WorldWideScience

Sample records for grande valley region

  1. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  2. Promoting Undergraduate Research at Grand Valley State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemersma, P.; Mekik, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    Grand Valley State University (GVSU) is a relatively young, rapidly growing, predominately undergraduate institution of about 20,000 students located in western Michigan in which undergraduate research plays a vital role in the education of our students. Student research is supported and actively promoted by 1) creating university funding opportunities and taking advantage of small outside funding sources 2) building a tradition of undergraduate research 3) incorporating small research activities into classes and 4) educating students explicitly in how to prepare a professional poster, give a professional talk and write a journal article. As the saying goes, if you have money, the students will come. At GVSU most students recognize the value of a research experience but need income to pay for college expenses. The internally funded Student Summer Scholars program at GVSU provides student salary and faculty stipend for a summer research project (\\6000 per grant). The geology department has also been successful at obtaining grants from the NASA Michigan Space Grant Consortium (\\5,000 plus a 100% GVSU match). We have been successful in using these easier to obtain smaller grants to fund undergraduate projects. In some cases small grants actually allow us to pursue "risky" or otherwise difficult to fund projects. Undergraduate research "counts" at GVSU and once a tradition and critical mass of undergraduate research has been established, it can become self-sustaining. To recognize the achievements of undergraduate research at GVSU, there is an annual Student Scholarship Day in which the students (580 university wide) present the results of their research. Also, by persuading students in our introductory classes (for extra credit) to attend Student Scholarship Day, the students, early in their college career, can see what fellow students can accomplish and student presenters can revel in their role of researcher and educator. Such an event helps to build a tradition

  3. Human impacts on riparian ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Valley during historic times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank E. Wozniak

    1996-01-01

    The development of irrigation agriculture in historic times has profoundly impacted riparian ecosystems in the Middle Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico. A vital relationship has existed between water resources and settlement in the semi-arid Southwest since prehistoric times. Levels of technology have influenced human generated changes in the riparian ecosystems of the...

  4. A Survey of Bee Species Found Pollinating Watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Henne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. hives were in any of the fields; however, two contained managed hives of the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson. A total of 15 species were collected or observed from all three fields combined. Of these species, only four were found to be very abundant: Agapostemon angelicus Cockerell/texanus Cresson, A. mellifera, Lasioglossum coactum (Cresson, and Melissodes thelypodii Cockerell. Apis mellifera comprised 46% of all bees collected from all three fields combined and was highly abundant in two of the three fields. In the third field, however, A. mellifera and Agapostemon angelicus/texanus were equally abundant. Surprisingly, B. impatiens comprised only 1% of the total bees surveyed in all three fields combined, despite two of the fields having several managed hives each. As B. impatiens is not native to this region, it was not surprising that none were collected or observed in the field with no managed hives.

  5. Health information Hispanic outreach in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Virginia M; Wood, Frederick B; Warner, Debra G; Olney, Cynthia A; Olivier, Evelyn R; Siegel, Elliot R

    2006-04-01

    staff who were highly motivated to achieve the project goals. The computer workstations projects at the two clinics were less successful, due in part to limited staff commitment and conflicting priorities. The HI HO project tested methods of reaching the Hispanic community in the Lower Rio Grande Valley region of Texas. The four HI HO pilot projects varied in achieving their stated objectives. But taken as a whole, the HI HO project significantly contributed to a better understanding of health information outreach to the Hispanic community, knowledge that should be useful to others with similar outreach activities.

  6. Grand Valley State University Checks Out Energy Savings at New Mary Idema Pew Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Grand Valley State University (GVSU) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  7. DIETARY CHARACTERIZATIONS IN A STUDY OF HUMAN EXPOSURES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY: I. FOODS AND BEVERAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Environmental Study (LRGVES), a cooperative effort between various federal and state agencies, responded to concerns of the local community about possible adverse health effects related to environmental conditions. The LRGVES pilot project, conducted d...

  8. RiSA: A Science Festival for the Bilingual and Bicultural Rio Grande Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Joey Shapiro; Torres, Cristina; Stone, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The Rio Grande Science and Arts (RiSA) Festival organized by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy (CGWA) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) will use a wide variety of artforms to bring physics and science topics to the bilingual and bicultural population of the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. The science and art faculty at UTB will partner with art and education professionals to create an annual community event celebrating science though art. Music, dance, poetry, and visual arts will headline the festival activities. Festival events and products will be produced in both English and Spanish to attract and inform the bilingual local community. The RiSA Festival is supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation. Supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation.

  9. Water resources of the Lower Rio Grande de Arecibo alluvial valley, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Aponte, Vicente

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the surface and groundwater resources of the lower Rio Grande de Arecibo alluvial valley was made between 1981 and 1983. Rio Grande de Arecibo is the major source of water in the valley with a mean-annual discharge of 527 cu ft/sec (382,000 acre-ft/yr). Its lowest mean-daily flow (low flow) during 12 yr of record is 50 cu ft/sec. Withdrawals of water from Rio Grande de Arecibo exceeding 15 cu ft/sec during periods of extreme low flows could cause reduction of recharge to the aquifer. However, withdrawals of as much as 35 cu ft/sec are possible when base flow ranges from 90 to 200 cu ft/sec without causing a reduction of aquifer recharge. An unconfined aquifer within the alluvial valley is hydraulically continuous with bordering limestone formations. A clay layer divides the alluvial aquifer into two separate hydraulic systems. Groundwater from the alluvial aquifer above the clay layer has not been widely developed. However, high yielding wells presently yield as much as 9.6 mil gal/day (10,800 acre-ft/yr) from the aquifers occurring below the clay layer within the alluvium and underlaying limestones. Transmissivity ranges from 3,000 sq ft/day in the alluvial area to 42,000 sq ft/day in the adjacent limestone areas. Total groundwater flow through aquifers within the study area (excluding water withdrawn by wells) is about 20.6 mil gal/day (23,100 acre-ft/yr). 50% of this amount is estimated to flow to the eastern area of Cano Tiburones and discharges as springs and seeps. An estimated 9.4 mil gal/day (10,500 acre-ft/yr) of additional groundwater can be withdrawn from the aquifers below the clay layer without reversing the northward hydraulic gradient. Seepage from Rio Grande de Arecibo to the groundwater system at the east side of the valley is probably the key to the development of groundwater resources in the Arecibo area. San Pedro spring, with an average discharge of 8.6 mil gal/day (9,600 acre-ft/yr), is undeveloped and represents a potential

  10. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references

  11. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  12. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  13. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  14. Living in Limbo: Latinas' Assessment of Lower Rio Grande Valley Colonias Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Sharpe, Patricia A; Del Castillo-González, Lourdes; Treviño, Laura; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Community asset mapping (CAM) is the collective process of identifying local assets and strategizing processes to address public health issues and concerns and improve quality of life. Prior to implementing a community-based physical activity intervention with Latinas in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley, promotoras [community health workers] conducted 16 interactive sessions in 8 colonias. The analysis of the transcribed CAM recordings and on-site observational data resulted in the construction of Living in Limbo as the thematic representation of these Latinas' social isolation and marginalization associated with pervasive poverty, undocumented immigration status or lack of citizenship, their fears emanating from threats to physical and emotional safety, and the barriers created by lack of availability and access to resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An international borderland of concern: Conservation of biodiversity in the Lower Rio Grande Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie,, David M.

    2016-07-20

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas is located on the United States-Mexico borderland and represents a 240-kilometer (150-mile) linear stretch that ends at the Gulf of Mexico. The LRGV represents a unique transition between temperate and tropical conditions and, as such, sustains an exceptionally high diversity of plants and animals—some of them found in few, or no other, places in the United States. Examples include Leopardus pardalis albescens (northern ocelot) and Falco femoralis septentrionalis (northern aplomado falcon)—both endangered in the United States and emblematic of the LRGV. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) manages three national wildlife refuges (Santa Ana, Lower Rio Grande Valley, and Laguna Atascosa) that together make up the South Texas Refuge Complex, which actively conserves biodiversity in about 76,006 hectares (187,815.5 acres) of native riparian and upland habitats in the LRGV. These diminished habitats harbor many rare, threatened, and endangered species. This report updates the widely used 1988 USFWS biological report titled “Tamaulipan Brushland of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas: Description, Human Impacts, and Management Options” by synthesizing nearly 400 peer-reviewed scientific publications that have resulted from biological and sociological research conducted specifically in the four Texas counties of the LRGV in the past nearly 30 years. This report has three goals: (1) synthesize scientific insights gained since 1988 related to the biology and management of the LRGV and its unique biota, focusing on flora and fauna of greatest conservation concern; (2) update ongoing challenges facing Federal and State agencies and organizations that focus on conservation or key natural resources in the LRGV; and (3) redefine conservation opportunities and land-acquisition strategies that are feasible and appropriate today, given the many new and expanding constraints that challenge conservation

  16. Views on the Anisotropic Nature of Ilva Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two concepts important for the authors of this article: anisotropic region and anisotropic space. Anisotropic region is defined by A. Dauphiné, the geographer (-mathematician, as a territorial unit whose structure results from the organisation of space along one or more axes. From the point of view of a territorial system, this type of region has some characteristics which differentiate it both from the homogeneous region and from the polarised one. These specificities have been analysed for Ilva Valley. The region of Ilva Valley is formed along the morphological axis represented by the Ilva River. The aim is to identify these specificities or their absence within this region. In this way we can determine whether this region is an anisotropic one or just an anisotropic space, namely whether it can be considered as evolving towards an anisotropic region, not yet complying with all characteristics of anisotropic regions.

  17. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Leonard Meade

    1976-01-01

    Miocene regional uplift had caused downcutting streams to breach the salt core resulting in further collapse. The axis of the anticline is a narrow generally flat-floored valley containing a few hills composed of downdropped Mesozoic rocks foundered, in the caprock. The caprock, which underlies thin alluvium in the valley, is composed of contorted gypsum, shale, sandstone, and limestone--the insoluble residue of the Paradox salt.

  18. Defluoridation of Ethiopian Rift Valley Region water using reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defluoridation of Ethiopian Rift Valley Region (ERVR) raw ground water using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Four RO membranes CA995PlE, HR98PP, LFC and ESPA delivered by DSS and Hydranautics were investigated for the retention of fluoride in fluoride water. All four membranes were observed to ...

  19. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS...

  20. Dating by thermoluminescence 127 pottery fragments collected from 4 archaeological sites in Taquari valley, Rio grande do Sul state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigueo; Cano, Nilo F.; Gennari, R.F.; Goncalves, D.C.; Machado, Neli T.G.

    2011-01-01

    127 fragments of pottery from excavation of four archaeological sites in Taquari Valley, close to Lajeado, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil have been dated by thermoluminescence. After usual crushing, sieving, immersing in HCl solution and then in HF solution, accumulated dose, Dac, (or equivalent or paleodose) has been measured using additive method. The annual dose rate of natural radiation was estimated from uranium, thorium and potassium content in both soil from where these fragments have been collected and in fragments itselves. Cosmic ray contribution was added. The interesting finding is that the glow curves of quartz grains from sites enumerated 101, 110 and 114 indicated rare variety of quartz known as reddish quarts, whereas the glow curves of quartz grains, from the site numbered 107 are equal to these of usual quartz (hyaline). Results of dating and the properties of reddish quartz will be discussed. (author)

  1. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Anderson, John F.; Clark, Kerry L.; Durden, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year. PMID:28260991

  2. Mass movements in the Rio Grande Valley (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Northwestern Argentina): a methodological approach to reduce the risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, G.; Pasuto, A.; Rivelli, F. R.

    2009-10-01

    Slope processes such as slides and debris flows, are among the main events that induce effects on the Rio Grande sediment transport capacity. The slides mainly affect the slope of the Rio Grande river basin while debris and mud flows phenomena take place in the tributary valleys. In the past decades several mass movements occurred causing victims and great damages to roads and villages and therefore hazard assessment and risk mitigation is of paramount importance for a correct development of the area. This is also an urgent need since the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. The growing tourism business may lead to an uncontrolled urbanization of the valley with the consequent enlargement of threatened areas. In this framework mitigation measures have to take into account not only technical aspects related to the physical behaviour of the moving masses but also environmental and sociological factors that could influence the effectiveness of the countermeasures. Mitigation of landslide effects is indeed rather complex because of the large extension of the territory and the particular geological and geomorphological setting. Moreover the necessity to maintain the natural condition of the area as prescribed by UNESCO, make this task even more difficult. Nowadays no in-depth study of the entire area exists, therefore an integrated and multidisciplinary investigation plan is going to be set up including geological and geomorphological investigations as well as archaeological and historical surveys. The better understanding of geomorphological evolution processes of the Quebrada de Humahuaca will bridge the gap between the necessity of preservation and the request of safety keeping of the recommendation by UNESCO.

  3. Mass movements in the Rio Grande Valley (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Northwestern Argentina: a methodological approach to reduce the risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marcato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Slope processes such as slides and debris flows, are among the main events that induce effects on the Rio Grande sediment transport capacity. The slides mainly affect the slope of the Rio Grande river basin while debris and mud flows phenomena take place in the tributary valleys. In the past decades several mass movements occurred causing victims and great damages to roads and villages and therefore hazard assessment and risk mitigation is of paramount importance for a correct development of the area. This is also an urgent need since the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. The growing tourism business may lead to an uncontrolled urbanization of the valley with the consequent enlargement of threatened areas.

    In this framework mitigation measures have to take into account not only technical aspects related to the physical behaviour of the moving masses but also environmental and sociological factors that could influence the effectiveness of the countermeasures.

    Mitigation of landslide effects is indeed rather complex because of the large extension of the territory and the particular geological and geomorphological setting. Moreover the necessity to maintain the natural condition of the area as prescribed by UNESCO, make this task even more difficult.

    Nowadays no in-depth study of the entire area exists, therefore an integrated and multidisciplinary investigation plan is going to be set up including geological and geomorphological investigations as well as archaeological and historical surveys. The better understanding of geomorphological evolution processes of the Quebrada de Humahuaca will bridge the gap between the necessity of preservation and the request of safety keeping of the recommendation by UNESCO.

  4. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS Center to help identify populated valleys:- Fac_2011NEI: Pollution sources selected from the National Emissions Inventory (EPA, 2011).- NE_Towns_PopValleys: New England Town polygons (courtesy USGS), with Population in Valleys and Population Density in Valleys calculated by EPA R1 GIS, from 2010 US Census blocks. - VT_E911: Vermont residences (courtesy VT Center for Geographic Information E-911).

  5. 40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.48 Section 81.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.48 Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the...

  6. Geostatistical estimates of future recharge for the Death Valley region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of regional ground water recharge rates under both current and potential future climates are needed to evaluate a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located within the Death Valley ground-water region (DVGWR). Determining the spatial distribution of recharge is important for regional saturated-zone ground-water flow models. In the southern Nevada region, the Maxey-Eakin method has been used for estimating recharge based on average annual precipitation. Although this method does not directly account for a variety of location-specific factors which control recharge (such as bedrock permeability, soil cover, and net radiation), precipitation is the primary factor that controls in the region. Estimates of recharge obtained by using the Maxey-Eakin method are comparable to estimates of recharge obtained by using chloride balance studies. The authors consider the Maxey-Eakin approach as a relatively simple method of obtaining preliminary estimates of recharge on a regional scale

  7. Year 2000 estimated population dose for the Tennessee Valley region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Strauch, S.; Siegel, G.R.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study has recently been completed of the potential regional radiological dose in the Tennessee and Cumberland river basins in the year 2000, resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities. This study, sponsored jointly by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority, was performed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory (ATDL). This study considered the operation in the year 2000 of 33,000 MWe of nuclear capacity within the study area, and of 110,000 MWe in adjacent areas, together with supporting nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Air and water transport models used and methods for calculating nuclide concentrations on the ground are discussed

  8. A multi-dimensional analysis of the upper Rio Grande-San Luis Valley social-ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Ken

    The Upper Rio Grande (URG), located in the San Luis Valley (SLV) of southern Colorado, is the primary contributor to streamflow to the Rio Grande Basin, upstream of the confluence of the Rio Conchos at Presidio, TX. The URG-SLV includes a complex irrigation-dependent agricultural social-ecological system (SES), which began development in 1852, and today generates more than 30% of the SLV revenue. The diversions of Rio Grande water for irrigation in the SLV have had a disproportionate impact on the downstream portion of the river. These diversions caused the flow to cease at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico in the late 1880s, creating international conflict. Similarly, low flows in New Mexico and Texas led to interstate conflict. Understanding changes in the URG-SLV that led to this event and the interactions among various drivers of change in the URG-SLV is a difficult task. One reason is that complex social-ecological systems are adaptive, contain feedbacks, emergent properties, cross-scale linkages, large-scale dynamics and non-linearities. Further, most analyses of SES to date have been qualitative, utilizing conceptual models to understand driver interactions. This study utilizes both qualitative and quantitative techniques to develop an innovative approach for analyzing driver interactions in the URG-SLV. Five drivers were identified for the URG-SLV social-ecological system: water (streamflow), water rights, climate, agriculture, and internal and external water policy. The drivers contained several longitudes (data aspect) relevant to the system, except water policy, for which only discreet events were present. Change point and statistical analyses were applied to the longitudes to identify quantifiable changes, to allow detection of cross-scale linkages between drivers, and presence of feedback cycles. Agricultural was identified as the driver signal. Change points for agricultural expansion defined four distinct periods: 1852--1923, 1924--1948, 1949--1978 and 1979

  9. Environmental contaminants in blood, hair, and tissues of ocelots from the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, 1986-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, M.A.; Laack, L.L.; Clare, Lee M.; Sericano, J.; Presley, R.; Gardinali, P.R.; Gamble, L.R.; Robertson, S.; Frank, D.

    2000-01-01

    The ocelot (Felis pardalis) is an endangered neotropical cat distributed within a small range in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV), in Texas, U.S.A. Studies of the impacts of environmental contaminants in wild cats are few. Approximately one fourth of the estimated population (about 100) of ocelots in the LRGV was sampled to evaluate the impacts of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements on the population. Hair was collected from 32 ocelots trapped between 1986-1992, and blood was collected from 20 ocelots trapped between 1993-1997. A few blood samples were obtained from individuals recaptured two or three times. Tissue samples from 4 road-killed ocelots were also analyzed. DDE, PCBs, and Hg were some of the most common contaminants detected in hair and blood. Mean Hg levels in hair ranged from 0.5 to 1.25 ??g g-1 dw, Se from 1.5 to 3.48 ??g g-1 dw, and Pb from 0.56 to 26.8 ??g g-1 dw. Mean DDE concentrations in plasma ranged from 0.005 ??g g-1 ww to 0.153 ??g g-1 ww, and PCBs ranged from 0.006 ??g g-1 ww to 0.092 ??g g-1 ww. Mean Hg levels in red blood cells ranged from 0.056 ??g g-1 dw to 0.25 ??g g-1 dw. Concentrations of DDE, PCBs, or Hg, did not increase significantly with age, although the highest concentrations of DDE and Hg were found in older animals. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, and Hg were low and at levels that currently do not pose any threat to health or survival of the ocelot. This is further supported by good reproduction of the ocelot in the LRGV, where adult females averaged about 1.5 kittens/litter. Thus, it seems that the current major threat to recovery of the ocelot in the LRGV may be habitat loss, although potential impacts of new generation pesticides, such as organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides need further study.The ocelot (Felis pardalis) is an endangered neotropical cat distributed within a small range in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV), in Texas, U.S.A. Studies of the impacts of

  10. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  11. Assessment of Wastewater in Duhok Valley, Kurdistan Region/Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmaldin E. Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the waste water in Duhok valley in Duhok governorate, during 25km, seven sites were selected in Duhok valley, to represent their water quality. Monthly samples were collected from the Duhok valley for the period from, April to September, 2015. The qualitative study of Duhok valley water tested, as considered one of the main sources of water pollution for Musol Lake. The physical and chemical test for water samples are taken from different locations in Duhok valley. To know the degree of pollution, and the impact of self-purification processes to improve water quality before arriving to the Mosul Lake, and the indicated results of the study a lack of dissolved oxygen in the water (DO. And high organic load values, (BOD and most of the bad qualities during water passage within the city of Duhok, while meat a significant improvement in the quality of water downstream before arriving at the dam Lake, is attributed to the effect of operations of self- purification ability of water. In spite of salinity problems and toxicity, the quality of water is suitable for irrigation crops on both sides of the valley .The all samples were tested for conductivity, TDS, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity, sulfate, BOD, and phosphate, according to the standard methods.

  12. The geology of the Rio Grande region (Galicia, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insinger, H.F.

    1961-01-01

    The metamorphic rock sequence, ranging from micaschists to migmatites, and the intrusive rocks, granites and various dykes, of a coastal region of Galicia are described. A map and a general section give their distribution.

  13. Estimating the Effects of Conversion of Agricultural Land to Urban Land on Deep Percolation of Irrigation Water in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to urban residential land is associated with rapid population growth in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Information regarding the effects of this land-use conversion on deep percolation, irrigation-water application, and associated salt loading to the Colorado River is needed to support water-resource planning and conservation efforts. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) assessed deep percolation and estimated salt loading derived from irrigated agricultural lands in the Grand Valley in a 1985 to 2002 monitoring and evaluation study (NRCS M&E). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum and the Mesa Conservation District, quantified the current (2005-2006) deep percolation and irrigation-water application characteristics of 1/4-acre residential lots and 5-acre estates, urban parks, and urban orchard grass fields in the Grand Valley, and compared the results to NRCS M&E results from alfalfa-crop sites. In addition, pond seepage from three irrigation-water holding ponds was estimated. Salt loading was estimated for the urban study results and the NRCS M&E results by using standard salt-loading factors. A daily soil-moisture balance calculation technique was used at all urban study irrigated sites. Deep percolation was defined as any water infiltrating below the top 12 inches of soil. Deep percolation occurred when the soil-moisture balance in the first 12 inches of soil exceeded the field capacity for the soil type at each site. Results were reported separately for urban study bluegrass-only sites and for all-vegetation type (bluegrass, native plants, and orchard grass) sites. Deep percolation and irrigation-water application also were estimated for a complete irrigation season at three subdivisions by using mean site data from each subdivision. It was estimated that for the three subdivisions, 37 percent of the developed acreage was irrigated (the balance

  14. Analysis of pharmaceutical assistance in the Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul: profile of service users and access to medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Kauffmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical assistance concerns actions developed by the pharmacist and other professionals with the purpose of promoting, protecting and restoring health. Medications are an essential tool in this process that focuses on the access to, and the rational use of, drugs. This study is aimed at evaluating the Pharmaceutical Assistance provided by Municipal Health Offices in the Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul. For this purpose, 2,794 users of public pharmacies were interviewed and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The users of the public pharmacies were mainly female and individuals with low educational level and income. On average, 2.41 drugs were prescribed per medical prescription and 1.72 of these were procured. Out of the total medicines prescribed, 76.5% were listed in the municipal standard drug list (SDL. Medication was prescribed by its generic name in 81.8% of the prescriptions. Antibiotics and injections were prescribed in 11.9% and 4.0% of the prescriptions, respectively. Users' access to information is partial, which can impair adherence to the treatment. Thus, it is possible to conclude that review of the service is necessary for it to be effective.A Assistência Farmacêutica se preocupa com ações desenvolvidas pelo farmacêutico ou outros profissionais com o propósito de promover, proteger e restaurar a saúde. Medicamentos são ferramentas essenciais nesse processo, que se concentra no acesso e no uso racional de fármacos. Este estudo objetivou a avaliação da Assitência Farmacêutica suprida pela Secretaria Municipal da Saúde no Vale do Taquari, no Rio Grande do Sul. Com esse propósito, 2.794 usuários das farmácias públicas foram entrevistados e analisaram-se os dados usando estatística descritiva. Os usuários das farmácias públicas eram, principalmente, mulheres e indivíduos com baixo nível educacional e financeiro. Na média, 2,41 fármacos eram prescritos por prescrição médica e 1,72 destes

  15. Geologic map of the upper Arkansas River valley region, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Bohannon, Robert G.; McIntosh, William C.; Premo, Wayne R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Moscati, Richard J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2017-11-17

    This 1:50,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey geologic map represents a compilation of the most recent geologic studies of the upper Arkansas River valley between Leadville and Salida, Colorado. The valley is structurally controlled by an extensional fault system that forms part of the prominent northern Rio Grande rift, an intra-continental region of crustal extension. This report also incorporates new detailed geologic mapping of previously poorly understood areas within the map area and reinterprets previously studied areas. The mapped region extends into the Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive rocks in the Sawatch Range west of the valley and the Mosquito Range to the east. Paleozoic rocks are preserved along the crest of the Mosquito Range, but most of them have been eroded from the Sawatch Range. Numerous new isotopic ages better constrain the timing of both Proterozoic intrusive events, Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary intrusive events, and Eocene and Miocene volcanic episodes, including widespread ignimbrite eruptions. The uranium-lead ages document extensive about 1,440-million years (Ma) granitic plutonism mostly north of Buena Vista that produced batholiths that intruded an older suite of about 1,760-Ma metamorphic rocks and about 1,700-Ma plutonic rocks. As a result of extension during the Neogene and possibly latest Paleogene, the graben underlying the valley is filled with thick basin-fill deposits (Dry Union Formation and older sediments), which occupy two sub-basins separated by a bedrock high near the town of Granite. The Dry Union Formation has undergone deep erosion since the late Miocene or early Pliocene. During the Pleistocene, ongoing steam incision by the Arkansas River and its major tributaries has been interrupted by periodic aggradation. From Leadville south to Salida as many as seven mapped alluvial depositional units, which range in age from early to late Pleistocene, record periodic aggradational events along these streams that are

  16. Occurrence of rift valley fever (RVF) in Dodoma region, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a peracute or acute febrile zoonotic mosquito-borne viral disease affecting wildlife, domestic animals and occasionally humans. It occurs after heavy rains and ... While waiting for the results the patients were treated for malaria and/or meningitis based on visual/ clinical signs. However, most of the ...

  17. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley study unit, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas: analysis of selected nutrient, suspended-sediment, and pesticide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderholm, S.K.; Radell, M.J.; Richey, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a summary of data compiled from sources throughout the Rio Grande Valley study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Information presented includes the sources and types of water-quality data available, the utility of water-quality data for statistical analysis, and a description of recent water-quality conditions and trends and their relation to natural and human factors. Water-quality data are limited to concentrations of selected nutrient species in surface water and ground water, concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended solids in surface water, and pesticides in surface water, ground water, and biota.The Rio Grande Valley study unit includes about 45,900 square miles in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas upstream from the streamflow-monitoring station Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas. The area also includes the San Luis Closed Basin and the surface-water closed basins east of the Continental Divide and north of the United States-Mexico international border. The Rio Grande drains about 29,300 square miles in these States; the remainder of the study unit area is in closed basins. Concentrations of all nutrients found in surface-water samples collected from the Rio Grande, with the exception of phosphorus, generally remained nearly constant from the northernmost station in the study unit to Rio Grande near Isleta, where concentrations were larger by an order of magnitude. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads increased downstream between Lobatos, Colorado, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Nutrient concentrations remained elevated with slight variations until downstream from Elephant Butte Reservoir, where nutrient concentrations were lower. Nutrient concentrations then increased downstream from the reservoir, as evidenced by elevated concentrations at Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas.Suspended-sediment concentrations were similar at stations upstream from Otowi Bridge near San Ildefonso, New Mexico. The concentration and

  18. Regional differentiation and the geopolitical and transboundary position of the Presheva Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejupi Arsim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the Presheva Valley as a special region highlights the need for theoretical analysis and the use of different methods and principles which enable geographical regionalization. The Presheva Valley represents a natural continuation of the Albanian ethnic territories. With a very convenient position in terms of geography and transportation, as well as its geostrategic and geopolitical basis, it has been occupied by many invaders throughout different periods of history. Under the current administrative, political and territorial division of Serbia, the municipalities of Presheva and Bujanoci belong to the Pčinja district, based in Vranje, while the municipality of Medvegja belongs to the Jablanica district, based in Leskoc. The Presheva Valley has had the status of special region in various periods, but since it shares historical, ethnic and demographic characteristics with other Albanian ethnic territories, it has frequently been separated for the purpose of the assimilation of the Albanian people.

  19. Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley region of Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Flier, W.G.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Smart, C.D.; Matuszak, J.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Fry, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and

  20. Narrating Regional Identity in Tourism--Sketches from the Austrian Danube Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploner, Josef

    2009-01-01

    This article sketches the processes of regionalisation in the realm of present day tourism. By exploring issues of "regional culture" and "diversity" in Austria, and more particular, in the highly symbolic Danube valley "Wachau", the article shows how the imaginaries of contested cultural spaces--be they…

  1. Erosional valleys in the Thaumasia region of Mars: Hydrothermal and seismic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Dohm, James M.; Lias, Juan H.; Hare, Trent M.

    1998-12-01

    Analysis of erosional valleys, geologic materials and features, and topography through time in the Thaumasia region of Mars using co-registered digital spatial data sets reveals significant associations that relate to valley origin. Valleys tend to originate (1) on Noachian to Early Hesperian (stages 1 and 2) large volcanoes, (2) within 50-100 km of stages 1 and 2 rift systems, and (3) within 100 km of Noachian (stage 1) impact craters >50 km in diameter. These geologic preferences explain observations of higher valley-source densities (VSDs) in areas of higher elevations and regional slopes (>1°) because the volcanoes, rifts, and craters form high, steep topography or occur in terrain of high relief. Other stage 1 and stage 2 high, steep terrains, however, do not show high VSDs. The tendency for valleys to concentrate near geologic features and the overall low drainage densities in Thaumasia compared to terrestrial surfaces rule out widespread precipitation as a major factor in valley formation (as is proposed in warm, wet climate scenarios) except perhaps during the Early Noachian, for which much of the geologic record has been obliterated. Instead, volcanoes and rifts may indicate the presence of shallow crustal intrusions that could lead to local hydrothermal circulation, melting of ground ice and snow, and groundwater sapping. However, impact-crater melt would provide a heat source at the surface that might drive away water, forming valleys in the process. Post-stage 1 craters mostly have low nearby VSDs, which, for valleys incised in older rocks, suggests burial by ejecta and, for younger valleys, may indicate desiccation of near-surface water and deepening of the cryosphere. Later Hesperian and Amazonian (stages 3 and 4) valleys originate within 100-200 km of three young, large impact craters and near rifts systems at Warrego Valles and the southern part of Coprates rise. These valleys likely developed when the cryosphere was a couple kilometers or more

  2. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples from the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 1993 through January 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D.W.; Schlottmann, J.L.; Ferree, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate general ground-water- quality conditions and contaminant locations in the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples from 36 observation wells in 12 well nests were analyzed. The well nests are located along three roads near the Rio Grande--two well nests near Paseo del Norte, five well nests near Monta?o Road, and five well nests near Rio Bravo Boulevard. The water samples were collected from October 19, 1993, through January 18, 1994. Water-quality types by major-ion composition were calcium bicarbonate (found in most samples), sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and calcium sulfate chloride. Nutrients were detected in all but one sample. Ammonia was detected in 34 samples, nitrite in 4 samples, and nitrate in 17 samples. Orthophosphate was detected in 31 samples. Organic carbon was detected in all samples collected. The trace elements arsenic and barium were detected in all samples and zinc in 31 samples. Fourteen samples contained detectable copper. Cadmium was detected in one sample, chromium in two samples, lead in four samples, and selenium in two samples. Mercury and silver were not detected.

  3. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of a Rio Grande rift subbasin, Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.; Thompson, R.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Anderson, M.; Drenth, B.J.; Rotzien, J.; Lyon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, a structural subbasin of the greater San Luis Basin of the northern Rio Grande rift, is bounded to the north and south by the San Luis Hills and the Red River fault zone, respectively. Surficial mapping, neotectonic investigations, geochronology, and geophysics demonstrate that the structural, volcanic, and geomorphic evolution of the basin involves the intermingling of climatic cycles and spatially and temporally varying tectonic activity of the Rio Grande rift system. Tectonic activity has transferred between range-bounding and intrabasin faults creating relict landforms of higher tectonic-activity rates along the mountain-piedmont junction. Pliocene–Pleistocene average long-term slip rates along the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone range between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/year with late Pleistocene slip rates approximately half (0.06 mm/year) of the longer Quaternary slip rate. During the late Pleistocene, climatic influences have been dominant over tectonic influences on mountain-front geomorphic processes. Geomorphic evidence suggests that this once-closed subbasin was integrated into the Rio Grande prior to the integration of the once-closed northern San Luis Basin, north of the San Luis Hills, Colorado; however, deep canyon incision, north of the Red River and south of the San Luis Hills, initiated relatively coeval to the integration of the northern San Luis Basin.Long-term projections of slip rates applied to a 1.6 km basin depth defined from geophysical modeling suggests that rifting initiated within this subbasin between 20 and 10 Ma. Geologic mapping and geophysical interpretations reveal a complex network of northwest-, northeast-, and north-south–trending faults. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults show dual polarity and are crosscut by north-south– trending faults. This structural model possibly provides an analog for how some intracontinental rift structures evolve through time.

  4. Characterization of ceramic product of the Apodi region in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Maria R.; Freire, Juvenise T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the great precariousness of information on ceramics products, as the brick of Rio Grande do Norte state, the purpose of this work was to analyze the physical and mechanical characteristics of ceramic bricks for construction manufactured in Assu region of the state. Therefore, samples were collected in cities belonging to different potters poles. The bricks were subjected to several tests: visual, absorption, suction, compressive strength, dimensions and flatness deviation from the square. According to ABNT standard, the products need some improvement in quality

  5. A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

  6. Geology of the Thaumasia region, Mars: Plateau development, valley origins, and magmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, J.M.; Tanaka, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed the complex geologic history of the Thaumasia region of Mars on the basis of detailed geologic mapping and relative-age dating of rock units and structure. The Thaumasia plateau dominates the region and consists of high lava plains partly surrounded by rugged highlands, mostly of Noachian and Hesperian age. Long-lived faulting centered near Syria Planum and at lesser sites produced radiating narrow grabens during the Noachian through Early Amazonian and concentric wrinkle ridges during the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian. Fault activity peaked during the Noachian and waned substantially during Late Hesperian and Amazonian time. Volcanism on the Thaumasia plateau was particularly active in comparison with other martian cratered highlands, resulting in fourteen volcanoes and numerous outcrops of smooth, ridged, and lobate plains materials. A particularly extensive set of overlapping lava-flow units was emplaced sequentially from Thaumasia Planum to Syria Planum, spanning from the Late Noachian to the Late Hesperian; lobate flows succeeded smooth flow at the beginning of the Late Hesperian. Deep crustal intrusion and a thickened, buoyant crust may have caused the uplift of the plateau during the Noachian and Early Hesperian, resulting in outward-verging fold-and-thrust plateau margins. This structural style appears similar to that of the young ranges of the Rocky Mountains in the western U.S. Within the plateau, several sites of volcanotectonic activity and valley erosion may be underlain by large and perhaps long-lived magmatic intrusions. One such site occurs at the headland of Warrego Valles. Here, at least two episodes of valley dissection from the Noachian to Early Hesperian occurred during the formation of two nearby rift systems. The site also is a locus of intersection for regional narrow grabens during the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian. However, at the site, such faults diverge or terminate, which suggests that a resistant body of

  7. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS IN THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF SILICON VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURAT ÇETİN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Social capital has commonly been discussed in recent years from the perspective of sociology, economics and political science. Social capital defines the structure of social relations among economic actors in a region. Regional development depends directly on the level of actors’ social capital. This study focuses on the importance of social networks, an important factor of social capital, in the economy of Silicon Valley. These networks improve many-sided and intensive social relations and collaborative activities within and among universities, research centers, venture capitalists, law firms, industrial firms and investment banks in the region. In Silicon Valley, social networks have special importance in the movement of labor, the gaining of influence and power, and the actual production of innovation. Thus, social networks can be evaluated as a driver of economic development.

  8. Ground-Water Modeling of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    USGS

    2006-01-01

    Water is a precious commodity, especially in the arid southwest region of the US, where there is a limited supply of both surface water and ground water. Ground water has a variety of uses (such as agricultural, commercial, and domestic) in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) of southern Nevada and eastern California. The DVRFS, an area of about 100,000 square kilometers, contains very complex geology and hydrology. Using a computer model to represent this complex system the US Geological Survey (USGS) simulated ground-water flow in the Death Valley region for use with US Department of Energy (DOE) projects in southern Nevada. The model was created to help address contaminant cleanup activities associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted from 1951 to 1992 at the Nevada Test Site and to support the licensing process for the Nation's proposed geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  9. A percepção do desenvolvimento regional na grande fronteira do Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandir Ferrera de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a percepção do desenvolvimento regional na opinião daslideranças do Fórum da região Grande Fronteira do Mercosul (GFM no Sul doBrasil. A região GFM enfrenta dificuldades em manter seu dinamismo econômicofrente ao contexto de globalização, da competitividade dos mercados, dasdificuldades das pequenas propriedades rurais e as precárias condições sociais deparcela significativa da sua população. Para as lideranças do Fórum da GFM, odesenvolvimento regional implica na melhoria dos indicadores econômicos e sociaise na ação coordenada da sociedade civil organizada através dos órgãos degovernança local.Abstract This paper examines the perception of regional development in the opinion ofthe leaders of the region's Great Frontier of Mercosur Forum (GFM in southernBrazil. The GFM region is struggling to maintain its economic dynamism outside thecontext of globalization, competitive markets, the difficulties of small farms and poorsocial conditions of a significant portion of its population. To the leaders of the Forumof GFM region, regional development involves them provident of economic and socialindicators and the coordinated action of civil society through the organs of localgovernance.

  10. A PERCEPÇÃO DO DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL NA GRANDE FRONTEIRA DO MERCOSUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandir Ferrera de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a percepção do desenvolvimento regional na opinião das lideranças do Fórum da região Grande Fronteira do Mercosul (GFM no Sul do Brasil. A região GFM enfrenta dificuldades em manter seu dinamismo econômico frente ao contexto de globalização, da competitividade dos mercados, das dificuldades das pequenas propriedades rurais e as precárias condições sociais de parcela significativa da sua população. Para as lideranças do Fórum da GFM, o desenvolvimento regional implica na melhoria dos indicadores econômicos e sociais e na ação coordenada da sociedade civil organizada através dos órgãos de governança local.

  11. Haze variation in valley region its affecting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinge; Zhao, Aling; Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaoxiong; Dang, Caoni

    2018-02-01

    The haze has a great harm on the environment and human health. Based on the daily meteorological observation data including visibility, relative humidity, wind speed, temperature, air pollution index and weather record of Baoji region in China, and using least squares method, wavelet and correlation analysis method, the temporal and spatial characteristics of haze were analyzed. While the factors affecting the haze change were discussed. The results showed that the haze mainly occurs in plain areas, and in hilly areas and mountain the haze frequency is relatively small. Overall the annual average haze is decreasing, especially in winter and spring the reduction trend of haze is most obvious, however, in summer haze is increasing. The haze has a 5-year short period and 10-year and 15-year long-term cycles change. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between temperature and wind speed with haze, while the relative humidity was significantly positively correlated with haze. These studies provide the basis for atmospheric environmental monitor and management.

  12. U-Pb dating of uranium deposits in collapse breccia pipes of the Grand Canyon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Simmons, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Two major periods of uranium mineralization are indicated by U-Pb isotope dating of uranium ores from collapse breccia pipes in the Grand Canyon region, northern Arizona. The Hack 2 and 3, Kanab North, and EZ 1 and 2 orebodies apparently formed in the interval of 200 ?? 20 Ma, similar to ages inferred for strata-bound, Late Triassic-hosted uranium deposits in southern Utah and northern Arizona. Samples from the Grand Canyon and Pine Nut pipes, however, indicate a distinctly older age of about 260 Ma. The clustering in ages for a variety of uranium deposits at about the age of the lower part of the Chinle Formation (Late Triassic) suggests that uranium in these deposits may have been derived by leaching from volcanic ash in the Chinle and mobilized by ground-water movement. Pb isotope ratios of galenas in mineralized pipes are more radiogenic than those of sulfides from either uranium-poor pipes or occurrences away from pipes. Fluids which passed through the pipes had interacted with the Proterozoic basement, possibly through the vertical fractures which influenced the location and evolution of the pipes themselves. -from Authors

  13. Plant water use characteristics of five dominant shrub species of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, USA: implications for shrubland restoration and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Arjun; White, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    The biogeographic distribution of plant species is inherently associated with the plasticity of physiological adaptations to environmental variation. For semi-arid shrublands with a legacy of saline soils, characterization of soil water-tolerant shrub species is necessary for habitat restoration given future projection of increased drought magnitude and persistence in these ecosystems. Five dominant native shrub species commonly found in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, TX, USA, were studied, namely Acacia farnesiana, Celtis ehrenbergiana, Forestiera angustifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata and Prosopis glandulosa. To simulate drought conditions, we suspended watering of healthy, greenhouse-grown plants for 4 weeks. Effects of soil salinity were also studied by dosing plants with 10% NaCl solution with suspended watering. For soil water deficit treatment, the soil water potential of P. glandulosa was the highest (-1.20 MPa), followed by A. farnesiana (-4.69 MPa), P. aculeata (-5.39 MPa), F. angustifolia (-6.20 MPa) and C. ehrenbergiana (-10.02 MPa). For the soil salinity treatment, P. glandulosa also had the highest soil water potential value (-1.60 MPa), followed by C. ehrenbergiana (-1.70 MPa), A. farnesiana (-1.84 MPa), P. aculeata (-2.04 MPa) and F. angustifolia (-6.99 MPa). Within the species, only C. ehrenbergiana and F. angustifolia for soil water deficit treatment and A. farnesiana for the salinity treatment had significantly lower soil water potential after 4 weeks of treatment (P < 0.05). We found that soil water potential, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of the species significantly reduced over time for both treatments (P < 0.05). We conclude that while all species exhibited capacities to withstand current water availability, some species demonstrated limited tolerance for extreme water stress that may be important for management of future shrub diversity in Lower Rio Grande Valley.

  14. Regional dust storm modeling for health services: The case of valley fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Galgiani, John N.; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Vukovic, Ana; Dacic, Milan; DiBiase, Scott; Prasad, Anup; El-Askary, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to simulate spore emission, transport and deposition. Inexact knowledge of where cocci-causing fungus grows, the low resolution of cocci surveillance and an overall active period for significant dust events complicate analysis of the effect of the 5 July 2011 storm. In the larger context of monthly to annual disease surveillance, valley fever statistics, when compared against PM10 observation networks and modeled airborne dust concentrations, may reveal a likely cause and effect. Details provided by models and satellites fill time and space voids in conventional approaches to air quality and disease surveillance, leading to land-atmosphere modeling and remote sensing that clearly mark a path to advance valley fever epidemiology, surveillance and risk avoidance.

  15. Preliminary environmental analysis of Gondwana in Candiota Region, Rio Grande do Sul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Fontes, L.C. da; Cava, L.T.

    1980-10-01

    The geological results obtained in the Candiota Region by NUCLEBRAS, during the evaluation of the uranium economic potential from basal Gondwana Sequence - Itarare Group and Rio Bonito Formation - at South-East of the Parana Sedimentary Basin, are studied. The analysis of 18 geologic sections (scales 1:5.000 x 1:500), 21 drill holes and fotogeologic interpretation in the scale 1:50.000, are included. The Itarare Group sedimentation was conditioned by paleo - relief with valleys formed from differential erosion on 'horst - graben' structures. The deposition of its rhythmites, diamictites and siltstones was made in periglacial and marine environments. The sedimentation of the Rio Bonito Formation is related to the main Itarare Group depositional axes. The typical lithologies are: sandstones, siltstones, mudstones and coals, representing progradational fluvial sediments over coastal - plain areas. (Author) [pt

  16. Water quality and amphibian health in the Big Bend region of the Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Hu, F.; Carr, J.A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    Male and female Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) were collected in May 2005 from the main stem and tributaries of the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas. Frogs were examined for (1) incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in males; (2) thyroid epithelial cell height, a potential index of exposure to thyroid-disrupting contaminants; and (3) incidence of liver melanomacrophage aggregates, a general index of exposure to contaminants. Standard parameters of surface water quality and concentrations of selected elements, including heavy metals, were determined at each frog collection site. Heavy metals also were measured in whole-frog composite extracts. Water cadmium concentrations in most sites and chloride concentrations in the main stem exceeded federal criteria for freshwater aquatic life. Mercury was detected in frogs from the two collection sites in Terlingua Creek. There was a seventeen percent incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in male frogs. Mean thyroid epithelial cell height was greater in frogs from one of the Terlingua Creek sites (Terlingua Abajo). No differences were observed in the incidence of hepatic macrophage aggregates among sites. In conclusion, although potential cause-effect relationships between indices of habitat quality and amphibian health could not be established, the results of this study raise concerns about the general quality of the aquatic habitat and the potential long-term consequences to the aquatic biota of the Big Bend region. The presence of ovarian follicles in male frogs is noteworthy but further study is necessary to determine whether this phenomenon is natural or anthropogenically induced.

  17. Characterization of ceramic product of the Apodi region in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Caracterizacao do produto ceramico da regiao do Apodi no Rio Grande do Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria R.; Freire, Juvenise T.C., E-mail: rosimar.sousa@jfrn.edu.br, E-mail: juvenise.costa@ifrn.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Mossoro, RN (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the great precariousness of information on ceramics products, as the brick of Rio Grande do Norte state, the purpose of this work was to analyze the physical and mechanical characteristics of ceramic bricks for construction manufactured in Assu region of the state. Therefore, samples were collected in cities belonging to different potters poles. The bricks were subjected to several tests: visual, absorption, suction, compressive strength, dimensions and flatness deviation from the square. According to ABNT standard, the products need some improvement in quality.

  18. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auvinet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008 and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  19. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, E.; Juárez-Camarena, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008) and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  20. Large mammals from the Upper Neopleistocene reference sections in the Tunka rift valley, southwestern Baikal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchetnikov, A. A.; Klementiev, A. M.; Filinov, I. A.; Semeney, E. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the data on new finds of fossil macrotheriofauna in the reference sections of the Upper Neopleistocene sediments in the Tunka rift valley (southwestern Baikal Region). The osteological material of a number of Late Neopleistocene mammals including extinct species rare for the Baikal region such as Crocuta spelaea, Panthera spelaea, and Spirocerus kiakhtensis (?) was directly dated with a radiocarbon (AMS) method. The obtained 14C data (18000-35000 years) allow one to rejuvenate significantly the upper limit of the common age interval of habitat of these animals in southern part of Eastern Siberia. Cave hyena and spiral-horned antelope lived in the Tunka rift valley in the Baikal region in Late Kargino time (37-24 ka), and cave lion survived the maximum in the Sartan cryochron in the region (21-20 ka). The study of collected paleontological collections provides a basis for selection of independent Kargino (MIS 3) faunal assemblages to use them for regional biostratigraphic analysis of Pleistocene deposits. Radiocarbon age dating of samples allows one to attribute confidently all paleofaunal remains available to the second half of the Late Pleistocene.

  1. Conceptual model of volcanism and volcanic hazards of the region of Ararat valley, Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Connor, Charles; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Laura; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Manucharyan, Davit; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime

    2015-04-01

    Armenia and the adjacent volcanically active regions in Iran, Turkey and Georgia are located in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. The majority of studies of regional collision related volcanism use the model proposed by Keskin, (2003) where volcanism is driven by Neo-Tethyan slab break-off. In Armenia, >500 Quaternary-Holocene volcanoes from the Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik volcanic fields are hosted within pull-apart structures formed by active faults and their segments (Karakhanyan et al., 2002), while tectonic position of the large in volume basalt-dacite Aragats volcano and periphery volcanic plateaus is different and its position away from major fault lines necessitates more complex volcano-tectonic setup. Our detailed volcanological, petrological and geochemical studies provide insight into the nature of such volcanic activity in the region of Ararat Valley. Most magmas, such as those erupted in Armenia are volatile-poor and erupt fairly hot. Here we report newly discovered tephra sequences in Ararat valley, that were erupted from historically active Ararat stratovolcano and provide evidence for explosive eruption of young, mid K2O calc-alkaline and volatile-rich (>4.6 wt% H2O; amph-bearing) magmas. Such young eruptions, in addition to the ignimbrite and lava flow hazards from Gegham and Aragats, present a threat to the >1.4 million people (~ ½ of the population of Armenia). We will report numerical simulations of potential volcanic hazards for the region of Ararat valley near Yerevan that will include including tephra fallout, lava flows and opening of new vents. Connor et al. (2012) J. Applied Volcanology 1:3, 1-19; Karakhanian et al. (2002), JVGR, 113, 319-344; Keskin, M. (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 24, 8046.

  2. The persistence of rift valley fever in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadil, A A; Hasab-Allah, K A; Dafa-Allah, O M; Elmanea, A A

    2006-12-01

    A survey was conducted in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia to investigate the presence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in sheep and goats, by clinical identification of suspected herds and detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to RVF virus. The level of herd immunity was identified by detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Rift Valley fever was diagnosed in six out of eight districts included in the survey. Twenty-two animals from 17 herds tested positive for the presence of IgM antibodies against RVF in these districts. The infection rate ranged from 0.12% in the Sabya district to 1.04% in the Jizan district. The level of herd immunity ranged from 22.2% in Jizan to 39.3% in the Alarda district. It can be concluded that the presence of IgM antibodies in clinically suspected herds suggests persistent RVF infection in the Jazan region. Thus, RVF control programmes should be continued to prevent the recurrence of outbreaks in the region and the possible further spread of infection to other regions of Saudi Arabia.

  3. Atmospheric Concentrations of Captan and Folpet in the Lower Fraser Valley Agricultural Region of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two N-trihalomethylthio fungicides were detected in the atmosphere in the Lower Fraser Valley agricultural region of Canada. Captan was detected in both the particle and gas phase with a dominant particle phase fraction observed in both 2005 and 2006 (only total captan atmospheric concentrations were available for 2004. This provides the first evidence of particle transport as a significant atmospheric transport pathway for captan in an agricultural region in Canada. Weekly captan air concentrations reached maximum levels of 13.2 ng m-3 in June 2006, while for folpet total atmospheric levels were lower with maximum reaching 1.7 ng m-3 in August 2004 and generally <1 ng m3 in 2005 and 2006. Folpet is detected in the atmosphere although not previously reported in usage inventories. In the three years examined (2004–2006 captan concentrations observed a seasonal maximum in atmospheric concentrations during spring to early summer coinciding with expected peak usage period on crops in the Lower Fraser Valley agricultural region located in British Columbia, Canada. No usage data is available in Canada beyond 2003 but these seasonal trends show that captan remains a dominant pesticide used in this agricultural region with no decline in atmospheric concentrations during 2004–2006.

  4. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  5. Geochemistry of waters in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes region, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Thompson, J.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; White, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8??C in early summer and from 15 to 17??C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the downvalley parts of the rivers draining the 1912 deposits are mainly mixtures of cold meteoric waters and thermal waters of which the mid-valley thermal spring waters are representative. The weathering reactions of cold waters with the 1912 deposits appear to have stabilized and add only subordinate amounts of chemical constituents to the rivers relative to those contributed by the thermal waters. Isotopic data indicate that the mid-valley thermal spring waters are meteoric, but data is inconclusive regarding the heat source. The thermal waters could be either from a shallow part of a hydrothermal system beneath the 1912 vent region or from an incompletely cooled, welded tuff lens deep in the 1912 ash-flow sheet of the upper River Lethe area. Bicarbonate-sulfate waters resulting from interaction of near-surface waters and the cooling 1953-1968 southwest Trident plug issue from thermal springs south of Katmai Pass and near Mageik Creek, although the Mageik Creek spring waters are from a well-established, more deeply circulating hydrothermal system. Katmai caldera lake waters are a result of acid gases from vigorous drowned fumaroles dissolving in lake waters composed of snowmelt and precipitation. ?? 1992.

  6. Sediment Supply Versus Local Hydraulic Controls on Sediment Transport and Storage in the Rio Grande in the Big Bend Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D. J.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, has a large sediment supply, and a variable hydrology resulting in rapid channel narrowing during years of low mean and peak flow, and channel widening during rare, large-magnitude floods. This dynamic nature makes the Rio Grande a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment-transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically-based analyses suggest that channel change on the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during flash floods on desert tributaries. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem are the only floods that have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande. These floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment-transport analyses show that sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by the spatial distribution of flow strength as governed by channel slope. However, temporal changes in the grain size and amount of available sand within the channel, as inferred from comprehensive analyses of suspended-sediment concentration and grain size, control the degree of sediment evacuation or accumulation over large spatial scales.

  7. Prospective regional studies: The Rhine Meuse study and the Tennessee Valley study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Within the scope of this report two regional studies are presented: - the 'Rhein-Maas-Study' within which the expected radiological impact of the population in the Rhein and Maas basin - which is situated within Central Europe - is assessed on the basis of the planned and forecasted development of nuclear energy in the coming decades. - The 'Tennessee Valley Study' within which the expected radiological impact of the population in the Tennessee-Cumberland basis - which is situated within North America - is assessed likewise on the basis of the planned and forecasted development of nuclear energy in the coming decades. (orig./RW)

  8. Factors that contribute to Hispanic English Language Learners' high academic performance in high school science in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas: A multicase study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Antonio

    The purpose of this multicase study was to discover factors that contribute to Hispanic English language learners' (ELL) high academic performance in high school science in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Participants were high school seniors enrolled in college-level classes who had scored commended on the science exit-level Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills and ranked toward the top of their class. One student from each of four different high schools in south Texas were selected to participate. Schools identified students meeting the participant criteria and provided consent documents. In this qualitative research study, students were interviewed on three different dates. Administrators and science teachers were also interviewed for triangulation. Significant findings showed that intrinsic qualities were mainly responsible for factors contributing to high academic performance. Hispanic ELL students need meaningful responsibilities to internalize self-esteem and self-efficacy to realize high academic performance. Self-motivation, a contributing factor, provides students with a positive outlook on high academic performance and the ability to defer more immediate undermining rewards. Students expect to contribute to society by helping others. This helps their self-esteem as well as their self-worth and supports high academic performance. Parental and teacher support are critical for high academic performance. Low socioeconomic status alone is not a causal factor for poor academic performance. School administrations should assign willing and enthusiastic teachers as mentors to target students and provide skills to parents that promote, inspire, and motivate students' intrinsic qualities. Future studies should examine different leadership styles that maximize teachers' ability to influence students' high academic performance. Finally, students should be given guidance in setting career goals and demonstrating that high academic achievement is attainable and

  9. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Epidemiologia da esporotricose na região central do Rio Grande do Sul Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O. Lopes

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 31 casos de esporotricose diagnosticados na região central do Rio Grande do Sul, no período 1988-1997. Os dados obtidos foram comparados com os de um estudo de três décadas anteriores, evidenciando decréscimo na incidência da micose e alteração no perfil da infecção, com diminuição de casos em pacientes residentes na zona rural, em crianças, mulheres e agricultores. Na última década, a micose foi mais freqüente no adulto residente na zona urbana, de profissões variadas, estando o início da doença freqüentemente associada ao lazer rural, como pescarias e caçadas.Thirty-one cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul from 1988 to1997 were studied. Clinical data were compared with a study concerning three past decades, clearly showingt a decrease in the incidence of the mycosis, and an alteration in the profile of the infection, with a decrease of sporotrichosis in rural patients, children, women and farmers. In the past decade the mycosis was most frequent among urban adults with different professions, with the onset of the disease being associated with rural leisure activities such as fishing and hunting.

  12. Ion input via rainwater in the southwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Neves Calil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion input via rainfall alone and after interception by the forest canopy, constitutes an important path ofbiochemical cycling, although few studies have provided information on the subject so far. The objective of this work is toquantify ion inputs, via rainfall, in the southwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Ten rain gauges were mountedin a field area. The quantification of stored water volume, along with sample collection for determination of nitrate, nitrite,ammonium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium contents, was done fortnightly fromSeptember 2006 to August 2008. Local annual average precipitation in the relevant period was 1,588.3 mm. The concentrationof chemical elements in rainwater was found to vary throughout, being inversely correlated with the increase in rainfall, whilepotassium, ammonium, phosphate, sulfate, chloride and sodium were found to have a significant mutual correlation (p <0.01.Based on the annual amount of nutrient input via rainwater, it can be inferred that rainfall is an important source of chemicalelement input into the forest system.

  13. Water Footprint of pigs slaughtered in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the water footprint of pigs slaughtered in the municipalities that participate in the Regional Council for the Development of Serra (Corede Serra, in Portuguese, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in 2014. In order to determine the water footprint, we estimated the water consumed in the production of grains (corn and soybeans used for animal feed, the water used for livestock watering, the water used for cleaning creation areas and the water consumed by animals during the growing and finishing phases. The total water footprint of slaughtered pigs was 0.19825 km3, the largest component of which was water used for the cultivation of grains (99.6%. The municipality of Nova Prata had the largest water footprint of Corede Serra (0.02343 km3 year1, followed by the municipalities of Paraí (0.02187 km3 year-1 and Serafina Corrêa (0.01658 km3 year-1. The municipalities of São Marcos (0.000006 km3 year-1, Bento Gonçalves (0,00002 km3 year-1 and Boa Vista do Sul (0.0004 km3 year-1 had the lowest water footprints, due to low corn productivity associated with the low number of hogs slaughtered. From this assessment, it was found that the management of water resources associated with pig chain production should include water used in the production of feed grain as well as the water used directly in animal husbandry.

  14. Energetics of the Brazil Current in the Rio Grande Cone region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, André Lopes; Azevedo, José Luiz Lima de; Oliveira, Leopoldo Rota de; Calil, Paulo Henrique Rezende

    2017-10-01

    The energetics of the Brazil Current (BC) in the region of the Rio Grande Cone (RGC, 30-35.5°S), a topographic rise in the southwest portion of the Brazilian continental margin, are analyzed using 16 years of numerical data from the Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) for the Earth Simulator (OFES). The main focus of this study is the eddy-mean flow interactions of the BC and the local energy budgets in the study region. The kinetic and potential energy balance equations are derived for mean and eddy flows, and the resulting terms are presented and discussed. The eddy-mean flow interactions exhibit complex spatial distributions, and the intensities of the energy budgets decrease with increasing depth. However, only the mean potential energy (MPE) budget decreases southward. Eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and eddy potential energy (EPE) exhibit similar horizontal distribution patterns. Additionally, the baroclinic and barotropic conversion rates increase downstream of the bump, where the eddy energy field exhibits along-stream variability that increases southward. Barotropic conversion is more intense between 50 and 200 m, where mean kinetic energy (MKE) and EKE are concentrated, and it exhibits a horizontal cross-stream variation pattern, with mean-to-eddy energy conversion observed on the offshore side of the BC. This result indicates that the turbulence associated with the stream jet increases as the BC moves away from the coast, with the conversion term acting to stabilize the flow. Baroclinic conversion exhibits a high intensity below 300 m (where MPE and EPE display peaks), and it has a greater influence on the eddy-mean flow interaction than does the barotropic conversion. The RGC directly affects the local dynamics of the BC by increasing the eddy field as soon as the BC reaches the bump. The energy diagrams illustrate a stream characterized by evolving barotropic and baroclinic instability processes throughout the water column. This result indicates an

  15. Death Valley regional groundwater flow model calibration using optimal parameter estimation methods and geoscientific information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.; Hill, M.C.; Turner, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    A three-layer Death Valley regional groundwater flow model was constructed to evaluate potential regional groundwater flow paths in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Geoscientific information systems were used to characterize the complex surface and subsurface hydrogeological conditions of the area, and this characterization was used to construct likely conceptual models of the flow system. The high contrasts and abrupt contacts of the different hydrogeological units in the subsurface make zonation the logical choice for representing the hydraulic conductivity distribution. Hydraulic head and spring flow data were used to test different conceptual models by using nonlinear regression to determine parameter values that currently provide the best match between the measured and simulated heads and flows.

  16. Full-Wave Ambient Noise Tomography of the Long Valley Volcanic Region (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, A. F.; Shelly, D. R.; Dawson, P. B.; Hill, D. P.; Shen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In the late 1970s, and throughout the 1990s, Long Valley Caldera (California) experienced intense periods of unrest characterized by uplift of the resurgent dome, earthquake swarms, and CO2 emissions around Mammoth Mountain. While modeling of the uplift and gravity changes support the possibility of new magmatic intrusions beneath the caldera, geologic interpretations conclude that the magmatic system underlying the caldera is moribund. Geophysical studies yield diverse versions of a sizable but poorly resolved low-velocity zone at depth (> 6km), yet whether this zone is indicative of a significant volume of crystal mush, smaller isolated pockets of partial melt, or magmatic fluids, is inconclusive. The nature of this low-velocity zone, and the state of volcano's magmatic system, carry important implications for the significance of resurgent-dome inflation and the nature of associated hazards. To better characterize this low-velocity zone we present preliminary results from a 3D full-waveform ambient-noise seismic tomography model derived from the past 25 years of vertical component broadband and short-period seismic data. This new study uses fully numerical solutions of the wave equation to account for the complex wave propagation in a heterogeneous, 3D earth model, including wave interaction with topography. The method ensures that wave propagation is modeled accurately in 3D, enabling the full use of seismic records. By using empirical Green's functions, derived from ambient noise and modeled as Rayleigh surface waves, we are able to extend model resolution to depths beyond the limits of previous local earthquake studies. The model encompasses not only the Long Valley Caldera, but the entire Long Valley Volcanic Region, including Mammoth Mountain and the Mono Crater/Inyo Domes volcanic chain.

  17. Geochemical Data on Waters, gases, scales, and rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, Fraser; Bergfeld, Deborah; Janik, C.J.; et al

    2002-08-01

    This report tabulates an extensive geochemical database on waters, gases, scales, rocks, and hot-spring deposits from the Dixie Valley region, Nevada. The samples from which the data were obtained were collected and analyzed during 1996 to 1999. These data provide useful information for ongoing and future investigations on geothermal energy, volcanism, ore deposits, environmental issues, and groundwater quality in this region.

  18. Temporal Variation in the Abundance and Timing of Daily Activity of Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma gerstaeckeri (Stål, 1859) in a Natural Habitat in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A; Vitek, C; Feria-Arroyo, T P; Fredensborg, B L

    2017-10-01

    Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is a burden to millions of people in South and Central America. A sylvatic life cycle of the parasite exists in the Southern United States, but recent studies indicate an active peri-domestic life cycle of T. cruzi in Texas. The United States-Mexico border region in Texas displays areas of high poverty and sub-standard housing conditions which are important risk factors for a potential spill-over transmission to a domestic life cycle including humans. The objectives of the study were to examine short- and long-term temporal variation in vector activity and to evaluate the effect of different combinations of attractants on the capture of potential triatomine vectors. We collected local triatomine vectors (all of them identified as Triatoma gerstaeckeri) from a natural habitat in South Texas during the course of a year. The exact time of collection was recorded to examine the timing of flight activity of the triatomine vector. We also conducted a comparative study of the efficiency of 2 commonly used attractants (light and CO 2 ) and the combination of those on the capture rate of Tr. gerstaeckeri. Our study indicates a short season of dispersal of Tr. gerstaeckeri (April/May) and it suggests a unimodal distribution of activity peaking between 2 and 3 hr after sunset. Ultra-violet light served as the main attractant of Tr. gerstaeckeri while CO 2 from dry ice did not significantly contribute to the collection of vectors. The pronounced timing of activity in Tr. gerstaeckeri reported in this study contributes to our understanding of the epidemiology of T. cruzi in wildlife and its potential as a Chagas disease vector to humans in the Rio Grande Valley, South Texas.

  19. Influence of the orographic roughness of glacier valleys across the Transantarctic Mountains in an atmospheric regional model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Gallee, Hubert [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-03-15

    Glacier valleys across the Transantarctic Mountains are not properly taken into account in climate models, because of their coarse resolution. Nonetheless, glacier valleys control katabatic winds in this region, and the latter are thought to affect the climate of the Ross Sea sector, frsater formation to snow mass balance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the subgrid-scale orography in the Transantarctic Mountains using a 20-km atmospheric regional model. A classical orographic roughness length parametrization is modified to produce either smooth or rough valleys. A one-year simulation shows that katabatic winds in the Transantarctic Mountains are strongly improved using smooth valleys rather than rough valleys. Pressure and temperature fields are affected by the representation of the orographic roughness, specifically in the Transantarctic Mountains and over the Ross Ice Shelf. A smooth representation of escarpment regions shows better agreement with automatic weather station observations than a rough representation. This work stresses the need to improve the representation of subgrid-scale orography to simulate realistic katabatic flows. This paper also provides a way of improving surface winds in an atmospheric model without increasing its resolution. (orig.)

  20. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 3: Valley Types and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.

  1. A geological reconnaissance study of the Dyfi Valley region, Gwynedd/Powys, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.A.; Howells, M.F.; Reedman, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A collation of existing maps and data backed up by localised checking, reinterpretation and modification, employing sampling, structural measurements and aerial photograph interpretation, have updated the geological information available on the Dyfi Valley region. The region comprises an argillaceous-dominated Ordovician and Silurian sedimentary pile of approximately 4 km thickness. Thick formations of mudstones and silty mudstones with thin intercalations of silty sandstone and fine-grained sandstone predominate and exhibit fewer variations in thickness and extent than the subordinate formations with a higher proportion of sand-grade material. Three periods of deformation (D 1 -D 3 ) are distinguished, with the D 1 phase dominating the structure of the region by forming upright, asymmetrical, large (km) scale folds (F 1 ) of a NNE-SSW to NE-SW trend and producing an almost ubiquitous slaty cleavage (S 1 ). The succeeding deformations produced localised crenulation cleavages, kink bands and box folds. Data on the faulting and jointing associated with this deformation history are also presented. (author)

  2. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10 -4 millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references

  3. Early Paleozoic U-Pb age of zircons from meta-granophyres f the Grand-Saint-Bernard nappe (zona interna, Aosta Valley, Italy); Age paleozoique inferieur (U-Pb sur zircon) de metagranophyres de la nappe du Grand-Saint-Bernard (zona interna, Vallee d'Aoste, Italie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.M. [Laboratoire de Geodynamique des Chaines Alpines, LGCA, Campus Scientifique, 73 - Le Bourget-du-Lac (France)

    2000-04-01

    The U-Pb age of a meta-granophyre from the Val de Rhemes (Brianconnais basement of the Aosta valley) of 511{+-}9 Ma suggests that the micaschists which dominate the pre-alpine basement of the Grand-Saint-Bernard Nappe are, in part, of Early Paleozoic age. The Brianconnais domain is characterized by a Cambrian to Ordovician alkalineto sub-alkaline (monzonitic) magmatism, similar in age to orthogneisses known in other parts of the Variscan belt and generally interpreted as related to an extensional event. (authors)

  4. Regional-scale controls of periglacial rockfalls (Turtmann valley, Swiss Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Hoffmann, Thomas; Meyer, Hanna; Dikau, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Rockfalls are among the most hazardous processes in mountain regions and of major importance for landform evolution and sediment budgets. The rockfall activity varies significantly in space and time, driven by the complex interplay between locally dynamic variables (i.e. discontinuities, freeze-thaw processes) as well as system inherent predisposing factors dominating at a regional scale. Many studies focus on small-scale triggering conditions for rockfalls, but the effects of regional-scale controls leading to a basic instability of alpine rockwalls, such as topo-climatic settings, lithology and i.e. tectonic structures as well as paraglacial adjustments, are poorly understood. In this study, we aim to understand the role of regional-scale controls of rockfalls in the Turtmann Valley, which covers 110 km2 in the Swiss Alps. Based on an inventory of 220 talus slopes (Otto et al. 2009), rockfall source areas were determined and their causal relationship between ten different prediction variables was assessed. By combining two multivariate statistical models, we (i) explained the spatial pattern of rockfalls, (ii) evaluated the relative importance of potential predisposing factors (iii) and discuss these regional-scale controls in the light of the local-scale geomorphic and rock mechanical settings. Major finding are: (i) A stepwise logistic regression (LR) based on principal components and a random forests (RF) model were performed and validated using a 75%-subset of the rockfall source areas. Given the area under the ROC curves for both approaches, LR: 0.92, RF: 0.99, respectively, the RF model performs slightly better to explain the large-scale variability of rockfalls in our study area. (ii) Both, the LR and RF model reveal that lithology and joint orientation have the strongest causal influence on rockfalls at regional scale. In contrast, topo-climatic factors (elevation, slope, solar radiation) might be of secondary importance. Additionally, the regional

  5. Three-dimensional model of the late Cenozoic history of the Death Valley region, southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.

    1996-12-01

    The accumulation of a large database on the timing and kinematics of late Cenozoic deformation in the Death Valley region of southeastern California indicates a complex three-dimensional history. On the basis of paleogeographic reconstructions we suggest the system was initiated as a localized pull-apart between two conjugate strike-slip faults, the Garlock and Furnace Creek faults, and evolved into a system characterized by distributed transtension related to the eastern California shear zone. Our reconstructions differ from previous models in the incorporation of significant vertical axis rotations of a number of crustal blocks to explain paleomagnetic data from the region. The model may resolve (1) a long-standing problem of the eastern termination of the Garlock fault which is explained here as a complex system of splays that initially terminated in the pull-apart between the Furnace Creek and Garlock systems; and (2) the complex architecture of the Black Mountains which is explained here in terms of initial extreme attenuation between the Garlock and Furnace Creek systems with overprinting by a fold and normal fault system that operated simultaneously as a result of distributed transtension. This model suggests much of the displacement field is taken up in rotations and translations, and the actual crustal thinning in our model is relatively small (50-66% of original thickness).

  6. Natural Radioactivity in Abu-Tartor Phosphate Deposits and the Surrounding Region, New Valley, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.; Higgy, R.H.; Pimpl, M.

    1999-01-01

    Abu-Tartor phosphate mine. New Valley district, is one of the biggest phosphate mines in Egypt which will start full production soon. The planned ore rocks (24.8%P 2 O 5 ) annual production is 4 million tons. The aim of this study is to estimate the natural radioactivity levels in Abu-Tartor phosphate deposits and the surrounding region. The environmental radioactivity levels in the surrounding region will be considered as pre-operational levels which are essential to determine the radiological impacts of phosphate mining later on. Phosphate samples (ore rocks, wet rocks and beneficiation wastes) and environmental samples (soil, water and plant)were collected. The specific activities of Ra-226 (U-238) series, Th-232 series and K-40 were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry based on Hyper pure Germanium detectors. The specific activities of uranium isotopes (U-238, U-235 and U-234) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface barrier detectors after radiochemical separation. The specific activity of Pb-210 was measured using low background proportional gas counting system after radiochemical separation . The results were discussed and compared with national and international values

  7. Monitoring of road-killed vertebrates in two roadway sections in Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, Luiz Liberato Costa; UNIVATES; Silva, Darliane Evangelho; UNIVATES; Oliveira, Stefan Vilges de; Cappellari, Lize Helena; Bióloga/ Drª em Zoologia

    2013-01-01

    The run over of animals on roads currently represent a pronounced threat to the wild fauna. Through road-killed vertebrate monitoring in sections of two roads in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, between 2008 and 2009, we listed the species and the groups most involved. 104 incursions in the study sections were done, totalizing 3,016 km of roadways traveled in 12 months. 49 road-killed wild species were found, belonging to 29 families in a total of 419 specimens. The most representativ...

  8. Transport of regional pollutants through a remote trans-Himalayan valley in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Shradda; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Mahata, Khadak; Panday, Arnico

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in Asia have increased in recent years. High concentrations of reactive trace gases and light-absorbing and light-scattering particles from these sources form persistent haze layers, also known as atmospheric brown clouds, over the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) from December through early June. Models and satellite imagery suggest that strong wind systems within deep Himalayan valleys are major pathways by which pollutants from the IGP are transported to the higher Himalaya. However, observational evidence of the transport of polluted air masses through Himalayan valleys has been lacking to date. To evaluate this pathway, we measured black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and associated meteorological conditions within the Kali Gandaki Valley (KGV), Nepal, from January 2013 to July 2015. BC and O3 varied over both diurnal and seasonal cycles. Relative to nighttime, mean BC and O3 concentrations within the valley were higher during daytime when the up-valley flow (average velocity of 17 m s-1) dominated. BC and O3 concentrations also varied seasonally with minima during the monsoon season (July to September). Concentrations of both species subsequently increased post-monsoon and peaked during March to May. Average concentrations for O3 during the seasonally representative months of April, August, and November were 41.7, 24.5, and 29.4 ppbv, respectively, while the corresponding BC concentrations were 1.17, 0.24, and 1.01 µg m-3, respectively. Up-valley fluxes of BC were significantly greater than down-valley fluxes during all seasons. In addition, frequent episodes of BC concentrations 2-3 times higher than average persisted from several days to a week during non-monsoon months. Our observations of increases in BC concentration and fluxes in the valley, particularly during pre-monsoon, provide evidence that trans-Himalayan valleys are important conduits for transport of pollutants from the IGP to the

  9. Regional inventory of karst activity in the Valley and Ridge Province, eastern Tennessee: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    A data collection form was developed for use in compiling information in the inventory. Information sources included files on subsidence, state and county highway departments, county agents and executives, soil conservation service representative, etc. Data obtained included location, date of occurrence, number of subsidence features at the reported site, size, topographic setting, geologic setting, and probable causative factors. The regional inventory obtained information on over 300 historic subsidence events at more than 200 sites in East Tennessee. Areas having the greatest areal density of active subsidence include Hamblen, Jefferson, and Loudon Counties. Reported subsidence events occurred between 1945 and 1986. The Knox Group dolomites account for about two-thirds of all reported sinkholes in the inventory. Most of the karst activity occurs in valleys or flat areas. In cases where causative factors could be established, the combination of surface water drainage alteration or impoundment combined with soil disturbance associated with construction activity were most often precursors to subsidence. 54 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Regional inventory of karst activity in the Valley and Ridge Province, eastern Tennessee: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    A data collection form was developed for use in compiling information in the inventory. Information sources included files on subsidence, state and county highway departments, county agents and executives, soil conservation service representative, etc. Data obtained included location, date of occurrence, number of subsidence features at the reported site, size, topographic setting, geologic setting, and probable causative factors. The regional inventory obtained information on over 300 historic subsidence events at more than 200 sites in East Tennessee. Areas having the greatest areal density of active subsidence include Hamblen, Jefferson, and Loudon Counties. Reported subsidence events occurred between 1945 and 1986. The Knox Group dolomites account for about two-thirds of all reported sinkholes in the inventory. Most of the karst activity occurs in valleys or flat areas. In cases where causative factors could be established, the combination of surface water drainage alteration or impoundment combined with soil disturbance associated with construction activity were most often precursors to subsidence. 54 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Taxocenose de serpentes no Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Taxocenosis of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Zanella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Fazenda da Brigada (28º14'39"S, 52º14'42"W, Passo Fundo, Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, e teve como objetivo contribuir com informações sobre riqueza, abundância de serpentes e comparação entre os métodos de amostragem. O estudo foi desenvolvido em duas áreas, floresta e campo, no período de janeiro de 2001 a março de 2003. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados os seguintes métodos: procura limitada por tempo (PLT, encontros ocasionais por terceiros (EOT, encontros ocasionais pela equipe (EOE e armadilhas de interceptação e queda (AQ. Com a utilização dos quatro métodos foi possível registrar 19 espécies de serpentes, distribuídas em três famílias (Colubridae, Elapidae e Viperidae e coletar 284 indivíduos, sendo 128 por EOT, 36 por PLT, 112 por AQ e 8 por EOE. Utilizando todos os métodos, as três espécies mais abundantes foram: Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858 (16,9%, Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 (15,2% e Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (13,4%. O estudo dessa taxocenose revela importantes características da ecologia de serpentes e poderá subsidiar futuros estudos de conservação para a área.The present study was conducted on the Brigada Farm (28º14'39"S, 52º14'42"W, Passo Fundo, middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of the study was to provide data regarding the richness and abundance of snakes and to compare sampling methods. The study was carried out in two areas, i.e., forest and field, between January 2001 and March 2003. Data were collected using the following methods: time-constrained search (TCS, occasional encounters by local collectors (OEC, occasional encounters by the team (OET, and by pitfall traps (PT. Using the four methods, 19 snake species belonging to three families (Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae were recorded, and 284 individuals were collected, including 128 by OEC, 36 by TCS, 112 by PT, and

  12. Sensitization study of dogs with atopic dermatitis in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD is a common dermatosis, defined as a genetic-related disease which predisposes to skin inflammation and pruritus, associated to a IgE-specific response in most of cases. Clinical diagnosis may be later complemented by skin allergy and/or serological tests. The aim of these tests is to identify possible allergens in order to enable the clinicians to select candidate antigens for allergen specific immunotherapy. In the present study 58 CAD positive animals were tested. All were submitted to the intradermal test (IDT and screened for the presence of antibodies against different antigens using ELISA. The obtained results show a high prevalence of sensitization among the tested dogs to house dust mites and to pollen ofC. dactylon. With this work it was possible to identify the main allergens involved in immunological response of dogs with CAD living in central area of Rio Grande do Sul.

  13. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of

  14. Investigation of variations and trends in solar radiation in Klang Valley Region, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Elnour Yassen, Jamaluddin Mohd Jahi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate variations and trends in the global solar radiation in Klang Valley region. The least square method was used for the trend analysis. Since the available time series covers 27 years, linear regression was preferred for the trend analysis. The linear trend is used mainly to test the change in solar radiation and to set limits on the rate of change. Trend line and values and significance levels of the slopes have been found. The seasonal and the annual average values were computed from the monthly average radiation data. The seasonal and annual average solar radiation values were designated as dependent variables, and thus, were fitted linearly for season and annual means for each station. The results showed that the mean of maximum incoming global radiation in Sepember with a value of 21.1 MJ m-2 at Petaling Jaya, while the mean minimum in November and December with values of 10.7 and 10.9 MJ m-2 at Petaling Jaya. The low amounts of solar radiation received in November and December are due to greater cloudiness during the period coinciding with the northeast monsoon season. On rainy days, very little global solar radiation received in November and December are due to greater cloudiness during the period coinciding with the northeast monsoon season. On rainy days, very little global solar radiation is received. The distribution of the seasonal mean values of solar radiation exhibits a high symmetry. Inter-monsoon seasons (April-May) and (October-November) show a similar behavior, just like the northeast monsoon season. The overall average rate of change in global solar radiation during 1975-2002 and 1977-2000 is represented by the slope of the linear regression was small (-0.126 and -0.314 MJ m-2 per year for Subang Airport and Petaling Jaya respectively)

  15. The Global Implications and Grand Challenge of Neutral-Ion Interactions in the Polar Regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    That the smallest of interactions occurring between neutrals and ions in the polar thermosphere can impact the largest of scales in thermosphere response is a testament to the primary importance of the Joule heating rate as an energy source for the thermosphere. Yet, our understanding/quantification of this primary energy source is woefully represented by numerical models and poorly sampled by measurement. For numerical models, the Joule heating rate requires parameterizations to account for the presumed “missing” energy in the simulations, while, for measurements, numerous approximations abound. In addition to being a primary thermosphere energy source, the Joule heating rate also represents a collective of neutral and ion interactions that result from solar wind and solar processes and exchange processes among the thermosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere. Thus, to properly simulate the Joule heating rate requires a system perspective. Furthermore, to properly observe the Joule heating rate requires measurements of the ionosphere-thermosphere system at high temporal and spatial scales. This remains a very difficult task. The estimation and modeling of the Joule heating rate represents a grand challenge that involves the entire sun-earth system. This talk will put into perspective the current state in addressing the challenge of capturing this illusive source of energy.

  16. Transport of regional pollutants through a remote trans-Himalayan valley in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhungel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in Asia have increased in recent years. High concentrations of reactive trace gases and light-absorbing and light-scattering particles from these sources form persistent haze layers, also known as atmospheric brown clouds, over the Indo–Gangetic plains (IGP from December through early June. Models and satellite imagery suggest that strong wind systems within deep Himalayan valleys are major pathways by which pollutants from the IGP are transported to the higher Himalaya. However, observational evidence of the transport of polluted air masses through Himalayan valleys has been lacking to date. To evaluate this pathway, we measured black carbon (BC, ozone (O3, and associated meteorological conditions within the Kali Gandaki Valley (KGV, Nepal, from January 2013 to July 2015. BC and O3 varied over both diurnal and seasonal cycles. Relative to nighttime, mean BC and O3 concentrations within the valley were higher during daytime when the up-valley flow (average velocity of 17 m s−1 dominated. BC and O3 concentrations also varied seasonally with minima during the monsoon season (July to September. Concentrations of both species subsequently increased post-monsoon and peaked during March to May. Average concentrations for O3 during the seasonally representative months of April, August, and November were 41.7, 24.5, and 29.4 ppbv, respectively, while the corresponding BC concentrations were 1.17, 0.24, and 1.01 µg m−3, respectively. Up-valley fluxes of BC were significantly greater than down-valley fluxes during all seasons. In addition, frequent episodes of BC concentrations 2–3 times higher than average persisted from several days to a week during non-monsoon months. Our observations of increases in BC concentration and fluxes in the valley, particularly during pre-monsoon, provide evidence that trans-Himalayan valleys are important conduits for transport of

  17. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  18. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sultana, Shazia; Fazl-I-Hadi, Syed; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Rashid, Sofia; Zafar, Muhammad; Khan, Mir Ajab; Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2014-04-16

    This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31-75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal

  19. Analysis of the tourism potential in the Campo Grande and Guaratiba Administrative Regions (ARs, west Rio de Janeiro's Municipality (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Castilho da Costa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the study conducted in two Administrative Regions (ARs of west Rio de Janeiro's Municipality, namely: Campo Grande AR and Garatiba AR. The main objectives were: assess the development and potential of tourism activities in these two ARs through the use of geo-processing techniques, and propose general guidelines for application. The analysis of key findings was carried out separately for each AR, as they represent areas facing different realities despite their geographic proximity. This process revealed the short-term need of better municipal and state planning in relation of the distribution an characterization of spaces reserved for urban expansion. The assessment of tourism potential also showed significant differences in occupation processes between these two ARs, as well as in the nature of the activities required to make an optimum use of this potential.

  20. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  1. BIRDS SEASONAL FLUCTIATIONS IN SMALL RIVERS’ VALLEYS OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF ZAPOROZHSKAYA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matruhan T.I.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Role of river valleys in the existence of a large number of bird species is greater than in the breeding period andduring seasonal migrations and movements. Total during the year they recorded 102 bird species, including 62 speciesof breeding period. Feature of the habitat of the valleys of small rivers is the combination in small areas of differenthabitats. This increases the patchiness of zonal steppe landscape, which allows the expansion of areas along the riverbeds of individual species. Flood regime of rivers is the determining factor for the birds: The most diverse speciescomposition and abundance of avifauna of individual species in the high-water seasons.

  2. Desenvolvimento Regional Sustentável no Grande ABC: análise das contribuições de uma instituição financeira brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Correa Oliveira Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work provided a reflection on the contributions of regional sustainable development plans (DRS of Banco do Brasil (BB to the region known as Grande ABC through the analysis of the plans offered by the institution in documents and website, as well as by interviews conducted with the plan's stakeholders. A bibliographic research has been made, where the concepts of development, regional development, sustainable development and sustainable regional development are discussed and detailed. Then, a document research has been made, which allowed the verifying of the data of the plans in the country and in the region of Grande ABC, also providing subsidies to the definition of the stakeholders interviewed in the survey. The methodology used was the exploratory research which focuses on better understanding and familiarization of the researcher and the matter being considered. It was found that the DRS plans at the Grande ABC still require new partnerships and actions that can boost their development, the need for bigger monitoring, control and dissemination of the concepts of DRS by Banco do Brasil; the concern in establishing strategic partnerships has been noticed, but still without the participation of the academy in a more constant way, finally, it is understood that the Regional Sustainable Development of Banco do Brasil at Grande ABC, according to their social, environmental, cultural and economic contributions, can not be considered an initiative that has significant impacts yet, but it is a way to search for funds and partnerships for the formulation of local and regional development initiatives.

  3. Simulation of recharge for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system using an integrated hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, J. A.; Regan, R. S.; Hill, M. C.; Heywood, C.; Kohn, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    A proof-of-concept study was conducted using the integrated hydrologic model, GSFLOW, to simulate spatially and temporally distributed recharge for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS). GSFLOW is an integrated groundwater - surface water flow model that combines two modeling applications: the Precipitation-Runoff-Modeling-System (PRMS) and MODFLOW. Previous methods used to estimate recharge for the DVRFS include empirical models based on precipitation, applications of the chloride mass-balance method, and applications of a precipitation-runoff model, INFIL, which used a daily time step to simulate recharge as net infiltration through the root zone. The GSFLOW model offers several potential advantages compared to the previous methods including (1) the ability to simulate complex flow through a thick unsaturated zone (UZ), allowing for the dampening and time delay of recharge relative to the infiltration signal at the top of the UZ and also allowing for the redistribution of flow within the UZ, as enabled by the MODFLOW-NWT and UZF capabilities, (2) the simulation of rejected recharge in response to the dynamics of groundwater discharge and low permeability zones in the UZ, (3) a more explicit representation of streamflow and recharge processes in the mostly ephemeral stream channels that characterize the DVRFS, and (4) the ability to simulate complex flow paths for runoff occurring as both overland flow and shallow subsurface flow (interflow) in the soil zone using a network of cascades connecting hydrologic response units (HRUs). Simulations were done using a daily time step for water years 1980-2010. Preliminary estimates of recharge using GSFLOW indicate that the distribution of recharge is highly variable both spatially and temporally due to variability in precipitation, snowmelt, evapotranspiration, runoff, and the permeability of bedrock and alluvium underlying the root zone. Results averaged over the areas of subbasins were similar to

  4. Structure of the San Fernando Valley region, California: implications for seismic hazard and tectonic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Wright, T.L.; Okaya, D.A.; Yeats, R.S.; Fuis, G.S.; Thygesen, K.; Thybo, H.

    2011-01-01

    Industry seismic reflection data, oil test well data, interpretation of gravity and magnetic data, and seismic refraction deep-crustal profiles provide new perspectives on the subsurface geology of San Fernando Valley, home of two of the most recent damaging earthquakes in southern California. Seismic reflection data provide depths to Miocene–Quaternary horizons; beneath the base of the Late Miocene Modelo Formation are largely nonreflective rocks of the Middle Miocene Topanga and older formations. Gravity and seismic reflection data reveal the North Leadwell fault zone, a set of down-to-the-north faults that does not offset the top of the Modelo Formation; the zone strikes northwest across the valley, and may be part of the Oak Ridge fault system to the west. In the southeast part of the valley, the fault zone bounds a concealed basement high that influenced deposition of the Late Miocene Tarzana fan and may have localized damage from the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Gravity and seismic refraction data indicate that the basin underlying San Fernando Valley is asymmetric, the north part of the basin (Sylmar subbasin) reaching depths of 5–8 km. Magnetic data suggest a major boundary at or near the Verdugo fault, which likely started as a Miocene transtensional fault, and show a change in the dip sense of the fault along strike. The northwest projection of the Verdugo fault separates the Sylmar subbasin from the main San Fernando Valley and coincides with the abrupt change in structural style from the Santa Susana fault to the Sierra Madre fault. The Simi Hills bound the basin on the west and, as defined by gravity data, the boundary is linear and strikes ~N45°E. That northeast-trending gravity gradient follows both the part of the 1971 San Fernando aftershock distribution called the Chatsworth trend and the aftershock trends of the 1994 Northridge earthquake. These data suggest that the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge earthquakes reactivated portions of

  5. Radiological and chemical characterization of drinking water supplies of Serido Oriental Region, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Lino Angel Valcarcel; Fernández, Zahily Herrero; Alvarez, Alfredo Montero; Santos Júnior, José Araújo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Milan, Marvic Ortueta; Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo do

    2017-01-01

    The presence of natural radioactive anomalies in rocks and soils of the state of Rio Grande do Norte may contribute to an increased exposure of the local population to natural radiation sources. From this region, there is a lack of information on the levels of natural radioactivity in drinking water supplies. Hence, this work focused on the characterization of the radiological and chemical aspects of the drinking water consumed in several municipalities of the Seridó Oriental region. Samples of surface water and groundwater were analysed for gross alpha and beta radioactivity and for the content of 226 Ra. The most important physical and chemical parameters of the water are reported. Most of the monitored water parameter showed values higher than those recommended for a good organoleptic quality of the water. Gross alpha activity, ranging from <0.05 to 1.61 Bq/L, showed values higher than de permissible ones in two samples. Gross beta activity, corrected for 40 K contribution, ranged from 0.22 to 1.67 Bq/L. The activity concentration of 226 Ra ranged from <0.01 to 0.53 Bq/L. Water quality can be considered poor, taking into the high levels of dissolved solids, affecting mainly the organoleptic characteristics of the water. Further investigation is needed to assess the behavior of the radiometric parameter in those samples with values higher than the permissible ones and to extent the study to other municipalities of the region. (author)

  6. Radiological and chemical characterization of drinking water supplies of Serido Oriental Region, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Lino Angel Valcarcel; Fernández, Zahily Herrero; Alvarez, Alfredo Montero [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), La Habana (Cuba); Santos Júnior, José Araújo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarado, Jose Antonio Corcho [Federal Office for Civil Protection, Spiez Laboratory, Physics Division, Labor Spiez, Spiez (Switzerland); Milan, Marvic Ortueta [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo do [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, (Brazil). Departamento de Agronomia

    2017-07-01

    The presence of natural radioactive anomalies in rocks and soils of the state of Rio Grande do Norte may contribute to an increased exposure of the local population to natural radiation sources. From this region, there is a lack of information on the levels of natural radioactivity in drinking water supplies. Hence, this work focused on the characterization of the radiological and chemical aspects of the drinking water consumed in several municipalities of the Seridó Oriental region. Samples of surface water and groundwater were analysed for gross alpha and beta radioactivity and for the content of {sup 226}Ra. The most important physical and chemical parameters of the water are reported. Most of the monitored water parameter showed values higher than those recommended for a good organoleptic quality of the water. Gross alpha activity, ranging from <0.05 to 1.61 Bq/L, showed values higher than de permissible ones in two samples. Gross beta activity, corrected for {sup 40}K contribution, ranged from 0.22 to 1.67 Bq/L. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra ranged from <0.01 to 0.53 Bq/L. Water quality can be considered poor, taking into the high levels of dissolved solids, affecting mainly the organoleptic characteristics of the water. Further investigation is needed to assess the behavior of the radiometric parameter in those samples with values higher than the permissible ones and to extent the study to other municipalities of the region. (author)

  7. Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other

  8. Epidemiological and entomological survey in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Pap district (Fergana Valley) of Namangan region, Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, M; Krasnonos, L; Gafurov, I

    2001-12-21

    An active focus of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is present in Uzbekistan, Namangan region, Pap district, situated along the Fergana Valley at an altitude of 900-1300 m a.s.l. An overall total of 19 VL cases, all recorded in children less than 14 years of age, have been reported during the period of 1987-99 in three villages, namely Oltinkon (9 cases), Chodak (7 cases) and Guliston (3 cases). Clinical and epidemiological features suggest that the disease is zoonotic in nature and that it is possibly caused by Leishmania infantum, though no characterization of the causative agent was performed due to the failure in isolating the parasite. Currently, diagnosis is made exclusively on the basis of clinical manifestations followed by demonstration of parasites in bone marrow aspirates. Standardized monthly sandfly collections (July-September 1999) were made with sticky traps and hand captures from houses and peri-domestic areas. Twenty houses were monitored over two consecutive days every month in five villages scattered along the valley, three of which were the VL foci (Oltinkon, Chodak, Guliston) and the other two, Kandigan and Khonabad, were located at the top (>1300 m a.s.l.) and at the bottom of the valley (740 m a.s.l.), respectively. Among the sandfly species identified, Phlebotomus sergenti (46.0%) was the most prevalent species through the entire period, followed by P. papatasi (18.8%), P. longiductus (15.5%), P. alexandri (10.3%), P. angustus (6.6%), S. sumbarica (2.2%), P. keshishiani (0.6%) and S. grekovi (0.1%). The role of the suspected vector, P. longiductus in the transmission of VL cases in the Fergana focus is discussed in relation to its abundance and distribution in the valley.

  9. THE NICARAGUA INTEROCEANIC GRAND CANAL IN THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT: CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEBATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Márquez Domínguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto regional centroamericano, el Gran Canal Interoceánico de Nicaragua supone un gran reto económico, tecnológico y geopolítico. No obstante, más allá de la expansión económica que signifique tal proyecto y todo lo que ello implica, como los nuevos muelles o el aumento del tráfico mercante, la clase dirigente nicaragüense no ha abordado la reestructuración de la política económica que permita el mejor aprovechamiento del hipotético crecimiento del PIB, especialmente pensando en las comunidades afectadas y los grupos más vulnerables del país. Para demostrar la necesidad de dichos cambios, el artículo analiza el proyecto del Gran Canal de Nicaragua en el contexto de la tumultuosa historia regional de Centro América y las actuales tensiones geopolíticas relacionadas con el tráfico mercante, identificando las principales deficiencias regionales de la propuesta nicaragüense, así como los más importantes retos que debe afrontar el país para transformar el Canal en un foco de desarrollo regional.

  10. Contributions to the moss flora of Artvin region (Hatila Valley National Park-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batan, Nevzat; Ozdemir, Turan

    2008-07-01

    Field studies were organized for exploring the moss flora of Hatila Valley National Park of Artvin (Turkey) during spring-summer period in 2005-2006. The taxonomic survey yielded eighty-five moss taxa o(comprises of seventy-nine species, six varieties) belonging to 44 genera of 16 families in Hatila Valley National Park of Artvin, Turkey. Bryum rubens Milt., Dicranodontium uncinatufm (Harv.) A. Jaeger., Eurhynchium hians var. rigidum (Boul.) Düll., Hypnum jutlandicum Holmen and Warncke, Rhynchostegiella jacquinii (Garov.) Limpr. and Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum (Schultz) R. H. Z ander are new records for A4 grid square (40 degrees-42' N, 38 degrees-42' E) determined. All taxa were found for the first time in Artvin. For every each taxon, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented.

  11. Distribution patterns of ferns and lycophytes in the Coastal Region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gonzatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A survey of ferns and lycophytes of the Coastal Region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (CRRS was performed based on field work and collections of the main regional herbaria. The following were evaluated for each species: preferential habits (terrestrial, epiphytic or aquatic, geographic distribution patterns and habitats (forest, grassland, and wetland. The occurrence of a latitudinal gradient in diversity was tested over five latitudinal ranges using the Sørensen Similarity Index. A total of 17 lycophyte and 206 fern species representing 28 families was found between the latitudes of 29° and 34°S. Exclusively terrestrial species were predominant (162, with the majority (113 exhibiting wide Neotropical distributions, followed by species that also occurred in the state of Paraná (44. The forest habitat harbored the greatest number of species (159, while grasslands had the fewest (26. Cluster analysis showed pronounced floristic differentiation among latitudinal Ranges III (31°01' to 32°S and IV (32°01' to 31°S, with a similarity index of only 0.41. Our results demonstrate a strong north-to-south reduction in species richness in the study area, which is related to environmental conditions along the latitudinal gradient and, especially, microclimatic differences in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Pampa biomes.

  12. The Impact of Technology-based Clusters on Regional Development: The Case of the Grand Poitiers Futuroscope Technopole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scheel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several well-recognized cities in the world have leaped to outstanding levels of economicand social development leveraged by specific breakthrough drivers. For the region ofPoitou-Charentes in France, the presence of the Futuroscope Amusement Park in the cityof Poitiers has become a significant tourist attraction that now produces a dilemma. Is thisinfrastructure sufficient for assembling the “Grand Poitiers Technopole” as a successfulhigh-technology cluster? To reach the conditions to assemble this high-tech cluster, theregion must have the potential to articulate, manage and govern aggressive innovationstrategies. Following the results of a study of several innovative cities around the globe, basic enablingmechanisms were found that have broken with the conventional growth paradigms withatypical breakthrough innovations, and have now achieved world-class disrupting performances,a global branding and status as successful poles of technological innovation. Theresults obtained show the features of the existing technopole as the ones to enhance inorder to have a world-class positioning for the region.

  13. Highlighting High Performance: Blackstone Valley Regional Vocational Technical High School; Upton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-10-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Blackstone Valley High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, and water conservation. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  14. Chemistry, mineralogy and origin of the clay-hill nitrate deposits, Amargosa River valley, Death Valley region, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, G.E.; Hosterman, J.W.; St., Amand

    1988-01-01

    The clay-hill nitrate deposits of the Amargosa River valley, California, are caliche-type accumulations of water-soluble saline minerals in clay-rich soils on saline lake beds of Miocene, Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene age. The soils have a maximum thickness of ??? 50 cm, and commonly consist of three layers: (1) an upper 5-10 cm of saline-free soil; (2) an underlying 15-20 cm of rubbly saline soil; and (3) a hard nitrate-rich caliche, 10-20 cm thick, at the bottom of the soil profile. The saline constituents, which make up as much as 50% of the caliche, are chiefly Cl-, NO-3, SO2-4 and Na+. In addition are minor amounts of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, varying, though generally minor, amounts of B2O3 and CO2-3, and trace amounts of I (probably as IO-3), NO-2, CrO2-4 and Mo (probably as MoO2-4). The water-soluble saline materials have an I/Br ratio of ??? 1, which is much higher than nearly all other saline depostis. The principal saline minerals of the caliche are halite (NaCl), nitratite (NaNO3), darapskite (Na3(SO4)(NO3)??H2O), glauberite (Na2Ca(SO4)2), gypsum (CaSO4??2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4). Borax (Na2B4O5(OH)4??8H2O), tincalconite (Na2B4O5(OH)4??3H2O) and trona (Na3(CO3)(HCO3)??2H2O) are abundant locally. The clay-hill nitrate deposits are analogous to the well-known Chilean nitrate deposits, and probably are of similar origin. Whereas the Chilean deposits are in permeable soils of the nearly rainless Atacama Desert, the clay-hill deposits are in relatively impervious clay-rich soils that inhibited leaching by rain water. The annual rainfall in the Death Valley region of ??? 5 cm is sufficient to leach water-soluble minerals from the more permeable soils. The clay-hill deposits contain saline materials from the lake beds beneath the nitrate deposits are well as wind-transported materials from nearby clay-hill soils, playas and salt marshes. The nitrate is probably of organic origin, consisting of atmospheric nitrogen fixed as protein by photoautotrophic blue-green algae

  15. A ten-year survey of onychomycosis in the Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Um estudo de 10 anos sobre onicomicoses na região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O. LOPES

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis is a common infection of the nail plate caused by fungal microrganisms, and represents approximately 50% of nails disorders and 30% of all superficial mycotic infections. We present a study of the frequency, epidemiology and clinical aspects of onychomycosis in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul during the period 1988-1997.Onicomicoses são infecções comuns da lâmina ungueal causadas por fungos filamentosos e leveduras, que representam aproximadamente 50% das alterações das unhas e 30% de todas as infecções fúngicas superficiais. Apresentamos um estudo sobre a freqüência, epidemiologia e aspectos clínicos das onicomicoses na região central do Rio Grande do Sul durante o período 1988-1997.

  16. Dating by thermoluminescence of some costal sand deposits of last climatic cycle, from the northeastern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Rivera, A.

    1988-01-01

    Six coastal quartz sand deposits from the northeastern region of the Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil), with reasonnably well known ages, from ∼ 1700 yr to ∼ 120.000 yr, were dated by thermoluminescence. (M.W.O.) [pt

  17. Environmental evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and Nasca region (Peru) in 2003-2007 using ENVISAT ASAR and ASTER time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Recent palaeo-environmental studies and remote sensing investigations demonstrated that the Rio Grande drainage basin in Southern Peru is a still evolving landscape, and impacts due to its changes have implications for the preservation of both the natural and cultural features of the Nasca region, well-known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations, who flourished from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. To image the modifications occurred in the last decade, we exploited the entire 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR C-band archive imagery available over the region, which was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) via the Cat-1 project 11073. The latter supports the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. With the aim of reconstructing the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its effects and implications for the heritage of the region, we processed 8 ASAR Image Mode IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, and focused on SAR backscattering information, amplitude change detection methods and extraction of ASAR-derived time series of the backscattering coefficient over target areas of interest. The ASAR 2003-2007 analysis was coupled and integrated with NDVI-based soil moisture and vegetation change assessment performed by using ASTER multi-spectral data acquired during the same time frame of the ASAR stacks, on 30/05/2003, 01/06/2004 and 10/06/2007. The research was performed both at the regional scale over the entire Rio Grande drainage basin, with particular focus on its tributaries Rio Ingenio, Rio Nazca and Rio Taruga, and at the local scale over the

  18. Marketing actions in high school institutions: a study in “Grande ABC” region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Linzmayer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Educational Marketing is an important activity that has been used as a differential factor services by higher education institutions (HEIs from Brazil. This research identified and analyzed the current actions and marketing practices of 33 institutions working in the Greater ABC region, and they have evolved with reference to two studies previously conducted by Martins (1986 and Bittencourt (2005. The methodology used for this study was based on three stages, a first corresponding to a literature based on studies, a second exploratory through semi-structured interviews and the descriptive and third census based on responses from questionnaires sent to the educational institutions under study. In the field research, which began in late 2014 and completed in 2015, found to be sensitive changes in the practice of Educational Marketing, especially in relation to the professionalization of the responsible managers and consolidation of the area of communication and marketing in the surveyed institutions. It found also that HEIs are increasingly investing their resources to attract students considering opening new institutions, new courses and increase the number of vacancies that exist in mergers and acquisitions, which have their vacancies fulfilled. At the end of the survey were registered comparisons across the three studies in 1986, 2005 and 2015 this where these aforementioned changes and the growing importance and adoption of the Educational Marketing as an important factor of changes in education services, teaching and research were found offered by IES.

  19. Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Vinuesa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE, the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 μg m-3 as 1 hourly average. New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100% using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted

  20. Influence of Plastic Covering on the Microclimate in Vineyards in the São Francisco River Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Miranda Vilas Boas Ramos Leitão

    Full Text Available Abstract Data from field experiments conducted in table grape vineyards variety of Festival in Petrolina-PE in the period from September 19 to October 12, 2010 were used to evaluate the influence of plastic cover on microclimate conditions of vineyards in São Francisco River Valley region. Three treatments were studied: canopies without plastic cover (WC; with plastic cover positioned at 50 cm (PC50, and at 100 cm (PC100 above canopy. The results indicate that the plastic cover prevented the passage of about 40% of the global and net radiation, retained the relative humidity inside the canopy, generated an increase of air temperature and marked reduction in wind speed over the canopy of treatment PC50. However, treatment PC100 had a higher incidence of short wavelength and net radiation under canopy (on the berries than WC and PC50 treatments, resulting in more favorable weather conditions, providing about 40% greater productivity in this treatment. Therefore, the vineyard with plastic cover placed at 100 cm above canopy represents a more suitable alternative to the climatic conditions of the region of the São Francisco River Valley.

  1. [Therapeutic itineraries of transvestites from the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Coviello, Denise Martin; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this paper is to shed light on the therapeutic itineraries of transvestites from Santa Maria in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. The study sought to follow the complex trajectories followed by transvestites in their quest for health care. Field research was conducted between January and November 2012 with transvestites from different cities in the state who were living in Santa Maria at the time. It involved qualitative methodology using ethnographic research. The results showed that the interviewees avoid institutionalized health services, opting for other forms of health care. In this respect, it is noteworthy that of the group of 49 transvestites who were included in this study, 48 sought health care in "African religion groups" or "batuque" ("drumming"), as they refer to them. The transvestites stated that they opted for "African religion groups" as they saw them as places that were able to afford forms of care and protection, without questioning bodily changes and sexual orientation. This article may help to shed light on some of the unusual trajectories of transvestites in their quest for health care.

  2. Remote Sensing Assessment of Soil Moisture, Soil Mineralogy and other Environmental Factors Influencing Mosquito-borne Infection Risks in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, U.S. - Mexico Border (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Folger, H. W.; Page, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    A dengue fever outbreak occurred near Matamoros, Mexico along the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the summer of 2005 following heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Gert and Hurricane Emily. This outbreak exemplifies the need for monitoring soil moisture and mapping soil permeability factors affecting the breeding and distribution of mosquito species capable of spreading disease. For example, the Rio Grande delta of South Texas and North Tamaulipas Mexico is inhabited by over 50 native and invasive species of mosquitoes capable of hosting Malaria, West Nile Virus and other types of human and livestock infecting Encephalitis. They range in ecological habitats from coastal salt marshes to freshwater riparian wetlands, tree holes and/or urban containers, flooded agricultural fields, and the many irrigation canals and ditches present throughout our study area. For this study, water-saturated and flooded soils were mapped using a “soil moisture availability” index (Mo) based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and surface radiant and/or kinetic temperature images derived from multi-temporal Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER imagery. In particular, the Landsat-7 imagery covers ten cloud-free or minimal cloud cover acquisition dates during drought and wet periods of 2002, prior to the scan-line corrector failure in 2003. This includes one date (August 18, 2002) of co-orbital swath coverage between Landsat and ASTER, acquired after the land fall and dissipation of Tropical Storm Bertha (August 09, 2002). ASTER image dates used include those before and after the land fall of Hurricane Emily on July 20, 2005. The resulting maps show the distribution of relatively permeable (i.e. sandier) and impermeable soil types, the latter of which are dominated by clay-rich soils deposited in remnant interdistributary channels as channel-fill, and overbank flood deposits along the modern Rio Grande delta and portions of the (remapped) Pleistocene Beaumont coastal deltaic plain

  3. Prevalence, Genotype Distribution and Risk Factors for Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection in the Grand Tunis Region, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhaoui, Monia; Ennaifer, Emna; Letaief, Hajer; Salsabil, Rejaibi; Lassili, Thalja; Chahed, Karim; Bougatef, Souha; Bahrini, Asma; El Fehri, Emna; Ouerhani, Kaouther; Paez Jimenez, Adela; Guizani, Ikram; Boubaker, Med Samir; Ben Alaya, Nissaf Bouafif Ép

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination should be considered a key cervical cancer prevention strategy in Tunisia, where Pap smear screening is not efficient. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with HPV infection among women from Grand Tunis, Tunisia. We conducted a cross-sectional study, between December 2012 and May 2013. Eligible women for this study were those aged 18-65 years, sexually active, who sought medical attention at their primary health care centre or clinic in Grand Tunis, Tunisia and who gave written consent. A liquid-based Pap smear sample was obtained from all women using a cervical brush. Only women with betaglobin positive test were further analysed for HPV detection and typing. A nested-PCR of the L1 region was performed followed by reverse line blot hybridization to facilitate the specific detection of 31 HPV genotypes. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used for the analysis of associations between variables with some considered possible confounders after checking for interactions. A total of 391 women were enrolled in this study and 325 out of the 391 cervical samples were positive for the betaglobin test. Overall HPV prevalence was 13.2% [9.8%-17.5%], with the following most prevalent HPV genotypes: HPV6 (40%), HPV40 (14%), HPV16 (12%), HPV52 (9%), HPV31 and HPV59 (7%), followed by HPV68 (4%). Mean age of HPV positive women was 40.7±0.92 years. Independently associated risk factors of HPV infection were smoking (OR:2.8 [0.8-9.6]), low income (OR:9.6 [1.4-63.4), bad housing type (OR:2.5 [1-6.8]), partner with multiple sexual relationship (OR:4.5 [0.9-22.9]) and single women (widowed, divorced, separated, never married) (OR:6.9 [1.1-42.2]). This study provides the first national-based estimate of HPV prevalence in Tunisia. Our findings contribute to the evidence on the current burden of HPV infection, the critical role of sexual behaviour and socioeconomic status and

  4. Prevalence, Genotype Distribution and Risk Factors for Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection in the Grand Tunis Region, Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Ardhaoui

    Full Text Available Implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination should be considered a key cervical cancer prevention strategy in Tunisia, where Pap smear screening is not efficient. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with HPV infection among women from Grand Tunis, Tunisia. We conducted a cross-sectional study, between December 2012 and May 2013. Eligible women for this study were those aged 18-65 years, sexually active, who sought medical attention at their primary health care centre or clinic in Grand Tunis, Tunisia and who gave written consent. A liquid-based Pap smear sample was obtained from all women using a cervical brush. Only women with betaglobin positive test were further analysed for HPV detection and typing. A nested-PCR of the L1 region was performed followed by reverse line blot hybridization to facilitate the specific detection of 31 HPV genotypes. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used for the analysis of associations between variables with some considered possible confounders after checking for interactions. A total of 391 women were enrolled in this study and 325 out of the 391 cervical samples were positive for the betaglobin test. Overall HPV prevalence was 13.2% [9.8%-17.5%], with the following most prevalent HPV genotypes: HPV6 (40%, HPV40 (14%, HPV16 (12%, HPV52 (9%, HPV31 and HPV59 (7%, followed by HPV68 (4%. Mean age of HPV positive women was 40.7±0.92 years. Independently associated risk factors of HPV infection were smoking (OR:2.8 [0.8-9.6], low income (OR:9.6 [1.4-63.4, bad housing type (OR:2.5 [1-6.8], partner with multiple sexual relationship (OR:4.5 [0.9-22.9] and single women (widowed, divorced, separated, never married (OR:6.9 [1.1-42.2]. This study provides the first national-based estimate of HPV prevalence in Tunisia. Our findings contribute to the evidence on the current burden of HPV infection, the critical role of sexual behaviour and socioeconomic status

  5. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35 degrees N., long 115 degrees W and lat 38 degrees N., long 118 degrees W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system

  6. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35{degrees}N., long 115{degrees}W and lat 38{degrees}N., long 118{degrees}W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system.

  7. Produção de bananeira 'Grande Naine' superadensada e irrigada no Vale do São Francisco Yield of banana irrigated "Grande Naine" with high densities in São Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Egídio Flori

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do adensamento de plantas na produtividade de cultura da bananeira 'Grande Naine' em condições irrigadas no vale do Submédio São Francisco, Juazeiro, Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentoss e três repetições em solo tipo Vertissolo, nos espaçamentos: T1=3,75 x 1,25 x 2, m (2.000 pl.ha-1, T2= 3,75 x 1,25 x 1 m (4.000 pl.ha-1, T3= 3,75 x 1,25 x 0,66 m (6.060 pl.ha-1; T4= 3,75 x 1,25 x 0,50 (8.000 pl.ha-1, T5= 3,75 x 1,25 x 2 m (2.000 pl.ha-1, sendo 3,75 m entre fileiras duplas, 1,25 m entre linhas e 2 m, 1 m, 0,5 m e 0,66 m entre plantas nas linhas. Avaliaram-se dois ciclos de produção com base nas seguintes características: diâmetro do pseudocaule (DP a 30 cm do solo, altura da planta (AP, massa do cacho (MC, número de pencas (NP, número de frutos (NF, massa do engaço (MI, comprimento do fruto (CF, diâmetro do fruto (DF, massa do fruto (MF, ciclo vegetativo (CV (plantio até a colheita, rendimento ha-1 (Rha-1, rendimento (R ha-1ano-1. No 1º ciclo, o T2 (4000 pl.ha-1, 98 t.ha-1, e 90 t.ha-1ano-1 foi superior aos tratamentos T1 e T5 (2.000 pl. ha-1, respectivamente, 65 t.ha-1 e 66 t.ha-1ano-1, 69 t.ha-1 e 68 t.ha-1ano-1. No 2º ciclo, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos em relação ao rendimento por hectare. Observou-se que os tratamentos T1, T2 e T5, no 2º ciclo, foram superiores ao T4 em termos de rendimento ha-1ano-1 e qualidade dos frutos.The objective of this work was to verify the influence of the density on yield of the banana 'Grande Naine', planted in Juazeiro, BA, Brazil. Four densities (2000, 4000, 6000 e 8000 plants ha-1 at systems double rows were evaluated for first and second crops cycle. Banana suckers were planted at T1=3.75 x 1.25 x 2 m (2.000 pl.ha-1; T2= 3.75 x 1.25 x 1 m (4.000 pl.ha-1; T3= 3.75 x 1.25 x 0,66 m (6.000 pl.ha-1; T4= 3.75 x 1.25 x 0,50 (8.000 pl.ha-1; T5= 3.75 x 1.25 x 2 m (2.000 pl

  8. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER RETENTION FOR THE ODER VALLEY IN THE MALCZYCE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Nowicka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of spatial changes of groundwater retention for a part of the Oder valley situated below the barrage in Brzeg Dolny. For the analysis of selected monthly average elevations of the groundwater table of the selected measuring points (32 piezometers located in the area described, and 7 gauges on the Oder river, Średzka Woda, Jeziorka and Nowy Rów. The change of groundwater retention is presented in spatial terms for vegetation periods of years: 2010, 2011 and 2012. The database was made interpolating the groundwater table elevation for the area in question. On this basis, differences between ordinates the groundwater table were calculated. The next step was to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater retention states and its analysis. The results show significant changes in the states of groundwater retention on the selected portion of the valley in the individual growing seasons. According to formation of changes in status of groundwater retention relative to the distance from the Odra river was analysed.

  10. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  11. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it's new marketing plan

  12. Regional-scale controls on the spatial activity of rockfalls (Turtmann Valley, Swiss Alps) - A multivariate modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Meyer, Hanna; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dikau, Richard

    2017-06-01

    In mountain geosystems, rockfalls are among the most effective sediment transfer processes, reflected in the regional-scale distribution of talus slopes. However, the understanding of the key controlling factors seems to decrease with increasing spatial scale, due to emergent and complex system behavior and not least to recent methodological shortcomings in rockfall modeling research. In this study, we aim (i) to develop a new approach to identify major regional-scale rockfall controls and (ii) to quantify the relative importance of these controls. Using a talus slope inventory in the Turtmann Valley (Swiss Alps), we applied for the first time the decision-tree based random forest algorithm (RF) in combination with a principal component logistic regression (PCLR) to evaluate the spatial distribution of rockfall activity. This study presents new insights into the discussion on whether periglacial rockfall events are controlled more by topo-climatic, cryospheric, paraglacial or/and rock mechanical properties. Both models explain the spatial rockfall pattern very well, given the high areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of > 0.83. Highest accuracy was obtained by the RF, correctly predicting 88% of the rockfall source areas. The RF appears to have a great potential in geomorphic research involving multicollinear data. The regional permafrost distribution, coupled to the bedrock curvature and valley topography, was detected to be the primary rockfall control. Rockfall source areas cluster within a low-radiation elevation belt (2900-3300 m a.s.l,) consistent with a permafrost probability of > 90%. The second most important factor is the time since deglaciation, reflected by the high abundance of rockfalls along recently deglaciated (< 100 years), north-facing slopes. However, our findings also indicate a strong rock mechanical control on the paraglacial rockfall activity, declining either exponentially or linearly since deglaciation. The study

  13. Socio-spatial formation and urban-regional dynamics in Rio Grande do Norte State: the place of the Metropolitan Region of Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the category of socio-spatial formation (Milton Santos, a study about the relationship between space and society in the course of history of the development of Rio Grande do Norte was undertaken, with the overall aim of identifying socio-economic, demographic and spatial links, that represent the different urban-regional dynamics of the state, and also with the specific aim of giving the metropolitan area of Natal its rightful place, as the structuring core of these dynamics. In this search, thought was given to the analysis of the profile of urbanization, which does not only show some characteristics of the urban network of the state evolution, which make it possible to glimpse the outline of its regionalization. In conclusion, we can observe, among other aspects, the sharp contrast between the technical-economic status in recent decades, and the precarious conditions in which large parts of the society live, what is spatially represented in a weak territorial division of labor in an unbalanced urban network, supported by a very small number of cities.

  14. Prevalence of Rift Valley fever in domestic ruminants in the central and northern regions of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussini, H; Lamien, C E; Nacoulma, O G; Kaboré, A; Poda, G; Viljoen, G

    2014-12-01

    The seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever was determined in cattle, sheep and goats in selected areas of northern and central Burkina Faso. A total of 520 serum samples were screened for anti-Rift Valley fever virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An average seroprevalence of 7.67% (range 5% to 20%) was found in ruminants in Seno and Soum provinces, and prevalences of 20% and 22.5% in cattle in Yatenga and Oubritenga provinces, respectively. The location, species and age of the animals were found to influence the seroprevalence. All the ELISA IgG-positive samples were tested for IgM in a competitive ELISA and were found negative, thus ruling out recent infections. The IgG-positive samples, including weak positives, were further tested in a serum neutralisation test for neutralising antibodies and 54.5% of these samples tested positive. The results show that the virus is in circulation in central and northern regions of Burkina Faso, suggesting the need for improved surveillance and control systems to prevent future outbreaks and the consequent economic impact of the disease in Burkina Faso livestock.

  15. Geothermal environmental studies, Heber Region, Imperial Valley, California. Environmental baseline data acquisition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been studying the feasibility of a Low Salinity Hydrothermal Demonstration Plant as part of its Geothermal Energy Program. The Heber area of the Imperial Valley was selected as one of the candidate geothermal reservoirs. Documentation of the environmental conditions presently existing in the Heber area is required for assessment of environmental impacts of future development. An environmental baseline data acquisition program to compile available data on the environment of the Heber area is reported. The program included a review of pertinent existing literature, interviews with academic, governmental and private entities, combined with field investigations and meteorological monitoring to collect primary data. Results of the data acquisition program are compiled in terms of three elements: the physical, the biological and socioeconomic settings.

  16. Biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the Sirwan Valley (Sulaimani Region, Kurdistan, NE Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbazheri, Khalid Mahmood; Ghafor, Imad Mahmood; Muhammed, Qahtan Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary sequence, which crops out in the studied area is located within the High Folded Zone, in the Sirwan Valley, northeastern Iraq. These units mainly consist of flysch and flysch-type successions of thick clastic beds of Tanjero/Kolosh Formations. A detailed lithostratigraphic study is achieved on the outcropping uppermost part of the Upper Cretaceous successions (upper part of Tanjero Formation) and the lowermost part of the Kolosh Formation. On the basis of the identified planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, five biozones are recorded from the uppermost part of Tanjero Formation and four biozones from the lower part of the Kolosh Formation (Lower Paleocene) in the Sirwan section. The biostratigraphic correlations based on planktonic foraminiferal zonations showed a comparison between the biostratigraphic zones established in this study and other equivalents of the commonly used planktonic zonal scheme around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in and outside Iraq.

  17. Chimpanzee insectivory in the northern half of Uganda's Rift Valley: do Bulindi chimpanzees conform to a regional pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2014-04-01

    Insects are a nutritious food source for many primates. In chimpanzees, insectivory is most prevalent among communities that manufacture tools to harvest social insects, particularly ants and termites. In contrast to other long-term study sites, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest and Kibale National Park, Uganda, rarely eat insects and have small foraging tool kits, supporting speculation that infrequent insectivory--technically aided or otherwise--characterises chimpanzees in this part of Uganda's Rift Valley. To expand the dataset for this region, insect foraging was investigated at Bulindi (25 km from Budongo) over 19 months during two studies in 2007-2008 and 2012-2013. Systematic faecal analysis demonstrated that insectivory is a habitual foraging activity at this site. Overall levels of insect consumption varied considerably across months but were not predicted by monthly changes in rainfall or fruit intake. Unlike their Budongo and Kibale counterparts, Bulindi chimpanzees often consume ants (principally weaver ants, Oecophylla longinoda) and use sticks to dig out stingless bee (Meliponini) ground nests. In other respects, however, insectivory at Bulindi conforms to the pattern observed elsewhere in this region: they do not manufacture 'fishing' or 'dipping' tools to harvest termites and aggressive or hard-to-access ants (e.g., army ants, Dorylus spp.), despite availability of suitable prey. The Bulindi data lend support to the supposition that chimpanzees in this part of the Rift Valley rarely exploit termites and Dorylus ants, apparently lacking the 'cultural knowledge' that would enable them to do so most efficiently (i.e., tool use). The study's findings contribute to current debates about the relative influence of genetics, environment and culture in shaping regional and local variability in Pan foraging ecology.

  18. Preliminary estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge for the Death Valley region, Nevada-California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional ground-water flow model has been developed to evaluate the Death Valley regional flow system, which includes ground water beneath the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge are needed to define upper boundary conditions. This study presents a preliminary application of a conceptual and numerical model of net infiltration. The model was developed in studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located in the approximate center of the Death Valley ground-water flow system. The conceptual model describes the effects of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and redistribution of water in the shallow unsaturated zone on predicted rates of net infiltration; precipitation and soil depth are the two most significant variables. The conceptual model was tested using a preliminary numerical model based on energy- and water-balance calculations. Daily precipitation for 1980 through 1995, averaging 202 millimeters per year over the 39,556 square kilometers area of the ground-water flow model, was input to the numerical model to simulate net infiltration ranging from zero for a soil thickness greater than 6 meters to over 350 millimeters per year for thin soils at high elevations in the Spring Mountains overlying permeable bedrock. Estimated average net infiltration over the entire ground-water flow model domain is 7.8 millimeters per year. To evaluate the application of the net-infiltration model developed on a local scale at Yucca Mountain, to net-infiltration estimates representing the magnitude and distribution of recharge on a regional scale, the net-infiltration results were compared with recharge estimates obtained using empirical methods. Comparison of model results with previous estimates of basinwide recharge suggests that the net-infiltration estimates obtained using this model may overestimate recharge because of uncertainty in modeled precipitation, bedrock permeability, and soil properties for

  19. Simulated effects of climate change on the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; O'Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; San Juan, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional flow system as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. As part of the hydrologic investigation, regional, three-dimensional conceptual and numerical ground-water-flow models have been developed to assess the potential effects of past and future climates on the regional flow system. A simulation that is based on climatic conditions 21,000 years ago was evaluated by comparing the simulated results to observation of paleodischarge sites. Following acceptable simulation of a past climate, a possible future ground-water-flow system, with climatic conditions that represent a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, was simulated. The steady-state simulations were based on the present-day, steady-state, regional ground-water-flow model. The finite-difference model consisted of 163 rows, 153 columns, and 3 layers and was simulated using MODFLOWP. Climate changes were implemented in the regional ground-water-flow model by changing the distribution of ground-water recharge. Global-scale, average-annual, simulated precipitation for both past- and future-climate conditions developed elsewhere were resampled to the model-grid resolution. A polynomial function that represents the Maxey-Eakin method for estimating recharge from precipitation was used to develop recharge distributions for simulation

  20. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  1. The Maltrata valley in the inter regional trade nets of the obsidian in Meso america: origin by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina V, R. O.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the obsidian in Mexico has included different research lines, as they are: the study of the elaboration techniques of several things, forms, dating: deposits localization and extraction of the raw material; study about the physical and mineralogical characteristics, and those focused to the trade routes of several things; which is developed in this thesis. The topic developed in this research is to propose the possible communication routes in which the obsidian of the Maltrata valley has participated among the Gulf coast and of the Altiplano 12 central. With the characterization study of the obsidian is possible to know the origin of this and also the relationship with other societies, because the exploitation of raw materials of mineral origin was an activity of great economic and politics importance in the pre hispanic societies. When the origin is determined is possible to relate the supplier, with the distributor and consumer and this way to trace on a map the movement routes that people settled down and for those that the obsidian circulated. To define the origin of the Maltrata obsidian was used the analysis technique by neutron activation, which allowed knowing the origin place of the raw material. This work is organized in five chapters. In the first chapter the theoretical and methodological bases are developed to define the research. A revision is made to the antecedents on trade and origin in the center and south of Veracruz. In the second chapter a general panorama of the geographical and geologic environment of the region is described, with the purpose of to delineate the own characteristics of the valley and to distinguish it of the diverse areas and regions of the coast of the Gulf. In the chapter third, the data of the material context and the places of where they took the representative samples are provided; equally the methodology carried out for its selection, classification and registration is presented. For the fourth chapter is

  2. The Corregidores of the Colca Valley, Peru: Imperial Administration in an Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook, Noble David

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The corregidor de los indios was introduced into the Viceroyalty of Peru by Governor García de Castro in 1565. The institution was designed to limit the power of the encomendero elite and to improve administration and justice in the Andean countryside. Here we examine the impact of the reforms at the local level, the corregimiento of Los Collaguas in the Colca Valley, located between Cuzco and Arequipa. Althought the Crown was largely successful in weakening the encomienda, possibility of graft corrupted all but a handful of corregidores. The residencia did check some of those abuses.

    El gobernador García de Castro fue quien introdujo (1565 el corregidor de los indios en el virreinato del Perú. El corregimiento fue establecido para limitar el poder de los encomenderos y mejorar la administración y la justicia en los sitios rurales, y al mismo tiempo incrementar la colección del tributo. En este trabajo examinamos el impacto de las reformas en el corregimiento de los Collaguas situado en el hermoso valle del río Colca entre Arequipa y Cuzco. Aunque la corona fue más exitosa en debilitar la encomienda, la posibilidad de soborno corrompió a la mayoría de los corregidores.

  3. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  4. Assessing the full costs of water, liquid waste, energy and solid waste infrastructure in the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents a newly drafted growth strategy developed by the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD) in British Columbia. It guides the sustainable growth, change and development of the region for the next 25 years and deals with air pollution, water quality, traffic congestion, affordable housing, employment, energy use, parks and green space. In particular, this case study develops a method to apply full cost accounting (FCA) to a growth strategy. FCA is the most appropriate way to approach a sustainable strategy because it considers economic, social and environmental issues. The study also includes the development of a software tool consisting of an ACCESS database and an ARCVIEW GIS file for compiling and analyzing detailed infrastructure profiles which can be used to assess the full costs of different growth scenarios. The following four issue categories of environmental and economic indicators of FVRD performance were addressed: solid waste, water and wastewater, energy, and infrastructure costs. Each issue category was then used to establish a set of 5 performance indicators that can be measured and assessed over time. These included solid waste, water consumption, wastewater, energy consumption and air emissions. The database and methodology developed for this project is suitable for other regions. The software can be viewed by contacting the Sheltair Group Resource Consultants Inc. in Vancouver

  5. An empirical formula to estimate rainfall intensity in Kupwara region of Kashmir valley, J and K, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar Abdul Qayoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of rainfall extremes particularly their magnitude and frequency, as embodied in Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF relationships and IDF curves is fundamental to many engineering problems such as design of hydraulic structures, urban drainage system, water resources projects and many others. The objective of this study is to obtain IDF relationships and curves for the Kupwara region of Kashmir valley in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Three different frequency distributions namely the Gumbel distribution, the Pearson Type III distribution and the Log-Pearson Type III distribution were fitted to the rainfall data to obtain rainfall intensities for selected return periods (2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years and durations (0.16, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Regional constants in IDF relations were found using the Sherman Morrison method and results were compared based on the Chi-square goodness-of-fit test. Results obtained using all distributions showed a similar trend. However, the Pearson Type III distribution emerges to be the best fit for the rainfall data of the region. Results revealed that higher rainfall intensities have shorter durations. Maximum rainfall intensity 81.13 mm/hr as per the best fit relation occurs with a return period of 100 years for 0.16 hours duration.

  6. Regional drought early warning, impacts, and assessment for water and agriculture in the lower Rio Grande basin, 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA’s Southern Plains Climate Hub (SPCH) and the University of Oklahoma’s Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP) contributed to a broad, multi-partnered effort to provide drought early warning information to water and agriculture management interests in the middle and lower Rio Grande ba...

  7. Traditional knowledge on wild and cultivated plants in the Kilombero Valley (Morogoro Region, Tanzania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinitro, Mirko; Vicentini, Renzo; Bonomi, Costantino; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-03-09

    This research was performed in four villages adjacent the boundary of Udzungwa Mountains National Park in the Kilombero River plain of Tanzania. The area adjacent the villages is characterized by self-consumption agriculture, with a population that is on average poor, still very tied to traditions and almost entirely unaffected by modernization and technology. The aim of the present study was to investigate and record local knowledge regarding the use of wild and traditionally cultivated plants used for traditional medicine and for other everyday purposes (e.g., food, fibers and timber). Ten traditional local healers, with solid botanical knowledge, were interviewed between June and August 2014 by means of semi-structured questionnaires. For each mentioned plant species, the Swahili folk name and, when possible, the classification by family, genus and species was recorded as well as the part of the plant used, the preparation method and the main uses (medicine, food or others). In total 196 species were mentioned of which 118 could be botanically classified. The identified species belong to 44 different botanical families, with that of the Leguminosae being the most representative (24 species). The plants were mostly used as medical treatments (33.3% of the species) and foods (36.8%), and to produce wood and fibers (19.4%). The present study revealed that numerous plant species are still essential in the everyday life of the tribes living in Kilombero Valley. Most of the plants were usually harvested in the wild, however, after the creation of the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, the harvesting pressure has become concentrated on a few unprotected forest patches. Consequently, many useful species are becoming increasingly rare with the risk of losing the connected botanical and traditional knowledge. The present study may, therefore, contribute to record the ethnobotanical knowledge held by these populations, in order to preserve this valuable richness for future

  8. Nitrogen Eutrophication on the Colorado Plateau: Using Biological Indicators to Detect Nutrient Enrichment in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, J. A.; Johnson, N.; Hultine, K. R.; Sesnie, S.; Sisk, T.

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have more than doubled the availability of biologically reactive forms of nitrogen (N) since the industrial and agricultural revolutions. Though N is an important plant nutrient, increased deposition initiates a cascade of deleterious effects including ecosystem acidification, biodiversity loss, and increased smog and haze. Atmospheric pollution continues to threaten the air quality of the 16 Class 1 Wilderness areas on the Colorado Plateau, including Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP). However, the ecological impacts of N deposition in these historically N-limited, nutrient sensitive arid regions, are little- known. Here, we report baseline atmospheric and terrestrial responses to anthropogenic N deposition derived from vehicular exhaust in GCNP and long-range deposition from a local coal-fired power plant, the Navajo Generating Station (NGS). We used passive air samplers, natural abundance δ15N stable isotope analysis, and nutrient analysis to observe N patterns in air, soils, and pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) foliage. In GCNP, samples were collected from ten sites over an eight-month period in areas of projected low to high vehicular N deposition (i.e. distance from primary roadways). On the Paria Plateau, northeast of GCNP and in close proximity to the NGS, samples were collected along a distance gradient from the NGS, across the Plateau. In both study areas, atmospheric deposition, as well as soil and pine- needle nutrient concentrations show significant negative relationships with increased distance from N-source (p<0.05). In heavily trafficked sites of GCNP, atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NOx) were 65% lower at 30m compared to the roadside. Likewise, on the Paria, NOx were 54% lower at 50km compared to 25km from NGS (p<0.01; R2 =0.87, for GCNP and the Paria, respectively). In GCNP, soil δ15N, and pinyon needle δ15N decrease significantly 30m from the roadside (18%, F= 4.07, p<0.05; 40%, F=4.34, p<0.05). On the Paria Plateau, soil δ15N, C

  9. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, ore exploitation, particularly that of mixed sulphides, has been abandoned since the final thirty years of the last century, and a quantity of mine dumps has been discharged in wide areas of the land, provoking evident environmental damages to landscape, soil and vegetation, with potential risk for human health. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Soils and wild plants were sampled from mixed sulphides mine dumps in Imperina valley (Belluno, Italy), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined. Chemical analyses carried out on 10 soil profiles (mostly entisols) of the mineralised area revealed metal concentrations generally above the international target levels (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). The concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn, instead, are below the reference limits. Moreover, a highly significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of metals in soils (Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu). Metal concentration in selected wild plants of the mineralized area is moderately high, in particolar Cu, Pb, Zn in the roots of Plantago major, Pb and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum officinale, Zn and Pb in Salix spp. The translocation coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant (hypogean portion), and within the plant (epigean portion) vary from 0,37 in Plantago major to 2,97 in Silene dioica, two known accumulator plants. Salix spp present high translocation coefficients from soil to plant, and from roots to leaves. In particular, essential metals present a translocation coefficient ≥1 (with the order Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe), while toxic metals have coefficients <1 (Pb

  10. Isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Sáenz-Rosales, Oscar; Piedra-Marín, Gilberto; Fonseca-Sánchez, Alicia; Madrigal-Solís, Helga; Ulloa-Chaverri, Franz; Rojas-Jiménez, Luis D; Vargas-Víquez, José A

    2017-03-01

    The linkage between precipitation and recharge is still poorly understood in the Central America region. This study focuses on stable isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. During the dry season, rainfall samples corresponded to enriched events with high deuterium excess. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone poses over Costa Rica resulting in a depletion of 18 O/ 16 O and 2 H/H ratios. A parsimonious four-variable regression model (r 2  = 0.52) was able to predict daily δ 18 O in precipitation. Air mass back trajectories indicated a combination of Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean sources, which is clearly depicted in groundwater isoscape. Aquifers relying on Pacific-originated recharge exhibited a more depleted pattern, whereas recharge areas relying on Caribbean parental moisture showed an enrichment trend. These results can be used to enhance modelling efforts in Central America where scarcity of long-term data limits water resources management plans.

  11. Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tupayachi Mar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the following «The Material Politics of Waste Disposal - decentralization and integrated systems» from Penelope Harvey are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. In this paper, Tupayachi introduces the legal framing for the politics of waste disposal in the region. She also presents two studies that were commissioned in order to find solutions to the problem of waste disposal. The first was carried out in 2003, with finance from Finnish development cooperation funds, in co-ordination with technical experts from various universities, NGOs and state agencies, including the municipality of Urubamba. The second, a component of the Vilcanota project, was completed in 2011. The studies have things in common. Both involve regional and local government as central agents in the process, both focus their efforts to resolve the problem of solid waste management on possible technical solutions, and both are well resourced in both financial and human terms. However neither succeed in finding a way to accommodate the diverse interests and perceptions of the municipalities and of the general public. Faced with this situation local government officials, and people in general act on their own initiative, finding decentralized, and at times informal solutions to the problem, taking advantage of market opportunities.

  12. Impaired glucose regulation in a Sherpa indigenous population living in the Everest region of Nepal and in Kathmandu Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhamo, Sherpa Y; Supamai, Soonthornpun; Virasakdi, Chongsuvivatwong

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impaired glucose regulation status in Sherpa adults living in the Everest area and in Kathmandu valley. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Chaurikharka village (Everest area) and Kathmandu city on 119 and 121 randomly selected individuals, aged 30-70 years. They were assessed on conventional risk factors for diabetes, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Based on the 2003 American Diabetes Association criteria, the prevalence in the Kathmandu city and Everest region of any impaired glucose regulation (IGR), isolated impaired fasting plasma glucose (isolated IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (isolated IGT), and combined isolated IFG and isolated IGT were 55.4% vs. 23.5%, 42.1% vs. 14.3%, 1.7% vs. 0.8%, 11.6 vs. 8.4%, respectively. Using the subjects with normal glucose tolerance as the referent group and after adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, calories, and waist circumference, the odds ratios for isolated IFG and combined isolated IFG and isolated IGT of living in the highland region were 0.19 (0.08-0.44) and 0.33 (0.09-1.18), respectively. Isolated IFG was more common among the lowland Sherpas. Unlike combined isolated IFG and isolated IGT, this isolated IFG difference could not be explained by the difference of conventional diabetes mellitus risk factors.

  13. Phytosociological and ecological structure of Mediterranean enclaves along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Fergan; Kilinc, Mahmut; Korkmaz, Hasan; Kutbay, Hamdi Guray; Yalcin, Erkan; Bilgin, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this study phytosociological structure of Mediterranean enclaves which occured along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black sea region was investigated. Pinus brutia var. brutia and Quercus coccifera are the most widespread communities in the study area. Pinus pinea, Arbutus andrachne, Arbutus unedo, Fontanesia philliraeoides subsp. philliraeoides and Olea europaea L. var sylvestris have a restricted distribution in inner parts of Black sea region as compared to P. brutia and Q. coccifera. The following associations were described in the study area. Siderito dichotomae -Quercetum cocciferae, Spiraeo crenatae-Oleetum sylvestns ass. nov, Cotino coggyreae- Arbutetum andrachnes, Buxo sempervirenti-Arbutetum unedonis ass. nov, Paliuro spinae-christi-Fontanesietum philliraeoidis, Querco infectoriae-Pinetum brutiae and Crucianello ponticae-Pinetum pinae. The highest species diversity was found in Crucienello ponticae- Pinetum pinae, while the lowest species diversity was found in Spiraeo crenatae-Oleetum sylvestris. Evenness values were much similar to each other among all of the associations. According to CA Paliurus spinae-christi-Fontanesietum philliraeoidis, Spiraeo crenatae- Oleetum sylvestris and Crucienello ponticae-Pinetum pinae occured in the negative zone. The other four associations occured in the positive zone.

  14. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

  15. Sustaining the grassland sea: Regional perspectives on identifying, protecting and restoring the Sky Island region's most intact grassland valley landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitanjali S. Bodner; Peter Warren; David Gori; Karla Sartor; Steven Bassett

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands of the Sky Islands region once covered over 13 million acres in southeastern Arizona and adjacent portions of New Mexico, Sonora, and Chihuahua. Attempts to evaluate current ecological conditions suggest that approximately two thirds of these remain as intact or restorable grassland habitat. These grasslands provide watershed services such as flood control...

  16. Geology and Geochemistry of the Poco de Fora region-Curaca river valley-Bahia-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, M.C.H. de.

    1976-01-01

    In the Poco de Fora region level rocks of light metamorphism, from Caraiba group, corresponding to: - a meta-sedimentar sequence from Lower Pre-cambrian (Archean) - maphic-ultramaphic bodies with Fe and Cu sulphides of volcanogenic origin, and - sienitic ortho-gneiss. Geological, petrographic, geochemistry and geochronological studies were done. The sienitic-intrusion, from the upper crust, occur during the Archean-beginning of the Proterozoic. All the region was re-mobilized, and the sienitic was metamorphosed during Transamazonic Orogeny (2.200 to 1.800 m.y.). (C.D.G.) [pt

  17. Ammonia and Methane Dairy Emission Plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from Individual Feedlot to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; hide

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 +/- 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  18. Volcanic unrest and hazard communication in Long Valley Volcanic Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    The onset of volcanic unrest in Long Valley Caldera, California, in 1980 and the subsequent fluctuations in unrest levels through May 2016 illustrate: (1) the evolving relations between scientists monitoring the unrest and studying the underlying tectonic/magmatic processes and their implications for geologic hazards, and (2) the challenges in communicating the significance of the hazards to the public and civil authorities in a mountain resort setting. Circumstances special to this case include (1) the sensitivity of an isolated resort area to media hype of potential high-impact volcanic and earthquake hazards and its impact on potential recreational visitors and the local economy, (2) a small permanent population (~8000), which facilitates face-to-face communication between scientists monitoring the hazard, civil authorities, and the public, and (3) the relatively frequent turnover of people in positions of civil authority, which requires a continuing education effort on the nature of caldera unrest and related hazards. Because of delays associated with communication protocols between the State and Federal governments during the onset of unrest, local civil authorities and the public first learned that the U.S. Geological Survey was about to release a notice of potential volcanic hazards associated with earthquake activity and 25-cm uplift of the resurgent dome in the center of the caldera through an article in the Los Angeles Times published in May 1982. The immediate reaction was outrage and denial. Gradual acceptance that the hazard was real required over a decade of frequent meetings between scientists and civil authorities together with public presentations underscored by frequently felt earthquakes and the onset of magmatic CO2 emissions in 1990 following a 11-month long earthquake swarm beneath Mammoth Mountain on the southwest rim of the caldera. Four fatalities, one on 24 May 1998 and three on 6 April 2006, underscored the hazard posed by the CO2

  19. Gestão de sistemas regionais de saúde: um estudo de caso no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Regional health systems management: a case study in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Carvalho Lima

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar o sistema de gestão de uma região de saúde no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, tendo como referencial para análise a Teoria das Macroorganizações. O estudo segue uma abordagem qualitativa e utiliza como estratégia metodológica o estudo de caso. O sistema de gestão da 6ª Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde (CRS teve a conformação de uma missão clara e incorporada pelos seus trabalhadores como fator potencializador das práticas de organização do sistema de saúde. Apesar disso, o modo como os coordenadores organizam o seu tempo tem desviado seus olhares para problemas emergenciais e rotineiros, em detrimento de questões importantes. A 6ª CRS fortaleceu o controle social para imprimir maior responsabilidade na região, no entanto o controle técnico da qualidade deixou a desejar, uma vez que não há objetivos, metas e prestação de contas por resultados. A assessoria descentralizada aos municípios e o modelo de financiamento promoveram descentralização e autonomia, embora esta estratégia careça de articulação regional e de dispositivos gerenciais mais comprometedores.This article analyzes the management system in a health district in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, through qualitative analysis, using a case study as the methodology and macro-organization theory as the analytical framework. For the current management system in the 6th Health Region, a clear mission statement and wide acceptance by health workers are facilitating factors for the current organizational practices within the health system. Nevertheless, the way health coordinators are currently prioritizing their time has diverted necessary resources from critical problems towards more remedial issues. The 6th Health Region has encouraged social control (or public oversight in order to improve accountability. However, there is room for improvement in quality assurance management, since there were no well-defined goals

  20. Seasonal Monitoring and Estimation of Regional Aerosol Distribution over Po Valley, Northern Italy, Using a High-Resolution MAIAC Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the new 1-km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal AOD-PM10 correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed versus the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 microns with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, for a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of severe urban air pollution, resulting from the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between PM10 and AOD are R(sup 2) = 0.83 and R(sup 2) = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting for a greater sensitiveness of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections gave a significant improvement to the PM AOD correlation, which led to similar performance: R(sup 2) = 0.96 for MODIS and R(sup 2) = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high resolution provided by MAIAC

  1. Seismic hazard assessment of Kashmir and Kangra valley region, Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basab Mukhopadhyay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A complete earthquake catalogue of the Western Himalaya (latitudes 30°N–36°N and longitudes 72°E–78°E for the period of 1501–2010 has been compiled with earthquake magnitude computed in moment magnitude (Mw scale. Pre- and early twentieth century records of earthquake damage have been documented from rare and out of print publications. Seismotectonics and seismic hazard for Kohistan arc, Kashmir–Hazara Syntaxis, Nanga-Parbat (Western Syntaxis, Karakoram and Himachal Himalaya are discussed with special reference to 1905 Kangra and 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquakes. Analyses of spatio-temporal variation in b-value from the region indicate significant precursor prior to the 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake; progressive rise of background b-value observed and the main shock locates close to relative high b-value domains. Regions surrounding the location of the 1905 Kangra earthquake also display such high b-value for the period of 2005–2010 that calls for closer scrutiny. Temporal analysis of b-value from the epicentral block of Muzaffarabad earthquake clearly showed a high–low b-value couplet of 1.45–0.72, which may be treated as a typical precursor before an imminent large earthquake. Gumbel extreme value statistics indicate probability of occurrence of an event of Mw > 7.0 within 50 years in the region.

  2. Os níveis de saúde na região Taquari-Antas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Health levels in the Taquari-Antas Region, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis de saúde foram estudados através de uma série histórica (1956-1965, para a Região Taquari-Antas, composta de 50 municípios, com uma população aproximada de 1.300.000 habitantes e cerca de 20% da população do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A diminuição do coeficiente de mortalidade geral observada e o aumento da mortalidade proporcional, sugere uma melhora do nível de saúde e isto se observou para as três áreas comparadas (Região Taquari-Antas, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e Pôrto Alegre, capital do Estado. A curva de mortalidade proporcional - curva de NELSON DE MORAES - apresentou a forma de um "J" normal, caracterizando um nível de saúde regular. Observou-se queda da natalidade para o período de estudo, fato que se deve levar em consideração no planejamento da assistência materno-infantil. A mortalidade infantil apresentou decréscimo considerável somente no período 1959-1960 e, a partir desse ano, até 1965, houve flutuações, não se observando, entretanto, queda ou melhora significativa. As principais causas de óbitos foram as doenças do aparelho circulatório, dos sistemas nervoso, respiratório e digestivo. A proporção de 35% de óbitos classificados como mal definidos, reflete a precariedade da assistência médica na Região. Do total de óbitos, 3,3% foram por moléstias transmissíveis, sendo que a tuberculose foi responsável por aproximadamente 50% das mortes por estas causas. A menor proporção de óbitos por moléstias transmissíveis na Região, quando comparada com a de Porto Alegre, município mais rico do Estado, pode ser explicada, em parte, pela grande proporção de óbitos mal definidos e pela migração de pacientes, uma vez que os recursos sanitários disponíveis na região são bastante inferiores aos da Capital do Estado.Health levels were studied through a historical series (1956-1965, in the Taquari-Antas region (State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, composed of 50

  3. Linking dissolved and particulate phosphorus export in rivers draining California's Central Valley with anthropogenic sources at the regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Daniel J; Harrison, John A; Dahlgren, Randy A

    2011-01-01

    Pollution of water resources by phosphorus (P) is a critical issue in regions with agricultural and urban development. In this study, we estimated P inputs from agricultural and urban sources in 24 catchments draining to the Central Valley in California and compared them with measured river P export to investigate hydrologic and anthropogenic factors affecting regional P retention and export. Using spatially explicit information on fertilizer use, livestock population, agricultural production, and human population, we calculated that net surface balances for anthropogenic P ranged from -12 to 648 kg P km yr in the early 2000s. Inorganic P fertilizer and manure P comprised the largest fraction of total input for all but two catchments. From 2000 to 2003, a median of 7% (range, -287 to 88%) of net annual anthropogenic P input was exported as total P (TP). Yields (kg P km yr) of dissolved inorganic P (DIP), dissolved organic P, particulate P, and TP were not significantly related to catchment-level, per area anthropogenic P input. However, there were significant relationships between mean annual P concentrations and P input from inorganic fertilizers and manure due to the concentration of agricultural land near catchment mouths and regional variation in runoff. Catchment-level P fertilizer and manure inputs explained 4 to 23% more variance in mean annual DIP and TP concentrations than percent of catchment area in agriculture. This study suggests that spatially explicit estimates of anthropogenic P input can help identify sources of multiple forms of P exported in rivers at management-relevant spatial scales. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Delineating the Drainage Structure and Sources of Groundwater Flux for Lake Basaka, Central Rift Valley Region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megersa Olumana Dinka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As opposed to most of the other closed basin type rift valley lakes in Ethiopia, Lake Basaka is found to be expanding at an alarming rate. Different studies indicated that the expansion of the lake is challenging the socio-economics and environment of the region significantly. This study result and previous reports indicated that the lake’s expansion is mostly due to the increased groundwater (GW flux to the lake. GW flux accounts for about 56% of the total inflow in recent periods (post 2000 and is found to be the dominant factor for the hydrodynamics and existence of the lake. The analysis of the drainage network for the area indicates the existence of a huge recharge area on the western and upstream side of the catchment. This catchment has no surface outlet; hence most of the incoming surface runoff recharges the GW system. The recharge area is the main source of GW flux to the lake. In addition to this, the likely sources/causes of GW flux to the lake could be: (i an increase of GW recharge following the establishment of irrigation schemes in the region; (ii subsurface inflow from far away due to rift system influence, and (iii lake neotectonism. Overall, the lake’s expansion has damaging effect to the region, owing to its poor water quality; hence the identification of the real causes of GW flux and mitigation measures are very important for sustainable lake management. Therefore a comprehensive and detailed investigation of the parameters related to GW flux and the interaction of the lake with the GW system of the area is highly recommended.

  5. Formation of Pedogenic Carbonates in the Semi-arid Rio Grande Valley: Insights from Carbon, Major elements, and U-series isotopes in Natural and Agricultural Soils of Southern New Mexico and Western Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Jin, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Accumulation of pedogenic carbonates in arid and semi-arid soils affects soil porosity, water infiltration, and global carbon cycle. We investigate formation rates of these carbonates under different land uses in the semi-arid Rio Grande valley using mineralogy, concentrations of major elements (including C), and U-series isotopes. Our study sites include one alfalfa farm (Alfalfa) at El Paso, TX under frequent irrigation with saline water from the Rio Grande River, and one natural shrub field under natural rainfall conditions at the USDA Jornada Experimental Range (Jornada) in NM. Major minerals observed at Alfalfa and Jornada are calcite, quartz, and feldspars. Calcite/quartz ratios increase upward in the profile at Alfalfa, suggesting formation of carbonates in shallow soils. Consistently, total carbon increases toward the soil surface at Alfalfa, contributed by both soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon (pedogenic carbonates). Concentrations of major elements (e.g Ca, Mg, and Sr) also increase toward the surface at Alfalfa, suggesting surface addition. Alternating trends of enrichment and depletion are observed throughout the soil profiles. In contrast, calcite/quartz ratios decrease toward the surface at Jornada, indicative of leaching at shallow soils and redeposition of calcite at depth. This is in agreement with high soil inorganic carbon contents measured at depth. At Jornada however, the Ca, Mg and Sr concentrations decrease toward the surface, showing typical depletion profiles. (234U/238U) activity ratios in bulk soils increase upward at Alfalfa while at Jornada (234U/238U) ratios decrease toward the surface. (234U/238U) ratios at Alfalfa suggest surface addition of U onto shallow soils probably from irrigation water, which is known to have high (234U/238U) ratios. Jornada shows preferential loss of 234U upward. U-series disequilibrium in pedogenic carbonates enables calculation of their formation ages. At Alfalfa, carbonate ages range from 2

  6. Knowledge, transparency, and refutability in groundwater models, an example from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Belcher, Wayne; Sweetkind, Donald; Tiedeman, Claire; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates how available knowledge can be used to build more transparent and refutable computer models of groundwater systems. The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, which surrounds a proposed site for a high level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, and the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, is used to explore model adequacy, identify parameters important to (and informed by) observations, and identify existing old and potential new observations important to predictions. Model development is pursued using a set of fundamental questions addressed with carefully designed metrics. Critical methods include using a hydrogeologic model, managing model nonlinearity by designing models that are robust while maintaining realism, using error-based weighting to combine disparate types of data, and identifying important and unimportant parameters and observations and optimizing parameter values with computationally frugal schemes. The frugal schemes employed in this study require relatively few (10–1000 s), parallelizable model runs. This is beneficial because models able to approximate the complex site geology defensibly tend to have high computational cost. The issue of model defensibility is particularly important given the contentious political issues involved.

  7. Knowledge, transparency, and refutability in groundwater models, an example from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Kavetski, Dmitri

    This work demonstrates how available knowledge can be used to build more transparent and refutable computer models of groundwater systems. The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, which surrounds a proposed site for a high level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, and the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, is used to explore model adequacy, identify parameters important to (and informed by) observations, and identify existing old and potential new observations important to predictions. Model development is pursued using a set of fundamental questions addressed with carefully designed metrics. Critical methods include using a hydrogeologic model, managing model nonlinearity by designing models that are robust while maintaining realism, using error-based weighting to combine disparate types of data, and identifying important and unimportant parameters and observations and optimizing parameter values with computationally frugal schemes. The frugal schemes employed in this study require relatively few (10-1000 s), parallelizable model runs. This is beneficial because models able to approximate the complex site geology defensibly tend to have high computational cost. The issue of model defensibility is particularly important given the contentious political issues involved.

  8. White grubs (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: Key for identification, species richness and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Cherman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available White grubs (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: Key for identification, species richness and distribution. The objective of this study was to survey the occurrence and geographic distribution of white grub species (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in cultivated and non-cultivated fields of the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil and develop a key at genus-level. Twenty-eight species from 15 genera and three subfamilies were recorded: Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae. The species or genera recorded for the first time in the state are: Cyclocephala metrica, C. tucumana, Isonychus albicinctus, Liogenys bidenticeps, L. fusca, L. obesa and L. sinuaticeps, Paranomala violacea, as well as unidentified species of Amononyx, Dicrania, Leucothyreus, Macrodactylus, Plectris and Rhizogeniates. Among the species recorded, 23 were associated with winter crops. Only Cyclocephala metrica, Dyscinetus rugifrons, two species of Leucothyreus and one species of the tribe Sericini were not present in cultivated crop fields. Cyclocephala flavipennis and Diloboderus abderus occurred in most of the municipalities sampled, often associated with Plectris sp., C. modesta and C. putrida. The highest richness of melolonthids was concentrated in the northeast of the Planalto region.

  9. Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation

  10. Grandes remolques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available El empleo creciente del material pesado auxiliar en la construcción de obras de ingeniería civil ha motivado la fabricación de grandes plataformas, capaces de transportar toda clase de maquinaria auxiliar. En general, este tipo de maquinaria requiere medios de transporte, pues su circulación por carreteras es lenta, obstructiva y cara, siempre que se trate de grandes distancias, caso presente en la mayoría de ocasiones en que se exige un traslado de esta maquinaria de una a otra obra.

  11. Regional-scale assessment of soil salinity in the Red River Valley using multi-year MODIS EVI and NDVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D B; Lesch, S M; Corwin, D L; Ulmer, M G; Anderson, K A; Potts, D J; Doolittle, J A; Matos, M R; Baltes, M J

    2010-01-01

    The ability to inventory and map soil salinity at regional scales remains a significant challenge to scientists concerned with the salinization of agricultural soils throughout the world. Previous attempts to use satellite or aerial imagery to assess soil salinity have found limited success in part because of the inability of methods to isolate the effects of soil salinity on vegetative growth from other factors. This study evaluated the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in conjunction with directed soil sampling to assess and map soil salinity at a regional scale (i.e., 10-10(5) km(2)) in a parsimonious manner. Correlations with three soil salinity ground truth datasets differing in scale were made in Kittson County within the Red River Valley (RRV) of North Dakota and Minnesota, an area where soil salinity assessment is a top priority for the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). Multi-year MODIS imagery was used to mitigate the influence of temporally dynamic factors such as weather, pests, disease, and management influences. The average of the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) for a 7-yr period exhibited a strong relationship with soil salinity in all three datasets, and outperformed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). One-third to one-half of the spatial variability in soil salinity could be captured by measuring average MODIS EVI and whether the land qualified for the Conservation Reserve Program (a USDA program that sets aside marginally productive land based on conservation principles). The approach has the practical simplicity to allow broad application in areas where limited resources are available for salinity assessment.

  12. Regional oxygen reduction and denitrification rates in groundwater from multi-model residence time distributions, San Joaquin Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Jurgens, Bryant; Zhang, Yong; Starn, Jeffrey; Singleton, Michael J.; Esser, Bradley K.

    2016-01-01

    Rates of oxygen and nitrate reduction are key factors in determining the chemical evolution of groundwater. Little is known about how these rates vary and covary in regional groundwater settings, as few studies have focused on regional datasets with multiple tracers and methods of analysis that account for effects of mixed residence times on apparent reaction rates. This study provides insight into the characteristics of residence times and rates of O2 reduction and denitrification (NO3− reduction) by comparing reaction rates using multi-model analytical residence time distributions (RTDs) applied to a data set of atmospheric tracers of groundwater age and geochemical data from 141 well samples in the Central Eastern San Joaquin Valley, CA. The RTD approach accounts for mixtures of residence times in a single sample to provide estimates of in-situ rates. Tracers included SF6, CFCs, 3H, He from 3H (tritiogenic He),14C, and terrigenic He. Parameter estimation and multi-model averaging were used to establish RTDs with lower error variances than those produced by individual RTD models. The set of multi-model RTDs was used in combination with NO3− and dissolved gas data to estimate zero order and first order rates of O2 reduction and denitrification. Results indicated that O2 reduction and denitrification rates followed approximately log-normal distributions. Rates of O2 and NO3− reduction were correlated and, on an electron milliequivalent basis, denitrification rates tended to exceed O2 reduction rates. Estimated historical NO3− trends were similar to historical measurements. Results show that the multi-model approach can improve estimation of age distributions, and that relatively easily measured O2 rates can provide information about trends in denitrification rates, which are more difficult to estimate.

  13. Do Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Dietary Behaviors Support Trends in Obesity Prevalence in 2 Border Regions in Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Nicole P. M.; Springer, Andrew E.; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke; Hoelscher, Deanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the change in energy balance-related behaviors from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005 between 2 Texas regions with distinct patterns in obesity prevalence (decrease in the El Paso region [EP] and leveling off in the Rio Grande Valley region [RGV]) and to determine the role of the behaviors in the difference in…

  14. Constraints on a Late Cretaceous uplift, denudation, and incision of the Grand Canyon region, southwestern Colorado Plateau, USA, from U-Pb dating of lacustrine limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Carol A.; Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane; P. Provencio, Paula

    2016-04-01

    The uplift and denudation of the Colorado Plateau is important in reconstructing the geomorphic and tectonic evolution of western North America. A Late Cretaceous (64 ± 2 Ma) U-Pb age for the Long Point limestone on the Coconino Plateau, which overlies a regional erosional surface developed on Permo-Triassic formations, supports unroofing of the Coconino Plateau part of Grand Canyon by that time. U-Pb analyses of three separate outcrops of this limestone gave ages of 64.0 ± 0.7, 60.5 ± 4.6, and 66.3 ± 3.9 Ma, which dates are older than a fossil-based, early Eocene age. Samples of the Long Point limestone were dated using the isotope dilution isochron method on well-preserved carbonates having high-uranium and low-lead concentrations. Our U-Pb ages on the Long Point limestone place important constraints on the (1) time of tectonic uplift of the southwestern Colorado Plateau and Kaibab arch, (2) time of denudation of the Coconino Plateau, and (3) Late Cretaceous models of paleocanyon incision west of, or across, the Kaibab arch. We propose that the age of the Long Point limestone, interbedded within the Music Mountain Formation in the Long Point area, represents a period of regional aggradation and a time of drainage blockage northward and eastward across the Kaibab arch, with possible diversion of northward drainage on the Coconino Plateau westward around the arch via a Laramide paleo-Grand Canyon.

  15. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  16. The upper mantle structure of the central Rio Grande rift region from teleseismic P and S wave travel time delays and attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Glahn, A.; Achauer, U.; Spence, W.

    1996-01-01

    The lithosphere beneath a continental rift should be significantly modified due to extension. To image the lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift (RGR), we analyzed teleseismic travel time delays of both P and S wave arrivals and solved for the attenuation of P and S waves for four seismic experiments spanning the Rio Grande rift. Two tomographic inversions of the P wave travel time data are given: an Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) block model inversion and a downward projection inversion. The tomographic inversions reveal a NE-SW to NNE-SSW trending feature at depths of 35 to 145 km with a velocity reduction of 7 to 8% relative to mantle velocities beneath the Great Plains. This region correlates with the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift and is bounded on the NW by the Jemez lineament, a N52??E trending zone of late Miocene to Holocene volcanism. S wave delays plotted against P wave delays are fit with a straight line giving a slope of 3.0??0.4. This correlation and the absolute velocity reduction imply that temperatures in the lithosphere are close to the solidus, consistent with, but not requiring, the presence of partial melt in the mantle beneath the Rio Grande rift. The attenuation data could imply the presence of partial melt. We compare our results with other geophysical and geologic data. We propose that any north-south trending thermal (velocity) anomaly that may have existed in the upper mantle during earlier (Oligocene to late Miocene) phases of rifting and that may have correlated with the axis of the rift has diminished with time and has been overprinted with more recent structure. The anomalously low-velocity body presently underlying the transition zone between the core of the Colorado Plateau and the rift may reflect processes resulting from the modern (Pliocene to present) regional stress field (oriented WNW-ESE), possibly heralding future extension across the Jemez lineament and transition zone.

  17. Regional and local risk assessments of alluvial fans by combination of historical and geomorphological data on debris flows, the most damaging natural hazard in the Aosta Valley Region (NW-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara; Alberto, Walter; Armand, Marco; Cignetti, Martina; Palomba, Mauro; Navillod, Evelyne

    2010-05-01

    The Aosta Valley (NW-Italy) is a small alpine Region (area = 3262 km2) where alluvial fans occupy large sectors of the main valley bottom and also of the tributary valleys; most towns and villages lie in these sectors which are frequently affected by different geomorphological processes, including debris flows. For a best environmental hazard assessment and management of alluvial fans, a research project has been carried out with a particular attention to debris flows, responsible for causing major damages to human activities and infrastructures. A debris flows inventory on a regional scale has been created, combining historical data (1900 to present), technical maps and geomorphological analysis on the alluvial fans areas. A complex methodology for data collection and analysis has been organized in two different stages. As a first step, aerial photointerpretation and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) analysis were conducted over the Aosta Valley Region to obtain a complete fans inventory and to identify the most affected sectors by debris flows. As a second step, data on debris flow events occurred in the Region has been collected from different sources, such as bibliographic and historical data, municipality hazard maps for land planning restriction and drainage basin technical studies. For each inventored debris flow, aerial photointerpretations have been performed to validate geomorphological and historical data, mostly collected during major regional flood events. Finally, the selected debris flow events has been formally organized in a GIS to perform spatial and statistical analysis. Application of the methodology to the complete Aosta Valley Region dataset involved the overcoming of some difficulties, such as: 1) correct identification of repeated events from different sources, 2) exact recognition of small phenomena by photointerpretation and 3) problems related to the rapid landforms obliteration. The preliminary results of the research activity are outlined

  18. First External Quality Assessment of Molecular and Serological Detection of Rift Valley Fever in the Western Mediterranean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Monaco

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis which affects humans and a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants. The large spread of RVF in Africa and its potential to emerge beyond its geographic range requires the development of surveillance strategies to promptly detect the disease outbreaks in order to implement efficient control measures, which could prevent the widespread of the virus to humans. The Animal Health Mediterranean Network (REMESA linking some Northern African countries as Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia with Southern European ones as France, Italy, Portugal and Spain aims at improving the animal health in the Western Mediterranean Region since 2009. In this context, a first assessment of the diagnostic capacities of the laboratories involved in the RVF surveillance was performed. The first proficiency testing (external quality assessment--EQA for the detection of the viral genome and antibodies of RVF virus (RVFV was carried out from October 2013 to February 2014. Ten laboratories participated from 6 different countries (4 from North Africa and 2 from Europe. Six laboratories participated in the ring trial for both viral RNA and antibodies detection methods, while four laboratories participated exclusively in the antibodies detection ring trial. For the EQA targeting the viral RNA detection methods 5 out of 6 laboratories reported 100% of correct results. One laboratory misidentified 2 positive samples as negative and 3 positive samples as doubtful indicating a need for corrective actions. For the EQA targeting IgG and IgM antibodies methods 9 out of the 10 laboratories reported 100% of correct results, whilst one laboratory reported all correct results except one false-positive. These two ring trials provide evidence that most of the participating laboratories are capable to detect RVF antibodies and viral RNA thus recognizing RVF infection in affected ruminants with the diagnostic methods

  19. First External Quality Assessment of Molecular and Serological Detection of Rift Valley Fever in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Federica; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Doumbia, Baba; Madani, Hafsa; El Mellouli, Fatiha; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sghaier, Soufien; Marianneau, Philippe; Cetre-Sossah, Catherine; Polci, Andrea; Lacote, Sandra; Lakhdar, Magtouf; Fernandez-Pinero, Jovita; Sari Nassim, Chabane; Pinoni, Chiara; Capobianco Dondona, Andrea; Gallardo, Carmina; Bouzid, Taoufiq; Conte, Annamaria; Bortone, Grazia; Savini, Giovanni; Petrini, Antonio; Puech, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis which affects humans and a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants. The large spread of RVF in Africa and its potential to emerge beyond its geographic range requires the development of surveillance strategies to promptly detect the disease outbreaks in order to implement efficient control measures, which could prevent the widespread of the virus to humans. The Animal Health Mediterranean Network (REMESA) linking some Northern African countries as Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia with Southern European ones as France, Italy, Portugal and Spain aims at improving the animal health in the Western Mediterranean Region since 2009. In this context, a first assessment of the diagnostic capacities of the laboratories involved in the RVF surveillance was performed. The first proficiency testing (external quality assessment—EQA) for the detection of the viral genome and antibodies of RVF virus (RVFV) was carried out from October 2013 to February 2014. Ten laboratories participated from 6 different countries (4 from North Africa and 2 from Europe). Six laboratories participated in the ring trial for both viral RNA and antibodies detection methods, while four laboratories participated exclusively in the antibodies detection ring trial. For the EQA targeting the viral RNA detection methods 5 out of 6 laboratories reported 100% of correct results. One laboratory misidentified 2 positive samples as negative and 3 positive samples as doubtful indicating a need for corrective actions. For the EQA targeting IgG and IgM antibodies methods 9 out of the 10 laboratories reported 100% of correct results, whilst one laboratory reported all correct results except one false-positive. These two ring trials provide evidence that most of the participating laboratories are capable to detect RVF antibodies and viral RNA thus recognizing RVF infection in affected ruminants with the diagnostic methods currently

  20. Perfil Ictiofaunístico de duas Lagoas no Rio Paraná, Região do Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande - PR. = Ictiofaunistic profile of two Rio Paraná lagoons, Region of Ilha Grande National Park - PR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir M. Domingues

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O Rio Paraná é o décimo maior do mundo em descarga e nele se encontra a região do Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande, que é formada por um conjunto de ilhas, lagoas e várzeas periodicamente alagadas, sendo estas de extrema importância para os peixes, servindo de refúgio contra predação, berçário natural e áreas de alimentação para muitas espécies de peixes. Este artigo apresenta um levantamento icitiofaunístico nas lagoas Saraiva e São João, situadas no Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande, com enfoque nas variações espaço-temporais, na composição específica e estrutura etária das assembléias de peixes, sendo que estes foram amostrados em coletas trimestrais, utilizando-se redes de espera de diferentes malhagens. Em termos de número de indivíduos capturados e proporção, tem-se 54% das espécies pertencentes a ordem Characiformes, 42% a Siruliformes, 3% a Perciformes. Rajiformes e Gymnotiformes contribuíram com menos de 1,5% do total das capturas. Na lagoa Saraiva foram capturadas 34 espécies pertencentes a cinco ordens e 17 famílias, destacando-se numericamente Loricariichthys platymetopon, Raphiodon vulpinus, Serrasalmus marginatus e Plagioscion squamosissimus. As maiores contribuições em peso foram proporcionadas por R. vulpinus, Potanotrygon motoro, P. squamosissimus e S. marginatus. Na lagoa São João ocorreram 46 espécies pertencentes a cinco ordens e 17 famílias, destacando-se em número L. platymetopon, Acestrohynchus lacustris, Serrasalmus spilopleura e S. marginatus. Em peso, Prochilodus lineatus, A. lacustris, L. platymetopon e Serrasalmus spilopleura foram as mais representativas. Destaca-se que a maioria das espécies registradas em ambas as lagoas são típicas de ambientes lênticos, utilizando esses locais para seu desenvolvimento e crescimento. = Paraná River is the tenth river in the world concerning to discharge and surrounding it Ilha Grande National Park region is localized, wich is formed by a

  1. FLORISTIC OF NATIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF REMINISCENT SEASONAL SEMI-DECIDUAS FOREST IN THE ALTO RIO GRANDE REGION MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Evangelista Gomes Rodrigues

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Information was gathered in rural communities of the south of the State of Minas Gerais, microregion of Alto RioGrande, municipalities of Lavas, Carrancas, Ingaí, Itumirim and Itutinga, which ones, how and what for, the native semideciduousforest species plants, in this kind of vegetation, are used for popular medicine. The inquiring method used was that proposed byAlencar & Gomes (1998 and the survey and data analysis were based on Trivinos method. Eight informants participated in the fieldwork. For each medicinal species that was sampled, notes were taken on habit and the level of occurrence. In 12 sample areas, 351individuals belonging to 64 families, 112 genres and 142 species, were surveyed. The families that presented the largest number ofnative medicinal species, were: Fabaceae - 11; Asteraceae - 10; Annonaceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae e Rubiaceae - 7; Solanaceae - 5;Aristolochiaceae, Lamiaceae, e Malvaceae - 4; Anacardiaceae, Dilleniaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae e Rutaceae - 3; these speciescontributed with 56,7% of the total. The genres that presented the largest number of native medicinal species were: Aristolochia eEugenia - 4; Luehea, Mikania, Solanum, Vitex e Xylopia - 3. The occurrence of rare species in the studied forest fragments was alsoverified, among which were: Geissospermum laeve (Vell. Miers., Capsicodendron dinisii (Schwacke Occhioni, Citronella gongonha(Mart. R. A. Howard, Maytenus aquifolia Mart., Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke, Virola sebifera Aubl., Eugenia pleuranthaO. Berg, Baufourodendron riedelianum (Engl. Engl., Solanum pseudoquina A. St.-Hil., e Styrax pohlii A. DC.

  2. Chemical signature study of tupiguarani ceramic tradition from Central region of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bona, Irene Akemy Tomiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    In this work a model based on experimental results using chemical composition data of the pottery sherds applied to Spearmann's no parametric test, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis, was applied. The samples are soils and Tupiguarani Tradition pottery sherd from the central area of the Rio Grande do Sul State. The chemical elements , Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K Mn, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V and Zn were determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXFR) while Ce, Cu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Th and Y by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) techniques. Relationships among the pottery characteristics, studied sites and sherd dispersion in the several sites were proposed. Indications of chemical signature of the small pottery with function to go or not to the fire were observed. The largest dispersion is of small pottery with surface treatment no corrugated. The potteries chemical fingerprints from Ijui River, Ibicui-Vacacai Mirim River and Jacui River were verified. (author)

  3. WOOD PRODUCTION AT THE REGION OF THE FOURTH COLONY OF ITALIAN IMMIGRATION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of quantifying the production of wood in the Area of the Fourth Colony of Italian Immigration in Rio Grande do Sul. Firstly, using a questionnaire, a census of the consuming companies of wood in that area was made, investigating mainly the amount, type, origin of the consumed raw material, and the amount, type and end use of wood products. As principal results, it was verified that such area presents 77 consuming companies and wood processing units. These were classified into micro and small companies, with familiar features and capital, and low industrialization. In the visits made to the industries, it was evident that many technological aspects are not known or are neglected, thus causing loss of the raw material and/or in low quality of the final products. A great amount of raw material (96,8% of the boards and 98,9% of the timber comes from other areas of the State or the country. In the same way the main products are sold abroad (wood frames 86,3%, panelings 99,7%, sawed wood 53%.

  4. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agnese, F.A.; O' Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, Carma

    2002-11-22

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this ''second-generation'' regional model was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-stat e representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration.

  5. Perception of performance and importance to consumers agro-industry of family companies in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Breitenbach

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the strategic direction of agroprocessing enterprises and the level of compliance with consumer requirements, as well as the position of agro-industry enterprises in relation to their primary competitors. To this end, a survey was performed, which included nine family agro-industry enterprises from the Northern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS and their respective buyers. For this research, the Importance-Performance Matrix methodology described by SLACK (2002 was used. The strategy of the analyzed agro-industry enterprises relies on differentiation, presenting most of the items studied in accordance with consumers’ demands. Consequently, they are not at a disadvantage to their competitors in most criteria that consumers consider fundamental at the time of purchase.

  6. - to Late-Holocene Fire History, Vegetation, and Climate Change in the Grand Staircase Region of the Colorado Plateau, Southwest Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. E.; Rittenour, T. M.; DeRose, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Fire seasons have lengthened by 25% and the amount of burnable area on Earth has increased. Furthermore, more frequent droughts are predicted under elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. Summer drought is a first-order control on regional fire years. While fire is an increasingly expensive and destructive natural hazard, it also provides benefits to vegetation communities by influencing structure, reducing understory fuels, and promoting fire dependent species. In order to predict and mitigate future fire, it is important to understand how fire, climate, and vegetation are connected. Because climate exhibits a first-order control on wildfire, we must understand how centennial- to millennial-scale climatic change has influenced fire in the past. The Grand Staircase region of the Colorado Plateau spans high elevation sub-alpine forests and transitions to desert scrub at lower elevations. The majority of the vegetation in the region is pinyon-juniper woodlands. We reconstruct the timing of Mid- to Late-Holocene fire using charcoal collected from alluvial deposits located in four watersheds including Kanab Ck., Johnson Wash, Paria R., and the Escalante R. The fire reconstruction contains 200 dated fires that extend back 7.5 ka. Thirty-two regional fire periods were identified. Of the fires recorded, 78% occurred in the last 3 ka. There is a continuous record of fire starting 4.3 ka with few no-fire periods. Periods with regional fires increase in frequency 3000 years ago with 22 out of 32 periods occurring in the last 3 ka and 17 out of 32 regional fire periods occurring in the last 2 ka. Climate proxies from the SW US indicate increased precipitation 4 ka, and greater moisture than present day conditions between 3 - 1.7 ka. Results show that increases in fire activity correspond to increased moisture and vegetation expansion. This study supports the hypothesis that in fuel-limited systems, fire activity is promoted when moisture is available to increase vegetation

  7. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  8. Eventos de Marca: Evidências de “Valor Turístico” na Culinária Regional do Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ciliane Ceretta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo trata da realização de eventos gastronômicos que inserem a culinária regional como um fator capaz de gerar atratividade e classificar um evento como sendo de marca. O objetivo do estudo é apresentar os eventos de marca que trazem a culinária regional como evidencias de valor turístico em muitos municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, bem como, identificar a culinária regional como manifestação cultural, apresentar a transformação dos atrativos culturais em produto turísticos. Como metodologia, estudo caracteriza-se fundamentalmente como um artigo de revisão de literatura de abordagem qualitativa.  Compõe-se de uma pesquisa secundária, investigada na bibliografia e em sites de informações. Por fim, o estudo traz a culinária regional como um patrimônio cultural imaterial capaz de oportunizar aos eventos de marca, a característica de “atrativo turístico” para os municípios.

  9. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants by population of Valley of Juruena Region, Legal Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Leonti, Marco; Arnason, John Thor; Ferrier, Jonathan; Rapinski, Michel; Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Pereira, João Filipe Costa Alves; Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Feguri; Lopes, Célia Regina Araújo Soares; da Silva, Dennis Rodrigues; Pacini, Aloir; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2015-09-15

    The use of medicinal plants for treatment, cure and prevention of diseases has been described by many people since time immemorial. Because of this use, commercial and scientific interests have emerged, making it necessary to realize ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants species, which is important for subsequent chemical and pharmacological bioprospections. This study aimed at surveying, identifying, cataloging and documenting the medicinal plants species used in the Valley of Juruena, Northwestern Mato Grosso, Legal Amazon Brazil for the treatment of various human diseases, as well as assessed the species of interest for bioprospecting potential. Informants were interviewed using semi-structured form to capture information on socio-demographic and ethnopharmacological data of medicinal plants such as vernacular name, uses, geographic origin, habit, form of preparation and part used. Results were analyzed using descriptive and quantitative means: indices of use-report (Ur) and informant consensus factor (ICF), for the selection of plant species with therapeutic potential. Three hundred and thirty two (332) plants species belonging to 90 families were reported for medicinal purposes and totaling 3973 use-reports were reported by 365 (92.9%) of the people interviewed. Asteraceae (32.2%), Fabaceae (26.7%) and Lamiaceae (24.4%) families were the most represented, with majority being species native (64.45%) to Brazil. Leaves (64.5%) were the part of the plant most used and infusion (45.7%) was the most utilized form. Gastrointestinal disorders followed by respiratory complaints topped the list of use-reports. The native or naturalized plants with the highest use reports in the order of decreasing absolute frequency per each emic-category are Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapfc (104), Mentha pulegium L. (94), Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verl. (97), Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (71), Baccharis crispa Spreng (57), Phyllanthus niruri L. (48), Gossypium

  10. Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part 1: The Southern Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    Maize is the New World's preeminent grain crop and it provided the economic basis for human culture in many regions within the Americas. To flourish, maize needs water, sunlight (heat), and nutrients (e. g., nitrogen). In this paper, climate and soil chemistry data are used to evaluate the potential for dryland (rainon-field) agriculture in the semiarid southeastern Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande regions. Processes that impact maize agriculture such as nitrogen mineralization, infiltration of precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and transpiration are discussed and evaluated. Most of the study area, excepting high-elevation regions, receives sufficient solar radiation to grow maize. The salinities of subsurface soils in the central San Juan Basin are very high and their nitrogen concentrations are very low. In addition, soils of the central San Juan Basin are characterized by pH values that exceed 8.0, which limit the availability of both nitrogen and phosphorous. In general, the San Juan Basin, including Chaco Canyon, is the least promising part of the study area in terms of dryland farming. Calculations of field life, using values of organic nitrogen for the upper 50 cm of soil in the study area, indicate that most of the study area could not support a 10-bushel/acre crop of maize. The concepts, methods, and calculations used to quantify maize productivity in this study are applicable to maize cultivation in other environmental settings across the Americas. ?? 2010 US Government.

  11. New simple mathematical model to help evaluating the extent of the late-Quaternary valley glacier in the Upper Soča Region (NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Bavec

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple mathematical model was developed that enables an evaluation of a valley glacier extent independently of any geological data. Based on glaciological criteria and on quantitative analysis of the glacier’s accumulation-, and ablation-areas the modeloffers an opportunity for an independent test of paleoenvironmental interpretations that are traditionally based on (often vague and difficult-to-interpret geomorphological and sedimentological information. The model is presented here through a case study from theUpper Soča River Region.

  12. Estrutura produtiva agropecuária e desempenho econômico regional: o caso do Rio Grande do Sul, 1996-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Fochezatto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa as relações entre a produção agropecuária e a produção das atividades industriais e de serviços, buscando mapear as estruturas produtivas agropecuárias mais fortemente relacionadas com melhores desempenhos das atividades econômicas urbanas no Rio Grande do Sul. Para tanto, são estimados dois modelos de dados em painel, a partir do método de efeitos fixos: um para os municípios gaúchos no período 2001-2008 e outro para as microrregiões do estado nos anos 1996-2008. Os resultados apontam que o crescimento da produção urbana está relacionado com o aumento da produção agropecuária e que, de modo geral, melhores desempenhos urbanos dos municípios gaúchos estão associados com estruturas produtivas agropecuárias mais diversificadas.This study seeks to analyze the relationship between rural and urban production activities, mapping the rural production structures more strongly related to better performances of urban economic activities in Rio Grande do Sul state. Two panel data models were estimated, with fixed effects method: one for thes tate cities during the period from 2001 to 2008 and another for the micro regions between 1996 and 2008. Results indicate that the urban production growth is related to an increase of agricultural production and that, in general terms, better urban performances of cities are associated with more diversified rural production structures.

  13. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (uranium was measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Sediment storage zones were also examined in the upper 8km of the system to determine where uranium is preferentially stored in canyon systems. This information will quantify the downstream transport of constituents associated with the Hack Canyon waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  14. Characterization of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Aburrá Valley Region (Colombia) Using Remote Sensing and Radiosonde Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, L.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The spatio-temporal evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in the Aburrá Valley, a narrow highly complex mountainous terrain located in the Colombian Andes, is studied using different datasets including radiosonde and remote sensors from the meteorological network of the Aburrá Valley Early Warning System. Different techniques are developed in order to estimate Mixed Layer Height (MLH) based on variance of the ceilometer backscattering profiles. The Medellín metropolitan area, home of 4.5 million people, is located on the base and the hills of the valley. The generally large aerosol load within the valley from anthropogenic emissions allows the use of ceilometer retrievals of the MLH, especially under stable atmospheric conditions (late at night and early in the morning). Convective atmospheres, however, favor the aerosol dispersion which in turns increases the uncertainty associated with the estimation of the Convective Boundary Layer using ceilometer retrievals. A multi-sensor technique is also developed based on Richardson Number estimations using a Radar Wind Profiler combined with a Microwave Radiometer. Results of this technique seem to be more accurate thorough the diurnal cycle. ABL retrievals are available from October 2014 to April 2017. The diurnal cycle of the ABL exhibits monomodal behavior, highly influenced by the evolution of the potential temperature profile, and the turbulent fluxes near the surface. On the other hand, the backscattering diurnal cycle presents a bimodal structure, showing that the amount of aerosol particles at the lower troposphere is strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions, dispersion conditioned by topography and by the ABL dynamics, conditioning the available vertical height for the pollutants to interact and disperse. Nevertheless, the amount, distribution or type of atmospheric aerosols does not appear to have a first order influence on the MLH variations or evolution. Results also show that intra

  15. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model of the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2017-09-08

    As part of a U.S. Geological Survey study in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, a digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model was constructed for the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. This model was constructed to define the aquifer system geometry and subsurface lithologic characteristics and distribution for use in a regional numerical hydrologic model. The model includes five hydrostratigraphic units: river channel alluvium, three informal subdivisions of Santa Fe Group basin fill, and an undivided pre-Santa Fe Group bedrock unit. Model input data were compiled from published cross sections, well data, structure contour maps, selected geophysical data, and contiguous compilations of surficial geology and structural features in the study area. These data were used to construct faulted surfaces that represent the upper and lower subsurface hydrostratigraphic unit boundaries. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is constructed through combining faults, the elevation of the tops of each hydrostratigraphic unit, and boundary lines depicting the subsurface extent of each hydrostratigraphic unit. The framework also compiles a digital representation of the distribution of sedimentary facies within each hydrostratigraphic unit. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic model reproduces with reasonable accuracy the previously published subsurface hydrogeologic conceptualization of the aquifer system and represents the large-scale geometry of the subsurface aquifers. The model is at a scale and resolution appropriate for use as the foundation for a numerical hydrologic model of the study area.

  16. Información molecular obtenida a partir de pieles de la colección del Museo Regional Fagnano, Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrigh, Romi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aplicaron técnicas moleculares sobre muestras poco conservadas de pieles depositadas en la colección del Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, con el objetivo de identificar la especie con la que fueron confeccionadas. Se extrajeron pelos de mantas realizadas con pieles de guanaco (Lama guanicoe por Selk’nam y de una piel de puma (Puma concolor procedente de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Ambas muestras se encontraban almacenadas en el Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano y en la Misión Salesiana Candelaria en Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. La extracción de ADN de los fragmentos de pelos de 5mm de longitud se realizó en un buffer de lisis PCR-compatible. Se amplificaron por PCR fragmentos específicos de ADN mitocondrial y se secuenciaron. Las secuencias fueron comparadas con las depositadas en la base de secuencias de nucleótidos del National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI de Estados Unidos. La aplicación de técnicas moleculares permitió recuperar secuencias de ADN de muestras de pieles con un estado de conservación poco óptimo para análisis genéticos, pudiendo extenderse a otras fuentes de pelos como las fibras textiles de origen arqueológico de la región.

  17. Food poisoning associated with ingestion of wild wasp broods in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tian

    2018-04-01

    Food poisoning due to wild wasp broods ingestion has long been noted in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China. This study describes the epidemiological and clinical features of the poisoning and possible causes. Surveillance data collected between 2008 and 2016 were analyzed to produce demographic data on patients, information on clinical presentations, wasp species identification, and estimations of possible risk factors for symptomatic cases. Eleven poisoning events were associated with the ingestion of wild wasp broods, including 46 exposed persons with 31 symptomatic living cases and 8 deceased cases that were reported in the Yunnan province between 2008 and 2016. Poisoning cases were only detected in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley in the autumn. The severity of the symptoms was correlated with an evident dose-effect relationship regarding the quantity ingested. The mean latent period from wild wasp broods ingestion to the onset of the symptoms was 10 h for symptomatic living cases and 7 h for deceased cases, respectively. Both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms were commonly observed in the poisoning cases. The toxin source may be indirectly caused by the wasp broods due to the prevalence of local poisonous plants, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Educational programs at the start of wasp harvest season in September in the high-risk area should be carried out to reduce the incidence of poisonings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault and implications to regional seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Masson, Frederic; Piatibratova, Oksana; Mizrahi, Yaakov

    2018-01-01

    Detailed analysis of crustal deformation along the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault is presented. Using dense GPS measurements we obtain the velocities of new near- and far-field campaign stations across the fault. We find that this section is locked with a locking depth of 19.9 ± 7.7 km and a slip rate of 5.0 ± 0.8 mm/yr. The geodetically determined locking depth is found to be highly consistent with the thickness of the seismogenic zone in this region. Analysis of instrumental seismic record suggests that only 1% of the total seismic moment accumulated since the last large event occurred about 800 years ago, was released by small to moderate earthquakes. Historical and paleo-seismic catalogs of this region together with instrumental seismic data and calculations of Coulomb stress changes induced by the 1995 Mw 7.2 Nuweiba earthquake suggest that the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault is in the late stage of the current interseismic period.

  19. Using a Three-Dimensional Hydrogeologic Framework to Investigate Potential Sources of Water Springs in the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Belcher, W. R.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system encompasses a proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, and National Park and BLM properties, and provides water for local communities. The model was constructed using a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework and has been used as a resource planning mechanism by the many stakeholders involved, including four United States (U.S) federal agencies (U.S. Department of Energy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) and local counties, towns, and residents. One of the issues in recent model development is simulation of insufficient water to regional discharge areas which form springs in valleys near the center of the system. Given what seems to be likely rock characteristics and geometries at depth, insufficient water is simulated to reach the discharge areas. This "surprise" thus challenges preconceived notions about the system. Here we use the hydrogeologic model to hypothesize alternatives able to produce the observed flow and use the groundwater simulation to test the hypotheses with other available data. Results suggest that the transmissivity measurements need to be used carefully because wells in this system are never fully penetrating, that multiple alternatives are able to produce the springflow, and that one most likely alternative cannot be identified given available data. Consequences of the alternatives are discussed.

  20. Geology and geothermal waters of Lightning Dock region, Animas Valley and Pyramid Mountains, Hidalgo County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, W.E.; Deal, E.G.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    This circular covers the geology of the Pyramid Peak, Swallow Fork Peak, Table Top Mountain, and South Pyramid Peak 7-1/2-min quadrangles, which include the Lightning Dock KGRA. Hot wells (70 to 115.5/sup 0/C) seem to be structurally controlled by intersections of the ring-fracture zone of an Oligocene ash-flow tuff cauldron (Muir cauldron), a Miocene-to-Holocene north-trending basin-and-range fault (Animas Valley fault), and a northeast-trending lineament that appears to control anomalously heated underground waters and Pliocene-Pleistocene basalt cones in the San Bernardino, San Simon, and Animas Valleys. The Muir cauldron, approximately 20 km in diameter, collapsed in two stages, each associated with the eruption of a rhyolite ash-flow-tuff sheet and of ring-fracture domes. Most of the hydrothermal alteration of the Lightning Dock KGRA is related to the first stage of eruption and collapse, not to the modern geothermal system. Contrary to previous reports, no silicic volcanic rocks younger than basin-and-range faulting are known; unconformities beneath rhyolite ring-fracture domes are caused by Oligocene caldera collapse, not by basin-and-range faulting. The Animas Valley is the site of widespread post-20 My travertine deposits and near-surface veins of calcite, fluorite, and/or psilomelane, controlled by north- or northwest-trending basin-and-range faults. The fluoride-bearing waters of the Lightning Dock KGRA may be a late stage of this hydrothermal activity. Distribution of Pliocene-Pleistocene basalt suggests that deep-seated basalt near the solids may be the ultimate heat source.

  1. NUTRIENT ALLOCATION IN Eucalyptus saligna Sm. STANDS IN THE REGION OF GUAÍBA - RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Witschoreck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted in Eucalyptus saligna Sm. stands, between 2 and 7 years of age, in the region of Guaíba - RS, had as objective: to estimate the nutrients stock in the biomass. On the basis of the forest inventory, trees of medium diameter were collected and fractionated in leaf, branch, bark, wood and root. The accumulated litter was evaluated with sampling units of 1 m2. Samples of arboreal components and litter were collected to estimate the dry matter and nutritional content. Nutrients stock was obtained through the product between the average biomass of each component and the average concentration of nutrients. For the average of stands, the stock of nutrients showed the following order of accumulation, for biomass components: wood > root > leaf > bark > branch; and for nutrients: Ca > N > K > Mg > P.

  2. A PIXE study of elements transport in fluvial waters in the Candiota region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, E.C.; Streck, C.D.; Braga, C.F.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The transport of elements in fluvial waters within the Candiota region was evaluated by determining the elements associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM). To that end, SPM samples were collected at nine different locations five times from December 1999 to October 2000. The particle-induced X-ray emission technique was used to determine elements associated with SPM. Data interpretation was performed using factor analysis. Among the results explained by factor 1, the highest score was found to be due to the effect of local anthropogenic sources (coal mines) during the dry season. On the other hand, factor 2 was substantially heterogeneous, emphasising the sum of all anthropogenic contributions generated at the basin. Flux ratio and enrichment factor were calculated to elucidate the balance between weathering and solute transport. Results showed that Mn, Ni, Fe, Cu and Zn were carried by Candiota Stream particles, indicating that coal mining is presumably responsible for contamination of these elements in SPM

  3. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  4. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  5. Development and analysis of regional curves for streams in the non-urban valley and ridge physiographic province, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, Jefferson N.; Messinger, Terence; Doheny, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Regression relations for bankfull stream characteristics based on drainage area (often called 'regional curves') are used in natural stream channel design to verify field determinations of bankfull discharge and stream channel characteristics. Bankfull stream characteristics were assessed for stream reaches at 41 streamflow-gaging stations in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Data collected included bankfull cross-sectional geometry, flood plain geometry, and longitudinal profile data. In addition, particle-size distributions of streambed material were determined and data on basin characteristics were compiled for each reach. Regional curves were developed for bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge with R2 values of 0.95, 0.89, 0.87, and 0.91, respectively. Examination of the regional curves residuals indicates that there is more variability in bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge for smaller streams than for larger streams. In contrast, there is more variability for bankfull mean depth for larger streams than for smaller streams. Geographic analysis of regional curve residuals indicated that there were no further subdivisions within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in the three-state study area for which individual sets of regional curves should be developed. In addition, two separate sets of regional curves were developed with data from the 41 sites to examine potential differences in the relations between the southern (n = 9) and central (n = 32) sections of the province. There were differences in slope and intercept between the two bankfull discharge test relations and a difference in intercept for the width test relations at the 95-percent confidence level. However, the results of this analysis were inconclusive and therefore one set of regional curves for the study area is presented in this report. The regional curves were compared to regression models developed from

  6. Structure and regional significance of the Late Permian(?) Sierra Nevada - Death Valley thrust system, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2005-01-01

    An imbricate system of north-trending, east-directed thrust faults of late Early Permian to middle Early Triassic (most likely Late Permian) age forms a belt in east-central California extending from the Mount Morrison roof pendant in the eastern Sierra Nevada to Death Valley. Six major thrust faults typically with a spacing of 15-20 km, original dips probably of 25-35??, and stratigraphic throws of 2-5 km compose this structural belt, which we call the Sierra Nevada-Death Valley thrust system. These thrusts presumably merge into a de??collement at depth, perhaps at the contact with crystalline basement, the position of which is unknown. We interpret the deformation that produced these thrusts to have been related to the initiation of convergent plate motion along a southeast-trending continental margin segment probably formed by Pennsylvanian transform truncation. This deformation apparently represents a period of tectonic transition to full-scale convergence and arc magmatism along the continental margin beginning in the Late Triassic in central California. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extension of the Mid- to Lower Crust with Orogenic Inheritance: Examples from the Death Valley Region (Western US), and the Mauleon Basin (Southwestern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Kelly, E. D.; Lavier, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Continental margins exhibit a range of widths and symmetries defined by the strain patterns that arise during extension and rifting. An important pattern in this respect is the early localization of extension into necking zones. The rheology of the lower crust plays a large role in this localization, and can be affected by inherited orogenic structures, fabrics, and mineral assemblages. Here, we further evaluate the role of orogenic fabrics in continental extension using microstructural observations and thermodynamic modeling of geological sections exposed in the Funeral and Black Mountains of the Death Valley region, California, and from the Mauleon Basin, France. The Death Valley region sits within the Basin-and-Range region of broadly distributed Cenozoic extension, over a relatively flat and deep moho. In contrast, in the Mauleon basin, Cretaceous extension accommodated mantle exhumation, and was strongly localized in older Hercynian orogenic crust. In both areas, mid- to lower crustal rocks are characterized by inherited migmatitic fabrics overprinted by zones of localized, extensional fabrics. Mineral assemblages that formed over a P-T cooling path define the fabrics in each field area. The high-temperature fabrics record decompression-melting due to late- to post-orogenic collapse. Yet, the two field areas show contrasting retrograde assemblages, which are hypothesized to have resulted from changes in the local effective bulk composition produced by differences in melt segregation. At subsequent extensional stages, mid- to lower crustal deformation resulted in the transposition of the inherited post-orogenic fabrics, documented with quartz fabric analysis (including EBSD). The two contrasting regions show how the rheology of inherited orogenic lower crust responds to differences in melt-segregation and metamorphic histories, potentially controlling margin structural evolution.

  8. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Headache Valley fever Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  9. Significant cooling effect on the surface due to soot particles over Brahmaputra River Valley region, India: An impact on regional climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, S., E-mail: smbtiwari@tropmet.res.in [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi Branch, New Delhi 110060 (India); Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm SE-10691 (Sweden); Kumar, R. [Research Application Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Tunved, P. [Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm SE-10691 (Sweden); Singh, S. [CSIR, Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826001 (India); Panicker, A.S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune 411008 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Black carbon (BC) is an important atmospheric aerosol constituent that affects the climate by absorbing (directly) the sunlight and modifying cloud characteristics (indirectly). Here, we present first time yearlong measurements of BC and carbon monoxide (CO) from an urban location of Guwahati located in the Brahmaputra River valley (BRV) in the northeast region of India from 1st July 2013 to 30th June 2014. Daily BC concentrations varied within the range of 2.86 to 11.56 μg m{sup −3} with an annual average of 7.17 ± 1.89 μg m{sup −3}{sub ,} while, CO varied from 0.19 to 1.20 ppm with a mean value of 0.51 ± 0.19 ppm during the study period. The concentrations of BC (8.37 μg m{sup −3}) and CO (0.67 ppm) were ~ 39% and ~ 55% higher during the dry months (October to March) than the wet months (April to September) suggesting that seasonal changes in meteorology and emission sources play an important role in controlling these species. The seasonal ΔBC/ΔCO ratios were highest (lowest) in the pre-monsoon (winter) 18.1 ± 1.4 μg m{sup −3} ppmv{sup −1} (12.6 ± 2.2 μg m{sup −3} ppmv{sup −1}) which indicate the combustion of biofuel/biomass as well as direct emissions from fossil fuel during the pre-monsoon season. The annual BC emission was estimated to be 2.72 Gg in and around Guwahati which is about 44% lower than the mega city ‘Delhi’ (4.86 Gg). During the study period, the annual mean radiative forcing (RF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) for clear skies of BC was + 9.5 Wm{sup −2}, however, the RF value at the surface (SFC) was − 21.1 Wm{sup −2} which indicates the net warming and cooling effects, respectively. The highest RF at SFC was in the month of April (− 30 Wm{sup −2}) which is coincident with the highest BC mass level. The BC atmospheric radiative forcing (ARF) was + 30.16 (annual mean) Wm{sup −2} varying from + 23.1 to + 43.8 Wm{sup −2}. The annual mean atmospheric heating rate (AHR) due to the BC aerosols was 0.86 K

  10. A maximum likelihood approach to generate hypotheses on the evolution and historical biogeography in the Lower Volga Valley regions (southwest Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Laktionov, Alexy P; Cellinese, Nico

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the diverse flora in the Lower Volga Valley (LVV) (southwest Russia) is complex due to the composite geomorphology and tectonic history of the Caspian Sea and adjacent areas. In the absence of phylogenetic studies and temporal information, we implemented a maximum likelihood (ML) approach and stochastic character mapping reconstruction aiming at recovering historical signals from species occurrence data. A taxon-area matrix of 13 floristic areas and 1018 extant species was constructed and analyzed with RAxML and Mesquite. Additionally, we simulated scenarios with numbers of hypothetical extinct taxa from an unknown palaeoflora that occupied the areas before the dramatic transgression and regression events that have occurred from the Pleistocene to the present day. The flora occurring strictly along the river valley and delta appear to be younger than that of adjacent steppes and desert-like regions, regardless of the chronology of transgression and regression events that led to the geomorphological formation of the LVV. This result is also supported when hypothetical extinct taxa are included in the analyses. The history of each species was inferred by using a stochastic character mapping reconstruction method as implemented in Mesquite. Individual histories appear to be independent from one another and have been shaped by repeated dispersal and extinction events. These reconstructions provide testable hypotheses for more in-depth investigations of their population structure and dynamics. PMID:22957179

  11. Floodplain inundation response to climate, valley form, and flow regulation on a gravel-bed river in a Mediterranean-climate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, P.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2017-04-01

    Floodplain inundation regime defines hydrological connectivity between river channel and floodplain and thus strongly controls structure and function of these highly diverse and productive ecosystems. We combined an extensive LiDAR data set on topography and vegetation, long-term hydrological records, as well as the outputs of hydrological and two-dimensional hydraulic models to examine how floodplain inundation regimes in a dynamic, regulated, gravel-cobble river in a Mediterranean-climate region are controlled by reach-scale valley morphology, hydroclimatic conditions, and flow regulation. Estimated relative differences in the extent, duration, and cumulative duration of inundation events were often as large as an order of magnitude and generally greatest for large and long duration events. The relative impact of flow regulation was greatest under dry hydroclimatic conditions. Although the effects of hydroclimate and flow impairment are larger than that of valley floor topography, the latter controls sensitivity of floodplain hydroperiod to flow regime changes and should not be ignored. These quantitative estimates of the relative importance of factors that control floodplain processes in Mediterranean, semiarid rivers contributes to better understanding of hydrology and geomorphology of this important class of channels. We also discuss implications of our findings for processes that shape floodplain habitat for riparian vegetation and salmonid fish, especially in the context of ecological restoration.

  12. Culex pipiens, an Experimental Efficient Vector of West Nile and Rift Valley Fever Viruses in the Maghreb Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, Fadila; Krida, Ghazi; Bouattour, Ali; Rhim, Adel; Daaboub, Jabeur; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said-Chawki; Tijane, Mhamed; Sarih, Mhammed; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 107.8 and 108.5 plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14–21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology. PMID:22693557

  13. Interpretation of the Last Chance thrust, Death Valley region, California, as an Early Permian décollement in a previously undeformed shale basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Last Chance thrust, discontinuously exposed over an area of at least 2500 km2 near the south end of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in the Death Valley region of east-central California, is controversial because of its poorly constrained age and its uncertain original geometry and extent. We interpret this thrust to be Early Permian in age, to extend throughout a sedimentary basin in which deep-water Mississippian shale overlain by Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian limestone turbidites accumulated, to represent about 30 km of eastward displacement, and to be related to convergence on a northeast-trending segment of the Early Permian continental margin. Last Chance deformation occurred between the times of the Antler and Sonoma orogenies of Late Devonian–Early Mississippian and Late Permian ages, respectively, and followed Early to Middle Pennsylvanian truncation of the continental margin by transform faulting.

  14. Simulating pumping-induced regional land subsidence with the use of InSAR and field data in the Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderhead, A. I.; Therrien, R.; Rivera, A.; Martel, R.; Garfias, J.

    2011-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach is presented here for quantifying land subsidence in a heavily pumped aquifer system with complex stratigraphy. The methodology consists in incorporating Terzaghi's 1D instantaneous compaction principle into a 3D groundwater flow model that is then applied and calibrated to reproduce observed hydraulic heads and compaction for the Toluca Valley, Mexico. Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR), a generated 3D-geological model, extensometers, monitoring wells, and available literature are used to constrain the model. The D-InSAR measured subsidence, extensometers, and numerical simulations of subsidence agree relatively well. Simulations show that since regional subsidence began in the mid 1960s there has been up to 2 m of subsidence in the industrial corridor, where heavy pumping and thick clay layers are found. This study shows that an approach using various sources of data is useful in estimating and constraining the vertical component of the inelastic skeletal specific storage.

  15. Using remote sensing and GIS techniques to estimate discharge and recharge fluxes for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; ,

    1996-01-01

    The recharge and discharge components of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system were defined by techniques that integrated disparate data types to develop a spatially complex representation of near-surface hydrological processes. Image classification methods were applied to multispectral satellite data to produce a vegetation map. The vegetation map was combined with ancillary data in a GIS to delineate different types of wetlands, phreatophytes and wet playa areas. Existing evapotranspiration-rate estimates were used to calculate discharge volumes for these area. An empirical method of groundwater recharge estimation was modified to incorporate data describing soil-moisture conditions, and a recharge potential map was produced. These discharge and recharge maps were readily converted to data arrays for numerical modelling codes. Inverse parameter estimation techniques also used these data to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of estimated values.The recharge and discharge components of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system were defined by remote sensing and GIS techniques that integrated disparate data types to develop a spatially complex representation of near-surface hydrological processes. Image classification methods were applied to multispectral satellite data to produce a vegetation map. This map provided a basis for subsequent evapotranspiration and infiltration estimations. The vegetation map was combined with ancillary data in a GIS to delineate different types of wetlands, phreatophytes and wet playa areas. Existing evapotranspiration-rate estimates were then used to calculate discharge volumes for these areas. A previously used empirical method of groundwater recharge estimation was modified by GIS methods to incorporate data describing soil-moisture conditions, and a recharge potential map was produced. These discharge and recharge maps were readily converted to data arrays for numerical modelling codes. Inverse parameter

  16. Fire Regimes of Remnant Pitch Pine Communities in the Ridge and Valley Region of Central Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Marschall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fire-adapted ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. are converting to fire-intolerant vegetation communities due to fire suppression in the 20th century. Prescribed fire and other vegetation management activities that increase resilience and resistance to global changes are increasingly being implemented, particularly on public lands. For many fire-dependent communities, there is little quantitative data describing historical fire regime attributes such as frequency, severity, and seasonality, or how these varied through time. Where available, fire-scarred live and remnant trees, including stumps and snags, offer valuable insights into historical fire regimes through tree-ring and fire-scar analyses. In this study, we dated fire scars from 66 trees at two sites in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania, and described fire frequency, severity, and seasonality from the mid-17th century to 2013. Fires were historically frequent, of low to moderate severity, occurred mostly during the dormant season, and were influenced by aspect and topography. The current extended fire-free interval is unprecedented in the previous 250–300 years at both sites.

  17. Regional estimates of ecological services derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Waddle, Hardin; Keeland, Bobby D.; Walls, Susan C.; James, Dale; Moorman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the Nation?s largest floodplain and this once predominantly forested ecosystem provided significant habitat for a diverse flora and fauna, sequestered carbon in trees and soil, and stored floodwater, sediments, and nutrients within the floodplain. This landscape has been substantially altered by the conversion of nearly 75% of the riparian forests, predominantly to agricultural cropland, with significant loss and degradation of important ecosystem services. Large-scale efforts have been employed to restore the forest and wetland resources and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent some of the most extensive restoration programs in the MAV. The objective of the WRP is to restore and protect the functions and values of wetlands in agricultural landscapes with an emphasis on habitat for migratory birds and wetland-dependent wildlife, protection and improvement of water quality, flood attenuation, ground water recharge, protection of native flora and fauna, and educational and scientific scholarship.

  18. Regional Distribution of Metals and C and N Stable Isotopes in the Epiphytic Ball Moss (Tillandsia Recurvata) at the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Garcia, A.; López-Veneroni, D.; Rojas, A.; Torres, A.; Sosa, G.

    2007-05-01

    As a part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign 2006, the influence of anthropogenic sources to metal air pollution in the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State, was explored by biomonitoring techniques. This valley is a major industrial- agriculture area located in central Mexico. An oil refinery, an electrical power plant, several cement plants with open-pit mines, as well as intensive wastewater-based agricultural areas, all within a 50 km radius, are some of the most important local sources of particulate air pollution. The concentrations of 25 metals and elements were determined by ICP-AES (EPA 610C method) for triplicate composite samples of the "ball moss" (T. recurvata ) collected at 50 sites. In addition, the ratios of two stable isotopes ((13C/12C and 15N/14N) were determined by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in order to assess their potential as tracers for industrial emissions. Preliminary results showed high to very high average contents of several metals in the biomonitor compared to values from similar studies in other world regions, indicating a high degree of local air pollution. In contrast, most samples had Ag, As, Be, Se and Tl contents below detection levels (DL = 0.05 mg/kg of sample dry weight) indicating low levels of pollution by these metals. Metals such as Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Li, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrated the most at the South portion of the valley, where the Tepeji-Tula-Apaxco industrial corridor is located. A transect parallel to the along-wind direction (N-S) showed a higher concentration of metals farther away from the sources relative to a cross-wind transect, which is consistent with the eolian transport of metal-enriched particles. Regional distribution maps of metals in the biomonitor showed that Al, Ba, Fe, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti and V had higher levels at the industrial sampling sites; whereas K, Na and P were more abundant near to agriculture areas. Vanadium, a common element of crude oil, reflected better the influence from

  19. Regional survey and identification of Bipolaris spp. associated with rice seeds in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Levantamento regional e identificação de Bipolaris spp. associadas às sementes de arroz no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Renata Jacobsen de Farias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the harvest year of 2004, a random sample of seed lots (n=165 from six rice-growing regions of Rio Grande do Sul (RS State, Brazil, were examined under seed health blotter test. Fungi growth resembling Bipolaris or Drechslera spp. was isolated and identified at the species level. Observations on the anamorphic structures (conidiophores and conidia allowed separation of isolates into three groups. Pseudothecia, asci and ascospores from sexual crosses between isolates from a same anamorphic group but originated from different regions showed the typical characteristics of three recognized species (anamorph/teleomorph: Bipolaris cynodontis (Cochliobolus cynodontis; B. curvispora (C. melinidis and B. oryzae (C. miyabeanus. All species were widely distributed across the rice-growing regions. Overall, the most prevalent species were B. oryzae (44.6% and B. curvispora (42,9% followed by B. cynodontis (24,1%. This is the first report of B. cynodontis associated with rice seeds in Brazil and the preliminary identification of B. curvispora in rice by the observation of the teleomorph phase was confirmed. The regional occurrence of a complex of pathogenic Bipolaris species related to brown spot epidemics in other countries, may have epidemiological consequences in the region which deserve further investigation.Uma amostra aleatória (n=165 de lotes de sementes de seis regiões produtoras de arroz no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brasil, ano de colheita 2004, foi examinada em teste blotter de sanidade de sementes. Fungos semelhantes a espécies de Bipolaris e Drechslera foram isolados para identificação das espécies. A observação de estruturas da fase anamórfica (conidióforos e conídios permitiu separar os isolados em três grupos. Cruzamentos sexuais induzidos em isolados do mesmo grupo, mas originados de diferentes regiões, resultaram em pseudotécio, ascos e ascósporos, permitindo a identificação de três espécies (anamorfo

  20. Prevalência da doença de Chagas em gestantes da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Prevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Bergmann Araújo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticorpos antiTrypanosoma cruzi no cordão umbilical de 351 parturientes da Cidade de Pelotas, RS foram pesquisados a fim de investigar a prevalência da doença de Chagas em gestantes. Um (0,3% caso foi identificado, não sendo detectada transmissão congênita. Salienta-se a importância da investigação da doença de Chagas em gestantes de zonas endêmicas ou provenientes destas.Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in the umbilical cord of 351 parturients in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul were investigated to determine the prevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women. One case was identified (0.3%, without detection of congenital transmission. This highlights the importance of investigating Chagas disease among pregnant women living in or originating from endemic areas.

  1. Basic approach to estimate subsidence and effective palaeo-heat flow of sediment basins using maturity data. Evaluation of selected regions of the Rhine Valley Graben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiller, E.; Berner, U. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Jurassic sediments of the Rhine Valley Graben (RVG) are recognised by Ladage and Berner (2012) as potential shale gas targets. The geological and tectonic development of the region is complicated, which also holds true for the past and present-day heat flow systems, which have a major imprint on the hydrocarbon generation of the region. We focus on the evaluation of the palaeo-heat flow of the RVG using thermal maturities of organic matter applying the method of Stiller and Berner (2012) which facilitates basin modeling through easy to generate pre-modeling information. Palaeo-subsurface temperatures and related heat flows of selected boreholes at the flanks and the center of the RVG have been restored. However, the reconstruction of a maximum burial is a challenge, because high temperatures within the RVG affected the physical properties of the sediments. Restored palaeo-temperatures and heat flows indicate high temperatures in the graben center and lower values at the graben flanks, however they appear to be lower then present-day temperature conditions in certain regions. The temperature distribution of the RVG has been and is still affected by circulating hot fluids and cold meteoric waters. Present-day thermal effects were not quantified by our method and complicate the reconstruction of the palaeo-temperature conditions. The results of our approach are validated using basin modeling.

  2. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Soti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003. We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends

  3. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Degenne, Pascal; Chevalier, Véronique; Lo Seen, Danny; Thiongane, Yaya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Guégan, Jean-François; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes) involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003). We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends the identification of rainfall patterns favourable for RVFV amplification.

  4. California Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (CEVA) Score, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, UC Davis Center for Regional Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is based on a three year study by the UC Davis Center for Regional Change, in affiliation with the Environmental Justice Project of the John Muir...

  5. Análise econômica da ovinocultura: estudo de caso na Metade Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Economic analysis of sheep production: a case study in the south region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Garibaldi Almeida Viana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo verificar os custos de produção e os seus componentes e a rentabilidade da produção ovina na Metade Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. A análise econômica de sete produtores teve a duração de 12 meses, compreendendo o período de agosto de 2006 a julho de 2007. Os dados mensais levantados consistem em todas as despesas e receitas e os valores referentes aos produtos consumidos nas propriedades. Foram realizados inventários patrimoniais e do rebanho ovino para o cálculo de depreciação e evolução dos ativos físicos. Os custos foram segmentados em variáveis, fixos, operacionais e totais. Indicadores econômicos foram formulados a fim de verificar a rentabilidade da atividade. Os custos variáveis e os de oportunidade foram as categorias que mais impactaram a formação do custo total. Dentro do custo operacional destaca-se o referente à mão-de-obra, sendo o grupo de custo que mais onera a produção ovina. A ovinocultura é uma atividade rentável, que é determinada pelo saldo positivo dos indicadores de margem bruta e renda operacional agrícola. Entretanto, a margem líquida apresentou valores negativos em todas as propriedades analisadas.The goal of this study is to examine the production costs and profitability of the sheep raising sector in the south of Rio Grande do Sul. The economic analysis included seven sheep farms throughout 12 months, between August of 2006 and July of 2007. Expenses, revenue and value of products consumed in the farm were measured monthly. Depreciation and physical assets were calculated based on patrimony and breeding stock inventory. Costs were divided in variable, fixed, operational and total. Economic indicators were computed to evaluate sheep production profitability. Results showed that variable and opportunity costs had the largest impact on total costs. In terms of operational costs, labor were the largest expense for sheep raising farms. Overall, sheep production

  6. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) file of topographic elevations for the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and southeastern California processed from US Geological Survey 1-degree Digital Elevation Model data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.K.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevation data have been compiled into a digital data base for an ∼100,000-km 2 area of the southern Great Basin, the Death Valley region of southern Nevada, and SE Calif., located between lat 35 degree N, long 115 degree W, and lat 38 degree N, long 118 degree W. This region includes the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and adjacent parts of southern Nevada and eastern California and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water system. Because digital maps are often useful for applications other than that for which they were originally intended, and because the area corresponds to a region under continuing investigation by several groups, these digital files are being released by USGS

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the importance of existing hydraulic-head observation locations to advective-transport predictions, Death Valley regional flow system, California and Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.C.; Ely, D.M.; Tiedeman, C.R.; O'Brien, G.M.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    When a model is calibrated by nonlinear regression, calculated diagnostic statistics and measures of uncertainty provide a wealth of information about many aspects of the system. This report presents a method of ranking the likely importance of existing observation locations using measures of prediction uncertainty. It is suggested that continued monitoring is warranted at more important locations, and unwarranted or less warranted at less important locations. The report develops the methodology and then demonstrates it using the hydraulic-head observation locations of a three-layer model of the Death Valley regional flow system (DVRFS). The predictions of interest are subsurface transport from beneath Yucca Mountain and 14 underground Test Area (UGTA) sites. The advective component of transport is considered because it is the component most affected by the system dynamics represented by the regional-scale model being used. The problem is addressed using the capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey computer program MODFLOW-2000, with its ADVective-Travel Observation (ADV) Package, and an additional computer program developed for this work

  8. Chemical signature study of tupiguarani ceramic tradition from Central region of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil; Estudo de assinaturas quimicas em ceramica da tradicao tupiguarani da regiao central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Irene Akemy Tomiyoshi

    2006-07-01

    In this work a model based on experimental results using chemical composition data of the pottery sherds applied to Spearmann's no parametric test, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis, was applied. The samples are soils and Tupiguarani Tradition pottery sherd from the central area of the Rio Grande do Sul State. The chemical elements , Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K Mn, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V and Zn were determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXFR) while Ce, Cu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Th and Y by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) techniques. Relationships among the pottery characteristics, studied sites and sherd dispersion in the several sites were proposed. Indications of chemical signature of the small pottery with function to go or not to the fire were observed. The largest dispersion is of small pottery with surface treatment no corrugated. The potteries chemical fingerprints from Ijui River, Ibicui-Vacacai Mirim River and Jacui River were verified. (author)

  9. Desenvolvimento regional e políticas sociais: um estudo do noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul na primeira década do século XXI = Regional development and social policies: a study of the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul at the first XXI century’s decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotta, Edemar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os investimentos em políticas sociais realizados pelos municípios-polo da região noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e sua possível repercussão nos indicadores de desenvolvimento. Realiza-se mapeamento do cenário de estudos a respeito do desenvolvimento regional, enfocando em como as diferentes abordagens entendem o papel representado pelas políticas sociais na dinâmica de desenvolvimento das sociedades. Demonstra-se e comparam-se os investimentos em políticas sociais em dois momentos específicos: a década de 1990 e os primeiros oito anos da década de 2000. Utilizam-se como fonte de referência os relatórios de gestão e os dados constantes na prestação de contas dos municípios junto ao Tribunal de Contas do Estado do RS. A análise da realidade das políticas sociais nesses municípios, ao longo de quase duas décadas (1991 a 2008, evidenciou transformações significativas que repercutem diretamente nos indicadores de desenvolvimento, especialmente as ligadas à área da educação e da saúde

  10. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  11. Death valley regional ground-water flow model calibration using optimal parameter estimation methods and geoscientific information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.; Hill, M.C.; Turner, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    A regional-scale, steady-state, saturated-zone ground-water flow model was constructed to evaluate potential regional ground-water flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model was limited to three layers in an effort to evaluate the characteristics governing large-scale subsurface flow. Geoscientific information systems (GSIS) were used to characterize the complex surface and subsurface hydrogeologic conditions of the area, and this characterization was used to construct likely conceptual models of the flow system. Subsurface properties in this system vary dramatically, producing high contrasts and abrupt contacts. This characteristic, combined with the large scale of the model, make zonation the logical choice for representing the hydraulic-conductivity distribution. Different conceptual models were evaluated using sensitivity analysis and were tested by using nonlinear regression to determine parameter values that are optimal, in that they provide the best match between the measured and simulated heads and flows. The different conceptual models were judged based both on the fit achieved to measured heads and spring flows, and the plausibility of the optimal parameter values. One of the conceptual models considered appears to represent the system most realistically. Any apparent model error is probably caused by the coarse vertical and horizontal discretization.A regional-scale, steady-state, saturated-zone ground-water flow model was constructed to evaluate potential regional ground-water flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model was limited to three layers in an effort to evaluate the characteristics governing large-scale subsurface flow. Geoscientific information systems (GSIS) were used to characterize the complex surface and subsurface hydrogeologic conditions of the area, and this characterization was used to construct likely conceptual models of the flow system. Subsurface properties in this system vary dramatically, producing

  12. Perspectivas de jovens universitários da Região Norte do Rio Grande do Sul em relação à paternidade Las perspectivas de jóvenes universitarios de la región norte del estado de Rio Grande do Sul en relación a la paternidad Perspectives about paternity by young male university students from the northern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleci Terezinha Perosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A visão do jovem em relação à paternidade e envolvimento com futuros filhos tem sido um assunto de veiculação ainda incipiente na nossa realidade. Este estudo, descritivo, qualitativo e exploratório, teve como objetivos estudar as perspectivas de jovens universitários da Região Norte do Rio Grande do Sul quanto à paternidade, estudar sua visão em relação à sua criação e educação para a paternidade e identificar como as instituições (família, grupo de amigos, escola influenciam no seu desenvolvimento e modo de pensar. Realizou-se na Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missões, RS, com oito jovens universitários com idades entre 20 e 24 anos. Os dados coletados por grupo focal e entrevistas foram analisados mediante análise temática e apontaram para relevância da família, o papel do pai, estabilidade financeira, a importância da companheira, o papel do matrimônio e o jeito de ser pai na construção de suas vidas e paternidade.La visión del joven en relación a la paternidad y la relación con futuros hijos es un asunto que ha aparecido de forma reciente e incipiente en nuestra realidad. Este estudio, descriptivo, cualitativo y exploratorio, tuvo como objetivos: estudiar las perspectivas de los jóvenes universitarios de la Región Norte de Rio Grande do Sul, en lo que se refiere a la paternidad; estudiar su visión en relación a su creación y educación para la paternidad e identificar como las instituciones (familia, grupo de amigos, escuela influyen en su desarrollo y modo de pensar. Se realizó en la Universidad Regional Integrada del Alto Uruguay y de las Misiones, en Rio Grande do Sul, con ocho jóvenes universitarios con edades entre 20 y 24 años. Los datos recolectados, por grupo focal y entrevistas, fueron analizados mediante análisis temático y apuntaron para la relevancia de la familia; el papel del padre, la estabilidad financiera, la importancia de la compañera, el papel del

  13. ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS IN A QUARTZIPSAMMENT UNDER CULTIVATION OF IRRIGATED MANGO IN THE LOWER SÃO FRANCISCO VALLEY REGION, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ferreira Cardoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Improper land use has lead to deterioration and depletion of natural resources, as well as a significant decline in agricultural production, due to decreased soil quality. Removal of native vegetation to make way for agricultural crops, often managed inadequately, results in soil disruption, decreased nutrient availability, and decomposition of soil organic matter, making sustainable agricultural production unviable. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of growing irrigated mango (over a 20 year period on the organic carbon (OC stocks and on the fractions of soil organic matter (SOM in relation to the native caatinga (xeric shrubland vegetation in the Lower São Francisco Valley region, Brazil. The study was carried out on the Boa Esperança Farm located in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. In areas under irrigated mango and native caatinga, soil samples were collected at the 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths. After preparing the soil samples, we determined the OC stocks, carbon of humic substances (fulvic acid fractions, humic acid fractions, and humin fractions, and the light and heavy SOM fractions. Growing irrigated mango resulted in higher OC stocks; higher C stocks in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions; and higher C stocks in the heavy and light SOM fraction in comparison to nativecaatinga, especially in the uppermost soil layer.

  14. Methods for using groundwater model predictions to guide hydrogeologic data collection, with application to the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Hill, M.C.; D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Calibrated models of groundwater systems can provide substantial information for guiding data collection. This work considers using such models to guide hydrogeologic data collection for improving model predictions by identifying model parameters that are most important to the predictions. Identification of these important parameters can help guide collection of field data about parameter values and associated flow system features and can lead to improved predictions. Methods for identifying parameters important to predictions include prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), which account for uncertainty on individual parameters as well as prediction sensitivity to parameters, and a new "value of improved information" (VOII) method presented here, which includes the effects of parameter correlation in addition to individual parameter uncertainty and prediction sensitivity. In this work, the PSS and VOII methods are demonstrated and evaluated using a model of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system. The predictions of interest are advective transport paths originating at sites of past underground nuclear testing. Results show that for two paths evaluated the most important parameters include a subset of five or six of the 23 defined model parameters. Some of the parameters identified as most important are associated with flow system attributes that do not lie in the immediate vicinity of the paths. Results also indicate that the PSS and VOII methods can identify different important parameters. Because the methods emphasize somewhat different criteria for parameter importance, it is suggested that parameters identified by both methods be carefully considered in subsequent data collection efforts aimed at improving model predictions.

  15. Doenças de caprinos diagnosticadas na região Central no Rio Grande do Sul: 114 casos Diseases of goats diagnosed in the Central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 114 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos arquivos do LPV-UFSM e examinados os laudos de necropsias de caprinos realizadas num período de 48 anos (1964 a 2011. Foram analisados 114 laudos de necropsias de caprinos. Deste total, 95 (83,33% tinham diagnóstico conclusivo e 19 (19,66% tinham diagnóstico inconclusivo. Dos 95 casos conclusivos, as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias foram as mais prevalentes, seguidas em ordem decrescente de prevalência, pelas doenças metabólicas e nutricionais, intoxicações e toxi-infecções e alterações do desenvolvimento. Outras alterações de diferentes naturezas e etiologias que não se enquadravam nos grupos de doenças acima afetaram cerca de 10% dos caprinos examinados. A hemoncose foi a principal causa de morte de caprinos na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM. Eimeriose e listeriose também foram causas importantes de morte. Dentre as doenças metabólicas e nutricionais, urolitíase, osteoporose, toxemia da prenhez, desnutrição e doença dos músculos brancos foram as mais prevalentes. Principalmente as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias e as metabólicas e nutricionais ocorreram muitas vezes na forma de surtos, acarretando maiores perdas econômicas associadas.A retrospective study of the goat necropsies performed over a period of 48 years (1964 to 2011 at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS state, Brazil, was performed. A total of 114 reports of goat necropsies were analyzed. Ninety five necropsies (83.33% had a conclusive diagnosis and 19 (19.66% had inconclusive diagnosis. Out of the conclusive cases, infectious and parasitary diseases were the most prevalent, followed, in decreasing order of prevalence, by metabolic and nutritional diseases, poisonings and toxi-infections, and developmental diseases. Other conditions or lesions that did not fit any of the above groups of diseases affected about 10% of the necropsied

  16. Environmental Assessment: Extend Parking Lot Building 807 at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-17

    com, barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat , sunflowers, and durum wheat . Grand Forks...crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar beets. Turtle River State Park, developed as a recreation area in Grand Forks County...surface. Even though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and

  17. Development of a hydrogeological conceptual wetland model in the data-scarce north-eastern region of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghof, Sonja; Gabiri, Geofrey; Stumpp, Christine; Chesnaux, Romain; Reichert, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions in wetlands is crucial because wetlands provide not only a high potential for agricultural production, but also sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This is especially true for the Kilombero floodplain wetland in Tanzania, which represents a data-scarce region in terms of hydrological and hydrogeological data. A comprehensive approach combining hydrogeological with tracer-based assessments was conducted, in order to develop a conceptual hydrogeological wetland model of the area around the city of Ifakara in the north-eastern region of Kilombero catchment. Within the study site, a heterogeneous porous aquifer, with a range of hydraulic conductivities, is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer. Groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by silicate weathering and depends on groundwater residence times related to the hydraulic conductivities of the porous aquifer. Groundwater flows from the hillside to the river during most of the year. While floodwater close to the river is mainly derived from overbank flow of the river, floodwater at a greater distance from the river mainly originates from precipitation and groundwater discharge. Evaporation effects in floodwater increase with increasing distance from the river. In general, the contribution of flood and stream water to groundwater recharge is negligible. In terms of an intensification of agricultural activities in the wetland, several conclusions can be drawn from the conceptual model. Results of this study are valuable as a base for further research related to groundwater/surface-water interactions and the conceptual model can be used in the future to set up numerical flow and transport models.

  18. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-12-18

    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes in both mean values and their corresponding time varying percentiles were examined by comparing the control period (1971-2000) with two future time slices: 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Here, the rationale is to assess how lower/upper tails of temperature distributions will change in the future and whether these changes will be consistent with those of the mean. The model validation results demonstrate significant differences among the models in terms of their capability to representing the statistical characteristics (e.g., mean, skewness and asymmetry) of the observed climate. The results also indicate that the current substantial warming observed in the Ebro basin is expected to continue during the 21st century, with more intense warming occurring at higher altitudes and in areas with greater distance from coastlines. All models suggest that the region will experience significant positive changes in both the cold and warm tails of temperature distributions. However, the results emphasize that future changes in the lower and upper tails of the summer Tmax distribution may not follow the same warming rate as the mean condition. In particular, the projected changes in the warm tail of the summer Tmax are shown to be significantly larger than changes in both mean values and the cold tail, especially at the end of the 21st century. The finding suggests that much of the changes in the summer Tmax percentiles will be driven by a shift in the entire distribution of temperature rather than only changes in the central tendency. Better understanding of the possible implications of future climate systems provides information useful for vulnerability assessments and the development of local adaptation strategies for multi

  19. Knowledge and perception of pulmonary tuberculosis in pastoral communities in the middle and Lower Awash Valley of Afar region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamo Gezahegne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of apparently healthy individuals about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in pastoral communities of Afar. Methods Between March and May 2009, a community-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 818 randomly selected healthy individuals was conducted in pastoral communities of Afar region. Moreover, two focus group discussions (FGDs, one with men and one with women, were conducted in each of the study area to supplement the quantitative study. Results The majority (95.6% of the interviewees reported that they have heard about PTB (known locally as "Labadore". However, the participants associated the cause of PTB with exposure to cold air (45.9%, starvation (38%, dust (21.8% or smoking/chewing Khat (Catha edulis (16.4%. The discussants also suggested these same factors as the cause of PTB. All the discussants and the majority (74.3% of the interviewees reported that persistent cough as the main symptom of PTB. About 87.7% of the interviewees and all the discussants suggested that PTB is treatable with modern drugs. All the discussants and the majority (95% of the interviewees mentioned that the disease can be transmitted from a patient to another person. Socio-cultural practices, e.g. sharing cups (87.6%, and house type (59.8% were suggested as risk factors for exposure to PTB in the study areas, while shortage of food (69.7% and chewing khat (53.8% were mentioned as factors favouring disease development. Almost all discussants and a considerable number (20.4% of the

  20. Avaliação da degradação das terras nas regiões oeste e norte da cidade de Campina Grande, PB: um estudo de caso Evaluation of land degradation in north and western regions of Campina Grande, PB: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. de Moraes Neto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a degradação das terras nas regiões oeste e norte da cidade de Campina Grande, PB, cuja metodologia incluiu: processamento digital de imagem, interpretação visual e correlação com os dados de campo. Na análise digital utilizou-se o método de classificação supervisionada por Maximoverossimilhança (Maxver, cujos resultados se mostraram satisfatórios permitindo, assim, o mapeamento das principais áreas degradadas da região de estudo.The objective of the present work was to evaluate and characterize the land degradation in western and northern regions of Campina Grande, PB. Data were obtained through digital image processing, followed by visual interpretation of the digitally processed image and final field checking. The Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Classifier was used in digital analysis. The results of the classification showed to be satisfactory, allowing to map the main degraded areas of the studied region.

  1. Determinants of infant mortality in the Jequitinhonha Valley and in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to identify the social and demographic determinants, in addition to the determinants of reproductive health and use of health services, associated with infant mortality in small and medium-sized cities of the North, Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. METHODS This is a case-control study with 803 cases of death of children under one year and 1,969 live births (controls, whose mothers lived in the selected cities in 2008. The lists of the names of cases and controls were extracted from the Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System and the Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC – Live Birth Information System and supplemented by data obtained by the research of “active search of death and birth”. Data was collected in the household using a semi-structured questionnaire, and the analysis was carried out using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS The final model indicates that the following items are positively and significantly associated with infant mortality: family working in agriculture, mother having a history of fetal and infant losses, no prenatal or inadequate prenatal, and not being associated to the maternity hospital during the prenatal period. We have observed significant interactions to explain the occurrence of infant mortality between race and socioeconomic score and between high-risk pregnancy and pilgrimage for childbirth. CONCLUSIONS The excessive number of home deliveries and pilgrimage for childbirth indicates flaws in the line of maternity care and a lack of collaboration between the levels of outpatient and hospital care. The study reinforces the need for an integrated management of the health care networks, leveraging the capabilities of cities in meeting the needs of pregnancy, delivery and birth with quality.

  2. Potencialidades fitoquímicas do melão (Cucumis melo L. na região Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil Phytochemical potentialities of melon (Cucumis melo L. in the northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Muller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O melão (Cucumis melo L. é uma fruta muito apreciada por suas qualidades e sua produção vem crescendo e ganhando espaço no mercado nacional e internacional. Em regiões como o Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, destaca-se como uma nova alternativa de renda para vários agricultores. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o potencial fitoquímico de alguns cultivares de melão da região Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul. A análise fitoquímica utilizando como farmacógeno as folhas, foi realizada para a verificação da presença de metabólitos secundários, tais como: saponinas, cumarinas, cardiotônicos, cianogenéticos, alcalóides, taninos, antraquinonas, flavonoides, e óleos voláteis. Também foi avaliado o teor de suco a partir dos frutos. Dentre os cinco cultivares analisados, Gaúcho, Imperial, Hy Mark, Magelan, e Cantaloupe, o cultivar Gaucho apresentou a maior variedade em metabólitos secundários. Na avaliação do teor de suco a cultivar Magelan se destacou em comparação às demais cultivares testadas.The melon (Cucumis melo L. is a fruit highly appreciated for its qualities and its production has been growing and gaining space in the national and in the international market. In regions like the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, it stands out as a new income alternative for farmers. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the phytochemical potential of some melon cultivars in the northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul. The phytochemical analysis, using the leaves as pharmacogen, was performed to verify the presence of secondary metabolites such as saponins, coumarins, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glicosides, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, flavonoids and volatile oils. The juice content from the fruits was also evaluated. Among the five analyzed cultivars, Gaucho, Imperial, Hy Mark, Magelan and Cantaloupe, cultivar Gaucho had the greatest variety of secondary metabolites. In the

  3. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 4 - Analysis of opportunity costs and issues related to regional energy resilience. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Based on the outputs from the first three tasks, a suite of coherent pathways towards the overall target of 75% residential local energy consumption was created, and the costs and benefits for the region were calculated. This was undertaken via a scenario analysis which also highlighted the risks and robustness of the different options within the pathways. In addition to a direct economic comparison between the different pathways, more qualitative issues were described, including potential local employment, environmental benefits and disadvantages, etc. The main tool utilised in this analysis was a tailor made Excel energy model that includes mechanisms for analysing improvements in the CVRD energy system down to an area level, for example renewable energy in residential buildings, renewable energy generation, and the effects of energy efficiency improvements. For the industrial, commercial, and transport sectors, simple and generic forecasts and input possibilities were included in the model. The Excel 'technology cost' and 'energy' models are accompanied with a user manual so that planners within the CVRD can become well

  4. Determinants of infant mortality in the Jequitinhonha Valley and in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Bittencourt, Sonia Duarte de Azevedo; Torres, Raquel Maria Cardoso; Niquini, Roberta Pereira; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de

    2017-03-02

    This study aims to identify the social and demographic determinants, in addition to the determinants of reproductive health and use of health services, associated with infant mortality in small and medium-sized cities of the North, Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. This is a case-control study with 803 cases of death of children under one year and 1,969 live births (controls), whose mothers lived in the selected cities in 2008. The lists of the names of cases and controls were extracted from the Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM - Mortality Information System) and the Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC - Live Birth Information System) and supplemented by data obtained by the research of "active search of death and birth". Data was collected in the household using a semi-structured questionnaire, and the analysis was carried out using multiple logistic regression. The final model indicates that the following items are positively and significantly associated with infant mortality: family working in agriculture, mother having a history of fetal and infant losses, no prenatal or inadequate prenatal, and not being associated to the maternity hospital during the prenatal period. We have observed significant interactions to explain the occurrence of infant mortality between race and socioeconomic score and between high-risk pregnancy and pilgrimage for childbirth. The excessive number of home deliveries and pilgrimage for childbirth indicates flaws in the line of maternity care and a lack of collaboration between the levels of outpatient and hospital care. The study reinforces the need for an integrated management of the health care networks, leveraging the capabilities of cities in meeting the needs of pregnancy, delivery and birth with quality. Identificar os determinantes sociais, demográficos, da saúde reprodutiva e de utilização dos serviços de saúde associados ao óbito infantil em municípios de pequeno e médio porte

  5. Analysis of regional scale risk to whirling disease in populations of Colorado and Rio Grande cutthroat trout using Bayesian belief network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb Ayre, Kimberley; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and spread of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, has contributed to the collapse of wild trout populations throughout the intermountain west. Of concern is the risk the disease may have on conservation and recovery of native cutthroat trout. We employed a Bayesian belief network to assess probability of whirling disease in Colorado River and Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus and Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis, respectively) within their current ranges in the southwest United States. Available habitat (as defined by gradient and elevation) for intermediate oligochaete worm host, Tubifex tubifex, exerted the greatest influence on the likelihood of infection, yet prevalence of stream barriers also affected the risk outcome. Management areas that had the highest likelihood of infected Colorado River cutthroat trout were in the eastern portion of their range, although the probability of infection was highest for populations in the southern, San Juan subbasin. Rio Grande cutthroat trout had a relatively low likelihood of infection, with populations in the southernmost Pecos management area predicted to be at greatest risk. The Bayesian risk assessment model predicted the likelihood of whirling disease infection from its principal transmission vector, fish movement, and suggested that barriers may be effective in reducing risk of exposure to native trout populations. Data gaps, especially with regard to location of spawning, highlighted the importance in developing monitoring plans that support future risk assessments and adaptive management for subspecies of cutthroat trout.

  6. Variations in the chemical composition of the submicron aerosol and in the sources of the organic fraction at a regional background site of the Po Valley (Italy

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    M. Bressi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM levels and resulting impacts on human health are in the Po Valley (Italy among the highest in Europe. To build effective PM abatement strategies, it is necessary to characterize fine PM chemical composition, sources and atmospheric processes on long timescales (> months, with short time resolution (< day, and with particular emphasis on the predominant organic fraction. Although previous studies have been conducted in this region, none of them addressed all these aspects together. For the first time in the Po Valley, we investigate the chemical composition of nonrefractory submicron PM (NR-PM1 with a time resolution of 30 min at the regional background site of Ispra during 1 full year, using the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM under the most up-to-date and stringent quality assurance protocol. The identification of the main components of the organic fraction is made using the Multilinear-Engine 2 algorithm implemented within the latest version of the SoFi toolkit. In addition, with the aim of a potential implementation of ACSM measurements in European air quality networks as a replacement of traditional filter-based techniques, parallel multiple offline analyses were carried out to assess the performance of the ACSM in the determination of PM chemical species regulated by air quality directives. The annual NR-PM1 level monitored at the study site (14.2 µg m−3 is among the highest in Europe and is even comparable to levels reported in urban areas like New York City and Tokyo. On the annual basis, submicron particles are primarily composed of organic aerosol (OA, 58 % of NR-PM1. This fraction was apportioned into oxygenated OA (OOA, 66 %, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 11 % of OA and biomass burning OA (BBOA, 23 %. Among the primary sources of OA, biomass burning (23 % is thus bigger than fossil fuel combustion (11 %. Significant contributions of aged secondary organic aerosol (OOA

  7. Inspecting the transformation of Roman settlements in the Upper Potenza Valley (Marche region across Late Antiquity and into the Early Medieval era

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    Francesca Carboni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following analysis shows the changes occurred in the settlement patterns in the upper Potenza river valley (MC, Marche region during the transition period between Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. This analysis is mainly based on the results of a geoarchaeological project, which has been carried out by a team from Ghent University since 2000. The review of the pottery collected during the fi eld survey has allowed for a better defined chronology of the last phase of occupation of the rural sites identifi ed in the sample zone, located within an intermediate basin between the Umbria-Marche Apennines and a lateral dorsal ridge, in areas dominated by the hilltops of Monte Primo and Monte Castel Santa Maria. For some of these sites, it is now possible to ascertain a continuity of life up to the end of the seventh century and further into the Middle Ages. La presente analisi illustra le trasformazioni delle modalità insediative avvenute nel periodo di transizione fra la tarda antichità e il medioevo nell’alta valle del fi ume Potenza (MC, Marche. Essa si basa sui risultati del progetto condotto con metodo geo-archeologico da un gruppo di ricerca dell’Università di Ghent, dal 2000. La revisione del materiale ceramico raccolto nel corso delle ricognizioni ha consentito di defi nire meglio le ultime fasi di occupazione dei siti rurali identifi cati nella zona campione in questione, posizionata all’interno del bacino intramontano posto fra l’Appennino umbro-marchigiano e una dorsale montuosa laterale, dominata dalle cime del Monte Primo e del Monte Santa Maria. Per alcuni di questi siti è stato, infatti, possibile accertare una continuità di occupazione estesa fi no al VII secolo e oltre, in età medievale.

  8. Detection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Rift Valley fever virus from Anopheles (Anopheles) coustani, Anopheles (Anopheles) squamosus, and Culex (Culex) antennatus of the Haute Matsiatra region, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Olive, Marie-Marie; Tantely, Luciano Michael; Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Tata, Etienne; Razainirina, Josette; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Elissa, Nohal

    2011-06-01

    Following veterinary alerts of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in the districts of Fianarantsoa I and II in November 2008 and in the district of Ambalavao in April 2009, entomological and virological investigations were carried out to identify the mosquito species that could act as RVF virus (RVFV) vectors in the region. A total of 12,785 adult mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 21 species were collected. After identification, mosquitoes were pooled by species, sex, and female status (fed or unfed) and then stored at -80°C. Of 319 pools of unfed monospecific female mosquito tested by real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction, RVFV was detected in 1 pool of Anopheles coustani, 5 pools of An. squamosus, and 2 pools of Culex antennatus mosquitoes. The virus was isolated in mosquito cell lines from two of the five Real Time-RT-polymerase chain reaction (real time-RT-PCR) positive pools of An. squamosus mosquitoes. From the eight RVFV strains detected, partial S, M, and L genome segments sequences were obtained. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that the strains circulating in mosquitoes were genetically close to those that circulated in livestock and humans during RVF outbreaks in 2008 and 2009. This study, therefore, provides strong evidence that An. squamosus, An. coustani, and Cx. antennatus could play a role as vectors of the RVFV during the disease outbreaks in 2008-2009. Bioecological, genetic, and RVF transmission studies on these three mosquito species are needed to address this question and thus improve prevention and control of future RVF outbreaks in Madagascar, where these species are present.

  9. Avaliação da assistência farmacêutica básica nos municípios de abrangência da 17ª Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul Evaluation of pharmaceutical assistance in cities of the 17th Regional Health Department/Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. B. De Bernardi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de indicadores para a avaliação das ações desenvolvidas pela Assistência Farmacêutica nos municípios é uma estratégia de organização da atenção e gestão em saúde. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a Assistência Farmacêutica Básica, através de indicadores, nos vinte municípios de abrangência da 17ª Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando indicadores da Assistência Farmacêutica, propostos pela Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (SES/RS, em cada Secretaria Municipal de Saúde dos 20 municípios que compõem a 17ª Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde de Ijuí/RS. Em cada município foi entrevistado o responsável pela farmácia. RESULTADOS: Apenas cinco municípios tinham farmacêutico responsável pela farmácia. Participaram de algum tipo de capacitação, 25% dos trabalhadores. Apenas 15% dos municípios tinham a Relação de Medicamentos Básicos afixada em local visível. O controle de estoque de medicamentos foi seguido por 90% dos municípios. Quanto aos medicamentos marcadores, 78% estavam disponíveis. O número médio de medicamentos por prescrição foi de 2,0. Dos prescritos, 76% pertenciam à Relação de Medicamentos Básicos, e 64% utilizaram a Denominação Comum Brasileira e/ou a Denominação Comum Internacional. Foram dispensados 88% dos medicamentos prescritos. CONCLUSÕES: A Assistência Farmacêutica Básica nos municípios é deficitária, exigindo maiores investimentos em recursos humanos, físicos e materiais. A ausência do farmacêutico na equipe de saúde é um fator importante, ainda que não o único, da fragmentação da execução, das etapas do ciclo da Assistência Farmacêutica e da baixa eficiência das ações de saúde neste âmbito.The application of indicators to evaluate actions developed by the pharmaceutical assistance in cities is a strategy to organize the attention and management in health. The

  10. New species and records of the genus Aegla Leach, 1820 (Crustacea, Anomura, Aeglidae from the West-Central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Sandro Santos

    Full Text Available Aeglidae are anomuran freshwater "crabs" found only in southern South America. In Brazil, the greatest species diversity occurs in hydrographic basins of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Two new species, Aegla georginae and Aegla ludwigi, are described from the Ibicuí and Ijuí Rivers, respectively (Uruguay River Basin. The new taxa can be distinguished from other Aegla species based on both morphological and molecular characters. The two new species have a very restricted distribution and are categorized as endangered (A. georginae and critically endangered (A. ludwigi using IUCN Red List criteria. We also summarize and present new records of the Aegla species occurring in the Uruguay River Basin.

  11. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 per year was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 per year due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3− particles (0.1 μg m−3 per year was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential

  12. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, M.-C.; McElroy, B.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2013-04-01

    The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m-3 per year) was related to lower levels of SO42- (0.2 μg m-3 per year) due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3- particles (0.1 μg m-3 per year) was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires) sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential of offshore activities

  13. Development of visibility forecasting modelling framework for the lower fraser valley of British Columbia using Canada's regional air quality deterministic prediction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Rita; Teakles, Andrew; Baik, Jonathan; Vingarzan, Roxanne; Jones, Keith

    2018-01-17

    Visibility degradation, one of the most noticeable indicators of poor air quality, can occur despite relatively low levels of particulate matter when the risk to human health is low. The availability of timely and reliable visibility forecasts can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the anticipated air quality conditions to better inform local jurisdictions and the public. This paper describes the development of a visibility forecasting modelling framework, which leverages the existing air quality and meteorological forecasts from Canada's operational Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) for the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. A baseline model (GM-IMPROVE) was constructed using the revised IMPROVE algorithm based on unprocessed forecasts from the RAQDPS. Three additional prototypes (UMOS-HYB, GM-MLR, GM-RF) were also developed and assessed for forecast performance of up to 48 hour lead time during various air quality and meteorological conditions. Forecast performance was assessed by examining their ability to provide both numerical and categorical forecasts in the form of 1-hr total extinction and Visual Air Quality Ratings (VAQR), respectively. While GM-IMPROVE generally overestimated extinction over twofold, it had skill in forecasting the relative species contribution to visibility impairment, including ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. Both statistical prototypes, GM-MLR and GM-RF, performed well in forecasting 1-hr extinction during daylight hours, with correlation coefficients (R) ranging from 0.59 to 0.77. UMOS-HYB, a prototype based on post-processed air quality forecasts without additional statistical modelling, provided reasonable forecasts during most daylight hours. In terms of categorical forecasts, the best prototype was approximately 75 to 87% correct, when forecasting for a condensed three-category VAQR. A case study, focusing on a poor visual air quality yet low Air Quality Health Index episode

  14. Caracterização da piscicultura na região do Vale do Ribeira - SP Characterization of fish farming in the Ribeira Valley region - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castellani

    2005-02-01

    á (Rhamdia quelen Quoy and Gaimard, 1824, cascudo (Hypostomus sp Marschall, 1873 and cará (Geophagus brasiliensis Quoy and Gaimard, 1824. Fish escapes were observed in 95% of farms studied, with Nile tilapia (Oreocrhomis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 being the most frequent. The pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Halmberg, 1887 and Nile tilapia were the most cultivated species. According to estimation of food conversion, around 32% of food supplied was wasted yearly. The fish farming is an activity in expansion in the Ribeira Valley and account for the second regional economic activity after banana cultivation.

  15. O efeito da fragmentação florestal na composição e riqueza de árvores na região da Reserva Morro Grande (Planalto de Ibiúna, SP. The effect of the forest fragmentation in the composition and richness of trees in the region of the Morro Grande Reserve (Ibiúna plateau, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos BERNACCI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversas modificações estruturais efuncionais têm sido indicadas como decorrência doprocesso de fragmentação das comunidades vegetais.Para avaliar alguns desses efeitos, foramcomparadas a composição e a riqueza arbóreaem diferentes áreas em duas paisagens do Planaltode Ibiúna (Cotia e Ibiúna, SP. As duas paisagenslocalizam-se sob condições abióticas similares,mas uma é predominantemente florestal (ReservaMorro Grande - 9.400 ha, onde foram estudadas6 áreas e outra agrícola (onde foram estudados21 fragmentos com ampla gama de tamanhos – 0,9 a275 ha. Utilizou-se o método de quadrantes paraindivíduos com Diâmetro à Altura do Peito 5 cm,sendo que o esforço amostral incluiu 2.400 indivíduosna Reserva e 5.000 indivíduos na paisagemfragmentada. Foram amostradas 362 espécies,pertencentes a 171 gêneros e 71 famílias, sendo asmais ricas Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Fabaceae,Rubiaceae e Euphorbiaceae. Considerando-se oconjunto dos fragmentos foram observadasdiferenças na composição de espécies e menorriqueza. Nos fragmentos ocorreram mais indivíduose espécies anemocóricas e barocóricas e pioneirase secundárias iniciais. Inversamente, ocorrerammais indivíduos e espécies secundárias tardias eumbrófilas e zoocóricas na Reserva Morro Grande,destacando a importância desta área para amanutenção da biodiversidade regional. Apesardesses claros efeitos da fragmentação, algumasespécies ameaçadas de extinção, pouco conhecidasou mesmo inéditas para São Paulo, foramamostradas exclusivamente nos fragmentosflorestais, evidenciando a necessidade de incluirestes fragmentos remanescentes, da região sul doPlanalto Paulistano, em mecanismos de preservaçãoe promover a restauração florestal, para garantir amanutenção da biodiversidade regional.Several structural and functionalmodifications have been indicated as result ofthe process of fragmentation of the forestcommunities. To evaluate some of these effects,we compared

  16. Soroprevalência de doenças infecciosas em doadores de sangue do hemocentro regional de Cruz Alta-Rio Grande do Sul

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    Ana Paula Becker Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical and serological screening of blood donors is an essential strategy to prevent transmission of infectious agents during blood transfusion. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of infectious diseases in blood donors at the Blood Center of Cruz Alta. Method: Prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the Blood Center of Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul, from January 2013 to June 2014. Results: 6139 donations were made during the study period, 280 (4,56% of which were considered unfit for presenting some positive serological marker. The average age of unfit donors was 38 years, and 171 (61.1% donors were male. Regarding the serological markers, 151 (46.1% donors were positive for anti-HBc, 15 (5.4% for HBsAg, 21 (7.5% for anti-HCV, 15 (5.4% for HIV, 19 (6.8% for HIV-Ag AC, 6 (2.1% for HTLV-I /II, 64 (22.9% for Chagas disease, and 37 (13.2% for syphilis (VDRL. Conclusion: The results show the importance of serological screening in order to ensure transfusion safety and prevent infection of individuals who need blood transfusions.

  17. Grand Hotel prijutil hudozhnikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Raadioajakirjanik Lea Veelmaa lindistas "Kunstikanali" 2004. a. esimese saate Grand Hotel Viljandis. Saatekülaliseks oli maalikunstnik Andres Tolts. Toltsi kaheksa akrüülmaali on eksponeeritud hotelli fuajees ja restoranis

  18. Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, C. F.; Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T. N.; Moncrief, M. R.; Shultz, S.; Tonkin, M.; Wendell, D.

    2006-12-01

    The finite element application IWFM has been used to develop an integrated groundwater-surface water model for California's Central Valley, an area of ~50,000 km2, to simulate the evolution of the groundwater flow system and historical groundwater-surface water interactions on a monthly time step from October 1921 to September 2003. The Central Valley's hydrologic system changed significantly during this period. Prior to 1920, most surface water flowed unimpeded from source areas in the mountains surrounding the Central Valley through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the Pacific Ocean, and groundwater largely flowed from recharge areas on the valley rim to discharge as evapotransipration in extensive marshes along the valley's axis. Rapid agricultural development led to increases in groundwater pumping from ~0.5 km3/yr in the early 1920's to 13-18 km3/yr in the 1940's to 1970's, resulting in strong vertical head gradients, significant head declines throughout the valley, and subsidence of >0.3 m over an area of 13,000 km2. Construction of numerous dams and development of an extensive surface water delivery network after 1950 altered the surface water flow regime and reduced groundwater pumping to the current ~10 km3/yr, increasing net recharge and leading to local head gradient reversals and water level recoveries. A model calibrated to the range of historical flow regimes in the Central Valley will provide robust estimations of stream-groundwater interactions for a range of projected future scenarios. C2VSIM uses the IWFM application to simulate a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process dynamically coupled with 1-D land surface, stream flow, lake and unsaturated zone processes. The groundwater flow system is represented with three layers each having 1393 elements. Land surface processes are simulated using 21 subregions corresponding to California DWR water-supply planning areas. The surface-water network is simulated using 431 stream nodes representing 72

  19. Vazões máximas e mínimas para bacias hidrográficas da região alto Rio Grande, MG Maximum and minimum discharges for Alto Rio Grande region basins, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Vazões máximas são grandezas hidrológicas aplicadas a projetos de obras hidráulicas e vazões mínimas são utilizadas para a avaliação das disponibilidades hídricas em bacias hidrográficas e comportamento do escoamento subterrâneo. Neste estudo, objetivou-se à construção de intervalos de confiança estatísticos para vazões máximas e mínimas diárias anuais e sua relação com as características fisiográficas das 6 maiores bacias hidrográficas da região Alto Rio Grande à montante da represa da UHE-Camargos/CEMIG. As distribuições de probabilidades Gumbel e Gama foram aplicadas, respectivamente, para séries históricas de vazões máximas e mínimas, utilizando os estimadores de Máxima Verossimilhança. Os intervalos de confiança constituem-se em uma importante ferramenta para o melhor entendimento e estimativa das vazões, sendo influenciado pelas características geológicas das bacias. Com base nos mesmos, verificou-se que a região Alto Rio Grande possui duas áreas distintas: a primeira, abrangendo as bacias Aiuruoca, Carvalhos e Bom Jardim, que apresentaram as maiores vazões máximas e mínimas, significando potencialidade para cheias mais significativas e maiores disponibilidades hídricas; a segunda, associada às bacias F. Laranjeiras, Madre de Deus e Andrelândia, que apresentaram as menores disponibilidades hídricas.Maximum discharges are applied to hydraulic structure design and minimum discharges are used to characterize water availability in hydrographic basins and subterranean flow. This study is aimed at estimating the confidence statistical intervals for maximum and minimum annual discharges and their relationship wih the physical characteristics of basins in the Alto Rio Grande Region, State of Minas Gerais. The study was developed for the six (6 greatest Alto Rio Grande Region basins at upstream of the UHE-Camargos/CEMIG reservoir. Gumbel and Gama probability distribution models were applied to the

  20. Evaluation of an indicator for water yield in a watershed of Alto Rio Grande Region, State of Minas Gerais , Brazil Avaliação de um indicador de produção de água em uma bacia hidrográfica no Alto Rio Grande - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Mattos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Law stipulates that water is a limited natural resource doted of economic value, thus it is necessary to develop mechanisms for its adequate management. Actions that encourage the farmers to apply soil conservation practices with the purpose of increase water yield from springs and to promote improvement of its quality, reducing production of sediment transportation, is being encouraged by governments, even with financial compensation for owners. From these assertions, this study aims to quantify the benefits of the conservation actions of the management units and to characterize a Water Yield Indicator (WYI to support sustainable actions in the watershed of Alto Rio Grande region, in the state of Minas Gerais (MG. To assess the impact of actions it were identified four scenarios of land use and occupation of the watershed from Marcela stream which is located in Alto Rio Grande Region. After analyzing the results, it can be stated that the scenarios simulation has demonstrated important changes in water yield and that the definition of the Water Yield Index from the junction of the erosion potential with the water storage potential, has proved effective, as it integrate quantity and quality of water.A legislação brasileira estabelece que a água é um recurso natural limitado e dotado de valor econômico; logo, há necessidade de se criar mecanismos para sua adequada gestão. Medidas que estimulam os produtores rurais a adotarem práticas conservacionistas, visando a maior produção de água, melhoria de sua qualidade e redução da produção de sedimentos, vêm sendo estimuladas pelos governos, utilizando para isso até mesmo uma compensação financeira. A partir destas asserções, objetivou-se quantificar os benefícios das ações de conservação nas unidades de gestão e definir um Indicador de Produção de Água (IPA para a tomada de decisão em uma bacia hidrográfica da região Alto Rio Grande-MG. Para avaliar o

  1. Rio Grande valley Colorado new Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sherman R.; Levings, Gary W.; Carter, Lisa F.; Richey, Steven F.; Radell, Mary Jo

    1993-01-01

    Two structural settings are found in the study unit: alluvial basins and bedrock basins. The alluvial basins can have through-flowing surface water or be closed basins. The discussion of streamflow and water quality for the surface-water system is based on four river reaches for the 750 miles of the main stem. the quality of the ground water is affected by both natural process and human activities and by nonpoint and point sources. Nonpoint sources for surface water include agriculture, hydromodification, and mining operations; point sources are mainly discharge from wastewater treatment plants. Nonpoint sources for ground water include agriculture and septic tanks and cesspools; point sources include leaking underground storage tanks, unlined or manure-lined holding ponds used for disposal of dairy wastes, landfills, and mining operations.

  2. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1971. (11) Loma De Las Canas, N. Mex. (1959), revised 1979. (12) Loma Machete, N. Mex. (1954), revised... Canas, N. Mex. U.S.G.S. map; (29) It proceeds east on the Grant Boundary for .25 mile until it arrives...

  3. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    found in both montane meadows and moister grasslands. Forbs when present, are typically perennials. East of the interior ranges, grasslands are uncommon although native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Stipa, Hilaria and Aristida are common in steppe and desert scrub. Today, Valley Grassland covers nearly 7 million ha or 17% or the state (Huenneke 1989), although other sources list less than half this amount (Jones and Stokes 1987). There is some evidence that extent of the grassland region has not changed since pre-European conditions, although the spatial distribution of grasslands has likely changed substantially (Huenneke 1989). That is, many current grasslands previously may have been dominated by other vegetation types and vice versa. Without question, many former grasslands have been converted to agricultural and urban use (Barry 1972). The Valley Grassland community occurs in regions characterized by a broad range of climatic conditions. Average January temperatures may range from 5°C to 15°C and July temperatures from 15°C to 30°C (NOAA 1988). Annual precipitation ranges from approximately 12 cm to over 200 cm, although all sites are characterized by a summer drought of 4-8 months (Heady 1977). Grasslands are well developed on deep, fine-textured soils although they are not restricted to such conditions (Wells 1962, Adams 1964, Heady 1977).

  4. Trophic ecology and the use of shelters and latrines by the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Taquari Valley, Southern Brazil Ecologia trófica e o uso de abrigos e latrinas pela lontra Neotropical (Lontra longicaudis no Vale do Taquari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benhur Kasper

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents information about the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 in the Taquari Valley, State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The study was carried out in two areas located in the Forquetinha Creek and in the Forqueta River from January to December 2003. The otters are specialist feeders (Bsta = 0.24, with a diet based mostly on fish, especially those of the families Loricariidae and Cichlidae. Most shelters used by the species were excavated burrows underneath tree roots, while shelters within rocks were used less frequently. The burrows showed great variation in size, being found on average 3.5 m (sd = 3.6 m away from the margin and 2.5 m (sd = 1.2 m above the water level. Scent marks were made preferentially on rocks and fallen tree trunks at the edge of the water. There was a tendency to increase the reutilization of latrines in detriment of using new sites throughout the sample period.O presente estudo apresenta dados sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 no Vale do Taquari, sul do Brasil. O trabalho foi realizado em duas áreas localizadas no arroio Forquetinha e rio Forqueta, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003. A população apresentou hábito alimentar especialista (Bsta = 0,24, baseado em peixes das famílias Loricariidae e Cichlidae. Os abrigos utilizados pela espécie foram formados em sua maioria, por escavações sob raízes de árvores e, com menor freqüência, entre rochas. Os abrigos escavados apresentaram dimensões bastante variáveis, sendo que estiveram em média a 3,5 m (s = 3,6 m de distância da margem e 2,5 m (s = 1,2 m de altura em relação ao nível da água. A utilização de marcas odoríferas se deu preferencialmente sobre rochas e troncos caídos na margem, sendo que houve uma tendência de aumento na reutilização de latrinas, em detrimento de novos pontos de deposição de fezes, no decorrer do período amostrado.

  5. Tracing Anthropogenic Salinity Inputs to the Semi-arid Rio Grande River: A Multi-isotope Tracer (U, S, B and Sr) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S.; Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Szynkiewicz, A.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    High salinity in the Rio Grande has led to severe reductions in crop productivity and accumulation of salts in soils. These pressing issues exist for other arid rivers worldwide. Salinity contributions to the Rio Grande have not been adequately quantified, especially from agriculture, urban activities, and geological sources. Here, we use major element concentrations and U, S, B, Sr isotopic signatures to fingerprint the salinity sources. Our study area focuses on a 200 km long stretch of the Rio Grande from Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM to El Paso, TX. River samples were collected monthly from 2014 to 2015. Irrigation drains, groundwater wells, city drains and wastewater effluents were sampled as possible anthropogenic salinity end-members. Major element chemistry, U, S and Sr isotope ratios in the Rio Grande waters suggest multiple salinity inputs from geological, agricultural, and urban sources. Natural upwelling of groundwater is significant for the Rio Grande near Elephant Butte, as suggested by high TDS values and high (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S ratios. Agricultural activities (e.g. flood irrigation, groundwater pumping, fertilizer use) are extensive in the Mesilla Valley. Rio Grande waters from this region have characteristic lower (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S ratios, with possible agricultural sources from use of fertilizers and gypsum. Agricultural practices during flood irrigation also intensify evaporation of Rio Grande surface water and considerably increase water salinity. Shallow groundwater signatures were also identified at several river locations, possibly due to the artificial pumping of local groundwater for irrigation. Impacts of urban activities to river chemistry (high NO3 and B concentrations) were evident for locations downstream to Las Cruces and El Paso wastewater treatment plants, supporting the use of the B isotope as an urban salinity tracer. This study improves our understanding of human impacts on water quality and elemental

  6. Preço pago pelo consumidor de carne bovina nas diferentes regiões econômicas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Price paid by beef meat consumers from different economic regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Celestino Pires Silveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O Estado do Rio Grande do Sul apresenta inúmeras diferenças no aspecto geográfico-econômico-ambiental. No presente trabalho, considera-se a divisão regional proposta por ALONSO et al. (1994, a qual apresenta o Estado dividido em três regiões: metade sul, metade norte e nordeste. Na metade sul, a economia é baseada no setor primário, tendo a pecuária, como principal produto. A metade norte tem sua economia baseada na agricultura e a região nordeste caracteriza-se pela presença de vários setores industriais, com grandes concentrações urbanas. Sabe-se que o consumo é influenciado pela idade, renda, nível de educação, padrão de mobilidade e gosto dos consumidores. O objetivo, neste trabalho, foi verificar o comportamento do preço de diferentes cortes de carne bovina, em nível de consumidor, nas três regiões econômicas do Estado. A pesquisa caracterizou-se por um levantamento mensal em supermercados, durante os anos agrícolas 2006/2007 e 2007/2008, do preço de diferentes cortes de carne bovina em onze cidades. Os menores e os maiores preços da carne bovina verificados nas regiões metade Sul e nordeste, respectivamente, decorrem provavelmente do fato de que uma é a região produtora e a outra principal consumidora. Outro resultado importante é que as maiores variações, no preço dos cortes, ocorreram também nessas regiões. Portanto, num cenário em que a demanda é maior que a oferta, essas regiões parecem ser as primeiras a receberem o impacto nos preços da carne bovina.The State of Rio Grande do Sul presents various situations considering geographical, economical and environmental aspects. This study considers the regional division suggested by ALONSO et al. (1994: Southern half, Northern Half and Northeast. The primary sector is the base of Southern half economy and livestock production is its main product. The Northern half has crop production as its main economical resource, while the Northeast is

  7. A Guide to Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) Delineation for Non-Perennial Streams in the Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    valleys; sediment ranges from sand to cobbles; floodplains are often well-established. Dune - ripple Commonly associated with low-gradient, sand -bed...colluvial, cascade, step-pool, plane-bed, pool-riffle, and dune - ripple . Table 1 provides a brief summary of each reach type. ERDC/CRREL TR-14...channels and characterized by high sediment loads and mobile bedforms (e.g., ripples , dunes , antidunes). Figure 2 illustrates a general downstream

  8. Tpm implementation impact in companies´s competitivity in the metropolitan region of aburra’s valley and near east

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Serna, Martin Dario; Zapata Cortes, Julian Andrés; Alzate Lopez, Juan Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Best practices methodologies have been used by different companies as competitive growing tools in a globalized market. In Colombia, particularly at Aburra’s Valley Metropolitan Area (AMVA) and near east can be noticed that TPM (Total Productive Management) had been adopted as a competitive support tool. This article evaluates the TPM implementation impact in different competitiveness variables for the companies that are working on it at the AMVA and near east, finding that there is not a cle...

  9. Geologic framework for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, U.S. Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group in onshore areas and State waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system. Four assessment units (AUs) are defined based on characterization of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, seals, traps, and the geohistory of the hydrocarbon products. Strata in each AU share similar stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon-charge histories.

  10. Geologic Map of the Warm Spring Canyon Area, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California, With a Discussion of the Regional Significance of the Stratigraphy and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrucke, Chester T.; Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.

    2007-01-01

    Warm Spring Canyon is located in the southeastern part of the Panamint Range in east-central California, 54 km south of Death Valley National Park headquarters at Furnace Creek Ranch. For the relatively small size of the area mapped (57 km2), an unusual variety of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic rocks is present. The outcrop distribution of these rocks largely resulted from movement on the east-west-striking, south-directed Butte Valley Thrust Fault of Jurassic age. The upper plate of the thrust fault comprises a basement of Paleoproterozoic schist and gneiss overlain by a thick sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks, the latter of which includes diamictite generally considered to be of glacial origin. The lower plate is composed of Devonian to Permian marine formations overlain by Jurassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous plutons intrude rocks of the area, and one pluton intrudes the Butte Valley Thrust Fault. Low-angle detachment faults of presumed Tertiary age underlie large masses of Neoproterozoic dolomite in parts of the area. Movement on these faults predated emplacement of middle Miocene volcanic rocks in deep, east-striking paleovalleys. Excellent exposures of all the rocks and structural features in the area result from sparse vegetation in the dry desert climate and from deep erosion along Warm Spring Canyon and its tributaries.

  11. Evolution of Brasiliano-age granitoid types in a shear-zone environment, Umarizal-Caraubas region, Rio Grande do Norte, northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, A. C.; Dall'Agnol, R.; McReath, I.; Lafon, J. M.; Teixeira, N.

    1995-01-01

    A sequence of Brasiliano-age granitoid types is exposed in a small area near the cities of Umarizal and Caraúbas in Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeast Brazil. Porphyritic K-alkali-calcic monzogranite is an important facies of the oldest Caraúbas intrusion (RbSr whole rock isochron age of ca. 630 Ma), which suffered solid-state deformation due to movements on a major NE-trending shear zone. The intrusion of the Prado and part of the Quixaba bodies was probably controlled by the shear zone. These two bodies include mafic/intermediate rocks, some of which contain two pyroxenes, and have hybrid, partly alkaline and partly shoshonitic geochemical characteristics. Rock types and ages are similar to those of some Pan-African occurrences in southwestern Nigeria. The Tourão body, intruded at ca. 590 Ma, presents preferred mineral orientations which are probably largely magmatic, since little evidence is found for widespread solid-state deformation. On the other hand, its intrusion may have been facilitated by the presence of the shear-zone faults. The rocks form a monomodal felsic K-alkali-calcic suite. With the exception of the Quixaba body, all these earlier granitoids are magmatic epidote- and magnetite-bearing porphyritic monzogranites with trace element geochemical characteristics of modern syn-collisional granites. The latest intrusion at ca. 545 Ma is mainly represented by potassic quartz syenites and related rocks, some of which contain fayalite or ferrohypersthene. These rocks possess neither well developed mineral orientations of magmatic origin nor signs of solid-state deformation. They are mineralogically similar to, but younger than some of the "bauchites" of central Nigeria. Geochemical signatures are comparable with those of modern within-plate granites. All granitoids present high ( 87Sr/ 86Sr)i ratios which range from 0.708 to 0.712, and increase with decreasing age. Such ratios are compatible with important or dominant crustal contributions. On the

  12. Grand antiprism and quaternions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Mehmet; Al Ajmi, Mudhahir; Koca, Nazife Ozdes [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, Al Khoud, 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)], E-mail: kocam@squ.edu.om, E-mail: mudhahir@squ.edu.om, E-mail: nazife@squ.edu.om

    2009-12-11

    Vertices of the four-dimensional (4D) semi-regular polytope, the grand antiprism and its symmetry group of order 400 are represented in terms of quaternions with unit norm. It follows from the icosian representation of the E{sub 8} root system which decomposes into two copies of the root system of H{sub 4}. The symmetry of the grand antiprism is a maximal subgroup of the Coxeter group W(H{sub 4}). It is the group Aut(H{sub 2} + H'{sub 2}) which is constructed in terms of 20 quaternionic roots of the Coxeter diagram H{sub 2} + H'{sub 2}. The root system of H{sub 4} represented by the binary icosahedral group I of order 120, constitutes the regular 4D polytope 600-cell. When its 20 quaternionic vertices corresponding to the roots of the diagram H{sub 2} + H'{sub 2} are removed from the vertices of the 600-cell the remaining 100 quaternions constitute the vertices of the grand antiprism. We give a detailed analysis of the construction of the cells of the grand antiprism in terms of quaternions. The dual polytope of the grand antiprism has also been constructed.

  13. Natural recharge estimation and uncertainty analysis of an adjudicated groundwater basin using a regional-scale flow and subsidence model (Antelope Valley, California, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater has provided 50–90 % of the total water supply in Antelope Valley, California (USA). The associated groundwater-level declines have led the Los Angeles County Superior Court of California to recently rule that the Antelope Valley groundwater basin is in overdraft, i.e., annual pumpage exceeds annual recharge. Natural recharge consists primarily of mountain-front recharge and is an important component of the total groundwater budget in Antelope Valley. Therefore, natural recharge plays a major role in the Court’s decision. The exact quantity and distribution of natural recharge is uncertain, with total estimates from previous studies ranging from 37 to 200 gigaliters per year (GL/year). In order to better understand the uncertainty associated with natural recharge and to provide a tool for groundwater management, a numerical model of groundwater flow and land subsidence was developed. The transient model was calibrated using PEST with water-level and subsidence data; prior information was incorporated through the use of Tikhonov regularization. The calibrated estimate of natural recharge was 36 GL/year, which is appreciably less than the value used by the court (74 GL/year). The effect of parameter uncertainty on the estimation of natural recharge was addressed using the Null-Space Monte Carlo method. A Pareto trade-off method was also used to portray the reasonableness of larger natural recharge rates. The reasonableness of the 74 GL/year value and the effect of uncertain pumpage rates were also evaluated. The uncertainty analyses indicate that the total natural recharge likely ranges between 34.5 and 54.3 GL/year.

  14. Natural recharge estimation and uncertainty analysis of an adjudicated groundwater basin using a regional-scale flow and subsidence model (Antelope Valley, California, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater has provided 50-90 % of the total water supply in Antelope Valley, California (USA). The associated groundwater-level declines have led the Los Angeles County Superior Court of California to recently rule that the Antelope Valley groundwater basin is in overdraft, i.e., annual pumpage exceeds annual recharge. Natural recharge consists primarily of mountain-front recharge and is an important component of the total groundwater budget in Antelope Valley. Therefore, natural recharge plays a major role in the Court's decision. The exact quantity and distribution of natural recharge is uncertain, with total estimates from previous studies ranging from 37 to 200 gigaliters per year (GL/year). In order to better understand the uncertainty associated with natural recharge and to provide a tool for groundwater management, a numerical model of groundwater flow and land subsidence was developed. The transient model was calibrated using PEST with water-level and subsidence data; prior information was incorporated through the use of Tikhonov regularization. The calibrated estimate of natural recharge was 36 GL/year, which is appreciably less than the value used by the court (74 GL/year). The effect of parameter uncertainty on the estimation of natural recharge was addressed using the Null-Space Monte Carlo method. A Pareto trade-off method was also used to portray the reasonableness of larger natural recharge rates. The reasonableness of the 74 GL/year value and the effect of uncertain pumpage rates were also evaluated. The uncertainty analyses indicate that the total natural recharge likely ranges between 34.5 and 54.3 GL/year.

  15. SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VÍRUS INFECTION IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Cezar Rebelatto

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a brief review on equine Infectious anemia added of the results of serological diagnosis of this infection performed at the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, between 1979 to 1990. A total of 7,035 serum samples were tested by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (Coggins test, to which 40 (0,57% reacted positively. This percentage of positivity is lower than in other regions of Brazil, probably due to the lack of predisposing factors for equine infectious anemia virus spread, such as, a low density of blood-sucking insects in the South of Brazil and the seldom use of massive therapies and vaccinations in the region.

  16. COMPREENDENDO A INTERAÇÃO SINÉRGICA REGIONAL: UMA TEORIA FUNDAMENTADA SOBRE A REGIÃO DO GRANDE ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Itomi Yamauchi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O Novo Regionalismo vem despertando interesse em escala mundial a partir da década de 1980. O conceito “consciência regional”, por sua vez, está sendo apresentado na literatura nacional e internacional como importante base para novos modelos de desenvolvimento. Assim, este estudo foi realizado com o propósito de contribuir para um melhor entendimento sobre o fenômeno da consciência regional, mediante a utilização dos procedimentos metodológicos preconizadas pela Grounded Theory. A pesquisa realizada teve como resultado a concepção de uma teoria substantiva que foi denominada COMPREENDENDO A INTERAÇÃO SINÉRGICA REGIONAL e as categorias que representam os processos sociais aparecem interligadas ao conceito central da teoria. Ao final, o estudo questiona a definição clássica de consciência regional, propondo uma ampliação do conceito, visto que seu uso em literatura toma uma relevância tal que as definições atuais não conseguem retratar.

  17. Environmental Assessment: Demolish CASS Switch Stations Buildings 644, 645, 646 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat , sunflowers, and durum wheat . Grand Forks...remaining land used for pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers...though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally unsatisfactory

  18. Environmental Assessment: Construct Airfield Lighting Vault and Demolish Building 531 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    beans, corn, barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat , sunflowers, and durum wheat . Grand...with remaining land used for pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley ...surface. Even though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally

  19. Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Ackerman, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

  20. Grand-Bassam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geo

    l'estuaire du fleuve Comoé (Grand-Bassam, Côte d'Ivoire). Kouassi Laurent ADOPO1*, Apie Colette AKOBE1, Etche Mireille AMANI2,. Sylvain MONDE3 et Kouamé AKA3. (1)Laboratoire de Géologie Marine, Sédimentologie et Environnement, Centre de Recherche en Ecologie,. Université Felix Houphouet Boigny Abidjan, ...

  1. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  2. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  3. Escalas de poder e gestão e a implementação de políticas de desenvolvimento regional no estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Paulo Cargnin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir como se comportam e interagem os atores envolvidos na implementação de políticas públicas destinadas à redução das desigualdades regionais nas diferentes escalas de poder e gestão, tomando como caso empírico algumas ações desenvolvidas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Para tanto, é destacada a atuação dos principais atores em diferentes políticas, sempre levando em consideração os referenciais teóricos que fundamentam as discussões sobre a questão regional no Brasil e também os documentos produzidos acerca dos pressupostos, resultados e repercussões territoriais dessas políticas. O esforço aqui realizado tem como propósito identificar como as escalas de poder e gestão, consideradas estratégicas para a compreensão das repercussões territoriais das políticas de desenvolvimento regional, influenciam o processo de construção e implementação dessas mesmas políticas.

  4. SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VÍRUS INFECTION IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelatto,Marlon Cezar; Oliveira,Clóvis de; Weiblen,Rudi; Silva,Saul Fontoura da; Oliveira,Luiz Sérgio Segala de

    1992-01-01

    This paper consists of a brief review on equine Infectious anemia added of the results of serological diagnosis of this infection performed at the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, between 1979 to 1990. A total of 7,035 serum samples were tested by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (Coggins test), to which 40 (0,57%) reacted positively. This percentage of positivity is lower than in other regions of Brazil, probably due to the lack of predisposing factors for equine infectious an...

  5. Políticas Públicas de Ciência e Tecnologia no Rio Grande do Sul como um Instrumento de Desenvolvimento Regional

    OpenAIRE

    de Lima, Mário Jaime Gomes; de Oliverira Nascimento, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    As Políticas Públicas de Desenvolvimento Regional, no contexto de Promoção e Valorização das Externalidades da Competitividade Empresarial, proposta por Figueiredo (2009), são organizadas a partir do conceito de impactos externos (externalidades) nos problemas regionais, em especial, no que diz respeito à inovação e tecnologia. Diante disto, o poder estatal, procurando solucionar os impactos dessas externalidades, deve elaborar Políticas Públicas de Ciência e Tecnologia, visando o desenvolvim...

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): North Hollywood/Burbank Well Field Area 1, San Fernando Valley Site, California (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-24

    The North Hollywood - Burbank Well Field (NHBWF) is located within the San Fernando Valley Ground Water basin, which can provide drinking water for approximately 500,000 people residing in the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles. In 1980 TCE and PCE were discovered in 25% of DWP's wells. In July 1981, DWP and the Southern California Association of Governments began a two-year study funded by EPA. The study revealed the occurrence of ground-water contamination plume patterns that are spreading toward the southeast. The primary contaminant of concern to the ground-water is TCE with PCE and other VOCs present. The selected remedial action for the site is ground-water pump and treatment using aeration and granular-activated-carbon - air-filtering units, with discharge to the DWP Pumping Station for chlorination and distribution. Spent carbon will be removed and replaced with fresh carbon, with the spent carbon scheduled either for disposal or regeneration. The estimated capital cost for this remedial action is $2,192,895 with present worth OandM of $2,284,105.

  7. Changes in forest land use and management in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 1990–2010, with a focus on the Danum Valley region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Glen; Payne, Junaidi; Sinun, Waidi; Mosigil, Gregory; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2011-01-01

    In an earlier special issue of this journal, Marsh & Greer summarized forest land use in Sabah at that time and gave an introduction to the Danum Valley Conservation Area. Since that assessment, during the period 1990–2010, the forests of Sabah and particularly those of the ca 10 000 km2 concession managed on behalf of the State by Yayasan Sabah (the Sabah Foundation) have been subject to continual, industrial harvesting, including the premature re-logging of extensive tracts of previously only once-logged forest and large-scale conversion of natural forests to agricultural plantations. Over the same period, however, significant areas of previously unprotected pristine forest have been formally gazetted as conservation areas, while much of the forest to the north, the south and the east of the Danum Valley Conservation Area (the Ulu Segama and Malua Forest Reserves) has been given added protection and new forest restoration initiatives have been launched. This paper analyses these forest-management and land-use changes in Sabah during the period 1990–2010, with a focus on the Yayasan Sabah Forest Management Area. Important new conservation and forest restoration and rehabilitation initiatives within its borders are given particular emphasis. PMID:22006960

  8. Changes in forest land use and management in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 1990-2010, with a focus on the Danum Valley region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Glen; Payne, Junaidi; Sinun, Waidi; Mosigil, Gregory; Walsh, Rory P D

    2011-11-27

    In an earlier special issue of this journal, Marsh & Greer summarized forest land use in Sabah at that time and gave an introduction to the Danum Valley Conservation Area. Since that assessment, during the period 1990-2010, the forests of Sabah and particularly those of the ca 10 000 km(2) concession managed on behalf of the State by Yayasan Sabah (the Sabah Foundation) have been subject to continual, industrial harvesting, including the premature re-logging of extensive tracts of previously only once-logged forest and large-scale conversion of natural forests to agricultural plantations. Over the same period, however, significant areas of previously unprotected pristine forest have been formally gazetted as conservation areas, while much of the forest to the north, the south and the east of the Danum Valley Conservation Area (the Ulu Segama and Malua Forest Reserves) has been given added protection and new forest restoration initiatives have been launched. This paper analyses these forest-management and land-use changes in Sabah during the period 1990-2010, with a focus on the Yayasan Sabah Forest Management Area. Important new conservation and forest restoration and rehabilitation initiatives within its borders are given particular emphasis.

  9. Epizootic activity of Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses in an aboriginal community in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia: results of mosquito fauna and virus isolation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Annette K; Lindsay, Michael D A; Wright, Anthony E; Smith, David W; Mackenzie, John S

    2003-09-01

    We undertook annual surveys of flavivirus activity in the community of Billiluna in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia between 1989 and 2001 [corrected]. Culex annulirostris was the dominant mosquito species, particularly in years of above average rains and flooding. Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus was isolated in 8 of the 13 years of the study from seven mosquito species, but more than 90% of the isolates were from Cx. annulirostris. The results suggest that MVE virus is epizootic in the region, w ith activity only apparent in years with average or above average rainfall and increased numbers of Cx. annulirostris. High levels of MVE virus activity and associated human cases were detected only once (in 1993) during the survey period. Activity of MVE virus could only be partially correlated with wet season rainfall and flooding, suggesting that a number of other factors must also be considered to accurately predict MVE virus activity at such communities.

  10. The great Santonian fire: implications for the regional geology and petroleum exploration; O grande incendio do Santoniano: consideracoes geologicas e exploratorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Mitsuru; Lana, Cecilia Cunha; Araujo, Carla Viviane; Menezes, Taissa Rego [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia], E-mail: arai@petrobras.com.br

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents the new idea of a great fire that occurred in the Santonian, in the region that corresponds nowadays to southeast Brazil. This conclusion derives from palynological analyses, which have often reported palynofacies with predominant carbonized terrestrial organic matter in the Santonian of Campos and Santos basins. The most curious aspect of the Santonian palynofacies from the basins of the Brazilian southeastern continental margin is the fact that well preserved palynomorphs coexist with carbonized terrestrial organic matter. In former times it was believed that this feature was due to a mixing of materials coming from different stratigraphic levels, since early observations were based on cutting samples. Recently, however, new data coming from core and sidewall samples confirm the presence of organic matter with different carbonization levels in a same stratum. In order to explain this intriguing palynofacies association, we present the hypothesis that most organic matter comprised by this stratigraphic level was affected by an extensive forest fire. The main evidence to support this assumption is the fact that marine palynomorphs (dinocysts) associated to the carbonized organic matter are never burned. Incendiary volcanic activities, accompanied by pyroclastic flows are suspected to be the main cause for the aforesaid fires in the studied area. (author)

  11. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and radiometric survey of radioactive pegmatites in the region of Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is the result of geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area, located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas in the region of the Serra da Borborema, is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called 'garimpos'. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of the ratio U/Th versus Nb 2 O 5 /Ta 2 O 5 provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. A test of the new method with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states Amapa and Rondonia also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) was carried out in several mines and pegmatites to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, host rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and environmental gamma radiation therefore generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  12. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  13. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model for use with a steady-state numerical ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, W.R.; Faunt, C.C.; D'Agnese, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Energy and other Federal, State, and local agencies, is evaluating the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The ground-water flow system covers and area of about 100,000 square kilometers from latitude 35 degrees to 38 degrees 15 minutes North to longitude 115 degrees to 118 degrees West, with the flow system proper comprising about 45,000 square kilometers. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is one of the larger flow systems within the Southwestern United States and includes in its boundaries the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and much of Death Valley. Part of this study includes the construction of a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model to serve as the foundation for the development of a steady-state regional ground-water flow model. The digital framework model provides a computer-based description of the geometry and composition of the hydro geologic units that control regional flow. The framework model of the region was constructed by merging two previous framework models constructed for the Yucca Mountain Project and the Environmental Restoration Program Underground Test Area studies at the Nevada Test Site. The hydrologic characteristics of the region result from a currently arid climate and complex geology. Interbasinal regional ground-water flow occurs through a thick carbonate-rock sequence of Paleozoic age, a locally thick volcanic-rock sequence of Tertiary age, and basin-fill alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Throughout the system, deep and shallow ground-water flow may be controlled by extensive and pervasive regional and local faults and fractures. The framework model was constructed using data from several sources to define the geometry of the regional hydrogeologic units. These data sources include (1) a 1:250,000-scale hydrogeologic-map compilation of the region; (2) regional-scale geologic cross

  14. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  15. Tectonic Setting of the Gravity Fault and Implications for Ground-Water Resources in the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C. C.; Jansen, J. R.; McPhee, D. K.; Morin, R. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Amargosa trough, extending south from Crater Flat basin to the California-Nevada state line, is believed to be a transtensional basin accommodated in part by strike-slip displacement on the northwest-striking State Line fault and normal displacement on the north-striking Gravity fault. The Gravity fault, lying along the eastern margin of the Amargosa trough, was first recognized in the 1970s on the basis of correlations between gravity anomalies and a prominent spring line in Amargosa Valley. The Gravity fault causes an inflection in water-table levels, similar to other (but not all) normal faults in the area. Pools along the spring line, some of which lie within Death Valley National Park and Ash Meadows Wildlife Refuge, include endemic species potentially threatened by increasing agricultural activities in Amargosa Valley immediately to the west, where water tables are declining. Most of the springs and pools lie east of the Gravity fault, however, and it is important to understand the role that the Gravity fault plays in controlling ground-water flow. We have conducted a variety of geophysical investigations at various scales to better understand the tectonic framework of the Amargosa Desert and support new ground-water-flow models. Much of our focus has been on the tectonic interplay of the State Line, Gravity, and other faults in the area using gravity, ground-magnetic, audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), and time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) surveys. With 1250 new gravity measurements from Ash Meadows and Stewart Valley, we have developed a revised three-dimensional crustal model of the Amargosa trough constrained by well information and geologic mapping. The model predicts approximately 2 km of vertical offset on the Gravity fault but also suggests a complex structural framework. The fault is conventionally seen as a simple, down-to-the-west normal fault juxtaposing permeable pre-Tertiary carbonate rocks to the east against less permeable Tertiary sediments to

  16. Asymptotically safe grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajc, Borut [J. Stefan Institute,1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sannino, Francesco [CP-Origins & the Danish IAS, University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Université de Lyon, France, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822 IPNL,F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2016-12-28

    Phenomenologically appealing supersymmetric grand unified theories have large gauge representations and thus are not asymptotically free. Their ultraviolet validity is limited by the appearance of a Landau pole well before the Planck scale. One could hope that these theories save themselves, before the inclusion of gravity, by generating an interacting ultraviolet fixed point, similar to the one recently discovered in non-supersymmetric gauge-Yukawa theories. Employing a-maximization, a-theorem, unitarity bounds, as well as positivity of other central charges we nonperturbatively rule out this possibility for a broad class of prime candidates of phenomenologically relevant supersymmetric grand unified theories. We also uncover candidates passing these tests, which have either exotic matter or contain one field decoupled from the superpotential. The latter class of theories contains a model with the minimal matter content required by phenomenology.

  17. 0D-modelling of carbonaceous aerosols; L'aerosol de combustion dans une region en grande mutation, l'Asie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Ch.

    2005-06-15

    One of the main uncertainties in the estimate of the climatic impact of aerosols is linked to our knowledge of gases and aerosols emissions. This is particularly crucial over Asia, where a strong regional fingerprint is observed, with different emission types, depending on the various vegetation and climate conditions (biomass burning emissions) and on the very fast changes of the population and industrialization (biofuel and fossil fuel emissions). The main goal of this work was first to derive a biomass burning inventory for gases and particles over Asia for the 2001 ACE-Asia (Aerosol Characterization Experiment) and TRACE-P (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) campaigns (March to May 2001). I implemented a methodology that is the most adapted to my study, and based on the burnt area cartography (GBA-2000 project (Global Burnt Area 2000) [Tansey et al., 2005]). The results of this study, ABBI (Asian Biomass Burning Inventory) [Michel et al., 2005] have been compared with another biomass burning emission inventory (ACESS: ACE-Asia and TRACE-P Modelling and Emission Support System) [Streets et al., 2003], built from fire counts and not from burnt areas. This comparison shows the limits of the use of fire counts in the emission inventory maps and underlines the importance and the relevance of the method used in my study. A comparison with the year 2000 emission inventory, obtained with the same method, underlines the importance of the inter-annual variations. The ABBI inventory has been introduced in the Meso-NH-C mesoscale model combined with an aerosol module: ORISAM (ORganic and Inorganic Spectral Aerosol Module) Bessagnet, 2000]. I have focused in particular on the impact of the burnt vegetation emissions over the asian continent. Comparisons between simulated and ground and airborne measured data showed satisfactory results in some cases, but showed also some limits. Sensitivity tests have been carried out firstly to test the impact of fire

  18. LA GRANDE DESCENTE

    CERN Multimedia

    The first endcap disc of CMS being lowered slowly and carefully 100 m underground into the experimental cavern. The disc is one of 15 large pieces to make the grand descent.  The uniquely shaped slice, 16 m high, about 50 cm thick weighs 400 tonnes. The two HF that were lowered earlier in November can also be seen in the foreground and background.  

  19. [Necessities of professionals of the family health teams from the "4a Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul" for training and improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Evanir Vicente; Schimith, Maria Denise; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos

    2010-08-01

    This study had the aim to verify the necessities of training and improvement of the 4th Regional Coordination in Health of Rio Grande do Sul State family health teams. The data collection was carried out through the application of questionnaires with objective questions, composed by two parts: field and competence nucleus. For data analyses, Normality, Chi-Square and G tests were used as statistical procedures for Easy and Difficult attributions indicated by the professionals. Professionals have shown less difficulty with generic attributions, related with basic methods and techniques of each health area. However, they have revealed a lot of difficulties with attributions relating to the search of new partners in health inside communities, stimulation of the people participation in the discussion of health rights, and completion of the SIA/SIAB forms, and others. Even after 12 years of the foundation of the Family Health Program (PSF), several difficulties are still observed concerning the way to work with this new health strategy in Brazil. Proposals are made for the complete understanding and improvement of the PSF strategy.

  20. Albuquerque/Middle Rio Grande Urban Waters Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data have been compiled in support of the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Partnership for the region including Albuquerque, New Mexico.The Middle...

  1. Modelagem de atributos físico-hídricos do solo numa bacia hidrográfica da região do Alto Rio Grande, MG Physical-hydric soil attribute modeling in a watershed in the region of alto Rio Grande, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2007-10-01

    different attributes with each other and the coefficients of variables estimated by the Least-Squares Estimation, using the software SAS. The models for CTA and PD presented good statistical qualities, with high coefficients of determination, low estimate error and, statistical significance of estimated parameters. These results suggest that these models might be used for projects in the Ribeirão Marcela watershed, which is representative of the Oxisols domain in the Alto Rio Grande region. They further provide region-specific technical information for agricultural and environmental projects and above all, for the parameterization of the hydrosedimentological simulation models in development.

  2. Hydraulic modeling analysis of the Middle Rio Grande - Escondida Reach, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda K. Larsen

    2007-01-01

    Human influence on the Middle Rio Grande has resulted in major changes throughout the Middle Rio Grande region in central New Mexico, including problems with erosion and sedimentation. Hydraulic modeling analyses have been performed on the Middle Rio Grande to determine changes in channel morphology and other important parameters. Important changes occurring in the...

  3. Climatology of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro, Bigi; Ghermandi, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a dataset of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and backgr...

  4. Willamette Valley Ecoregion: Chapter 3 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sorenson, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The Willamette Valley Ecoregion (as defined by Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) covers approximately 14,458 km² (5,582 mi2), making it one of the smallest ecoregions in the conterminous United States. The long, alluvial Willamette Valley, which stretches north to south more than 193 km and ranges from 32 to 64 km wide, is nestled between the sedimentary and metamorphic Coast Ranges (Coast Range Ecoregion) to the west and the basaltic Cascade Range (Cascades Ecoregion) to the east (fig. 1). The Lewis and Columbia Rivers converge at the ecoregion’s northern boundary in Washington state; however, the majority of the ecoregion falls within northwestern Oregon. Interstate 5 runs the length of the valley to its southern boundary with the Klamath Mountains Ecoregion. Topography here is relatively flat, with elevations ranging from sea level to 122 m. This even terrain, coupled with mild, wet winters, warm, dry summers, and nutrient-rich soil, makes the Willamette Valley the most important agricultural region in Oregon. Population centers are concentrated along the valley floor. According to estimates from the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (2006), over 2.3 million people lived in Willamette Valley in 2000. Portland, Oregon, is the largest city, with 529,121 residents (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Other sizable cities include Eugene, Oregon; Salem (Oregon’s state capital); and Vancouver, Washington. Despite the large urban areas dotting the length of the Willamette Valley Ecoregion, agriculture and forestry products are its economic foundation (figs. 2,3). The valley is a major producer of grass seed, ornamental plants, fruits, nuts, vegetables, and grains, as well as poultry, beef, and dairy products. The forestry and logging industries also are primary employers of the valley’s rural residents (Rooney, 2008). These activities have affected the watershed significantly, with forestry and agricultural runoff contributing to river

  5. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  6. First records of the Brown Creeper breeding along the middle Rio Grande in central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; David L. Hawksworth; Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    In New Mexico, the Brown Creeper (Certhia americana) typically breeds in montane coniferous forests ranging in elevation from 2100 to 3300 m (Ligon 1961, Hubbard 1978). Since 2003, however, we have also noted breeding in the riparian cottonwood forest (hereafter bosque) along the middle Rio Grande, in the south valley of Albuquerque, Bernalillo...

  7. The Maltrata valley in the inter regional trade nets of the obsidian in Meso america: origin by neutron activation; El valle de Maltrata en las redes de intercambio interregional de la obsidiana en Mesoamerica: procedencia por activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina V, R. O.

    2011-07-01

    The study of the obsidian in Mexico has included different research lines, as they are: the study of the elaboration techniques of several things, forms, dating: deposits localization and extraction of the raw material; study about the physical and mineralogical characteristics, and those focused to the trade routes of several things; which is developed in this thesis. The topic developed in this research is to propose the possible communication routes in which the obsidian of the Maltrata valley has participated among the Gulf coast and of the Altiplano 12 central. With the characterization study of the obsidian is possible to know the origin of this and also the relationship with other societies, because the exploitation of raw materials of mineral origin was an activity of great economic and politics importance in the pre hispanic societies. When the origin is determined is possible to relate the supplier, with the distributor and consumer and this way to trace on a map the movement routes that people settled down and for those that the obsidian circulated. To define the origin of the Maltrata obsidian was used the analysis technique by neutron activation, which allowed knowing the origin place of the raw material. This work is organized in five chapters. In the first chapter the theoretical and methodological bases are developed to define the research. A revision is made to the antecedents on trade and origin in the center and south of Veracruz. In the second chapter a general panorama of the geographical and geologic environment of the region is described, with the purpose of to delineate the own characteristics of the valley and to distinguish it of the diverse areas and regions of the coast of the Gulf. In the chapter third, the data of the material context and the places of where they took the representative samples are provided; equally the methodology carried out for its selection, classification and registration is presented. For the fourth chapter is

  8. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  9. Avaliação e espacialização da erosividade da chuva no Vale do Rio Doce, região centro-leste do Estado de Minas Gerais Evaluation and spatialization of rainfall erosivity in the Rio Doce Valley, central-eastern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um fator muito atuante no processo erosivo e considerado de grande importância é o fator R, denominado erosividade da chuva. Esse fator é um dos componentes da equação universal de perdas de solo. Estudos de variabilidade espacial têm sido realizados almejando definir a distribuição espacial do fator R para determinada região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho calcular a erosividade da chuva (fator R - EI30 e gerar os mapas de espacialização desta. O estudo foi realizado em áreas experimentais de plantios de eucalipto localizadas em nove municípios, no Vale do Rio Doce, região centro-leste do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram utilizados dados pluviográficos referentes ao período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2008. A espacialização da erosividade foi feita com base nos princípios da geoestatística, e a interpolação dos dados, por meio da krigagem. Os índices de erosividade anual variaram de 7.970 a 18.646 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1. O alcance para o índice de erosividade mensal variou de 10 a 177 km, e o anual foi de cerca de 52 km.A very active and influential parameter in the erosive process is the R factor, called rainfall erosivity. This factor is one of the components of the universal soil loss equation. Studies in spatial variability have been conducted in an attempt to define the spatial distribution of the R factor for a given region. This study aimed to calculate the rainfall erosivity (R factor - EI30 to generate spatial maps. The study was conducted in experimental areas of eucalyptus stands in nine counties of the Rio Doce Valley, Central-Eastern region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Rainfall data from January 2005 to December 2008 were used. Erosivity was spatialized according to geostatistical principles and data interpolation using kriging. The annual rainfall erosivity indexes ranged from 7,970 to 18,646 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1 . The reaching distance of the monthly erosivity index varied from 10 to 177 km, and was 52

  10. Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callender, J.F.

    1985-04-01

    A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  12. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  13. The genetic tale of a recovering lion population (Panthera leo in the Savé Valley region (Zimbabwe: A better understanding of the history and managing the future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tensen

    Full Text Available The rapid decline of the African lion (Panthera leo has raised conservation concerns. In the Savé Valley Conservancy (SVC, in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe, lions were presumably reduced to approximately 5 to 10 individuals. After ten lions were reintroduced in 2005, the population has recovered to over 200 lions in 2016. Although the increase of lions in the SVC seems promising, a question remains whether the population is genetically viable, considering their small founding population. In this study, we document the genetic diversity in the SVC lion population using both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and compare our results to literature from other lion populations across Africa. We also tested whether genetic diversity is spatially structured between lion populations residing on several reserves in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe. A total of 42 lions were genotyped successfully for 11 microsatellite loci. We confirmed that the loss of allelic richness (probably resulting from genetic drift and small number of founders has resulted in low genetic diversity and inbreeding. The SVC lion population was also found to be genetically differentiated from surrounding population, as a result of genetic drift and restricted natural dispersal due to anthropogenic barriers. From a conservation perspective, it is important to avoid further loss of genetic variability in the SVC lion population and maintain evolutionary potential required for future survival. Genetic restoration through the introduction of unrelated individuals is recommended, as this will increase genetic heterozygosity and improve survival and reproductive fitness in populations.

  14. The genetic tale of a recovering lion population (Panthera leo) in the Savé Valley region (Zimbabwe): A better understanding of the history and managing the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tensen, Laura; Groom, Rosemary J; Khuzwayo, Joy; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2018-01-01

    The rapid decline of the African lion (Panthera leo) has raised conservation concerns. In the Savé Valley Conservancy (SVC), in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe, lions were presumably reduced to approximately 5 to 10 individuals. After ten lions were reintroduced in 2005, the population has recovered to over 200 lions in 2016. Although the increase of lions in the SVC seems promising, a question remains whether the population is genetically viable, considering their small founding population. In this study, we document the genetic diversity in the SVC lion population using both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and compare our results to literature from other lion populations across Africa. We also tested whether genetic diversity is spatially structured between lion populations residing on several reserves in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe. A total of 42 lions were genotyped successfully for 11 microsatellite loci. We confirmed that the loss of allelic richness (probably resulting from genetic drift and small number of founders) has resulted in low genetic diversity and inbreeding. The SVC lion population was also found to be genetically differentiated from surrounding population, as a result of genetic drift and restricted natural dispersal due to anthropogenic barriers. From a conservation perspective, it is important to avoid further loss of genetic variability in the SVC lion population and maintain evolutionary potential required for future survival. Genetic restoration through the introduction of unrelated individuals is recommended, as this will increase genetic heterozygosity and improve survival and reproductive fitness in populations.

  15. The genetic tale of a recovering lion population (Panthera leo) in the Savé Valley region (Zimbabwe): A better understanding of the history and managing the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Rosemary J.; Khuzwayo, Joy; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2018-01-01

    The rapid decline of the African lion (Panthera leo) has raised conservation concerns. In the Savé Valley Conservancy (SVC), in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe, lions were presumably reduced to approximately 5 to 10 individuals. After ten lions were reintroduced in 2005, the population has recovered to over 200 lions in 2016. Although the increase of lions in the SVC seems promising, a question remains whether the population is genetically viable, considering their small founding population. In this study, we document the genetic diversity in the SVC lion population using both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and compare our results to literature from other lion populations across Africa. We also tested whether genetic diversity is spatially structured between lion populations residing on several reserves in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe. A total of 42 lions were genotyped successfully for 11 microsatellite loci. We confirmed that the loss of allelic richness (probably resulting from genetic drift and small number of founders) has resulted in low genetic diversity and inbreeding. The SVC lion population was also found to be genetically differentiated from surrounding population, as a result of genetic drift and restricted natural dispersal due to anthropogenic barriers. From a conservation perspective, it is important to avoid further loss of genetic variability in the SVC lion population and maintain evolutionary potential required for future survival. Genetic restoration through the introduction of unrelated individuals is recommended, as this will increase genetic heterozygosity and improve survival and reproductive fitness in populations. PMID:29415031

  16. Fatores epidemiológicos do dengue na região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 2007 - 2010 Epidemiological features of dengue in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, from 2007 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar fatores epidemiológicos do dengue, nos municípios da 4ª Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde/RS (4a CRS/RS, nos anos de 2007 a 2010. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, empregando como variáveis: município de notificação; ano de notificação; sexo e faixa etária do paciente; índice de infestação predial (IIP e índice de Breteau (IB. Foram constatados 13 casos importados da doença, em cinco municípios, sendo a maior ocorrência em Santa Maria. Houve notificação de casos em ambos os sexos e em diferentes faixas etárias. Focos positivos do Aedes aegypti foram encontrados em armadilhas instaladas em pontos estratégicos de Santa Maria e Santiago. O IIP e IB, em ambos os municípios, não representaram risco à saúde pública. Conclui-se, portanto, que as ações de vigilância em saúde devem ser fomentadas com o objetivo de orientar as práticas de controle do vetor, bem como promover a educação sanitária e ambiental, a fim de impedir a instalação de casos autóctones nos municípios estudados.The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological issues of dengue in the counties of the 4th Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde (government agency to surveillance on public health of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, during 2007 to 2010. This is a descriptive study, using as variables: cities where dengue was reported; year; sex and age of the patient; infestation (IIP and Breteau (BI index. A total of 13 imported cases of the dengue was reported in five cities and higher occurrence was in Santa Maria city. There were notifications of dengue in both sex and in different age groups. Positive foci of Aedes aegypti were found in the traps at strategic points in both cities, Santa Maria and Santiago. BII and BI varied during the studied period in both cities, and, so far, they did not constitute a risk to public health. We conclude that the health surveillance should be enhanced with the purpose of

  17. Soroprevalência da infecção pelo vírus da artrite-encefalite caprina (caev no rebanho de caprinos leiteiros da região da Grande Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil Seroprevalence of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis vírus infection in dairy goats in the region of "Grande Fortaleza", Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Mendes Melo

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma pesquisa sorológica, com base no teste de imunodifusão em ágar gel (AGID com antígeno (p28 do vírus Maedi/Visna, para estimar a soroprevalência da infecção pelo vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina (CAEV na população de caprinos leiteiros da região da Grande Fortaleza, Ceará. O estudo abrangeu um total de oito criatórios. dos quais cinco praticam o manejo intensivo e três o manejo semi-intensivo. A população estudada é composta, por animais puros de raças exóticas como a Saanen, Parda Alpina, Anglonubiana e Toggenburg, por animais Meio Sangue e alguns sem raça definida (SRD. Foi realizado exame clinico e coleta de amostra de soro em 248 caprinos, bem como a aplicação de questinonário epidemiológico. A análise dos dados revelou uma soroprevalência de 40,73% (101/248. As amostras soropositivas foram todas provenientes das propriedades com manejo intensivo (5/8. A distribuição da soroprevalência em cada um destes criatórios foi 61% (54/89, 74,28% (26/35, 61,11% (11/18, 11,36% (5/44 e 75% (6/8. Diferença significativa (P0,05 quanto aos falares idade e sexo dos animais estudados.A serologic survey was performed using a agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID with the Maedi/Visna virus antigen (p28 to estimate the seroprevalence of the caprine arthritisencephalitis virus infection (CAEV in a dairy goat population in the region of "Grande Fortaleza", in the state of Ceará, Brazil. In this study a total of eight flocks were examined, five included intensive and three semi-intensive managements. The population studied consisted of three groups: pure-bred animais of exotic races such as Saanen, Alpine Parda, Anglonubian and Toggenburg: crossbreeds and animais of undefined breed. Serum samples were colleted from 248 goats, clinicai analysis were performed, andan epidemiologic survey was applied. Analysis of the results showed a seroprevalence of 40.73% (101/248. All seropositive samples carne from the flocks

  18. Moléstias em tomateiro cultivado em estufas plásticas em quatro municípios da região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Diseases on tomato cultivated in plastic greenhouses in four locations in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Blume

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Moléstias podem atacar severamente hortaliças cultivadas em cultivos protegidos e, para o manejo integrado dessas moléstias, o conhecimento das condições climáticas que favorecem sua incidência nesses cultivos é fundamental. O trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar as moléstias em tomateiro cultivado em estufas plásticas em quatro municípios na região central do Rio Grande do Sul e as condições de temperatura e umidade relativa (UR do ar nas quais elas ocorrem. O estudo foi realizado nos municípios de São Pedro do Sul, São Sepé, Ivorá e Santa Maria (RS, no período de março a outubro de 1998. A temperatura e umidade relativa do ar foram medidas diariamente com um psicrômetro. As moléstias observadas e sua incidência máxima foram: requeima (Phytophthora infestans: 100,0%, pinta-preta (Alternaria solani: 98,1%, mofo cinzento (Botrytis cinerea: 55,4%, cladosporiose (Cladosporuim fulvum: 48,9%, septoriose (Septoria lycopersici: 37,5%, talo-oco (Erwinia spp.: 33,0%, murcha de fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: 8,4% e podridão de esclerotínia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: 1,3%. Valores de UR superiores a 80%, de maneira geral, aumentaram a incidência das moléstias, em sua maioria de origem fúngica. A incidência de moléstias varia entre municípios de uma mesma região climática de acordo com os fatores meteorológicos e práticas de manejo da cultura.Fungal and bacterial diseases can severely damage vegetables cultivated in commercial greenhouses and, for integrated disease management, knowing the environmental conditions that favor the occurrence of diseases is fundamental. The objective of this work was to identify the diseases in tomato cultivated in plastic greenhouses in four locations in Rio Grande do Sul and the temperature and relative humidity favoring plant diseases. This study was done in four greenhouses, cropped to tomato, located in São Pedro do Sul, São Sepé, Ivorá, and Santa Maria (RS

  19. Avaliação agronômica de linhagens de aveia-branca em duas regiões fisiográficas do Rio Grande do Sul Agronomic evaluation of white oats strains in two geographical regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Tafernaberri Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se neste estudo uma avaliação inicial em diversas linhagens de aveia-branca (Avena sativa, L., com o intuito de verificar o desempenho agronômico e identificar os genótipos promissores para o lançamento de cultivares para produção de forragem. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em duas regiões fisiográficas do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Depressão Central e Campanha Gaúcha, nos anos de 2008 e 2009. Foram implementados em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída por uma linha de 2 m de comprimento, espaçadas a 40 cm entre si, considerando parcela útil o metro linear central, cortadas a uma altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas 21 linhagens de aveia-branca mais a testemunha (IPR126. No primeiro ano, também foram avaliadas duas linhagens de triticale, as quais apresentaram baixo potencial forrageiro e foram excluídas dos experimentos no segundo ano. Na avaliação do potencial produtivo das linhagens de aveia-branca, não houve diferenças ocasionadas pela interação dos fatores local, ano e linhagem. No primeiro ano, os valores médios de produção na Depressão Central e Campanha Gaúcha foram de 82,3 e 76,3 g por metro linear de matéria seca total, respectivamente. Na avaliação do segundo ano, as médias de produção para esta espécie na Depressão Central e na Campanha Gaúcha foram, respectivamente, 80,0 e 119,8 g m-1 de matéria seca total. As linhagens de aveia-branca, em sua maioria, apresentam bons resultados e são promissoras para o programa de melhoramento genético dessa espécie.The objective of this study was to proceed with an initial evaluation of various strains of white oats (Avena sativa, L., with the objective of characterizing the genetic diversity and the agronomic performance, identifying the promising genotypes for the release of cultivars, with the purpose of forage production. The experiments were conducted in two geographical regions of the State of Rio Grande do

  20. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Zanella

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis espécies mais abundantes: anurófagas (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 e Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodentívoras (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; moluscófagas (n = 1: Tomodon dorsatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 e generalistas (n = 2: Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825 e Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858. Dos fatores abióticos analisados, a abundância de serpentes foi mais relacionada à temperatura máxima (R² = 0,66 e não apresentou relação significativa com a pluviosidade. A abundância de anfíbios apresentou relação positiva com a pluviosidade (R² = 0,54 e não foi significativa com a temperatura mínima. A abundância de serpentes não foi correlacionada com a abundância de anfíbios e roedores.The influence of abiotic factors on the availability of prey and on the diet of the most abundant snake species in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul was studied in two areas: forest and field. Snakes captured using time-constrained search, occasional encounters and pitfall traps and snakes deposited in the reptile collection of the University of Passo Fundo were studied. The feeding guilds of the six most abundant species were recorded: anurophagous (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 and Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodent-eating (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; molluscophagous (n = 1: Tomodon

  1. Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Alcides-Rezende

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyse the integration of information systems and information technology resources in the municipal planning of 14 small cities of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil. The research methodology consisted of a multiple case study together with a convenient non-probabilistic sample chosen through a research protocol. The results demonstrate the difficulties of these cities to organise the municipal data as well as their struggle for accessibility of information and planning for management and control.

  2. Polychromatic Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, Gustavo Castello; Felipe, R G; Nobre, B M

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of achieving a gauge coupling grand unification by increasing the QCD degrees of freedom at higher energies is investigated. When confronted with precision low-energy data, the generic weak-mixing angle relation sin^2(theta_W) = N/2(N+1) requires N=7 colors at the GUT scale M_U ~ 10^17 GeV. With the exclusive addition of light Higgs doublets to the standard model particle content, such a unification may also occur if N=5 at M_U ~ 10^16 GeV.

  3. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  4. Geodiversity and Geoheritage of the Sesia-Val Grande Unesco Geopark (NW-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Palomba, Mauro; Selvaggio, Ilaria; Ghiraldi, Luca; Giordano, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    The Sesia-Valgrande Geopark has been founded in September 2013. It is located in the northern sector of Piemonte region covering an area of almost 214000 hectares. In the northern side the Geopark includes the entire territory of the Val Grande National Park, a small portion of the Ossola Valley and the Cannobina valley, while in the south covers most of the mountain range of the Sesia Valley and portions of neighbouring territories such as Valsessera, Prealpi Biellesi, Val Strona and Alte Colline Novaresi. The present morphology of the whole area is characterized by landforms shaped by different geomorphological processes: glacial, hydrological, gravitational and in the south parts also by karstic phenomena. From the geological point of view the Sesia-Val Grande Geopark "rides" the Canavese segment of the Insubric Line, a major tectonic boundary of the Alps. North- and Westward of the Insubric Line, the Austro-Alpine domain consists of piles of nappes, which were assembled and affected by a polymetamorphic event during the Alpine orogeny. South- and Eastward of the Insubric Line, South-Alpine Rock units were not affected by this metamorphic event: they preserve an older history, despite experiencing substantial Alpine tectonic deformation. These are the original rocks of the northern margin of the Adriatic plate, an exceptional record of metamorphic and igneous events preserved with a virtually intact section of the pre-Alpine crust. Beyond geological heritage this territory is one of the most appealing natural environments of the Western Alps, including several different protected areas, important Walser settlement (13th century) and Palaeolithic human traces in the Monte Fenera caves, religious and artistic attraction dominated by the Ghiffa and Varallo Sacred Mount and eventually sport activities such as rafting, hiking, mountaineering and climbing. In order to promote cultural and geological heritage of the area, several scientific institution have been

  5. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  6. Overview of renewable energies in Lorraine - Assessment: Year 2013. Situation note on renewable energies in Lorraine - Assessment: first half 2014, 2nd half 2014. Overview of renewable energies in the Grand East region - Assessment year 2015-release 2016. Overview of renewable and recovery energies in the Grand East region - Assessment year 2016-release 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    A first document proposes an overview of the development of renewable energies in Lorraine with respect to regional as well as European and national objectives defined for each renewable energy type. Annual data for 2013 are herein presented. Graphs indicate values for the share of renewable energies, the energy mix in Lorraine, locations, evolutions and levels of production for the different renewable sources (wind, photovoltaic, hydroelectricity, methanization, wood energy, geothermal and heat pumps, solar thermal, waste valorisation, bio-fuels). The second and third documents propose assessments and comments of situations and evolutions of productions and development (actions, regulatory and legal context, projects) for the different sources, an assessment of the implementation progress of the regional scheme of connection of renewable energies. Annual publications are then proposed which give the same kind of assessments, and comparisons with other French regions

  7. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    . Other lands include about 13 sections of Arizona State land, about ? of a section of private land along House Rock Wash, and about 1? sections of private land at Cliff Dwellers Lodge, Vermilion Cliffs Lodge, and Marble Canyon, Arizona. Landmark features within the map area include the Vermilion Cliffs, Paria Plateau, Marble Canyon, and House Rock Valley. Surface drainage in House Rock Valley is to the east toward the Colorado River in Marble Canyon. Large tributaries of Marble Canyon from north to south include Badger Canyon, Soap Creek, Rider Canyon, North Canyon, Bedrock Canyon, and South Canyon. Elevations range from about 2,875 ft (876 m) at the Colorado River in the southeast corner of the map to approximately 7,355 ft (2,224 m) on the east rim of Paria Plateau along the north-central edge of the map area. Three small settlements are in the map area along U.S. Highway 89A, Cliff Dwellers Lodge, Vermilion Cliffs Lodge, and Marble Canyon, Arizona. The community of Jacob Lake is about 9 mi (14.5 km) west of House Rock Valley on the Kaibab Plateau. Lees Ferry is 5 mi (8 km) north of Marble Canyon and marks the confluence of the Paria and Colorado Rivers and the beginning of Marble Canyon. U.S. Highway 89A provides access to the northern part of the map area. Dirt roads lead south into House Rock Valley from U.S. Highway 89A and are collectively maintained by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. National Forest Service, and the Grand Canyon Trust. House Rock Valley is one of the few remaining areas where uniform geologic mapping is needed for connectivity to the regional Grand Canyon geologic framework. This information is useful to Federal and State resource managers who direct environmental and land management programs that encompass such issues as range management, biological studies, flood control, water, and mineral-resource investigations. The geologic information will support future and ongoing geologic investigations and scientific studies

  8. Ligeti, Le Grand Macabre (1978)

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Le Grand Macabre, de Györgi Ligeti, uma obra que, em plenos anos setenta, retoma e reinventa a grande tradição da ópera de repertório. Escrita para a Ópera de Estocolmo, estreada em Abril de 1978, Le Grand Macabre é uma das obras mais marcantes e uma das mais consagradas, internacionalmente, no plano da música dramática da segunda metade do século XX. Escrita a partir de uma peça do dramaturgo belga Michel de Ghelderode, “A Balada do Grande Macabro”, de 1934, a obra de Ligeti retoma um...

  9. Alterações bioquímicas e toxicológicas de agricultores familiares da região do Alto Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul = Biochemical and toxicological changes among family farmers from the Alto Jacui region, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori, Natacha Cossettin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Avaliar possíveis alterações de marcadores bioquímicos e toxicológicos oriundas da exposição aos agroquímicos em trabalhadores rurais da região do Conselho Regional de Desenvolvimento Alto Jacuí, no Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos: Foram incluídos agricultores que tinham contato com pesticidas há mais de cinco anos e um grupo de indivíduos saudáveis, não expostos a agrotóxicos, recrutados na comunidade. Os agricultores foram submetidos a provas de função hepática e renal e atividade da enzima butirilcolinesterase. Foram ainda determinados os níveis de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, proteínas carboniladas (PCs e glutationa reduzida (GSH, sendo os resultados destes parâmetros de estresse oxidativo comparados entre o grupo de agricultores expostos aos agrotóxicos e o grupo controle. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 106 agricultores com exposição a pesticidas e 103 indivíduos saudáveis, sem contato com agrotóxicos. Os valores obtidos para os parâmetros hepáticos e renais avaliados encontravam-se normais, enquanto a atividade da butirilcolinesterase estava diminuída. Os níveis plasmáticos dos parâmetros de estresse oxidativo dos agricultores estavam aumentados em relação ao grupo controle: TBARS 9,51 vs. 6,719 nmol MDA/mL (p=0,0422; PCs 11,78 vs. 9,23 nmol carbonil/mg proteína (p=0,0337; GSH 0,7180 vs. 0,3649 µmol GSH/mL (p<0,0001. Verificou-se que 51,62% dos agricultores utilizavam equipamentos de proteção individual, 8,06 % faziam uso eventual e 40,32 % não faziam uso de nenhum tipo de proteção. Conclusões: Os trabalhadores rurais avaliados apresentaram alterações que indicam estresse oxidativo, evidenciando a importância do monitoramento das condições de saúde dos mesmos, bem como do incentivo à utilização de equipamentos de proteção individual

  10. Características ergonômicas dos tratores agrícolas utilizados na região central do Rio Grande do Sul Ergonomic characteristics of agricultural tractors used in central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Debiasi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de tratores agrícolas com boas condições ergonômicas reduz a probabilidade de ocorrência de acidentes e doenças ocupacionais, aumentando a eficiência dos trabalhadores. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar a presença de itens relacionados à ergonomia de tratores agrícolas usados, bem como avaliar o comportamento destas características em função do tempo de uso das referidas máquinas. Foram analisados 175 tratores agrícolas pertencentes às microrregiões gaúchas de Santa Maria, Restinga Seca e Cachoeira do Sul, presentes em 114 propriedades aleatoriamente amostradas. Os resultados mostraram que apenas 3% dos espécimes avaliados eram equipados com cabina, sendo que a maior parte dos mesmos não apresentava isolamento do calor gerado pelo motor e transmissão. Com relação à ergonomia dos comandos, mais de 70% dos tratores tinham alavancas de câmbio centrais, enquanto que apenas 8% eram equipados com volante de direção regulável. Da mesma forma, mais de 20% dos exemplares amostrados possuíam bancos sem estofamento. Além disso, a presença dos itens avaliados foi menor para os tratores mais antigos.It is possible to reduce the probability of work accidents, diseases occurrence and increase the work efficiency using agricultural tractors with good ergonomic conditions. The objective of this research was to verify the presence of ergonomic items in used agricultural tractors and also to evaluate the influence of tractor age in these characteristics. 175 agricultural tractors belonging to 3 regions of Rio Grande do Sul State (Santa Maria, Restinga Seca and Cachoeira do Sul, Brazil, present in 114 farms randomly sampled, were evaluated. The results showed that only 3% of sampled specimens were equipped with a cab, and most part of the tractors did not have protection against the heat produced by tractor transmission and engine. With regard to ergonomics of commands, more than 70% of the tractors had gear levers

  11. Estimation of the regional evapotranspiration through remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, L.; Rivas, R.; Wohl Coelho, O.; Schirmbeck, J.; Valor, E.

    2004-01-01

    This proposal deals with a new methodology capable of estimating variations in time and space of the evapotranspiration rate, which is one of the main processes controlling recharge to the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). Such a methodology is being applied to the dos Sinos River Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, which is in a region where groundwater from the GAS is heavily used for industrial and urban purposes. The investigations are being carried out by researchers of the Flat Plains Hydrology Institute (National University of the Center Buenos Aires Province, Azul, Argentina) and the Center of Exact and Technological Sciences (University of dos Simos River Valley, UNISINOS, Sao Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) [es

  12. La Grande Muraille Verte

    OpenAIRE

    Achouak, Wafa; Adjonou, Kossi; Albergel, Jean; Bâ, Amadou; Bâ, Amadou M.; Bally, René; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Bellefontaine, Ronald; Billaz, René; Boetsch, Gilles; Bonnet, Bernard; Broutin, Cécile; Castellanet, Christian; Delville, Philippe Lavigne; Descroix, Luc

    2013-01-01

    La désertification est un phénomène mondial qui affecte près de la moitié de la surface de la planète, notamment en Afrique où 43 % des terres se trouvent dans des zones arides ou semi-arides. La lutte contre la désertification dans ces milieux constitue une des priorités majeures des États sahélo-sahariens du Circum-Sahara. L’ « Initiative africaine Grande Muraille Verte » (IAGMV) répond à ces enjeux via un ensemble d’actions destinées à assurer le développement socio-économique régional. El...

  13. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-06

    crops include sugar beets, beans, corn, barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat ...crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar beets. Turtle River State Park, developed as a recreation area in Grand Forks County...below the surface. Even though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and

  14. Effective Clusters as Territorial Performance Engines in a Regional Development Strategy - A Triple-Layer DEA Assessment of the Aviation Valley in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Kourtit

    2017-08-01

    country. A new approach based on a triple-layer architecture will be adopted here, viz.: a quantitative comparative analysis of the 16 Polish ‘voivodships’ (main administrative regions in the country, at a NUTS-2 level, a benchmark analysis of the 25 counties (‘powiats’ within the Podkarpackie voivodship (at a NUTS-4 level, and an effective industrial cluster analysis on the basis of the individual aviation firms located in the Podkarpackie region. In each step an extended Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, characterised by a merger of a Slack-Based Measure (SMB and a super-efficiency (SE DEA, will be used in order to achieve an unambiguous ranking of the various regions or Decision Making Units (DMUs. The study will employ an extensive database on individual actors in the cluster, in combination with a broadly composed territorial-capital database for the areas under study. The paper will be concluded with some strategic policy lessons.

  15. La importancia de ser grande

    OpenAIRE

    Baisre, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Se responde a las preguntas ¿por qué los mamíferos marinos son los animales más grandes del planeta?, ¿Por qué los peces no pueden ser más grandes?. Éstas y otras interrogantes son respondidas de forma sencilla y clara.

  16. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-12-31

    In this research, we study Albuquerque`s water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper.

  17. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-10-01

    In this research, we study Albuquerque's water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper

  18. Groundwater links between Kenyan Rift Valley lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Becht, Robert; Mwango, Fred; Muno, Fred Amstrong

    2006-01-01

    The series of lakes in the bottom of the Kenyan Rift valley are fed by rivers and springs. Based on the water balance, the relative positions determining the regional groundwater flow systems and the analysis of natural isotopes it can be shown that groundwater flows from lake Naivasha to lake Magadi, Elementeita, Nakuru and Bogoria.

  19. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, northern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B O; Baba, Mohamed Ould; Barry, Yahya; Isselmou, Katia; Dia, Mamadou L; El Kory, Mohamed O B; Diop, Mariam; Lo, Modou Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Puech, Lilian; Plee, Ludovic; Claes, Filip; de La Rocque, Stephane; Doumbia, Baba

    2011-10-01

    During September-October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

  20. Thermal and barometric constraints on the intrusive and unroofing history of the Black Mountains: Implications for timing, initial dip, and kinematics of detachment faulting in the Death Valley Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Daniel K.; Snow, J. Kent; Lux, Daniel R.

    1992-06-01

    Unroofing of the Black Mountains, Death Valley, California, has resulted in the exposure of 1.7 Ga crystalline basement, late Precambrian amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks, and a Tertiary magmatic complex. The 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages, obtained from samples collected across the entire length of the range (>55 km), combined with geobarometric results from synextensional intrusions, provide time-depth constraints on the Miocene intrusive history and extensional unroofing of the Black Mountains. Data from the southeastern Black Mountains and adjacent Greenwater Range suggest unroofing from shallow depths between 9 and 10 Ma. To the northwest in the crystalline core of the range, biotite plateau ages from ˜13 to 6.8 Ma from rocks making up the Death Valley turtlebacks indicate a midcrustal residence (with temperatures >300°C) prior to extensional unroofing. Biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages from both Precambrian basement and Tertiary plutons reveal a diachronous cooling pattern of decreasing ages toward the northwest, subparallel to the regional extension direction. Diachronous cooling was accompanied by dike intrusion which also decreases in age toward the northwest. The cooling age pattern and geobarometric constraints in crystalline rocks of the Black Mountains suggest denudation of 10-15 km along a northwest directed detachment system, consistent with regional reconstructions of Tertiary extension and with unroofing of a northwest deepening crustal section. Mica cooling ages that deviate from the northwest younging trend are consistent with northwestward transport of rocks initially at shallower crustal levels onto deeper levels along splays of the detachment. The well-known Amargosa chaos and perhaps the Badwater turtleback are examples of this "splaying" process. Considering the current distance of the structurally deepest samples away from moderately to steeply east tilted Tertiary strata in the southeastern Black Mountains, these data indicate an average initial

  1. Tritium dating of underground water from the Jian River valley and Houjialiang loess platform in the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Songsheng; Wu Qinghua

    1991-01-01

    The tritium content is measured in underground water from the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and hence the age, i.e. resident time, of underground water is estimated. The region belongs to deep water-poor zone in a long loess ridge situated in a loess hill plateau. The level of underground water is 40-80 m deep hidden. In the runway and the scouring channel the aqueous bed is of river pebble and cobble, with a level of 2-10 m in depth. The age of underground water from different wells were determined to be 23a, 14a, 25a, 41a and 53a respectively

  2. Numerical Simulation of Inter-basin Groundwater Flow into Northern Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Using the Death Valley Regional Flow System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmann Karl,Ye Ming

    2012-03-01

    Models of groundwater flow for the Yucca Flat area of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) are under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for corrective action investigations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). One important aspect of these models is the quantity of inter-basin groundwater flow from regional systems to the north. This component of flow, together with its uncertainty, must be properly accounted for in the CAU flow models to provide a defensible regional framework for calculations of radionuclide transport that will support determinations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine contaminant boundary. Because characterizing flow boundary conditions in northern Yucca Flat requires evaluation to a higher level of detail than the scale of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU model can efficiently provide, a study more focused on this aspect of the model was required.

  3. Albuquerque/Middle Rio Grande Urban Waters Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    These data have been compiled in support of the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Partnership for the region including Albuquerque, New Mexico.The Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Federal Partnership is co-chaired by the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. There are also a number of other federal agencies engaged in projects with Tribal, State, and local officials, and community stakeholders. Like many western river ecosystems, the Middle Rio Grande faces numerous challenges in balancing competing needs within a finite water supply and other resource constrains. Historical practices by our ancestors and immigrants to the Middle Rio Grande have established the conditions that we have inherited. Long-term drought exacerbated by climate change is changing conditions that affect natural and human communities as we strive to improve our precious Rio Grande.The Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Federal Partnership will reconnect our urban communities, particularly those that are overburdened or economically distressed, with the waterway by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led revitalization efforts. Our projects will improve our community water systems and promote their economic, environmental and social benefits. Specifically, the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Federal Partnership will support the development of the Valle de Oro

  4. Digital hydrographic, land use/land cover, and hydrologic unit boundary files for the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and southeastern California processed from US Geological Survey 1:100,000- and 1:250,000-scale digital data files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, A.K.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    Digital hydrographic and land-use/land-cover data have been compiled into a digital geographic data base for an {approx}100,000-km{sup 2} area of the Southern Great Basin, the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and SE California, located between lat 35{degree}N, long 115{degree}W and lat 38{degree}N, long 118{degree}W. This region includes the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent parts of southern Nevada and eastern California. The data base was compiled from USGS data files distributed by the USGS Earth Scinece Information Center. The data files were converted into six thematic ARC/INFO map coverages representing the Death Valley region.

  5. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and associated waste rock are among environmental selenium (Se) sources that have the potential to affect reproduction in fish and aquatic birds. Ecosystems of southern West Virginia that are affected by drainage from mountaintop coal mines and valleys filled with waste rock in the Coal, Gauley, and Lower Guyandotte watersheds were assessed during 2010 and 2011. Sampling data from earlier studies in these watersheds (for example, Upper Mud River Reservoir) and other mining-affected watersheds also are included to assess additional hydrologic settings and food webs for comparison. Basin schematics give a comprehensive view of sampled species and Se concentration data specific to location and date. Food-web diagrams document the progression of Se trophic transfer across suspended particulate material, invertebrates, and fish for each site to serve as the basis for developing an ecosystem-scale model to predict Se exposure within the hydrologic conditions and food webs of southern West Virginia. This approach integrates a site-specific predator’s dietary exposure pathway into modeling to ensure an adequate link to Se toxicity and, thus, to species vulnerability. Site-specific fish abundance and richness data in streams documented various species of chub, shiner, dace, darters, bass, minnow, sunfish, sucker, catfish, and central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). However, Se assessment species for streams, and hence, model species for streams, were limited to creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and central stoneroller. Both of these species of fish are generally considered to have a high tolerance for environmental stress based on traditional comparative fish community assessment, with creek chub being present at all sites. Aquatic insects (mayfly, caddisfly, stonefly, dobsonfly, chironomid) were the main invertebrates sampled in streams. Collection of suspended particulate material

  6. Grand slam on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010.

  7. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  8. Regional potentiometric-surface map of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Plume, Russell W.; Buto, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in and around Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah. The map area covers approximately 9,000 square miles in Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. Recent (2007-2010) drilling by the Utah Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey has provided new data for areas where water-level measurements were previously unavailable. New water-level data were used to refine mapping of the pathways of intrabasin and interbasin groundwater flow. At 20 of these locations, nested observation wells provide vertical hydraulic gradient data and information related to the degree of connection between basin-fill aquifers and consolidated-rock aquifers. Multiple-year water-level hydrographs are also presented for 32 wells to illustrate the aquifer system's response to interannual climate variations and well withdrawals.

  9. Caracterização do cultivo de trigo na região norte do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul através das estimativas oficiais de área cultivada, produção e rendimento de grãos Characterization of wheat crop in the north region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, through official estimations of cropping area, grain production and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Heemann Junges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o cultivo de trigo na região norte do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram empregados dados oficiais de área cultivada e produção de grãos, de 2000 a 2008, dos municípios que compõem as regionais EMATER/RS Caxias do Sul, Erechim, Passo Fundo, Ijuí e Santa Rosa. Os dados foram provenientes do Levantamento Sistemático da Produção Agrícola (LSPA/IBGE. Considerando-se a área cultivada com cereais de estação fria, o trigo tem sido a principal cultura produtora de grãos estabelecida no período de outono-inverno-primavera. A produção de trigo no Estado concentra-se nas regionais analisadas, responsáveis, na média dos anos, por mais de 80% da quantidade produzida de grãos. Variações interanuais nos rendimentos regionais foram associadas, especialmente, às variações das condições meteorológicas, dada não existência de tendência tecnológica no período. Maiores rendimentos regionais de grãos de trigo e menores coeficientes de variação foram registrados nas regionais localizadas na porção leste (Caxias do Sul e Erechim. A análise de agrupamentos identificou grupos de municípios similares quanto ao rendimento médio municipal de grãos de trigo: baixos rendimentos de grãos (média de 1.444kg ha-1, médios (1.746kg ha-1 e altos (2.283kg ha-1.This study aimed to characterize the wheat crop in north region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. It was used data set from official wheat cropping area, grain production and yield, from 2000 to 2008, to the shires that compose the regions of Caxias do Sul, Erechim, Passo Fundo, Ijuí and Santa Rosa. The data set was obtained from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. Considering winter cereals cropping areas, wheat are the main crop established in the regions during the autumn-winter-spring season. Cropping area estimations indicated that the analyzed regions concentrate the wheat production. The regions produced more

  10. Hydrology of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, P.A.; Boettcher, A.J.; Snipes, R.J.; Mcintyre, H.J.

    1969-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Colorado part of the San Luis Valley was begun in 1966 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. (See index map, fig. 1). The purpose of the investigation is to provide information for planning and implementing improved water-development and management practices. The major water problems in the San Luis Valley include (1) waterlogging, (2) waste of water by nonbeneficial evapotranspiration, (3) deterioration of ground-water chemical quality, and (4) failure of Colorado to deliver water to New Mexico and Texas in accordance with the Rio Grande Compact. This report describes the hydrologic environment, extent of water-resource development, and some of the problems related to that development. Information presented is based on data collected from 1966 to 1968 and on previous studies. Subsequent reports are planned as the investigation progresses. The San Luis Valley extends about 100 miles from Poncha Pass near the northeast corner of Saguache County, Colo., to a point about 16 miles south of the Colorado-New Mexico State line. The total area is 3,125 square miles, of which about 3,000 are in Colorado. The valley is nearly flat except for the San Luis Hills and a few other small areas. The Colorado part of the San Luis Valley, which is described in this report, has an average altitude of about 7,700 feet. Bounding the valley on the west are the San Juan Mountains and on the east the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Most of the valley floor is bordered by alluvial fans deposited by streams originating in the mountains, the most extensive being the Rio Grande fan (see block diagram, fig. 2 in pocket). Most of the streamflow is derived from snowmelt from 4,700 square miles of watershed in the surrounding mountains. The northern half of the San Luis Valley is internally drained and is referred to as the closed basin. The lowest part of this area is known locally as the "sump." The

  11. Grand Gestures: A Somatic Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Trish

    2015-01-01

    This is a 'Plain English' report on the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project 'A Somatic Ethnography of Grand Gestures Elders Dance Group'. It is written for the communities of practice around elders dance and participatory arts more generally.

  12. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  13. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  14. Landsat Evapotranspiration for Historical Field-scale Water Use (1984-2015) in the Upper Rio Grande River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Schauer, M.; Singh, R. K.; Friedrichs, M.

    2017-12-01

    Field-scale water use maps derived from evapotranspiration (ET) can characterize water use patterns and the impacts of water management decisions. This project generated historical (1984-2015) Landsat-based ET maps for the entire Upper Rio Grande basin which makes this one of the largest regions in the United States with remotely sensed historical ET at Landsat resolution. More than 10,000 Landsat images spanning 32 years were processed using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model which integrates weather data and remotely sensed images to estimate monthly and annual ET. Time-series analysis focused on three water-intensive study areas within the basin: the San Luis Valley in Colorado, irrigated fields along the Rio Grande River near Albuquerque, NM, and irrigated fields near Las Cruces, NM. Preliminary analysis suggests land use changes result in declining water use in irrigated areas of the basin which corresponds with increases in land surface temperatures. Time-series analysis of water use patterns at multiple temporal and spatial scales demonstrates the impact of water management decisions on the availability of water in the basin. Comparisons with cropland data from the USDA (NASS CDL) demonstrate how water use for particular crop types changes over time in response to land use changes and shifts in water management. This study illustrates a useful application of "Big Data" earth observation science for quantifying impacts of climate and land use changes on water availability within the United States as well as applications in planning water resource allocation, managing water rights, and sustaining agricultural production in the Upper Rio Grande basin.

  15. Eruption History and Geochemical Evolution of Servilleta Basalt Along the Rio Grande Gorge, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, M. A.; Thompson, R. A.; Turner, K. J.; Morgan, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Subalkaline basalt to basaltic andesite lava flows formally known as Servilleta Basalt (SB) are the most voluminous rock type forming the Pliocene Taos Plateau volcanic field. Pleistocene incision by the Rio Grande into the bedrock-floored plateau has resulted in spectacular exposures of occasionally thick ( 240 m) accumulations of SB within the Rio Grande gorge. Incremental CO2 laser heating of individual rock fragments, the SB within and along the length of the Rio Grande gorge has been precisely dated by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to between 5.3 Ma and 3.3 Ma. SB older than 4 Ma is restricted to some lava flows exposed between La Junta point, at the confluence of the Red River and Rio Grande, and the Gorge Bridge crossing northwest of Taos, NM. Vertical sampling through thick SB flow sequences within the gorge yields precise emplacement histories and also reveals small but systematic major and minor element concentration variations (including Si, Rb, Sr, Cu and Zn). 40Ar/39Ar data show that these trends developed over short (0-250 ka) timescales, and probably relate to partial assimilation of crust, possibly at multiple depths. Combined field, geochemical, and 40Ar/39Ar data consequently record short-lived changes in tholeiitic melt compositions in response to regional extension and development of the Rio Grande rift. The age, lateral extent, and thickness of exposed SB partially reflect the paleotopographic surface of the southern San Luis Basin prior to onset of Pliocene Taos Plateau volcanic field magmatism; paleotopographic highs diverted some flows while topographic lows were areas of infilling and accumulation. Heterogeneous basin paleotopography developed during contemporaneous or precursory andesitic to dacitic volcanism, extensional faulting and subsidence of sub-basins within the San Luis Basin, and deposition of prograding alluvial fans that originated in the Sangre de Cristo and Picuris Mountains. SB flowed into the southern San Luis Valley beginning 5

  16. The importance of early diagnosis of large lipomas in the maxillofacial region Importancia del diagnóstico precoz de los lipomas de células grandes en la región maxilofacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Furtado de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El lipoma es un tumor benigno compuesto por la proliferación de células adiposas maduras entremezcladas con el tejido conectivo fibroso, los vasos sanguíneos y/o músculos, delimitado por una fina cápsula. Aunque representa un neoplasma del mesénquima muy común del cuerpo humano, tiene raras ocurrencias en la cavidad bucal. Presenta variables clínicas e histopatológicas que no alteran su pronóstico. La patogénesis sigue siendo incierta aunque algunos autores consideran que los trastornos hereditarios y endocrinos son causas posibles. Ocurre con una mayor prevalencia en las personas obesas, aunque su metabolismo es totalmente independiente del metabolismo normal de los lípidos corporales. El diagnóstico clínico del lipoma bucal está relacionado con una masa nodular, blanda, asintomática, de superficie plana, sin ulceración y de crecimiento limitado. El continuo crecimiento de la lesión pudiera crear dificultad al masticar, al hablar, en la adaptación dental y cambio en la estética facial del paciente requiriendo la escisión de la lesión. Presentar una revisión de la literatura y de los casos clínicos de un estudio retrospectivo de 61 casos de lipomas diagnosticados en el servicio de patología entre 1978 y 2009 entre los 10 573 informes hechos durante ese mismo período. Se enfatizan los casos especiales de lipomas grandes de la región maxilofacial y la importancia del diagnóstico temprano de estas lesiones. Un cirujano dental debe ser capaz de diagnosticar los lipomas en una etapa temprana en el área maxilofacial para evitar un crecimiento masivo de estas lesiones.Lipoma is a benign tumor composed of proliferation of mature fat cells interspersed by fibrous connective tissue, blood vessels and muscles, delimited by a thin capsule. Although it represents a mesenchymal neoplasm most common human body, are rare occurrences in the oral cavity. Presents clinical and histopathological variables that do not alter their

  17. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  18. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  19. Yuntaishan Global Geopark VS Grand Canyon World Heritage Site A Contrast of Yuntai/Grand Canyon Physiognomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Zhao; Xun, Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Yuntai/Grand Canyon is a result of long-term historical evolution and a rare natural heritage of the world. With its rich heritages of geological physiognomy, systematic geological record, abundant biological fossil combination, long history of structural evolution, they are of contrastive research values worldwide. The Grand Canyon was declared national natural heritage on eleventh January, and in 1979 it was entitled World Natural Heritage Site. Though the two major sites are separated by tremendous seas, they reached agreements in the protection of natural heritages worldwide on account of the shared ideas of society, demonstrating to our children how can we protect the two scenery sites. Keyword:Geopark, Geoheritage, Yuntai Landform, GrandCanyon Mt. Taihang rises from the central part of north China and extends to the west edge of North China Plain. Towering, and with ragged peaks, precarious cliffs, long strips of walls, deep valleys and shaded streams, Mt. Taihang poses impressive sights with its clear water, dense forest and wonderful sceneries. It is indeed the east slope of Qin-Jin Plateau. Indeed things tend to coincide. On the other side of the Pacific Ocean, along the west edge of north America and on the wide and spacious Colorado Plateau, there is a winding and deep valley where there are layers of rocks, extensive sharp cliffs, intercrossing ravines and forests of peaks; it is totally impressive. Both sceneries are known to the world for their beauty. Identical geological conditions and similar history of evolution left two natural sights that resemble each other so much. Geological changes are infinite, and sedimentation works in similar ways on both sights; and the changing ecological environment gives the world two colorful and comparable geological records. Both sights are merely brief periods in the long history of earth development, but they show us how cradles of human proliferation and social civilization had looked. 1,Comparison of two parks

  20. Landscape Evolution Comparison between Sacra Mensa, Mars and the Grand Mesa, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnutt, J. M.; Wegmann, K. W.; Cole, R. D.; Byrne, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Grand Mesa in Colorado is one of the largest and highest flat-topped mountains on Earth, and as such provides a compelling analog for Mars' Sacra Mensa. Both basalt-capped landforms are morphologically similar, enabling a landscape evolution comparison between the two that considers key differences in locale, composition, and environmental conditions. Sacra Mensa is nearly 50 times the area of Grand Mesa and towers 3 km above the surrounding area. The 1,300 km2 Grand Mesa rises 2 km above Grand Valley, and is bracketed by the Colorado and Gunnison Rivers in much the same way as Sacra Mensa is bounded by braided channels of Kasei Valles. The sustained incision by the Gunnison and Colorado was a key erosive force in the creation of the Grand Mesa, whereas punctuated but voluminous Hesperian glacio-fluvial floods are thought to have carved the Sacra Mensa. The Grand Mesa is undergoing extensive mass wasting, ranging from deadly landslides like the 2014 West Salt Creek rock avalanche to hundreds of slower-moving retrogressive slump blocks calving off the Miocene basalt cap. The genesis and modification of both landforms includes volcanic and fluvial activity, albeit in an inverted sequence. The Grand Mesa basalt cap has preserved the landform during the incision around its sides, whereas Sacra Mensa was likely carved by floods, with those flood channels later modified by lava flows. Recent (2015-2017) LiDAR surveys revealed massive and possible ancient landslides in many stream valleys and extensive earthflows on all sides of the Grand Mesa. In the case of the Grand Mesa, the large landslides are mainly occurring in one stratigraphic unit. In comparison, the western half of Sacra Mensa contains substantial slumping accompanied by landslides and debris flows, whereas the eastern half has relatively few such phenomena. Here, we report on the first Mesa-Mensa landscape evolution analog study. The surficial and bedrock mapping and 14C dating of key features of the

  1. Estudo sobre a ocorrência de surtos alimentares em uma região do Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais | Study on the occurrence of food outbreaks in a region of the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia Mariana Rodrigues dos Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A ocorrência de Doenças de Transmissão Hídrica e Alimentar é uma preocupação mundial na Saúde Pública. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a ocorrência dos surtos alimentares em uma região do Vale do Jequitinhonha em Minas Gerais, entre os anos de 2008 a 2014, antes e após a intervenção do PET-Saúde/Vigilância em Saúde. Método: Os dados foram retirados de relatórios impressos e de fichas de notificações disponíveis nos sistemas de informação. Resultados: Foram investigados 76 surtos, destes, apenas 34,1% notificados oportunamente. As ações realizadas pela equipe PET-Saúde/Vigilância em Saúde entre 2010 e 2012 impactaram, positivamente, no aumento do número de notificações de surtos alimentares. A maioria destes surtos ocorreu em residências (47,4%, atingiu indivíduos adultos (30,4% e apresentou como manifestações clínicas: diarreia (29,5%, vômitos (23,5% e dores abdominais (16,3%. Na análise das notificações, 81,6% não apresentavam o fator causal e apenas 31,0% informaram o agente etiológico. Conclusões: A intervenção do PET-Saúde/Vigilância em Saúde representou um fator importante no fortalecimento da vigilância de surtos alimentares na região do Vale do Jequitinhonha estudada, contudo persistem dificuldades relacionadas a notificação tardia, a presença de falhas e de lacunas no registro dos dados e o baixo número de coletas clínicas e bromatológicas. ======================================== Introduction: The occurrence of water and food transmission diseases is a worldwide concern in Public Health. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence of food outbreaks in a region of the Jequitinhonha Valley in the State of Minas Gerais between 2008 and 2014, before and after the intervention of the PET-Health/Surveillance in Health. Method: Data were taken from printed reports and information sheets available in information systems

  2. Grand Challenge Problem 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Balacheff, Nicolas; Bottino, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    Small and medium sized research labs (SMLs) are dominating European TEL research. This is justified by the great numbers of countries and regions in Europe needing to develop a research and innovation competence to facilitate the diverse educational systems contextualized in various institutional...

  3. Environmental Assessment: Construct a CDC Main Entry Addition at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    beans, corn, barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat , sunflowers, and durum wheat ...recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar beets. Turtle River State Park...though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally

  4. Características físico-químicas de aguardentes produzidas artesanalmente na região do vale do taquari no rio grande do sul
    Physicochemical properties of spirits produced artisanally in the Region of Vale do Taquari in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SCHMIDT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    A aguardente elaborada artesanalmente resulta num produto fi nal com características próprias e diferenciadas, porém, devido à falta de controle do processo muitas vezes não atendem aos parâmetros legais vigentes. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade e comparar a composição química de aguardentes de canade- açúcar envelhecidas e sem envelhecer produzidas artesanalmente na Região do Vale do Taquari no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram analisados os teores de etanol, acidez volátil, compostos fenólicos, cobre, acetona, aldeídos, ésteres, alcoóis superiores totais e metanol, além dos alcoóis secbutílico e n-butílico de 15 amostras produzidas na região. Os resultados indicaram que 60% das amostras estavam em desacordo com algum dos padrões de identidade e qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Além disso, as altas concentrações de cobre e aldeídos em algumas amostras comprometem a qualidade da bebida e representam um risco à saúde dos consumidores da região. A partir dos resultados obtidos verifi cou-se a necessidade de adoção de estratégias de apoio tecnológico que capacitem os produtores da Região do Vale do Taquari no Rio Grande do Sul, de modo a ampliar a atividade agroindustrial e melhorar a competitividade desses pequenos produtores.

  5. Litoral norte do estado do Rio Grande do Sul: indicadores socioeconômicos e principais problemas ambientais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Simone Vilaverde Moura Fujimoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The north littoral region of Rio Grande do Sul is a coastal zone segment where a sequence of environments organized in a longitudinal orientation to the coast occurs. A sedimentary coastal plain is identified landwards from the shoreline, formed by dunes deposits and by interconnected coastal lagoons, and extending its area up to the scarps of the Planalto Meridional (basement highlands, which are deeply incised by the valleys of Maquiné and Três Forquilhas rivers. The relationships between society and nature have increased in the last decades, in special in the Coastal Zone, due to the urbanizationprocesses, among other factors. However, the quick grow of urbanization resulted in some problems for an environment that is characterized by an ecosystem diversity of great sensibility. The analysis of the index of social-economic development allows classifying the north littoral region of Rio Grande do Sul in a profile of a medium development rate. The investments on healthy and education of the last years have increased the regional socio-economical indicators. However, more investments are necessary in key-sectors of the study area, mainly in respect to: the demand for high school opportunities, availability of water by a general net, collection and discharge of urban effluents and waste disposal. The most significant environmental changes, increased during summer months (December to March, are related to the high demand and quality of waters, the high demand for healthy services, beach quality, sanitarycollapse, disposal of residual solids, conflicts on the use of the beach area, increase on the number of irregular properties, water, sound and visual pollution, a general lack of respect to the environment,among others.

  6. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these

  7. Proximity to citrus influences Pierce's disease in Temecula Valley vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Perring, Thomas M.; Farrar, Charles A.; Blua, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Pierce's disease has caused extensive losses to grapes in the Temecula Valley. The primary vector of Pierce's disease in the region is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), which has been found in large numbers in citrus trees. We examined the role of citrus in the Temecula Valley Pierce's disease epidemic and found that citrus groves have influenced the incidence and severity of Pierce's disease in grapes. Because GWSS inhabit citrus in large numbers, California grape growers should take ad...

  8. La taille du grand homme

    OpenAIRE

    Tillier, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Le gigantisme plastique a été l’objet, tant de la part des artistes que des instances politiques, de nombreux débats et controverses, en particulier à propos de la multiplication des sculptures monumentales publiques. Les grands programmes sculptés de Bartholdi — le Lion de Belfort et la Liberté de New-York — n’ont pas été sans susciter de vives polémiques. Mais celles-ci atteignent leur summum quand le monumentalisme concerne les effigies de grands hommes, en lesquelles les adversaires de la...

  9. Rift Valley fever vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both human...

  10. Probabilidade de ocorrência de temperaturas mínimas do ar prejudiciais à fecundação das flores de arroz na região da depressão central, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Probability of occurence of minimum air temperature harmful to fecundation of rice flowers in the central region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se os registros de temperatura mínima do ar de nove estações meteorológicas situadas na região da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, calculou-se as probabilidades de ocorrerem dias com temperatura do ar ≤13°C, 15°C e 17°C. Foram considerados os períodos mensal e decendial dos meses de dezembro, janeiro, fevereiro e março, época em que essas temperaturas podem prejudicar as lavouras de arroz em floração. Também foram calculadas as probabilidades de ocorrência de dias consecutivos com temperatura igual ou menor que os níveis térmicos mencionados. Verificou-se que o número total de dias com temperatura baixa adere à distribuição Binomial Negativa enquanto que as seqüências aderem melhor à distribuição de Poisson. Verificou-se também que as probabilidades de ocorrência de dias consecutivos e do total do número de dias com temperatura do ar igual ou abaixo dos níveis térmicos estudados é menor do 2° decêndio de janeiro ao 2° decêndio de fevereiro embora possam ocorrer dias frios também nesses meses. Dessa forma, para minimizar as perdas de rendimento devido a problemas de fecundação das flores, causados pelo frio, as cultivares de arroz e as épocas de semeadura devem ser escolhidas para que a floração aconteça nesse período.The probability of occurence of days in which the temperature is lower or equal to 13°C, 15°C, and 17°C in the Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State was determined. Sequences of days with temperature lower or equal to the thermal levels above cited were also determined. Data from nine Meteorological Stations for the months of December, January, February, and March were used in this study. The results showed that the risk of cold damage to the rice flowers fecundation is lower from the middle of January through middle of February. In order to reduce yield decreases by low temperatures, the choice of the cultivar and time of seeding should be done so that the

  11. Origin and evolution of valleys on Martian volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulick, V.C.; Baker, V.R. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-08-30

    Morphological analyses of six Martian volcanoes, Ceraunius Tholus, Hecates Tholus, Alba Patera, Hadriaca Patera, Apollinaris Patera, and Tyrrhena Patera, indicate that fluvial processes were the dominant influence in the initiation and subsequent development of many dissecting valleys. Lava processes and possibly volcanic density flows were also important as valley-forming processes. Fluvial valleys are especially well developed on Alba Patera, Ceraunius Tholus, and Hecates Tholus. These valleys are inset into the surrounding landscape. They formed in regions of subdued lava flow morphology, contain tributaries, and tend to widen slightly in the downstream direction. Lava channels on Alba Patera are located on the crest of lava flows and have a discontinuous, irregular surface morphology, and distributary patterns. These channels sometimes narrow toward their termini. Possible volcanic density flow channels are located on the northern flank of Ceraunius Tholus. Valleys dissecting Apollinaris Patera, Hadriaca Patera, and Tyrrhena Patera appear to have a complex evolution, probably a mixed fluvial and lava origin. They are inset into a subdued (possibly mantled) surface, lack tributaries, and either have fairly constant widths or widen slightly downvalley. Valleys surrounding the caldera of Apollinaris appear to have formed by fluvial and possibly by volcanic density flow processes, while those on the Apollinaris fan structure may have a mixed lava and fluvial origin. Valleys on Tyrrhena have broad flat floors and theater heads, which have been extensively enlarged, probably by sapping.

  12. Grand Rounds in Pediatric Nephrology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Presentation. Grand Rounds in Pediatric Nephrology. Elisabeth M. Hodson. Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead NSW 2145, Australia .... nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) with minimal change disease ... and reduced renal function while severe SLE nephropathy.

  13. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  14. Space-based monitoring of land-use/land-cover in the Upper Rio Grande Basin: An opportunity for understanding urbanization trends in a water-scarce transboundary river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Hargrove, W. L.; Heyman, J. M.; Reyes, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Urbanization is an area of growing interest in assessing the impact of human activities on water resources in arid regions. Remote sensing techniques provide an opportunity to analyze land cover change over time, and are useful in monitoring areas undergoing rapid urban growth. This case study for the water-scarce Upper Rio Grande River Basin uses a supervised classification algorithm to quantify the rate and evaluate the pattern of urban sprawl. A focus is made on the fast growing El-Paso-Juarez metropolitan area on the US-Mexico border and the City of Las Cruces in New Mexico, areas where environmental challenges and loss of agricultural and native land to urban development are major concerns. Preliminary results show that the land cover is dominantly native with some significant agriculture along the Rio Grande River valley. Urban development across the whole study area expanded from just under 3 percent in 1990, to more than 11 percent in 2015. The urban expansion is occurring mainly around the major urban areas of El Paso, Ciudad Juarez, and Las Cruces, although there is visible growth of smaller urban settlements scattered along the Rio Grande River valley during the same analysis period. The proportion of native land cover fluctuates slightly depending on how much land is under crops each analysis year, but there is a decreasing agricultural land cover trend suggesting that land from this sector is being lost to urban development. This analysis can be useful in planning to protect the environment, preparing for growth in infrastructure such as schools, increased traffic demands, and monitoring availability of resources such as groundwater as the urban population grows.

  15. Características de plantas de girassol, em função da época de semeadura, na Região Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul Characteristics of sunflower in function of sowing dates in northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mauro Rodrigues Cadorin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da importância da cultura do girassol (Helianthus annus L no Brasil, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência das épocas de semeadura sobre caracteres morfológicos (altura de planta e tamanho de capítulo e de produção da cultura (rendimento e massa de mil aquênios. Os genótipos cultivados foram Hélio 250, 251, 358, 884 e 885 na safra 2008-09 em três épocas de semeadura (27/agosto, 14/outubro e 13/dezembro e Hélio 250, 251, 253; 360, HLA 211 e Paraíso 33 na safra 2009-10 em três épocas de semeadura (31/agosto, 12/novembro e 09/dezembro. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso, em quatro repetições, em Frederico Westphalen, na região Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Análises de variância individuais e conjunta foram realizadas, sendo que, para a comparação das médias das estimativas, aplicou-se o teste de Tukey em nível de 5% de probabilidade. Para as constituições genéticas, não houve diferenças significativas em rendimento de aquênios. Somente para a estatura da planta há influência do ambiente e das épocas de semeadura, sendo que, para o tamanho do capítulo, ocorre influência do ambiente e, para o rendimento de aquênios, verifica-se que há incrementos próximos de 600kg ha-1 quando as plantas são submetidas às condições ambientais e à época de semeadura favoráveis, enquanto ocorre diminuição da massa de mil aquênios com o avanço da época de semeadura.Based on the importance of production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in Brazil the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the environment of cultivation and sowing date on morphological (plant height and chapter size and crop production (grain yield and one thousand achene weight characteristics of sunflower. The genotypes used in this stduty were Hélio 250, 251, 358, 884 and 885 during the 2008-09 growing season and the Hélio 250, 251, 253, 360, HLA211 and Paraíso 33 in the 2009-10 growing season

  16. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances in waters along the Grand Canal, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, H T; Jiao, X C; Gai, N; Chen, S; Lu, G H; Yin, X C; Yamazaki, E; Yamashita, N; Tan, K Y; Yang, Y L; Pan, J

    2017-07-01

    The Grand Canal, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the longest canal in the world. It is an important trunk line of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. The contamination status and spatial distributions of perfluoroalky substances (PFASs) in waters of the Grand Canal were investigated. The total concentrations of PFASs (∑PFASs) range from 7.8 ng/L to 218.0 ng/L, with high ∑PFASs occurring in the southern part of the Grand Canal which is located in a highly urbanized and economically developed region. The dominance of PFOA showed a decreasing trend toward north while shorter chain homologue proportions increased in the northern part of the Canal which mainly traverses underdeveloped and rural areas in Eastern China. Positive correlations were observed between ∑PFASs and the population density as well as GDP per capita. Intersection with large rivers may affect the contamination levels and composition of PFASs in the water of the Grand Canal near the intersection sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistence of aspen regeneration near the National Elk Refuge and Gros Ventre Valley Elk Feedgrounds of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Barnett; Thomas J. Stohlgren

    2001-01-01

    We investigated aspen (Populus tremuloides) regeneration in the Gros Ventre River Valley, the National Elk Refuge, and a small part of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, to see if elk (Cervus elaphus) browsing was as damaging as previously thought. We conducted a landscape-scale survey to assess aspen regeneration across gradients of wintering elk concentrations using...

  19. [The Great Rift Valley. Parasitological results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P

    1985-01-01

    East Africa is separated from the continent by the Great Rift Valley which was created at the end of the secondary era limiting then the East Africa under-continent with peculiar fauna and flora features. A several million years long isolation, during the tertiary era, seems to explain that a certain number of protozoan and helminthic diseases present peculiar clinical, epidemiological, therapeutical and parasitological features. The occurrence of those peculiar strains tends to indicate that in this region, for example, the resistance of P. falciparum to amino-4-quinolines is a regional feature which should not largely expand to the rest of the African continent.

  20. Valley Fever: Earth Observations for Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in satellite Earth observation systems, numerical weather prediction, and dust storm modeling yield new tools for public health warnings, advisories and epidemiology of illnesses associated with airborne desert dust. Valley Fever, endemic from California through the US/Mexico border region into Central and South America, is triggered by inhalation of soil-dwelling fungal spores. The path from fungal growth to airborne threat depends on environmental conditions observable from satellite. And space-based sensors provide initial conditions for dust storm forecasts and baselines for the epidemiology of Valley Fever and other dust-borne aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. A new Pan-American Center for the World Meteorological Organization Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System creates an opportunity to advance Earth science applications in public health.

  1. Results from KASCADE-Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); and others

    2012-11-11

    The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10{sup 14}-10{sup 18} eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV range by sampling charged (N{sub ch}) and muon (N{sub {mu}}) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE-Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  2. Results from KASCADE–Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaina, M.; Apel, W.D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.

    2012-01-01

    The KASCADE–Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10 14 –10 18 eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10 16 –10 18 eV range by sampling charged (N ch ) and muon (N μ ) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE–Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  3. Potential of forestry residue briquetting of Seridó region species in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil Potencial de briquetagem de resíduos florestais da região do Seridó, no Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of waste generated by forestry species that occur in semiarid northeastern at Seridó region, Rio Grande do Norte, for the briquettes production, determine the physical and mechanical briquettes properties, and to correlate the wood density with the density after the briquettes production and briquettes density with the compressive strength. Thirty-two trees were collected (eight species with four replications. The wood physical and chemical properties evaluation were held under a completely randomized design. For the variables related to briquette, it was adopted the same design with three replicates for each species, totalizing 24 sampling units. The briquettes produced with jurema-preta wood stood out as a function to higher fixed carbon content, calorific value and higher compressive strength flat. The briquettes made from waste of imburana wood had the worst performances for the studied parameters. It was observed a negative correlation between the wood density and the gain of apparent relative density of the briquettes and a positive correlation between the briquettes density and the compressive strength of flat.

  1. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  2. Climatic zoning of conditions for the development of the larva of the mosquito that transmits the dengue fever virus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v3i2.146en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Climatic zoning was carried out in the State of Rio Grande do Sul for the development of the larva of the mosquito that transmits the dengue fever virus, Aedes aegypti. The study used the average and the variability of the total monthly precipitation, the average number of days per ten day-periods with precipitation, the monthly average temperature charts of medium, maximum, and minimum temperatures, and the probability of occurrence of absolute minimum temperatures below 5°C. The study considered as preferable those regions with average temperature between 24 and 32°C; as tolerable those between 18 and 24°C; as marginal those between 5 and 18°C; and as unsuitable those below 5°C and above 40°C. It verified that hydric conditions in Rio Grande do Sul throughout the year are suitable for the development of the larva of the mosquito transmitter of the dengue virus fever, and that the most suitable thermal availabilities occur during the months of January, February, and December. The most suitable average temperatures occur mainly in the Climatic Regions of the Central Depression, High and Low Uruguayan Valley and Missions; whereas the marginal ones occur in the Northeastern Mountains, West of the Uplands, Southeastern Mountains, and Southern Shore.

  3. Pathways to High-tech Valleys and Research Triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsink, W.; Dons, H.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon Valley and the industrial districts of Italy, where shared identity, superior skills, regional specialization and trust-based networking among local firms have produced dynamic and flexible ecosystems, are inspiring examples of the successful promotion of thriving technology and business

  4. Integrated management of water resources in the valley of Oued ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study designed to analyze and evaluate the results of trend scenarios of the strategy management of water resources used in the valley of Oued-Souf, who led the region to a truly dramatic situation and almost desperate: rise of groundwater and its adverse consequences. In terms of this work, we seek a model (plan) ...

  5. One health approach to Rift Valley fever vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in the 1930s, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) spread across the African continent and invaded the Arabian Peninsula and several islands off the coast of Southeast Africa. The virus causes recurrent outbreaks in these regions, and its continued spread is of global concern.

  6. A DECADE FROM THE MAJOR LAYOFFS IN THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN VALENTIN FULGER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an overview of how the population of the largest coalfield of Romania Jiu Valley, the perceived major staff cuts in the mining industry, the solutions required for economic rehabilitation of the area and difficulties of everyday faced by residents of the region.

  7. Statistical and Conceptual Model Testing Geomorphic Principles through Quantification in the Middle Rio Grande River, NM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle Rio Grande River (MRG) traverses New Mexico from Cochiti to Elephant Butte reservoirs. Since the 1100s, cultivating and inhabiting the valley of this alluvial river has required various river training works. The mid-20th century saw a concerted effort to tame the river through channelization, Jetty Jacks, and dam construction. A challenge for river managers is to better understand the interactions between a river training works, dam construction, and the geomorphic adjustments of a desert river driven by spring snowmelt and summer thunderstorms carrying water and large sediment inputs from upstream and ephemeral tributaries. Due to its importance to the region, a vast wealth of data exists for conditions along the MRG. The investigation presented herein builds upon previous efforts by combining hydraulic model results, digitized planforms, and stream gage records in various statistical and conceptual models in order to test our understanding of this complex system. Spatially continuous variables were clipped by a set of river cross section data that is collected at decadal intervals since the early 1960s, creating a spatially homogenous database upon which various statistical testing was implemented. Conceptual models relate forcing variables and response variables to estimate river planform changes. The developed database, represents a unique opportunity to quantify and test geomorphic conceptual models in the unique characteristics of the MRG. The results of this investigation provides a spatially distributed characterization of planform variable changes, permitting managers to predict planform at a much higher resolution than previously available, and a better understanding of the relationship between flow regime and planform changes such as changes to longitudinal slope, sinuosity, and width. Lastly, data analysis and model interpretation led to the development of a new conceptual model for the impact of ephemeral tributaries in alluvial rivers.

  8. do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argemiro Luís Brum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The agribusiness of the Brazilian rice possess a strategical position, as much for its economic representation how much for its relevance next to the alimentary security. The analysis of the productive chain of the rice, in the Border-West of the Rio Grande Do Sul (Brazil, ahead of a global economy, subject of this work, has as objective to present alternatives and strategies that come to become the sector more competitive rice dealer. In this context, the cooperatives of the Border-West are the central focus of the study for the strong participation in the rice economy sul-rio-grandense. One searchs to identify to the difficulties faced for the productive chain sul-rio-grandense, ahead of the economic globalization, especially, of the Mercosul and the position of the rice cooperatives of the Border-West gaucho, presenting proposals of strategies to become them more competitive and to thus contribute for the supported regional development. As conclusion, the work detaches the necessity of the inter-cooperation and the structuration of a regional central office of purchases that values the products and the marks of the cooperatives.

  9. Grand unified brane world scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masato; Blaschke, Filip; Eto, Minoru; Sakai, Norisuke

    2017-12-01

    We present a field theoretical model unifying grand unified theory (GUT) and brane world scenario. As a concrete example, we consider S U (5 ) GUT in 4 +1 dimensions where our 3 +1 dimensional spacetime spontaneously arises on five domain walls. A field-dependent gauge kinetic term is used to localize massless non-Abelian gauge fields on the domain walls and to assure the charge universality of matter fields. We find the domain walls with the symmetry breaking S U (5 )→S U (3 )×S U (2 )×U (1 ) as a global minimum and all the undesirable moduli are stabilized with the mass scale of MGUT. Profiles of massless standard model particles are determined as a consequence of wall dynamics. The proton decay can be exponentially suppressed.

  10. Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    to engage in joint search and compete for funding. Prior research on joint search highlights the role of specialized organizations, mainly regarding technological domains, to identify a superior solution. However, stakeholder theory leads us to believe that the success of any solution depends...... on the acceptance and support of important stakeholders. In this study, we suggest that search consortia are more likely to receive funding when they include representatives of stakeholder concerns, so-called advocacy groups. We extend theory on coordinated exploration in joint search by integrating mechanisms from...... stakeholder theory and argue that advocacy groups improve the generation of potential solutions and provide legitimacy. We test our theory with a unique dataset of 35,249 consortia that proposed solutions to 2,349 grand challenge problems as part of a large European funding program. Our results show...

  11. Grandes almacenes en Ginebra, Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braillard, P.

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available This large building, whose metal structure is one of the most important ones erected in Switzerland, has 14 storeys. The sales zones occupy all the above ground floor levels, and the basements contain garages and stores. Additionally, there is a restaurant on the third floor, and administrative offices in the fourth floor of this outstanding commercial building, the «La Placette» Stores, of Geneva.Este gran edificio, cuya estructura metálica es una de las mayores construidas en Suiza, fue organizado en 14 niveles. Las plantas baja y superiores están destinadas a «venta»; y los sótanos, a garajes, almacenes, etc. La tercera planta alberga, además, el comedor, restaurante, etc.; y la cuarta, los locales de administración y dirección de este notable edificio comercial: «Grandes Almacenes La Placette», de Ginebra.

  12. Proton hexality in local grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerste, Stefan; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics

    2010-07-15

    Proton hexality is a discrete symmetry that avoids the problem of too fast proton decay in the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Unfortunately it is inconsistent with conventional grand unification. We show that proton hexality can be incorporated in the scheme of ''Local Grand Unification'' discussed in the framework of model building in (heterotic) string theory. (orig.)

  13. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Volcanology and Seismology, the new lake appears to be stable and draining gradually through the earthen dam, alleviating fears of a catastrophic flood. Should the new lake drain enough, many of the inundated geysers may restart. Initial reports from the Volcanology and Seismology Institute state this has already happened for some geysers. Geysers outside of the slide region, including the Velikan (Giant) Geyser and a major section of the geyser field known as Vitrazh (Stained Glass) appear to have escaped damage. In addition to destroying a number of geysers, the landslide may have damaged habitats in the Valley of the Geysers. The thermal waters and heated steam jets made this valley warmer than the surrounding landscape, and the warmth supported a unique ecosystem. The loss of a large part of its heat source may alter the ecosystem, but it is not clear what additional longer-term changes might occur. For example, salmon that spawn in the Geyser River will be confined to the lower reaches of the river, and bears, which depended on salmon, will need to shift feeding grounds correspondingly. Thanks to Sergey Chernomorets and Boris Yurchak for information and translation. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  14. Water availability and subsidence in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Sneed, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    California’s Central Valley covers about 52,000 square kilometers (km2) and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the broad alluvial filled structural trough, with an estimated value exceeding $20 billion per year (Faunt 2009) (Figure 1). Central Valley agriculture depends on state and federal water systems that divert surface water, predominantly originating from Sierra Nevada snowmelt, to agricultural fields. Because the valley is semi-arid and the availability of surface water varies substantially from year to year, season to season, and from north to south, agriculture, as it grew, developed a reliance on groundwater for irrigation.

  15. Skillful seasonal prediction of Yangtze river valley summer rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaofan; Scaife, Adam A.; Lu, Riyu; Arribas, Alberto; Brookshaw, Anca; Comer, Ruth E.; Li, Jianglong; MacLachlan, Craig; Wu, Peili

    2016-09-01

    China suffers from frequent summer floods and droughts, but seasonal forecast skill of corresponding summer rainfall remains a key challenge. In this study, we demonstrate useful levels of prediction skill over the Yangtze river valley for summer rainfall and river flows using a new high resolution forecast system. Further analysis of the sources of predictability suggests that the predictability of Yangtze river valley summer rainfall corresponds to skillful prediction of rainfall in the deep tropics and around the Maritime Continent. The associated dynamical signals favor increased poleward water vapor transport from South China and hence Yangtze river valley summer rainfall and river flow. The predictability and useful level of skill demonstrated by this study imply huge potential for flooding and drought related disaster mitigation and economic benefits for the region based on early warning of extreme climate events.

  16. Sustainable charcoal use in iron and steel industry in Carajas region, Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial brasileiro de florestas plantadas na reducao da concentracao do carbono atmosferico: o caso do polo guseiro de Grande Carajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Concern about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change has raised awareness that forest-management strategies have a large potential for storing and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. Other measures under consideration include the use of renewable biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel use. This thesis shows the potential of charcoal from renewable Eucalyptus plantations for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by replacing charcoal from the harvest of native forest in the iron and steel industry located at Carajas region, state of Para, Brazil. The results show that, if deforestation in the Carajas region were stopped and substituted by renewable forests for charcoal production, within a 21-year time horizon some 470.000 hectares of native Amazon forests could be preserved, avoiding the emission of some 2.67 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr to the atmosphere, which is 3.2% of the current carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Brazil (82,4 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr) at a cost of 2,65-3,84 US$/tC. (author)

  17. 75 FR 53877 - Proposed Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... climate, desert soils, and a valley geomorphology. History of Agriculture and Viticulture in the Antelope... uses heat accumulation during the growing season to define climatic regions for viticulture (``General.... Climatic region I has less than 2,500 growing degree days per year; region II, 2,501 to 3,000; region III...

  18. Oral Tradition and Legal Authority in the Trans-Mountain Acequia Systems of the Mora Valley, New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lamadrid, Enrique R.; Arellano, Juan Estevan

    2015-01-01

    [EN] During the 18th century conflicts between the Comanches of the southern Plains and the Spanish Mexicans and their Pueblo allies in New Mexico, the valley of Mora was a natural corridor to the settlements of the Río Grande valley for trade and warfare. The walls of Picurís Pueblo on the other side of Jicarilla mountain sheltered native Tiwas as well as their neighbors. When peace came, mestizo settlers headed east to Mora to begin farming and ranching. The land was fertile,...

  19. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Carson-Eagle valleys and Big Smoky Valley, Nevada. First annual report, May 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two geothermal investigations were completed in three Nevada locations. The regions studied were selected from areas outlined as having direct utilization potential (Trexler and others, 1979) and included the Carson-Eagle Valley, Bis Smoky Valley and Caliente. Studies were organized around the completion of a group of tasks in each area. These tasks included: geologic reconnaissance, gravity surveys, aerial photography, fluid sampling and analysis, shallow depth temperature probe surveys, soil mercury surveys, shallow electrical resistivity measurements, and temperature gradient hole drilling. Goals of the project were to provide regional information about the nature and extent of the resources and to offer a critical evaluation of the techniques employed. Results from the work in the Carson-Eagle Valley and Big Smoky Valley are presented. (MHR)

  20. La Grande: volver a empezar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Premat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este texto, borrador de un trabajo más amplio, pretende despejar algunas pistas de lectura de La grande, en tanto que paradójico final de la producción de Saer. Digo “paradójico” porque puede tomársela como una novela de comienzo o de origen : de un volver a empezar, en todos los sentidos del término. En esa perspectiva podrían estudiarse algunos núcleos temáticos (como el retorno o el recuerdo de cara a la construcción del texto, a la relación planteada con la tradición y a la singular historia de su escritura (y al material genético que rodea y completa esta novela a la vez inacabada y póstuma. En esta intervención, la idea es la de comentar tres textos, escenas o frases del texto, y a partir de allí esbozar pistas para un estudio que está en ciernes.Première ébauche d’un travail de plus d’ampleur, ce texte vise à éclairer quelques pistes de lecture de La grande, en tant que fin paradoxale de la production de Saer. Je dis « paradoxale » parce que l’on peut considérer cette œuvre comme un roman des commencements ou des origines : comme un retour aux débuts, dans tous les sens du terme. Dans cette perspective, plusieurs nœuds thématiques (comme le retour ou le souvenir pourraient être étudiés en relation à la construction du texte, à la relation qui s’établit avec la tradition et à la singulière histoire de son écriture (et au matériau génétique qui entoure et complète ce roman, à la fois inachevé et posthume. Il sera question ici de commenter trois textes, scènes ou phrases du texte, et d’ébaucher à partir de là quelques pistes pour une étude à l’état naissant.The objective of this text, a draft for a broader work, is to outline some reading clues for La grande, inasmuch as it constitutes a paradoxical ending of Saer’s production. I say “paradoxical” because we can consider this work a novel of beginnings or of origins: a return to the beginning, in every meaning of the

  1. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  2. A preliminary list of the Herpetofauna from termite mounds of the cerrado in the Upper Tocantins river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Moreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Termite mounds are known to offer refuge and microhabitats to a great variety of invertebrates and vertebrates. In the valley of the upper Tocantins River, within areas of influence of hydroelectric power plants 4,000 termite mounds were surveyed to evaluate the diversity of amphibians and reptiles using these environments. Surveys in termite mounds from two other areas (Corumbá River and Araguaia River basins were used for comparative purposes. The results for termitaria in the upper Tocantins river valley revealed nine families, 13 genera, and 25 species of amphibians, and 16 families, 32 genera, and 47 species of squamate reptiles. Compared to a general herpetofaunal list of the region, the data indicate that between 30.6% and 56.8% of the species use termitaria.Termiteiros são conhecidos por oferecer refúgio e micro habitats para uma grande variedade de invertebrados e vertebrados. Aproveitando trabalhos realizados na área de influência de usinas hidrelétricas no vale do rio Tocantins, inspecionamos avaliamos 4.000 termiteiros visando determinar os anfíbios e répteis que se utilizam desses ambientes. Resultados obtidos em duas outras áreas (bacias dos rios Corumbá e Araguaia foram utilizadas como comparação. No vale do alto rio Tocantins nove famílias, 13 gêneros e 25 espécies de anfíbios e 15 famílias, 32 gêneros e 47 espécies de Squamata foram encontrados nos termiteiros. Esses dados indicam que entre 30.6% e 56.8% das espécies da herpetofauna utilizam termiteiros.

  3. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and radiometric survey of radioactive pegmatites in the region of Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Assinatura geoquimica de columbita-tantalita e levantamento radiometrico de pegmatitos radioativos da regiao de Parelhas, RN, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2013-07-01

    This thesis is the result of geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area, located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas in the region of the Serra da Borborema, is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called 'garimpos'. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of the ratio U/Th versus Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. A test of the new method with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states Amapa and Rondonia also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) was carried out in several mines and pegmatites to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, host rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and environmental gamma radiation therefore generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  4. do rio grande do sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of quantifying the production of wood in the Area of the Fourth Colony of Italian Immigration in Rio Grande do Sul. Firstly, using a questionnaire, a census of the consuming companies of wood in that area was made, investigating mainly the amount, type, origin of the consumed raw material, and the amount, type and end use of wood products. As principal results, it was verified that such area presents 77 consuming companies and wood processing units. These were classified into micro and small companies, with familiar features and capital, and low industrialization. In the visits made to the industries, it was evident that many technological aspects are not known or are neglected, thus causing loss of the raw material and/or in low quality of the final products. A great amount of raw material (96,8% of the boards and 98,9% of the timber comes from other areas of the State or the country. In the same way the main products are sold abroad (wood frames 86,3%, panelings 99,7%, sawed wood 53%.

  5. A Grande Reportagem no contexto informativo SIC

    OpenAIRE

    Colaço, Vanessa Alexandra Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Os telespectadores querem ver grandes reportagens? Como evoluíram as audiências da Grande Reportagem SIC? É este o produto premium da estação? Terá este formato um investimento e continuidade garantidas? Estas são algumas das questões formuladas e às quais se procurou dar resposta neste Relatório de Estágio. Neste trabalho traça-se o perfil do programa Grande Reportagem SIC, clarificando a linha editorial que lhe serviu de base, procurando perceber as suas dinâmicas e passando em revista mome...

  6. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnowitt, R.; Nath, P.

    1993-01-01

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) x U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field

  7. Anthropometry of Mexican American Children in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby

    1988-01-01

    Compares height, weight, and triceps skinfold of Mexican American (MA) children, ages 10-14, in Texas with reference data on American children. Heights were below reference means while weights about same. Boys' triceps skinfold measurements were significantly greater than means. Girls' were similar, indicating positive energy balance. (Author/TES)

  8. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions. [Rio Grande Valley, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Procedures to edit cloud-contaminated pixels from those pixels representing Earth surface features were investigated. Because clouds are more reflective than Earth features and are colder than Earth surface features most of the year at 26 N latitude, either a raw digital count ratio or a ratio of reflectance percentage for the VIS band to the temperature works well. For this procedure, the two bands of data need to be registered to the ground scene.

  9. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever, but it is not contagious between animals and people. Valley fever in dogs is similar to valley ... Via Growth on Fomites. An Epidemic Involving Six Persons. Am Rev Respir Dis. ... aspects of coccidioidomycosis in animals and humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 ...

  10. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    products as greenhouse gases to their regions of origin. Thus multinational company operations are affected by their own activities. There is a strong, convincing case, that these industrial giants must be involved in Arctic partnerships of the grand challenge. A most instructive, very successful example is the collaboration by the chemical companies after the discovery of the polar ozone holes, followed by the replacement of the culprit chlorofluorocarbon compounds. Public relations and involvement/education: The IPY offers a unique opportunity to showcase and drive home, into homes, the seriousness of the issue, Hollywood/Madison Avenue/ NASA style, nothing else will do. Ultimately we need to be mindful that "civilizations are ephemeral compared to species. -What we need is a primer on science, clearly written and unambiguous in its meaning-a primer for anyone interested in the state of the Earth and how to survive and live well on it." (James Lovelock, Science, 08/05/98). - Let's start in the Arctic-NOW.

  11. Completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in a silicene field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    One-atom-thick silicene is a silicon-based hexagonal-lattice material with buckled structure, where an electron fuses multiple degrees of freedom including spin, sublattice pseudospin and valley. We here demonstrate that a valley-selective spin filter (VSSF) that supports single-valley and single-spin transport can be realized in a silicene field effect transistor constructed of an npn junction, where an antiferromagnetic exchange field and a perpendicular electric field are applied in the p -doped region. The nontrivial VSSF property benefits from an electrically controllable state of spin-polarized single-valley Dirac cone. By reversing the electric field direction, the device can operate as a spin-reversed but valley-unreversed filter due to the dependence of band gap on spin and valley. Further, we find that all the possible spin-valley configurations of VSSF can be achieved just by tuning the electric field. Our findings pave the way to the realization of completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in silicene circuits. (paper)

  12. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  13. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi 2 , closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area

  14. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  15. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  16. Las cinco grandes dimensiones de la personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan ter Laak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa las distintas posiciones teóricas sobre las cinco grandes dimensiones de la personalidad, mostrando las semejanzas y diferencias entre las posturas teóricas. Esta contribución presenta lo siguiente: (a la génesis del contenido y la estructura de las cinco dimensiones; (b la fortaleza de las cinco dimensiones; (e la relación de las cinco grandes dimensiones con otros constructos de personalidad; (d discute el valor predictivo de las puntuaciones del perfil de las cinco dimensiones para criterios pertinentes; (e analiza el estatus teórico de las cinco dimensiones; (f discute críticas históricas sobre las cinco grandes dimensiones y se formulan respuestas a estas críticas; (g hace conjeturas para el futuro de las cinco grandes dimensiones; y (h concluye con algunas conclusiones y comentarios.

  17. Rio Grande Channel, El Paso Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.-Mexican Boundary Survey.The original map is a Xerox of a Photolithographic Copy of Salazar...

  18. Rio Grande Channel, Guadalupe Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.- Mexican Boundary Survey. The original map is a xerox of a map entitled Boundary between the United...

  19. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  20. Grand unification and gravity - selected topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-09-01

    The material given here was presented in lectures delivered at the 4th Kyoto Summer Institute on Grand Unification and Related Topics. It consists of six sections. The sections are: the family problem, fermion mass hierarchy, maximal local symmetry, operator analysis of new physics, dynamically generated gravity, and Kaluza theory and grand unification. The last section contains a (hopefully) pedagogical introduction to Kaluza theory. For pedagogical completeness, several appendices reviewing some elementary notions of differential geometry have been added

  1. Probing the valley filtering effect by Andreev reflection in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon with a ballistic point contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The ballistic point contact (BPC) with zigzag edges in graphene is a main candidate for a valley filter, in which the polarization of the valley degree of freedom can be selected by using a local gate voltage. Here, we propose to detect the valley filtering effect by Andreev reflection. By using both scattering matrix analysis and numerical simulation, we show that Andreev reflection is strongly suppressed as the incident electron and reflected hole propagate through different bands of BPC with opposite chirality. The conductance as a function of both the incident energy of electron and the local gate voltage at the BPC is obtained, with which the parametric region for a perfect valley filter and the direction of the valley polarization can be determined. As the length of the BPC increases, the conductance exhibits an oscillatory decay behavior, indicating a negative correlation between Andreev reflection and valley polarization.

  2. Fy00 Treasure Valley ITS Deployment Project : advanced traffic management system (ATMS) software procurement and implementation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-02

    In 2000, the Treasure Valley area of the State of Idaho received a federal earmark of $390,000 to develop an Advanced Transportation Management System (ATMS) for the Treasure Valley region of Idaho. The Ada County Highway District (ACHD), located in ...

  3. Tuberculosis among prison staff in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Busatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the risk of infection and illness caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis among health care and security staff in prisons in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Method: cross-sectional study involving prison staff. An interview and sputum smear microscopy and culture were performed. Latent infection was evaluated according to the result of the tuberculin test (TT, self-referred. Results: among staff who had a TT, 10 (83.3% in the central region and 2 (16.7% in the southern region were considered reactors. Length of employment among prison officers who reacted to TT was 15.3 years, and among health care workers, 4.1 years (p = 0.01. No cases of active tuberculosis (TB were identified. Conclusion: prevalence of latent TB was 27.9%. Length of employment between different professional categories and their working regions was considered a risk factor for latent TB.

  4. Quantitative rock-fall hazard and risk assessment for Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Greg M.; Luco, Nicolas; Collins, Brian D.; Harp, Edwin L.; Reichenbach, Paola; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2014-01-01

    Rock falls are common in Yosemite Valley, California, posing substantial hazard and risk to the approximately four million annual visitors to Yosemite National Park. Rock falls in Yosemite Valley over the past few decades have damaged structures and caused injuries within developed regions located on or adjacent to talus slopes highlighting the need for additional investigations into rock-fall hazard and risk. This assessment builds upon previous investigations of rock-fall hazard and risk in Yosemite Valley and focuses on hazard and risk to structures posed by relatively frequent fragmental-type rock falls as large as approximately 100,000 (cubic meters) in volume.

  5. Orbital and Rover-based Exploration of Perseverance Valley, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A. M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Duran Vinent, O.; Craddock, R. A.; Holo, S.; Gadal, C.; Blois, G.; Palucis, M. C.; Goudge, T. A.; Morgan, A. M.; Day, M.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Umurhan, O. M.; Pähtz, T.; Birch, S.; Morgan, A. M.; Goudge, T. A.; Palucis, M. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Duran Vinent, O.; Craddock, R. A.; Holo, S.; Blois, G.; Gadal, C.; Morgan, A. M.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Day, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Perseverance Valley, based on orbital observations from the Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter HiRISE image data, is a 180 m long, 20 m wide anastomosing shallow channel system superimposed on the Cape Byron rim segment of the 22 km diameter Noachian-age Endeavour Crater on Mars. Several impact craters are superimposed on the valley system, indicating antiquity, although the valley's high degree of preservation indicates that it formed after significant regional-scale fluvial erosion and diffusive smoothing of Endeavour and its rim segments. The valley cuts into the inner, eastern rim on a 10˚ to 15˚ slope, and starts at a local low area on the rim crest. A set of shallow channels, some lined with perimeter rocks, extends from the west to meet the entrance to the valley. The western rim tilts to the west 0.8˚ and thus the channels tilt away from the valley entrance. The Mars Rover Opportunity has explored the western shallow channels leading up to the entrance to the valley. As of this writing Opportunity is located on the southern side of the valley entrance, with the Athena Science Team waiting until after solar conjunction to command the rover to descend into the valley to search for geomorphic and sedimentologic evidence related to valley formation. Wind erosion along radial fractures extending into and down Cape Byron is a possibility. Debris flows are also under consideration, perhaps enabled by melting ice at the rim crest. Dry avalanches are unlikely due to the low slopes. A fluvial origin is a strong contender based on models that show it is possible to have had a western catchment present when the Burns formation hydrated sulfates were being emplaced, followed by self-compaction of these sediments that tilted the western plains away from the rim crest. The key to testing among the various hypotheses for formation of the valley and shallow channels leading into the entrance will be the detailed stereo and multispectral imaging observations Opportunity will make

  6. Analysis of overdeepened valleys using the digital elevation model of the bedrock surface of Northern Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.

    2010-11-15

    Based on surface and borehole information, together with pre-existing regional and local interpretations, a 7,150 square kilometre Raster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface of northern Switzerland was constructed using a 25 m cell size. This model represents a further important step in the understanding of Quaternary sediment distribution and is open to a broad field of application and analysis, including hydrogeological, geotechnical and geophysical studies as well as research in the field of Pleistocene landscape evolution. An analysis of the overdeepened valleys in the whole model area and, more specifically in the Reuss area, shows that, in most cases, overdeepening is restricted to the areas covered by the Last Glaciation Maximum (LGM). However, at various locations relatively narrow overdeepened valleys outreach the tongue basins and the LGM ice shield limits. Therefore, an earlier and further-reaching glacial event has probably contributed significantly to the overdeepening of these valleys. No significant overdeepening has been identified downstream of Boettstein (Aare) and Kaiserstuhl (Rhine), although the ice extended considerably further downstream, at least during the most extensive glaciation. Except for the bedrock between Brugg and Boettstein, no overdeepened valleys are found significantly north of the outcrop of Mesozoic limestone of the Folded and Tabular Jura. A detailed analysis of the Reuss area shows that the Lake and Suhre valleys are separated from the Emmen-Gisikon Reuss valley basin by a significant bedrock barrier. The individual bedrock valleys are divided into several sub-basins, indicating a multiphase evolution of the valleys. Some of the swells or barriers separating the sub-basins coincide with known late LGM retreat stages. In the Suhre valley, an old fluvial valley floor with restricted overdeepened sections is documented. (author)

  7. Regional atmospheric circulation shifts induced by a grand solar minimum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Puertas, C.; Matthes, K.; Brauer, A.; Muscheler, R.; Hansen, F.; Petrick, C.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; van Geel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Large changes in solar ultraviolet radiation can indirectly affect climate1 by inducing atmospheric changes. Specifically, it has been suggested that centennial-scale climate variability during the Holocene epoch was controlled by the Sun2, 3. However, the amplitude of solar forcing is small when

  8. Venusian channels and valleys - Distribution and volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1993-01-01

    An updated map is presented which shows the distribution of more than 200 channels and valleys on Venus. A large number of channels are concentrated in equatorial regions characterized by highlands, rift and fracture zones, an associated volcanic features. Many channels associated with flow deposits are similar to typical terrestrial lava drainage channels. They are associated with a wide range of volcanic edifices. More than half of the sinuous rilles are associated with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. Corona volcanism driven by mantle plume events may explain this association. Many valley network are observed in highlands and in association with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. This indicates that highlands and coronae provided fractures and flow-viscosity lavas, both of which seem to be required for network formation by lava sapping processes. Canali-type channels have a unique distribution limited to some plains regions.

  9. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  10. Impact of Air Pollution on California Central Valley Fog Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the 20th century, trends in California Central Valley fog frequency have changed dramatically without explanation. While episodes of dense radiation fog, known regionally as Tule Fog, increased steadily from 1930-1970, analysis from both ground and remote sensing measurements confirm a 46-50% reduction in fog days in the last 30 years (Baldocchi and Waller, 2014, Herkes et al., 2014). The dominant hypotheses suggest that the recent decline in radiation fog can be explained by the rising temperatures associated with climate change or urban heat island effect. This assertion fails to explain the significant increase in Central Valley fog midcentury. Here we instead assert that changes in air pollution, rather than climate, better support this upward then downward temporal trend. Automobile use greatly increased emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) midcentury, followed by a large decrease in vehicle emissions due to statewide regulation from 1980 to present. In the Central Valley, NOx from automobile emissions contributes to the formation ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), the dominant hygroscopic aerosol in the valley's wintertime boundary layer that can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) necessary for fog droplet formation. Thus, changes in air pollution not only affect the number of CCN, but may also impact the density and persistence of fog episodes. Using NOAA meteorological records throughout the twentieth century, we will show the correlation between fog frequency, air pollution, and climatic drivers. We conclude that fog trends are closely correlated with changes in air pollution, rather than solely climate change.

  11. Utilization potential evaluation of plant resources in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Rong; Xu, Naizhong; Liu, Shengxiang; Ren, Tingyan

    2017-08-01

    Plant resources in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River are endemic to a class of district. The article adopts the analytic hierarchy process method to evaluate the exploitation and utilization potential of plant resources of thirty typical plant resources on the basis of their characteristics in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River, which provide scientific evidence for quantitative evaluation of regional plant resources, and we also suggest pathways offering protection and development.

  12. Geologic Map of MTM -20012 and -25012 Quadrangles, Margaritifer Terra Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S.A.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Clark, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) -20012 and -25012 quadrangles (lat 17.5 deg - 27.5 deg S., long 345 deg - 350 deg E.) cover a portion of Margaritifer Terra near the east end of Valles Marineris. The map area consists of a diverse assemblage of geologic surfaces including isolated knobs of rugged mountainous material, heavily cratered and dissected ancient highland material, a variety of plains materials, chaotic terrain materials, and one of the highest densities of preserved valleys and their associated deposits on the planet (Saunders, 1979; Baker, 1982; Phillips and others, 2000, 2001). The map area is centered on a degraded, partially filled, ~200-km-diameter impact structure (lat 22 deg S., long 347.5 deg E.), informally referred to as Parana basin, located between Parana Valles to the east and Loire Valles to the west. Parana Valles is a network of multidigitate, mostly east-west-oriented valleys that flowed west and discharged into Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002). Loire Valles, broadly comparable in length to the Grand Canyon on Earth, has a deeply incised channel within the map area that originates at the west-northwest edge of Erythraeum Chaos within Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002; Strom and others, 2000). Parana and Loire Valles, combined with Samara Valles to the west, form one of the most laterally extensive, well-integrated valley networks on Mars (Grant, 2000) and record a long history of modification by fluvial processes. The origin and morphology of the valley networks, therefore, provide insight into past environmental conditions, whereas their relation with other landforms helps constrain the timing and role of fluvial processes in the evolution and modification of the Margaritifer Terra region.

  13. Residues of toxaphene in insectivorous birds (Petrochelidon spp.) from the Rio Grande, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, K.A.; Smalling, K.L.; Mora, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Although it has been documented that wildlife in the Rio Grande Valley (RGV) contain increased concentrations of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, particularly DDE, little has been published on residues of toxaphene throughout this major North American watershed. In this study, 28 liver composites from adult swallows (Petrochelidon spp.) collected along the Rio Grande from 1999 through 2000 were analyzed for toxaphene residues using congener-specific gas chromatography–electron-capture negative ionization–mass spectrometry. Estimated total toxaphene concentrations ranged from 12 to 260 ng/g wet wt and were highest in samples from the lower RGV near Llano Grande Lake in Hidalgo and Cameron counties (Texas). Toxaphene congener profiles were relatively invariant throughout the watershed and were dominated by 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a or B8-806) with lesser amounts of several other Cl7-Cl9 compounds, many of which remain unidentified. Petrochelidon spp. liver profiles appear to be intermediate in complexity between those in invertebrates and fish (more complex) and mammals (less complex) and differs somewhat from those reported for other avian species. In addition to other legacy OC contaminants, toxaphene residues were most concentrated in the lower RGV and accumulated at up to hundreds of parts per billion in these insect-eating birds, underscoring their utility as avian bioindicators of persistent organic pollutants.

  14. One Valley at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    teaching, outreach, and research in the science and art of joint special operations. JSOU provides education to the men and women of Special Operations... leftover guerrillas. One valley at a time, stability can spread. This persistent spreading of influence into for- mally controlled Taliban areas, one...world. To carry out some of these transactions, Al Qaeda operates in Malaysia, China , the Philippines, and Germany. 10 JSOU Report 06-6 History of the

  15. Shallow Sedimentary Structure of the Brahmaputra Valley Constraint from Receiver Functions Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sowrav; Chopra, Sumer; Baruah, Santanu; Singh, Upendra K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, receiver functions from ten Broadband seismograph stations on Cenozoic sediment formations of Brahmaputra valley and its neighboring region in northeastern part of India are determined. Receiver function traces from this region show delay in peak by 1-2.5 s and associated minor peaks with the direct P-phase peak. Based on such observation, we try to image sedimentary structure of the Brahmaputra valley plain, adjacent Shillong plateau and Himalayan foredeep region. An adapted hybrid global waveform inversion technique has been applied to extract sedimentary basin structure beneath each site. The sedimentary cover of the basin is about 0.5-6.5 km thick across the valley, 0.5-1.0 km on Shillong plateau and 2.0-5.0 km in nearby foredeep region. We have found that sedimentary thickness increases from SW to NE along the Brahmaputra valley and towards the Eastern Himalayan syntaxes. The estimated sediment thickness and S wave velocity structure agree well with the results of previous active source, gravity, and deep borehole studies carried out in this region. The thick crustal low velocity sediment cover in Brahmaputra valley is expected to amplify ground motions during earthquakes and therefore important for seismic hazard assessment of the region.

  16. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around Buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures. The admini......In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures....... The administration of groundwater resources has been based on simulations using regional scale groundwater models. However, regional scale models have difficulties with accurately resolving the complex geology of the buried valleys, which bears the risk of poor model predictions of local scale effects of groundwater...... abstraction. To enable effective administration of the groundwater resources new methods need to be investigated to improve simulation of local scale flow in buried valleys that interact with surrounding regional groundwater systems. The purpose of this synthetic case study is to test the Local Grid Re...

  17. Measurements of windblown dust characteristics and ocean fertilization potential: The ephemeral river valleys of Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansie, A. P.; Wiggs, G. F. S.; Thomas, D. S. G.; Washington, R.

    2017-12-01

    Delivery of nutrients to the ocean by mineral aerosol deposition involves complex biogeochemical interactions that include atmospheric processing, dissolution and biotic uptake of available nutrients in the surface waters. Research into the fertilization potential of aeolian dust is currently constrained by a lack of understanding of the nutrient composition and bioavailability in dust source areas. Further, research into hot-spots of dust emission has largely focused on paleo-lacustrine sources and pans, to the detriment of other potential sources such as ephemeral river valleys in desert regions. Here, we investigate the sediment characteristics and nutrient content of windblown and surface sediments of a largely overlooked southern African dust source, Namibia's ephemeral river valleys. We deployed monitoring equipment in three river valleys to capture deflated sediments and monitor airborne dust concentration and meteorological conditions throughout an annual dust season. Our results show that windblown dust within the river valleys is easily transportable offshore from Namibia over the Benguela Upwelling System, an intensely productive region of the South Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrate that the windblown dust contains iron, phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients, each of which may positively impact primary production rates when deposited in the complex upwelling system. The river valley dust has a significantly higher content of nutrients than either of southern Africa's major dry lake bed dust sources, Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans. This aeolian work builds on previous source sediment findings proposing the ephemeral river valleys of Namibia as regionally important sources of dust with enhanced ocean fertilisation potential.

  18. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  19. Lifeomics leads the age of grand discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fuchu

    2013-03-01

    When our knowledge of a field accumulates to a certain level, we are bound to see the rise of one or more great scientists. They will make a series of grand discoveries/breakthroughs and push the discipline into an 'age of grand discoveries'. Mathematics, geography, physics and chemistry have all experienced their ages of grand discoveries; and in life sciences, the age of grand discoveries has appeared countless times since the 16th century. Thanks to the ever-changing development of molecular biology over the past 50 years, contemporary life science is once again approaching its breaking point and the trigger for this is most likely to be 'lifeomics'. At the end of the 20th century, genomics wrote out the 'script of life'; proteomics decoded the script; and RNAomics, glycomics and metabolomics came into bloom. These 'omics', with their unique epistemology and methodology, quickly became the thrust of life sciences, pushing the discipline to new high. Lifeomics, which encompasses all omics, has taken shape and is now signalling the dawn of a new era, the age of grand discoveries.

  20. Dry Valley streams in Antarctica: Ecosystems waiting for water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Niyogi, D.K.; Alger, A.S.; Bomblies, A.; Conovitz, P.A.; Tate, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    An axiom of ecology is: 'Where there is water, there is life.' In dry valley ecosystems of Antarctica, this axiom can be extended to: 'Where there has been and will be water, there is life.' Stream communities in the dry valleys can withstand desiccation on an annual basis and also for longer periods - as much as decades or even centuries. These intact ecosystems, consisting primarily of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae, spring back to life with the return of water. Soil organisms in the dry valleys also have remarkable survival capabilities (Virginia and Wall 1999), emerging from dormancy with the arrival of water. Streams in the dry valleys carry meltwater from a glacier or ice-field source to the lakes on the valley floors and generally flow for 4-10 weeks during the summer, depending on climatic conditions. Many of these streams contain abundant algal mats that are perennial in the sense that they are in a freeze-dried state during the winter and begin growing again within minutes of becoming wetted by the first flow of the season. The algal species present in the streams are mainly filamentous cyanobacteria (approximately 20 species of the genera Phormidium, Oscillatoria, and Nostoc), two green algal species of the genus Prasiola, and numerous diatom taxa that are characteristic of soil habitats and polar regions. Algal abundances are greatest in those streams in which periglacial processes, acting over periods of perhaps a century, have produced a stable stone pavement in the streambed. This habitat results in a less turbulent flow regime and limits sediment scour from the streambed. Because dry valley glaciers advance and retreat over periods of centuries and millennia and stream networks in the dry valleys evolve through sediment deposition and transport, some of the currently inactive stream channels may receive flow again in the future. Insights- into the process of algal persistence and reactivation will come from long-term experiments that study the

  1. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  2. Switching effects and spin-valley Andreev resonant peak shifting in silicene superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodchomshom, Bumned; Niyomsoot, Kittipong; Pattrawutthiwong, Eakkarat

    2018-03-01

    The magnetoresistance and spin-valley transport properties in a silicene-based NM/FB/SC junction are investigated, where NM, FB and SC are normal, ferromagnetic and s-wave superconducting silicene, respectively. In the FB region, perpendicular electric and staggered exchange fields are applied. The quasiparticles may be described by Dirac Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation due to Cooper pairs formed by spin-valley massive fermions. The spin-valley conductances are calculated based on the modified Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. We find the spin-valley dependent Andreev resonant peaks in the junction shifted by applying exchange field. Perfect conductance switch generated by interplay of intrinsic spin orbit interaction and superconducting gap has been predicted. Spin and valley polarizations are almost linearly dependent on biased voltage near zero bias and then turn into perfect switch at biased voltage approaching the superconducting gap. The perfect switching of large magnetoresistance has been also predicted at biased energy near the superconducting gap. These switching effects may be due to the presence of spin-valley Andreev resonant peak near the superconducting gap. Our work reveals potential of silicene as applications of electronic switching devices and linear control of spin and valley polarizations.

  3. Evidence of Early Cultures in the Palpa Valleys on the South coast of Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Reindel, Markus; Isla, Johny A.

    2012-01-01

    After the pioneering work of Julio C. Tello, Frédéric Engel and John H. Rowe on the Formative and Preceramic periods, few advances have been made in the investigation of early cultural developments on the south coast of Perú. This is especially true for the Río Grande de Nasca drainage, where there is a lack of data regarding early human occupation. The Nasca-Palpa Archaeological Project aims to reconstruct the human occupation of the Palpa valleys during all Prehispanic periods. In this arti...

  4. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  5. Morphological properties of tunnel valleys of the southern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and implications for their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Stephen J.; Clark, Chris D.

    2016-07-01

    Tunnel valleys have been widely reported on the bed of former ice sheets and are considered an important expression of subglacial meltwater drainage. Although known to have been cut by erosive meltwater flow, the water source and development of channels has been widely debated; ranging between outburst flood events through to gradually occurring channel propagation. We have mapped and analysed the spatial pattern and morphometry of tunnel valleys and associated glacial landforms along the southern sector of the former Laurentide Ice Sheet from high-resolution digital elevation models. Around 2000 tunnel valleys have been mapped, revealing an organised pattern of sub-parallel, semi-regularly spaced valleys that form in distinctive clusters. The tunnel valleys are typically varies considerably down-valley. They preferentially terminate at moraines, which suggests that formation is time dependent; while we also observe some tunnel valleys that have grown headwards out of hill-hole pairs. Analysis of cross-cutting relationships between tunnel valleys, moraines and outwash fans permits reconstruction of channel development in relation to the retreating ice margin. This palaeo-drainage reconstruction demonstrates incremental growth of most valleys, with some used repeatedly or for long periods, during deglaciation, while others were abandoned shortly after their formation. Our data and interpretation support gradual (rather than a single-event) formation of most tunnel valleys with secondary contributions from flood drainage of subglacial and or supraglacially stored water down individual tunnel valleys. The distribution and morphology of tunnel valleys is shown to be sensitive to regional factors such as basal thermal regime, ice and bed topography, timing and climate.

  6. Tracing groundwater recharge in the San Luis Valley, Colorado: Groundwater contamination susceptibility in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tanya; Hindshaw, Ruth; Singer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Water is a vital resource in any agricultural watershed, yet in the arid western United States farming practices threaten the quality and availability of groundwater. This is a pressing concern in the San Luis Valley, southern Colorado, where agriculture comprises 30% of the local economy, and employs over half the valley population. Although 54 % of the water used for irrigation is surface water, farmers do not usually apply this water directly to their fields. Instead, the water is often diverted into pits which recharge the aquifer, and the water is subsequently pumped during the following irrigation season. The Rio Grande Water Conservation District recognises that recharge to the unconfined aquifer has been outpaced by commercial irrigation for at least four decades, resulting in a decline in groundwater levels. Recycled irrigation water, and leakage from unlined canals now represent the greatest recharge contribution to the unconfined aquifer in this region. This makes the shallow groundwater particularly susceptible to agricultural contamination. The purpose of this study is to assess groundwater contamination in the unconfined and upper confined aquifers of the San Luis Valley, which are the most susceptible to contamination due to their close proximity to the surface. Although concentrations of potentially harmful contaminants from agricultural runoff are regularly monitored, the large spatial and temporal fluctuations in values make it difficult to determine long-term trends. We have analysed δ18O, δ2H and major-ion chemistry of 57 groundwater, stream and precipitation samples, collected in June 2014, and interpreted them alongside regional stream flow data and groundwater levels. This will allow us to study the seasonality and locality of groundwater recharge to provide greater insight into the watershed's potential for pollution. A groundwater vulnerability assessment was performed using the model DRASTIC (Depth to water, Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil

  7. 21st Century jobs initiative - Tennessee`s Resource Valley. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-23

    Tennessee`s Resource Valley, a regional economic development organization, was asked to facilitate a two-year, $750,000 grant from the Department of Energy. The grant`s purpose was to make the East Tennessee region less dependent on federal funds for its economic well-being and to increase regional awareness of the advantages of proximity to the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge. The mission of Tennessee`s Resource Valley is to market the business location advantages of mid-East Tennessee to corporate decision makers and to facilitate regional initiatives that impact the creation of quality job opportunities. Tennessee`s Resource Valley represents fifteen (15) counties in East Tennessee: Anderson, Blount, Campbell, Claiborne, Cocke, Grainger, Jefferson, Knox, Loudon, Monroe, Morgan, Roane, Scott, Sevier and Union.

  8. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  9. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  10. Temperature and Precipitation trends in Kashmir valley, North Western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Mifta Ul; Rasool, Rehana; Ahmed, Pervez; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as an important issue ever to confront mankind. This concern emerges from the fact that our day-to-day activities are leading to impacts on the Earth's atmosphere that has the potential to significantly alter the planet's shield and radiation balance. Developing countries particularly whose income is particularly derived from agricultural activities are at the forefront of bearing repercussions due to changing climate. The present study is an effort to analyze the changing trends of precipitation and temperature variables in Kashmir valley along different elevation zones in the north western part of India. As the Kashmir valley has a rich repository of glaciers with its annual share of precipitation, slight change in the temperature and precipitation regime has far reaching environmental and economic consequences. The results from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of the period 1980-2014 reveals that the annual mean temperature of Kashmir valley has increased significantly. Accelerated warming has been observed during 1980-2014, with intense warming in the recent years (2001-2014). During the period 1980-2014, steeper increase, in annual mean maximum temperature than annual mean minimum temperature, has been observed. In addition, mean maximum temperature in plain regions has shown higher rate of increase when compared with mountainous areas. In case of mean minimum temperature, mountainous regions have shown higher rate of increase. Analysis of precipitation data for the same period shows a decreasing trend with mountainous regions having the highest rate of decrease which can be quite hazardous for the fragile mountain environment of the Kashmir valley housing a large number of glaciers.

  11. Grand Tour: immaginario, territorio e culture digitali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ilardi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Il Grand Tour può essere recuperato come asset narrativo utile per un intervento strategico di re-branding del viaggio in Italia? Il contributo analizza il contesto e le condizioni per una progettazione di questo livello nell’ambiente culturale dell’epoca digitale. Considerando gli archetipi moderni della mediazione dei luoghi come una grande riserva di senso, da riattivare sia nelle pratiche basate sui format seriali e transmediali che valorizzano i territori nella produzione creativa, sia nella costruzione di infrastrutture digitali e  transluoghi per la valorizzazione degli attrattori culturali.

  12. Effective Higgs theories in supersymmetric grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2017-09-15

    The effective Higgs theories at the TeV scale in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification models are systematically derived. Restricted to extensions on 5{sub H} containing the Higgs sector we show that only two types of real (vector-like) models and one type of chiral model are found to be consistent with perturbative grand unification. While the chiral model has been excluded by the LHC data, the fate of perturbative unification will be uniquely determined by the two classes of vector-like models. (orig.)

  13. Grand Master Perellos : rheumatic fever and syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonello, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    It is not given to everyone to have his maladies made the subject-matter of a published book. Not so Grand Master Perellos (1697 ­ 1720) who lived to see a 104-page volume about his recalcitrant fevers printed in his lifetime.1 It all started with a letter written on February 15, 1708, by Malta's protomedico (Chief Government Medical Officer) Dr Arcangelo Grech2 at the instance of the Grand Master, addressed to the most eminent physician in Sicily, indirectly asking for guidance about the def...

  14. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  15. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  16. Particle physics models of inflation in supergravity and grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Philipp Manuel

    2010-12-03

    In the first part of this thesis, we study classes of hybrid and chaotic inflation models in four-dimensional N=1 supergravity. Therein, the {eta}-problem can be resolved relying on fundamental symmetries in the Kaehler potential. Concretely, we investigate explicit realizations of superpotentials, in which the flatness of the inflaton potential is protected at tree level by a shift symmetry or a Heisenberg symmetry in the Kaehler potential. In the latter case, the associated modulus field can be stabilized during inflation by supergravity effects. In the context of hybrid inflation, a novel class of models, to which we refer as ''tribrid inflation,'' turns out to be particularly compatible with such symmetry solutions to the {eta}-problem. Radiative corrections due to operators in the superpotential, which break the respective symmetry, generate the required small slope of the inflaton potential. Additional effective operators in the Kaehler potential can reduce the predicted spectral index so that it agrees with latest observational data. Within a model of chaotic inflation in supergravity with a quadratic potential, we apply the Heisenberg symmetry to allow for viable inflation with super-Planckian field values, while the associated modulus is stabilized. We show that radiative corrections are negligible in this context. In the second part, the tribrid inflation models are extended to realize gauge non-singlet inflation. This is applied to the matter sector of supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories based on the Pati-Salam gauge group. For the specific scenario in which the right-handed sneutrino is the inflaton, we study the scalar potential in a D-flat valley. We show that despite potentially dangerous two-loop corrections, the required flatness of the potential can be maintained. The reason for this is the strong suppression of gauge interactions of the inflaton field due to its symmetry breaking vacuum expectation value. In addition, the

  17. Alumina+Silica+/-Germanium Alteration in Smectite-Bearing Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Van Bommel, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Fox, V. K.; Farrand, W. H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Mars for 12+ years, and is presently investigating the geology of a western rim segment of 22 kilometers diameter, Noachian- aged Endeavour crater. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer has determined the compositions of a pre-impact lithology, the Matijevic fm., and polymict impact breccias ejected from the crater, the Shoemaker fm. Opportunity is now investigating a region named Marathon Valley that cuts southwest-northeast through the central portion of the rim segment and provides a window into the lower stratigraphic record. (Geographic names used here are informal.) At the head of Marathon Valley, referred to here as Upper Marathon Valley, is a shallow, ovoid depression approximately 25×35 millimeters in size, named Spirit of Saint Louis. Layering inside Spirit of Saint Louis appears continuous with the Upper Marathon Valley rocks outside, indicating they are coeval. Spirit of Saint Louis is partly bounded by approximately 10-20 centimeters wide zone containing reddish altered rocks (red zone). Red zones also form prominent curvilinear features in Marathon Valley. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectra provide evidence for a really extensive Fe-Mg smectite in the Marathon Valley region, indicating distinct styles of aqueous alteration. The CRISM detections of smectites are based on metal-OH absorptions at approximately 2.3 and 2.4 micron that are at least two times the background noise level.

  18. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  19. Examining Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur-containing compound that leads to the formation of aerosols which can lead to the formation of haze and fog. Whole air samples were collected on board the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft during the 2017 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) over dairies and agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Analysis of the samples indicate average DMS concentrations of 23 ± 9 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 49 pptv. When compared with DMS concentrations from previous SARP missions (2009-2016), 2017 by far had the highest frequency of elevated DMS in this region. For this study, agricultural productivity of this region was analyzed to determine whether land use could be contributing to the elevated DMS. Top down and bottom up analysis of agriculture and dairies were used to determine emission rates of DMS in the San Joaquin Valley. Correlations to methane and ethanol were used to determine that DMS emissions were strongly linked to dairies, and resulted in R2 values of 0.61 and 0.43, respectively. These values indicate a strong correlation between dairies and DMS emissions. Combined with NOAA HySPLIT back trajectory data and analysis of ground air samples, results suggest that the contribution of dairies to annual DMS emissions in the San Joaquin Valley exceeds those from corn and alfalfa production.

  20. Fish Research Project, Oregon, Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Progress Report, Project Period: September 1, 1996 - August 31, 1997; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brian C. Jonasson; J. Vincent Tranquilli; MaryLouise Keefe; Richard W. Carmichael

    1998-01-01

    We have documented two general life history strategies utilized by juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin: (1) juveniles migrate downstream out of summer rearing areas in the fall, overwinter in river valley habitats, and begin their seaward migration in the spring, and (2) juveniles remain in summer rearing areas through the winter and begin seaward migration in the spring. In migration year 96-97, the patterns evident from migrant trap data were similar for the three Grande Ronde River populations studied, with 42% of the Lostine River migrants and 76% of the Catherine Creek migrants leaving upper rearing areas in the fall. Contrary to past years, the majority (98%) of upper Grande Ronde River migrants moved out in the fall. Total trap catch for the upper Grande Ronde River was exceedingly low (29 salmon), indicating that patterns seen this year may be equivocal. As in previous years, approximately 99% of chinook salmon juveniles moved past our trap at the lower end of the Grande Ronde River valley in the spring, reiterating that juvenile chinook salmon overwinter within the Grande Ronde valley section of the river. PIT-tagged fish were recaptured at Grande Ronde River traps and mainstem dams. Recapture data showed that fish that overwintered in valley habitats left as smolts and arrived at Lower Granite Dam earlier than fish that overwintered in upstream rearing areas. Fish from Catherine Creek that overwintered in valley habitats were recaptured at the dams at a higher rate than fish that overwintered upstream. In this first year of data for the Lostine River, fish tagged during the fall migration were detected at a similar rate to fish that overwintered upstream. Abundance estimates for migration year 96-97 were 70 for the upper Grande Ronde River, 4,316 for the Catherine Creek, and 4,323 for the Lostine River populations. Although present in most habitats, juvenile spring chinook salmon were found in the greatest abundance in pool