to 125 million particles have been pushed with an electrostatic push time of under 500 nsec/particle/time step

  17. CLUB - a multigroup integral transport theory code for lattice calculations of PHWR cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The computer code CLUB has been developed to calculate lattice parameters as a function of burnup for a pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) lattice cell containing fuel in the form of cluster. It solves the multigroup integral transport equation by the method based on combination of small scale collision probability (CP) method and large scale interface current technique. The calculations are performed by using WIMS 69 group cross section library or its condensed versions of 27 or 28 group libraries. It can also compute Keff from the given geometrical buckling in the input using multigroup diffusion theory in fundamental mode. The first order differential burnup equations can be solved by either Trapezoidal rule or Runge-Kutta method. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  18. Coding properties of three intrinsically distinct retinal ganglion cells under periodic stimuli: a computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the sole output neurons in the retina, ganglion cells play significant roles in transforming visual information into spike trains, and then transmitting them to the higher visual centers. However, coding strategies that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs adopt to accomplish these processes are not completely clear yet. To clarify these issues, we investigate the coding properties of three types of RGCs (repetitive spiking, tonic firing, and phasic firing by two different measures (spike-rate and spike-latency. Model results show that for periodic stimuli, repetitive spiking RGC and tonic RGC exhibit similar spike-rate patterns. Their spike-rates decrease gradually with increased stimulus frequency, moreover, variation of stimulus amplitude would change the two RGCs’ spike-rate patterns. For phasic RGC, it activates strongly at medium levels of frequency when the stimulus amplitude is low. While if high stimulus amplitude is applied, phasic RGC switches to respond strongly at low frequencies. These results suggest that stimulus amplitude is a prominent factor in regulating RGCs in encoding periodic signals. Similar conclusions can be drawn when analyzes spike-latency patterns of the three RGCs. More importantly, the above phenomena can be accurately reproduced by Hodgkin’s three classes of neurons, indicating that RGCs can perform the typical three classes of firing dynamics, depending on the distinctions of ion channel densities. Consequently, model results from the three RGCs may be not specific, but can also applicable to neurons in other brain regions which exhibit part(s or all of the Hodgkin’s three excitabilities.

  19. Simulation of the burnup in cell calculation using the WIMSD-5B Code considering different nuclear data libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Desirée Yael de Sena; Silva, Adilson Costa da; Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de, E-mail: zelmolima@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This work proposes to implement the cell calculation considering the fuel burning using the WIMSD-5B code. The cell calculation procedure allows to determine the nuclear parameters present in the multi-group neutron diffusion equation and for this purpose the neutron transport theory is used in a problem with dimensional reduction, but in contrast is considered a large number of groups associated with the neutron spectrum. There are a variety of reactor physics codes that determine the nuclear parameters by solving the neutron transport equation applied to an equivalent cell representing a fuel element. The WIMSD-5B code is a deterministic code that solves the transport equation using collision probability method. The simulation of fuel burning in the cell calculation took into account different nuclear data libraries. The WIMSD-5B code supports several nuclear data libraries and in the present work the following libraries were used: IAEA, ENDFB-VII.1, JENDL3.2, JEFF3.1 and JEF2.2, all formatted for 69 energy groups. (author)

  20. Simulation of the burnup in cell calculation using the WIMSD-5B Code considering different nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Desirée Yael de Sena; Silva, Adilson Costa da; Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes to implement the cell calculation considering the fuel burning using the WIMSD-5B code. The cell calculation procedure allows to determine the nuclear parameters present in the multi-group neutron diffusion equation and for this purpose the neutron transport theory is used in a problem with dimensional reduction, but in contrast is considered a large number of groups associated with the neutron spectrum. There are a variety of reactor physics codes that determine the nuclear parameters by solving the neutron transport equation applied to an equivalent cell representing a fuel element. The WIMSD-5B code is a deterministic code that solves the transport equation using collision probability method. The simulation of fuel burning in the cell calculation took into account different nuclear data libraries. The WIMSD-5B code supports several nuclear data libraries and in the present work the following libraries were used: IAEA, ENDFB-VII.1, JENDL3.2, JEFF3.1 and JEF2.2, all formatted for 69 energy groups. (author)

  1. Total sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for LWR pin-cells with improved UNICORN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chenghui; Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model is established for the total sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. • The NR approximation applied in S&U analysis can be avoided by the new model. • Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed to PWR pin-cells by the new model. • The effects of the NR approximation for the PWR pin-cells are quantified. - Abstract: In this paper, improvements to the multigroup cross-section perturbation model have been proposed and applied in the self-developed UNICORN code, which is capable of performing the total sensitivity and total uncertainty analysis for the neutron-physics calculations by applying the direct numerical perturbation method and the statistical sampling method respectively. The narrow resonance (NR) approximation was applied in the multigroup cross-section perturbation model, implemented in UNICORN. As improvements to the NR approximation to refine the multigroup cross-section perturbation model, an ultrafine-group cross-section perturbation model has been established, in which the actual perturbations are applied to the ultrafine-group cross-section library and the reconstructions of the resonance cross sections are performed by solving the neutron slowing-down equation. The total sensitivity and total uncertainty analysis were then applied to the LWR pin-cells, using both the multigroup and the ultrafine-group cross-section perturbation models. The numerical results show that the NR approximation overestimates the relative sensitivity coefficients and the corresponding uncertainty results for the LWR pin-cells, and the effects of the NR approximation are significant for σ_(_n_,_γ_) and σ_(_n_,_e_l_a_s_) of "2"3"8U. Therefore, the effects of the NR approximation applied in the total sensitivity and total uncertainty analysis for the neutron-physics calculations of LWR should be taken into account.

  2. Long non-coding RNA Loc554202 regulates proliferation and migration in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yongguo, E-mail: 1138303166@qq.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Jianwei, E-mail: jianwei2010077@163.com [Cancer Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Jing, E-mail: 2310848@163.com [Department of Oncology, Taizhou People’ Hospital, Taizhou, Jiangsu (China); Tan, Xueming, E-mail: 843039795@qq.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); He, Ye, E-mail: 2825636@qq.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Ding, Jie, E-mail: 9111165@qq.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Tian, Yun, E-mail: 1815857@qq.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Li, E-mail: 2376737@qq.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Keming, E-mail: wkmys@sohu.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • First, we have shown that upregulated of the Loc554202 in breast cancer tissues. • Second, we demonstrated the function of Loc554202 in breast cancer cell. • Finally, we demonstrated that LOC554202 knockdown could inhibit tumor growth in vivo. - Abstract: Data derived from massive cloning and traditional sequencing methods have revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) play important roles in the development and progression of cancer. Although many studies suggest that the lncRNAs have different cellular functions, many of them are not yet to be identified and characterized for the mechanism of their functions. To address this question, we assay the expression level of lncRNAs–Loc554202 in breast cancer tissues and find that Loc554202 is significantly increased compared with normal control, and associated with advanced pathologic stage and tumor size. Moreover, knockdown of Loc554202 decreased breast cancer cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and inhibits migration/invasion in vitro and impeded tumorigenesis in vivo. These data suggest an important role of Loc554202 in breast tumorigenesis.

  3. A parallel 3D particle-in-cell code with dynamic load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfheimer, Felix; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A parallel 3D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code including an algorithm for modelling Space Charge Limited (SCL) emission [E. Gjonaj, T. Weiland, 3D-modeling of space-charge-limited electron emission. A charge conserving algorithm, Proceedings of the 11th Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation, 2004] is presented. A domain decomposition technique based on orthogonal recursive bisection is used to parallelize the computation on a distributed memory environment of clustered workstations. For problems with a highly nonuniform and time dependent distribution of particles, e.g., bunch dynamics, a dynamic load balancing between the processes is needed to preserve the parallel performance. The algorithm for the detection of a load imbalance and the redistribution of the tasks among the processes is based on a weight function criterion, where the weight of a cell measures the computational load associated with it. The algorithm is studied with two examples. In the first example, multiple electron bunches as occurring in the S-DALINAC [A. Richter, Operational experience at the S-DALINAC, Proceedings of the Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference, 1996] accelerator are simulated in the absence of space charge fields. In the second example, the SCL emission and electron trajectories in an electron gun are simulated

  4. A parallel 3D particle-in-cell code with dynamic load balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfheimer, Felix [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr.8, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: wolfheimer@temf.de; Gjonaj, Erion [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr.8, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr.8, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-03-01

    A parallel 3D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code including an algorithm for modelling Space Charge Limited (SCL) emission [E. Gjonaj, T. Weiland, 3D-modeling of space-charge-limited electron emission. A charge conserving algorithm, Proceedings of the 11th Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation, 2004] is presented. A domain decomposition technique based on orthogonal recursive bisection is used to parallelize the computation on a distributed memory environment of clustered workstations. For problems with a highly nonuniform and time dependent distribution of particles, e.g., bunch dynamics, a dynamic load balancing between the processes is needed to preserve the parallel performance. The algorithm for the detection of a load imbalance and the redistribution of the tasks among the processes is based on a weight function criterion, where the weight of a cell measures the computational load associated with it. The algorithm is studied with two examples. In the first example, multiple electron bunches as occurring in the S-DALINAC [A. Richter, Operational experience at the S-DALINAC, Proceedings of the Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference, 1996] accelerator are simulated in the absence of space charge fields. In the second example, the SCL emission and electron trajectories in an electron gun are simulated.

  5. Apar-T: code, validation, and physical interpretation of particle-in-cell results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzani, Mickaël; Winisdoerffer, Christophe; Walder, Rolf; Folini, Doris; Favre, Jean M.; Krastanov, Stefan; Messmer, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We present the parallel particle-in-cell (PIC) code Apar-T and, more importantly, address the fundamental question of the relations between the PIC model, the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, and real plasmas. First, we present four validation tests: spectra from simulations of thermal plasmas, linear growth rates of the relativistic tearing instability and of the filamentation instability, and nonlinear filamentation merging phase. For the filamentation instability we show that the effective growth rates measured on the total energy can differ by more than 50% from the linear cold predictions and from the fastest modes of the simulation. We link these discrepancies to the superparticle number per cell and to the level of field fluctuations. Second, we detail a new method for initial loading of Maxwell-Jüttner particle distributions with relativistic bulk velocity and relativistic temperature, and explain why the traditional method with individual particle boosting fails. The formulation of the relativistic Harris equilibrium is generalized to arbitrary temperature and mass ratios. Both are required for the tearing instability setup. Third, we turn to the key point of this paper and scrutinize the question of what description of (weakly coupled) physical plasmas is obtained by PIC models. These models rely on two building blocks: coarse-graining, i.e., grouping of the order of p ~ 1010 real particles into a single computer superparticle, and field storage on a grid with its subsequent finite superparticle size. We introduce the notion of coarse-graining dependent quantities, i.e., quantities depending on p. They derive from the PIC plasma parameter ΛPIC, which we show to behave as ΛPIC ∝ 1/p. We explore two important implications. One is that PIC collision- and fluctuation-induced thermalization times are expected to scale with the number of superparticles per grid cell, and thus to be a factor p ~ 1010 smaller than in real plasmas, a fact that we confirm with

  6. Genetic Recombination Between Stromal and Cancer Cells Results in Highly Malignant Cells Identified by Color-Coded Imaging in a Mouse Lymphoma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kousuke; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) promotes tumor growth and metastasis. We previously established the color-coded EL4 lymphoma TME model with red fluorescent protein (RFP) expressing EL4 implanted in transgenic C57BL/6 green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice. Color-coded imaging of the lymphoma TME suggested an important role of stromal cells in lymphoma progression and metastasis. In the present study, we used color-coded imaging of RFP-lymphoma cells and GFP stromal cells to identify yellow-fluorescent genetically recombinant cells appearing only during metastasis. The EL4-RFP lymphoma cells were injected subcutaneously in C57BL/6-GFP transgenic mice and formed subcutaneous tumors 14 days after cell transplantation. The subcutaneous tumors were harvested and transplanted to the abdominal cavity of nude mice. Metastases to the liver, perigastric lymph node, ascites, bone marrow, and primary tumor were imaged. In addition to EL4-RFP cells and GFP-host cells, genetically recombinant yellow-fluorescent cells, were observed only in the ascites and bone marrow. These results indicate genetic exchange between the stromal and cancer cells. Possible mechanisms of genetic exchange are discussed as well as its ramifications for metastasis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4216-4221, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. LPIC++. A parallel one-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell code for simulating laser-plasma-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichters, R.; Pfund, R.E.W.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    1997-08-01

    The code LPIC++ presented here, is based on a one-dimensional, electromagnetic, relativistic PIC code that has originally been developed by one of the authors during a PhD thesis at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik for kinetic simulations of high harmonic generation from overdense plasma surfaces. The code uses essentially the algorithm of Birdsall and Langdon and Villasenor and Bunemann. It is written in C++ in order to be easily extendable and has been parallelized to be able to grow in power linearly with the size of accessable hardware, e.g. massively parallel machines like Cray T3E. The parallel LPIC++ version uses PVM for communication between processors. PVM is public domain software, can be downloaded from the world wide web. A particular strength of LPIC++ lies in its clear program and data structure, which uses chained lists for the organization of grid cells and enables dynamic adjustment of spatial domain sizes in a very convenient way, and therefore easy balancing of processor loads. Also particles belonging to one cell are linked in a chained list and are immediately accessable from this cell. In addition to this convenient type of data organization in a PIC code, the code shows excellent performance in both its single processor and parallel version. (orig.)

  8. Unravelling the Long Non-Coding RNA Profile of Undifferentiated Large Cell Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sudhanshu

    2018-02-05

    Undifferentiated large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) accounts for 2.9-9% of total lung cancers. Recently, RNA-seq based studies have revealed major genomic aberrations in LCLC. In this study, we aim to identify long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) expression pattern specific to LCLC. The RNA-seq profile of LCLC and other non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analyzed. Using 10 LCLC samples, we found that 18% of all the annotated LncRNAs are expressed in LCLC samples. Among 1794 expressed LncRNAs, 11 were overexpressed and 14 were downregulated in LCLC compared to normal samples. Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we showed that the top five differentially expressed LncRNAs were able to differentiate between LCLC and normal samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Guilt by association analysis using genes correlating with differentially expressed LncRNAs identified several cancer-associated pathways, suggesting the role of these deregulated LncRNA in LCLC biology. We also identified the LncRNA differentially expressed in LCLC compared to lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) and Lung-adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We found that LCLC sample showed more deregulated LncRNA in LUSC than LUAD. Interestingly, LCLC had more downregulated LncRNA compared to LUAD and LUSC. Our study provides novel insight into LncRNA deregulation in LCLC. This study also finds tools to diagnose LCLC and differentiate LCLC with other Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

  9. Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses Coding Transgenes of Apoptosis-Inducing Proteins Enhance Apoptosis But Not Immunogenicity of Infected Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anastasiya; Richter, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Genetic modifications of the oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) improve selective tumor cell infection and death, as well as activation of antitumor immunity. We have engineered a double recombinant VV, coding human GM-CSF, and apoptosis-inducing protein apoptin (VV-GMCSF-Apo) for comparing with the earlier constructed double recombinant VV-GMCSF-Lact, coding another apoptosis-inducing protein, lactaptin, which activated different cell death pathways than apoptin. We showed that both these recombinant VVs more considerably activated a set of critical apoptosis markers in infected cells than the recombinant VV coding GM-CSF alone (VV-GMCSF-dGF): these were phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation, DNA fragmentation, and upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX. However, only VV-GMCSF-Lact efficiently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential of infected cancer cells. Investigating immunogenic cell death markers in cancer cells infected with recombinant VVs, we demonstrated that all tested recombinant VVs were efficient in calreticulin and HSP70 externalization, decrease of cellular HMGB1, and ATP secretion. The comparison of antitumor activity against advanced MDA-MB-231 tumor revealed that both recombinants VV-GMCSF-Lact and VV-GMCSF-Apo efficiently delay tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that the composition of GM-CSF and apoptosis-inducing proteins in the VV genome is very efficient tool for specific killing of cancer cells and for activation of antitumor immunity. PMID:28951871

  10. Prognostic significance of overexpressed long non-coding RNA TUG1 in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P-Q; Wu, Y-X; Zhong, X-D; Liu, B; Qiao, G

    2017-01-01

    The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) study has gradually become one of the hot topics in the field of RNA biology. However, little is known about the pathological role of lncRNA TUG1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. This study attempted to investigate the association of lncRNA TUG1 expression with progression and prognosis in ccRCC patients. Using qRT-PCR, the expression of TUG1 was measured in 203 ccRCC tissues and 45 adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Then, the relationships between TUG1 level and the clinicopathological factors of patients with ccRCC were analyzed. The prognostic significance was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The relative level of TUG1was significantly higher in ccRCC tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissues (p TUG1 was associated significantly with histological grade, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis (all p TUG1 expression levels were associated with a shorter overall survival (p TUG1 expression was an independent prognostic marker of poor outcome. These findings suggested that TUG1 may act as a tumor promoter in ccRCC and could serve as a potential therapeutic target for this tumor.

  11. PIConGPU - How to build one of the fastest GPU particle-in-cell codes in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burau, Heiko; Debus, Alexander; Helm, Anton; Huebl, Axel; Kluge, Thomas; Widera, Rene; Bussmann, Michael; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Juckeland, Guido; Nagel, Wolfgang [TU Dresden (Germany); ZIH, Dresden (Germany); Schmitt, Felix [NVIDIA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present the algorithmic building blocks of PIConGPU, one of the fastest implementations of the particle-in-cell algortihm on GPU clusters. PIConGPU is a highly-scalable, 3D3V electromagnetic PIC code that is used in laser plasma and astrophysical plasma simulations.

  12. Is the growth of the fetus of a non-smoking mother influenced by the smoking of either grandmother while pregnant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Miller

    Full Text Available There are animal data that indicate that prenatal environmental exposures have sex-specific effects on subsequent generations. In humans, an increase in birthweight has been reported if the maternal grandmother had smoked in the pregnancy giving rise to the mother. Here we assess whether prenatal exposure of either parent to cigarette smoke has a sex-specific effect on the grandchild's birth measurements.Information from 12707 maternal and 9677 paternal grandmothers of children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC concerned whether they had smoked while expecting the study parent. Study children were weighed and measured at birth. Analyses to test effects of grandmaternal prenatal smoking used multiple regression allowing for several potential confounders; analyses were restricted to births to non-smoking study mothers.After adjustment, the average birthweight, birth length and bmi measurements of the grandsons (but not granddaughters were greater if the maternal grandmother smoked prenatally: birthweight  = +61 [95% CI +30, +92] g; birth length  = +0.19 [95% CI +0.02, +0.35] cm; BMI  = +1.6 [95% CI +0.6, +2.6] g/m(2. Similar effects were seen in births to primiparae and multiparae. Additional allowance for maternal birthweight resulted in an average increase in boys to +100 g [95% CI +61, +140] g. There were no fetal growth differences if the paternal grandmother had smoked prenatally.The evidence from this study suggests that when the mother does not smoke in pregnancy the maternal grandmother's smoking habit in pregnancy has a positive association with her grandson's fetal growth.

  13. Novel methods in the Particle-In-Cell accelerator Code-Framework Warp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vay, J-L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Grote, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cohen, R. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-26

    The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) Code-Framework Warp is being developed by the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) to guide the development of accelerators that can deliver beams suitable for high-energy density experiments and implosion of inertial fusion capsules. It is also applied in various areas outside the Heavy Ion Fusion program to the study and design of existing and next-generation high-energy accelerators, including the study of electron cloud effects and laser wakefield acceleration for example. This study presents an overview of Warp's capabilities, summarizing recent original numerical methods that were developed by the HIFS-VNL (including PIC with adaptive mesh refinement, a large-timestep 'drift-Lorentz' mover for arbitrarily magnetized species, a relativistic Lorentz invariant leapfrog particle pusher, simulations in Lorentz-boosted frames, an electromagnetic solver with tunable numerical dispersion and efficient stride-based digital filtering), with special emphasis on the description of the mesh refinement capability. In addition, selected examples of the applications of the methods to the abovementioned fields are given.

  14. Synthetic radiation diagnostics in PIConGPU. Integrating spectral detectors into particle-in-cell codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausch, Richard; Burau, Heiko; Huebl, Axel; Steiniger, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Debus, Alexander; Widera, Rene; Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present the in-situ far field radiation diagnostics in the particle-in-cell code PIConGPU. It was developed to close the gap between simulated plasma dynamics and radiation observed in laser plasma experiments. Its predictive capabilities, both qualitative and quantitative, have been tested against analytical models. Now, we apply this synthetic spectral diagnostics to investigate plasma dynamics in laser wakefield acceleration, laser foil irradiation and plasma instabilities. Our method is based on the far field approximation of the Lienard-Wiechert potential and allows predicting both coherent and incoherent radiation spectrally from infrared to X-rays. Its capability to resolve the radiation polarization and to determine the temporal and spatial origin of the radiation enables us to correlate specific spectral signatures with characteristic dynamics in the plasma. Furthermore, its direct integration into the highly-scalable GPU framework of PIConGPU allows computing radiation spectra for thousands of frequencies, hundreds of detector positions and billions of particles efficiently. In this talk we will demonstrate these capabilities on resent simulations of laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) and high harmonics generation during target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA).

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Danielle M.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children’s subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent’s child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers’ psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents’ potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents’ punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers’ punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers’ potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers’ psychological control on children’s externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers’ potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers’ psychological control on adolescent mothers’ punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children’s behavior. PMID:26521948

  16. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in the Ayeyarwaddy Region in Myanmar: Qualitative findings from mothers, grandmothers, and husbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thet, May Me; Khaing, Ei Ei; Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Sudhinaraset, May; Oo, Sandar; Aung, Tin

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar has low rates of exclusive breastfeeding despite many decades of efforts to increase this practice. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and how different household members participate in decision-making. We conducted semi-structured interviews with mothers with an infant 6-12 months (24), and a subset of their husbands (10) and their mothers/mothers-in-laws (grandmothers) (10) in rural and urban areas of Laputta, Myanmar. Respondents had high levels of knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding, but low adherence. One of the primary barriers to exclusive breastfeeding was that mothers, husbands, and grandmothers believed that exclusive breastfeeding was not sufficient for babies and solid foods and water were necessary. Water and mashed up rice were commonly introduced before 6 months of age. Mothers also faced barriers to exclusive breastfeeding due to the need to return to work outside the home and health related problems. Other family members provide support for mothers in their breastfeeding, however, most respondents stated that decisions about breastfeeding and child feeding were made by the mother herself. Mothers in this part of Myanmar know about exclusive breastfeeding, but need more knowledge about its importance and benefits to encourage them to practice it. More information for other family members could improve adherence to exclusive breastfeeding, as family members often provide food to children and support to breastfeeding mothers. Support for mothers to be able to continue breastfeeding once they return to work and in the face of health problems is also important. Finally, additional information about the types of foods that infants need once they cease breastfeeding could improve infant and child health. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Pin cell discontinuity factors in the transient 3-D discrete ordinates code TORT-TD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even with the rapid increase of computing power, whole core transient and accident analyses based on the direct solution of the 3-D neutron transport equation with a large number of energy groups and a detailed heterogeneous description of the core still remain computationally challenging. Current industrial methods for reactor core calculations therefore involve a two step approach in which lattice (assembly) depletion transport methods are used to prepare energy collapsed and fuel assembly or pin cell homogenized cross sections for subsequent whole core transport calculations. Spatial homogenization, in principal, requires the knowledge of both the actual boundary condition (local core environment) of the fuel assembly and the exact heterogeneous flux distribution (reference solution) of the whole core problem within that fuel assembly. Since, in particular, the latter is not known a priori, an infinite medium (zero net current) condition is used in the lattice calculations. It is well known that this approximation may lead to undesirable errors in cores in which large flux gradients are present across the fuel assemblies. This is the case in cores that have high heterogeneity and/or strong local absorbers, e.g. PWRs with partial MOX loading and inserted control rod clusters. There are two major approaches to mitigate spatial homogenization errors, superhomogenization (SPH) factors, and discontinuity factors within the scope of equivalence theory (ET) and generalized equivalence theory (GET). Although discontinuity factors are usually applied at the level of fuel assembly node size (assembly discontinuity factors, ADF), the methodology can be extended to pin cell homogenized whole core calculations involving pin cell discontinuity factors (PDF). There are also further developments for both the diffusion and the simplified transport (SP3) equation. In this paper, PDFs are introduced into the time-dependent 3-D discrete ordinates code TORT-TD in order to reduce the

  18. Dose Distribution Calculation Using MCNPX Code in the Gamma-ray Irradiation Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ho

    1991-02-01

    60 Co-gamma irradiators have long been used for foods sterilization, plant mutation and development of radio-protective agents, radio-sensitizers and other purposes. The Applied Radiological Science Research Institute of Cheju National University has a multipurpose gamma irradiation facility loaded with a MDS Nordin standard 60 Co source (C188), of which the initial activity was 400 TBq (10,800 Ci) on February 19, 2004. This panoramic gamma irradiator is designed to irradiate in all directions various samples such as plants, cultured cells and mice to administer given radiation doses. In order to give accurate doses to irradiation samples, appropriate methods of evaluating, both by calculation and measurement, the radiation doses delivered to the samples should be set up. Computational models have been developed to evaluate the radiation dose distributions inside the irradiation chamber and the radiation doses delivered to typical biolological samples which are frequently irradiated in the facility. The computational models are based on using the MCNPX code. The horizontal and vertical dose distributions has been calculated inside the irradiation chamber and compared the calculated results with measured data obtained with radiation dosimeters to verify the computational models. The radiation dosimeters employed are a Famer's type ion chamber and MOSFET dosimeters. Radiation doses were calculated by computational models, which were delivered to cultured cell samples contained in test tubes and to a mouse fixed in a irradiation cage, and compared the calculated results with the measured data. The computation models are also tested to see if they can accurately simulate the case where a thick lead shield is placed between the source and detector. Three tally options of the MCNPX code, F4, F5 and F6, are alternately used to see which option produces optimum results. The computation models are also used to calculate gamma ray energy spectra of a BGO scintillator at

  19. BRAF activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) promoting gastric cancer cells proliferation via regulation of NF-κB1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Biao; Lu, Xin-Yang; Ning, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Ai-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Long non-coding RNA, BANCR, has been demonstrated to contribute to the proliferation and migration of tumors. However, its molecular mechanism underlying gastric cancer is still unknown. In present study, we investigated whether BANCR was involved in the development of gastric cancer cells via regulation of NF-κB1. Methods: Human gastric cancer tissues were isolated as well as human gastric cell lines MGC803 and BGC823 were cultured to investigate the role of BANCR in gastric cancer. Results: BANCR expression was significantly up-regulated in gastric tumor tissues and gastric cell lines. Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis, and it also contributed to a significant decrease of NF-κB1 (P50/105) expression and 3′UTR of NF-κB1 activity. Overexpression of NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer cell growth and apoptosis. MiroRNA-9 (miR-9) targeted NF-κB1, and miR-9 inhibitor also reversed the effects of BANCR on gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. Conclusion: BANCR was highly expressed both in gastric tumor tissues and in cancer cells. NF-κB1 and miR-9 were involved in the role of BANCR in gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. - Highlights: • BANCR up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and cell lines MGC803 and BGC823. • Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited GC cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis. • Down-regulation of BANCR contributed to decreased 3′UTR of NF-κB1 and its expression. • Overexpressed NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on GC cell growth. • miR-9 inhibitor reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer GC cell growth

  20. Self-Shielding Treatment to Perform Cell Calculation for Seed Furl In Th/U Pwr Using Dragon Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Amin El Said Abd El Hameed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Time and precision of the results are the most important factors in any code used for nuclear calculations. Despite of the high accuracy of Monte Carlo codes, MCNP and Serpent, in many cases their relatively long computational time leads to difficulties in using any of them as the main calculation code. Usually, Monte Carlo codes are used only to benchmark the results. The deterministic codes, which are usually used in nuclear reactor’s calculations, have limited precision, due to the approximations in the methods used to solve the multi-group transport equation. Self- Shielding treatment, an algorithm that produces an average cross-section defined over the complete energy domain of the neutrons in a nuclear reactor, is responsible for the biggest error in any deterministic codes. There are mainly two resonance self-shielding models commonly applied: models based on equivalence and dilution and models based on subgroup approach. The fundamental problem with any self-shielding method is that it treats any isotope as there are no other isotopes with resonance present in the reactor. The most practical way to solve this problem is to use multi-energy groups (50-200 that are chosen in a way that allows us to use all major resonances without self-shielding. In this paper, we perform cell calculations, for a fresh seed fuel pin which is used in thorium/uranium reactors, by solving 172 energy group transport equation using the deterministic DRAGON code, for the two types of self-shielding models (equivalence and dilution models and subgroup models Using WIMS-D5 and DRAGON data libraries. The results are then tested by comparing it with the stochastic MCNP5 code.  We also tested the sensitivity of the results to a specific change in self-shielding method implemented, for example the effect of applying Livolant-Jeanpierre Normalization scheme and Rimman Integration improvement on the equivalence and dilution method, and the effect of using Ribbon

  1. The Long Non-coding RNA HOTTIP Enhances Pancreatic Cancer Cell Proliferation, Survival and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTHOTTIP is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcribed from the 5' tip of the HOXA locus and is associated with the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) and WD repeat containing protein 5 (WDR5)/mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) chromatin modifying complexes. HOTTIP is expres...

  2. Modeling an emittance-dominated elliptical sheet beam with a 212-dimensional particle-in-cell code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Modeling a 3-dimensional (3-D) elliptical beam with a 212-D particle-in-cell (PIC) code requires a reduction in the beam parameters. The 212-D PIC code can only model the center slice of the sheet beam, but that can still provide useful information about the beam transport and distribution evolution, even if the beam is emittance dominated. The reduction of beam parameters and resulting interpretation of the simulation is straightforward, but not trivial. In this paper, we describe the beam parameter reduction and emittance issues related to the initial beam distribution. As a numerical example, we use the case of a sheet beam designed for use with a planar traveling-wave amplifier for high power generator for RF ranging from 95 to 300GHz [Carlsten et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33 (2005) 85]. These numerical techniques also apply to modeling high-energy elliptical bunches in RF accelerators

  3. Calculations for the intermediate-spectrum cells of Zebra 8 using the MONK Monte-Carlo Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, D.; Franklin, B.M.; Stevenson, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    The Monte-Carlo Code MONK 6A and its associated point-energy cross-section data have been used to analyse seven, zero-leakage, plate-geometry cells from the ZEBRA 8 assemblies. The convergence of the calculations was such that the uncertainties in k-infinity and the more important reaction-rate ratios were generally less than the experimental uncertainties. The MONK 6A predictions have been compared with experiment and with predictions from the MURAL collision-probability code. This uses FGL5 data which has been adjusted on the basis of ZEBRA 8 and other integral experiments. The poor predictions from the MONK calculations with errors of up to 10% in k-infinity, are attributed to deficiencies in the database for intermediate to fast spectrum systems. (author)

  4. Parallel Finite Element Particle-In-Cell Code for Simulations of Space-charge Dominated Beam-Cavity Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel finite element (FE) particle-in-cell code Pic3P (Pic2P) for simulations of beam-cavity interactions dominated by space-charge effects. As opposed to standard space-charge dominated beam transport codes, which are based on the electrostatic approximation, Pic3P (Pic2P) includes space-charge, retardation and boundary effects as it self-consistently solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations using higher-order FE methods on conformal meshes. Use of efficient, large-scale parallel processing allows for the modeling of photoinjectors with unprecedented accuracy, aiding the design and operation of the next-generation of accelerator facilities. Applications to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) RF gun are presented

  5. Dynamic transcription of long non-coding RNA genes during CD4+ T cell development and activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that long non-coding RNA (LncRNA play important regulatory roles in many biology process, including cell development, activation and oncogenesis. However, the roles of these LncRNAs in the development and activation of CD4+ T cells, which is an important component of immune response, remain unknown. RESULTS: To predict the function of LncRNA in the development and activation of CD4+ T cells, first, we examined the expression profiles of LncRNAs and mRNAs in CD4-CD8- (DN, CD4+CD8+ (DP, CD4+CD8-, and activated CD4+CD8- T cells in a microarray analysis and verified these results by real time PCRs (qPCR. We found that the expression of hundreds of LncRNAs significantly changed in each process of developmental transition, including DN into DP, DP into CD4+CD8-, and CD4+CD8- into activated CD4+ T cells. A Kendall distance analysis suggested that the expression of LncRNAs in DN, DP, CD4+CD8- T cells and activated CD4+ T cells were correlated with the expression of mRNAs in these T cells. The Blat algorithm and GO analysis suggested that LncRNAs may exert important roles in the development and activation of CD4+ T cells. These roles included proliferation, homeostasis, maturation, activation, migration, apoptosis and calcium ion transportation. CONCLUSION: The present study found that the expression profiles of LncRNAs in different stages of CD4+ T cells are distinguishable. LncRNAs are involved in the key biological process in CD4+ T cell development and activation.

  6. Non-coding RNA regulation in pathogenic bacteria located inside eukaryotic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, Alvaro D.; Quereda, Juan J; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved distinct lifestyles inside eukaryotic cells. Some pathogens coexist with the infected cell in an obligate intracellular state, whereas others transit between the extracellular and intracellular environment. Adaptation to these intracellular lifestyles

  7. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  8. Calculation of Single Cell and Fuel Assembly IRIS Benchmarks Using WIMSD5B and GNOMER Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.; Jecmenica, R.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS reactor (an acronym for International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, small to medium power (100-335 MWe/module) reactor, which addresses the requirements defined by the United States Department of Energy for Generation IV nuclear energy systems, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics, and waste reduction. An international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL was created for development of IRIS reactor; it includes universities, institutes, commercial companies, and utilities. Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb joined the consortium in year 2001, with the aim to take part in IRIS neutronics design and safety analyses of IRIS transients. A set of neutronic benchmarks for IRIS reactor was defined with the objective to compare results of all participants with exactly the same assumptions. In this paper a calculation of Benchmark 44 for IRIS reactor is described. Benchmark 44 is defined as a core depletion benchmark problem for specified IRIS reactor operating conditions (e.g., temperatures, moderator density) without feedback. Enriched boron, inhomogeneously distributed in axial direction, is used as an integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA). The aim of this benchmark was to enable a more direct comparison of results of different code systems. Calculations of Benchmark 44 were performed using the modified CORD-2 code package. The CORD-2 code package consists of WIMSD and GNOMER codes. WIMSD is a well-known lattice spectrum calculation code. GNOMER solves the neutron diffusion equation in three-dimensional Cartesian geometry by the Green's function nodal method. The following parameters were obtained in Benchmark 44 analysis: effective multiplication factor as a function of burnup, nuclear peaking factor as a function of burnup, axial offset as a function of burnup, core-average axial power profile, core radial power profile, axial power profile for selected

  9. Construction of a plasmid coding for green fluorescent protein tagged cathepsin L and data on expression in colorectal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tamhane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The endo-lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L has recently been shown to have moonlighting activities in that its unexpected nuclear localization in colorectal carcinoma cells is involved in cell cycle progression (Tamhane et al., 2015 [1]. Here, we show data on the construction and sequence of a plasmid coding for human cathepsin L tagged with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (phCL-EGFP in which the fluorescent protein is covalently attached to the C-terminus of the protease. The plasmid was used for transfection of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells, while data from non-transfected and pEGFP-N1-transfected cells is also shown. Immunoblotting data of lysates from non-transfected controls and HCT116 cells transfected with pEGFP-N1 and phCL-EGFP, showed stable expression of cathepsin L-enhanced green fluorescent protein chimeras, while endogenous cathepsin L protein amounts exceed those of hCL-EGFP chimeras. An effect of phCL-EGFP expression on proliferation and metabolic states of HCT116 cells at 24 h post-transfection was observed.

  10. Large Intergenic Non-coding RNA-RoR Inhibits Aerobic Glycolysis of Glioblastoma Cells via Akt Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; He, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Kai; Shi, Yu; Yao, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Xia; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Ping, Yi-Fang; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2018-01-01

    Reprogramming energy metabolism is a hallmark of malignant tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM). Aerobic glycolysis is often utilized by tumor cells to maintain survival and proliferation. However, the underlying mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis in GBM remain elusive. Herein, we demonstrated that large intergenic non-coding RNA-RoR (LincRNA-RoR) functioned as a critical suppressor to inhibit the aerobic glycolysis and viability of GBM cells. We found that LincRNA-RoR was markedly reduced in GBM tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues from 10 cases of GBM patients. Consistently, LincRNA-RoR expression in GBM cells was significantly lower than that in normal glial cells. The aerobic glycolysis of GBM cells, as determined by the measurement of glucose uptake and lactate production, was impaired by LincRNA-RoR overexpression. Mechanistically, LincRNA-RoR inhibited the expression of Rictor, the key component of mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2), to suppress the activity of Akt pathway and impair the expression of glycolytic effectors, including Glut1, HK2, PKM2 and LDHA. Finally, enforced expression of LincRNA-RoR reduced the proliferation of GBM cells in vitro, restrained tumor growth in vivo, and repressed the expression of glycolytic molecules in GBM xenografts. Collectively, our results underscore LincRNA-RoR as a new suppressor of GBM aerobic glycolysis with therapeutic potential. PMID:29581766

  11. A Human Long Non-Coding RNA ALT1 Controls the Cell Cycle of Vascular Endothelial Cells Via ACE2 and Cyclin D1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: ALT1 is a novel long non-coding RNA derived from the alternatively spliced transcript of the deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 2 (DLEU2. To date, ALT1 biological roles in human vascular endothelial cells have not been reported. Methods: ALT1 was knocked down by siRNAs. Cell proliferation was analyzed by cck-8. The existence and sequence of human ALT1 were identified by 3’ rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The interaction between lncRNA and proteins was analyzed by RNA-Protein pull down assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry analysis. Results: ALT1 was expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. The expression of ALT1 was significantly downregulated in contact-inhibited HUVECs and in hypoxia-induced, growth-arrested HUVECs. Knocking down of ALT1 inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. We observed that angiotensin converting enzyme Ⅱ(ACE2 was a direct target gene of ALT1. Knocking-down of ALT1 or its target gene ACE2 could efficiently decrease the expression of cyclin D1 via the enhanced ubiquitination and degradation, in which HIF-1α and protein von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL might be involved. Conclusion: The results suggested the human long non-coding RNA ALT1 is a novel regulator for cell cycle of HUVECs via ACE2 and cyclin D1 pathway.

  12. Method of neutronic calculations for a spherical cell equivalent to cylindrical one for using computer codes in light water reactors in the fluidized bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, V.; Sefidvash, F.; Rastogi, E.P.; Huria, H.C.; Krishnani, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to use the existing light water reactor cell calculation codes for fluidized bed nuclear reactor having spherical fuel cells, an equivalence method has been developed. This method is shown to be adequate in calculation of the Dancoff factor. This method also was applicable in LEOPARD code and the results obtained in calculation of K ∞ was compared with the obtained using the DTF IV code, the results showed that the method is adequate for the calculations neutronics of the fluidized bed nuclear reactor. (author) [pt

  13. Large scale tracking of stem cells using sparse coding and coupled graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Holm, Peter

    Stem cell tracking is an inherently large scale problem. The challenge is to identify and track hundreds or thousands of cells over a time period of several weeks. This requires robust methods that can leverage the knowledge of specialists on the field. The tracking pipeline presented here consists...

  14. An in vitro study of the long non-coding RNA TUG1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Zou, Rui; Ouyang, Ke-Xiong; Ai, Wei-Jian

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to study the expression of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and reveal its possible function. qRT-PCR was used to evaluate 27 samples of fresh TSCC tissues and adjacent normal tongue tissues. siRNA technology was employed to downregulate TUG1 expression in CAL-27 and SCC-9 cell lines. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was utilized to assess cell proliferation ability; apoptosis and cell-cycle phases were analysed via flow cytometry. qRT-PCR findings indicated that the lncRNA TUG1 was upregulated in TSCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tongue tissues (PTUG1 expression was downregulated using siRNA technology, cell proliferation was significantly inhibited (PTUG1 may represent a potential oncogene in TSCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Deciphering the Epigenetic Code in Embryonic and Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2016-01-01

    A close cooperation between chromatin states, transcriptional modulation, and epigenetic modifications is required for establishing appropriate regulatory circuits underlying self-renewal and differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells. A growing body of research has established that the epigenome topology provides a structural framework for engaging genes in the non-random chromosomal interactions to orchestrate complex processes such as cell-matrix interactions, cell adhesion and cell migration during lineage commitment. Over the past few years, the functional dissection of the epigenetic landscape has become increasingly important for understanding gene expression dynamics in stem cells naturally found in most tissues. Adult stem cells of the human dental pulp hold great promise for tissue engineering, particularly in the skeletal and tooth regenerative medicine. It is therefore likely that progress towards pulp regeneration will have a substantial impact on the clinical research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding epigenetic cues that have evolved to regulate the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells and the lineage determination of developing dental pulp progenitors. PMID:28018144

  16. A fully-implicit Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collision code for the simulation of inductively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, S.; Nishida, K.; Onai, M.; Lettry, J.; Tran, M. Q.; Hatayama, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a fully-implicit electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo collision code, called NINJA, written for the simulation of inductively coupled plasmas. NINJA employs a kinetic enslaved Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov method to solve self-consistently the interaction between the electromagnetic field generated by the radio-frequency coil and the plasma response. The simulated plasma includes a kinetic description of charged and neutral species as well as the collision processes between them. The algorithm allows simulations with cell sizes much larger than the Debye length and time steps in excess of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition whilst preserving the conservation of the total energy. The code is applied to the simulation of the plasma discharge of the Linac4 H- ion source at CERN. Simulation results of plasma density, temperature and EEDF are discussed and compared with optical emission spectroscopy measurements. A systematic study of the energy conservation as a function of the numerical parameters is presented.

  17. Role of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Mast Cell Functions and Asthma and Its Regulation by Non-Coding RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Saluja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipid metabolites are emerging as important signaling molecules in allergic diseases specifically asthma. One of the sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, is involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, migration, and angiogenesis. In the allergic diseases, alteration of S1P levels influences the differentiation and responsiveness of mast cells (MCs. S1P is synthesized by two sphingosine kinases (SphKs, sphingosine kinase 1, and sphingosine kinase 2. Engagement of IgE to the FcεRI receptor induces the activation of both the SphKs and generates S1P. Furthermore, SphKs are also essential to FcεRI-mediated MC activation. Activated MCs export S1P into the extracellular space and causes inflammatory response and tissue remodeling. S1P signaling has dual role in allergic responses. Activation of SphKs and secretion of S1P are required for MC activation; however, S1P signaling plays a vital role in the recovery from anaphylaxis. Several non-coding RNAs have been shown to play a crucial role in controlling the MC-associated inflammatory and allergic responses. Thus, S1P signaling pathway and its regulation by non-coding RNA could be explored as an exciting potential therapeutic target for asthma and other MC-associated diseases.

  18. Particle-in-cell plasma simulation codes on the connection machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for implementing three-dimensional, electromagnetic, relativistic PIC plasma simulation codes on the Connection Machine (CM-2) are discussed. The gather and scatter phases of the PIC algorithm involve indirect indexing of data, which results in a large amount of communication on the CM-2. Different data decompositions are described that seek to reduce the amount of communication while maintaining good load balance. These methods require the particles to be spatially sorted at the start of each time step, which introduced another form of overhead. The different methods are implemented in CM Fortran on the CM-2 and compared. It was found that the general router is slow in performing the communication in the gather and scatter steps, which precludes an efficient CM Fortran implementation. An alternative method that uses PARIS calls and the NEWS communication network to pipeline data along the axes of the VP set is suggested as a more efficient algorithm

  19. Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-08

    Warp is a multidimensional discrete-particle beam simulation program designed to be applicable where the beam space-charge is non-negligible or dominant. It is being developed in a collaboration among LLNL, LBNL and the University of Maryland. It was originally designed and optimized for heave ion fusion accelerator physics studies, but has received use in a broader range of applications, including for example laser wakefield accelerators, e-cloud studies in high enery accelerators, particle traps and other areas. At present it incorporates 3-D, axisymmetric (r,z) planar (x-z) and transverse slice (x,y) descriptions, with both electrostatic and electro-magnetic fields, and a beam envelope model. The code is guilt atop the Python interpreter language.

  20. Applications of Transport/Reaction Codes to Problems in Cell Modeling; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MEANS, SHAWN A.; RINTOUL, MARK DANIEL; SHADID, JOHN N.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate two specific examples that show how our exiting capabilities in solving large systems of partial differential equations associated with transport/reaction systems can be easily applied to outstanding problems in computational biology. First, we examine a three-dimensional model for calcium wave propagation in a Xenopus Laevis frog egg and verify that a proposed model for the distribution of calcium release sites agrees with experimental results as a function of both space and time. Next, we create a model of the neuron's terminus based on experimental observations and show that the sodium-calcium exchanger is not the route of sodium's modulation of neurotransmitter release. These state-of-the-art simulations were performed on massively parallel platforms and required almost no modification of existing Sandia codes

  1. Long non-coding RNAs as novel players in β cell function and type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Aashiq H; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    , or proteins. Accumulating body of evidence based on multitude studies has highlighted the role of lncRNAs in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Main body of abstract This review highlights emerging roles of lncRNAs in immune and islet β cell function as well as some...... of the challenges and opportunities in understanding the pathogenesis of T1D and its complications. Conclusion We accentuate that the lncRNAs within T1D-loci regions in consort with regulatory variants and enhancer clusters orchestrate the chromatin remodeling in β cells and thereby act as cis...

  2. The long non-coding RNA HOTAIR promotes the proliferation of serous ovarian cancer cells through the regulation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jun-jun [Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, 419 Fangxie Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine-Related Diseases, 413 Zhaozhou Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Wang, Yan [Cancer Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 270 Dong' an Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 130 Dong' an Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding, Jing-xin; Jin, Hong-yan [Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, 419 Fangxie Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine-Related Diseases, 413 Zhaozhou Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yang, Gong, E-mail: yanggong@fudan.edu.cn [Cancer Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 270 Dong' an Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 130 Dong' an Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Hua, Ke-qin, E-mail: huakeqin@126.com [Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, 419 Fangxie Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine-Related Diseases, 413 Zhaozhou Road, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2015-05-01

    HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) is a well-known long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) whose dysregulation correlates with poor prognosis and malignant progression in many forms of cancer. Here, we investigate the expression pattern, clinical significance, and biological function of HOTAIR in serous ovarian cancer (SOC). Clinically, we found that HOTAIR levels were overexpressed in SOC tissues compared with normal controls and that HOTAIR overexpression was correlated with an advanced FIGO stage and a high histological grade. Multivariate analysis revealed that HOTAIR is an independent prognostic factor for predicting overall survival in SOC patients. We demonstrated that HOTAIR silencing inhibited A2780 and OVCA429 SOC cell proliferation in vitro and that the anti-proliferative effects of HOTAIR silencing also occurred in vivo. Further investigation into the mechanisms responsible for the growth inhibitory effects by HOTAIR silencing revealed that its knockdown resulted in the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through certain cell cycle-related and apoptosis-related proteins. Together, these results highlight a critical role of HOTAIR in SOC cell proliferation and contribute to a better understanding of the importance of dysregulated lncRNAs in SOC progression. - Highlights: • HOTAIR overexpression correlates with an aggressive tumour phenotype and a poor prognosis in SOC. • HOTAIR promotes SOC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. • The proliferative role of HOTAIR is associated with regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis.

  3. Neural coding in antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, K.E; Noorman, N; Mastebroek, H.A K; van Schoot, N.E.G.; den Otter, C.J

    1998-01-01

    Spike trains from individual antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) obtained during steady-state conditions (spontaneous as well as during stimulation with 1-octen-3-ol) and dynamic stimulation with repetitive pulses of 1-octen-3-ol were investigated by studying the spike frequency

  4. Non-coding RNAs in Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: Deciphering Regulatory Roles in Stem Cell Potency, Inflammatory Resolve, and Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Fatima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are heterogeneous populations of nano- and micro-sized vesicles secreted by various cell types. There is mounting evidence that EVs have widespread roles in transporting proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells and serve as mediators of intercellular communication. EVs secreted from stem cells could function as paracrine factors, and appear to mimic and recapitulate several features of their secreting cells. EV-mediated transport of regulatory RNAs provides a novel source of trans-regulation between cells. As such, stem cells have evolved unique forms of paracrine mechanisms for recapitulating their potencies with specialized functions by transporting non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs via EVs. This includes the dissemination of stem cell-derived EV-ncRNAs and their regulatory effects elicited in differentiation, self-renewal, pluripotency, and the induction of reparative programs. Here, we summarize and discuss the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cell-derived EV-ncRNAs in the induction of intrinsic regenerative programs elicited through regulating several mechanisms. Among them, most noticeable are the EV-mediated enrichment of ncRNAs at the injury sites contributing the regulation of matrix remodeling, epithelial mesenchymal transitions, and attraction of fibroblasts. Additionally, we emphasize EV-mediated transmission of anti-inflammatory RNAs from stem cells to injury site that potentially orchestrate the resolution of the inflammatory responses and immune alleviation to better facilitate healing processes. Collectively, this knowledge indicates a high value and potential of EV-mediated RNA-based therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine.

  5. Thyroid cell irradiation by radioiodines: a new Monte Carlo electron track-structure code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Christophe; Elbast, Mouhamad; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Ting-Di Wu

    2007-01-01

    The most significant impact of the Chernobyl accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were exposed to short-lived radioiodines and 131-iodine. In order to accurately estimate the radiation dose provided by these radioiodines, it is necessary to know where iodine is incorporated. To do that, the distribution at the cellular level of newly organified iodine in the immature rat thyroid was performed using secondary ion mass microscopy (NanoSIMS 50 ). Actual dosimetric models take only into account the averaged energy and range of beta particles of the radio-elements and may, therefore, imperfectly describe the real distribution of dose deposit at the microscopic level around the point sources. Our approach is radically different since based on a track-structure Monte Carlo code allowing following-up of electrons down to low energies (∼= 10 eV) what permits a nanometric description of the irradiation physics. The numerical simulations were then performed by modelling the complete disintegrations of the short-lived iodine isotopes as well as of 131 I in new born rat thyroids in order to take into account accurate histological and biological data for the thyroid gland. (author)

  6. Non-Coding RNAs: Multi-Tasking Molecules in the Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Quintal Gomes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years it has become increasingly clear that the mammalian transcriptome is highly complex and includes a large number of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs. Here we review the biogenesis pathways of the three classes of sncRNAs, namely short interfering RNAs (siRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs. These ncRNAs have been extensively studied and are involved in pathways leading to specific gene silencing and the protection of genomes against virus and transposons, for example. Also, lncRNAs have emerged as pivotal molecules for the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression which is supported by their tissue-specific expression patterns, subcellular distribution, and developmental regulation. Therefore, we also focus our attention on their role in differentiation and development. SncRNAs and lncRNAs play critical roles in defining DNA methylation patterns, as well as chromatin remodeling thus having a substantial effect in epigenetics. The identification of some overlaps in their biogenesis pathways and functional roles raises the hypothesis that these molecules play concerted functions in vivo, creating complex regulatory networks where cooperation with regulatory proteins is necessary. We also highlighted the implications of biogenesis and gene expression deregulation of sncRNAs and lncRNAs in human diseases like cancer.

  7. Brain cells in the avian 'prefrontal cortex' code for features of slot-machine-like gambling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Scarf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Slot machines are the most common and addictive form of gambling. In the current study, we recorded from single neurons in the 'prefrontal cortex' of pigeons while they played a slot-machine-like task. We identified four categories of neurons that coded for different aspects of our slot-machine-like task. Reward-Proximity neurons showed a linear increase in activity as the opportunity for a reward drew near. I-Won neurons fired only when the fourth stimulus of a winning (four-of-a-kind combination was displayed. I-Lost neurons changed their firing rate at the presentation of the first nonidentical stimulus, that is, when it was apparent that no reward was forthcoming. Finally, Near-Miss neurons also changed their activity the moment it was recognized that a reward was no longer available, but more importantly, the activity level was related to whether the trial contained one, two, or three identical stimuli prior to the display of the nonidentical stimulus. These findings not only add to recent neurophysiological research employing simulated gambling paradigms, but also add to research addressing the functional correspondence between the avian NCL and primate PFC.

  8. Ensemble place codes in hippocampus: CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus place cells have multiple place fields in large environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhye Park

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that the hippocampus place code must be an ensemble code because place cells in the CA1 region of hippocampus have multiple place fields in a more natural, larger-than-standard enclosure with stairs that permitted movements in 3-D. Here, we further investigated the nature of hippocampal place codes by characterizing the spatial firing properties of place cells in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG hippocampal subdivisions as rats foraged in a standard 76-cm cylinder as well as a larger-than-standard box (1.8 m×1.4 m that did not have stairs or any internal structure to permit movements in 3-D. The rats were trained to forage continuously for 1 hour using computer-controlled food delivery. We confirmed that most place cells have single place fields in the standard cylinder and that the positional firing pattern remapped between the cylinder and the large enclosure. Importantly, place cells in the CA1, CA3 and DG areas all characteristically had multiple place fields that were irregularly spaced, as we had reported previously for CA1. We conclude that multiple place fields are a fundamental characteristic of hippocampal place cells that simplifies to a single field in sufficiently small spaces. An ensemble place code is compatible with these observations, which contradict any dedicated coding scheme.

  9. Predictions of the spontaneous symmetry-breaking theory for visual code completeness and spatial scaling in single-cell learning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, C J

    2001-05-01

    This article shows analytically that single-cell learning rules that give rise to oriented and localized receptive fields, when their synaptic weights are randomly and independently initialized according to a plausible assumption of zero prior information, will generate visual codes that are invariant under two-dimensional translations, rotations, and scale magnifications, provided that the statistics of their training images are sufficiently invariant under these transformations. Such codes span different image locations, orientations, and size scales with equal economy. Thus, single-cell rules could account for the spatial scaling property of the cortical simple-cell code. This prediction is tested computationally by training with natural scenes; it is demonstrated that a single-cell learning rule can give rise to simple-cell receptive fields spanning the full range of orientations, image locations, and spatial frequencies (except at the extreme high and low frequencies at which the scale invariance of the statistics of digitally sampled images must ultimately break down, because of the image boundary and the finite pixel resolution). Thus, no constraint on completeness, or any other coupling between cells, is necessary to induce the visual code to span wide ranges of locations, orientations, and size scales. This prediction is made using the theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which we have previously shown can also explain the data-driven self-organization of a wide variety of transformation invariances in neurons' responses, such as the translation invariance of complex cell response.

  10. Development of a fine and ultra-fine group cell calculation code SLAROM-UF for fast reactor analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Taira; Chiba, Go; Sugino, Kazuteru

    2006-01-01

    A cell calculation code SLAROM-UF has been developed for fast reactor analyses to produce effective cross sections with high accuracy in practical computing time, taking full advantage of fine and ultra-fine group calculation schemes. The fine group calculation covers the whole energy range in a maximum of 900-group structure. The structure is finer above 52.5 keV with a minimum lethargy width of 0.008. The ultra-fine group calculation solves the slowing down equation below 52.5 keV to treat resonance structures directly and precisely including resonance interference effects. Effective cross sections obtained in the two calculations are combined to produce effective cross sections over the entire energy range. Calculation accuracy and improvements from conventional 70-group cell calculation results were investigated through comparisons with reference values obtained with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. It was confirmed that SLAROM-UF reduces the difference in k-infinity from 0.15 to 0.01% for a JOYO MK-I fuel subassembly lattice cell calculation, and from - 0.21% to less than a statistical uncertainty of the reference calculation of 0.03% for a ZPPR-10A core criticality calculation. (author)

  11. C/EBPβ contributes to transcriptional activation of long non-coding RNA NEAT1 during APL cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yewei; Fu, Lei; Sun, Ailian; Tang, Doudou; Xu, Yunxiao; Li, Zheyuan; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Guangsen

    2018-05-05

    Emerging evidences have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in cancer development and cancer therapy. LncRNA Nuclear Enriched Abundant Transcript 1 (NEAT1) is indispensable during acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, the precise mechanism of NEAT1 upregulation has not been fully understood. In this study, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays to demonstrate that C/EBP family transcription factor C/EBPβ bind to and transactivate the promoter of lncRNA NEAT1 through the C/EBPβ binding sites both around -54 bp and -1453 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Moreover, the expression of C/EBPβ was increased after ATRA treatment, and the binding of C/EBPβ in the NEAT1 promoter was also dramatically increased. Finally, knockdown of C/EBPβ significantly reduced the ATRA-induced upregulation of NEAT1. In conclusion, C/EBPβ directly activates the expression of NEAT1 through binding to the promoter of NEAT1. Knockdown of C/EBPβ impairs ATRA-induced transcriptional activation of NEAT1. Our data indicate that C/EBPβ contributes to ATRA-induced activation of NEAT1 during APL cell differentiation. Our results enrich our knowledge on the regulation of lncRNAs and the regulatory role of C/EBPβ in APL cell differentiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Benchmarking of EPRI-cell epithermal methods with the point-energy discrete-ordinates code (OZMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Wright, R.Q.; Barhen, J.; Rothenstein, W.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to benchmark E-C resonance-shielding and cell-averaging methods against a rigorous deterministic solution on a fine-group level (approx. 30 groups between 1 eV and 5.5 keV). The benchmark code used is OZMA, which solves the space-dependent slowing-down equations using continuous-energy discrete ordinates or integral transport theory to produce fine-group cross sections. Results are given for three water-moderated lattices - a mixed oxide, a uranium method, and a tight-pitch high-conversion uranium oxide configuration. The latter two lattices were chosen because of the strong self shielding of the 238 U resonances

  13. Transfection of Chinese hamster ovary DHFR/sup -/ cells with the gene coding for heat shock protein 70 from drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.J.; Carper, S.W.; Gerner, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary DHFR/sup -/ cells (CHO-DHFR/sup -/) were transfected with the plasmid pSV2-dhfr expressing the mouse gene coding for dhfr or with the same plasmid containing the gene coding for the Drosophila melanogaster heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), pSVd-hsp70. Three subcloned cell lines selected for expression of the dhfr gene were shown to contain either the vector sequence (G cells) or varying copies of pSVd-hsp70 (H cells). One line of H cells was shown to contain > 30 copies of the D. melanogaster hsp70 gene and to express the hsp70 RNA at significant levels. No difference between G and H cells was observed in the rate of growth, in the development of thermotolerance, or in the sensitivity of actin microfilament bundles to heat shock. However, H cells containing the transfected hsp70 gene had an altered morphology when compared to the G cells and the parental CHO-DHFR/sup -/ cells being more fibroblastic. The adhesion properties of the H cells was also decreased when compared to the G cells. These results show that insertion of the D. melanogaster gene into CHO cells does not effect growth rates or heat shock responses but may alter cell morphology and adhesion

  14. Locating object knowledge in the brain: comment on Bowers's (2009) attempt to revive the grandmother cell hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, David C; McClelland, James L

    2010-01-01

    According to Bowers, the finding that there are neurons with highly selective responses to familiar stimuli supports theories positing localist representations over approaches positing the type of distributed representations typically found in parallel distributed processing (PDP) models. However, his conclusions derive from an overly narrow view of the range of possible distributed representations and of the role that PDP models can play in exploring their properties. Although it is true that current distributed theories face challenges in accounting for both neural and behavioral data, the proposed localist account--to the extent that it is articulated at all--runs into more fundamental difficulties. Central to these difficulties is the problem of specifying the set of entities a localist unit represents.

  15. Thyroid cell irradiation by radioiodines: a new Monte Carlo electron track-structure code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Champion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The most significant impact of the Chernobyl accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were exposed to short-lived radioiodines and 131-iodine. In order to accurately estimate the radiation dose provided by these radioiodines, it is necessary to know where iodine is incorporated. To do that, the distribution at the cellular level of newly organified iodine in the immature rat thyroid was performed using secondary ion mass microscopy (NanoSIMS50. Actual dosimetric models take only into account the averaged energy and range of beta particles of the radio-elements and may, therefore, imperfectly describe the real distribution of dose deposit at the microscopic level around the point sources. Our approach is radically different since based on a track-structure Monte Carlo code allowing following-up of electrons down to low energies (~ 10eV what permits a nanometric description of the irradiation physics. The numerical simulations were then performed by modelling the complete disintegrations of the short-lived iodine isotopes as well as of 131I in new born rat thyroids in order to take into account accurate histological and biological data for the thyroid gland.O impacto mais significante do acidente de Chernobyl é o crescimento da incidência de câncer de tireóide em crianças que foram expostas a radioiodos de vida curta e ao Iodo-131. Na estimativa precisa da dose de radiação fornecida por esses radioiodos, é necessário conhecer onde o iodo está incorporado. Para obtermos esse resultado, a distribuição em nível celular de iodo recentemente organificado na tireóde de ratos imaturos foi realizada usando microscopia de massa iônica secundária (NanoSIMS50. Modelos dosimétricos atuais consideram apenas a energia média das partículas beta dos radioelementos e pode, imperfeitamente descrever a distribuição real de dose ao nível microscópico em torno dos pontos pesquisados. Nossa abordagem

  16. Quantitative analysis of optical properties of flowing blood using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo code: effects of red blood cells' orientation on light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-05-01

    Optical properties of flowing blood were analyzed using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model with the physical properties of the flowing red blood cells (RBCs) such as cell size, shape, refractive index, distribution, and orientation as the parameters. The scattering of light by flowing blood at the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm was significantly affected by the shear rate. The light was scattered more in the direction of flow as the flow rate increased. Therefore, the light intensity transmitted forward in the direction perpendicular to flow axis decreased. The pciMC model can duplicate the changes in the photon propagation due to moving RBCs with various orientations. The resulting RBC's orientation that best simulated the experimental results was with their long axis perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. Moreover, the scattering probability was dependent on the orientation of the RBCs. Finally, the pciMC code was used to predict the hematocrit of flowing blood with accuracy of approximately 1.0 HCT%. The photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model can provide optical properties of flowing blood and will facilitate the development of the non-invasive monitoring of blood in extra corporeal circulatory systems.

  17. A benchmark comparison of the Canadian Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) 64-element fuel lattice cell parameters using various computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, J.; Salaun, F.; Hummel, D.; Moghrabi, A.; Nowak, M.; Pencer, J.; Novog, D.; Buijs, A.

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies in key lattice physics parameters have been observed between various deterministic (e.g. DRAGON and WIMS-AECL) and stochastic (MCNP, KENO) neutron transport codes in modeling previous versions of the Canadian SCWR lattice cell. Further, inconsistencies in these parameters have also been observed when using different nuclear data libraries. In this work, the predictions of k∞, various reactivity coefficients, and relative ring-averaged pin powers have been re-evaluated using these codes and libraries with the most recent 64-element fuel assembly geometry. A benchmark problem has been defined to quantify the dissimilarities between code results for a number of responses along the fuel channel under prescribed hot full power (HFP), hot zero power (HZP) and cold zero power (CZP) conditions and at several fuel burnups (0, 25 and 50 MW·d·kg"-"1 [HM]). Results from deterministic (TRITON, DRAGON) and stochastic codes (MCNP6, KENO V.a and KENO-VI) are presented. (author)

  18. On the numerical dispersion of electromagnetic particle-in-cell code: Finite grid instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.D.; Huang, C.-K.; Zeng, Y.; Yi, S.A.; Albright, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is widely used in relativistic particle beam and laser plasma modeling. However, the PIC method exhibits numerical instabilities that can render unphysical simulation results or even destroy the simulation. For electromagnetic relativistic beam and plasma modeling, the most relevant numerical instabilities are the finite grid instability and the numerical Cherenkov instability. We review the numerical dispersion relation of the Electromagnetic PIC model. We rigorously derive the faithful 3-D numerical dispersion relation of the PIC model, for a simple, direct current deposition scheme, which does not conserve electric charge exactly. We then specialize to the Yee FDTD scheme. In particular, we clarify the presence of alias modes in an eigenmode analysis of the PIC model, which combines both discrete and continuous variables. The manner in which the PIC model updates and samples the fields and distribution function, together with the temporal and spatial phase factors from solving Maxwell's equations on the Yee grid with the leapfrog scheme, is explicitly accounted for. Numerical solutions to the electrostatic-like modes in the 1-D dispersion relation for a cold drifting plasma are obtained for parameters of interest. In the succeeding analysis, we investigate how the finite grid instability arises from the interaction of the numerical modes admitted in the system and their aliases. The most significant interaction is due critically to the correct representation of the operators in the dispersion relation. We obtain a simple analytic expression for the peak growth rate due to this interaction, which is then verified by simulation. We demonstrate that our analysis is readily extendable to charge conserving models

  19. On the numerical dispersion of electromagnetic particle-in-cell code: Finite grid instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M. D.; Huang, C.-K.; Zeng, Y.; Yi, S. A.; Albright, B. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is widely used in relativistic particle beam and laser plasma modeling. However, the PIC method exhibits numerical instabilities that can render unphysical simulation results or even destroy the simulation. For electromagnetic relativistic beam and plasma modeling, the most relevant numerical instabilities are the finite grid instability and the numerical Cherenkov instability. We review the numerical dispersion relation of the Electromagnetic PIC model. We rigorously derive the faithful 3-D numerical dispersion relation of the PIC model, for a simple, direct current deposition scheme, which does not conserve electric charge exactly. We then specialize to the Yee FDTD scheme. In particular, we clarify the presence of alias modes in an eigenmode analysis of the PIC model, which combines both discrete and continuous variables. The manner in which the PIC model updates and samples the fields and distribution function, together with the temporal and spatial phase factors from solving Maxwell's equations on the Yee grid with the leapfrog scheme, is explicitly accounted for. Numerical solutions to the electrostatic-like modes in the 1-D dispersion relation for a cold drifting plasma are obtained for parameters of interest. In the succeeding analysis, we investigate how the finite grid instability arises from the interaction of the numerical modes admitted in the system and their aliases. The most significant interaction is due critically to the correct representation of the operators in the dispersion relation. We obtain a simple analytic expression for the peak growth rate due to this interaction, which is then verified by simulation. We demonstrate that our analysis is readily extendable to charge conserving models.

  20. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 acts as a miR-26a sponge in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; An, Gang; Zhang, Meng; Ma, Qingfang

    2016-09-02

    Long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) acts as an important regulator in cancer pathogenesis; however, its functional mechanism in glioma development remains unclear. This study aims to explore the potential function of TUG1 in glioma by sponging miR-26a. The expression of TUG1, miR-26a, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in 20 paired glioma tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and subjected to correlation analysis. Bioinformatics analysis was performed by using DIANA Tools. Abnormal TUG1 expression was conducted in two glioma cells to analyze its regulation on miR-26a and PTEN using real-time PCR, western blot, and luciferase reporter assay. TUG1 expression was confirmed to be upregulated in glioma tissues, and showed an inverse correlation with downregulated miR-26a. TUG1 could negatively regulate the expression of miR-26a in glioma cells. The bioinformatics prediction revealed putative miR-26a binding sites within TUG1 transcripts. Further experiments demonstrated the positive regulation of TUG1 on the miR-26a target, PTEN, wherein TUG1 could inhibit the negative regulation of miR-26a on PTEN by binding its 3'UTR. Additionally, the expression of PTEN was also upregulated in glioma tissues, showing a positive or negative correlation with TUG1 or miR-26a, respectively. TUG1 could serve as a miR-26a sponge in human glioma cells, contributing to the upregulation of PTEN. This study revealed a new TUG1/miR-26a/PTEN regulatory mechanism and provided a further understanding of the tumor-suppressive role of TUG1 in glioma development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma through upregulating FMNL2 by sponging miR-219

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Guangqi; Wang, Xue; Yang, Mingliang; Lu, Li; Zhou, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent oral disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were identified as important regulators of carcinogenesis. However, the pathogenic implications of TUG1 in OSCC are still unclear. In the present study, the expression of TUG1 was increased in OSCC cells. Knockdown of TUG1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, whereas overexpression of TU...

  2. SINEUPs are modular antisense long-non coding RNAs that increase synthesis of target proteins in cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eZucchelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent efforts in discovering novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs and unveiling their functions in a wide range of biological processes their applications as biotechnological or therapeutic tools are still at their infancy. We have recently shown that AS Uchl1, a natural lncRNA antisense to the Parkinson’s disease-associated gene Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (Uchl1, is able to increase UchL1 protein synthesis at post-transcriptional level. Its activity requires two RNA elements: an embedded inverted SINEB2 sequence to increase translation and the overlapping region to target its sense mRNA. This functional organization is shared with several mouse lncRNAs antisense to protein coding genes. The potential use of AS Uchl1-derived lncRNAs as enhancers of target mRNA translation remains unexplored. Here we define AS Uchl1 as the representative member of a new functional class of natural and synthetic antisense lncRNAs that activate translation. We named this class of RNAs SINEUPs for their requirement of the inverted SINEB2 sequence to UP-regulate translation in a gene-specific manner. The overlapping region is indicated as the Binding Doman (BD while the embedded inverted SINEB2 element is the Effector Domain (ED. By swapping BD, synthetic SINEUPs are designed targeting mRNAs of interest. SINEUPs function in an array of cell lines and can be efficiently directed towards N-terminally tagged proteins. Their biological activity is retained in a miniaturized version within the range of small RNAs length. Its modular structure was exploited to successfully design synthetic SINEUPs targeting endogenous Parkinson’s disease-associated DJ-1 and proved to be active in different neuronal cell lines.In summary, SINEUPs represent the first scalable tool to increase synthesis of proteins of interest. We propose SINEUPs as reagents for molecular biology experiments, in protein manufacturing as well as in therapy of haploinsufficiencies.

  3. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  4. Porting the 3D Gyrokinetic Particle-in-cell Code GTC to the CRAY/NEC SX-6 Vector Architecture: Perspectives and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, S.; Lin, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Several years of optimization on the super-scalar architecture has made it more difficult to port the current version of the 3D particle-in-cell code GTC to the CRAY/NEC SX-6 vector architecture. This paper explains the initial work that has been done to port this code to the SX-6 computer and to optimize the most time consuming parts. Early performance results are shown and compared to the same test done on the IBM SP Power 3 and Power 4 machines

  5. Downregulation of the long non-coding RNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 inhibits glioma cell proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Bin; Hao, Junhai; Man, Weitao; Chang, Yongkai; Ma, Shunchang; Hu, Yeshuai; Liu, Fusheng; Yang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Expression of the long non-coding RNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) is associated with various aggressive tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the biological function of TUG1 in regulating apoptosis, proliferation, invasion and cell cycle distribution in human glioma U251 cells. Lentivirus-mediated TUG1-specific microRNA was transfected into U251 cells to abrogate the expression of TUG1. Flow cytometry analysis was used to examine the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of U251 cells. Cellular proliferation was examined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays and invasion was examined by Transwell assays. The apoptotic rate of cells in the TUG1-knockdown group was significantly higher than in the negative control (NC) group (11.58 vs. 9.14%, PTUG1-knockdown group was lower compared with that of the NC group. A Transwell invasion assay was performed, which revealed that the number of invaded cells from the TUG1-knockdown group was the less compared with that of the NC group. In addition, the G 0 /G 1 phase population was significantly increased within the treated group (44.85 vs. 38.45%, PTUG1 may inhibit proliferation and invasion, and promote glioma U251 cell apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of TUG1 may have an effect on cell cycle arrest. The data presented in the current study indicated that TUG1 may be a novel therapeutic target for glioma.

  6. The CORSYS neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.; Krumbein, A.D.; Saphier, D.; Shapira, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assemble a code package for LWR core physics including coupled neutronics, burnup and thermal hydraulics. The CORSYS system is built around the cell code WIMS (for group microscopic cross section calculations) and 3-dimension diffusion code CITATION (for burnup and fuel management). We are implementing such a system on an IBM RS-6000 workstation. The code was rested with a simplified model of the Zion Unit 2 PWR. (authors). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs

  7. Normative Database and Color-code Agreement of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Macular Ganglion Cell-inner Plexiform Layer Thickness in a Vietnamese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Claudio I; Chansangpetch, Sunee; Thai, Andy; Nguyen, Anh-Hien; Nguyen, Anwell; Mora, Marta; Nguyen, Ngoc; Lin, Shan C

    2018-06-05

    Evaluate the distribution and the color probability codes of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness in a healthy Vietnamese population and compare them with the original color-codes provided by the Cirrus spectral domain OCT. Cross-sectional study. We recruited non-glaucomatous Vietnamese subjects and constructed a normative database for peripapillary RNFL and macular GCIPL thickness. The probability color-codes for each decade of age were calculated. We evaluated the agreement with Kappa coefficient (κ) between OCT color probability codes with Cirrus built-in original normative database and the Vietnamese normative database. 149 eyes of 149 subjects were included. The mean age of enrollees was 60.77 (±11.09) years, with a mean spherical equivalent of +0.65 (±1.58) D and mean axial length of 23.4 (±0.87) mm. Average RNFL thickness was 97.86 (±9.19) microns and average macular GCIPL was 82.49 (±6.09) microns. Agreement between original and adjusted normative database for RNFL was fair for average and inferior quadrant (κ=0.25 and 0.2, respectively); and good for other quadrants (range: κ=0.63-0.73). For macular GCIPL κ agreement ranged between 0.39 and 0.69. After adjusting with the normative Vietnamese database, the percent of yellow and red color-codes increased significantly for peripapillary RNFL thickness. Vietnamese population has a thicker RNFL in comparison with Cirrus normative database. This leads to a poor color-code agreement in average and inferior quadrant between the original and adjusted database. These findings should encourage to create a peripapillary RNFL normative database for each ethnicity.

  8. DIANE, a simulation code for the interaction of neutrons with living tissues. Application to low doses of fast neutrons on human tumoral cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, M.L.

    2003-07-01

    Our work deals with the irradiation of cells and living tissues by 14 MeV neutrons at very low doses (a few 10 -2 Gy). Such experiments require an accurate knowledge of the values of neutron dose rates and fluences at the level of cell cultures. We have performed measurements of fluence rates through an activation method applied to gold and copper foils. The fluence rate is deduced from the gamma rays emitted by the irradiated foils. Neutron doses and dose rates have been measured through varied methods: PIN diodes, ionization tissue equivalent chambers, and Geiger-Mueller counters. We have designed the DIANE code to simulate the impact of energetic neutrons on cells. This code can be used with isolated cells or macroscopic tissues, it takes into account the roles of the ionisation electrons produced by recoil nuclei entering the cell. This point is all the more important since recent works have highlighted the impact of very low energy electrons on DNA. (A.C.)

  9. Simulation of containment pressurization in a large break-loss of coolant accident using single-cell and multicell models and CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkahoran, Omid Noori; Ahangari, Rohollah; Shirani, Amir Saied

    2016-01-01

    Since the inception of nuclear power as a commercial energy source, safety has been recognized as a prime consideration in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The release of radioactivity to the environment requires the failure of multiple safety systems and the breach of three physical barriers: fuel cladding, the reactor cooling system, and containment. In this study, nuclear reactor containment pressurization has been modeled in a large break-loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA) by programming single-cell and multicell models in MATLAB. First, containment has been considered as a control volume (single-cell model). In addition, spray operation has been added to this model. In the second step, the single-cell model has been developed into a multicell model to consider the effects of the nodalization and spatial location of cells in the containment pressurization in comparison with the single-cell model. In the third step, the accident has been simulated using the CONTAIN 2.0 code. Finally, Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) containment has been considered as a case study. The results of BNPP containment pressurization due to LB-LOCA have been compared between models, final safety analysis report, and CONTAIN code's results

  10. Simulation of containment pressurization in a large break-loss of coolant accident using single-cell and multicell models and CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkahoran, Omid Noori; Ahangari, Rohollah [Reactor Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, Amir Saied [Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Since the inception of nuclear power as a commercial energy source, safety has been recognized as a prime consideration in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The release of radioactivity to the environment requires the failure of multiple safety systems and the breach of three physical barriers: fuel cladding, the reactor cooling system, and containment. In this study, nuclear reactor containment pressurization has been modeled in a large break-loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA) by programming single-cell and multicell models in MATLAB. First, containment has been considered as a control volume (single-cell model). In addition, spray operation has been added to this model. In the second step, the single-cell model has been developed into a multicell model to consider the effects of the nodalization and spatial location of cells in the containment pressurization in comparison with the single-cell model. In the third step, the accident has been simulated using the CONTAIN 2.0 code. Finally, Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) containment has been considered as a case study. The results of BNPP containment pressurization due to LB-LOCA have been compared between models, final safety analysis report, and CONTAIN code's results.

  11. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  12. Long Non-Coding RNA MALAT1 Mediates Transforming Growth Factor Beta1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yang

    Full Text Available To study the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA MALAT1 in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells.ARPE-19 cells were cultured and exposed to TGF-β1. The EMT of APRE-19 cells is confirmed by morphological change, as well as the increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA and fibronectin, and the down-regulation of E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of lncRNA MALAT1 in RPE cells were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Knockdown of MALAT1 was achieved by transfecting a small interfering RNA (SiRNA. The effect of inhibition of MALAT1 on EMT, migration, proliferation, and TGFβ signalings were observed. MALAT1 expression was also detected in primary RPE cells incubated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR vitreous samples.The expression of MALAT1 is significantly increased in RPE cells incubated with TGFβ1. MALAT1 silencing attenuates TGFβ1-induced EMT, migration, and proliferation of RPE cells, at least partially through activating Smad2/3 signaling. MALAT1 is also significantly increased in primary RPE cells incubated with PVR vitreous samples.LncRNA MALAT1 is involved in TGFβ1-induced EMT of human RPE cells and provides new understandings for the pathogenesis of PVR.

  13. Histone modification profiles are predictive for tissue/cell-type specific expression of both protein-coding and microRNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Michael Q

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is regulated at both the DNA sequence level and through modification of chromatin. However, the effect of chromatin on tissue/cell-type specific gene regulation (TCSR is largely unknown. In this paper, we present a method to elucidate the relationship between histone modification/variation (HMV and TCSR. Results A classifier for differentiating CD4+ T cell-specific genes from housekeeping genes using HMV data was built. We found HMV in both promoter and gene body regions to be predictive of genes which are targets of TCSR. For example, the histone modification types H3K4me3 and H3K27ac were identified as the most predictive for CpG-related promoters, whereas H3K4me3 and H3K79me3 were the most predictive for nonCpG-related promoters. However, genes targeted by TCSR can be predicted using other type of HMVs as well. Such redundancy implies that multiple type of underlying regulatory elements, such as enhancers or intragenic alternative promoters, which can regulate gene expression in a tissue/cell-type specific fashion, may be marked by the HMVs. Finally, we show that the predictive power of HMV for TCSR is not limited to protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells, as we successfully predicted TCSR targeted genes in muscle cells, as well as microRNA genes with expression specific to CD4+ T cells, by the same classifier which was trained on HMV data of protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells. Conclusion We have begun to understand the HMV patterns that guide gene expression in both tissue/cell-type specific and ubiquitous manner.

  14. A benchmark comparison of the Canadian Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) 64-element fuel lattice cell parameters using various computer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, J.; Salaun, F.; Hummel, D.; Moghrabi, A., E-mail: sharpejr@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Nowak, M. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Phelma, Grenoble (France); Pencer, J. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, (Canada); Novog, D.; Buijs, A. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies in key lattice physics parameters have been observed between various deterministic (e.g. DRAGON and WIMS-AECL) and stochastic (MCNP, KENO) neutron transport codes in modeling previous versions of the Canadian SCWR lattice cell. Further, inconsistencies in these parameters have also been observed when using different nuclear data libraries. In this work, the predictions of k∞, various reactivity coefficients, and relative ring-averaged pin powers have been re-evaluated using these codes and libraries with the most recent 64-element fuel assembly geometry. A benchmark problem has been defined to quantify the dissimilarities between code results for a number of responses along the fuel channel under prescribed hot full power (HFP), hot zero power (HZP) and cold zero power (CZP) conditions and at several fuel burnups (0, 25 and 50 MW·d·kg{sup -1} [HM]). Results from deterministic (TRITON, DRAGON) and stochastic codes (MCNP6, KENO V.a and KENO-VI) are presented. (author)

  15. P53-regulated long non-coding RNA TUG1 affects cell proliferation in human non-small cell lung cancer, partly through epigenetically regulating HOXB7 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, E-b; Yin, D-d; Sun, M; Kong, R; Liu, X-h; You, L-h; Han, L; Xia, R; Wang, K-m; Yang, J-s; De, W; Shu, Y-q; Wang, Z-x

    2014-05-22

    Recently, a novel class of transcripts, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), is being identified at a rapid pace. These RNAs have critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Here we report that taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), a 7.1-kb lncRNA, recruiting and binding to polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is generally downregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tissues. In a cohort of 192 NSCLC patients, the lower expression of TUG1 was associated with a higher TNM stage and tumor size, as well as poorer overall survival (PTUG1 expression serves as an independent predictor for overall survival (PTUG1 expression was induced by p53, and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that TUG1 was a direct transcriptional target of p53. TUG1 knockdown significantly promoted the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the lncRNA-mediated regulation of the expression of HOX genes in tumorigenesis and development has been recently receiving increased attention. Interestingly, inhibition of TUG1 could upregulate homeobox B7 (HOXB7) expression; ChIP assays demonstrated that the promoter of HOXB7 locus was bound by EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), a key component of PRC2, and was H3K27 trimethylated. This TUG1-mediated growth regulation is in part due to specific modulation of HOXB7, thus participating in AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these results suggest that p53-regulated TUG1 is a growth regulator, which acts in part through control of HOXB7. The p53/TUG1/PRC2/HOXB7 interaction might serve as targets for NSCLC diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Comprehensive Identification of Long Non-coding RNAs in Purified Cell Types from the Brain Reveals Functional LncRNA in OPC Fate Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs (> 200 bp play crucial roles in transcriptional regulation during numerous biological processes. However, it is challenging to comprehensively identify lncRNAs, because they are often expressed at low levels and with more cell-type specificity than are protein-coding genes. In the present study, we performed ab initio transcriptome reconstruction using eight purified cell populations from mouse cortex and detected more than 5000 lncRNAs. Predicting the functions of lncRNAs using cell-type specific data revealed their potential functional roles in Central Nervous System (CNS development. We performed motif searches in ENCODE DNase I digital footprint data and Mouse ENCODE promoters to infer transcription factor (TF occupancy. By integrating TF binding and cell-type specific transcriptomic data, we constructed a novel framework that is useful for systematically identifying lncRNAs that are potentially essential for brain cell fate determination. Based on this integrative analysis, we identified lncRNAs that are regulated during Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell (OPC differentiation from Neural Stem Cells (NSCs and that are likely to be involved in oligodendrogenesis. The top candidate, lnc-OPC, shows highly specific expression in OPCs and remarkable sequence conservation among placental mammals. Interestingly, lnc-OPC is significantly up-regulated in glial progenitors from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE mouse models compared to wild-type mice. OLIG2-binding sites in the upstream regulatory region of lnc-OPC were identified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation-Sequencing and validated by luciferase assays. Loss-of-function experiments confirmed that lnc-OPC plays a functional role in OPC genesis. Overall, our results substantiated the role of lncRNA in OPC fate determination and provided an unprecedented data source for future functional investigations in CNS cell types. We present our datasets and

  17. Beam-dynamics codes used at DARHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Several beam simulation codes are used to help gain a better understanding of beam dynamics in the DARHT LIAs. The most notable of these fall into the following categories: for beam production – Tricomp Trak orbit tracking code, LSP Particle in cell (PIC) code, for beam transport and acceleration – XTR static envelope and centroid code, LAMDA time-resolved envelope and centroid code, LSP-Slice PIC code, for coasting-beam transport to target – LAMDA time-resolved envelope code, LSP-Slice PIC code. These codes are also being used to inform the design of Scorpius.

  18. Neutron transport by TRIPOLI-2 code in the lower part of a PWR pit and in the pit-access cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnaud, T.; Bourdet, L.; Gonnord, J.; Nimal, J.C.; Champion, G.

    1984-09-01

    The neutrons, which exit the reactor vessel, leak between the reactor vessel and the primary concrete shield and provide high dose rate in the lower part of the reactor pit. In this part of the reactor the biological shield is reduced at the level of the pit-access cell door and of the ventilation duct. Consequently there is a pin-point increase of dose rate at reactor place where access must be free during power operation. Studies concern 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants; calculation results are compared with dose rate measurements which have been done at several interesting points of reactor. Neutron transport is studied in two steps: - first Monte Carlo calculation carried out by the TRIPOLI-2 system gives the current of neutrons entering into the pit-access cell; - a second calculation is about neutron transport in this cell; it is also performed with the TRIPOLI-2 code which uses a very realistic model for cell geometry. Then the door efficiency is evaluated by a SN one dimension code

  19. A Positive Regulatory Loop between a Wnt-Regulated Non-coding RNA and ASCL2 Controls Intestinal Stem Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakountis, Antonis; Moulos, Panagiotis; Zarkou, Vasiliki; Oikonomou, Christina; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G; Reczko, Martin; Hatzis, Pantelis

    2016-06-21

    The canonical Wnt pathway plays a central role in stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and proliferation in the intestinal epithelium. Constitutive, aberrant activity of the TCF4/β-catenin transcriptional complex is the primary transforming factor in colorectal cancer. We identify a nuclear long non-coding RNA, termed WiNTRLINC1, as a direct target of TCF4/β-catenin in colorectal cancer cells. WiNTRLINC1 positively regulates the expression of its genomic neighbor ASCL2, a transcription factor that controls intestinal stem cell fate. WiNTRLINC1 interacts with TCF4/β-catenin to mediate the juxtaposition of its promoter with the regulatory regions of ASCL2. ASCL2, in turn, regulates WiNTRLINC1 transcriptionally, closing a feedforward regulatory loop that controls stem cell-related gene expression. This regulatory circuitry is highly amplified in colorectal cancer and correlates with increased metastatic potential and decreased patient survival. Our results uncover the interplay between non-coding RNA-mediated regulation and Wnt signaling and point to the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of WiNTRLINC1. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL is up-regulated in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hongxue; Li, Xuechao; Song, Yarong; Zhang, Peng; Xiao, Yajun; Xing, Yifei

    2015-01-01

    Antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) is a member of long non-coding RNAs and has been reported to be dysregulated in several human cancers. However, the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer remains unclear. This present study aimed to investigate whether and how ANRIL involved in bladder cancer. Our results showed up-regulation of ANRIL in bladder cancer tissues versus the corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues. To explore the specific mechanisms, ANRIL was silenced by small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA transfection in human bladder cancer T24 and EJ cells. Knockdown of ANRIL repressed cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expressions of Bax, cytoplasmic cytochrome c and Smac and cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. However, no change of cleaved caspase-8 level was observed. Furthermore, in vivo experiment confirmed that knockdown of ANRIL inhibited tumorigenic ability of EJ cells in nude mice. Meanwhile, in accordance with in vitro study, knockdown of ANRIL inhibited expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase-9, but did not affect cleaved caspase-8 level. In conclusion, we first report that ANRIL possibly serves as an oncogene in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. - Highlights: • We first report the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer. • ANRIL is obviously up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues. • ANRIL regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and cell apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway.

  1. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  2. Overexpression of long non-coding RNA TUG1 predicts poor prognosis and promotes cancer cell proliferation and migration in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Robert; Kleinova, Renata; Juracek, Jaroslav; Dolezel, Jan; Ozanova, Zuzana; Fedorko, Michal; Pacik, Dalibor; Svoboda, Marek; Stanik, Michal; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    Long non-coding RNA TUG1 is involved in the development and progression of a variety of tumors. Little is known about TUG1 function in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The aims of our study were to determine expression levels of long non-coding RNA TUG1 in tumor tissue, to evaluate its relationship with clinico-pathological features of high-grade MIBC, and to describe its function in MIBC cells in vitro. TUG1 expression levels were determined in paired tumor and adjacent non-tumor bladder tissues of 47 patients with high-grade MIBC using real-time PCR. Cell line T-24 and siRNA silencing were used to study the TUG1 function in vitro. We observed significantly increased levels of TUG1 in tumor tissue in comparison to adjacent non-tumor bladder tissue (P TUG1 levels were significantly increased in metastatic tumors (P = 0.0147) and were associated with shorter overall survival of MIBC patients (P = 0.0241). TUG1 silencing in vitro led to 34 % decrease in cancer cell proliferation (P = 0.0004) and 23 % reduction in migration capacity of cancer cells (P TUG1 silencing on cell cycle distribution and number of apoptotic cells. Our study confirmed overexpression of TUG1 in MIBC tumor tissue and described its association with worse overall survival in high-grade MIBC patients. Together with in vitro observations, these data suggest an oncogenic role of TUG1 and its potential usage as biomarker or therapeutic target in MIBC.

  3. Writing Photography: The Grandmother in Remembrance of Things Past, the Mother in Camera Lucida, and Especially, the Mother in The Lover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Mitchell

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Proust, Barthes, and Duras describe photographs of maternal figures. Such photographs are not reproduced, but witheld or nonexistent. I include the Proustian narrator's imagined photograph of his grandmother; Barthes's unreproduced photo of his mother at five years old standing in the Winter Garden; and, the Durasien narrator's imagined photograph of her mother, Marie Legrand, in virtual photography. I explore the effects, in these instances, of virtual photography of maternal figures. Like actual photography, virtual photography implies that a referent exists for the image; like actual photography, virtual photography immobilizes, objectifies, and kills its referent even as it arrests the dying of that referent. Like actual photography, virtual photography can figure a recurring moment of separation from and mourning for the photographed person. Unlike actual photography, however, virtual photography creates "absolutes"; the actual image is rescued from the use and gaze of the public, who may not love the person imaged. These writers thus control the interpretation of the image, and contain its excesses while protecting writing itself from the threat of the image.

  4. RNA-Seq of human neurons derived from iPS cells reveals candidate long non-coding RNAs involved in neurogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyan Lin

    Full Text Available Genome-wide expression analysis using next generation sequencing (RNA-Seq provides an opportunity for in-depth molecular profiling of fundamental biological processes, such as cellular differentiation and malignant transformation. Differentiating human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide an ideal system for RNA-Seq since defective neurogenesis caused by abnormalities in transcription factors, DNA methylation, and chromatin modifiers lie at the heart of some neuropsychiatric disorders. As a preliminary step towards applying next generation sequencing using neurons derived from patient-specific iPSCs, we have carried out an RNA-Seq analysis on control human neurons. Dramatic changes in the expression of coding genes, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, pseudogenes, and splice isoforms were seen during the transition from pluripotent stem cells to early differentiating neurons. A number of genes that undergo radical changes in expression during this transition include candidates for schizophrenia (SZ, bipolar disorder (BD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD that function as transcription factors and chromatin modifiers, such as POU3F2 and ZNF804A, and genes coding for cell adhesion proteins implicated in these conditions including NRXN1 and NLGN1. In addition, a number of novel lncRNAs were found to undergo dramatic changes in expression, one of which is HOTAIRM1, a regulator of several HOXA genes during myelopoiesis. The increase we observed in differentiating neurons suggests a role in neurogenesis as well. Finally, several lncRNAs that map near SNPs associated with SZ in genome wide association studies also increase during neuronal differentiation, suggesting that these novel transcripts may be abnormally regulated in a subgroup of patients.

  5. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  6. Down-regulation of long non-coding RNA TUG1 inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Geng, Pei-Liang; Yin, Pei; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Jia, Jin-Peng; Yao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the expression level of TUG1 and one of its transcript variants (n377360) in osteosarcoma cells and assess the role of TUG1 in proliferation and apoptosis in the U2OS cell line. TUG1 and n377360 expression levels in patients with osteosarcomas and the U2OS human osteosarcoma cell line were evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR. U2OS cells were transected with TUG1 and n377360 siRNA or non-targeting siRNA. MTS was performed to assess the cell proliferation and flow cytometry was applied to analyze apoptosis. We found significantly higher TUG1 and n377360 expression levels in osteosarcoma tissues compared with matched non-tumorous tissues. In line with this, suppression of TUG1 and n377360 expression by siRNA significantly impaired the cell proliferation potential of osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, inhibition of TUG1 expression significantly promoted osteosarcoma cell apoptosis. The overexpression of TUG1 and n377360 in osteosarcoma specimens and the functional role of TUG1 and n377360 regarding cell proliferation and apoptosis in an osteosarcoma cell line provided evidence that the use of TUG1 or n377360 may be a viable but an as yet unexplored therapeutic strategy in tumors that over express these factors.

  7. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  8. Snapshot Mueller matrix polarimetry by wavelength polarization coding and application to the study of switching dynamics in a ferroelectric liquid crystal cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Jeune B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a snapshot Mueller matrix polarimeter by wavelength polarization coding. This device is aimed at encoding polarization states in the spectral domain through use of a broadband source and high-order retarders. This allows one to measure a full Mueller matrix from a single spectrum whose acquisition time only depends on the detection system aperture. The theoretical fundamentals of this technique are developed prior to validation by experiments. The setup calibration is described as well as optimization and stabilization procedures. Then, it is used to study, by time-resolved Mueller matrix polarimetry, the switching dynamics in a ferroelectric liquid crystal cell.

  9. Long non-coding RNA MEG3 inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma by regulating the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zongxiang; Wu, Cui; Xie, Nina; Wang, Penglai

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) inhibits the growth and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by regulating WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in order to explore the antitumor effect of MEG3 and to provide a potential molecular target for the treatment of OSCC. The RT-qPCR technique was used to quantitatively analyze the expression of MEG3 in cancer and adjacent tissues collected from the patients after surgery. Usi...

  10. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Downregulation of the long non-coding RNA TUG1 is associated with cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shulin; Yang, Zhaoying; Ke, Zirui; Huang, Keke; Liu, Ning; Fang, Xuedong; Wang, Keren

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have identified many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with critical roles in various biological processes including tumorigenesis. Taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), is an lncRNA recently reported to be involved in the progression of several human cancers. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological functions of TUG1 in breast cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to measure TUG1 expression in cells from breast cancer cell lines and in 58 matched pairs of breast cancer and normal tissue samples from patients with clinicopathological comparisons. Gain-and loss-of-function experiments were performed in vitro to investigate the biological role of TUG1. TUG1 expression was significantly downregulated in both breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared to controls, and low TUG1 expression was significantly correlated with mutant p53 expression (p=0.037) and lymph node metastasis (p=0.044). In vitro experiments revealed that TUG1 overexpression significantly suppressed cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells, while TUG1 knockdown caused increased cell growth via promoting cell cycle progression and regulating the expression of cyclinD1 and CDK4. Further functional assays indicated that TUG1 overexpression significantly promoted cell migration and invasion while TUG1 knockdown had the opposite effects. Our findings indicate that the lncRNA TUG1 is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, and may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Aztheca Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G.; Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  13. WIMS-AECL/RFSP code validation of reactivity calculations following a long shutdown using the simple-cell history-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardeshiri, F.; Donnelly, J.V.; Arsenault, B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to validate the Reactor Fuelling Simulation Program (RFSP) using the simple-cell model (SCM) history-based method in a startup simulation following a reactor shutdown period. This study is part of the validation work for history-based calculations, using the WIMS-AECL code with the ENDF/B-V library, and the SCM linked to the RFSP code. In this work, the RFSP code with the SCM history-based method was used to track a 1-year period of the Point Lepreau reactor operating history, that included a 12-day reactor shutdown and subsequent startup. Measured boron and gadolinium concentrations were used in the RFSP simulations, and the predicted values of core reactivity were compared to the reference (pre-shutdown) value. The discrepancies in core reactivity are shown to be better than ±2 milli-k at any time, and better than about ±0.5 milli-k towards the end of the startup transient. The results of this analysis also show that the calculated maximum channel and bundle powers are within an acceptable range during both the core-follow and the reactor startup simulations. (author)

  14. Vocable Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Cox, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    a computational and poetic composition for two screens: on one of these, texts and voices are repeated and disrupted by mathematical chaos, together exploring the performativity of code and language; on the other, is a mix of a computer programming syntax and human language. In this sense queer code can...... be understood as both an object and subject of study that intervenes in the world’s ‘becoming' and how material bodies are produced via human and nonhuman practices. Through mixing the natural and computer language, this article presents a script in six parts from a performative lecture for two persons...

  15. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  16. A color-coded reporter model to study the effect of immunosuppressants on CD8+ T-cell memory in antitumor and alloimmune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Jordi; Sabet-Baktach, Manije; Eggenhofer, Elke; Lantow, Margareta; Koehl, Gudrun E; Schlitt, Hans J; Campistol, Josep M; Geissler, Edward K; Kroemer, Alexander

    2013-01-15

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors possess anticancer properties potentially useful in reducing posttransplantation malignancy. Besides controlling tumor-sensitive proliferative and angiogenic effects, mTOR influences transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes) in CD8 cytotoxic T cells (Tc), which are key in rejecting tumors, and allografts. To study the role of mTOR in tumor and transplant immunity in an antigen-specific way, we used T-cell receptor transgenic B6.OTI recipients, B6.OVA.TG donors, and OVA-B16F10 melanoma cells. For tracking color-coded OTI-Tc cells associated with antitumor and alloimmunity in vivo, CD8-OTI transgenic reporter mice were created by crossbreeding DsRed-expressing B6.Nagy mice with B6.OTI mice. The role of mTOR in regulating the differentiation and function of alloreactive Tc cells in vitro was explored by stimulating OTI-Tc cells with ovalbumin-transgenic antigen-presenting cells in the presence of rapamycin or tacrolimus. Rapamycin, but not tacrolimus, induced a pro-antitumor phenotypic shift from CD62LCD44 effector memory Tc cells to CD62LCD44 central memory Tc cells, which featured up-regulated levels of T-bet and Eomes and preserved levels of interferon-γ and perforin. For future investigations, an in vivo model was established whereby DsRedOTI-Tc cells adoptively transferred into B6 mice bearing either a ovalbumin-transgenic mouse skin transplant or OVA-B16F10 tumor could be traced by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis as effector or memory Tc cells in transplant and tumor tissues. mTOR, but not calcineurin, inhibition spares antitumoral memory Tc cells by distinctively regulating T-bet and Eomes. This finding is now testable in a new tumor transplant model, which incorporates DsRedOTI-Tc cell tracing, opening the way to study the differential effects of immunosuppressants in posttransplantation malignancy.

  17. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  18. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma through upregulating FMNL2 by sponging miR-219.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guangqi; Wang, Xue; Yang, Mingliang; Lu, Li; Zhou, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent oral disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were identified as important regulators of carcinogenesis. However, the pathogenic implications of TUG1 in OSCC are still unclear. In the present study, the expression of TUG1 was increased in OSCC cells. Knockdown of TUG1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, whereas overexpression of TUG1 exerted the opposite effect on OSCC cells. A reciprocal repressive interaction between TUG1 and miR-219 was found, and miR-219 inhibition abolished the tumor-suppressive effect of TUG1 knockdown on cell growth and motility. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay showed that FMNL2 was a direct target of miR-219. Restoration of FMNL2 abrogated the miR-219-induced inhibition of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion. Besides, overexpression of TUG1 promoted tumor growth and metastasis in vivo . Clinically, the expression of TUG1 and FMNL2 were increased, but miR-219 was decreased in primary tumors compared to non-tumor tissues. Both the upregulated TUG1, and FMNL2 and the downregulated miR-219 was associated with advanced stage of OSCC and poor overall survival. Notably, multivariate analyses confirmed that FMNL2 was an independent risk factor for OSCC. In conclusion, our data revealed that TUG1 confers oncogenic function in OSCC and TUG1/miR-219/FMNL2 axis may be a novel therapeutic strategy in this disease.

  19. Silencing of long non-coding RNA CCAT2 depressed malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinoma via Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuji; Hu, Xuanhao; Shang, Chao; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a common and lethal malignancy affecting the head and neck region. CCAT2 (colon cancer-associated transcript 2) gene is affiliated with long non-coding RNAs, which are often found to have important regulatory roles in cancers. This study aims to assess the expression and clinical significance of CCAT2 gene, identify its malignant biological behaviors, and explore the possible mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CCAT2 expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and its relationship with clinical factors was assayed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. The biological behaviors of CCAT2 and its potential mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma were explored by the combined use of CCAT2 knockdown technology and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway agonist lithium chloride (LiCl). Our results showed that CCAT2 functioning as a potential oncogene was upregulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CCAT2 with high expression level was correlated with poor differentiation, higher T stage, and clinical stage, which made CCAT2 to be a prognostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma. LiCl-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could partly restore the CCAT2-mediated malignant biological behaviors of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by suppressing β-catenin, CCND1, and MYC and activating glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta expression. These findings might assist in the discovery of novel potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral squamous cell carcinoma, thereby improve the effects of clinical treatment in patients.

  20. The long non-coding RNA HOTAIR indicates a poor prognosis and promotes metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang-hua; Liu, Zhi-li; Sun, Ming; Liu, Jing; Wang, Zhao-xia; De, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The identification of cancer-associated long non-coding RNAs and the investigation of their molecular and biological functions are important for understanding the molecular biology and progression of cancer. HOTAIR (HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA) has been implicated in several cancers; however, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression pattern of HOTAIR in NSCLC and to evaluate its biological role and clinical significance in tumor progression. Expression of HOTAIR was analyzed in 42 NSCLC tissues and four NSCLC cell lines by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Over-expression and RNA interference (RNAi) approaches were used to investigate the biological functions of HOTAIR. The effect of HOTAIR on proliferation was evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays, and cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell assays. Tail vein injection of cells was used to study metastasis in nude mice. Protein levels of HOTAIR targets were determined by western blot analysis. Differences between groups were tested for significance using Student’s t-test (two-tailed). HOTAIR was highly expressed both in NSCLC samples and cell lines compared with corresponding normal counterparts. HOTAIR upregulation was correlated with NSCLC advanced pathological stage and lymph-node metastasis. Moreover, patients with high levels of HOTAIR expression had a relatively poor prognosis. Inhibition of HOTAIR by RNAi decreased the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro and impeded cell metastasis in vivo. HOXA5 levels were affected by HOTAIR knockdown or over-expression in vitro. Our findings indicate that HOTAIR is significantly up-regulated in NSCLC tissues, and regulates NSCLC cell invasion and metastasis, partially via the down-regulation of HOXA5. Thus, HOTAIR may represent a new marker of poor prognosis and is a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC

  1. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes cell growth and apoptosis by epigenetically silencing of KLF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-De; Chen, Wen-Ming; Qi, Fu-Zhen; Sun, Ming; Xu, Tong-Peng; Ma, Pei; Shu, Yong-Qian

    2015-09-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and the biology of this cancer remains poorly understood. Recent evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are found to be dysregulated in a variety of cancers, including HCC. Taurine Up-regulated Gene 1 (TUG1), a 7.1-kb lncRNA, recruiting and binding to polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is found to be disregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, its clinical significance and potential role in HCC remain unclear. In this study, expression of TUG1 was analyzed in 77 HCC tissues and matched normal tissues by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). TUG1 expression was up-regulated in HCC tissues and the higher expression of TUG1 was significantly correlated with tumor size and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. Moreover, silencing of TUG1 expression inhibited HCC cell proliferation, colony formation, tumorigenicity and induced apoptosis in HCC cell lines. We also found that TUG1 overexpression was induced by nuclear transcription factor SP1 and TUG1 could epigeneticly repress Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) transcription in HCC cells by binding with PRC2 and recruiting it to KLF2 promoter region. Our results suggest that lncRNA TUG1, as a growth regulator, may serve as a new diagnostic biomarker and therapy target for HCC.

  2. Simulation of Containment Pressurization in a Large Break-Loss of Coolant Accident Using Single-Cell and Multicell Models and CONTAIN Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Noori-Kalkhoran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of nuclear power as a commercial energy source, safety has been recognized as a prime consideration in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The release of radioactivity to the environment requires the failure of multiple safety systems and the breach of three physical barriers: fuel cladding, the reactor cooling system, and containment. In this study, nuclear reactor containment pressurization has been modeled in a large break-loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA by programming single-cell and multicell models in MATLAB. First, containment has been considered as a control volume (single-cell model. In addition, spray operation has been added to this model. In the second step, the single-cell model has been developed into a multicell model to consider the effects of the nodalization and spatial location of cells in the containment pressurization in comparison with the single-cell model. In the third step, the accident has been simulated using the CONTAIN 2.0 code. Finally, Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP containment has been considered as a case study. The results of BNPP containment pressurization due to LB-LOCA have been compared between models, final safety analysis report, and CONTAIN code’s results.

  3. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  4. Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  5. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  6. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  7. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  8. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  9. Towards the optimization of a gyrokinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code on large-scale hybrid architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohana, N; Lanti, E; Tran, T M; Brunner, S; Hariri, F; Villard, L; Jocksch, A; Gheller, C

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of enabling state-of-the-art gyrokinetic PIC codes to benefit from the performance of recent multithreaded devices, we developed an application from a platform called the “PIC-engine” [1, 2, 3] embedding simplified basic features of the PIC method. The application solves the gyrokinetic equations in a sheared plasma slab using B-spline finite elements up to fourth order to represent the self-consistent electrostatic field. Preliminary studies of the so-called Particle-In-Fourier (PIF) approach, which uses Fourier modes as basis functions in the periodic dimensions of the system instead of the real-space grid, show that this method can be faster than PIC for simulations with a small number of Fourier modes. Similarly to the PIC-engine, multiple levels of parallelism have been implemented using MPI+OpenMP [2] and MPI+OpenACC [1], the latter exploiting the computational power of GPUs without requiring complete code rewriting. It is shown that sorting particles [3] can lead to performance improvement by increasing data locality and vectorizing grid memory access. Weak scalability tests have been successfully run on the GPU-equipped Cray XC30 Piz Daint (at CSCS) up to 4,096 nodes. The reduced time-to-solution will enable more realistic and thus more computationally intensive simulations of turbulent transport in magnetic fusion devices. (paper)

  10. Development of a fuel depletion sensitivity calculation module for multi-cell problems in a deterministic reactor physics code system CBZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Go; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new functionality of fuel depletion sensitivity calculations is developed in a code system CBZ. • This is based on the generalized perturbation theory for fuel depletion problems. • The theory with a multi-layer depletion step division scheme is described. • Numerical techniques employed in actual implementation are also provided. - Abstract: A new functionality of fuel depletion sensitivity calculations is developed as one module in a deterministic reactor physics code system CBZ. This is based on the generalized perturbation theory for fuel depletion problems. The theory for fuel depletion problems with a multi-layer depletion step division scheme is described in detail. Numerical techniques employed in actual implementation are also provided. Verification calculations are carried out for a 3 × 3 multi-cell problem consisting of two different types of fuel pins. It is shown that the sensitivities of nuclide number densities after fuel depletion with respect to the nuclear data calculated by the new module agree well with reference sensitivities calculated by direct numerical differentiation. To demonstrate the usefulness of the new module, fuel depletion sensitivities in different multi-cell arrangements are compared and non-negligible differences are observed. Nuclear data-induced uncertainties of nuclide number densities obtained with the calculated sensitivities are also compared.

  11. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  12. Upregulation of long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes bladder cancer cell 5 proliferation, migration and invasion by inhibiting miR-29c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Zhang, Guohui; Meng, Jialin; He, Qian; Li, Zhihui; Guan, Yawei

    2018-01-10

    Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the word. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) plays an important role in the development and progression of numerous cancers, including BC. However, the exact role of TUG1 in modulating BC progression is still poorly known. In this study, we found that TUG1 was upregulated and microRNA-29c (miR-29c) was downregulated in BC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of TUG1 promoted the cell proliferation of T24 and EJ cells, whereas TUG1 knockdown had the opposite effect. Upregulation of TUG1 obviously facilitated the migration and invasion of T24 and EJ cells. In contrast, TUG1 silencing repressed the migration and invasion of T24 and EJ cells. Furthermore, TUG1 knockdown markedly increased the expression of miR-29c in vitro. On the contrary, overexpression of TUG1 remarkably decreased the expression of miR-29c. Transfection with plasmids containing mutant TUG1 has no effect on the expression of miR-29c. There were direct interactions between miR-29c and the binding sites of TUG1. In addition, the inhibitory effects of small interfering RNA specific for TUG1 on BC cell proliferation, migration and invasion were reversed by downregulation of miR-29c. Collectively, our study strongly demonstrates that TUG1 promotes BC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by inhibiting miR-29c, suggesting that lncRNATUG1 may be a promising target for BC gene therapy.

  13. The Long Non-Coding RNA XIST Controls Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Proliferation and Invasion by Modulating miR-186-5p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyou Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are key players in the development and progression of human cancers. The lncRNA XIST (X-inactive specific transcript has been shown to be upregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; however, its role and molecular mechanisms in NSCLC cell progression remain unclear. Methods: qRT-PCR was conducted to assess the expression of XIST and miR-186. Cell proliferation was detected using MTT assay. Cell invasion and migration were evaluated using transwell assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rates were analyzed by flow cytometry. Luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the direct regulation of XIST and miR-186. A RNA immunoprecipitation was used to analyze whether XIST was associated with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC. Results: We confirmed that XIST was upregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. Functionally, XIST knockdown inhibited cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and induced apoptosis in vitro, and suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed a reciprocal repressive interaction between XIST and miR-186-5p. Furthermore, we showed that miR-186-5p has a binding site for XIST. Our data also indicated that XIST and miR-186-5p are likely in the same RNA induced silencing complex. Conclusion: Together, our data revealed that XIST knockdown confers suppressive function in NSCLC and XIST may be a novel therapeutic marker in this disease.

  14. Dengue virus genomic variation associated with mosquito adaptation defines the pattern of viral non-coding RNAs and fitness in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V Filomatori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus includes a large number of medically relevant pathogens that cycle between humans and arthropods. This host alternation imposes a selective pressure on the viral population. Here, we found that dengue virus, the most important viral human pathogen transmitted by insects, evolved a mechanism to differentially regulate the production of viral non-coding RNAs in mosquitos and humans, with a significant impact on viral fitness in each host. Flavivirus infections accumulate non-coding RNAs derived from the viral 3'UTRs (known as sfRNAs, relevant in viral pathogenesis and immune evasion. We found that dengue virus host adaptation leads to the accumulation of different species of sfRNAs in vertebrate and invertebrate cells. This process does not depend on differences in the host machinery; but it was found to be dependent on the selection of specific mutations in the viral 3'UTR. Dissecting the viral population and studying phenotypes of cloned variants, the molecular determinants for the switch in the sfRNA pattern during host change were mapped to a single RNA structure. Point mutations selected in mosquito cells were sufficient to change the pattern of sfRNAs, induce higher type I interferon responses and reduce viral fitness in human cells, explaining the rapid clearance of certain viral variants after host change. In addition, using epidemic and pre-epidemic Zika viruses, similar patterns of sfRNAs were observed in mosquito and human infected cells, but they were different from those observed during dengue virus infections, indicating that distinct selective pressures act on the 3'UTR of these closely related viruses. In summary, we present a novel mechanism by which dengue virus evolved an RNA structure that is under strong selective pressure in the two hosts, as regulator of non-coding RNA accumulation and viral fitness. This work provides new ideas about the impact of host adaptation on the variability and evolution of

  15. Childhood central adiposity at ages 5 and 9 shows consistent relationship with that of the maternal grandmother but not other grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R; Khalil, H; Segurado, R; Mehegan, J; Viljoen, K; Heinen, M; Murrin, C; Kelleher, C C

    2018-05-09

    The importance of a life course approach to childhood obesity has been emphasized; however, few studies can prospectively investigate relationships in three-generation families. To prospectively investigate the relationship between grandparental and grandchild waist circumference (WC) at ages 5 and 9 down maternal and paternal lines. At baseline in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort, 1094 children were born to 1082 mothers; 585 were examined at age 5 and 298 at age 9. Of the total 589 children with measured WC, data were also available from 745 grandparents. Child WC was standardized for age and sex, and theory-based hierarchical linear regression was used. Maternal grandmother (MGM) WC was predictive of grandchild WC at both time points. At age 5, grandchild's standardized birth weight (B = 0.266, p = 0.001), mother's means tested eligibility for free medical care (B = 1.029, p = 0.001) and grandchild seeing maternal grandparents daily (B = 0.312, p = 0.048) were significant alongside MGM WC (B = 0.015, p = 0.019). At age 9, only MGM WC (B = 0.022, p = 0.033) and mother's WC (B = 0.032, p = 0.005) were significant. Mediation analysis with mother's WC showed significant direct relationship of MGM and grandchild WC. This prospective cross-generational cohort shows consistent patterns of association between MGM and grandchild WC, not seen in other grandparental lineages. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  17. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gara, P.; Martin, E.

    1983-01-01

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils [fr

  18. Long non-coding RNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 correlates with poor prognosis, induces cell proliferation, and represses cell apoptosis via targeting aurora kinase A in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Zhang, Lina; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Ruirong; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Chenglu; Liu, Hong; Huang, Hongming

    2018-04-13

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) with clinicopathological feature and prognosis, and to explore its effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as the relevant target genes in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). LncRNA TUG1 expression was detected in bone marrow samples from 186 AML patients and 62 controls. Blank mimic, lncRNA TUG1 mimic, blank inhibitor, and lncRNA TUG1 inhibitor lentivirus vectors were transfected in KG-1 cells. Rescue experiment was performed by transfection of lncRNA TUG1 inhibitor and aurora kinase A (AURKA) mimic lentivirus vectors. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, RNA, and protein expressions were determined by CKK-8, annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blot assays. LncRNA TUG1 expression was higher in AML patients compared to controls and correlated with higher white blood cell counts, monosomal karyotype, FLT3-ITD mutation, poor-risk stratification, and poor prognosis, which independently predicted worse event-free survival and overall survival. In vitro, lncRNA TUG1 expression was higher in AML cell lines (KG-1, MOLM-14, HL-60, NB-4, and THP-1 cells) compared to controls. LncRNA TUG1 mimic promoted cell proliferation and decreased cell apoptosis rate, while lncRNA TUG1 inhibitor repressed cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis rate. Rescue experiment showed that AURKA attenuated the influence of lncRNA TUG1 on AML cell proliferation and apoptosis. In conclusion, lncRNA TUG1 associates with advanced disease and worse prognosis in adult AML patients, and it induces AML cell proliferation and represses cell apoptosis via targeting AURKA.

  19. Revised SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-09-01

    Since the publication of JAERI-1285 in 1983 for the preliminary version of the SRAC code system, a number of additions and modifications to the functions have been made to establish an overall neutronics code system. Major points are (1) addition of JENDL-2 version of data library, (2) a direct treatment of doubly heterogeneous effect on resonance absorption, (3) a generalized Dancoff factor, (4) a cell calculation based on the fixed boundary source problem, (5) the corresponding edit required for experimental analysis and reactor design, (6) a perturbation theory calculation for reactivity change, (7) an auxiliary code for core burnup and fuel management, etc. This report is a revision of the users manual which consists of the general description, input data requirements and their explanation, detailed information on usage, mathematics, contents of libraries and sample I/O. (author)

  20. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis by negatively regulating miR-300 in gallbladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Wang, Shou-Hua; Cai, Qiang; Jin, Long-Yang; Zhou, Di; Ding, Jun; Quan, Zhi-Wei

    2017-04-01

    As we all know, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play vital roles in various human cancers. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of lncRNA TUG1 in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) development. Total RNA was extracted from the tissues of thirty GBC patients, four GBC cell lines. We detected the expression levels of TUG1 using quantitative real-time PCR. We performed CCK8, colony formation, transwell invasion and apoptosis assays to study the effects of TUG1 on GBC cell proliferation and invasion. Western blot assay was performed to assess to the expression level of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) treated and TUG1 knockdown GBC cell. Lastly, dual-luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR were performed to verify the potential target microRNAs (miRNAs) of TUG1. TUG1 expression was significantly overexpressed in GBC tissues. Functionally, this study demonstrated that knockdown of TUG1 significantly inhibited GBC cell proliferation, metastasis. Mechanically, we found that TUG1 is upregulated by TGF-β1, and knockdown of TUG1 inhibited GBC cell EMT. Furthermore, we identified that miR-300, which has been reported as a suppressor in other types of cancer, is negatively regulated by TUG1. LncRNA TUG1 promotes GBC cell proliferation, metastasis and EMT progression by functioning as a miRNA sponge to abrogate the endogenous effect of miR-300. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 is involved in cell growth and chemoresistance of small cell lung cancer by regulating LIMK2b via EZH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuchun; Ma, Feng; Huang, Weimei; Fang, Shun; Li, Man; Wei, Ting; Guo, Linlang

    2017-01-09

    Taurine upregulated gene1 (TUG1) as a 7.1-kb lncRNA, has been shown to play an oncogenic role in various cancers. However, the biological functions of lncRNA TUG1 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remain unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of TUG1 in cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC and its possible molecular mechanism. The expression of TUG1 in thirty-three cases of SCLC tissues and SCLC cell line were examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The functional roles of TUG1 in SCLC were demonstrated by CCK8 assay, colony formation assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay, flow cytometry analysis and in vivo study through siRNA or shRNA mediated knockdown. Western blot assays were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to confirm the molecular mechanism of TUG1 involved in cell growth and chemoresistance of small cell lung cancer. We found that TUG1 was overexpressed in SCLC tissues, and its expression was correlated with the clinical stage and the shorter survival time of SCLC patients. Moreover, downregulation of TUG1 expression could impair cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to anticancer drugs both in vitro and in vivo. We also discovered that TUG1 knockdown significantly promoted cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro . We further demonstrated that TUG1 can regulate the expression of LIMK2b (a splice variant of LIM-kinase 2) via binding with enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and then promoted cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC. Together, these results suggested that TUG1 mediates cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC by regulating LIMK2b via EZH2.

  2. The diagnostic value of long non-coding RNA MIR31HG and its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaiyan; Zhao, Xinwei; Wan, Junhu; Yang, Lijun; Chu, Jie; Dong, Shuling; Yin, Huiqing; Ming, Liang; He, Fucheng

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to assess plasma lncRNA microRNA-31 hist gene (MIR31HG) as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to investigate its role in ESCC. The expression of MIR31HG, Furin and MMP1 was examined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MIR31HG expression between plasma and ESCC tissues was compared using Pearson correlation analysis; furthermore, the association between Furin/MMP1 levels and MIR31HG levels in ESCC tissues was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of plasma MIR31HG. A WST-1 assay was performed to assess cell proliferation. The migratability and invasiveness of cells was determined via Transwell assays. MIR31HG was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues and plasma (P occurance. Furthermore, knockdown of MIR31HG suppressed the capacity for proliferation, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells (P < 0.01). In addition, silencing of MIR31HG inhibited the expression of Furin and MMP1 in EC9706 and EC1 and the level of Furin/MMP1 in ESCC tissues displayed a significant positive correlation with MIR31HG (P < 0.01). MIR31HG can be used as a novel potential diagnostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for ESCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques to study long non-coding RNA expression in cultured cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Ricardo J; Maglieri, Giulia; Gutschner, Tony

    2018-01-01

    the less expressed CYTOR. The sensitivity of the four ISH methods was evaluated by image analysis. In all three cell lines, the two methods involving enzymatic amplification gave the most intense MALAT1 signal, but the signal-to-background ratios were not different. CYTOR was best detected using the b...

  4. Identification of islet-enriched long non-coding RNAs contributing to β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Motterle

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Taken together, the data show that lncRNAs are modulated in a model of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes and that variations in the expression of some of them may contribute to β-cell failure during the development of the disease.

  5. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  6. Metformin inhibition of neuroblastoma cell proliferation is differently modulated by cell differentiation induced by retinoic acid or overexpression of NDM29 non-coding RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Delfina; Gigoni, Arianna; Würth, Roberto; Cancedda, Ranieri; Florio, Tullio; Pagano, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Background Metformin is a widely used oral hypoglycemizing agent recently proposed as potential anti-cancer drug. In this study we report the antiproliferative effect of metformin treatment in a high risk neuroblastoma cell model, focusing on possible effects associated to different levels of differentiation and/or tumor initiating potential. Methods Antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of metformin were tested in human SKNBE2 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines and in SKNBE2 cells in whi...

  7. A study on cell heterogeneity effects in the Monju core. Evaluation using the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morohashi, Yuko; Ishibashi, Junichi; Nishi, Hiroshi

    2002-03-01

    The criticality analysis of the MONJU initial critical core was conducted based on conventional methods developed by the JUPITER program. Effective cross sections were created, considering self-shielding effects, from the JAERI Fast Set (JFS-3-J3.2); group constants in 70 energy groups, which were processed from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-3.2). These were used in the standard calculation method: a 3-Dimensional Hexagonal-Z whole core calculation by diffusion theory. This standard calculation, however, involves several approximations. The continuous neutron energy spectrum is divided into 70 discrete energy groups and continuous spatial coordinates are represented by assembly-wise spatial meshes. Original transport equations are solved by diffusion theory (isotropic scattering) approximation and fine structures in fuel assemblies, such as fuel pins or wrapper tubes, are processed into cell-wise homogeneous mixture. To improve the accuracy of the results, these approximations are compensated for by applying corresponding correction factors. Cell heterogeneity effects, among them, were evaluated to be 0.3-0.4% Δk/kk' by diffusion calculations based on the group constants, obtained by heterogeneous cell model calculations. This method, however, has the drawback that it assumes that there is no interdependency of the related approximations; energy grouping, diffusion approximation, etc. A study on cell heterogeneity effects has been conducted using the continuous energy Monte Carlo method to validate the adequacy of this non-interdependency assumption. As a result, cell heterogeneity effects slightly larger than those from conventional methods have been obtained: 0.54% Δk/kk' for the initial critical core, and 0.50% Δk/kk' for the initial full power core. Dependency on plutonium enrichment and fuel temperature has also been identified, which implies the dependency of the cell heterogeneity effects on the specific core conditions. Grouping

  8. Long non-coding RNA APTR promotes the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the progression of liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Fujun [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Jinshan, Shanghai, 201508 (China); Zheng, Jianjian [Wenzhou Key Laboratory of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Mao, Yuqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Jinshan, Shanghai, 201508 (China); Dong, Peihong [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Li, Guojun [Department of Hepatology, Ningbo Yinzhou Second Hospital, Ningbo, 315000 (China); Lu, Zhongqiu [Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Guo, Chuanyong; Liu, Zhanju [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Fan, Xiaoming, E-mail: ktsqdph@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Jinshan, Shanghai, 201508 (China)

    2015-08-07

    In this study, we aimed at assessing a role of Alu-mediated p21 transcriptional regulator (APTR) in hepatofibrogenesis. APTR was upregulated in fibrotic liver samples and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Knockdown of APTR inhibited the activation of HSCs in vitro and mitigated the accumulation of collagen in vivo. Importantly, APTR silencing could abrogate TGF-β{sub 1}-induced upregulation of α-SMA in HSCs. In addition, inhibition of cell cycle and cell proliferation by APTR knockdown was attenuated by p21 siRNA1 in primary HSCs. Finally, serum APTR levels were increased in patients with liver cirrhosis, indicating a potential biomarker for liver cirrhosis. Collectively, evidence is proposed for a new biological role of APTR in hepatofibrogenesis. - Highlights: • APTR is upregulated in fibrotic liver tissues and activated HSCs. • APTR silencing inhibits HSC activation and the progression of liver fibrosis. • Antifibrotic effect of APTR silencing is achieved by increasing p21.

  9. Long non-coding RNA UCA1 promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and migration via microRNA-193a/HMGB1 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyu; Zhou, Caicun

    2018-02-05

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs have been documented aberrantly expressed and exerted crucial role in variety of cancers. Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) is a potential new type of biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and exerts oncogenic effect on various human cancers. However, the mechanism of oncogenic role of UCA1 in lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we firstly confirmed the role of UCA1 in lung cancer and found that UCA1 down-regulation inhibited cell proliferation and migration in both SKMES-1 and H520 lung cancer cells. Then we demonstrated that repressed UCA1 promoted the miR-193a expression and miR-193a could bind to the predicted binding site of UCA1. We then dissected the role of miR-193a in lung cancer and proved the anti-tumor role of miR-193a. Furthermore, we found that miR-193a displayed its role in lung cancer via modulating the HMGB1 expression. In addition, we found that over-expression of HMGB1 could restore the UCA1 knockdown induced repression of cell proliferation and migration. In summary, our study demonstrated that UCA1 exerts oncogenes activity in lung cancer, acting mechanistically by upregulating HMGB1 expression through 'sponging' miR-193a. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long Non-Coding RNA MEG3 Downregulation Triggers Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration via the p53 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengxian Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Increasing evidence has demonstrated a significant role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs in diverse biological processes, and many of which are likely to have functional roles in vascular remodeling. However, their functions in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH remain largely unknown. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is an important pathological feature of PAH, leading to increased vascular resistance and reduced compliance. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs dysfunction is involved in vascular remodeling. Long noncoding RNAs are potential regulators of PASMCs function. Herein, we determined whether long noncoding RNA–maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3 was involved in PAH-related vascular remodeling. Methods: The arterial wall thickness was examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining in distal pulmonary arteries (PAs isolated from lungs of healthy volunteers and PAH patients. The expression level of MEG3 was analyzed by qPCR. The effects of MEG3 on human PASMCs were assessed by cell counting Kit-8 assay, BrdU incorporation assay, flow cytometry, scratch-wound assay, immunofluorescence, and western blotting in human PASMCs. Results: We revealed that the expression of MEG3 was significantly downregulated in lung and PAs of patients with PAH. MEG3 knockdown affected PASMCs proliferation and migration in vitro. Moreover, inhibition of MEG3 regulated the cell cycle progression and made more smooth muscle cells from the G0/G1 phase to the G2/M+S phase and the process could stimulate the expression of PCNA, Cyclin A and Cyclin E. In addition, we found that the p53 pathway was involved in MEG3–induced smooth muscle cell proliferation. Conclusions: This study identified MEG3 as a critical regulator in PAH and demonstrated the potential of gene therapy and drug development for treating PAH.

  11. Long non-coding RNA MEG3 inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma by regulating the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongxiang; Wu, Cui; Xie, Nina; Wang, Penglai

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate how long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) inhibits the growth and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by regulating WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in order to explore the antitumor effect of MEG3 and to provide a potential molecular target for the treatment of OSCC. The RT-qPCR technique was used to quantitatively analyze the expression of MEG3 in cancer and adjacent tissues collected from the patients after surgery. Using the Lipofectamine method, the MEG3 overexpression vector and the siRNA interference vector were constructed and transfected into SCC15 and Cal27 cells, respectively, followed by cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis analyses. The semi-quantitative analysis of the expression of the β-catenin protein in transfected cells was performed by the western blot analysis, and the activity of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway was analyzed using the TOP/FOP flash reporters. In addition, the cells were treated with decitabine to investigate the correlation between the MEG3 expression and the DNA methylation. Results showed that the expression level of MEG3 was significantly decreased in OSCC (psuppressor by inhibiting the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. In addition, the expression of the MEG3 was significantly affected by the degree of DNA methylation. It was concluded that the lncRNA MEG3 can inhibit the growth and metastasis of OSCC by negatively regulating the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  12. High-Fidelity RF Gun Simulations with the Parallel 3D Finite Element Particle-In-Cell Code Pic3P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candel, A; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the first parallel Finite Element 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code, Pic3P, for simulations of RF guns and other space-charge dominated beam-cavity interactions. Pic3P solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations and thus includes space charge, retardation and wakefield effects from first principles. Pic3P uses higher-order Finite Elementmethods on unstructured conformal meshes. A novel scheme for causal adaptive refinement and dynamic load balancing enable unprecedented simulation accuracy, aiding the design and operation of the next generation of accelerator facilities. Application to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) RF gun is presented.

  13. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  14. CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells by modulation of protein-encoding gene and long intergenic non-coding RNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yongyan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Ai, Zhiying [Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); College of Life Sciences, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Yao, Kezhen [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Cao, Lixia; Du, Juan; Shi, Xiaoyan [Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); College of Life Sciences, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Guo, Zekun, E-mail: gzk@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: zhylab@hotmail.com [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China)

    2013-10-15

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate indefinitely in vitro and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. These unique properties make them exceptionally valuable for drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the practical application of ESCs is limited because it is difficult to derive and culture ESCs. It has been demonstrated that CHIR99021 (CHIR) promotes self-renewal and enhances the derivation efficiency of mouse (m)ESCs. However, the downstream targets of CHIR are not fully understood. In this study, we identified CHIR-regulated genes in mESCs using microarray analysis. Our microarray data demonstrated that CHIR not only influenced the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by stabilizing β-catenin, but also modulated several other pluripotency-related signaling pathways such as TGF-β, Notch and MAPK signaling pathways. More detailed analysis demonstrated that CHIR inhibited Nodal signaling, while activating bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mESCs. In addition, we found that pluripotency-maintaining transcription factors were up-regulated by CHIR, while several developmental-related genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, we found that CHIR altered the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and long intergenic non-coding RNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR results were consistent with microarray data, suggesting that CHIR alters the expression pattern of protein-encoding genes (especially transcription factors), epigenetic regulatory genes and non-coding RNAs to establish a relatively stable pluripotency-maintaining network. - Highlights: • Combined use of CHIR with LIF promotes self-renewal of J1 mESCs. • CHIR-regulated genes are involved in multiple pathways. • CHIR inhibits Nodal signaling and promotes Bmp4 expression to activate BMP signaling. • Expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and lincRNAs is altered by CHIR.

  15. CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells by modulation of protein-encoding gene and long intergenic non-coding RNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yongyan; Ai, Zhiying; Yao, Kezhen; Cao, Lixia; Du, Juan; Shi, Xiaoyan; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate indefinitely in vitro and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. These unique properties make them exceptionally valuable for drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the practical application of ESCs is limited because it is difficult to derive and culture ESCs. It has been demonstrated that CHIR99021 (CHIR) promotes self-renewal and enhances the derivation efficiency of mouse (m)ESCs. However, the downstream targets of CHIR are not fully understood. In this study, we identified CHIR-regulated genes in mESCs using microarray analysis. Our microarray data demonstrated that CHIR not only influenced the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by stabilizing β-catenin, but also modulated several other pluripotency-related signaling pathways such as TGF-β, Notch and MAPK signaling pathways. More detailed analysis demonstrated that CHIR inhibited Nodal signaling, while activating bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mESCs. In addition, we found that pluripotency-maintaining transcription factors were up-regulated by CHIR, while several developmental-related genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, we found that CHIR altered the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and long intergenic non-coding RNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR results were consistent with microarray data, suggesting that CHIR alters the expression pattern of protein-encoding genes (especially transcription factors), epigenetic regulatory genes and non-coding RNAs to establish a relatively stable pluripotency-maintaining network. - Highlights: • Combined use of CHIR with LIF promotes self-renewal of J1 mESCs. • CHIR-regulated genes are involved in multiple pathways. • CHIR inhibits Nodal signaling and promotes Bmp4 expression to activate BMP signaling. • Expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and lincRNAs is altered by CHIR

  16. Expression of long non-coding RNA-HOTAIR in oral squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells and its associated biological behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Chao; Feng, Lin; Huang, Haitao; Liu, Changkui; Li, Fengxia

    2016-01-01

    As a long noncoding RNA, HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is highly expressed in many types of tumors. However, its expression and function in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and tissues remains largely unknown. We herein studied the biological functions of HOTAIR in OSCC Tca8113 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that HOTAIR, p21 and p53 mRNA expressions in doxorubicin (DOX)-treated or γ-ray-irradiated Tca8113 cells were up-regulated. Knockdown of p53 expression inhibited DOX-induced HOTAIR up-regulation, suggesting that DNA damage-induced HOTAIR expression may be associated with p53. Transfection and CCK-8 assays showed that compared with the control group, overexpression of HOTAIR promoted the proliferation of Tca8113 cells, while interfering with its expression played an opposite role. Flow cytometry exhibited that HOTAIR overexpression decreased the rate of DOX-induced apoptosis. When HOTAIR expression was inhibited by siRNA, the proportions of cells in G2/M and S phases increased and decreased respectively. Meanwhile, the rate of DOX-induced apoptosis rose. DNA damage-induced HOTAIR expression facilitated the proliferation of Tca8113 cells and decreased their apoptosis. However, whether the up-regulation depends on p53 still needs in-depth studies. PMID:27904675

  17. Preparation of Proper Immunogen by Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA coding for Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Marker CD34 in NIH-3T3 Mouse Fibroblast Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Majidi, Jafar; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Kazemi, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Transmembrane CD34 glycoprotein is the most important marker for identification, isolation and enumeration of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We aimed in this study to clone the cDNA coding for human CD34 from KG1a cell line and stably express in mouse fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. Such artificial cell line could be useful as proper immunogen for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Methods: CD34 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy TA-cloning vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 μg of recombinant construct and 6 μl of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 1158 bp specific band was aligned completely to reference sequence in NCBI database corresponding to long isoform of human CD34. Transient and stable expression of human CD34 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (25% and 95%, respectively) as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Cloning and stable expression of human CD34 cDNA was successfully performed and validated by standard flow cytometric analysis. Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD34-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD34. This approach could bypass the need for purification of recombinant proteins produced in eukaryotic expression systems. PMID:25789221

  18. Perceptions of overweight by primary carers (mothers/grandmothers) of under five and elementary school-aged children in Bandung, Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Hunter, Cynthia Louise; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2017-07-27

    The prevalence of childhood overweight has increased in the past two decades in Indonesia. Even though prevalence is escalating, there is a lack of qualitative evidence to assist in the design and implementation of strategies to tackle this issue. This study aimed to explore the view of primary carers (mothers and grandmothers) from different socio-economic-status groups, on childhood overweight in the Greater Bandung Area, Indonesia. We conducted 12 focus groups discussions with a total of 94 carers of under-five and 7-12 years children, from June to October 2016. We used the grounded theory approach in our analysis. Three main categories emerged: the concept of overweight, factors contributing to overweight, and awareness and feelings towards overweight children. Most carers from all SES groups defined overweight subjectively, while a few from the low SES group defined it objectively. Most carers from low and high SES groups agreed with the concept "chubbier is healthier". All carers had some knowledge of the main factors that contribute to childhood overweight: dietary factors, activity levels and sedentary behavior, and hereditary factors. Carers from all SES groups described similar characteristics of overweight; carers from low and intermediate SES groups had mixed feelings while all high SES carers have negative feelings about overweight children, mostly related to stigma. However, carers who identified their own children as being overweight expressed sensitivity about this weight status, especially their physical abilities. Almost all carers knew their children's current weight while less than two thirds knew their children's height. There are several policy implications. Firstly, health-related knowledge of the primary carers is of great importance and needs augmenting. To increase that knowledge, there is a role for front-line health practitioners (doctors/midwives/nurses) to be more active in educating the community. Secondly, simpler and more effective

  19. Serum long non coding RNA MALAT-1 protected by exosomes is up-regulated and promotes cell proliferation and migration in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Xia, Yuhong; Wang, Zhixin; Zheng, Jie; Chen, Yafei; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Yu; Ming, Huaikun

    2017-08-19

    Circulating lncRNAs have been defined as a novel biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), MALAT-1 was first identified lncRNA that was related to lung cancer metastasis. However, the relationship between exosomal lncRNAs and the diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC was poorly understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of serum exosomal MALAT-1 as a biomarker in the metastasis of NSCLC. In this study, we firstly isolated the exosomes from healthy subjects and NSCLC patients. Then we measured the expression levels of MALAT-1 contained in exosomes, and found that exosomal MALAT-1 was highly expressed in NSCLC patients, more importantly, the levels of exosomal MALAT-1 were positively associated with tumor stage and lymphatic metastasis. In addition, we decreased MALAT-1 expression by short hairpin RNA and conducted a series of assays including MTT, cell cycle, colony formation, wound-healing scratch and Annexin/V PI by flow cytometry in human lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro studies demonstrated that serum exosome-derived long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 promoted the tumor growth and migration, and prevented tumor cells from apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines. Taken together, this study shed a light on utilizing MALAT-1 in exosomes as a non-invasive serum-based tumor biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ca(2+) coding and decoding strategies for the specification of neural and renal precursor cells during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Marc; Néant, Isabelle; Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L; Riou, Jean-François; Leclerc, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    During embryogenesis, a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) is known to be a widespread trigger for directing stem cells towards a specific tissue fate, but the precise Ca(2+) signalling mechanisms involved in achieving these pleiotropic effects are still poorly understood. In this review, we compare the Ca(2+) signalling events that appear to be one of the first steps in initiating and regulating both neural determination (neural induction) and kidney development (nephrogenesis). We have highlighted the necessary and sufficient role played by Ca(2+) influx and by Ca(2+) transients in the determination and differentiation of pools of neural or renal precursors. We have identified new Ca(2+) target genes involved in neural induction and we showed that the same Ca(2+) early target genes studied are not restricted to neural tissue but are also present in other tissues, principally in the pronephros. In this review, we also described a mechanism whereby the transcriptional control of gene expression during neurogenesis and nephrogenesis might be directly controlled by Ca(2+) signalling. This mechanism involves members of the Kcnip family such that a change in their binding properties to specific DNA sites is a result of Ca(2+) binding to EF-hand motifs. The different functions of Ca(2+) signalling during these two events illustrate the versatility of Ca(2+) as a second messenger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Redox Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Sies, Helmut

    2015-09-20

    The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O₂ and H₂O₂ contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine.

  2. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells, mediated by a long non-coding RNA, HOTAIR, are involved in cell malignant transformation induced by cigarette smoke extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Bairu; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Qizhan

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of lung diseases, including cancer, caused by cigarette smoke is increasing, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. This report describes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and experiments utilizing lncRNAs to integrate inflammation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The present study shows that, induced by CSE, IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3, a transcription activator. A ChIP assay determined that the interaction of STAT3 with the promoter regions of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) increased levels of HOTAIR. Blocking of IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody, decreasing STAT3, and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced HOTAIR expression. Moreover, for HBE cells cultured in the presence of HOTAIR siRNA for 24 h, the CSE-induced EMT, formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates HOTAIR in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT and to CSCs induced by CSE. These data define a link between inflammation and EMT, processes involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE. This link, mediated through lncRNAs, establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • STAT3 directly regulates the levels of LncRNA HOTAIR. • LncRNA HOTAIR mediates the link between inflammation and EMT. • LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE

  3. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  4. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost

  5. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  6. Non-Protein Coding RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Nils G; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    This book assembles chapters from experts in the Biophysics of RNA to provide a broadly accessible snapshot of the current status of this rapidly expanding field. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the discoverers of RNA interference, highlighting just one example of a large number of non-protein coding RNAs. Because non-protein coding RNAs outnumber protein coding genes in mammals and other higher eukaryotes, it is now thought that the complexity of organisms is correlated with the fraction of their genome that encodes non-protein coding RNAs. Essential biological processes as diverse as cell differentiation, suppression of infecting viruses and parasitic transposons, higher-level organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, and gene expression itself are found to largely be directed by non-protein coding RNAs. The biophysical study of these RNAs employs X-ray crystallography, NMR, ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, optical tweezers, cryo-electron microscopy, and ot...

  7. Dynamic Shannon Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gagie, Travis

    2005-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for dynamic prefix-free coding, based on Shannon coding. We give a simple analysis and prove a better upper bound on the length of the encoding produced than the corresponding bound for dynamic Huffman coding. We show how our algorithm can be modified for efficient length-restricted coding, alphabetic coding and coding with unequal letter costs.

  8. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  9. Codes Over Hyperfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamewoue Surdive

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define linear codes and cyclic codes over a finite Krasner hyperfield and we characterize these codes by their generator matrices and parity check matrices. We also demonstrate that codes over finite Krasner hyperfields are more interesting for code theory than codes over classical finite fields.

  10. The non-protein coding breast cancer susceptibility locus Mcs5a acts in a non-mammary cell-autonomous fashion through the immune system and modulates T-cell homeostasis and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Bart M G; Sharma, Deepak; Samuelson, David J; Woditschka, Stephan; Mau, Bob; Haag, Jill D; Gould, Michael N

    2011-08-16

    Mechanisms underlying low-penetrance, common, non-protein coding variants in breast cancer risk loci are largely undefined. We showed previously that the non-protein coding mammary carcinoma susceptibility locus Mcs5a/MCS5A modulates breast cancer risk in rats and women. The Mcs5a allele from the Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rat strain consists of two genetically interacting elements that have to be present on the same chromosome to confer mammary carcinoma resistance. We also found that the two interacting elements of the resistant allele are required for the downregulation of transcript levels of the Fbxo10 gene specifically in T-cells. Here we describe mechanisms through which Mcs5a may reduce mammary carcinoma susceptibility. We performed mammary carcinoma multiplicity studies with three mammary carcinoma-inducing treatments, namely 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) carcinogenesis, and mammary ductal infusion of retrovirus expressing the activated HER2/neu oncogene. We used mammary gland and bone marrow transplantation assays to assess the target tissue of Mcs5a activity. We used immunophenotyping assays on well-defined congenic rat lines carrying susceptible and resistant Mcs5a alleles to identify changes in T-cell homeostasis and function associated with resistance. We show that Mcs5a acts beyond the initial step of mammary epithelial cell transformation, during early cancer progression. We show that Mcs5a controls susceptibility in a non-mammary cell-autonomous manner through the immune system. The resistant Mcs5a allele was found to be associated with an overabundance of gd T-cell receptor (TCR)+ T-cells as well as a CD62L (L-selectin)-high population of all T-cell classes. In contrast to in mammary carcinoma, gdTCR+ T-cells are the predominant T-cell type in the mammary gland and were found to be overabundant in the mammary epithelium of Mcs5a resistant congenic rats. Most of them simultaneously expressed the CD4, CD8, and CD161

  11. The Long Non-coding RNA HIF1A-AS2 Facilitates the Maintenance of Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells in Hypoxic Niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mineo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have an undefined role in the pathobiology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. These tumors are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous with transcriptome subtype-specific GBM stem-like cells (GSCs that adapt to the brain tumor microenvironment, including hypoxic niches. We identified hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha-antisense RNA 2 (HIF1A-AS2 as a subtype-specific hypoxia-inducible lncRNA, upregulated in mesenchymal GSCs. Its deregulation affects GSC growth, self-renewal, and hypoxia-dependent molecular reprogramming. Among the HIF1A-AS2 interactome, IGF2BP2 and DHX9 were identified as direct partners. This association was needed for maintenance of expression of their target gene, HMGA1. Downregulation of HIF1A-AS2 led to delayed growth of mesenchymal GSC tumors, survival benefits, and impaired expression of HMGA1 in vivo. Our data demonstrate that HIF1A-AS2 contributes to GSCs’ speciation and adaptation to hypoxia within the tumor microenvironment, acting directly through its interactome and targets and indirectly by modulating responses to hypoxic stress depending on the subtype-specific genetic context.

  12. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  13. Translation of ARAC computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kunio; Chino, Masamichi; Honma, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Kai, Michiaki; Imai, Kazuhiko; Asai, Kiyoshi

    1982-05-01

    In 1981 we have translated the famous MATHEW, ADPIC and their auxiliary computer codes for CDC 7600 computer version to FACOM M-200's. The codes consist of a part of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The MATHEW is a code for three-dimensional wind field analysis. Using observed data, it calculates the mass-consistent wind field of grid cells by a variational method. The ADPIC is a code for three-dimensional concentration prediction of gases and particulates released to the atmosphere. It calculates concentrations in grid cells by the particle-in-cell method. They are written in LLLTRAN, i.e., LLNL Fortran language and are implemented on the CDC 7600 computers of LLNL. In this report, i) the computational methods of the MATHEW/ADPIC and their auxiliary codes, ii) comparisons of the calculated results with our JAERI particle-in-cell, and gaussian plume models, iii) translation procedures from the CDC version to FACOM M-200's, are described. Under the permission of LLNL G-Division, this report is published to keep the track of the translation procedures and to serve our JAERI researchers for comparisons and references of their works. (author)

  14. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  15. Code Modernization of VPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert; Nystrom, David; Albright, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The ability of scientific simulations to effectively deliver performant computation is increasingly being challenged by successive generations of high-performance computing architectures. Code development to support efficient computation on these modern architectures is both expensive, and highly complex; if it is approached without due care, it may also not be directly transferable between subsequent hardware generations. Previous works have discussed techniques to support the process of adapting a legacy code for modern hardware generations, but despite the breakthroughs in the areas of mini-app development, portable-performance, and cache oblivious algorithms the problem still remains largely unsolved. In this work we demonstrate how a focus on platform agnostic modern code-development can be applied to Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to facilitate effective scientific delivery. This work builds directly on our previous work optimizing VPIC, in which we replaced intrinsic based vectorisation with compile generated auto-vectorization to improve the performance and portability of VPIC. In this work we present the use of a specialized SIMD queue for processing some particle operations, and also preview a GPU capable OpenMP variant of VPIC. Finally we include a lessons learnt. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 and supported by the LANL LDRD program.

  16. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  17. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  18. A qualitative study of attitudes and values surrounding stillbirth and neonatal mortality among grandmothers, mothers, and unmarried girls in rural Amhara and Oromiya regions, Ethiopia: unheard souls in the backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Mitike Molla; Yirgu, Robel; Gobezayehu, Abebe Gebremariam; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality and stillbirth are high and underreported. This study explored values related to neonatal mortality and stillbirth and the visibility of these deaths in rural Ethiopia among 3 generations of women. We conducted a qualitative study in 6 rural districts of the Oromiya and Amhara regional states during May 2012. We included 30 focus groups representing grandmothers, married women (mothers), and unmarried girls in randomly selected kebeles (villages). Until the 40th day of life, neonates are considered to be strangers to the community (not human). Their deaths are not talked about; they are buried in the house or in the backyard. Mothers are forbidden to mourn their loss lest they offend God and bring on future neonatal losses. Women who repeatedly lose their neonates may be blamed, mistreated, and dishonored through divorce. Neonatal death and stillbirth are attributed to supernatural powers, although some women and girls associate these deaths with poverty and lack of education. The desire for increased visibility of neonatal death is mixed. Unlike the grandmothers and unmarried girls, most of the married women want death to be visible to draw the attention of policy makers. Women prefer home birth and consider themselves lucky to be able to give birth at home. At present, there is no national vital registration system. Neonatal death and stillbirth are hidden and the magnitude is likely underrepresented. The delayed recognition of personhood, attribution of death to supernatural causes, social repercussions for women who experience a pregnancy loss, preference for home birth, and lack of a vital registration system all contribute to the invisibility of perinatal deaths. Increasing the visibility of (and counting) these deaths may require multifaceted behavior-change interventions. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  19. The ZPIC educational code suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, R.; Pardal, M.; Ninhos, P.; Helm, A.; Mori, W. B.; Decyk, V. K.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) codes are used in almost all areas of plasma physics, such as fusion energy research, plasma accelerators, space physics, ion propulsion, and plasma processing, and many other areas. In this work, we present the ZPIC educational code suite, a new initiative to foster training in plasma physics using computer simulations. Leveraging on our expertise and experience from the development and use of the OSIRIS PIC code, we have developed a suite of 1D/2D fully relativistic electromagnetic PIC codes, as well as 1D electrostatic. These codes are self-contained and require only a standard laptop/desktop computer with a C compiler to be run. The output files are written in a new file format called ZDF that can be easily read using the supplied routines in a number of languages, such as Python, and IDL. The code suite also includes a number of example problems that can be used to illustrate several textbook and advanced plasma mechanisms, including instructions for parameter space exploration. We also invite contributions to this repository of test problems that will be made freely available to the community provided the input files comply with the format defined by the ZPIC team. The code suite is freely available and hosted on GitHub at https://github.com/zambzamb/zpic. Work partially supported by PICKSC.

  20. A novel bidirectional expression system for simultaneous expression of both the protein-coding genes and short hairpin RNAs in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.-F.; Cheng, T.-L.; Wu, R.-H.; Teng, C.-F.; Chang, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an extremely powerful and widely used gene silencing approach for reverse functional genomics and molecular therapeutics. In mammals, the conserved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 2 (PARP-2)/RNase P bidirectional control promoter simultaneously expresses both the PARP-2 protein and RNase P RNA by RNA polymerase II- and III-dependent mechanisms, respectively. To explore this unique bidirectional control system in RNAi-mediated gene silencing strategy, we have constructed two novel bidirectional expression vectors, pbiHsH1 and pbiMmH1, which contained the PARP-2/RNase P bidirectional control promoters from human and mouse, for simultaneous expression of both the protein-coding genes and short hairpin RNAs. Analyses of the dual transcriptional activities indicated that these two bidirectional expression vectors could not only express enhanced green fluorescent protein as a functional reporter but also simultaneously transcribe shLuc for inhibiting the firefly luciferase expression. In addition, to extend its utility for the establishment of inherited stable clones, we have also reconstructed this bidirectional expression system with the blasticidin S deaminase gene, an effective dominant drug resistance selectable marker, and examined both the selection and inhibition efficiencies in drug resistance and gene expression. Moreover, we have further demonstrated that this bidirectional expression system could efficiently co-regulate the functionally important genes, such as overexpression of tumor suppressor protein p53 and inhibition of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 at the same time. In summary, the bidirectional expression vectors, pbiHsH1 and pbiMmH1, should provide a simple, convenient, and efficient novel tool for manipulating the gene function in mammalian cells

  1. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  2. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  3. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  4. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  5. DIANE, a simulation code for the interaction of neutrons with living tissues. Application to low doses of fast neutrons on human tumoral cells; DIANE, un code de simulation de l'interaction des neutrons avec la matiere vivante. Applications aux faibles doses de neutrons rapides sur des cellules tumorales humaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, M.L

    2003-07-15

    Our work deals with the irradiation of cells and living tissues by 14 MeV neutrons at very low doses (a few 10{sup -2} Gy). Such experiments require an accurate knowledge of the values of neutron dose rates and fluences at the level of cell cultures. We have performed measurements of fluence rates through an activation method applied to gold and copper foils. The fluence rate is deduced from the gamma rays emitted by the irradiated foils. Neutron doses and dose rates have been measured through varied methods: PIN diodes, ionization tissue equivalent chambers, and Geiger-Mueller counters. We have designed the DIANE code to simulate the impact of energetic neutrons on cells. This code can be used with isolated cells or macroscopic tissues, it takes into account the roles of the ionisation electrons produced by recoil nuclei entering the cell. This point is all the more important since recent works have highlighted the impact of very low energy electrons on DNA. (A.C.)

  6. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  7. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  8. The histone codes for meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Xu, Zhiliang; Khawar, Muhammad Babar; Liu, Chao; Li, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Meiosis is a specialized process that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells by a single round of DNA replication followed by two successive cell divisions. It contains many special events, such as programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation, homologous recombination, crossover formation and resolution. These events are associated with dynamically regulated chromosomal structures, the dynamic transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling are mainly modulated by histone modifications, termed 'histone codes'. The purpose of this review is to summarize the histone codes that are required for meiosis during spermatogenesis and oogenesis, involving meiosis resumption, meiotic asymmetric division and other cellular processes. We not only systematically review the functional roles of histone codes in meiosis but also discuss future trends and perspectives in this field. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  9. The DACC system. Code burnup of cell for projection of the fuel elements in the power net work PWR and BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepraga, D.; Boeriu, St.; Gheorghiu, E.; Cristian, I.; Patrulescu, I.; Cimporescu, D.; Ciuvica, P.; Velciu, E.

    1975-01-01

    The calculation system DACC-5 is a zero-dimensional reactor physics code used to calculate the criticality and burn-up of light-water reactors. The code requires as input essential extensive reactor parameters (fuel rod radius, water density, etc.). The nuclear constants (intensive parameters) are calculated with a five-group model (2 thermal and 3 fast groups). A fitting procedure is systematically employed to reduce the computation time of the code. Zero-dimensional burn-up calculations are made in an automatic way. Part one of the paper contains the code physical model and computer structure. Part two of the paper will contain tests of DACC-5 credibility for different light-water power lattices

  10. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  11. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  12. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shannon limit of the channel. Among the earliest discovered codes that approach the. Shannon limit were the low density parity check (LDPC) codes. The term low density arises from the property of the parity check matrix defining the code. We will now define this matrix and the role that it plays in decoding. 2. Linear Codes.

  13. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  14. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  15. Codes and Standards Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Codes and Standards Tech Team (CSTT) mission is to enable and facilitate the appropriate research, development, & demonstration (RD&D) for the development of safe, performance-based defensible technical codes and standards that support the technology readiness and are appropriate for widespread consumer use of fuel cells and hydrogen-based technologies with commercialization by 2020. Therefore, it is important that the necessary codes and standards be in place no later than 2015.

  16. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  17. CITOPP, CITMOD, CITWI, Processing codes for CITATION Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarhoum, M.

    2008-01-01

    Description of program or function: CITOPP processes the output file of the CITATION 3-D diffusion code. The program can plot axial, radial and circumferential flux distributions (in cylindrical geometry) in addition to the multiplication factor convergence. The flux distributions can be drawn for each group specified by the program and visualized on the screen. CITMOD processes both the output and the input files of the CITATION 3-D diffusion code. CITMOD can visualize both axial, and radial-angular models of the reactor described by CITATION input/output files. CITWI processes the input file (CIT.INP) of CITATION 3-D diffusion code. CIT.INP is processed to deduce the dimensions of the cell whose cross sections can be representative of the homonym reactor component in section 008 of CIT.INP

  18. Comparison calculation of a large sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor using the cell code MICROX-2 in connection with ENDF/B-VI and JEF-1.1 neutron data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.

    1992-02-01

    We have obtained results for a large sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor benchmark using data from the ENDF/B-VI and from Revision 1 of the JEF-1 (JEF-1.1) evaluation. The required cross sections were processed with the NJOY code system (Version 89.62) and homogenized with the spectrum cell code MICROX-2. Multigroup transport-theory calculations in 33 neutron groups (forward and adjoint) were performed using the two-dimensional code TWODANT and kinetic parameters were determined using the first-order perturbation-theory code PERT-V. We calculated eigenvalues, neutron balance data, global and regional breeding and conversion ratios, central rate ratios and reactivity worths with and without sodium, effective delayed neutron fraction and inhour reactivity, regional sodium void reactivity, and isothermal core fuel Doppler-reactivities. In particular, it is shown that good agreement (generally within one standard deviation) is achieved between these results and the average values over sixteen benchmark solutions obtained in the past. The eigenvalues predicted with ENDF/B-VI are up to 0.7% larger than those calculated with JEF-1.1 cross sections. This discrepancy is mainly due to different inelastic scattering cross sections for 23 Na and 238 U, and to different fast fission and nubar data for 239 Pu. (author) 5 figs., 30 tabs., 24 refs

  19. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  20. PROSPERE (SPM 211) - A code for spectrum and effective cross-section calculations in a cell with several media and with one or two moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Tuc Vi

    1969-12-01

    The PROSPERE code uses the CADILHAC model for neutron thermalization and the so-called 'zone-source' method for space treatment. First flight collision probabilities are calculated rapidly enough to allow fuel to be divided in concentric annuli. The ABH method is still used in the moderator (except in the case of thin moderators). Two moderators can be treated: one of them can be introduced in any media, eventually with variable densities. The PROSPERE code simplifies energy and space treatment and, as such, brings considerable computer-time savings with respect to THERMOS, in most cases with an accuracy of the same order. (author) [fr

  1. Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Proliferation and Inhibits Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Cells by Sponging miR-132-3p and Upregulating SOX4 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Liu, Keyu; Du, Xinhui

    2018-03-01

    Long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) is reported to be a vital regulator of the progression of various cancers. This study aimed to explore the exact roles and molecular mechanisms of TUG1 in osteosarcoma (OS) development. Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to detect the expressions of TUG1 and microRNA-132-3p (miR-132-3p) in OS tissues and cells. Western blot was performed to measure protein levels of sex determining region Y-box 4 (SOX4). Cell viability was assessed using XTT assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity detection assays. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter experiments were employed to confirm relationships among TUG1, miR-132-3p, and SOX4. TUG1 was highly expressed in human OS tissues, OS cell lines, and primary OS cells. TUG1 knockdown hindered proliferation and induced apoptosis in human OS cell lines and primary OS cells. Moreover, TUG1 inhibited miR-132-3p expression by direct interaction, and introduction of miR-132-3p inhibitor partly abrogated the effect of TUG1 knockdown on the proliferation and apoptosis of OS cells. Furthermore, SOX4 was validated as a target of miR-132-3p. Further functional analyses revealed that miR-132-3p inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of OS cells, while this effect was greatly abated following SOX4 overexpression. Moreover, TUG1 knockdown suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis by upregulating miR-132-3p and downregulating SOX4 in primary OS cells. TUG1 facilitated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis by regulating the miR-132-3p/SOX4 axis in human OS cell lines and primary OS cells. This finding provides a potential target for OS therapy. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  2. QR codes: next level of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Wesley; Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The OR code, which is short for quick response code, system was invented in Japan for the auto industry. Its purpose was to track vehicles during manufacture; it was designed to allow high-speed component scanning. Now the scanning can be easily accomplished via cell phone, making the technology useful and within reach of your patients. There are numerous applications for OR codes in the contemporary medical practice. This article describes QR codes and how they might be applied for marketing and practice management.

  3. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN......, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  4. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  5. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  6. Synthesizing Certified Code

    OpenAIRE

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach for formally demonstrating software quality. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates that can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it requires detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding annotations to th...

  7. FERRET data analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.

    1979-09-01

    A documentation of the FERRET data analysis code is given. The code provides a way to combine related measurements and calculations in a consistent evaluation. Basically a very general least-squares code, it is oriented towards problems frequently encountered in nuclear data and reactor physics. A strong emphasis is on the proper treatment of uncertainties and correlations and in providing quantitative uncertainty estimates. Documentation includes a review of the method, structure of the code, input formats, and examples

  8. Stylize Aesthetic QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mingliang; Su, Hao; Li, Yafei; Li, Xi; Liao, Jing; Niu, Jianwei; Lv, Pei; Zhou, Bing

    2018-01-01

    With the continued proliferation of smart mobile devices, Quick Response (QR) code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code in the world. Aiming at beautifying the appearance of QR codes, existing works have developed a series of techniques to make the QR code more visual-pleasant. However, these works still leave much to be desired, such as visual diversity, aesthetic quality, flexibility, universal property, and robustness. To address these issues, in this paper, we pro...

  9. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  10. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    doing formal coding and when doing more “traditional” conversation analysis research based on collections. We are more wary, however, of the implication that coding-based research is the end result of a process that starts with qualitative investigations and ends with categories that can be coded...

  11. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  12. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  13. Deep sequencing of RNA from immune cell-derived vesicles uncovers the selective incorporation of small non-coding RNA biotypes with potential regulatory functions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte-'t Hoen, E.N.M.; Buermans, H.P.; Waasdorp, M.; Stoorvogel, W.; Wauben, M.H.M.; `t Hoen, P.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cells release RNA-carrying vesicles and membrane-free RNA/protein complexes into the extracellular milieu. Horizontal vesicle-mediated transfer of such shuttle RNA between cells allows dissemination of genetically encoded messages, which may modify the function of target cells. Other studies used

  14. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  15. The network code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Network Code defines the rights and responsibilities of all users of the natural gas transportation system in the liberalised gas industry in the United Kingdom. This report describes the operation of the Code, what it means, how it works and its implications for the various participants in the industry. The topics covered are: development of the competitive gas market in the UK; key points in the Code; gas transportation charging; impact of the Code on producers upstream; impact on shippers; gas storage; supply point administration; impact of the Code on end users; the future. (20 tables; 33 figures) (UK)

  16. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  17. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  18. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  19. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  20. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong

    2010-01-01

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  1. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present lecture has a main goal to show how the transport lattice calculations are realised in a standard computer code. This is illustrated on the example of the WIMSD code, belonging to the most popular tools for reactor calculations. Most of the approaches discussed here can be easily modified to any other lattice code. The description of the code assumes the basic knowledge of reactor lattice, on the level given in the lecture on 'Reactor lattice transport calculations'. For more advanced explanation of the WIMSD code the reader is directed to the detailed descriptions of the code cited in References. The discussion of the methods and models included in the code is followed by the generally used homogenisation procedure and several numerical examples of discrepancies in calculated multiplication factors based on different sources of library data. (author)

  2. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  3. New coding technique for computer generated holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, R. E.; Culver, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    A coding technique is developed for recording computer generated holograms on a computer controlled CRT in which each resolution cell contains two beam spots of equal size and equal intensity. This provides a binary hologram in which only the position of the two dots is varied from cell to cell. The amplitude associated with each resolution cell is controlled by selectively diffracting unwanted light into a higher diffraction order. The recording of the holograms is fast and simple.

  4. Toric Varieties and Codes, Error-correcting Codes, Quantum Codes, Secret Sharing and Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    We present toric varieties and associated toric codes and their decoding. Toric codes are applied to construct Linear Secret Sharing Schemes (LSSS) with strong multiplication by the Massey construction. Asymmetric Quantum Codes are obtained from toric codes by the A.R. Calderbank P.W. Shor and A.......M. Steane construction of stabilizer codes (CSS) from linear codes containing their dual codes....

  5. An Optimal Linear Coding for Index Coding Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeshkpour, Pouya

    2015-01-01

    An optimal linear coding solution for index coding problem is established. Instead of network coding approach by focus on graph theoric and algebraic methods a linear coding program for solving both unicast and groupcast index coding problem is presented. The coding is proved to be the optimal solution from the linear perspective and can be easily utilize for any number of messages. The importance of this work is lying mostly on the usage of the presented coding in the groupcast index coding ...

  6. Long non-coding RNA BCAR4 promotes chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration through activation of mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Xiaolong; Zhou, Chengwei; Lin, Wei; Yu, Yang; Feng, Yongzeng; Kong, Jianzhong

    2017-05-01

    Chondrosarcoma is one of the common malignant histologic tumors, very difficult to treat, but the concrete cause and mechanism have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the functional involvement of BCAR4 in chondrosarcoma and its potentially underlying mechanism. QRT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of BCAR4 and mTOR signaling pathway proteins both in chondrosarcoma tissues and cells. Chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration were assessed by MTT assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The expression vectors were constructed and used to modulate the expression of BCAR4 and mTOR. Chondrosarcoma xenograft mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection with chondrosarcoma cell lines. The tumor volume was monitored to evaluate the effect of BCAR4 on chondrosarcoma cell tumorigenicity. The expressions of BCAR4, p-mTOR and p-P70S6K were up-regulated in chondrosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, BCAR4 overexpression had significant promoting effect on cell proliferation and migration in chondrosarcoma cells. Furthermore, mTOR signaling pathway was epigenetically activated by BCAR4-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. We also found that mTOR overexpression abolished the decrease of chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration induced by BCAR4 knockdown. In vivo experiments confirmed that BCAR4 overexpression significantly accelerated tumor growth, while the knockdown of BCAR4 significantly inhibited tumor growth. BCAR4 promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration through activation of mTOR signaling pathway, and thus contributed to chondrosarcoma progression. Impact statement LncRNA BCAR4 promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration through activation of mTOR signaling pathway, and thus contributed to chondrosarcoma progression.

  7. BRT-1 code for IBM 370/135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, I.

    1976-01-01

    BRT-1 is a transport code to obtain the thermal neutrons spectrum, point dependent, in one reactor cell. The code BRT-1 described in this paper, is the code BRT-1, written in FORTRAN IV language for the computer UNIVAC 1108 with CSCX operating system, converted for the computer IBM 370/135 disk operating system. (author)

  8. The VEGA Assembly Spectrum Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The VEGA is assembly spectrum code, developed as a design tool for producing a few-group averaged cross section data for a wide range of reactor types including both thermal and fast reactors. It belongs to a class of codes, which may be characterized by the separate stages for micro group, spectrum and macro group assembly calculations. The theoretical foundation for the development of the VEGA code was integral transport theory in the first-flight collision probability formulation. Two versions of VEGA are now in use, VEGA-1 established on standard equivalence theory and VEGA-2 based on new subgroup method applicable for any geometry for which a flux solution is possible. This paper describes a features which are unique to the VEGA codes with concentration on the basic principles and algorithms used in the proposed subgroup method. Presented validation of this method, comprise the results for a homogenous uranium-plutonium mixture and a PWR cell containing a recycled uranium-plutonium oxide. Example application for a realistic fuel dissolver benchmark problem , which was extensive analyzed in the international calculations, is also included. (author)

  9. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  10. Majorana fermion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara M; Leemhuis, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    We initiate the study of Majorana fermion codes (MFCs). These codes can be viewed as extensions of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions in quantum wires to higher spatial dimensions and interacting fermions. The purpose of MFCs is to protect quantum information against low-weight fermionic errors, that is, operators acting on sufficiently small subsets of fermionic modes. We examine to what extent MFCs can surpass qubit stabilizer codes in terms of their stability properties. A general construction of 2D MFCs is proposed that combines topological protection based on a macroscopic code distance with protection based on fermionic parity conservation. Finally, we use MFCs to show how to transform any qubit stabilizer code to a weakly self-dual CSS code.

  11. Theory of epigenetic coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, D

    1984-06-07

    The logic of genetic control of development may be based on a binary epigenetic code. This paper revises the author's previous scheme dealing with the numerology of annelid metamerism in these terms. Certain features of the code had been deduced to be combinatorial, others not. This paradoxical contrast is resolved here by the interpretation that these features relate to different operations of the code; the combinatiorial to coding identity of units, the non-combinatorial to coding production of units. Consideration of a second paradox in the theory of epigenetic coding leads to a new solution which further provides a basis for epimorphic regeneration, and may in particular throw light on the "regeneration-duplication" phenomenon. A possible test of the model is also put forward.

  12. DISP1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokac, P.

    1999-12-01

    DISP1 code is a simple tool for assessment of the dispersion of the fission product cloud escaping from a nuclear power plant after an accident. The code makes it possible to tentatively check the feasibility of calculations by more complex PSA3 codes and/or codes for real-time dispersion calculations. The number of input parameters is reasonably low and the user interface is simple enough to allow a rapid processing of sensitivity analyses. All input data entered through the user interface are stored in the text format. Implementation of dispersion model corrections taken from the ARCON96 code enables the DISP1 code to be employed for assessment of the radiation hazard within the NPP area, in the control room for instance. (P.A.)

  13. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  15. Expression of the Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) Gene and the Cell Cycle in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, the Gene Expression Omnibus, and Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong-Yue; Lin, Peng; Pang, Yu-Yan; Chen, Gang; He, Yun; Dang, Yi-Wu; Yang, Hong

    2018-05-05

    BACKGROUND Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a role in physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) gene and the cell cycle in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using database analysis including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). MATERIAL AND METHODS Expression levels of LINC00665 were compared between human tissue samples of HCC and adjacent normal liver, clinicopathological correlations were made using TCGA and the GEO, and qPCR was performed to validate the findings. Other public databases were searched for other genes associated with LINC00665 expression, including The Atlas of Noncoding RNAs in Cancer (TANRIC), the Multi Experiment Matrix (MEM), Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. RESULTS Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with gender, tumor grade, stage, and tumor cell type. Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (HR=1.47795%; CI: 1.046-2.086). Bioinformatics analysis identified 469 related genes and further analysis supported a hypothesis that LINC00665 regulates pathways in the cell cycle to facilitate the development and progression of HCC through ten identified core genes: CDK1, BUB1B, BUB1, PLK1, CCNB2, CCNB1, CDC20, ESPL1, MAD2L1, and CCNA2. CONCLUSIONS Overexpression of the lncRNA, LINC00665 may be involved in the regulation of cell cycle pathways in HCC through ten identified hub genes.

  16. Down-regulation of the antisense mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is a unique vulnerability of cancer cells and a potential target for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Soledad; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Burzio, Verónica A; Briones, Macarena; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Araya, Mariela; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socías, Teresa; Lopez, Constanza; Avila, Rodolfo; Burzio, Luis O

    2014-09-26

    Hallmarks of cancer are fundamental principles involved in cancer progression. We propose an additional generalized hallmark of malignant transformation corresponding to the differential expression of a family of mitochondrial ncRNAs (ncmtRNAs) that comprises sense and antisense members, all of which contain stem-loop structures. Normal proliferating cells express sense (SncmtRNA) and antisense (ASncmtRNA) transcripts. In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in tumor cells regardless of tissue of origin. Here we show that knockdown of the low copy number of the ASncmtRNAs in several tumor cell lines induces cell death by apoptosis without affecting the viability of normal cells. In addition, knockdown of ASncmtRNAs potentiates apoptotic cell death by inhibiting survivin expression, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Down-regulation of survivin is at the translational level and is probably mediated by microRNAs generated by dicing of the double-stranded stem of the ASncmtRNAs, as suggested by evidence presented here, in which the ASncmtRNAs are bound to Dicer and knockdown of the ASncmtRNAs reduces reporter luciferase activity in a vector carrying the 3'-UTR of survivin mRNA. Taken together, down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs constitutes a vulnerability or Achilles' heel of cancer cells, suggesting that the ASncmtRNAs are promising targets for cancer therapy. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Down-regulation of the Antisense Mitochondrial Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) Is a Unique Vulnerability of Cancer Cells and a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Soledad; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Burzio, Verónica A.; Briones, Macarena; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Araya, Mariela; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socías, Teresa; Lopez, Constanza; Avila, Rodolfo; Burzio, Luis O.

    2014-01-01

    Hallmarks of cancer are fundamental principles involved in cancer progression. We propose an additional generalized hallmark of malignant transformation corresponding to the differential expression of a family of mitochondrial ncRNAs (ncmtRNAs) that comprises sense and antisense members, all of which contain stem-loop structures. Normal proliferating cells express sense (SncmtRNA) and antisense (ASncmtRNA) transcripts. In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in tumor cells regardless of tissue of origin. Here we show that knockdown of the low copy number of the ASncmtRNAs in several tumor cell lines induces cell death by apoptosis without affecting the viability of normal cells. In addition, knockdown of ASncmtRNAs potentiates apoptotic cell death by inhibiting survivin expression, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Down-regulation of survivin is at the translational level and is probably mediated by microRNAs generated by dicing of the double-stranded stem of the ASncmtRNAs, as suggested by evidence presented here, in which the ASncmtRNAs are bound to Dicer and knockdown of the ASncmtRNAs reduces reporter luciferase activity in a vector carrying the 3′-UTR of survivin mRNA. Taken together, down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs constitutes a vulnerability or Achilles' heel of cancer cells, suggesting that the ASncmtRNAs are promising targets for cancer therapy. PMID:25100722

  18. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described

  19. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  20. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  1. Efficient Coding of Information: Huffman Coding -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to a stream of equally-likely symbols so as to recover the original stream in the event of errors. The for- ... The source-coding problem is one of finding a mapping from U to a ... probability that the random variable X takes the value x written as ...

  2. NR-code: Nonlinear reconstruction code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.

  3. Analytical validation of the CACECO containment analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, R.D.

    1979-08-01

    The CACECO containment analysis code was developed to predict the thermodynamic responses of LMFBR containment facilities to a variety of accidents. This report covers the verification of the CACECO code by problems that can be solved by hand calculations or by reference to textbook and literature examples. The verification concentrates on the accuracy of the material and energy balances maintained by the code and on the independence of the four cells analyzed by the code so that the user can be assured that the code analyses are numerically correct and independent of the organization of the input data submitted to the code

  4. Potential of the MCNP computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    1995-01-01

    The MCNP code is designed for numerical solution of neutron, photon, and electron transport problems by the Monte Carlo method. The code is based on the linear transport theory of behavior of the differential flux of the particles. The code directly uses data from the cross section point data library for input. Experience is outlined, gained in the application of the code to the calculation of the effective parameters of fuel assemblies and of the entire reactor core, to the determination of the effective parameters of the elementary fuel cell, and to the numerical solution of neutron diffusion and/or transport problems of the fuel assembly. The agreement between the calculated and observed data gives evidence that the MCNP code can be used with advantage for calculations involving WWER type fuel assemblies. (J.B.). 4 figs., 6 refs

  5. The long non-coding RNA H19-derived miR-675 modulates human gastric cancer cell proliferation by targeting tumor suppressor RUNX1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Ming; Gao, Wen; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ping; Shu, Yongqian

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • H19 regulates gastric cancer cell proliferation phenotype via miR-675. • MiR-675 modulates cell proliferation of gastric cancer cells by targeting tumor suppressor RUNX1. • The H19/miR-675/RUNX1 axis plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. - Abstract: The lncRNA H19 has been recently shown to be upregulated and play important roles in gastric cancer tumorigenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism of H19 and its mature product miR-675 in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-675 was positively expressed with H19 and was a pivotal mediator in H19-induced gastric cancer cell growth promotion. Subsequently, the tumor suppressor Runt Domain Transcription Factor1 (RUNX1) was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-675 using a luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting analyses. A series of rescue assays indicated that RUNX1 mediated H19/miR-67-induced gastric cancer cell phenotypic changes. Moreover, the inverse relationship between the expression of RUNX1 and H19/miR-675 was also revealed in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines. Taken together, our study demonstrated that the novel pathway H19/miR-675/RUNX1 regulates gastric cancer development and may serve as a potential target for gastric cancer therapy

  6. Long none coding RNA HOTTIP/HOXA13 act as synergistic role by decreasing cell migration and proliferation in Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hua; Zhu, Dongmei; Xu, Cao; Zhu, Hairong; Chen, Pingfa; Li, Hongxing; Liu, Xiang; Xia, Yankai; Tang, Weibing

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been confirmed to be associated with various human diseases. However, whether they are associated with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) progression remains unclear. In this study, we designed the experiment to explore the relationship between lncRNA HOTTIP and HOXA13, and their pathogenicity to HSCR. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to detect the levels of lncRNA, mRNAs, and proteins in colon tissues from 79 patients with HSCR and 79 controls. Small RNA interference transfection was used to study the function experiments in human 293T and SK-N-BE cell lines. The cell viability and activities were detected by the transwell assays, CCK8 assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. LncRNA HOTTIP and HOXA13 were significantly down-regulated in HSCR compared to the controls. Meanwhile, the declined extent of their expression levels makes sense between two main phenotype of HSCR. SiRNA-mediated knock-down of HOTTIP or HOXA13 correlated with decreased levels of each other and both reduced the cell migration and proliferation without affecting cell apoptosis or cell cycle. Our study demonstrates that aberrant reduction of HOTTIP and HOXA13, which have a bidirectional regulatory loop, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HSCR. - Highlights: • LncRNA HOTTIP and HOXA13 are both down-regulated in HSCR. • HOTTIP and HOXA13 can regulate each other in 293T and SK-N-BE(2) cell lines. • Both HOTTIP and HOXA13 can decrease cell migration and proliferation

  7. Long none coding RNA HOTTIP/HOXA13 act as synergistic role by decreasing cell migration and proliferation in Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Hua; Zhu, Dongmei; Xu, Cao; Zhu, Hairong; Chen, Pingfa; Li, Hongxing [Department of Pediatric Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Children' s Hospital Affiliated Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology (Nanjing Medical University), Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 211166 (China); Liu, Xiang [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Anhui Provincial Children' s Hospital, Anhui 230000 (China); Xia, Yankai [Department of Pediatric Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Children' s Hospital Affiliated Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology (Nanjing Medical University), Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 211166 (China); Tang, Weibing, E-mail: twbcn@njmu.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Children' s Hospital Affiliated Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology (Nanjing Medical University), Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 211166 (China)

    2015-08-07

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been confirmed to be associated with various human diseases. However, whether they are associated with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) progression remains unclear. In this study, we designed the experiment to explore the relationship between lncRNA HOTTIP and HOXA13, and their pathogenicity to HSCR. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to detect the levels of lncRNA, mRNAs, and proteins in colon tissues from 79 patients with HSCR and 79 controls. Small RNA interference transfection was used to study the function experiments in human 293T and SK-N-BE cell lines. The cell viability and activities were detected by the transwell assays, CCK8 assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. LncRNA HOTTIP and HOXA13 were significantly down-regulated in HSCR compared to the controls. Meanwhile, the declined extent of their expression levels makes sense between two main phenotype of HSCR. SiRNA-mediated knock-down of HOTTIP or HOXA13 correlated with decreased levels of each other and both reduced the cell migration and proliferation without affecting cell apoptosis or cell cycle. Our study demonstrates that aberrant reduction of HOTTIP and HOXA13, which have a bidirectional regulatory loop, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HSCR. - Highlights: • LncRNA HOTTIP and HOXA13 are both down-regulated in HSCR. • HOTTIP and HOXA13 can regulate each other in 293T and SK-N-BE(2) cell lines. • Both HOTTIP and HOXA13 can decrease cell migration and proliferation.

  8. Synthesizing Certified Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  9. Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  10. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  11. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  12. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  13. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene; Pries-Heje, Jan; Dalgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  14. RFQ simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1984-04-01

    We have developed the RFQLIB simulation system to provide a means to systematically generate the new versions of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac simulation codes that are required by the constantly changing needs of a research environment. This integrated system simplifies keeping track of the various versions of the simulation code and makes it practical to maintain complete and up-to-date documentation. In this scheme, there is a certain standard version of the simulation code that forms a library upon which new versions are built. To generate a new version of the simulation code, the routines to be modified or added are appended to a standard command file, which contains the commands to compile the new routines and link them to the routines in the library. The library itself is rarely changed. Whenever the library is modified, however, this modification is seen by all versions of the simulation code, which actually exist as different versions of the command file. All code is written according to the rules of structured programming. Modularity is enforced by not using COMMON statements, simplifying the relation of the data flow to a hierarchy diagram. Simulation results are similar to those of the PARMTEQ code, as expected, because of the similar physical model. Different capabilities, such as those for generating beams matched in detail to the structure, are available in the new code for help in testing new ideas in designing RFQ linacs

  15. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  16. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International... Code. International Property Maintenance Code. International Residential Code. International Swimming Pool and Spa Code International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. International Zoning Code. ICC Standards...

  17. Neuronal codes for visual perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    In this review, I describe and contrast the representation of stimuli in visual cortical areas and in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). While cortex is characterized by a distributed and implicit coding that is optimal for recognition and storage of semantic information, the MTL shows a much sparser and explicit coding of specific concepts that is ideal for episodic memory. I will describe the main characteristics of the coding in the MTL by the so-called concept cells and will then propose a model of the formation and recall of episodic memory based on partially overlapping assemblies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of thermalhydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Thermalhydraulic codes require to be validated against experimental data collected over a wide range of situations if they are to be relied upon. A good example is provided by the nuclear industry where codes are used for safety studies and for determining operating conditions. Errors in the codes could lead to financial penalties, to the incorrect estimation of the consequences of accidents and even to the accidents themselves. Comparison between prediction and experiment is often described qualitatively or in approximate terms, e.g. ''agreement is within 10%''. A quantitative method is preferable, especially when several competing codes are available. The codes can then be ranked in order of merit. Such a method is described. (Author)

  19. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W; Herbert, A.; Long, J.

    1989-03-01

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  20. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  1. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  2. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  3. Non-Coding RNAs in Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cordeiro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the 3’-UTR of their target genes, can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Recently, other types of non-coding RNAs—piwiRNAs and long non-coding RNAs—have also been identified. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL is a B cell origin disease characterized by the presence of only 1% of tumor cells, known as Hodgkin and Reed-Stenberg (HRS cells, which interact with the microenvironment to evade apoptosis. Several studies have reported specific miRNA signatures that can differentiate HL lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes, identify histologic groups within classical HL, and distinguish HRS cells from germinal center B cells. Moreover, some signatures are associated with survival or response to chemotherapy. Most of the miRNAs in the signatures regulate genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, or signaling pathways. Here we review findings on miRNAs in HL, as well as on other non-coding RNAs.

  4. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  5. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  6. Transport theory and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter begins with a neutron transport equation which includes the one dimensional plane geometry problems, the one dimensional spherical geometry problems, and numerical solutions. The section on the ANISN code and its look-alikes covers problems which can be solved; eigenvalue problems; outer iteration loop; inner iteration loop; and finite difference solution procedures. The input and output data for ANISN is also discussed. Two dimensional problems such as the DOT code are given. Finally, an overview of the Monte-Carlo methods and codes are elaborated on

  7. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. Adaptive Evolution Coupled with Retrotransposon Exaptation Allowed for the Generation of a Human-Protein-Specific Coding Gene That Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Both Haematological Malignancies and Solid Tumours: The Extraordinary Case of MYEOV Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros I. Papamichos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cancer in human is high as compared to chimpanzee. However previous analysis has documented that numerous human cancer-related genes are highly conserved in chimpanzee. Till date whether human genome includes species-specific cancer-related genes that could potentially contribute to a higher cancer susceptibility remains obscure. This study focuses on MYEOV, an oncogene encoding for two protein isoforms, reported as causally involved in promoting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in both haematological malignancies and solid tumours. First we document, via stringent in silico analysis, that MYEOV arose de novo in Catarrhini. We show that MYEOV short-isoform start codon was evolutionarily acquired after Catarrhini/Platyrrhini divergence. Throughout the course of Catarrhini evolution MYEOV acquired a gradually elongated translatable open reading frame (ORF, a gradually shortened translation-regulatory upstream ORF, and alternatively spliced mRNA variants. A point mutation introduced in human allowed for the acquisition of MYEOV long-isoform start codon. Second, we demonstrate the precious impact of exonized transposable elements on the creation of MYEOV gene structure. Third, we highlight that the initial part of MYEOV long-isoform coding DNA sequence was under positive selection pressure during Catarrhini evolution. MYEOV represents a Primate Orphan Gene that acquired, via ORF expansion, a human-protein-specific coding potential.

  9. Long non-coding RNA profile in mantle cell lymphoma identifies a functional lncRNA ROR1-AS1 associated with EZH2/PRC2 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangzhen; Gupta, Shiv K.; Troska, Tammy P.; Nair, Asha; Gupta, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by rapid disease progression. The needs for new therapeutic strategies for MCL patients call for further understanding on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of MCL. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recognized as key regulators of gene expression and disease development, however, the role of lncRNAs in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and specifically in MCL is still unknown. Next generation RNA-sequencing was carried out on MCL patient samples along with normal controls and data was analyzed. As a result, several novel lncRNAs were found significantly overexpressed in the MCL samples with lncRNA ROR1-AS1 the most significant one. We cloned the ROR1-AS1 lncRNA in expression vector and ectopically transfected in MCL cell lines. Results showed that overexpression of ROR1-AS1 lncRNA promoted growth of MCL cells while decreased sensitivity to the treatment with drugs ibrutinib and dexamethasone. ROR-AS1 overexpression also decreased the mRNA expression of P16 (P = 0.21), and SOX11 (p = 0.017), without much effect on P53, ATM and P14 mRNA. RNA-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated high affinity binding of lncRNA ROR1-AS1 with EZH2 and SUZ12 proteins of the polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2). Suppressing EZH2 activity with pharmacological inhibitor GSK343 abolished binding of ROR1-AS1 with EZH2. Taken together, this study identified a functional lncRNA ROR-AS1 involved with regulation of gene transcription via associating with PRC2 complex, and may serve as a novel biomarker in MCL patients. PMID:29113297

  10. The computer code SEURBNUK-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerkess, A.

    1984-01-01

    SEURBNUK-2 has been designed to model the hydrodynamic development in time of a hypothetical core disrupture accident in a fast breeder reactor. SEURBNUK-2 is a two-dimensional, axisymmetric, eulerian, finite difference containment code. The numerical procedure adopted in SEURBNUK to solve the hydrodynamic equations is based on the semi-implicit ICE method. SEURBNUK has a full thin shell treatment for tanks of arbitrary shape and includes the effects of the compressibility of the fluid. Fluid flow through porous media and porous structures can also be accommodated. An important feature of SEURBNUK is that the thin shell equations are solved quite separately from those of the fluid, and the time step for the fluid flow calculation can be an integer multiple of that for calculating the shell motion. The interaction of the shell with the fluid is then considered as a modification to the coefficients in the implicit pressure equations, the modifications naturally depending on the behaviour of the thin shell section within the fluid cell. The code is limited to dealing with a single fluid, the coolant, whereas the bubble and the cover gas are treated as cavities of uniform pressure calculated via appropriate pressure-volume-energy relationships. This manual describes the input data specifications needed for the execution of SEURBNUK-2 calculations and nine sample problems of varying degrees of complexity highlight the code capabilities. After explaining the output facilities information is included to aid those unfamiliar with SEURBNUK-2 to avoid the common pit-falls experienced by novices

  11. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  12. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements

  13. SASSYS LMFBR systems code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.; Weber, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    The SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code is being developed mainly to analyze the behavior of the shut-down heat-removal system and the consequences of failures in the system, although it is also capable of analyzing a wide range of transients, from mild operational transients through more severe transients leading to sodium boiling in the core and possible melting of clad and fuel. The code includes a detailed SAS4A multi-channel core treatment plus a general thermal-hydraulic treatment of the primary and intermediate heat-transport loops and the steam generators. The code can handle any LMFBR design, loop or pool, with an arbitrary arrangement of components. The code is fast running: usually faster than real time

  14. OCA Code Enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Office of the County Attorney (OCA) processes Code Violation Citations issued by County agencies. The citations can be viewed by issued department, issued date...

  15. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  16. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  17. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  18. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  19. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  20. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    2001-01-01

    The description of reactor lattice codes is carried out on the example of the WIMSD-5B code. The WIMS code in its various version is the most recognised lattice code. It is used in all parts of the world for calculations of research and power reactors. The version WIMSD-5B is distributed free of charge by NEA Data Bank. The description of its main features given in the present lecture follows the aspects defined previously for lattice calculations in the lecture on Reactor Lattice Transport Calculations. The spatial models are described, and the approach to the energy treatment is given. Finally the specific algorithm applied in fuel depletion calculations is outlined. (author)

  1. Critical Care Coding for Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwer, Marc R; Vespa, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  2. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  3. Towards advanced code simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriven, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) uses advanced thermohydraulic codes extensively to support PWR safety analyses. A system has been developed to allow fully interactive execution of any code with graphical simulation of the operator desk and mimic display. The system operates in a virtual machine environment, with the thermohydraulic code executing in one virtual machine, communicating via interrupts with any number of other virtual machines each running other programs and graphics drivers. The driver code itself does not have to be modified from its normal batch form. Shortly following the release of RELAP5 MOD1 in IBM compatible form in 1983, this code was used as the driver for this system. When RELAP5 MOD2 became available, it was adopted with no changes needed in the basic system. Overall the system has been used for some 5 years for the analysis of LOBI tests, full scale plant studies and for simple what-if studies. For gaining rapid understanding of system dependencies it has proved invaluable. The graphical mimic system, being independent of the driver code, has also been used with other codes to study core rewetting, to replay results obtained from batch jobs on a CRAY2 computer system and to display suitably processed experimental results from the LOBI facility to aid interpretation. For the above work real-time execution was not necessary. Current work now centers on implementing the RELAP 5 code on a true parallel architecture machine. Marconi Simulation have been contracted to investigate the feasibility of using upwards of 100 processors, each capable of a peak of 30 MIPS to run a highly detailed RELAP5 model in real time, complete with specially written 3D core neutronics and balance of plant models. This paper describes the experience of using RELAP5 as an analyzer/simulator, and outlines the proposed methods and problems associated with parallel execution of RELAP5

  4. Cracking the Gender Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    extensive work to raise the proportion of women. This has helped slightly, but women remain underrepresented at the corporate top. Why is this so? What can be done to solve it? This article presents five different types of answers relating to five discursive codes: nature, talent, business, exclusion...... in leadership management, we must become more aware and take advantage of this complexity. We must crack the codes in order to crack the curve....

  5. PEAR code review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, R.; Jamieson, T.; Lord, M.; Lafortune, J.F.

    1997-07-01

    As a necessary component in the continuous improvement and refinement of methodologies employed in the nuclear industry, regulatory agencies need to periodically evaluate these processes to improve confidence in results and ensure appropriate levels of safety are being achieved. The independent and objective review of industry-standard computer codes forms an essential part of this program. To this end, this work undertakes an in-depth review of the computer code PEAR (Public Exposures from Accidental Releases), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to assess accidental releases from CANDU reactors. PEAR is based largely on the models contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) N288.2-M91. This report presents the results of a detailed technical review of the PEAR code to identify any variations from the CSA standard and other supporting documentation, verify the source code, assess the quality of numerical models and results, and identify general strengths and weaknesses of the code. The version of the code employed in this review is the one which AECL intends to use for CANDU 9 safety analyses. (author)

  6. KENO-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P 1 scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes

  7. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  8. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content ...

  9. Quantitative protein expression analysis of CLL B cells from mutated and unmutated IgV(H) subgroups using acid-cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, David R; Jelinek, Diane F; Muddiman, David C; Kay, Neil E

    2005-01-01

    Relative protein expression levels were compared in leukemic B cells from two patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) having either mutated (M-CLL) or unmutated (UM-CLL) immunoglobulin variable heavy chain genes (IgV(H)). Cells were separated into cytosol and membrane protein fractions then labeled with acid-cleavable ICAT reagents (cICAT). Labeled proteins were digested with trypsin then subjected to SCX and affinity chromatography followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. A total of 9 proteins from the cytosol fraction and 4 from the membrane fraction showed a 3-fold or greater difference between M-CLL and UM-CLL and a subset of these were examined by Western blot where results concurred with cICAT abundance ratios. The abundance of one of the proteins in particular, the mitochondrial membrane protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit COX G was examined in 6 M-CLL and 6 UM-CLL patients using western blot and results showed significantly greater levels (P < 0.001) in M-CLL patients vs UM-CLL patients. These results demonstrate that stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry can complement 2D gel electrophoresis and gene microarray technologies for identifying putative and perhaps unique prognostic markers in CLL.

  10. SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE CODING OCDMA SYSTEMS USING ENHANCED DOUBLE WEIGHT CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. HASOON

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new code structure for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems based on double weight (DW code families is proposed. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Enhanced double-weight (EDW code is another variation of a DW code family that can has a variable weight greater than one. The EDW code possesses ideal cross-correlation properties and exists for every natural number n. A much better performance can be provided by using the EDW code compared to the existing code such as Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes. It has been observed that theoretical analysis and simulation for EDW is much better performance compared to Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes.

  11. Nuclear code abstracts (1975 edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanuma, Makoto; Hirakawa, Takashi

    1976-02-01

    Nuclear Code Abstracts is compiled in the Nuclear Code Committee to exchange information of the nuclear code developments among members of the committee. Enlarging the collection, the present one includes nuclear code abstracts obtained in 1975 through liaison officers of the organizations in Japan participating in the Nuclear Energy Agency's Computer Program Library at Ispra, Italy. The classification of nuclear codes and the format of code abstracts are the same as those in the library. (auth.)

  12. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  13. Temporal mapping of CEBPA and CEBPB binding during liver regeneration reveals dynamic occupancy and specific regulatory codes for homeostatic and cell cycle gene batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Schou; Waage, Johannes; Rapin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    quantified the genome-wide binding patterns of two key hepatocyte transcription factors, CEBPA and CEBPB (also known as C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta), at multiple time points during the highly dynamic process of liver regeneration elicited by partial hepatectomy in mouse. Combining these profiles with RNA...... polymerase II binding data, we find three temporal classes of transcription factor binding to be associated with distinct sets of regulated genes involved in the acute phase response, metabolic/homeostatic functions, or cell cycle progression. Moreover, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized early phase......IP experiments involving a panel of central transcription factors and/or by comparison to external ChIP-seq data. Our quantitative investigation not only provides in vivo evidence for the involvement of many new factors in liver regeneration but also points to similarities in the circuitries regulating self...

  14. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  15. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  16. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  17. The Aster code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  18. Adaptive distributed source coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, David; Lin, Yao-Chung; Girod, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    We consider distributed source coding in the presence of hidden variables that parameterize the statistical dependence among sources. We derive the Slepian-Wolf bound and devise coding algorithms for a block-candidate model of this problem. The encoder sends, in addition to syndrome bits, a portion of the source to the decoder uncoded as doping bits. The decoder uses the sum-product algorithm to simultaneously recover the source symbols and the hidden statistical dependence variables. We also develop novel techniques based on density evolution (DE) to analyze the coding algorithms. We experimentally confirm that our DE analysis closely approximates practical performance. This result allows us to efficiently optimize parameters of the algorithms. In particular, we show that the system performs close to the Slepian-Wolf bound when an appropriate doping rate is selected. We then apply our coding and analysis techniques to a reduced-reference video quality monitoring system and show a bit rate saving of about 75% compared with fixed-length coding.

  19. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  20. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  1. Aztheca Code; Codigo Aztheca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H., E-mail: sequga@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior s/n, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  2. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  3. The correspondence between projective codes and 2-weight codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Eupen, van M.J.M.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.; Willems, F.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The hyperplanes intersecting a 2-weight code in the same number of points obviously form the point set of a projective code. On the other hand, if we have a projective code C, then we can make a 2-weight code by taking the multiset of points E PC with multiplicity "Y(w), where W is the weight of

  4. Visualizing code and coverage changes for code review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwaal, Sebastiaan; van Deursen, A.; De Souza Coelho, R.; Sawant, A.A.; Bacchelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the tasks of reviewers is to verify that code modifications are well tested. However, current tools offer little support in understanding precisely how changes to the code relate to changes to the tests. In particular, it is hard to see whether (modified) test code covers the changed code.

  5. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, both turbo codes and low-density parity-check codes are largely superior to other code families and are being used in an increasing number of modern communication systems including 3G standards, satellite and deep space communications. However, the two codes have certain distinctive characteristics that ...

  6. Influência das avós na alimentação de lactentes: o que dizem suas filhas e noras Influencia de las abuelas en la alimentación de lactantes Influence of grandmothers on infant feeding: what they say to their daughters and granddaughters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Medeiros Gross

    2011-01-01

    sujetos que involucra corresponsabilidad y congruencia cultural, el enfermero debe considerar las interacciones del grupo familiar que, en su movimiento dialéctico, modulan y son moduladas por la cultura.OBJECTIVE: To identify practices of primiparas about infant feeding of infants learned from the mother and/or grandmother. METHODS: This was a qualitative, descriptive research study. The subjects were 11 primiparas, who used the Unified Health System of Palmeira das Missões/ RS. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes emerged: practices of infant feeding transmitted by grandmothers; influence of grandmothers on infant feeding; feelings of primiparas in regard to the actions of grandmothers on infant feeding. CONCLUSIONS: The grandmothers are important with regard to the transmission of knowledge, wisdom and experiences related to infant feeding. For nursing care focused on the subjects' autonomy and responsibility that involves cultural congruence, the nurse should consider that the interactions of the family group, in its dialectical movement, modulate and are modulated by their culture.

  7. SWAT2: The improved SWAT code system by incorporating the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Hiroki; Suyama, Kenya; Okuno, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    SWAT is a code system, which performs the burnup calculation by the combination of the neutronics calculation code, SRAC95 and the one group burnup calculation code, ORIGEN2.1. The SWAT code system can deal with the cell geometry in SRAC95. However, a precise treatment of resonance absorptions by the SRAC95 code using the ultra-fine group cross section library is not directly applicable to two- or three-dimensional geometry models, because of restrictions in SRAC95. To overcome this problem, SWAT2 which newly introduced the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, MVP into SWAT was developed. Thereby, the burnup calculation by the continuous energy in any geometry became possible. Moreover, using the 147 group cross section library called SWAT library, the reactions which are not dealt with by SRAC95 and MVP can be treated. OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality safety benchmark problems Phase-IB (PWR, a single pin cell model) and Phase-IIIB (BWR, fuel assembly model) were calculated as a verification of SWAT2, and the results were compared with the average values of calculation results of burnup calculation code of each organization. Through two benchmark problems, it was confirmed that SWAT2 was applicable to the burnup calculation of the complicated geometry. (author)

  8. Code of Medical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . SZD-SZZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Te Code was approved on December 12, 1992, at the 3rd regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia and revised on April 24, 1997, at the 27th regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia. The Code was updated and harmonized with the Medical Association of Slovenia and approved on October 6, 2016, at the regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia.

  9. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2018-04-08

    Convolutional Sparse Coding (CSC) is a well-established image representation model especially suited for image restoration tasks. In this work, we extend the applicability of this model by proposing a supervised approach to convolutional sparse coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements to be discriminative. Experimental results show that using supervised convolutional learning results in two key advantages. First, we learn more semantically relevant filters in the dictionary and second, we achieve improved image reconstruction on unseen data.

  10. CONCEPT computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.

    1984-01-01

    CONCEPT is a computer code that will provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for nuclear and coal-fired power plants. The code can develop an estimate for construction at any point in time. Any unit size within the range of about 400 to 1300 MW electric may be selected. Any of 23 reference site locations across the United States and Canada may be selected. PWR, BWR, and coal-fired plants burning high-sulfur and low-sulfur coal can be estimated. Multiple-unit plants can be estimated. Costs due to escalation/inflation and interest during construction are calculated

  11. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...... includes a reformulation of the usual methods to estimate the minimum distances of evaluation codes into the setting of affine variety codes. Finally we describe the connection to the theory of one-pointgeometric Goppa codes. Contents 4.1 Introduction...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 4.9 Codes form order domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 4.10 One-point geometric Goppa codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.11 Bibliographical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 References...

  12. Responses of the L51781Y tk/sup +//tk/sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay: III. 72 coded chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D.B.; Brown, A.; Cattanach, P.; Edwards, I.; McBride, D.; Riach, C.; Caspary, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-two chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L51781Y tk/sup +///sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay, using procedures based upon those described previously. Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before planting in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 ..mu..g/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Significant responses were obtained with allyl isothiocyanate, p-benzoquinone dioxime, benzyl acetate, 2-biphenylamine HCl, bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl)ether, cadmium chloride, chlordane, chlorobenzene, chlorobenzilate, 2-chloroethanol, chlorothalonil, cytarabine x HCl, p,p'-DDE, diazinon, 2,6-dichloro-p-phenylenediamine, N,N-diethylthiourea, diglycidylresorcinol ether, 2,4-dimethoxy aniline x HCl, disperse yellow 3, endosulfan, 1,2-epoxyhexadecane, ethyl acrylate, ethyl benzene, ethylene thiourea, F D and C yellow Number 6, furan, heptachlor, isophorone, mercuric chloride, 4,4'-methylenedianiline x 2 HCl, methyl viologen, nickel sulfate x 6H/sub 2/O, 4,4'-oxydianiline, pentachloroethane, piperonyl butoxide, propyl gallate, quinoline, rotenone, 2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-4-nitro-anisole, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, trichlorfon, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 1,1,3-trimethyl-2-thiourea, 1-vinyl-3-cyclopetene dioxide, vinyl toluene, and ziram. The assay was incapable of providing a clear indication of whether some chemicals were mutagens; these benzyl alcohol, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, phenol, succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide, and toluene.

  13. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.

  14. Dual Coding in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  15. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  16. Radioactive action code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    A new coding system, 'Hazrad', for buildings and transportation containers for alerting emergency services personnel to the presence of radioactive materials has been developed in the United Kingdom. The hazards of materials in the buildings or transport container, together with the recommended emergency action, are represented by a number of codes which are marked on the building or container and interpreted from a chart carried as a pocket-size guide. Buildings would be marked with the familiar yellow 'radioactive' trefoil, the written information 'Radioactive materials' and a list of isotopes. Under this the 'Hazrad' code would be written - three symbols to denote the relative radioactive risk (low, medium or high), the biological risk (also low, medium or high) and the third showing the type of radiation emitted, alpha, beta or gamma. The response cards indicate appropriate measures to take, eg for a high biological risk, Bio3, the wearing of a gas-tight protection suit is advised. The code and its uses are explained. (U.K.)

  17. Building Codes and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  18. Physics of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Jones, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The title given this paper is a bit presumptuous, since one can hardly expect to cover the physics incorporated into all the codes already written and currently being written. The authors focus on those codes which have been found to be particularly useful in the analysis and design of linacs. At that the authors will be a bit parochial and discuss primarily those codes used for the design of radio-frequency (rf) linacs, although the discussions of TRANSPORT and MARYLIE have little to do with the time structures of the beams being analyzed. The plan of this paper is first to describe rather simply the concepts of emittance and brightness, then to describe rather briefly each of the codes TRANSPORT, PARMTEQ, TBCI, MARYLIE, and ISIS, indicating what physics is and is not included in each of them. It is expected that the vast majority of what is covered will apply equally well to protons and electrons (and other particles). This material is intended to be tutorial in nature and can in no way be expected to be exhaustive. 31 references, 4 figures

  19. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  20. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  1. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  2. Nuclear safety code study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.H.; Ford, D.; Le, H.; Park, S.; Cooke, K.L.; Bleakney, T.; Spanier, J.; Wilburn, N.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Carmichael, B.

    1981-01-01

    The objective is to analyze an overpower accident in an LMFBR. A simplified model of the primary coolant loop was developed in order to understand the instabilities encountered with the MELT III and SAS codes. The computer programs were translated for switching to the IBM 4331. Numerical methods were investigated for solving the neutron kinetics equations; the Adams and Gear methods were compared. (DLC)

  3. Revised C++ coding conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Callot, O

    2001-01-01

    This document replaces the note LHCb 98-049 by Pavel Binko. After a few years of practice, some simplification and clarification of the rules was needed. As many more people have now some experience in writing C++ code, their opinion was also taken into account to get a commonly agreed set of conventions

  4. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  5. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information and coding theory. A large scale relay computer had failed to deliver the expected results due to a hardware fault. Hamming, one of the active proponents of computer usage, was determined to find an efficient means by which computers could detect and correct their own faults. A mathematician by train-.

  6. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives ...

  7. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  8. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  9. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  10. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    having a probability Pi of being equal to a 1. Let us assume ... equal to a 0/1 has no bearing on the probability of the. It is often ... bits (call this set S) whose individual bits add up to zero ... In the context of binary error-correct~ng codes, specifi-.

  11. Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianlin; Jun Cui, Tie; Ji, Wei; Liu, Shuo; Ding, Jun; Wan, Xiang; Bo Li, Yun; Jiang, Menghua; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-08-04

    Metasurfaces have enabled a plethora of emerging functions within an ultrathin dimension, paving way towards flat and highly integrated photonic devices. Despite the rapid progress in this area, simultaneous realization of reconfigurability, high efficiency, and full control over the phase and amplitude of scattered light is posing a great challenge. Here, we try to tackle this challenge by introducing the concept of a reprogrammable hologram based on 1-bit coding metasurfaces. The state of each unit cell of the coding metasurface can be switched between '1' and '0' by electrically controlling the loaded diodes. Our proof-of-concept experiments show that multiple desired holographic images can be realized in real time with only a single coding metasurface. The proposed reprogrammable hologram may be a key in enabling future intelligent devices with reconfigurable and programmable functionalities that may lead to advances in a variety of applications such as microscopy, display, security, data storage, and information processing.Realizing metasurfaces with reconfigurability, high efficiency, and control over phase and amplitude is a challenge. Here, Li et al. introduce a reprogrammable hologram based on a 1-bit coding metasurface, where the state of each unit cell of the coding metasurface can be switched electrically.

  12. Z₂-double cyclic codes

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, J.

    2014-01-01

    A binary linear code C is a Z2-double cyclic code if the set of coordinates can be partitioned into two subsets such that any cyclic shift of the coordinates of both subsets leaves invariant the code. These codes can be identified as submodules of the Z2[x]-module Z2[x]/(x^r − 1) × Z2[x]/(x^s − 1). We determine the structure of Z2-double cyclic codes giving the generator polynomials of these codes. The related polynomial representation of Z2-double cyclic codes and its duals, and the relation...

  13. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The TESS [Tandem Experiment Simulation Studies] computer code user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procassini, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    TESS (Tandem Experiment Simulation Studies) is a one-dimensional, bounded particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code designed to investigate the confinement and transport of plasma in a magnetic mirror device, including tandem mirror configurations. Mirror plasmas may be modeled in a system which includes an applied magnetic field and/or a self-consistent or applied electrostatic potential. The PIC code TESS is similar to the PIC code DIPSI (Direct Implicit Plasma Surface Interactions) which is designed to study plasma transport to and interaction with a solid surface. The codes TESS and DIPSI are direct descendants of the PIC code ES1 that was created by A. B. Langdon. This document provides the user with a brief description of the methods used in the code and a tutorial on the use of the code. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  15. 143 OUR GRANDMOTHERS, EXCLUDED FROM HISTORY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecomatemalistic theory by Swila (2014) and Talitha cum theory by Dube ... Sexism is viewed as a prejudice backed by power directed against women ... dependent children (United Nations Statistical Department, 2000; Uchem, 2001; Ezenweke, .... confronts systems of patriarchy, race and class in traditional societies and ...

  16. Essential idempotents and simplex codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Chalom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We define essential idempotents in group algebras and use them to prove that every mininmal abelian non-cyclic code is a repetition code. Also we use them to prove that every minimal abelian code is equivalent to a minimal cyclic code of the same length. Finally, we show that a binary cyclic code is simplex if and only if is of length of the form $n=2^k-1$ and is generated by an essential idempotent.

  17. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...

  18. On the structure of Lattice code WIMSD-5B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Young; Min, Byung Joo

    2004-03-01

    The WIMS-D code is a freely available thermal reactor physics lattice code used widely for thermal research and power reactor calculation. Now the code WIMS-AECL, developed on the basis of WIMS-D, has been used as one of lattice codes for the cell calculation in Canada and also, in 1998, the latest version WIMSD-5B is released for OECD/NEA Data Bank. While WIMS-KAERI was developed and has been used, originated from WIMS-D, in Korea, it was adjusted for the cell calculation of research reactor HANARO and so it has no confirmaty to CANDU reactor. Therefore, the code development applicable to cell calculation of CANDU reactor is necessary not only for technological independence and but also for the establishment of CANDU safety analysis system. A lattice code WIMSD-5B was analyzed in order to set the system of reactor physics computer codes, to be used in the assessment of void reactivity effect. In order to improve and validate WIMSD-5B code, the analysis of the structure of WIMSD-5B lattice code was made and so its structure, algorithm and the subroutines of WIMSD-5B were presented for the cluster type and the pij method modelling the CANDU-6 fuel

  19. Detailed resonance absorption calculations with the Monte Carlo code MCNP and collision probability version of the slowing down code ROLAIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijf, W.J.M. de; Janssen, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Very accurate Mote Carlo calculations with Monte Carlo Code have been performed to serve as reference for benchmark calculations on resonance absorption by U 238 in a typical PWR pin-cell geometry. Calculations with the energy-pointwise slowing down code calculates the resonance absorption accurately. Calculations with the multigroup discrete ordinates code XSDRN show that accurate results can only be achieved with a very fine energy mesh. (authors). 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes constructed from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Chunhui; Chen, Riqing

    2017-12-01

    Recently, entanglement-assisted quantum codes have been constructed from cyclic codes by some scholars. However, how to determine the number of shared pairs required to construct entanglement-assisted quantum codes is not an easy work. In this paper, we propose a decomposition of the defining set of negacyclic codes. Based on this method, four families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes constructed in this paper satisfy the entanglement-assisted quantum Singleton bound, where the minimum distance satisfies q+1 ≤ d≤ n+2/2. Furthermore, we construct two families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes with maximal entanglement.

  1. Introduction of gadolinium in the library of Leopard code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Menezes, A.

    1989-12-01

    The materials Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156 and Gd-157 were included in the LEOPARD code library at the request of FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A. Results from comparison of LEOPARD and WIMSD/4 codes for a typical cell with 7 burnup steps, are presented. (author) [pt

  2. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  3. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off......-the-shelf hardware is less reliable than the dedicated network elements used in conventional cellular deployments. The typical solution for this problem is to duplicate network functions across geographically distributed hardware in order to ensure diversity. In contrast, this letter proposes to leverage channel...... coding in order to enhance the robustness on NFV to hardware failure. The proposed approach targets the network function of uplink channel decoding, and builds on the algebraic structure of the encoded data frames in order to perform in-network coding on the signals to be processed at different servers...

  4. The NIMROD Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

  5. Effects of siRNA Silencing of TUG1 and LCAL6 Long Non-coding RNAs on Patient-derived Xenograft of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tian; Huang, Hairong; Li, Xiaoyou; Liao, Jing; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Cheng, X I; Liang, Lei; Hu, Wenjuan; Yun, Shifeng

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigate the anti-tumor efficacy of silencing of TUG1 and LCAL6 long non-coding RNA in the PDX model. PDXs were established by subcutaneously implanting NSCLC surgical tumor fragments into immunodeficient mice. PDX characterization was performed by histopathological, immunohistochemical and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses for NSCLC subtype-specific markers and expression of LCAL6 and TUG1. Anti-tumor efficacy of siRNA silencing of TUG1 and LCAL6 was also investigated in the PDX model. The effect of TUG1 and LCAL6 silencing on protein expression of proliferation marker Ki67 and HOX-gene family HOXB7 in the tumors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Establishment of NSCLC PDX models resulted in 9 of 26 cases (34.6%). Lung squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) had a higher engraftment rate (58.3%) than lung adenocarcinomas (ADC) (18.2%) (pTUG1. The tumor volume and weight were significantly reduced in the TUG1-silenced group as compared to the control group (p0.05). Expression of both TUG1and LCAL6 was reduced by siRNA treatment. Expression of Ki67 and HOXB7 was significantly suppressed in both the TUG1- and LCAL6-silenced groups compared to the control group (pTUG1-silenced group showed more reduced Ki67 expression than the LCAL6-silenced group (pTUG1 and LCAL6. Silencing of TUG1 inhibited both tumor growth and expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 and HOX-gene family HOXB7 in the PDX model of NSCLC. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of Multiple Budding Yeast Cells and a Partial Sequence of 43-kDa Glycoprotein Coding Gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a Case of Lacaziosis in a Female Pacific White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Tomoko; Ueda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Izawa, Takeshi; Konno, Toshihiro; Yamate, Jyoji; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Sano, Ayako; Wada, Shinpei

    2016-08-01

    Lacaziosis, formerly called as lobomycosis, is a zoonotic mycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, found in humans and dolphins, and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean of Japanese coast. Susceptible Cetacean species include the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus), and the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis); however, no cases have been recorded in other Cetacean species. We diagnosed a case of Lacaziosis in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) nursing in an aquarium in Japan. The dolphin was a female estimated to be more than 14 years old at the end of June 2015 and was captured in a coast of Japan Sea in 2001. Multiple, lobose, and solid granulomatous lesions with or without ulcers appeared on her jaw, back, flipper and fluke skin, in July 2014. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present case were similar to those of our previous cases. Multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells were detected in the biopsied samples. The partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein coding gene confirmed by a nested PCR and sequencing, which revealed a different genotype from both Amazonian and Japanese lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins, and was 99 % identical to those derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; a sister fungal species to L. loboi. This is the first case of lacaziosis in Pacific white-sided dolphin.

  7. The long non-coding HOTAIR is modulated by cyclic stretch and WNT/β-CATENIN in human aortic valve cells and is a novel repressor of calcification genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Katrina; Dyo, Jeffrey; Patel, Vishal; Sasik, Roman; Mohamed, Salah A; Hardiman, Gary; Nigam, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Aortic valve calcification is a significant and serious clinical problem for which there are no effective medical treatments. Individuals born with bicuspid aortic valves, 1-2% of the population, are at the highest risk of developing aortic valve calcification. Aortic valve calcification involves increased expression of calcification and inflammatory genes. Bicuspid aortic valve leaflets experience increased biomechanical strain as compared to normal tricuspid aortic valves. The molecular pathogenesis involved in the calcification of BAVs are not well understood, especially the molecular response to mechanical stretch. HOTAIR is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that has been implicated with cancer but has not been studied in cardiac disease. We have found that HOTAIR levels are decreased in BAVs and in human aortic interstitial cells (AVICs) exposed to cyclic stretch. Reducing HOTAIR levels via siRNA in AVICs results in increased expression of calcification genes. Our data suggest that β-catenin is a stretch responsive signaling pathway that represses HOTAIR. This is the first report demonstrating that HOTAIR is mechanoresponsive and repressed by WNT β-catenin signaling. These findings provide novel evidence that HOTAIR is involved in aortic valve calcification.

  8. The long non-coding HOTAIR is modulated by cyclic stretch and WNT/β-CATENIN in human aortic valve cells and is a novel repressor of calcification genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Carrion

    Full Text Available Aortic valve calcification is a significant and serious clinical problem for which there are no effective medical treatments. Individuals born with bicuspid aortic valves, 1-2% of the population, are at the highest risk of developing aortic valve calcification. Aortic valve calcification involves increased expression of calcification and inflammatory genes. Bicuspid aortic valve leaflets experience increased biomechanical strain as compared to normal tricuspid aortic valves. The molecular pathogenesis involved in the calcification of BAVs are not well understood, especially the molecular response to mechanical stretch. HOTAIR is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA that has been implicated with cancer but has not been studied in cardiac disease. We have found that HOTAIR levels are decreased in BAVs and in human aortic interstitial cells (AVICs exposed to cyclic stretch. Reducing HOTAIR levels via siRNA in AVICs results in increased expression of calcification genes. Our data suggest that β-catenin is a stretch responsive signaling pathway that represses HOTAIR. This is the first report demonstrating that HOTAIR is mechanoresponsive and repressed by WNT β-catenin signaling. These findings provide novel evidence that HOTAIR is involved in aortic valve calcification.

  9. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  10. Discrete Sparse Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.

  11. Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Colin; Hone, Christopher; Nowlan, N.V.

    1984-05-01

    This Code of Practice introduces accepted safety procedures associated with the use of alpha, beta, gamma and X-radiation in secondary schools (pupils aged 12 to 18) in Ireland, and summarises good practice and procedures as they apply to radiation protection. Typical dose rates at various distances from sealed sources are quoted, and simplified equations are used to demonstrate dose and shielding calculations. The regulatory aspects of radiation protection are outlined, and references to statutory documents are given

  12. Tokamak simulation code manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Kyoo; Oh, Byung Hoon; Hong, Bong Keun; Lee, Kwang Won

    1995-01-01

    The method to use TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code) developed by Princeton plasma physics laboratory is illustrated. In KT-2 tokamak, time dependent simulation of axisymmetric toroidal plasma and vertical stability have to be taken into account in design phase using TSC. In this report physical modelling of TSC are described and examples of application in JAERI and SERI are illustrated, which will be useful when TSC is installed KAERI computer system. (Author) 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  14. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  15. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  17. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  18. Quality Improvement of MARS Code and Establishment of Code Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2010-04-01

    The improvement of MARS code quality and coupling with regulatory auditing code have been accomplished for the establishment of self-reliable technology based regulatory auditing system. The unified auditing system code was realized also by implementing the CANDU specific models and correlations. As a part of the quality assurance activities, the various QA reports were published through the code assessments. The code manuals were updated and published a new manual which describe the new models and correlations. The code coupling methods were verified though the exercise of plant application. The education-training seminar and technology transfer were performed for the code users. The developed MARS-KS is utilized as reliable auditing tool for the resolving the safety issue and other regulatory calculations. The code can be utilized as a base technology for GEN IV reactor applications

  19. Design of convolutional tornado code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Yang, Yao; Gao, Hongmin; Tan, Lu

    2017-09-01

    As a linear block code, the traditional tornado (tTN) code is inefficient in burst-erasure environment and its multi-level structure may lead to high encoding/decoding complexity. This paper presents a convolutional tornado (cTN) code which is able to improve the burst-erasure protection capability by applying the convolution property to the tTN code, and reduce computational complexity by abrogating the multi-level structure. The simulation results show that cTN code can provide a better packet loss protection performance with lower computation complexity than tTN code.

  20. Random linear codes in steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  1. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  2. Theoretical calculation possibilities of the computer code HAMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onusic Junior, J.

    1978-06-01

    With the aim to know the theoretical calculation possibilities of the computer code HAMMER, developed at Savanah River Laboratory, a analysis of the crytical cells assembly of the kind utilized in PWR reactors is made. (L.F.S.) [pt

  3. (Nearly) portable PIC code for parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decyk, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Numerical Tokamak Project, the author has developed a (nearly) portable, one dimensional version of the GCPIC algorithm for particle-in-cell codes on parallel computers. This algorithm uses a spatial domain decomposition for the fields, and passes particles from one domain to another as the particles move spatially. With only minor changes, the code has been run in parallel on the Intel Delta, the Cray C-90, the IBM ES/9000 and a cluster of workstations. After a line by line translation into cmfortran, the code was also run on the CM-200. Impressive speeds have been achieved, both on the Intel Delta and the Cray C-90, around 30 nanoseconds per particle per time step. In addition, the author was able to isolate the data management modules, so that the physics modules were not changed much from their sequential version, and the data management modules can be used as open-quotes black boxes.close quotes

  4. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Thommesen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes.......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes....

  5. TASS code topical report. V.1 TASS code technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Suk K.; Chang, W. P.; Kim, K. D.; Kim, H. C.; Yoon, H. Y.

    1997-02-01

    TASS 1.0 code has been developed at KAERI for the initial and reload non-LOCA safety analysis for the operating PWRs as well as the PWRs under construction in Korea. TASS code will replace various vendor's non-LOCA safety analysis codes currently used for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs in Korea. This can be achieved through TASS code input modifications specific to each reactor type. The TASS code can be run interactively through the keyboard operation. A simimodular configuration used in developing the TASS code enables the user easily implement new models. TASS code has been programmed using FORTRAN77 which makes it easy to install and port for different computer environments. The TASS code can be utilized for the steady state simulation as well as the non-LOCA transient simulations such as power excursions, reactor coolant pump trips, load rejections, loss of feedwater, steam line breaks, steam generator tube ruptures, rod withdrawal and drop, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The malfunctions of the control systems, components, operator actions and the transients caused by the malfunctions can be easily simulated using the TASS code. This technical report describes the TASS 1.0 code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code technical manual has been prepared as a part of the TASS code manual which includes TASS code user's manual and TASS code validation report, and will be submitted to the regulatory body as a TASS code topical report for a licensing non-LOCA safety analysis for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs operating and under construction in Korea. (author). 42 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs

  6. Construction of new quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Divya; Gupta, Manish; Narula, Rajesh; Bhullar, Jaskaran

    Obtaining quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes from dual containing classical constacyclic codes using Hermitian construction have paved a path to undertake the challenges related to such constructions. Using the same technique, some new parameters of quantum MDS codes have been constructed here. One set of parameters obtained in this paper has achieved much larger distance than work done earlier. The remaining constructed parameters of quantum MDS codes have large minimum distance and were not explored yet.

  7. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli.

  8. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  9. Fast decoders for qudit topological codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Hussain; Brown, Benjamin J; Campbell, Earl T; Browne, Dan E

    2014-01-01

    Qudit toric codes are a natural higher-dimensional generalization of the well-studied qubit toric code. However, standard methods for error correction of the qubit toric code are not applicable to them. Novel decoders are needed. In this paper we introduce two renormalization group decoders for qudit codes and analyse their error correction thresholds and efficiency. The first decoder is a generalization of a ‘hard-decisions’ decoder due to Bravyi and Haah (arXiv:1112.3252). We modify this decoder to overcome a percolation effect which limits its threshold performance for many-level quantum systems. The second decoder is a generalization of a ‘soft-decisions’ decoder due to Poulin and Duclos-Cianci (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 050504), with a small cell size to optimize the efficiency of implementation in the high dimensional case. In each case, we estimate thresholds for the uncorrelated bit-flip error model and provide a comparative analysis of the performance of both these approaches to error correction of qudit toric codes. (paper)

  10. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Code stroke in Asturias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, L; Villanueva, M J; Vega, P; Casado, I; Vidal, J A; Castaño, B; Amorín, M; de la Vega, V; Santos, H; Trigo, A; Gómez, M B; Larrosa, D; Temprano, T; González, M; Murias, E; Calleja, S

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase is an effective treatment for ischaemic stroke when applied during the first 4.5 hours, but less than 15% of patients have access to this technique. Mechanical thrombectomy is more frequently able to recanalise proximal occlusions in large vessels, but the infrastructure it requires makes it even less available. We describe the implementation of code stroke in Asturias, as well as the process of adapting various existing resources for urgent stroke care in the region. By considering these resources, and the demographic and geographic circumstances of our region, we examine ways of reorganising the code stroke protocol that would optimise treatment times and provide the most appropriate treatment for each patient. We distributed the 8 health districts in Asturias so as to permit referral of candidates for reperfusion therapies to either of the 2 hospitals with 24-hour stroke units and on-call neurologists and providing IV fibrinolysis. Hospitals were assigned according to proximity and stroke severity; the most severe cases were immediately referred to the hospital with on-call interventional neurology care. Patient triage was provided by pre-hospital emergency services according to the NIHSS score. Modifications to code stroke in Asturias have allowed us to apply reperfusion therapies with good results, while emphasising equitable care and managing the severity-time ratio to offer the best and safest treatment for each patient as soon as possible. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Decoding Xing-Ling codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed.......This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed....

  13. WWER reactor physics code applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, J.; Kereszturi, A.; Gacs, A.; Telbisz, M.

    1994-01-01

    The coupled steady-state reactor physics and thermohydraulic code system KARATE has been developed and applied for WWER-1000 and WWER-440 operational calculations. The 3 D coupled kinetic code KIKO3D has been developed and validated for WWER-440 accident analysis applications. The coupled kinetic code SMARTA developed by VTT Helsinki has been applied for WWER-440 accident analysis. The paper gives a summary of the experience in code development and application. (authors). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  14. The path of code linting

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  15. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  16. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially-available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  17. Quick response codes in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moidin Shakil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick response (QR code codes are two-dimensional barcodes, which encodes for a large amount of information. QR codes in Orthodontics are an innovative approach in which patient details, radiographic interpretation, and treatment plan can be encoded. Implementing QR code in Orthodontics will save time, reduces paperwork, and minimizes manual efforts in storage and retrieval of patient information during subsequent stages of treatment.

  18. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  19. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  20. UNSPEC: revisited (semaphore code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neifert, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The UNSPEC code is used to solve the problem of unfolding an observed x-ray spectrum given the response matrix of the measuring system and the measured signal values. UNSPEC uses an iterative technique to solve the unfold problem. Due to experimental errors in the measured signal values and/or computer round-off errors, discontinuities and oscillatory behavior may occur in the iterated spectrum. These can be suppressed by smoothing the results after each iteration. Input/output options and control cards are explained; sample input and output are provided

  1. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  2. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  3. The FLIC conversion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, J C [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-05-15

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  4. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  5. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...... machinery of algebraic geometry....

  6. Direct-semidirect (DSD) codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvelbar, F.

    1999-01-01

    Recent codes for direct-semidirect (DSD) model calculations in the form of answers to a detailed questionnaire are reviewed. These codes include those embodying the classical DSD approach covering only the transitions to the bound states (RAF, HIKARI, and those of the Bologna group), as well as the code CUPIDO++ that also treats transitions to unbound states. (author)

  7. Dual Coding, Reasoning and Fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    1982-01-01

    Develops the theory that a fallacy is not a comparison of a rhetorical text to a set of definitions but a comparison of one person's cognition with another's. Reviews Paivio's dual coding theory, relates nonverbal coding to reasoning processes, and generates a limited fallacy theory based on dual coding theory. (PD)

  8. Strongly-MDS convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Rosenthal, J; Smarandache, R

    Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes have the property that their free distance is maximal among all codes of the same rate and the same degree. In this paper, a class of MDS convolutional codes is introduced whose column distances reach the generalized Singleton bound at the

  9. Lattice polytopes in coding theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Soprunov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss combinatorial questions about lattice polytopes motivated by recent results on minimum distance estimation for toric codes. We also include a new inductive bound for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes. As an application, we give new formulas for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes for special lattice point configurations.

  10. Computer codes for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    Computer codes for fusion safety analysis have been under development in the United States for about a decade. This paper will discuss five codes that are currently under development by the Fusion Safety Program. The purpose and capability of each code will be presented, a sample given, followed by a discussion of the present status and future development plans

  11. Geochemical computer codes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this report a review of available codes is performed and some code intercomparisons are also discussed. The number of codes treating natural waters (groundwater, lake water, sea water) is large. Most geochemical computer codes treat equilibrium conditions, although some codes with kinetic capability are available. A geochemical equilibrium model consists of a computer code, solving a set of equations by some numerical method and a data base, consisting of thermodynamic data required for the calculations. There are some codes which treat coupled geochemical and transport modeling. Some of these codes solve the equilibrium and transport equations simultaneously while other solve the equations separately from each other. The coupled codes require a large computer capacity and have thus as yet limited use. Three code intercomparisons have been found in literature. It may be concluded that there are many codes available for geochemical calculations but most of them require a user that us quite familiar with the code. The user also has to know the geochemical system in order to judge the reliability of the results. A high quality data base is necessary to obtain a reliable result. The best results may be expected for the major species of natural waters. For more complicated problems, including trace elements, precipitation/dissolution, adsorption, etc., the results seem to be less reliable. (With 44 refs.) (author)

  12. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are 1/2 and 1/3. The performances of both systems with high (10−2 and low (10−4 BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  13. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  14. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ 2 + μυ F 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF 2 . In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R 2 , for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ 2 = 0, υ 2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R 2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R 2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2 . (paper)

  15. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burr Alister

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are and . The performances of both systems with high ( and low ( BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  16. Converter of a continuous code into the Grey code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchar, A.I.; TrUbnikov, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a converter of a continuous code into the Grey code used in a 12-charged precision amplitude-to-digital converter to decrease the digital component of spectrometer differential nonlinearity to +0.7% in the 98% range of the measured band. To construct the converter of a continuous code corresponding to the input signal amplitude into the Grey code used is the regularity in recycling of units and zeroes in each discharge of the Grey code in the case of a continuous change of the number of pulses of a continuous code. The converter is constructed on the elements of 155 series, the frequency of continuous code pulse passing at the converter input is 25 MHz

  17. OPAL reactor calculations using the Monte Carlo code serpent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Diego; Villarino, Eduardo [Nuclear Engineering Dept., INVAP S.E., Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    In the present work the Monte Carlo cell code developed by VTT Serpent v1.1.14 is used to model the MTR fuel assemblies (FA) and control rods (CR) from OPAL (Open Pool Australian Light-water) reactor in order to obtain few-group constants with burnup dependence to be used in the already developed reactor core models. These core calculations are performed using CITVAP 3-D diffusion code, which is well-known reactor code based on CITATION. Subsequently the results are compared with those obtained by the deterministic calculation line used by INVAP, which uses the Collision Probability Condor cell-code to obtain few-group constants. Finally the results are compared with the experimental data obtained from the reactor information for several operation cycles. As a result several evaluations are performed, including a code to code cell comparison at cell and core level and calculation-experiment comparison at core level in order to evaluate the Serpent code actual capabilities. (author)

  18. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  19. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  20. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes migration and invasion by acting as a ceRNA of miR-335-5p in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Ming; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Xiandong; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-05-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) have been the focus of increasing attention due to the role they play in many diseases, including osteosarcoma. The function of taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) and its mechanism in osteosarcoma remain unclear. In our research, we found that TUG1 was elevated and correlated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. In addition, the following functional experiment showed that decreased TUG1 could remarkably inhibit osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion, indicating that TUG1 functioned as an oncogene in osteosarcoma. Moreover, we revealed that TUG1 and Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), a metastasis-related gene targeted by microRNA-335-5p (miR-335-5p), had the same miR-335-5p combining site. The subsequent luciferase assay verified TUG1 was a target of miR-335-5p. Furthermore, the results of a real-time quantitative PCR showed that TUG1 and miR-335-5p could affect each other's expression. respectively. Finally, we affirmed that TUG1 affected ROCK1 expression and ROCK1-mediated migration/invasion by working as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) via miR-335-5p. In summary, the findings of this study, based on ceRNA theory, combining the research foundation of miR-335-5p and ROCK1, and taking TUG1 as a new study point, provide new insight into molecular-level reversing migration and invasion of osteosarcoma. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.