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Sample records for grammar examiner language

  1. GRAMMAR IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Nongxin

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Definition of grammar Grammar is the science dealing with the systematic rules of a language, its forms, inflections, syntax, and the art of using them correctly. It is summarized from language use and practice, and reflects the logic of thinking in people's speech or writing.

  2. Case Grammar in Philippine Languages. Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alan M.

    This paper presents evidence from Philippine languages which suggests a number of modifications in the theory of case grammar. Philippine languages and adjacent related languages mark the case relationship between the verb and one noun phrase in the sentence by a particle on the noun phrase and an affix on the verb, a phenomenon which in recent…

  3. Dependency Grammar in Lithuanian Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Grigonytė, Gintarė

    2006-01-01

    Lithuanian language is quite in an early stage of language processing. And therefore has a high demand on automated tools like taggers, parsers, word sense disambiguators etc. During the last 10 years only a few researchers were attempting to create a parser for Lithuanian language. However none of them are used in practices nowadays. The process of designing and implementing rule based parser for Lithuanian language is presented in this paper. Rules and constraints of the formal grammar foll...

  4. RAISING YOUNG LEARNERS‟ AWARENESS OF GRAMMAR THROUGH CREATIVE LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Murni Wahyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in foreign language teaching have shown the need to reconsider the role of grammar. It is argued that grammar understanding can promote more precise use of the foreign language. This belief has led to an increased interest in grammar teaching, including grammar teaching for young learners. In teaching English to young learners, activities that can promote grammar awareness are needed. The activities should be presented in context to make sure that the meaning is clear. The activities should also be creatively designed in order to challenge students‘ motivation and involvement. Grammar activities presented creatively in meaningful contexts are useful for noticing the language patterns. This paper focuses on the changing status of grammar, the importance of grammar in the young learner classroom, and how to raise grammar awareness through creative language activities. It also reports the result of a small-scale study on implementing grammarawareness activities for teaching English to Elementary School students.

  5. Recovering grammar relationships for the Java language specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lämmel (Ralf); V. Zaytsev (Vadim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGrammar convergence is a method that helps in discovering relationships between different grammars of the same language or different language versions. The key element of the method is the operational, transformation-based representation of those relationships. Given input grammars for

  6. Teaching English Grammar Through Communicative Language Teaching Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is an important part of language learning. In order for students to have a functional knowledge of a language (in other words, that they can spontaneously produce language) they must have at least some knowledge about the grammatical con⁃structs of the language in question. How grammar can be taught? Considering various second language teaching methods, teaching grammar through Communicative Language Teaching Approach is the most talked. Emphasis in this article is put on the applica⁃tion of Communicative Language Teaching Approach in grammar teaching in college English classes.

  7. Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Constraints are an important notion in grammars and language analysis, and constraint programming techniques have been developed concurrently for solving a variety of complex problems. In this chapter we consider the synthesis of these branches into practical and effective methods for language...... methods that combine constraints with logic grammars such as Definite Clause Grammars and CHR Grammars, and show also a direct relationship to abductive reasoning....

  8. Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

  9. Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Neil

    Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for…

  10. Teaching Children Foreign-Language Grammar: Are Authentic Materials Appropriate?

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    Olga Malova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses authentic materials as a resource for teaching grammar to young learners. Difficulties in foreign-language grammar learning for Russian pupils are presented, and typical challenges are described. The paper provides a pre-/post-intervention study of the development of children’s grammar skills. The research question is, “How does one use authentic materials for teaching grammar in an English as a foreign language (EFL classroom?” A qualitative method is used to assess the learning outcomes of using authentic materials in teaching grammar to eight–nine-year-old pupils (the second year of studying English.

  11. The Role of Teaching Grammar in First Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Sezgin; Erdogan, Ayse

    2018-01-01

    Grammar; while originating from the natural structure of the language also is the system which makes it possible for different language functions meet within the body of common rules especially communication. Having command of the language used, speaking and writing it correctly require strong grammar knowledge actually. However only knowing the…

  12. Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JeanetteDecarrico; DianeLarsen-Freeman

    2004-01-01

    Previous sections have reviewed issues in describing grammar, issues that were mainly concerned with what to describe, how to describe it and how to account for differing approaches and their implications in terms of theory and pedagogy in applied linguistics. But however precise and thorough researchers may attempt to be in addressing these issues, there are certain limitations to descriptions of grammar given in isolation from all other parts of the language system

  13. Teaching Grammar through Task-Based Language Teaching to Young EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Senel, Mufit

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of Task-Based Language Teaching on students' grammar knowledge in the field of teaching grammar. It has been studied with 32 students from 8th grade during a two-and-a-half-month process. Throughout this process, students firstly are applied a pre-test to examine their level and to confirm whether there…

  14. E-LEARNING TURKISH LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

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    Panagiotis GEORGALAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several modules of the website has been measured, examined and analyzed. The research was carried out between the years 2010- 2011 and included the analysis of several million clicks. The results show particular attitudes, habits and preferences throughout the e-learning process. There is a preference of users to exercises against theory. Fast cross-link exercises are preferred to slower “fill in” ones. During the weekends, visitors tend to use less e-learning facilities and select more light activities than the rest days of the week. Society trends and fashions like TV serials have a serious impact to the number of people who decide to learn a new foreign language, in particular Turkish. There is a strong preference of the audience to use online TV against online radio facilities for language practice. The subjects that Greek learners of Turkish language spend more time are verbs conjugation and vocabulary learning. They focus on elementary grammar subjects like the Alphabet, the numbers and the formation of plural. Finally, they try to learn the syntax of Turkish language through sentence structure puzzles and give priority to special grammar issues like noun compounds that are not present in Greek language.

  15. Environmental Peace Education in Foreign Language Learners' English Grammar Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    English language teachers create contexts to teach grammar so that meaningful learning occurs. In this study, English grammar is contextualized through environmental peace education activities to raise students' awareness of global issues. Two sources provided data to evaluate the success of this instructional process. Fourth-year pre-service…

  16. TG Grammar's Implications for the Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷彩

    2009-01-01

    Chomsky's Transformational-Generative (TG) grammar is another revolution to linguistics after Saussure's strueturalism, and it plays an important role in the modem linguistics. Introducing the research perspective and method of TG grammar, this paper analyses its implications for the foreign language teaching.

  17. The Role of Grammar Instruction in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The role of grammar instruction in foreign or second language acquisition is one of the most con troversial issues in foreign/second language teach ing and learning research. The advocators of gram mar instruction argue that grammar should be the core of language instruction and formal instruction enhances formal accuracy. On the other hand, crit ics naintain that the grammar knowledge has lim ited uses and may hinder the students from acquir ing the communicative competence and efficiency. Undoubtedly these two extreme theories often put teachers into a dilemma. What theory should they believe then? Do they accept the one and ignore the other?

  18. Multiple Grammars and the Logic of Learnability in Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeper, Tom W

    2016-01-01

    The core notion of modern Universal Grammar is that language ability requires abstract representation in terms of hierarchy, movement operations, abstract features on words, and fixed mapping to meaning. These mental structures are a step toward integrating representational knowledge of all kinds into a larger model of cognitive psychology. Examining first and second language at once provides clues as to how abstractly we should represent this knowledge. The abstract nature of grammar allows both the formulation of many grammars and the possibility that a rule of one grammar could apply to another grammar. We argue that every language contains Multiple Grammars which may reflect different language families. We develop numerous examples of how the same abstract rules can apply in various languages and develop a theory of how language modules (case-marking, topicalization, and quantification) interact to predict L2 acquisition paths. In particular we show in depth how Germanic Verb-second operations, based on Verb-final structure, can apply in English. The argument is built around how and where V2 from German can apply in English, seeking to explain the crucial contrast: "nothing" yelled out Bill/(*)"nothing" yelled Bill out in terms of the necessary abstractness of the V2 rule.

  19. Ch(k) grammars: A characterization of LL(k) languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becvar, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Soisalon-Soininen, E.

    In this paper we introduce the class of so called Ch(k) grammars [pronounced "chain k grammars"]. This class of grammars is properly contained in the class of LR(k) grammars and it properly contains the LL(k) grammars. However, the family of Ch[k) languages coincides with the family of LL(k)

  20. Grammar Learning Strategies and Language Attainment: Seeking a Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak Mirosław

    2009-01-01

    Despite major advances in research on language learning strategies, there are still areas that have received only scant attention, and one of them is undoubtedly learning grammar. The paper contributes to the paucity of empirical investigations in this domain by presenting the findings of a study which sought to investigate the relationship between the use of grammar learning strategies (GLS) reported by 142 English Department students and target language attainment, operationalized as their ...

  1. Transfer and access to universal grammar in adult second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Summary This dissertation focuses on the roles of first language transfer and Universal Grammar in adult second (or foreign) language acquisition. It contributes to the ongoing debate whether second language acquisition is constrained by Universal Grammar. According to generative linguists,

  2. E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

  3. Children creating language: how Nicaraguan sign language acquired a spatial grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghas, A; Coppola, M

    2001-07-01

    It has long been postulated that language is not purely learned, but arises from an interaction between environmental exposure and innate abilities. The innate component becomes more evident in rare situations in which the environment is markedly impoverished. The present study investigated the language production of a generation of deaf Nicaraguans who had not been exposed to a developed language. We examined the changing use of early linguistic structures (specifically, spatial modulations) in a sign language that has emerged since the Nicaraguan group first came together: In tinder two decades, sequential cohorts of learners systematized the grammar of this new sign language. We examined whether the systematicity being added to the language stems from children or adults: our results indicate that such changes originate in children aged 10 and younger Thus, sequential cohorts of interacting young children collectively: possess the capacity not only to learn, but also to create, language.

  4. Teaching Pragmatics in the Foreign Language Classroom: Grammar as a Communicative Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar; Cohen, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the teaching of pragmatics in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classroom and examines the role of grammar as a communicative resource. It also aims to highlight the importance of teaching pragmatics from beginning levels of language instruction, with the spotlight on speech acts at the discourse level. After the concept of…

  5. The Associations between Language Aptitude and Second Language Grammar Acquisition: A Meta-Analytic Review of Five Decades of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a meta-analysis that synthesizes the empirical research on the role of language aptitude in second language grammar acquisition. A total of 33 study reports were identified including 17 predictive studies that investigated the correlations between aptitude and ultimate L2 attainment and 16 interactional studies that examined the…

  6. Adaptable Grammars for Non-Context-Free Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    languages that are considered as prototype representatives of non-context-free phenomena in natural languages. We define a grammar formalism with these characteristics and show how it can be implemented in logic programming in a surprisingly straightforward way, compared with the expressive...

  7. A grammar of Tadaksahak a northern Songhay language of Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiansen-Bolli, Regula

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of the language Tadaksahak spoken by about 30,000 people living in the most eastern part of Mali. The four chapters of the book give 1. Information about the background of the group. 2. The phonological features of the language with the inventory of the

  8. Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language classroom: Utilising authentic samples of learner-learner interaction in a task-based oral activity. ... More recent studies argue that linguistic support must not be omitted from language teaching programmes within a task-based, communicative approach (Swain, ...

  9. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  10. The development of English grammar and reading comprehension by majority and minority language children in a bilingual primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja K. Steinlen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Both for the first language (L1 and for all additional languages (L2 or L3, grammatical knowledge plays a vital role in understanding texts (e.g., Grabe, 2005. However, little is known about the development and interaction of grammar and reading comprehension in beginning foreign language learning, especially with respect to children with a minority language background. This longitudinal study, therefore, examined minority and majority language children’s English grammar and reading comprehension skills. The children attended a German-English partial immersion primary school and were tested at the end of Grades 3 and 4. As expected, we found grammar to affect reading comprehension but also reverse effects. Most importantly, the results did not reveal any differences between the two language groups, irrespective of the test. Therefore, immersion primary school programs seem to be suitable for minority language children, and these children do not automatically represent an at-risk group for foreign language learning.

  11. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which proc...

  12. Theoretical Basics of the Transpositional Grammar of Russian Language

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    Victor Vasilievich Shigurov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical basics of the transpositional grammar of the Russian language (as the special areas of the functional grammar, which serves as a mechanism for describing the subject of the transposition of the linguistic units from one class (or interclass semantic-syntactic category to another (or others. The relation to the transposition of the grammar and vocabulary (word-formation was displayed; a typology of the transpositional processes in grammatical structure of the Russian language was submitted, and above all, in the parts of the speech and inter part-of-speech classes, grammatical categories and lexical-grammatical classes; general and specific objectives of the study types of transposition of the linguistic units were defined; the fragments of the description of the transition and syncretism of the language units were offered using the technique of opposition analysis and indexation. The results can be used in the development of the theory of the transpositional grammar of the Russian language.

  13. Ewe (for Togo): Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelka, Paul R.

    This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…

  14. Grammar Is the Heart of Language: Grammar and Its Role in Language Learning among Finnish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaristo, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and discusses views on grammar and its role in formal language learning amongst Finnish university students. The results are based on a questionnaire which was distributed to students at the University of Jyväskylä as part of institutional action research. The background to the project was a feeling amongst some teachers of…

  15. Aligning English grammar testing with European language standards

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    Bodrič Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, foreign language testing has gained in significance with the advent of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2001 (CEFR, a European language document which set comparable standards for learning, teaching and assessing foreign languages. The CEFR was used to set the research aim of this paper - testing grammar at level B2. The main aim of the research was to determine grammatical competence at level B2 and additional aims included: (a determining which particular areas of grammar need to be learned by students at level B2, (b formulating grammatical descriptors for each individual area of grammar, (c determining the test’s threshold level which would fulfil the criteria for grammatical competence at level B2, and (d determining the extent to which students have mastered the given areas. The pre-testing was followed by the main testing on the sample of 164 students in two secondary schools. The results indicated that the quantity and quality of grammatical competence was lower than expected: 47% of the population failed to fulfil the basic level of grammatical competence. The causes may be attributed to the factors of a subjective and objective nature. Level B2 is demanding qualitatively as well as quantitatively, regarding both the formal and the functional complexity and scope of language use, which requires intensive language production, high levels of motivation and sound working habits in order to master the given grammatical structures.

  16. Natural language computing an English generative grammar in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ray C

    2013-01-01

    This book's main goal is to show readers how to use the linguistic theory of Noam Chomsky, called Universal Grammar, to represent English, French, and German on a computer using the Prolog computer language. In so doing, it presents a follow-the-dots approach to natural language processing, linguistic theory, artificial intelligence, and expert systems. The basic idea is to introduce meaningful answers to significant problems involved in representing human language data on a computer. The book offers a hands-on approach to anyone who wishes to gain a perspective on natural language

  17. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

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    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  19. Language Practice with Multimedia Supported Web-Based Grammar Revision Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturay, Meltem Huri; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary-level English language learners towards web-based, multimedia-annotated grammar learning. WEBGRAM, a system designed to provide supplementary web-based grammar revision material, uses audio-visual aids to enrich the contextual presentation of grammar and allows learners to…

  20. THE IMPLICATION OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS BELIEF ABOUT GRAMMAR TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE POLICY IN INDONESIA

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    Cecilia Titiek Murniati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that teachers beliefs have a significant influence on actual classroom practice and, consequently, on students achievements. However, little research has been done to investigate the influence of Indonesian language policy and teachers beliefs. The study reported seeks to examine the influence of English language policy on pre-service teacher's beliefs about the teaching of English language grammar in Indonesian schools. The research participants were pre-service teachers who have taken the subjects of Structure, Teaching Methods, and Micro-teaching in three public and private universities in Central Java and Yogyakarta Special District. Due to time and scheduling limitations, the sampling method used in this study was convenient sampling. Documentation, survey schedules, interviews, focus group discussions were used to gather the data. The findings revealed that although the language policy in Indonesia has put English language teaching and learning within the framework of communicative competence since the enactment of the 2006 School-based Curriculum, the pre-service teachers still believed that traditional method of teaching grammar (explicit grammar instruction was imperative to use. The pre-service teachers tended to exclude English language policy enacted by Indonesian government in their discussion about teachers beliefs. Instead, the pre-service teachers constructed their beliefs about English language grammar teaching and learning process on their prior experiences in learning and teaching grammar.

  1. Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Bruce Tomblin, J; Ullman, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these

  2. Grammar Predicts Procedural Learning and Consolidation Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D.; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ullman, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining the consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically-developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that

  3. Complexity and Conflicting Grammars in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Marit

    2014-01-01

    The article by Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) presents many interesting ideas about first and second language acquisition as well as some experimental data convincingly illustrating the difference between production and comprehension. The article extends the concept of Universal Bilingualism proposed in Roeper (1999) to second…

  4. Learning of grammar-like visual sequences by adults with and without language-learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jessica M; Plante, Elena

    2014-08-01

    Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. In Study 1, adults with normal language (NL) or language-learning disability (LLD) were familiarized with the visual artificial grammar and then tested using items that conformed or deviated from the grammar. In Study 2, a 2nd sample of adults with NL and LLD were presented auditory word pairs with weak semantic associations (e.g., groom + clean) along with the visual learning task. Participants were instructed to attend to visual sequences and to ignore the auditory stimuli. Incidental encoding of these words would indicate reduced attention to the primary task. In Studies 1 and 2, both groups demonstrated learning and generalization of the artificial grammar. In Study 2, neither the NL nor the LLD group appeared to encode the words presented during the learning phase. The results argue against a general deficit in statistical learning for individuals with LLD and demonstrate that both NL and LLD learners can ignore extraneous auditory stimuli during visual learning.

  5. Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JeanetteDeCarrico; DianeLarsen-Freeman

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to definitions of grammar,confusion abounds.One problem is that the word grammar means different things to different people.For many,the term sugges tsa list of do's and don't's,rules that tell us we should say It is I,not It is me,that we should not say ain't,or that weshould avoid ending a sentence with a preposition.For oth

  6. Template-based generation of natural language expressions with Controlled M-Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Leermakers, M.C.J.; Rous, J.H.G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the generation of related natural-language expressions. The method is based on a formal grammar of the natural language in question, specified in the Controlled M-Grammar (CMG) formalism. In the CMG framework the generation of an utterance is controlled by a derivation

  7. English Grammar Comparison:Descriptive Grammar vs. Prescriptive Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-wen; LI Yi-an

    2015-01-01

    English grammar is thought as one of the most important parts in both language learning and teaching. While few peo⁃ple know there is more than one kind of English grammar. This essay provides the features and comparison between two com⁃monly used English grammar, namely descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar, and assist English teachers to explore further in grammar teaching.

  8. Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  9. Linear grammar as a possible stepping-stone in the evolution of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackendoff, Ray; Wittenberg, Eva

    2017-02-01

    We suggest that one way to approach the evolution of language is through reverse engineering: asking what components of the language faculty could have been useful in the absence of the full complement of components. We explore the possibilities offered by linear grammar, a form of language that lacks syntax and morphology altogether, and that structures its utterances through a direct mapping between semantics and phonology. A language with a linear grammar would have no syntactic categories or syntactic phrases, and therefore no syntactic recursion. It would also have no functional categories such as tense, agreement, and case inflection, and no derivational morphology. Such a language would still be capable of conveying certain semantic relations through word order-for instance by stipulating that agents should precede patients. However, many other semantic relations would have to be based on pragmatics and discourse context. We find evidence of linear grammar in a wide range of linguistic phenomena: pidgins, stages of late second language acquisition, home signs, village sign languages, language comprehension (even in fully syntactic languages), aphasia, and specific language impairment. We also find a full-blown language, Riau Indonesian, whose grammar is arguably close to a pure linear grammar. In addition, when subjects are asked to convey information through nonlinguistic gesture, their gestures make use of semantically based principles of linear ordering. Finally, some pockets of English grammar, notably compounds, can be characterized in terms of linear grammar. We conclude that linear grammar is a plausible evolutionary precursor of modern fully syntactic grammar, one that is still active in the human mind.

  10. New labels for old problems: Grammar in communicative language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poole Alexander

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Communicative language teaching has long been controversial due to its lack of explicit grammar instruction. Focus on form instruction (Long, 1991, however, puts communication as the centerpiece of instruction, but addresses form on a need-toknow- basis; thus, focus on form instruction claims to balance communication and grammar. Moreover, the concept of uptake (Lyster and Ranta, 1997; Ellis, Basturkmen, and Loewen, 2001, or the process by which learners respond to correction initiated by teachers and/or other learners, has been used to demonstrate that focus on form instruction, and thus by extension, CLT, gives sufficient attention to grammar. However, in this article, I will show that the concept of uptake is problematic, and demonstrate that focus on form instruction does not offer a feasible way of addressing grammar in EFL classrooms. Yet, before showing the technique’s inadequacy, I will highlight selected aspects of focus on form instruction and uptake research. Key Words: English-Grammar-Teaching-Evaluation, Second Language Acquisition- Teaching, Grammar Instruction. La enseñanza comunicativa del lenguaje ha sido muy controversial debido no sólo a la carencia explícita de la enseñanza de la gramática, sino también a la carencia tangible para evaluar si los estudiantes han adquirido o no ciertas formas gramaticales. El enfoque de la forma (Long, l991, sin embargo, ubica la comunicación como pieza principal de enseñanza, pero a la vez enfatiza en la enseñanza de la forma como parte importante que todo estudiante necesita saber. Algunos autores han señalado la importancia de tener un balance entre la comunicación y la enseñanza explícita de la gramática. Esto se debe en gran parte, al concepto de ‘uptake’ que ha sido usado para demostrar que el enfoque en la enseñanza de la forma y, por extensión el enfoque en la enseñanza comunicativa del lenguaje, facilitan la atención a la gramática. Sin embargo, el

  11. The Nature of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the nature of grammar as "universalness". The universal grammar indicates that all the languages in the world have identical grammar. This is discussed from three aspects, which gives insight into grammar acquisition.

  12. The "Contextual Contact" in Grammar Microteachings in Teaching English as a Foreign Language: A Teacher Training Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigöz, Iskender Hakki

    2015-01-01

    The grammar microteachings carried out by trainees in teacher education is a critical issue due to the fact that the teaching of grammar has always been a controversial issue throughout the foreign language teaching (FLT) acculturation. There is always some negative reaction to isolated teaching of grammar in communicative language teaching…

  13. Using Narrative Intervention to Accelerate Canonical Story Grammar and Complex Language Growth in Culturally Diverse Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Douglas B.; Spencer, Trina D.

    2016-01-01

    Oral narratives are a commonly used, meaningful means of communication that reflects academic language. New state curriculum standards include narrative-related language expectations for young school-age children, including story grammar and complex language. This article provides a review of preschool narrative-based language intervention…

  14. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  15. What baboons can (not) tell us about natural language grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletiek, Fenna H; Fitz, Hartmut; Bocanegra, Bruno R

    2016-06-01

    Rey et al. (2012) present data from a study with baboons that they interpret in support of the idea that center-embedded structures in human language have their origin in low level memory mechanisms and associative learning. Critically, the authors claim that the baboons showed a behavioral preference that is consistent with center-embedded sequences over other types of sequences. We argue that the baboons' response patterns suggest that two mechanisms are involved: first, they can be trained to associate a particular response with a particular stimulus, and, second, when faced with two conditioned stimuli in a row, they respond to the most recent one first, copying behavior they had been rewarded for during training. Although Rey et al. (2012) 'experiment shows that the baboons' behavior is driven by low level mechanisms, it is not clear how the animal behavior reported, bears on the phenomenon of Center Embedded structures in human syntax. Hence, (1) natural language syntax may indeed have been shaped by low level mechanisms, and (2) the baboons' behavior is driven by low level stimulus response learning, as Rey et al. propose. But is the second evidence for the first? We will discuss in what ways this study can and cannot give evidential value for explaining the origin of Center Embedded recursion in human grammar. More generally, their study provokes an interesting reflection on the use of animal studies in order to understand features of the human linguistic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Language in Education: Preservice teachers' ideas about grammar and knowledge about language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard; Bock, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Even though the national curriculum for mother tongue instruction in Denmark emphasizes a functional view of language (Danish Ministry of Education, 2009), we - as teacher educators - have experienced that most of our teacher students’ notions about language and grammar are deeply rooted...... in a formal and structural view of language. Hence we designed and carried out an action research project with the aim of pushing first year teacher students’ notions about language in a more functional direction. Throughout their first year in teacher training the students were involved in a series...... of radical changes to the curriculum, such as introducing SFL-based linguistics (Halliday 1994) and genre theory (Martin & Rose 2008) as the overall theoretical framework for language description. These changes were made in order to equip future teachers with a more functional view on language...

  17. An Evaluation of the Grammar Teaching Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可科

    2013-01-01

      Of the many issues surrounding grammar, perhaps the hottest debate is whether to teach it or not. We review briefly argu⁃ments against and in support of grammar teaching before examining current grammar approaches in second language teaching.

  18. Making sense of syntax – Innate or acquired? Contrasting universal grammar with other approaches to language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kliesch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of a Universal Grammar argue that humans are born with a dedicated language system that shapes and restricts the number of grammars found in human languages (Chomsky, 2005. It is essentially innate and has a genetic manifestation. Such an innate system is necessary because human grammars are too complex to be passed on through social interactions and probabilistic learning alone. However, this view is contested by a combination of emergentist approaches and a number of studies suggest that many of the core assumptions of Universal Grammar are either unnecessary or do not hold. Furthermore, this review will explore theoretical criticism of the Universal Grammar research programme.

  19. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Chantal N; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand, use of textese does

  20. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal N van Dijk

    Full Text Available When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever. Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand

  1. CHR grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena....... The formalism extends previous logic programming based grammars with a form of context-sensitive rules and the possibility to include extra-grammatical hypotheses in both head and body of grammar rules. Among the applications are straightforward implementations of Assumption Grammars and abduction under...... integrity constraints for language analysis. CHR grammars appear as a powerful tool for specification and implementation of language processors and may be proposed as a new standard for bottom-up grammars in logic programming....

  2. CHR Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena....... The formalism extends previous logic programming based grammars with a form of context-sensitive rules and the possibility to include extra-grammatical hypotheses in both head and body of grammar rules. Among the applications are straightforward implementations of Assumption Grammars and abduction under...... integrity constraints for language analysis. CHR grammars appear as a powerful tool for specification and implementation of language processors and may be proposed as a new standard for bottom-up grammars in logic programming....

  3. Systemic functional grammar in natural language generation linguistic description and computational representation

    CERN Document Server

    Teich, Elke

    1999-01-01

    This volume deals with the computational application of systemic functional grammar (SFG) for natural language generation. In particular, it describes the implementation of a fragment of the grammar of German in the computational framework of KOMET-PENMAN for multilingual generation. The text also presents a specification of explicit well-formedness constraints on syntagmatic structure which are defined in the form of typed feature structures. It thus achieves a model of systemic functional grammar that unites both the strengths of systemics, such as stratification, functional diversification

  4. Using Conceptual Metaphor and Functional Grammar to Explore How Language Used in Physics Affects Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor.…

  5. Specific Language Impairment - Evidence for the division of labor and the interaction between grammar and pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes grammatical and pragmatic data of English and Dutch acquiring children with SLI, and compares them to the language of typically developing children, in order to gain more insight in the organization of language, in particular, the dissociation and interaction of grammar and

  6. Analytical Review of Universal Grammar (UG) Approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwandy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the analysis of Universal Grammar (UG) approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA). This paper is significant as the sources for teacher or researcher of the second language since this elaboration is deeply focusing on the use of UG on SLA. The method used in this academic writing is inductive method of…

  7. Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Belief Development about Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapan, Seyit Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate pre-service English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' beliefs about grammar instruction in a foreign language (FL) context through their initial teaching practices. Analyses of semi-structured interviews and classroom observations apart from pre-and post-test results of participants' responses to a belief…

  8. Insights from Skill Acquisition Theory for Grammar Activity Sequencing and Design in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…

  9. Grammar of Binding in the languages of the world: Innate or learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Peter; Hermon, Gabriella; Yanti

    2015-08-01

    Languages around the world often appear to manifest nearly identical grammatical properties, but, at the same time, the grammatical differences can also be great, sometimes even seeming to support Joos's (1958) claim that "languages can differ from each other without limit and in unpredictable way" (p. 96). This state of affairs provides a puzzle for both nativist approaches to language like Generative Grammar that posit a fixed "Universal Grammar", and for approaches that minimize the contribution of innate grammatical structure. We approach this puzzling state of affairs by looking at one area of grammar, "Binding", the system of local and long distance anaphoric elements in a language. This is an area of grammar that has long been central to the Generative approach to language structure. We compare the anaphoric systems found in "familiar" (European-like) languages that contain dedicated classes of bound and free anaphors (pronouns and reflexives) with the anaphoric systems in endangered Austronesian languages of Indonesia, languages in which there is overlap or no distinction between pronouns and reflexives (Peranakan Javanese and Jambi Malay). What is of special interest about Jambi anaphora is not only that conservative dialects of Jambi Malay do not distinguish between pronouns and reflexives, but that Jambi anaphora appear to constitute a live snapshot of a unitary class of anaphora in the process of grammaticalization as a distinct system of pronouns and reflexives. We argue that the facts of Jambi anaphora cannot be explained by theories positing a Universal Grammar of Binding. Thus, these facts provide evidence that complex grammatical systems like Binding cannot be innate. Our results from Austronesian languages are confirmed by data from signed and creole languages. Our conclusion is that the human language learning capacity must include the ability to model the full complexity found in the syntax of the world's languages. From the perspective of child

  10. Grammar Errors in the Writing of Iraqi English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to investigate the grammatical errors of Iraqi postgraduates and undergraduates in their academic writing. However, few studies have focused on the writing challenges that Iraqi pre-university students face. This research aims at examining the written discourse of Iraqi high school students and the common grammatical errors they make in their writing. The study had a mixed methods design. Through convenience sampling method, 112 compositions were collected from Iraqi pre-university students. For purpose of triangulation, an interview was conducted. The data was analyzed using Corder’s (1967 error analysis model and James’ (1998 framework of grammatical errors. Furthermore, Brown’s (2000 taxonomy was adopted to classify the types of errors. The result showed that Iraqi high school students have serious problems with the usage of verb tenses, articles, and prepositions. Moreover, the most frequent types of errors were Omission and Addition. Furthermore, it was found that intralanguage was the dominant source of errors. These findings may enlighten Iraqi students on the importance of correct grammar use for writing efficacy.

  11. A grammar of newspaper editorial language: The complex sentence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sets out to examine what linguistic choices are made at the level of the sentence in selected English Language editorials in a particular newspaper in Ghana – the Daily Graphic. Data for the study consists of 338 selected sentences from 22 editorials of the Daily Graphic published in January 2008. We have ...

  12. How to analyse age effects in electrophysiological signatures of second language grammar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, Sanne; Wieling, Martijn; Sprenger, Simone; Brouwer, Susanne; Schmid, Monika

    2017-01-01

    There is a debate on the nature of the relationship between age of acquisition (AoA) and grammatical processing in second language (L2) learners (Birdsong, 2005). On the one hand, it has been argued that the ability to learn the grammar of an L2 decreases continuously with age due to general

  13. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  14. A grammar of Gaahmg, a Nilo-Saharan language of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirtz, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the grammar of Gaahmg, a Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic language spoken in the Blue Nile Province of North Sudan. The comprehensive description provides an analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax. Ten texts of various genre are given to help illustrated the

  15. A Case for Explicit Grammar Instruction in English as Second/Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kent

    2013-01-01

    This paper will provide a review of research--regarding explicit grammar instruction--that groups recent studies into three main categories and then sub-categorizes these studies under key terms in second language acquisition (SLA) research. The overall purpose of this paper is to argue that in light of these issues, recent studies have shown that…

  16. Improving language mapping in clinical fMRI through assessment of grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Japardi, Kevin; Curtiss, Susan; Moody, Teena; Benjamin, Christopher; Cho, Andrew; Vigil, Celia; Kuhn, Taylor; Jones, Michael; Bookheimer, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Brain surgery in the language dominant hemisphere remains challenging due to unintended post-surgical language deficits, despite using pre-surgical functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and intraoperative cortical stimulation. Moreover, patients are often recommended not to undergo surgery if the accompanying risk to language appears to be too high. While standard fMRI language mapping protocols may have relatively good predictive value at the group level, they remain sub-optimal on an individual level. The standard tests used typically assess lexico-semantic aspects of language, and they do not accurately reflect the complexity of language either in comprehension or production at the sentence level. Among patients who had left hemisphere language dominance we assessed which tests are best at activating language areas in the brain. We compared grammar tests (items testing word order in actives and passives, wh -subject and object questions, relativized subject and object clauses and past tense marking) with standard tests (object naming, auditory and visual responsive naming), using pre-operative fMRI. Twenty-five surgical candidates (13 females) participated in this study. Sixteen patients presented with a brain tumor, and nine with epilepsy. All participants underwent two pre-operative fMRI protocols: one including CYCLE-N grammar tests (items testing word order in actives and passives, wh-subject and object questions, relativized subject and object clauses and past tense marking); and a second one with standard fMRI tests (object naming, auditory and visual responsive naming). fMRI activations during performance in both protocols were compared at the group level, as well as in individual candidates. The grammar tests generated more volume of activation in the left hemisphere (left/right angular gyrus, right anterior/posterior superior temporal gyrus) and identified additional language regions not shown by the standard tests (e.g., left anterior

  17. Effective intervention for expressive grammar in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M; Leitao, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment are known to struggle with expressive grammar. While some studies have shown successful intervention under laboratory conditions, there is a paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of grammar treatment in young children in community settings. To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention programme for expressive grammar in 5-year-olds with specific language impairment. Thirty-four 5-year-old children attending a specialized school for children with language impairment participated in the study. Nineteen children received treatment for expressive grammar (experimental group) and 15 children received a control treatment. Treatment consisted of weekly 1-h sessions of small group activities in a classroom setting for 8 weeks. Techniques included direct instruction, focused stimulation, recasting and imitation. Results were analysed at the group level and as a case series with each child as their own control in a single-subject design. There was a significant difference in grammatical performance pre- and post-treatment for children who received grammar treatment (Cohen's d = 1.24), but not for a group of children who received a control treatment. Further, no difference in performance was found in the equivalent time period prior to treatment, nor for an untreated target. Treatment success was more pronounced in children without articulation difficulties which interfered with their ability to produce the grammatical targets (Cohen's d = 1.66). Individual analyses indicated the treatment effect was significant for the majority of children. Individually targeted intervention delivered in small groups in a classroom setting was effective in improving production of expressive grammatical targets in 5-year-old children with specific language impairment. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  18. Teaching grammar, structure and meaning exploring theory and practice for post-16 English language teachers

    CERN Document Server

    Giovanelli, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Teaching Grammar, Structure and Meaning introduces teachers to some basic ideas from the increasingly popular field of cognitive linguistics as a way of explaining and teaching key grammatical concepts. Particularly suitable for those teaching post-16 English Language, this book offers a methodology for teaching key aspects of linguistic form and an extensive set of learning activities. Written by an experienced linguist and teacher, this book contains:· an evaluation of current approaches to the teaching of grammar and linguistic form· a revised pedagogy based on principles from cognitive sci

  19. Unpacking the Discrepancy between Learner and Teacher Beliefs: What Should Be the Role of Grammar in Language Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Rabia; Kekec, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Learner and teacher beliefs play an important role in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom is a topic that is still debated in the literature. This study explored the beliefs of EFL learners and teachers regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error…

  20. English Language Teaching Methods: State of the Art in Grammar Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdiana Junaid

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of grammar has fluctuated and shifted over years. This paper addresses issues such as different ways of teaching grammar, changes in ideas, and practices at the present stage of its development as well as the current state of the art in grammar instruction. Several grammar textbooks which were published in different years also are looked at in order to discover the extent of change in terms of the materials used to teach grammar from time to time. A considerable array of English language teaching methods is available for teacher to utilize since 1980s. Before deciding to employ a particular method, however, educational practitioners need to take several things into consideration such as the objectives of the instruction, the needs, the interests, the expectation, the age, and the level of the learners, and the available supporting facilities. Equally important, the possible constraints such as the environment where the students are learning, the time, and the expectation of the institution are also needed to be considered.

  1. Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-06-01

    This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

  2. Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Etkina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

  3. Assessment of grammar optimizes language tasks for the intracarotid amobarbital procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Kuhn, Taylor; You, S Christine; Walshaw, Patricia; Curtiss, Susan; Bookheimer, Susan

    2017-11-01

    A previous study showed that assessment of language laterality could be improved by adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) (Połczyńska et al. 2014). The aim of this study was to further investigate the extent to which grammar tests lateralize language function during the recovery phase of the IAP in a larger patient sample. Forty patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (14 females, thirty-two right-handed, mean age 38.5years, SD=10.6) participated in this study. On EEG, 24 patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), 13 in the right hemisphere (RH), and 4 demonstrated mixed seizure origin. Thirty participants (75%) had bilateral injections, and ten (25%) had unilateral injections (five RH and five LH). Based on results from the encoding phase, we segregated our study participants to a LH language dominant and a mixed dominance group. In the recovery phase of the IAP, the participants were administered a new grammar test (the CYCLE-N) and a standard language test. We analyzed the laterality index measure and effect sizes in the two tests. In the LH-dominant group, the CYCLE-N generated more profound language deficits in the recovery phase than the standard after injection to either hemisphere (pgrammar tasks was still higher than for the standard tests. Critically, the CYCLE-N administered in the recovery phase was nearly as effective as the standard tests given during the encoding phase. The results may be significant for individuals with epilepsy undergoing IAP. The grammar tests may be a highly efficient measure for lateralizing language function in the recovery phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Southeast Asian Languages Proficiency Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…

  5. Grammar and Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2007-01-01

    Instead of being a boring subject, grammar is in fact one of the most exciting, creative, relevant subjects. It is sometimes described as the skeleton of a language, but it is much more than bones. It is the language's heartbeat, for without grammar; there can be no meaningful or effective communication. And grammar has different definitions and categories according to different contexts. By first reviewing the past linguists, especially those grammarians and their research, the paper makes some comparisons between some categories of grammar and puts forward that there is no 'good' or 'bad' grammar but knowing grammar or knowing about grammar really has a close relationship with effective communication.

  6. Electrical brain responses in language-impaired children reveal grammar-specific deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fonteneau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and public fascination with human language have included intensive scrutiny of language disorders as a new window onto the biological foundations of language and its evolutionary origins. Specific language impairment (SLI, which affects over 7% of children, is one such disorder. SLI has received robust scientific attention, in part because of its recent linkage to a specific gene and loci on chromosomes and in part because of the prevailing question regarding the scope of its language impairment: Does the disorder impact the general ability to segment and process language or a specific ability to compute grammar? Here we provide novel electrophysiological data showing a domain-specific deficit within the grammar of language that has been hitherto undetectable through behavioural data alone.We presented participants with Grammatical(G-SLI, age-matched controls, and younger child and adult controls, with questions containing syntactic violations and sentences containing semantic violations. Electrophysiological brain responses revealed a selective impairment to only neural circuitry that is specific to grammatical processing in G-SLI. Furthermore, the participants with G-SLI appeared to be partially compensating for their syntactic deficit by using neural circuitry associated with semantic processing and all non-grammar-specific and low-level auditory neural responses were normal.The findings indicate that grammatical neural circuitry underlying language is a developmentally unique system in the functional architecture of the brain, and this complex higher cognitive system can be selectively impaired. The findings advance fundamental understanding about how cognitive systems develop and all human language is represented and processed in the brain.

  7. Grammar! A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lid, Ed.; Boaks, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on the teaching of grammar, particularly in second language instruction, include: "Grammar: Acquisition and Use" (Richard Johnstone); "Grammar and Communication" (Brian Page); "Linguistic Progression and Increasing Independence" (Bernardette Holmes); "La grammaire? C'est du bricolage!" ("Grammar? That's Hardware!") (Barry…

  8. Using Literary Texts to Teach Grammar in Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Hasan; Günday, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Today, it is discussed that the use of literary texts in foreign language classroom as a course material isn't obligatory; but necessary due to the close relationship between language and literature. Although literary texts are accepted as authentic documents and do not have any purpose for language teaching, they are indispensable sources to be…

  9. The neurophysiology of language processing shapes the evolution of grammar: evidence from case marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species.

  10. Performance Grammars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Jane J

    1974-01-01

    .... The theory of systematic variation affords better direction for gathering data on rule-governed language use and a means for representing the results in formal grammars that predict speech behavior...

  11. A grammar-based semantic similarity algorithm for natural language sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Che; Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to "artificial language", such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  12. An Application of Second Language Acquisition Research to ESL Grammar Teaching: What To Do with Novel Passives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how second language acquisition research can inform textbook writers and language teachers. Presents an analysis of 40 English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) grammar textbooks, which shows that few mention unaccusative verbs or inappropriate passives in their presentation of active and passive voice. Offers suggestions for dealing with…

  13. The Development of English Grammar and Reading Comprehension by Majority and Minority Language Children in a Bilingual Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlen, Anja K.

    2017-01-01

    Both for the first language (L1) and for all additional languages (L2 or L3), grammatical knowledge plays a vital role in understanding texts (e.g., Grabe, 2005). However, little is known about the development and interaction of grammar and reading comprehension in beginning foreign language learning, especially with respect to children with a…

  14. Learning of Grammar-Like Visual Sequences by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jessica M.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. Method: In Study 1,…

  15. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students read…

  17. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Che Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  18. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

  19. The growth of language: Universal Grammar, experience, and principles of computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles; Crain, Stephen; Berwick, Robert C; Chomsky, Noam; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2017-10-01

    Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation. We review developmental evidence that children make use of hierarchically composed structures ('Merge') from the earliest stages and at all levels of linguistic organization. At the same time, longitudinal trajectories of development show sensitivity to the quantity of specific patterns in the input, which suggests the use of probabilistic processes as well as inductive learning mechanisms that are suitable for the psychological constraints on language acquisition. By considering the place of language in human biology and evolution, we propose an approach that integrates principles from Universal Grammar and constraints from other domains of cognition. We outline some initial results of this approach as well as challenges for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The grammar of binding in the languages of the world: A response to Reuland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti; Cole, Peter; Hermon, Gabriella

    2017-11-01

    Cole, Hermon, and Yanti (2015) argue that the empirical facts related to anaphoric binding in two dialects of Jambi Malay undermine the Classical Binding Theory. Reuland (2017) agrees with this conclusion but argues that the data are easily accounted for by his alternative Universal Grammar-based approach to Binding. In this response, we demonstrate that the alternative proposal for Jambi Malay rests on claims about the language that are incorrect. While we do not, indeed cannot, demonstrate that it is impossible for a Universal Grammar based proposal to account for the facts as outlined in CHY (2015), we conclude that those facts remain an outstanding challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A grammar of Abui : A Papuan language of Alor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratochvil, František

    2007-01-01

    This work contains the first comprehensive description of Abui, a language of the Trans New Guinea family spoken approximately by 16,000 speakers in the central part of the Alor Island in Eastern Indonesia. The description focuses on the northern dialect of Abui as spoken in the village

  2. Perspectives on the rhythm–grammar link and its implications for typical and atypical language development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Jacobs, Magdalene S.; Schuele, C. Melanie; McAuley, J. Devin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the mounting evidence for shared cognitive mechanisms and neural resources for rhythm and grammar. Evidence for a role of rhythm skills in language development and language comprehension is reviewed here in three lines of research: (a) behavioral and brain data from adults and children, showing that prosody and other aspects of timing of sentences influence online morpho-syntactic processing; (b) co-morbidity of impaired rhythm with grammatical deficits in children with language impairment; and (c) our recent work showing a strong positive association between rhythm perception skills and expressive grammatical skills in young school-age children with typical development. Our preliminary follow-up study presented here revealed that musical rhythm perception predicted variance in six-year-old children’s production of complex syntax, as well as online reorganization of grammatical information (transformation); these data provide an additional perspective on the hierarchical relations potentially shared by rhythm and grammar. A theoretical framework for shared cognitive resources for the role of rhythm in perceiving and learning grammatical structure is elaborated on in light of potential implications for using rhythm-emphasized musical training to improve language skills in children. PMID:25773612

  3. An Exploration of the Relationship between Vietnamese Students' Knowledge of L1 Grammar and Their English Grammar Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tammie M.

    2010-01-01

    The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…

  4. Exemplar variability facilitates rapid learning of an otherwise unlearnable grammar by individuals with language-based learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Dailey, Natalie S; Aguilar, Jessica M; Gómez, Rebecca; Plante, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Even without explicit instruction, learners are able to extract information about the form of a language simply by attending to input that reflects the underlying grammar. In this study, the authors explored the role of variability in this learning by asking whether varying the number of unique exemplars heard by the learner affects learning of an artificial syntactic form. Learners with normal language (n = 16) and language-based learning disability (LLD; n = 16) were exposed to strings of nonwords that represented an underlying grammar. Half of the learners heard 3 exemplars 16 times each (low variability group), and the other half of the learners heard 24 exemplars twice each (high variability group). Learners were then tested for recognition of items heard and generalization of the grammar with new nonword strings. Only those learners with LLD who were in the high variability group were able to demonstrate generalization of the underlying grammar. For learners with normal language, both those in the high and the low variability groups showed generalization of the grammar, but relative effect sizes suggested a larger learning effect in the high variability group. The results demonstrate that the structure of the learning context can determine the ability to generalize from specific training items to novel cases.

  5. The Effect of Early Childhood Language Training Programs on the Contemporary Formation of Grammar Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kamhöfer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    While there is a big literature on the benefits of pre-school education, only little is known why kindergarten attendance improves later-life outcomes. This is partly because most studies analyze the effect of complete 2 years pre-school programs. In order to shed light into the black box of kindergarten education, I am using the German National Educational Panel Study and regress the level of grammar skills - a main intelligence component - on the participation in a nationwide-used language ...

  6. Some Effects of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Syntactic Priming on Students’ Written Language Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Asfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural or syntactic priming is a phenomenon in which prior exposure to specific language structures either facilitates or interferes with a learner’s subsequent language production [1]. Exposure to English structures through explicit instruction is reported to have inconclusive results. [2] reported that explicit and implicit grammar instruction ends up with automatization. This study reexamines the effect of syntactic priming and explicit grammar instruction on students’ writing. Specific grammatical features frequently appeared on TOEFL (Written Expression Section test were intensively practiced and then the students took a test whose items were specifically collected from TOEFL practice tests. Finally, the students were assigned to write a short essay. Sentences with similar structures which the students had been exposed to were extracted from the students’ essays. Out of 40 test items, only 59.86% in average could be answered correctly, and all of the grammatical features to which the students were previously exposed were contained in their essays. However, in average only eight out of 18 sentences were grammatically constructed. It can be concluded that although priming method with explicit instruction leads the students to use similar syntactic features in their writing, it seems to have little impact on students’ grammatical knowledge for immediate use in written language production.

  7. Functional english grammar, an introduction for second language teachers Functional english grammar, an introduction for second language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappenheim Murcia Ruth

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este libro, perteneciente a la serie Cambridge Language Education, editada por Jack C. Richards, proporciona un acceso claro y útil a la gramática funcional de M. A. K. Hallíday, la cual gira alrededor de los significados experiencial, interpersonal y textual del lenguaje. Este eje teórico permite abordar la gramática como un recurso para la creación de significados en el discurso oral y escrito. De esta forma se pretende proporcionar una aproximación a la lengua inglesa en uso, lo cual es considerado por el autor del libro como una aproximación indispensable para la enseñanza del inglés, puesto que permite emprender esta actividad desde una perspectiva comunicativa.

  8. Neural oscillatory mechanisms during novel grammar learning underlying language analytical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; Pereda, Ernesto; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the initial phases of novel grammar learning on a neural level, concentrating on mechanisms responsible for individual variability between learners. Two groups of participants, one with high and one with average language analytical abilities, performed an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task consisting of learning and test phases. During the task, EEG signals from 32 cap-mounted electrodes were recorded and epochs corresponding to the learning phases were analysed. We investigated spectral power modulations over time, and functional connectivity patterns by means of a bivariate, frequency-specific index of phase synchronization termed Phase Locking Value (PLV). Behavioural data showed learning effects in both groups, with a steeper learning curve and higher ultimate attainment for the highly skilled learners. Moreover, we established that cortical connectivity patterns and profiles of spectral power modulations over time differentiated L2 learners with various levels of language analytical abilities. Over the course of the task, the learning process seemed to be driven by whole-brain functional connectivity between neuronal assemblies achieved by means of communication in the beta band frequency. On a shorter time-scale, increasing proficiency on the AGL task appeared to be supported by stronger local synchronisation within the right hemisphere regions. Finally, we observed that the highly skilled learners might have exerted less mental effort, or reduced attention for the task at hand once the learning was achieved, as evidenced by the higher alpha band power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Grammar-translation and CLT in L2 Grammar Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪杉莎

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward to compare teaching method between grammar-translation and CLT in grammar teaching. Gram⁃mar leaning is a basic concept in English learning as grammar is an important element in a communicative approach to language. This paper discussed CLT method can help and encourage student to study, however, grammar-translation method is able to under⁃stand.

  10. A Brief Survey of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福生

    1984-01-01

    @@ There are two kinds of grammar, prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammar. The prescriptive grammar gives orders how a language ought to be used rather than simply describing how it is used.This type of grammar lays down a lot of rules for the student to follow but the gifted philologist Edward Sapir points out that all grammatical rules leak. This type of grammar also warns the student against what are called ‘Shall-nots', but these ‘Shall-nots' are more likely to cause the student muchconcern rather than helping him to exprese his ideas in English. On the contrary, the descriptive grammar just describes how a language is used.

  11. The Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengjuan

    2010-01-01

    Mastering grammar is the foundation in the proficiency of a language. Grammar teaching is also an essential part of language teaching. However, with the communicative approach was introduced into China, many foreign language teachers gradually make little of grammar teaching. In terms of the theory of linguistics, this paper specifically explores…

  12. Specific Language Impairment and High Functioning Autism : Evidence for Distinct Etiologies and for Modularity of Grammar and Pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, A.; Schaeffer, J.C.; Perkins, L.; Dudley, R.; Gerard, J.; Hitczenko, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether grammar and pragmatics are separate linguistic components, and whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) have similar or distinct etiologies. A group of 27 children with HFA aged 6-14, age and gender

  13. TEACHING THE GRAMMAR OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AS FOREIGN IN RUSSIAN TEXTBOOKS FOR BEGINNERS (OPINION OF THE CHINESE TEACHER)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, T.

    2017-01-01

    Increased interest towards studying the Russian language in China evokes the interest of Chinese teachers of the Russian language to educational and methodological materials created by their Russian colleagues. First and foremost, Chinese philologists are interested in nationally oriented textbooks. In this article, we discuss the main features of grammar in Russian textbooks aimed at Chinese students who are just beginning to learn Russian. This paper compares nationally oriented textbooks “...

  14. From exemplar to grammar: a probabilistic analogy-based model of language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bod, Rens

    2009-07-01

    While rules and exemplars are usually viewed as opposites, this paper argues that they form end points of the same distribution. By representing both rules and exemplars as (partial) trees, we can take into account the fluid middle ground between the two extremes. This insight is the starting point for a new theory of language learning that is based on the following idea: If a language learner does not know which phrase-structure trees should be assigned to initial sentences, s/he allows (implicitly) for all possible trees and lets linguistic experience decide which is the "best" tree for each sentence. The best tree is obtained by maximizing "structural analogy" between a sentence and previous sentences, which is formalized by the most probable shortest combination of subtrees from all trees of previous sentences. Corpus-based experiments with this model on the Penn Treebank and the Childes database indicate that it can learn both exemplar-based and rule-based aspects of language, ranging from phrasal verbs to auxiliary fronting. By having learned the syntactic structures of sentences, we have also learned the grammar implicit in these structures, which can in turn be used to produce new sentences. We show that our model mimicks children's language development from item-based constructions to abstract constructions, and that the model can simulate some of the errors made by children in producing complex questions. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Whole-brain functional connectivity during acquisition of novel grammar: Distinct functional networks depend on language learning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; de Rover, Mischa; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-03-01

    In an effort to advance the understanding of brain function and organisation accompanying second language learning, we investigate the neural substrates of novel grammar learning in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities (LAA). By means of an Independent Components Analysis, a data-driven approach to functional connectivity of the brain, the fMRI data collected during a grammar-learning task were decomposed into maps representing separate cognitive processes. These included the default mode, task-positive, working memory, visual, cerebellar and emotional networks. We further tested for differences within the components, representing individual differences between the High and Average LAA learners. We found high analytical abilities to be coupled with stronger contributions to the task-positive network from areas adjacent to bilateral Broca's region, stronger connectivity within the working memory network and within the emotional network. Average LAA participants displayed stronger engagement within the task-positive network from areas adjacent to the right-hemisphere homologue of Broca's region and typical to lower level processing (visual word recognition), and increased connectivity within the default mode network. The significance of each of the identified networks for the grammar learning process is presented next to a discussion on the established markers of inter-individual learners' differences. We conclude that in terms of functional connectivity, the engagement of brain's networks during grammar acquisition is coupled with one's language learning abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vector grammars and PN machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1996-01-01

    The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.

  17. The Problem of Grammar Teaching: A Case Study of the Relationship between a Teacher's Beliefs and Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annabel

    2015-01-01

    Through a case study of a first-language English teacher's approach to teaching writing, the significance of conceptual and affective beliefs about grammar for pedagogical practice is explored. The study explores a perceived dichotomy between grammar and creativity, examining a belief that attention to grammar is separate and secondary to the…

  18. Where Is She? Gender Occurrences in Online Grammar Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    This article examines seven online grammar guides for instances of linguistic sexism. The grammar sentences from .edu Websites were analyzed based on NCTE's "Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language" (2002) using the criteria of generic he and man; titles, labels, and names; gender stereotypes; order of mention (firstness); and ratio of male to…

  19. Grammar and Grammaring: Toward Modes for English Grammar Teaching in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Chengyu

    2015-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in foreign language learning and teaching has been a focus of debate for quite some time, which has resulted in different views on grammar and grammar teaching as well as different teaching approaches based on different perspectives or in different language learning contexts. To explore some modes for grammar…

  20. Effects of Sound, Vocabulary, and Grammar Learning Aptitude on Adult Second Language Speech Attainment in Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between different types of language learning aptitude (measured via the LLAMA test) and adult second language (L2) learners' attainment in speech production in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classrooms. Picture descriptions elicited from 50 Japanese EFL learners from varied proficiency levels were analyzed…

  1. The Functional Principle in Gramatica limbii române (Grammar of the Romanian Language – GALR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Redeş

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to be a brief presentation of the main approaches of functionalism in Western linguistics and how these concepts and principles are reflected into Romanian linguistics, especially since the new Grammar of the Romanian Language, edition 2005. We insist here on the new taxonomy in classes of words and on the functional-syntactic organization which implies some distinctions between the specific functions of words.

  2. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  3. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  4. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  5. Classroom Grammar Teaching for Adult Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石怡

    2014-01-01

    As Wight (1999, p.33) pointed out to“know a language was to know the grammar of it”, hence grammar teaching is usually the main approach in second or foreign language teaching. This paper presents an analysis from three aspects to il-lustrate why classroom grammar teaching benefits adult learners. However, if grammar is overstated, some negative results will occur. Therefore a balance between grammar teaching and communicative skill teaching is need, as is a balance between accuracy and fluency.

  6. Grammar and Teaching ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Glenda; Young, Barbara N.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of theories relating to teaching ESL learners leads to contradictory ideas about teaching a second language. This paper focuses on the continuing importance of grammar in teaching and the current resurgence in interest in returning to grammar as an important component in the classroom.

  7. The Grammar Movie Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutner, Edith

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, I will show how directing a movie on grammar can help students improve their oral skills as well as their language competency, team working and planning skills, and also teach them about learning itself. I will present an innovative teaching project that uses the medium of film to get students engaged with grammar and that aims…

  8. Discovery of a Recursive Principle: An Artificial Grammar Investigation of Human Learning of a Counting Recursion Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pyeong Whan; Szkudlarek, Emily; Tabor, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    Learning is typically understood as a process in which the behavior of an organism is progressively shaped until it closely approximates a target form. It is easy to comprehend how a motor skill or a vocabulary can be progressively learned-in each case, one can conceptualize a series of intermediate steps which lead to the formation of a proficient behavior. With grammar, it is more difficult to think in these terms. For example, center embedding recursive structures seem to involve a complex interplay between multiple symbolic rules which have to be in place simultaneously for the system to work at all, so it is not obvious how the mechanism could gradually come into being. Here, we offer empirical evidence from a new artificial language (or "artificial grammar") learning paradigm, Locus Prediction, that, despite the conceptual conundrum, recursion acquisition occurs gradually, at least for a simple formal language. In particular, we focus on a variant of the simplest recursive language, a (n) b (n) , and find evidence that (i) participants trained on two levels of structure (essentially ab and aabb) generalize to the next higher level (aaabbb) more readily than participants trained on one level of structure (ab) combined with a filler sentence; nevertheless, they do not generalize immediately; (ii) participants trained up to three levels (ab, aabb, aaabbb) generalize more readily to four levels than participants trained on two levels generalize to three; (iii) when we present the levels in succession, starting with the lower levels and including more and more of the higher levels, participants show evidence of transitioning between the levels gradually, exhibiting intermediate patterns of behavior on which they were not trained; (iv) the intermediate patterns of behavior are associated with perturbations of an attractor in the sense of dynamical systems theory. We argue that all of these behaviors indicate a theory of mental representation in which recursive

  9. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? A comparison between first and second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to children learning an L2 in a naturalistic setting and to monolingual children. We also investigated whether relationships with verbal memory differ depending on the type of grammar skill investigated (i.e., morphology vs. syntax). Participants were 63 Turkish children who learned Dutch as an L2 and 45 Dutch monolingual children (mean age = 5 years). Children completed a series of VSTM and VWM tasks, a Dutch vocabulary task, and a Dutch grammar task. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that VSTM and VWM represented two separate latent factors in both groups. Structural equation modeling showed that VSTM, treated as a latent factor, significantly predicted vocabulary and grammar. VWM, treated as a latent factor, predicted only grammar. Both memory factors were significantly related to the acquisition of morphology and syntax. There were no differences between the two groups. These results show that (a) VSTM and VWM are differentially associated with language learning and (b) the same memory mechanisms are employed for learning vocabulary and grammar in L1 children and in L2 children who learn their L2 naturalistically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  11. Some Key Principles for Developing Grammar Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威

    2008-01-01

    Grammar is sometimes defined aft"the way words are put together to make correct sentences"(Ur,2004,P.75).The aim of teaching grammar is to raise the rates of the correctness of language use and help the students transfer the isolated language points to apply language.In this essay,the author introduces two kinds of Conlnlon methods in English grammar class. And there are some key principles in grammar teaching.

  12. The emergence of grammar in a language-ready brain. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John A.

    2016-03-01

    Arbib makes the interesting proposal [3, §1.6] that the first Homo sapiens could have been ;language-ready;, without possessing the kind of rich lexicon, grammar and compositional semantics that we see in the world's languages today. This early language readiness would have consisted of a set of ;protolanguage; abilities, which he enumerates (1-7 in §1.6), supported by brain mechanisms unique to humans. The transition to full ;language; (properties 8-11 in §1.6 and §3) would have required no changes in the genome, he argues, but could have resulted from cultural evolution plus some measure of Baldwinian evolution favoring offspring with greater linguistic skill. The full picture is set out in [1].

  13. Attitudes of Undergraduates towards Grammar Translation Method and Communicative Language Teaching in EFL Context: A Case Study of SBK Women’s University Quetta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Durrani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available CLT and GTM have been popular and much practiced methodologies in classrooms worldwide in teaching English language. The purpose of the current research is to examine students’ attitude towards Grammar Translation Method and CLT in Pakistan at graduate level. The data for the current study was collected through questionnaire from undergraduate students of Baluchistan, Pakistan. The questionnaire was adapted from the studies of Palacios (2006 and McClintock (2011. Theoretical framework of Richard and Rodger (2001 was used as a guide for the study. However the data was analyzed quantitatively in SPSS. The overall results show that the students had a positive attitude towards GTM and their attitude was less favorable towards CLT. Keywords: CLT, GTM, Attitudes

  14. Development of a traceability analysis method based on case grammar for NPP requirement documents written in Korean language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeong Jae; Seong, Poong Hyun; Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-01-01

    Software inspection is widely believed to be an effective method for software verification and validation (V and V). However, software inspection is labor-intensive and, since it uses little technology, software inspection is viewed upon as unsuitable for a more technology-oriented development environment. Nevertheless, software inspection is gaining in popularity. KAIST Nuclear I and C and Information Engineering Laboratory (NICIEL) has developed software management and inspection support tools, collectively named 'SIS-RT.' SIS-RT is designed to partially automate the software inspection processes. SIS-RT supports the analyses of traceability between a given set of specification documents. To make SIS-RT compatible for documents written in Korean, certain techniques in natural language processing have been studied. Among the techniques considered, case grammar is most suitable for analyses of the Korean language. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses a case grammar approach to analyze the traceability between documents written in Korean. A discussion regarding some examples of such an analysis will follow

  15. How to Learn English Grammar?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳燃

    2017-01-01

    Grammar is an aspect of language about which learners have different opinions. Some learners are very interested in ifnding out or learning grammar rules and doing lots of grammar exercises. Others hate grammar and think it is the most boring part of learning a new language. Whatever opinion you have, however, you cannot escape from grammar; it is in every sentence you read or write, speak or hear. Grammar is simply the word for the rules that people follow when they use a language. We need those rules in the same way as we need the rules in a game. If there are no rules, or if everybody follows their own rules, the game would soon break down. It's the same with language; without rules we would not be able to communicate with other people. So you cannot escape from grammar, but the key question here is: what is the best way to learn grammar? You can learn the rules of a game by simply playing the game. You will certainly make mistakes; you may even get hurt. Eventually, however, you will know how to play. Of course, the rules of a language are very much more complicated than the rules of any game, but in fact this is exactly how you learned your own language. Nobody taught you the rules of your mother tongue as you were growing up but now you never make a grammar mistake.

  16. A Grammar of Bih

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam Thi Minh

    2013-01-01

    Bih is a Chamic (Austronesian) language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Southern highlands of Vietnam. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-based language documentation in Vietnam and written from a functional/typological perspective. The analysis in this work is…

  17. Phonology without universal grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  18. Subverting the grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Amaral da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From the notion of parody, credibility and legitimacy, coming mainly from studies in discourse analysis, and ideas from the sociolinguistic we intend to develop a brief comparison between the Expositive Grammar – Advanced Course (46st ed.:1926 of Eduardo Carlos Pereira, who initially presents itself as a merely descriptive grammar, and the Portuguese Grammar by the Confused Method, written by Mendes Fradique (4st ed.: 1985. We observed that the first one claims to be “expositive” when it is cle­arly prescriptive. The work of Mendes Fradique uses humor and irony to parody pres­criptive grammars, criticizing the “good use”. In order to prove the above statement, we selected some of the concepts presented by those works, checking the position taken by each one. Among them is the very concept of grammar, language etc.

  19. Grammar Clinical Marker Yields Substantial Heritability for Language Impairments in 16-Year-Old Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Philip S; Rice, Mabel L; Rimfeld, Kaili; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E

    2018-01-22

    There is a need for well-defined language phenotypes suitable for adolescents in twin studies and other large-scale research projects. Rice, Hoffman, and Wexler (2009) have developed a grammatical judgment measure as a clinical marker of language impairment, which has an extended developmental range to adolescence. We conducted the first twin analysis, along with associated phenotypic analyses of validity, of an abridged, 20-item version of this grammatical judgment measure (GJ-20), based on telephone administration using prerecorded stimuli to 405 pairs of 16-year-olds (148 monozygotic and 257 dizygotic) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study (Haworth, Davis, & Plomin, 2012). The distribution of scores is markedly skewed negatively, as expected for a potential clinical marker. Low performance on GJ-20 is associated with lower maternal education, reported learning disability (age 7 years), and low scores on language tests administered via the Twins Early Development Study (age 16 years) as well as General Certificate of Secondary Education English and Math examination performance (age 16 years). Liability threshold estimates for the genetic influence on low performance on GJ-20 are substantial, ranging from 36% with a lowest 10% criterion to 74% for a lowest 5% criterion. The heritability of GJ-20 scores, especially at more extreme cutoffs, along with the score distribution and association with other indicators of language impairments, provides additional evidence for the potential value of this measure as a clinical marker of specific language impairment.

  20. Teachers' Perceptions about Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Tran Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates English as a second language (ESL) teachers' beliefs in grammar teaching. A 32-item questionnaire was administered to 11 ESL teachers in a language school in California. The results show that the participants generally believe that the formal study of grammar is essential to the eventual mastery of a foreign or second…

  1. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? : A comparison between first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to

  2. Using a Linguistic Theory of Humour in Teaching English Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Rufaidah Kamal; Hameed, Sarab Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Teachers who teach a new language grammar do not usually have the time and the proper situation to introduce humour when starting a new topic in grammar. There are many different opinions about teaching grammar. Many teachers seem to believe in the importance of grammar lessons devoted to a study of language rules and practical exercises. Other…

  3. Communicating about quantity without a language model: number devices in homesign grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Marie; Spaepen, Elizabet; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    All natural languages have formal devices for communicating about number, be they lexical (e.g., two, many) or grammatical (e.g., plural markings on nouns and/or verbs). Here we ask whether linguistic devices for number arise in communication systems that have not been handed down from generation to generation. We examined deaf individuals who had not been exposed to a usable model of conventional language (signed or spoken), but had nevertheless developed their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. Study 1 examined four adult homesigners and a hearing communication partner for each homesigner. The adult homesigners produced two main types of number gestures: gestures that enumerated sets (cardinal number marking), and gestures that signaled one vs. more than one (non-cardinal number marking). Both types of gestures resembled, in form and function, number signs in established sign languages and, as such, were fully integrated into each homesigner's gesture system and, in this sense, linguistic. The number gestures produced by the homesigners' hearing communication partners displayed some, but not all, of the homesigners' linguistic patterns. To better understand the origins of the patterns displayed by the adult homesigners, Study 2 examined a child homesigner and his hearing mother, and found that the child's number gestures displayed all of the properties found in the adult homesigners' gestures, but his mother's gestures did not. The findings suggest that number gestures and their linguistic use can appear relatively early in homesign development, and that hearing communication partners are not likely to be the source of homesigners' linguistic expressions of non-cardinal number. Linguistic devices for number thus appear to be so fundamental to language that they can arise in the absence of conventional linguistic input. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Do children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment compensate for place assimilation? Insight into phonological grammar and representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloe R; Ramus, Franck; van der Lely, Heather

    2011-10-01

    English speakers have to recognize, for example, that te[m] in te[m] pens is a form of ten, despite place assimilation of the nasal consonant. Children with dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI) are commonly proposed to have a phonological deficit, and we investigate whether that deficit extends to place assimilation, as a way of probing phonological representations and phonological grammar. Children with SLI plus dyslexia, SLI only, and dyslexia only listened to sentences containing a target word in different assimilatory contexts-viable, unviable, and no change-and pressed a button to report hearing the target. The dyslexia-only group did not differ from age-matched controls, but the SLI groups showed more limited ability to accurately identify words within sentences. Once this factor was taken into account, the groups did not differ in their ability to compensate for assimilation. The results add to a growing body of evidence that phonological representations are not necessarily impaired in dyslexia. SLI children's results suggest that they too are sensitive to this aspect of phonological grammar, but are more liberal in their acceptance of alternative phonological forms of words. Furthermore, these children's ability to reject alternative phonological forms seems to be primarily limited by their vocabulary size and phonological awareness abilities.

  5. Introducing English grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Borjars, Kersti

    2013-01-01

    Answering key questions such as 'Why study grammar?' and 'What is standard English?', Introducing English Grammar guides readers through the practical analysis of the syntax of English sentences. With all special terms carefully explained as they are introduced, the book is written for readers with no previous experience of grammatical analysis. It is ideal for all those beginning their study of linguistics, English language or speech pathology, as well as students with primarily literary interests who need to cover the basics of linguistic analysis. The approach taken is in line with current research in grammar, a particular advantage for students who may go on to study syntax in more depth. All the examples and exercises use real language taken from newspaper articles, non-standard dialects and include excerpts from studies of patients with language difficulties. Students are encouraged to think about the terminology as a tool kit for studying language and to test what can and cannot be described using thes...

  6. Story grammar elements and causal relations in the narratives of Russian-Hebrew bilingual children with SLI and typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichman, Sveta; Altman, Carmit; Voloskovich, Anna; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2017-09-01

    While there is general agreement regarding poor performance of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) on microstructure measures of narrative production, findings on macrostructure are inconsistent. The present study analyzed narrative abilities of Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children with and without SLI, with a particular focus on story grammar (SG) elements and causal relations, in order to identify macrostructure features which distinguish bilingual children with SLI from those with typical development. Narratives were collected from 35 typically developing bilinguals (BiTD) and 14 bilinguals with SLI (BiSLI) in both Russian/L1 and Hebrew/L2 using a retelling procedure (LITMUS-Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives) (Gagarina, Klop, Kunnari, Tantele, Välimaa, Balčiūnienė, Bohnacker, & Walters, 2012). Each story contained three episodes, and each episode introduced a different protagonist with explicitly stated Goals (G), Attempts (A) and Outcomes (O). Causal relations assessed included Enabling, Physical, Motivational, and Psychological relations, following Trabasso & Nickels (1992). Each Goal-Attempt-Outcome (GAO) episode was examined for the use of SG elements and causal relations. Group differences emerged for both aspects of macrostructure. For causal relations, narratives of BiSLI children contained fewer Enabling and Physical relations, and differed qualitatively from those of BiTD children. For SG elements, BiSLI children referred to fewer SG elements than BiTD children in the first episode, but performed like BiTD children in the second and the third episodes. Story grammar elements in specific episodes along with Enabling and Physical causal relations distinguish the narratives of children with BiSLI from those with BiTD, which stresses the importance of examining wider array of macrostructure features in narratives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Grammar Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  8. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling to Examine How Individual SLPs Differentially Contribute to Children's Language and Literacy Gains in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Tambyraja, Sherine R; Logan, Jessica; Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the unique contributions in children's language and literacy gains, over 1 academic year, that are attributable to the individual speech-language pathologist (SLP) and (b) to explore possible child- and SLP-level factors that may further explain SLPs' contributions to children's language and literacy gains. Participants were 288 kindergarten and 1st-grade children with language impairment who were currently receiving school-based language intervention from SLPs. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we partitioned the variance in children's gains in language (i.e., grammar, vocabulary) and literacy (i.e., word decoding) that could be attributed to their individual SLP. Results revealed a significant contribution of individual SLPs to children's gains in grammar, vocabulary, and word decoding. Children's fall language scores and grade were significant predictors of SLPs' contributions, although no SLP-level predictors were significant. The present study makes a first step toward incorporating implementation science and suggests that, for children receiving school-based language intervention, variance in child language and literacy gains in an academic year is at least partially attributable to SLPs. Continued work in this area should examine the possible SLP-level characteristics that may further explicate the relative contributions of SLPs.

  9. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  10. "'Puro' Spelling and Grammar": Conceptualizations of Language and the Marginalization of Emergent Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualizations of language and language learning underlie language pedagogies (Valdés, Poza, & Brooks, 2015). The present work relies on ethnographic observation and interviews in a dual immersion (DI) bilingual program, as well as a content analysis of the research foundation of the English Language Development intervention curriculum, to…

  11. Words without Grammar: Linguists and the International Auxiliary Language Movements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julia S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses movements in the United States during the first half of the 20th century to develop an international language, focusing on proponents of the reestablishment of Latin as an international language and the work of the International Auxiliary Language Association to develop an entirely new language. (72 references) (MDM)

  12. The music of language : exploring grammar, prosody and rhythm perception in zebra finches and budgerigars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait. All animals have ways to communicate, but these systems do not bear the same complexity as human language. However, this does not mean that all aspects of human language are specifically human. By studying the language perception abilities of other species, we can

  13. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2007-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this to conservatively approximate the problem based on local regular approximations and grammar unfoldings. As an application, we consider grammars that occur in RNA analysis...

  14. Examining Test Speededness by Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Guo, Fanmin; Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    When power tests include a time limit, it is important to assess the possibility of speededness for examinees. Past research on differential speededness has examined gender and ethnic subgroups in the United States on paper and pencil tests. When considering the needs of a global audience, research regarding different native language speakers is…

  15. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  16. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinjen Julie Hsu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children.Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation. A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded.Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant

  17. A Task-driven Grammar Refactoring Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Halupka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our proposal and the implementation of an algorithm for automated refactoring of context-free grammars. Rather than operating under some domain-specific task, in our approach refactoring is perfomed on the basis of a refactoring task defined by its user. The algorithm and the corresponding refactoring system are called mARTINICA. mARTINICA is able to refactor grammars of arbitrary size and structural complexity. However, the computation time needed to perform a refactoring task with the desired outcome is highly dependent on the size of the grammar. Until now, we have successfully performed refactoring tasks on small and medium-size grammars of Pascal-like languages and parts of the Algol-60 programming language grammar. This paper also briefly introduces the reader to processes occurring in grammar refactoring, a method for describing desired properties that a refactored grammar should fulfill, and there is a discussion of the overall significance of grammar refactoring.

  18. The Teaching of English Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖凤霞

    2009-01-01

    Acquiring the grammar system is vital in the foreign language learning, and there has always been the debate on how learners can best acquire the English grammar. Inthis paper, two methods for teaching grammar will be presented--traditional practice and consciousness-raising. Both thetwo methods have their ad-vantages and disadvantages. But in practice, it is a better idea to combine different methods to make grammar teaching more effective. In addition, the consideration of different individual learners is also very important.

  19. Episodic grammar: a computational model of the interaction between episodic and semantic memory in language processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, G.; Zuidema, W.; Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C.; Shipley, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of the interaction of semantic and episodic memory in language processing. Our work shows how language processing can be understood in terms of memory retrieval. We point out that the perceived dichotomy between rule-based versus exemplar-based language modelling can be

  20. Content-Based Language Teaching with Functional Grammar in the Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleppegrell, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Today many second language (L2) teachers work with school-aged learners who need to be supported in their language development at the same time they learn school subjects. Applied linguists and researchers in second language acquisition (SLA) have much to contribute to those teachers, but to do so in more powerful ways calls for an orientation…

  1. A Survey of Grammar Instruction from Scholastic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanghua

    2017-01-01

    The study of grammar has been paid much attention and the grammar instruction becomes an emphasis and key problem in English language teaching and learning. How to instruct students grammar appropriately becomes controversial for some English teachers increasingly. Some linguistics, theorists and teachers hold that the grammar instruction should…

  2. What English Teachers Need to Know about Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdick, William

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers need to know that grammar is a difficult subject; know what children know about grammar; know that grammatical error is complex; and know more about language than just grammar. Concludes with the advice of Noam Chomsky--that grammar should be taught for its own intrinsic interest. (RS)

  3. The equivalence problem for LL- and LR-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1982-01-01

    The equivalence problem for context-free grammars is "given two arbitrary grammars, do they generate the same language?" Since this is undecidable in general, attention has been restricted to decidable subclasses of the context-free grammars. For example, the classes of LL(k) grammars and real-time

  4. An ERP study of structural anomalies in native and semantic free artificial grammar: evidence for shared processing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabullo, Ángel; Sevilla, Yamila; Segura, Enrique; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2013-08-21

    Artificial grammars have been widely applied to the study of sequential learning in language, but few studies have directly compared the neural correlates of artificial and native grammar processing. In this study, we examined Event Related Potentials (ERPs) elicited by structural anomalies in semantic-free artificial grammar sequences and sentences in the subjects' native language (Spanish). Although ERPs differed during early stages, we observed similar posterior negativities (N400) and P600 effects in a late stage. We interpret these results as evidence of at least partially shared neural mechanisms for processing of language and artificial grammars. We suggest that in both the natural and artificial grammars, the N400 and P600 components we observed can be explained as the result of unfulfilled predictions about incoming stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between grammar and the psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between grammar and the psychological processing of language. ... manner in which speakers perceive and psycholinguistically process information. ... order, metaphorical extensions, processing constraints, end-focus theory

  6. Probe into Methods of Teaching English Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春华

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 Definition of grammar People sometlmes descibe grammaras the "rules" of a language, to be accurate,grammar is the science dealing with thesystematic rules of a language,its forms,inflections,syntax,and the rules of usingthem correctly.It is summarized from lan-guage use and practice,and reflects thelogic of thinking in people's speech orwriting.

  7. Modeling the Nature of Grammar and Vocabulary Trajectories From Prekindergarten to Third Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A; Jia, Rongfang

    2018-04-17

    This study investigated the longitudinal development of 2 important contributors to reading comprehension, grammar, and vocabulary skills. The primary interest was to examine the trajectories of the 2 skill areas from preschool to 3rd grade. The study involved a longitudinal sample of 420 children from 4 sites. Language skills, including grammar and vocabulary, were assessed annually with multiple measures. Multivariate latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the developmental trajectories of grammar and vocabulary, to test the correlation between the 2 domains, and to investigate the effects of demographic predictors on language growth. Results showed that both grammar and vocabulary exhibited decelerating growth from preschool to Grade 2. In Grade 3, grammar growth further flattened, whereas vocabulary continued to grow stably. Growth of vocabulary and grammar were positively correlated. Demographic characteristics, such as child gender and family socioeconomic status, were found to predict the intercept but not the slope of the growth trajectories. Children's growth in grammar skills is differentiated in a number of important ways from their growth in vocabulary skills. Results of this study suggest the need to differentiate these dimensions of language when seeking to closely examine growth from preschool to primary grades.

  8. Rhetoric, Grammar, and the Conception of Language As a Substantial Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Gerald L.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses language as being (1) substance, and as such a reflection of the mind, and (2) an activity played out in oratory and the pattern of discourse. Examples from classical, medieval, and contemporary works are cited to illustrate the various concepts of language and to present a historical view of the literary and oral traditions. (DS)

  9. Functional Grammar in the Context of Linguistic Applications in Turkish Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    In the last century, language researches adopted the scientific method and linguistics became an autonomous discipline. Linguistics is a framework concept that analyzes all languages in the world in various contexts according to its own rules and draws conclusions using the systematic approach. Functional linguistics is a linguistic trend that…

  10. Studies in the history of the English language V: variation and change in English grammar and lexicon: contemporary approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloutier, R.A.; Hamilton-Brehm, A.M.; Kretzschmar, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on current approaches to variation and change in historical English grammar and lexicon. Of the twelve papers in the collection, half are based on grammar and syntax, half on lexical developments. The volume highlights the contributions that strong empirical

  11. An examination of the association between interviewer question type and story-grammar detail in child witness interviews about abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltis, Brooke B; Powell, Martine B; Snow, Pamela C; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H

    2010-06-01

    This study compared the effects of open-ended versus specific questions, and various types of open-ended questions, in eliciting story-grammar detail in child abuse interviews. The sample included 34 police interviews with child witnesses aged 5-15 years (M age=9 years, 9 months). The interviewers' questions and their relative sub-types were classified according to definitions reported in the child interview training literature. The children's responses were classified according to the proportion of story grammar and the prevalence of individual story grammar elements as defined by Stein and Glenn (1979). Open-ended questions were more effective at eliciting story grammar than specific questions. This finding was revealed across three age groups, two interview phases and irrespective of how question effectiveness was measured. However, not all types of open-ended questions were equally effective. Open-ended questions that encouraged a broad response, or asked the child to elaborate on a part of their account, elicited more story-grammar detail compared to open-ended questions that requested clarification of concepts or descriptions of the next (or another) activity or detail within a sequence. This study demonstrates that children's ability to provide story-grammar detail is maximised when there is minimal prompting from the interviewer. Given the association between story grammar production and victim credibility, greater guidance is warranted in interviewer training programs in relation to the effects and administration of different types of open-ended questions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. English grammar a university course

    CERN Document Server

    Downing, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This best-selling comprehensive descriptive grammar forms a complete course, ideal for all students studying English Language ,whether on a course or for self-study. Broadly based on Hallidayan systemic-functional grammar but also drawing on cognitive linguistics and discourse analysis, English Grammar is accessible, avoiding overly theoretical or technical explanations.Divided into 12 self-contained chapters based around language functions, each chapter is divided into units of class-length material. Key features include:Numerous authentic texts from a wide range of sources, both spoken and w

  13. A Learning Algorithm for Multimodal Grammar Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ulizia, A; Ferri, F; Grifoni, P

    2011-12-01

    The high costs of development and maintenance of multimodal grammars in integrating and understanding input in multimodal interfaces lead to the investigation of novel algorithmic solutions in automating grammar generation and in updating processes. Many algorithms for context-free grammar inference have been developed in the natural language processing literature. An extension of these algorithms toward the inference of multimodal grammars is necessary for multimodal input processing. In this paper, we propose a novel grammar inference mechanism that allows us to learn a multimodal grammar from its positive samples of multimodal sentences. The algorithm first generates the multimodal grammar that is able to parse the positive samples of sentences and, afterward, makes use of two learning operators and the minimum description length metrics in improving the grammar description and in avoiding the over-generalization problem. The experimental results highlight the acceptable performances of the algorithm proposed in this paper since it has a very high probability of parsing valid sentences.

  14. A grammar of Lepcha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Heleen

    2006-01-01

    This book is a descriptive grammar of Lepcha, a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Sikkim, Darjeeling district in West Bengal in India, in Ilam district in Nepal, and in a few villages of Samtsi district in south-western Bhutan. The data for this study were collected during several sojourns amongst

  15. Existential Grammar for Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Frank

    The teaching of grammar has been in sad decline since medieval times, when it included the whole skill of creating in language. Our textbook community has moved through a series of ineffective fashions, from those of Fries to post-Chomsky. All have presumed to replace prescriptive rules with realistic explanations. But all have fallen, like the…

  16. REEP Grammar Favorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlington County Public Schools, VA. REEP, Arlington Education and Employment Program.

    This document provides the Arlington Education and Employment Program's (REEP) favorite techniques for teaching English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) grammar. The focus, levels, and materials needed are presented for each of the techniques as well as the steps to follow. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  17. Designing Service-Oriented Chatbot Systems Using a Construction Grammar-Driven Natural Language Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Marie-Claire

    2011-01-01

    Service oriented chatbot systems are used to inform users in a conversational manner about a particular service or product on a website. Our research shows that current systems are time consuming to build and not very accurate or satisfying to users. We find that natural language understanding and natural language generation methods are central to creating an e�fficient and useful system. In this thesis we investigate current and past methods in this research area and place particular emph...

  18. Complex Text in ESL Grammar Textbooks: Barriers or Gateways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesikin, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers assess prospective textbooks by comparing real-life user's actual knowledge of the author's assumed student knowledge. Through examination of charts and page excerpts of two ESL grammar textbooks, demonstrates that access to the pedagogical knowledge demands sophisticated formal knowledge,…

  19. Language and Symbolic Power: Bourdieu and the Legacy of Euro-American Colonialism in an African Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goke-Pariola, Abiodun

    1993-01-01

    Examines Pierre Bourdieu's basic theory on language and criticisms of structuralism, transformational grammar, and the speech act theory as they appear in Language and Symbolic Power. Bourdieu's theories are applied to the colonial and postcolonial language situation in Nigeria. (JP)

  20. Chargaff's "Grammar of Biology": New Fractal-like Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza; Herai, Roberto H.

    2011-01-01

    Chargaff once said that "I saw before me in dark contours the beginning of a grammar of Biology". In linguistics, "grammar" is the set of natural language rules, but we do not know for sure what Chargaff meant by "grammar" of Biology. Nevertheless, assuming the metaphor, Chargaff himself started a "grammar of Biology" discovering the so called Chargaff's rules. In this work, we further develop his grammar. Using new concepts, we were able to discovery new genomic rules that seem to be invaria...

  1. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  2. Teaching Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Swan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The trouble with teaching grammar is that we are never quite sure whether it works or not:its effects are uncertain and hard to assess.Michael Swan looks at grammar teaching and the carry-over to spontaneous production by students.

  3. An Investigation to Validate the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Identify Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Payne, Elisabeth; McClelland, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Background The extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is “fragile”. Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no “gold-standard” to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and education communities, further our understanding of developmental disorders, and identify children who need remediation, many of whom are currently un-diagnosed. A potential realistic screening tool that could be widely administered is the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test – a 10 minute test that can be administered by professionals and non-professionals alike. Here we provide a further step in evaluating the validity and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the GAPS test in identifying children who have Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Methods and Findings We tested three groups of children; two groups aged 3;6–6:6, a typically developing (n = 30) group, and a group diagnosed with SLI: (n = 11) (Young (Y)-SLI), and a further group aged 6;9–8;11 with SLI (Older (O)-SLI) (n = 10) who were above the test age norms. We employed a battery of language assessments including the GAPS test to assess the children's language abilities. For Y-SLI children, analyses revealed a sensitivity and specificity at the 5th and 10th percentile of 1.00 and 0.98, respectively, and for O-SLI children at the 10th and 15th percentile .83 and .90, respectively. Conclusions The findings reveal that the GAPS is highly accurate in identifying impaired vs. non-impaired children up to 6;8 years, and has moderate-to-high accuracy up to 9 years. The results indicate that GAPS is a realistic tool for the early identification of grammatical abilities and impairment in young children. A larger

  4. The Grammar of History: Enhancing Content-Based Instruction through a Functional Focus on Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleppegrell, Mary J.; Achugar, Mariana; Oteiza, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    In K-12 contexts, the teaching of English language learners (ELLs) has been greatly influenced by the theory and practice of content-based instruction (CBI). A focus on content can help students achieve grade-level standards in school subjects while they develop English proficiency, but CBI practices have focused primarily on vocabulary and the…

  5. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C.N.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Vasić, N.; Avrutin, S.; Blom, E.

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown

  6. All Intimate Grammars Leak: Reflections on "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroskrity, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    In this discussion of a set of studies that fits the trope of "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places," I explore the obvious necessity of developing a relevant notion of linguistic "leakage" following a famous image from the writings of the linguistic anthropologist Edward Sapir. Though in its original use, the concept applied more to the order of…

  7. Symbiotic Gesture and the Sociocognitive Visibility of Grammar in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Eton; Okada, Hanako; Nishino, Takako; Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    This article argues for the embodied and environmentally embedded nature of second language acquisition (SLA). Through fine-grained analysis of interaction using Goodwin's (2003a) concept of "symbiotic gesture"--gesture coupled with its rich environmental context to produce complex social action--we illustrate how a tutor, learner, and grammar…

  8. Similarities of L1 (Mother Tongue) in Terms of Grammar and Language Structure in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vijayaletchumy

    2011-01-01

    Malaysian philosophy, purpose and objective of the education system are rooted and based on policies stated in the National Education Policy 1956 and Education Act 1961. Whereas the Education Ordinance 1952 urged all Chinese and Tamil schools to be given an equal opportunity to learn English and Malay language together with their L1 (mother…

  9. A grammar of Ik (Icé-tód) : Northeast Uganda's last thriving Kuliak language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrock, Terrill B.

    2014-01-01

    The Ik language (Icé-tód), spoken in northeast Uganda, forms the Kuliak (Rub) subgroup along with So/Tepeth and Nyang’í. These latter two lects have already succombed to assimilative pressures from neighboring Nilotic pastoralists like the Karimojong, Turkana, and Pokot. Despite

  10. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  11. Communicating Grammatically: Evaluating a Learner Strategy Website for Spanish Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Pinilla-Herrera, Angela; Thompson, Jonathan R.; Witzig, Lance E.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introduction to language learner strategies and grammar strategies as a subcategory, it is pointed out that research on the use of grammar strategies by learners of a second language (L2) has been limited. The article then describes the construction of a website with strategies for learning and performing Spanish grammar, with a…

  12. What exactly is Universal Grammar, and has anyone seen it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Universal Grammar (UG) is a suspect concept. There is little agreement on what exactly is in it; and the empirical evidence for it is very weak. This paper critically examines a variety of arguments that have been put forward as evidence for UG, focussing on the three most powerful ones: universality (all human languages share a number of properties), convergence (all language learners converge on the same grammar in spite of the fact that they are exposed to different input), and poverty of the stimulus (children know things about language which they could not have learned from the input available to them). I argue that these arguments are based on premises which are either false or unsubstantiated. Languages differ from each other in profound ways, and there are very few true universals, so the fundamental crosslinguistic fact that needs explaining is diversity, not universality. A number of recent studies have demonstrated the existence of considerable differences in adult native speakers' knowledge of the grammar of their language, including aspects of inflectional morphology, passives, quantifiers, and a variety of more complex constructions, so learners do not in fact converge on the same grammar. Finally, the poverty of the stimulus argument presupposes that children acquire linguistic representations of the kind postulated by generative grammarians; constructionist grammars such as those proposed by Tomasello, Goldberg and others can be learned from the input. We are the only species that has language, so there must be something unique about humans that makes language learning possible. The extent of crosslinguistic diversity and the considerable individual differences in the rate, style and outcome of acquisition suggest that it is more promising to think in terms of a language-making capacity, i.e., a set of domain-general abilities, rather than an innate body of knowledge about the structural properties of the target system.

  13. What exactly is Universal Grammar, and has anyone seen it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa eDabrowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Universal Grammar (UG is a suspect concept. There is little agreement on what exactly is in it; and the empirical evidence for it is very weak. This paper critically examines a variety of arguments that have been put forward as evidence for UG, focussing on the three most powerful ones: universality (all human languages share a number of properties, convergence (all language learners converge on the same grammar in spite of the fact that they are exposed to different input, and poverty of the stimulus (children know things about language which they could not have learned from the input available to them. I argue that these arguments are based on premises which are either false or unsubstantiated. Languages differ from each other in profound ways, and there are very few true universals, so the fundamental crosslinguistic fact that needs explaining is diversity, not universality. A number of recent studies have demonstrated the existence of considerable differences in adult native speakers’ knowledge of the grammar of their language, including aspects of inflectional morphology, passives, quantifiers, and a variety of more complex constructions, so learners do not in fact converge on the same grammar. Finally, the poverty of the stimulus argument presupposes that children acquire linguistic representations of the kind postulated by generative grammarians; constructionist grammars such as those proposed by Tomasello, Goldberg and others can be learned from the input. We are the only species that has language, so there must be something unique about humans that makes language learning possible. The extent of crosslinguistic diversity and the considerable individual differences in the rate, style and outcome of acquisition suggest that it is more promising to think in terms of a language-making capacity, i.e. a set of domain-general abilities, rather than an innate body of knowledge about the structural properties of the target system.

  14. Teaching english grammar through interactive methods

    OpenAIRE

    Aminova N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted for the effective ways of teaching grammar. Actuality of the theme is justified as it sets conditions for revealing high progress in teaching a foreign language and for developing effective methods which can be helpful for foreign language teachers. Different progressive methods of teaching English grammar are given in this paper as well.

  15. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  16. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language.  Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.

  17. Three-dimensional grammar in the brain: Dissociating the neural correlates of natural sign language and manually coded spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Mostowski, Piotr; Szwed, Marcin; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    In several countries natural sign languages were considered inadequate for education. Instead, new sign-supported systems were created, based on the belief that spoken/written language is grammatically superior. One such system called SJM (system językowo-migowy) preserves the grammatical and lexical structure of spoken Polish and since 1960s has been extensively employed in schools and on TV. Nevertheless, the Deaf community avoids using SJM for everyday communication, its preferred language being PJM (polski język migowy), a natural sign language, structurally and grammatically independent of spoken Polish and featuring classifier constructions (CCs). Here, for the first time, we compare, with fMRI method, the neural bases of natural vs. devised communication systems. Deaf signers were presented with three types of signed sentences (SJM and PJM with/without CCs). Consistent with previous findings, PJM with CCs compared to either SJM or PJM without CCs recruited the parietal lobes. The reverse comparison revealed activation in the anterior temporal lobes, suggesting increased semantic combinatory processes in lexical sign comprehension. Finally, PJM compared with SJM engaged left posterior superior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, areas crucial for sentence-level speech comprehension. We suggest that activity in these two areas reflects greater processing efficiency for naturally evolved sign language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Current Developments in Research on the Teaching of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Nassaji; Sandra Fotos

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the rise of communicative methodology in the late 1970s, the role of grammar instruction in second language learning was downplayed, and it was even suggested that teaching grammar was not only unhelpful but might actually be detrimental.

  19. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this by presenting an ambiguity analysis framework based on conservative language approximations. As a concrete example, we propose a technique based on local regular approximations...

  20. Grammar Teaching in Chinese Tertiary Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Hui-hui

    2016-01-01

    Grammar teaching, as one essential aspect of English language teaching (ELT), has been and continues to be an area of some controversy and debates, which entails the emergency of diverse classroom practices for language teachers:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS. Connected with the specific context of grammar teaching in Chinese higher education, this paper tends to re-consider the place of grammar teaching in the classroom, and come up with some feasible approaches to instructing grammar so as to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings.

  1. Grammar and Its Teaching: Challenging the Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diane Larsen-Freeman

    2008-01-01

    @@ Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field.The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language.Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be taught,learners will acquire them on their own,or if the structures are taught,the lessons that ensue will he boring.Consequently,communicative and proficiency-based teaching approaches sometimes unduly limit grammar instruction.Of the many claims about grammar that deserve to be called myths,this digest will challenge ten.

  2. Validity of a parent-report measure of vocabulary and grammar for Spanish-speaking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, D; Jackson-Maldonado, D; Acosta, D

    2000-10-01

    The validity of the Fundación MacArthur Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas: Palabras y Enunciados (IDHC:PE) was examined with twenty 20- and nineteen 28-month-old, typically developing, monolingual, Spanish-speaking children living in Mexico. One measure of vocabulary (number of words) and two measures of grammar (mean of the three longest utterances and grammatical complexity score) from the IDHC:PE were compared to behavioral measures of vocabulary (number of different words from a language sample and number of objects named in a confrontation naming task) and one behavioral measure of grammar (mean length of utterance from a language sample). Only vocabulary measures were assessed in the 20-month-olds because of floor effects on the grammar measures. Results indicated validity for assessing expressive vocabulary in 20-month-olds and expressive vocabulary and grammar in 28-month-olds.

  3. Kantian Grammar Applied to French, English, Danish and Some Other Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Many linguists refer to Kant, but they do not really seem to take him seriously. I will try to show that a Little closer look at Kant's cognitive model might yield insight into certain important aspects of the syntacticsemantic constitution of the sentence in different languages. I will also show...... hand. In a series of publications, I have investigated the French interrogative word pourquoi ('why'), which, contrary to the other interrogative words, cannot be followed by stylistic inversion, and I have tried to explain why pourquoi, which functions as a causal adjunct, behaves differently from...... a different degree of attachment to the verb, and I have created a sentence model which seem to fit nicely into Kant's cognitive model. This might indicate that we are dealing with something universal....

  4. LL-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1980-01-01

    Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular

  5. Verbal aptitude and the use of grammar information in Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalović Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper was an attempt to find differences in the use of grammatical information carried by the function words in Serbian. The aim was to determine the level of word processing at which grammatical information shows its differential effects in groups of subjects who themselves differ in verbal ability. For this purpose, the psycholinguistic tasks applied were grammatically primed reading aloud and grammatically primed grammatical classification with an appropriate control of extra-linguistic factors that may have affected aforementioned tasks. Verbal aptitude was assessed in a psychometric manner, and the subjects were divided into "high verbal" and "low verbal" groups. Taking into account statistical control of extra-linguistic factors, the results indicate that groups of high verbal and low verbal subjects cannot be differentiated based on reading aloud performance. The high verbal subjects, however, were more efficient in grammatical classification than low verbal subjects. The results also indicated that the presence of grammatical information embedded in function words-primes had a stronger effect on word processing in low verbal group. Such pattern of results testify to the advantage of high verbal subjects in lexical and post lexical processing, while no differences were established in the word recognition processes. The implications of these findings were considered in terms of test construction for the assessment of verbal ability in Serbian language. .

  6. DEVELOPING A SOUND POLICY FOR THE TREATMENT OF GRAMMAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Should grammar be taught at all?Is it a hindrance or anaid?Communicative language teaching approach seems to havecast doubts on the value of grammar teaching.The present paperargues that the positive effect of grammar in College Englishteaching and learning should not be overlooked.Grammar servesas a means to the final achievement of language proficiency.Itis time for language teachers to reconsider the role of grammarand to come up with a more appropriate and thus,moreeffective treatment of grammar in College English teaching.

  7. Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark

    1973-01-01

    An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

  8. EXPLAIN AND EXPLORE——THE INDUCTIVE APPROACH TO EFL GRAMMAR INSTRUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuGuoxing

    2004-01-01

    The new role of grammar instruction now is based on the increasing understandings that grammar per se is a comprehensive conglomerate. The paper examines the inductive approach to EFL grammar instruction. It starts with some theoretical considerations on inductive approach to formal grammar instruction, followed by its methodological considerations such as how to deal with grammar generalizations and exceptions, learner variables, and grammar complexity, and proposes a sensitive and dynamic balance of explorations and explanations in EFL grammar instruction.

  9. Researches on Problems in College Students'Grammar Learning and Countermeasures%Researches on Problems in College Students' Grammar Learning and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳

    2016-01-01

    Grammar is the guiding rules of language, and a good mastery of grammar is the basis of English learning. This paper starts from the problems in college students' current grammar learning and put forwards some strategies to improve their English grammar.

  10. Acquisition of the Constraints on "Wanna" Contraction by Advanced Second Language Learners: Universal Grammar and Imperfect Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Soo-Ok; Bley-Vroman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Contraction of "want to" to "wanna" is subject to constraints that have been related to the operation of Universal Grammar. Contraction appears to be blocked when the trace of an extracted "wh"-word intervenes. Evidence for knowledge of these constraints by young English-speaking children has been taken to show the operation of Universal Grammar…

  11. The role of the grammar teaching: from communicative approaches to the common European framework of reference for languages THE ROLE OF THE GRAMAMAR TEACHING: FROM COMMUNCATIVE APPROACHES TO THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José López Rama

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the history of language teaching, the role of grammar has been addressed by a number of linguistic theories, pedagogies and, currently, within the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEF. The way grammar is considered has a decisive influence on pedagogical practices, learning processes and many other areas involved in language teaching. This paper constitutes a revision of how grammar has evolved in the last fifty years paying special attention to its evolving role in both communicative (CLT and post-communicative approaches and in the CEF.From this revision, some controversial issues concerning the pedagogic value of teaching grammar will arise as well, such as whether grammar is worth teaching in the classroom or not and how it should be taught.Even though there exists a parallel linguistic framework between CLT and the CEF, some issues still need revision concerning the notion of grammatical competence and its role for language teaching.Históricamente, el papel de la gramática en la enseñanza de lenguas se ha justificado y cuestionado tanto por teorías lingüísticas como, actualmente, dentro del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia. La forma de contemplar la gramática influye de modo fundamental en la metodología docente, en la elaboración de manuales de texto y en los procesos de aprendizaje, entre otros. Este artículo revisa el papel de la gramática en los últimos cincuenta años prestando especial atención al método comunicativo, los post-comunicativos y dentro del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia. En respuesta, se revisa la posible controversia sobre la propia definición de gramática y su valor en enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras.

  12. Inductive vs. Deductive Grammar Instruction and the Grammatical Performance of EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Behjat

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning a foreign language offers a great challenge to students since it involves learning different skills and subskills. Quite a few number of researches have been done so far on the relationship between gender and learning a foreign language. On the other hand, two major approaches in teaching grammar have been offered by language experts, inductive and deductive. The present study examines which method of teaching grammar is more fruitful for Iranian male and female students. For this purpose, 150 freshman students, 110 females and 40 males, majoring in English were selected from all available students at Abadeh and Shiraz Azad universities. All the subjects took the NTC's grammar test prior to the instruction as pre-test. Then, they were divided into two groups and were taught grammar inductively and deductively in each group for one semester. At the end of the instruction, the same test was taken as post-test. The comparison between the students' pre and post-test indicated that there was a significant improvement in their knowledge of grammar. By the way, through a two-way ANOVA, it was found out that males learned grammar better when they were taught inductively and females showed a better performance when they were taught deductively.

  13. A Communicative Approach to College English Grammar Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-xian

    2016-01-01

    In response to the misconception that Communicative Language Teaching means no teaching of grammar, it is argued that grammar is as important as traffic rules for safe and smooth traffic on the road. To achieve appropriate and effective commu-nication, a communicative approach to college grammar teaching and learning is proposed. Both teachers and learners should change their attitudes toward and conceptions about grammar teaching and learning;additionally, teaching grammar in the com-pany of reading and writing helps learners learn and acquire grammar in meaningful contexts.

  14. Linguistic grammar learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners' neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners' DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions.

  15. Linguistic grammar learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2 and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497 is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners' neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners' DRD2 (rs1800497 genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions.

  16. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  17. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  18. Grammar and Usage: History and Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The paper first traces the history of thinking about language from the Greek writers of the fifth century BC to the development of the first Greek grammar in about 100 BC. Since the glories of Ancient Greek literature predate the development of grammar, there is every reason to doubt the received wisdom that one must have an explicit knowledge of…

  19. Studying Grammar in the Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    When being a student in grade school as well as in high school (1934-1946), grammar was heavily emphasized in English/language arts classes, particularly in grades four through the senior year in high school. Evidently, teachers and school administrators then saw a theoretical way to assist pupils in writing achievement. Grammar and writing were…

  20. A Pilot Study Comparing Total Physical Response Storytelling[TM] with the Grammar-Translation Teaching Strategy to Determine Their Effectiveness in Vocabulary Acquisition among English as a Second Language Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS[TM]) compared to the Grammar-Translation approach for acquiring and retaining new vocabulary in an English as a Second Language (ESL) class. The subjects were adult Hispanic learners with limited literacy. An experimental design approach was used to gather…

  1. "I'll Speak in Proper Slang": Language Ideologies in a Daily Editing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Amanda J.; Carpenter, Brian D.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the language ideologies--the assumptions about the nature of language, language variation, and language learning--reflected in a widespread daily editing activity often known as Daily Oral Language or Daily Language Practice. Through a yearlong ethnographic study of grammar instruction in three urban,…

  2. Analyses of Common Grammar Mistakes in High-school English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liou

    2017-01-01

    English has an important position in the basic education stage as a language subject. English teaching requires students to have the abilities of listening, speaking, reading and writing in high school. If students want to learn these skills well, they should not only memorize vocabularies, but also master grammar knowledge. This paper illustrates the importance of English grammar for learning English and lists the common grammar mistakes. It also introduces some skills of learning English grammar.

  3. A Review of the Development of Systemic-Functional Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶

    2014-01-01

    50 years has seen Systemic-Functional Grammar(SFG)growing into its prosperity. With the efforts of Halliday and many other linguists, SFG has developed from Scale and Category Grammar to Systemic Grammar and then to Functional Gram-mar. The development of this general linguistic theory’s features and framework is the main focus of this study. SFG views lan-guage as a social semiotic resource people use to express meanings in context.

  4. The Effects of Communicative Grammar Teaching on Students' Achievement of Grammatical Knowledge and Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pham Vu Phi; The Binh, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    So far the students of Le Hong Phong Junior High School have been taught grammar with GTM (Grammar-Translation Method), which just prepares learners for conventional grammar-paper tests. Despite their considerable knowledge of grammar, the students fail to use the language they have learnt to communicate in real-life situations. The purpose of…

  5. The Effectiveness of Teaching Traditional Grammar on Writing Composition at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditional grammar instruction is a challenging element of the English curriculum; both students and teachers struggle with the rules and dull nature of grammar. However, understanding grammar is important because students need to understand the language they speak in order to be effective communicators, and teachers provide grammar instruction…

  6. Understanding the Complex Processes in Developing Student Teachers' Knowledge about Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the view that grammar is driven by user choices and is therefore complex and dynamic. This has implications for the teaching of grammar in language teacher education and how teachers' cognitions about grammar, and hence their own grammar teaching, might change. In this small, interpretative study, the participants--students on…

  7. A brief analysis of the necessity of grammar teaching in CLT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓; 王榛

    2017-01-01

    Grammar teaching is the important component of communicative language teaching, and also the teaching content of communicative approach. This study is going to analyze the status of English grammar learning, the theoretical basis of CLT, and some difficulties with regard to grammar education in China, while discussing teachers might try to adjust the current grammar approach in communicative English teaching.

  8. The Practice of "Grammar Naziness" on Facebook in Relation to Generating Grammar Learning: A Motivation or Demotivation in Updating Statuses in English on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noraziah Mohd; Abdul Rahman, Noor Azam; Sharipudin, Mohamad-Noor; Abu Bakar, Mohd Saifulnizam

    2016-01-01

    It is common for learners of English to make grammatical errors in their English Facebook posts that can be noticeable on their walls, which this perhaps as a result, influences the other Facebook users who know about the language to perform the unofficial duty as grammar Nazis and correct the errors. Thus, this research aims to examine if Malay…

  9. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  10. Forest Grammar(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    Forest grammar,a new type of high-dimensional grammar,is proposed in this paper,of which both the left and the right parts of every production are concatenations of tree structures.A classification of forest grammar is studied,especially,a subclass of the forest grammar,i.e.the context-sensitive forest grammar,and one of its subclasses is defined,called the weak precedence forest grammar.

  11. Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark, Ed.

    This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

  12. A Grammar of Logba (Ikpana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorvlo, Kofi

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation presents a comprehensive description of the grammar of Logba, one of the fourteen Ghana-Togo Mountain (GTM) languages spoken by approximately 7,500 speakers on the Southeastern frontier of the Ghana-Togo border. It is the outcome of fifteen months research in Logba speaking

  13. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  14. A constraint-based bottom-up counterpart to definite clause grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A new grammar formalism, CHR Grammars (CHRG), is proposed that provides a constraint-solving approach to language analysis, built on top of the programming language of Constraint Handling Rules in the same way as Definite Clause Grammars (DCG) on Prolog. CHRG works bottom-up and adds the following......, integrity constraints, operators a la assumption grammars, and to incorporate other constraint solvers. (iv)~Context-sensitive rules that apply for disambiguation, coordination in natural language and tagger-like rules....

  15. HIGHER ORDER THINKING IN TEACHING GRAMMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Dewi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper discussed about how to enhance students’ higher order thinking that should be done by teacher in teaching grammar. Usually teaching grammar was boring and has the same way to learn like change the pattern of sentence into positive, negative and introgative while the students’ need more various way to develop their thinking. The outcome of students’ competence in grammar sometimes not sufficient enough when the students’ occured some test international standart like Test of English Foreign Language, International English Language Testing. Whereas in TOEFL test it needed higher order thinking answer, so teacher should develop students’ higher order thingking in daily teaching grammar in order to make the students’ enhance their thinking are higher. The method was used in this paper by using field study based on the experience of teaching grammar. It can be shown by students’ toefl score was less in stucture and written expression. The result of this paper was after teacher gave some treatments to enhance students’ higher order thinking in teaching grammar, the students’ toefl scores are sufficient enough as a part of stucture and written expression. It can concluded that it needed some strategies to enhancce students higher order thinking by teaching grammar it can make students’ higher toefl score. Teachers should be creative and inovative to teach the students’ started from giving the students’ question or test in teaching grammar.

  16. Missionary Pragmalinguistics: Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores’ grammar within the tradition of Philippine grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The grammar written in Latin, in 1668, by the Jesuit missionary Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores (1627-1672) is the oldest description we have of Chamorro, a language spoken on the Mariana islands. The grammar received a number of bad reviews and as a consequence has become neglected and almost

  17. Grammar and Context in Functional Discourse Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.; Mackenzie, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a proposal for the organization of the Contextual Component in Functional Discourse Grammar. A guiding principle in this proposal is that, given the fact that Functional Discourse Grammar is a theory of grammar, the Contextual Component should provide the information that is

  18. Unsupervised grammar induction of clinical report sublanguage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Rohit J

    2012-10-05

    Clinical reports are written using a subset of natural language while employing many domain-specific terms; such a language is also known as a sublanguage for a scientific or a technical domain. Different genres of clinical reports use different sublaguages, and in addition, different medical facilities use different medical language conventions. This makes supervised training of a parser for clinical sentences very difficult as it would require expensive annotation effort to adapt to every type of clinical text. In this paper, we present an unsupervised method which automatically induces a grammar and a parser for the sublanguage of a given genre of clinical reports from a corpus with no annotations. In order to capture sentence structures specific to clinical domains, the grammar is induced in terms of semantic classes of clinical terms in addition to part-of-speech tags. Our method induces grammar by minimizing the combined encoding cost of the grammar and the corresponding sentence derivations. The probabilities for the productions of the induced grammar are then learned from the unannotated corpus using an instance of the expectation-maximization algorithm. Our experiments show that the induced grammar is able to parse novel sentences. Using a dataset of discharge summary sentences with no annotations, our method obtains 60.5% F-measure for parse-bracketing on sentences of maximum length 10. By varying a parameter, the method can induce a range of grammars, from very specific to very general, and obtains the best performance in between the two extremes.

  19. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...

  20. The Learning of Grammar: An Experimental Study. Experimental Studies on the Learning of Language, Progress Report II, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Jane W.

    An experiment in language behavior comparing two methods of learning grammatical word order in a new language presents scientific evidence supporting the use of pattern drills in foreign language teaching. The experiment reviews the performance of three groups attempting to learn small segments of Russian "microlanguage": (1) a drill group learned…

  1. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  2. Enhancing Empirical Research for Linguistically Motivated Precision Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Grammars of natural language are highly complex objects. This complexity is reflected in formal analyses found in both syntactic theory and computational grammars. In particular, there are two factors that make it notoriously difficult to make strong assertions about analyses for natural language

  3. What is the Spirit of the English Grammar Teaching?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijiang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In China,English is a foreign language,not a second language.Chinese students can't learn English well without learning its gram?mar first.As for English teachers,the most important is to help the students to grasp the spirit of English grammar learning.

  4. Triumph through Texting: Restoring Learners' Interest in Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedjazi Moghari, Mona; Marandi, S. Susan

    2017-01-01

    It is usually the case that learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) are exposed to language materials in class only, and of course in such a short space of time, they do not always find enough chance to practice English grammar features and become aware of their grammar mistakes. As a potential solution to this problem, the current study…

  5. Sensing the Sentence: An Embodied Simulation Approach to Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    This article applies the neuroscientific concept of embodied simulation--the process of understanding language through visual, motor, and spatial modalities of the body--to rhetorical grammar and sentence-style pedagogies. Embodied simulation invigorates rhetorical grammar instruction by attuning writers to the felt effects of written language,…

  6. Towards a Rationale for Research into Grammar Teaching in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontich, Xavier; Camps, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article hopes to bring new insights to the debate about the effect of grammar knowledge on language use, especially writing. It raises the question of the need to look more closely at the following three questions: (1) What is the aim of grammar teaching?; (2) How capable are students of conceptualising about language and how is their…

  7. A Pure Object-Oriented Embedding of Attribute Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloane, A.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Attribute grammars are a powerful specification paradigm for many language processing tasks, particularly semantic analysis of programming languages. Recent attribute grammar systems use dynamic scheduling algorithms to evaluate attributes by need. In this paper, we show how to remove the need for a

  8. Modern Languages Examinations at Sixteen Plus: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moys, A., Comp.; And Others

    This book is a survey of all the modern language examinations in the United Kingdom at "GCE"'O' level, Scottish 'O' grade, and "CSE" Mode 1, available in 1979 in French, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish, as well as the "16+" examination offered by a consortium of boards in the north of England. It is an attempt…

  9. COMPARISON OF SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES OF TURKISH LANGUAGE IN RESOURCES OF PHILOLOGICAL-GRAMMAR AND LINGUISTICS FİLOLOJİK-DİL BİLGİSİ VE DİL BİLİMİ KAYNAKLARINDA TÜRK DİLİNİN SÖZ DİZİMSEL YAPILARININ KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ALTUN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analyzes of syntactic structures of Turkish Language are discussed in the article. These syntactic structures of Turkish Language are mainly analyzed by axis of philological-grammar and linguistics. Especially impact of Muharrem Ergin's word group classification influences philological-grammar. Examples of sentence are usually selected from literary texts. On the other hand, grammatical structures have been examined by influences of Generative-Transformational Grammar of Noam Chomsky. According to his theory, a linguist can "produce" most matured examples of sentences for any language without referred to any text. Makalede, Türk dilinin söz dizimsel yapılarının çözümlemeleri ele alınmıştır. Türk dilinin söz dizimsel yapılarının ağırlıklı olarak filolojik-dil bilgisi ve dil bilimi ekseninde çözümlendiği ifade edilebilir. Filolojik-dil bilgisinde özellikle Muharrem Ergin’in kelime grupları sınıflandırmasının etkisi görülmektedir. Verilen örnekler genellikle edebi metinlerden seçilmektedir. Dil biliminde ise ağırlıklı olarak Noam Chomsky’nin Üretici-Dönüşümcü Dil Bilgisi Kuramı’nın etkisiyle bu yapıların ele alındığı görülebilir. Bu kurama göre dil bilimci, metne dayanmadan bir dilin en olgun cümle örneklerini “üretebilir.”

  10. Teaching Grammar and Testing Grammar in the English Primary School: The Impact on Teachers and Their Teaching of the Grammar Element of the Statutory Test in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The research examined the impact on teachers of the grammar element of a new statutory test in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG) in primary schools in England. The research aimed to evaluate the nature and the extent of changes to the teaching of grammar and to wider literacy teaching since the introduction of the test in 2013. The research…

  11. Machine Translation Using Constraint-Based Synchronous Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Fai; DONG Mingchui; HU Dongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A synchronous grammar based on the formalism of context-free grammar was developed by generalizing the first component of production that models the source text. Unlike other synchronous grammars,the grammar allows multiple target productions to be associated to a single production rule which can be used to guide a parser to infer different possible translational equivalences for a recognized input string according to the feature constraints of symbols in the pattern. An extended generalized LR algorithm was adapted to the parsing of the proposed formalism to analyze the syntactic structure of a language. The grammar was used as the basis for building a machine translation system for Portuguese to Chinese translation. The empirical results show that the grammar is more expressive when modeling the translational equivalences of parallel texts for machine translation and grammar rewriting applications.

  12. Sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia: evidence from artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2017-01-01

    We examined sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia ( n = 12) and healthy age-matched participants ( n = 12) using an artificial grammar. Artificial grammar acquisition, 24-hour retention, and the potential benefits of additional training were examined by administering an artificial grammar judgment test (1) immediately following auditory exposure-based training, (2) one day after training, and (3) after a second training session on the second day. An untrained control group ( n = 12 healthy age-matched participants) completed the tests on the same time schedule. The trained healthy and aphasic groups showed greater sensitivity to the detection of grammatical items than the control group. No significant correlations between sequential learning and language abilities were observed among the aphasic participants. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia show sequential learning, but the underlying processes involved in this learning may be different than for healthy adults.

  13. The Role of Simple Semantics in the Process of Artificial Grammar Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of semantic information on artificial grammar learning (AGL). Recursive grammars of different complexity levels (regular language, mirror language, copy language) were investigated in a series of AGL experiments. In the with-semantics condition, participants acquired semantic information prior to the AGL experiment; in the without-semantics control condition, participants did not receive semantic information. It was hypothesized that semantics would generally facilitate grammar acquisition and that the learning benefit in the with-semantics conditions would increase with increasing grammar complexity. Experiment 1 showed learning effects for all grammars but no performance difference between conditions. Experiment 2 replicated the absence of a semantic benefit for all grammars even though semantic information was more prominent during grammar acquisition as compared to Experiment 1. Thus, we did not find evidence for the idea that semantics facilitates grammar acquisition, which seems to support the view of an independent syntactic processing component.

  14. Handbook of graph grammars and computing by graph transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, G; Kreowski, H J; Rozenberg, G

    1999-01-01

    Graph grammars originated in the late 60s, motivated by considerations about pattern recognition and compiler construction. Since then, the list of areas which have interacted with the development of graph grammars has grown quite impressively. Besides the aforementioned areas, it includes software specification and development, VLSI layout schemes, database design, modeling of concurrent systems, massively parallel computer architectures, logic programming, computer animation, developmental biology, music composition, visual languages, and many others.The area of graph grammars and graph tran

  15. Forest Grammar (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    The syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence forest grammar has been introduced and the correctness and unambiguity of this algorithm have been proved. An example is given to the syntactic parsing procedure of weak precedence forest grammar.

  16. On Construction Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kunxue

    2005-01-01

    Constructionist approach with its brand-new perspective has begun to demonstrate its dynamic power. This paper attempts to review the basic ideas, achievements and comparison with generative grammar of Construction Grammar and generalize some problems and future research prospects.

  17. Uneven Expressive Language Development in Mandarin-Exposed Preschool Children with ASD: Comparing Vocabulary, Grammar, and the Decontextualized Use of Language via the PCDI-Toddler Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi Esther; Naigles, Letitia R; Su, Lin-Yan

    2018-05-21

    Data from children with ASD who are learning Indo-European languages indicate that (a) they vary hugely in their expressive language skills and (b) their pragmatic/socially-based language is more impaired than their structural language. We investigate whether similar patterns of language development exist for Mandarin-exposed children with ASD. Parent report data of the Putonghua Communicative Development Inventory-Toddler Form were collected from 160 17-83-month-old children with ASD. These children with ASD demonstrated similar levels of variability as Western children with ASD. In particular, they could be divided into three distinct subgroups (high verbal, middle verbal, low verbal), all of which manifested relative strengths in lexical and grammatical language compared to pragmatic usage of decontextualized language.

  18. Presenting New Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Cai-ling; WANG Xi

    2015-01-01

    More and more researchers have now agreed upon the necessity of teaching grammar, but it still remains controversial as how to teach the forms, with the central consideration of not to harm the meaning-focused communicative teaching method. In this essay, one of the issues in grammar teaching will be discussed as how to present new grammar to learners, through evaluating and modifying a particular presentation activity in a grammar-teaching textbook.

  19. First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

  20. The minimalist grammar of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  1. The Effects of Multiple-Step and Single-Step Directions on Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Grammar Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerik, Matthew B.

    2006-01-01

    The mean scores of English Language Learners (ELL) and English Only (EO) students in 4th and 5th grade (N = 110), across the teacher-administered Grammar Skills Test, were examined for differences in participants' scores on assessments containing single-step directions and assessments containing multiple-step directions. The results indicated no…

  2. World of Wordcraft: Foreign Language Grammar and Composition Taught as a Term-Long Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellar-Goad, T. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines an innovative approach to the instruction of foreign languages: a term-long role-playing game in the style of tabletop role-playing games such as "Dungeons & Dragons." Students adopt personas, avatars, or "player characters" and take them through adventures, exploration, puzzles, and fights with…

  3. Essential grammar for today's writers, students, and teachers

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This innovative grammar text is an ideal resource for writers, language students, and current and future classroom teachers who need an accessible "refresher" in a step-by-step guide to essential grammar. Rather than becoming mired in overly detailed linguistic definitions, Nancy Sullivan helps writers and students understand and apply grammatical concepts and develop the skills they need to enhance their own writing. Along with engaging discussions of both contemporary and traditional terminology, Sullivan's text provides clear explanations of the basics of English grammar and a highly practical, hands-on approach to mastering the use of language. Complementing the focus on constructing excellent sentences, every example and exercise set is contextually grounded in language themes. Teachers, students, and writers will appreciate the streamlined, easy-to-understand coverage of essential grammar, as well as the affordable price. This is an ideal textbook for future teachers enrolled in an upper-level grammar c...

  4. A Contrastive Study of Two Approaches to Teach Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai; Lin

    2007-01-01

    There are many kinds of methods of teaching grammar, no matter what they are, these approaches can generally be classified into two approaches-deductive and inductive. What an appropriate grammar teaching approach is by examining the inductive and deductive approaches to grammar teaching and learning. It starts with the definitions of inductive and deductive approaches to grammar teaching, followed by a contrastive study of these two approaches in terms of both the bases and the application. Finally, it explores the inductive approach and outlines the benefits of this approach and suggests an alternative view of grammar teaching.

  5. A Theoretical Glimpse at Issues of Grammar Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海涛

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to the description of the status of grammar in the field of second language teaching now,recent literature bears witness a good deal of discussion about a ’grammar revival’. More recently,theoretical perspectives on language teaching and learning have changed. The possibilities and feasibility of integrating form - focus instruction and meaningful communicative activities in the communicative language classroom have been explored.

  6. Understanding the Models of Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaputri, Ratna Andhika

    2013-01-01

    This article provides comprehensive explanation about several models of grammar. The first model of grammar which is explained is considered from the functional grammar and associated with the American linguist Noam Chomsky that is Transformational Grammar. This model of grammar is consisted of three components they are phrase structure rule, the lexicon, and transformation. The second model of grammar which is explained in this article is Minimalist Grammar. This article also compares her...

  7. The Role of Grammar in the Writing Curriculum: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, Debra; Watson, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    For most Anglophone countries, the history of grammar teaching over the past 50 years is one of contestation, debate and dissent: and 50 years on we are no closer to reaching a consensus about the role of grammar in the English/Language Arts curriculum. The debate has been described through the metaphor of battle and grammar wars (Kamler, 1995;…

  8. STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TO EXPLICIT GRAMMAR TEACHING AND ITS RELATIONAHIP TO COMMUNICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Grammar teaching is greatly emphasised in English language teaching in China, but does it really attain the goal the students desire? An investigation was made with overseas students about their attitudes to explicit grammar teaching. The investigation reveals that grammar teaching should focus on developing the learners’ communicative ability more than presenting and explaining grammatical rules.

  9. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  10. Grammar Engineering Support for Precedence Rule Recovery and Compatibility Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwers, E.; Bravenboer, M.; Visser, E.

    2007-01-01

    A wide range of parser generators are used to generate parsers for programming languages. The grammar formalisms that come with parser generators provide different approaches for defining operator precedence. Some generators (e.g. YACC) support precedence declarations, others require the grammar to

  11. Metagrammar Engineering: Towards systematic exploration of implemented grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    When designing grammars of natural language, typically, more than one formal analysis can account for a given phenomenon. Moreover, because analyses interact, the choices made by the engineer influence the possibilities available in further grammar development. The order in which phenomena are

  12. Concept-Based Grammar Teaching: An Academic Responds to Azar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This response to Azar (this volume) intends to discuss from an academic's perspective the main points raised in her paper (i.e., grammar-based instruction and its relation to focus on form and error correction) and, to encourage a more concept-based approach to grammar instruction (CBT). A CBT approach to language development argues that the…

  13. On the Equivalence of Formal Grammars and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Explores concepts of formal language and automata theory underlying computational linguistics. A computational formalism is described known as a "logic grammar," with which computational systems process linguistic data, with examples in declarative and procedural semantics and definite clause grammars. (13 references) (CB)

  14. A Comparative Study on Beliefs of Grammar Teaching between High School English Teachers and Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fangfang; Lin, Yuewu

    2016-01-01

    Grammar is "a system of rules governing the conventional arrangement and relationship of words in a sentence" (Brown 1994) which can facilitate the acquisition of a foreign language and is conducive for cultivating comprehensive language competence. Most teachers regard grammar as a frame of English learning. The grammar teaching beliefs…

  15. Learn Grammar in Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟静

    2007-01-01

    Grammar learning has often been regarded as a structure based activity .Grammar games which are worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom can help learner to learn and recall a grammar material in a pleasant, entertaining way and motivate learners,promote the communicative competence and generate the fluency. In this essay, the author compares the use of games in learning grammar with some traditional techniques for grammar presentation and revision, in order to find the advantages of using games. Also the author discusses how to choose appropriate games and when to use games.

  16. Two languages, two personalities? Examining language effects on the expression of personality in a bilingual context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Bond, Michael Harris

    2010-11-01

    The issue of whether personality changes as a function of language is controversial. The present research tested the cultural accommodation hypothesis by examining the impact of language use on personality as perceived by the self and by others. In Study 1, Hong Kong Chinese-English bilinguals responded to personality inventories in Chinese or English on perceived traits for themselves, typical native speakers of Chinese, and typical native speakers of English. Study 2 adopted a repeated measures design and collected data at three time points from written measures and actual conversations to examine whether bilinguals exhibited different patterns of personality, each associated with one of their two languages and the ethnicity of their interlocutors. Self-reports and behavioral observations confirmed the effects of perceived cultural norms, language priming, and interlocutor ethnicity on various personality dimensions. It is suggested that use of a second language accesses the perceived cultural norms of the group most associated with that language, especially its prototypic trait profiles, thus activating behavioral expressions of personality that are appropriate in the corresponding linguistic-social context.

  17. Evaluation of the Grammar Teaching Process by Using the Methods Used in Turkish Language Teaching as a Foreign Language: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Basak Karakoç

    2018-01-01

    The preferred methods for the success of foreign language teaching and the reflection of these methods on the teaching process are very important. Since approaches and methods in language teaching enable the teacher to use different techniques in his/her lectures, they provide a more effective teaching process. The methodology in teaching the…

  18. Apuntes a la historia de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras: la enseñanza de la gramática / Notes to the history of teaching foreign languages: the teaching of grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Martín Sánchez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A lo largo de la historia de la metodología de lenguas extranjeras, se han ido sucediendo una serie de métodos para facilitar, mejorar y resolver los problemas educativos y de aprendizaje que indisolublemente surgían en el proceso educativo. En cada método o enfoque metodológico, la gramática ocupa un determinado papel: central, periférico, centrado en el proceso, en la forma, en la comunicación... En algunos métodos la gramática es totalmente deductiva, en otros inductiva, o mixta. El presente trabajo trata de recoger la evolución y reflexión pedagógica sobre las diferentes teorías y métodos para enseñar gramática a alumnos no nativos.Summary: Through the history of the methodology of foreign languages, there have been a variety of methods to facilitate, improve and solve the educational problems that were indissolubly arising in the educational process. In every method or methodological approach, grammar occupies a certain role: central, peripheral, focused on the process, on the form, on the communication... In some methods the grammar is totally deductive, in others inductive, or mixed. The present work tries to gather the evolution and pedagogic reflection on the different theories and methods to teach grammar to non native pupils.

  19. Unsupervised grammar induction of clinical report sublanguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Rohit J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical reports are written using a subset of natural language while employing many domain-specific terms; such a language is also known as a sublanguage for a scientific or a technical domain. Different genres of clinical reports use different sublaguages, and in addition, different medical facilities use different medical language conventions. This makes supervised training of a parser for clinical sentences very difficult as it would require expensive annotation effort to adapt to every type of clinical text. Methods In this paper, we present an unsupervised method which automatically induces a grammar and a parser for the sublanguage of a given genre of clinical reports from a corpus with no annotations. In order to capture sentence structures specific to clinical domains, the grammar is induced in terms of semantic classes of clinical terms in addition to part-of-speech tags. Our method induces grammar by minimizing the combined encoding cost of the grammar and the corresponding sentence derivations. The probabilities for the productions of the induced grammar are then learned from the unannotated corpus using an instance of the expectation-maximization algorithm. Results Our experiments show that the induced grammar is able to parse novel sentences. Using a dataset of discharge summary sentences with no annotations, our method obtains 60.5% F-measure for parse-bracketing on sentences of maximum length 10. By varying a parameter, the method can induce a range of grammars, from very specific to very general, and obtains the best performance in between the two extremes.

  20. Endogenous sources of variation in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chung-Hye; Musolino, Julien; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    A fundamental question in the study of human language acquisition centers around apportioning explanatory force between the experience of the learner and the core knowledge that allows learners to represent that experience. We provide a previously unidentified kind of data identifying children's contribution to language acquisition. We identify one aspect of grammar that varies unpredictably across a population of speakers of what is ostensibly a single language. We further demonstrate that the grammatical knowledge of parents and their children is independent. The combination of unpredictable variation and parent-child independence suggests that the relevant structural feature is supplied by each learner independent of experience with the language. This structural feature is abstract because it controls variation in more than one construction. The particular case we examine is the position of the verb in the clause structure of Korean. Because Korean is a head-final language, evidence for the syntactic position of the verb is both rare and indirect. We show that (i) Korean speakers exhibit substantial variability regarding this aspect of the grammar, (ii) this variability is attested between speakers but not within a speaker, (iii) this variability controls interpretation in two surface constructions, and (iv) it is independent in parents and children. According to our findings, when the exposure language is compatible with multiple grammars, learners acquire a single systematic grammar. Our observation that children and their parents vary independently suggests that the choice of grammar is driven in part by a process operating internal to individual learners.

  1. PREPARING STUDENTS FOR BUSINESS LANGUAGE EXAMINATION WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Czellér

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today public awareness of technical language knowledge and the social demand for related language skills are on the rise, and the Hungarian labour market requires an increasingly competent command of foreign languages from professionals involved in business and economics; compliance with these growing demands is reflected in the nature and structure of teaching foreign languages in the Hungarian higher education institutions Due to the high degree of institutional autonomy each Hungarian university has the right to work out its own language teaching policy and adopt it in its training programme. This paper will show that foreign language study at Hungarian universities can be devoted either to general language or language for specific purposes. These criteria can differ according to the field of study. Given that obtaining a language exam certificate is a pre-requisite of graduation, the role of academic education in providing students with the required knowledge base and successfully preparing them for language exams has become more important. The structure and content of modern business language exams reflect the need to meet the demands of the labour market. There has been a definite shift from grammar-oriented, translation-based tasks towards a more communicative approach which involves testing reading comprehension, writing skills and performance in situational role plays. However, while students generally cope well with understanding written business texts, many of them frequently fail in oral communication. Consequently, the question arises of whether it is possible to bridge the obvious gap between reading and speaking skills. This paper aims to give a possible example of how a descriptive text can be adapted to prepare students for the situational role play tasks in business language exams at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Debrecen

  2. The Role of Simple Semantics in the Process of Artificial Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of semantic information on artificial grammar learning (AGL). Recursive grammars of different complexity levels (regular language, mirror language, copy language) were investigated in a series of AGL experiments. In the with-semantics condition, participants acquired semantic information prior to the AGL…

  3. Teacher beliefs and practices of grammar teaching: focusing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    focused communicative approaches over the years, studies report that most language teachers still follow transmission-based grammar-oriented approaches. It is known that the success of any curriculum innovation is dependent on teachers.

  4. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  5. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  6. Addressing grammar in the interaction task-based learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Brent M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in language teaching is developing grammatical accuracy. This paper proposes that using error correction based on a functional grammar in a task-based learning approach may be a suitable solution. Towards this end an emic (using categories intrinsic to the language functional grammar of the verb phrase is proposed and a description of how this fits into the focus on form component of task-based learning is provided.

  7. THE USE OF THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction Among the plethora of foreign language teaching methods and approaches there are the grammar-translation method, the direct method, the audiolingual method and the communicative approach to name but a few. Of the major methods, grammar-translation gets the most criticism and is thought to be obsolete. However, in my view it is suitable for China given the country’s present language learning situation, and, in practice, is not at all ineffectual.

  8. Examining item content and structure in health status and health outcomes instruments: toward the development of a grammar for better understanding of the concepts being measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Pennifer; Willke, Richard J

    2013-06-01

    Health outcomes instruments assess diverse health concepts. Although item-level concepts are considered fundamental elements, the field lacks structures for evaluating and organizing them for decision making. This article proposes a grammar using item stems, response options, and recall periods to systematically identify item-level concepts. The grammar uses "core concept," "evaluative component," and "recall period" as intuitive terms for communicating with stakeholders. Better characterization of concepts is necessary for classifying instrument content and linking it to treatment benefit. Items in 2 generic and 21 disease-specific instruments were evaluated to develop and illustrate the use of the grammar. Concepts were assigned International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health codes for exploring the value that the grammar and a classification system add to the understanding of content across instruments. The 23 instruments include many core concepts; emotional function is the only concept assessed in all instruments. Concepts in disease-specific instruments show obvious patterns; for example, arthritis instruments focus on physical function. The majority of instruments used the same response options across all items, with five-point scales being the most common. Most instruments used one recall period for all items. Shorter recall periods were used for conditions associated with "flares," such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and "skin disease." Every diagnosis, however, showed variation across instruments in the recall period used. This analysis indicates the proposed grammar's potential for discerning the conceptual content within and between health outcomes instruments and illustrates its value for improving communication between stakeholders and for making decisions related to treatment benefit. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactive Russian Grammar: The Case System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Gam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available My paper addresses a problem many of us in North American college language programs confront regularly, the solution to which regularly and frustratingly remains just out of our reach. I refer to the teaching of the most basic and most crucial element of Russian grammar, namely, its case system, and teaching it to our students whose native language, English, does not have such a system. As I teach the Russian cases, I see vividly the disconnect between grammar presented for students (simplified, episodic, based on the "pick it up along the way" principle and the learned papers on Russian grammar by linguists, which are barely comprehensible to a non-linguist. Materials in the middle are lacking-materials to help a literature professor acting as a "de facto" language instructor understand and address the needs of students as they learn this crucial segment of basic Russian grammar. This core element of Russian grammar is presented to students in the first year of college language study, is revisited in the second year, and very often by the third year students either manage to completely block it out from their memory (as if it were some traumatic experience that happened "a long time ago"-that is, before .summer break-but most importantly due to the lack of practice or demonstrate a partial or even complete lack of understanding or misunderstanding of this system forcing us to deal with it again in the third year. Not only is it frustrating for both the students and the language instructor; but from the point of view of their overall proficiency, the lack of control of the case system holds our students back. There can be no talk of advanced language proficiency without a complete and automatic mastery of this basic system. Unfortunately, regardless of the specific textbooks used, the students very often manage not to have a general idea and mastery of this system even by the third year of study.

  10. A BRIEF HINDI REFERENCE GRAMMAR. PRELIMINARY VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUMPERZ, JOHN J.; MISRA, VIDYA NIWAS

    THIS BRIEF OUTLINE OF HINDI PHONOLOGY AND GRAMMAR IS INTENDED FOR FIRST AND SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF HINDI WHO HAVE SOME PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE OF THE ORAL AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE BUT WHO MAY HAVE HAD NO PREVIOUS TRAINING IN LINGUISTIC TERMINOLOGY. THE AUTHORS HAVE THEREFORE EMPHASIZED SIMPLICITY AND READABILITY RATHER THAN EXHAUSTIVENESS OR ORIGINALITY…

  11. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  12. Handbook for Language Detectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryanne, Ulla; Bruntt, Karen Scheel Lassen

    Handbook for Language Detectives gives a thorough presentation of English grammar and discusses how to teach grammar. The book unveils to the readers, who will be working as grammar detectives, the fascinating world of language. It does not only deal with "traditional grammar" but also discusses...... what different grammatical structures mean (semantics) and how they influence the level of style (pragmatics). Grammar should not be taught as a separate discipline; it can and should be integrated in communicative language teaching. The book gives you innovative and valuable ideas of how this can...... be done. The book serves a double purpose: - English grammar and language usage at bachelor level from a functional linguistic point of view. - How to teach English grammar within a communicative approach. The book is mainly intended for Danish student teachers of English, but anyone else interested...

  13. How to describe grammar and vocabulary in ELT

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dilin

    2013-01-01

    Language description plays an important role in language learning/teaching because it often determines what specific language forms, features, and usages are taught and how. A good understanding of language description is vital for language teachers and material writers and should constitute an important part of their knowledge. This book provides a balanced treatment of both theory and practice. It focuses on some of the most important and challenging grammar and vocabulary usage questions. Using these questions as examples, it shows how theory can inform practice and how grammar and vocab

  14. Visual artificial grammar learning by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): exploring the role of grammar complexity and sequence length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Conway, Christopher M; Christiansen, Morten H; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiments were conducted using a joystick-based, symmetrical-response serial reaction time task in which two monkeys were exposed to grammar-generated sequences at sequence lengths of four in Experiment 1, six in Experiment 2, and eight in Experiment 3. Over time, the monkeys came to respond faster to the sequences generated from the artificial grammar compared to random versions. In a subsequent generalization phase, subjects generalized their knowledge to novel sequences, responding significantly faster to novel instances of sequences produced using the familiar grammar compared to those constructed using an unfamiliar grammar. These results reveal that rhesus monkeys can learn and generalize the statistical structure inherent in an artificial grammar that is as complex as some used with humans, for sequences up to eight items long. These findings are discussed in relation to whether or not rhesus macaques and other primate species possess implicit sequence learning abilities that are similar to those that humans draw upon to learn natural language grammar.

  15. De la enseñanza tradicional de la gramática a la reflexión metalingüística en primeras lenguas / From traditional grammar teaching to metalinguistic reflection in First Language Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Usó Viciedo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo se centra en señalar la necesidad que existe actualmente de incluir, en el ámbito de la didáctica de primeras lenguas, tanto la reflexión metalingüística sobre la lengua como los procesos inductivos en la enseñanza de la gramática que favorezcan y propicien su adquisición en el aula. En primer lugar, se comenta la aportación que desde la enseñanza de segundas lenguas y extranjeras se ha hecho a la didáctica de la lengua, en general, y en concreto de las primeras lenguas, a partir de la aparición del término competencia comunicativa y sus posteriores enfoques de enseñanza, con nuevos planteamientos didácticos sobre la enseñanza/aprendizaje de la gramática. Seguidamente, se hace una revisión de cómo el currículo de Educación Primaria vigente en Cataluña exige como objetivo, contenido y criterio de evaluación la concienciación del alumnado sobre el funcionamiento gramatical, tanto de las primeras lenguas como de la extranjera; la observación y comparación de las diferencias y similitudes entre ellas y la reflexión metalingüística sobre el uso de los diferentes exponentes gramaticales de la lengua. Finalmente, a partir de un estudio piloto realizado con un grupo de alumnos del Grado de Maestro en Educación Primaria, se evidencia el imperativo de formar en estos conceptos a los futuros docentes, tanto desde la didáctica de la lengua como de las didácticas de las lenguas específicas, a raíz del enfoque tan tradicional de enseñanza de la gramática adoptado en sus diferentes propuestas de explotación didáctica. Abstract: This article highlights the current need to take into account both the metalinguistic reflection on the language and the inductive processes in the Teaching of grammar in the field of First Language Teaching in order to foster language acquisition in the classroom. First, the present paper considers the overall contributions of Second Language and Foreign Language Teaching

  16. Examining the Oral Language Competency of Children from Korean Immigrant Families in English-Only and Dual Language Immersion Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jane Younga; Lee, Jin Sook; Oh, Janet S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we examined the bilingual language development among Korean American first-graders in two southern California cities and explored the opportunities for language use available to them in various spaces: at school (one dual language immersion school and one traditional English-only public school), at home, and in the community. Data…

  17. Missionary Pragmalinguistics: Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores’ grammar (1668) within the tradition of Philippine grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The grammar written in Latin, in 1668, by the Jesuit missionary Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores (1627-1672) is the oldest description we have of Chamorro, a language spoken on the Mariana islands. The grammar received a number of bad reviews and as a consequence has become neglected and almost forgotten. The main point of criticism has been that Sanvitores used the Latin grammatical framework to explain a language that in many ways does not fit this framework. In this thesis it is argued inst...

  18. What Explains the Correlation between Growth in Vocabulary and Grammar? New Evidence from Latent Change Score Analyses of Simultaneous Bilingual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Quinn, Jamie M.; Giguere, David

    2018-01-01

    A close relationship between children's vocabulary size and the grammatical complexity of their speech is well attested but not well understood. The present study used latent change score modeling to examine the dynamic relationships between vocabulary and grammar growth within and across languages in longitudinal data from 90 simultaneous…

  19. Horn逻辑程序和形式文法之间的对应关系%The Correspondence between Horn Logic Programs and Formal Grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文彬; 王驹

    2003-01-01

    The paper researches Horn logic programs with grammatical view. The correspondence between Horn logic programs and grammars is found. The method by which type-0 grammars generate the least Herbrand models of logic programs is found. The method by which Horn logic programs generate the languages of type-0 grammars is found.The characterization of Horn Logic programs that are semantically equavanent to type-2 grammars and type-3 grammars is found.

  20. REFLECTIONS ON GRAMMAR TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article aims to answer three questions:(1)Why there exists a discrepancy between the learner’sgrammar knowledge and their communicative skills?(2)What problems are there with grammar tests andteaching?(3)How should grammar be taught as"away of talking"rather than"a description of rules"?

  1. On Babies and Bathwater: Input in Foreign Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Bill

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of Krashen's monitor theory and its applications to foreign language teaching includes consideration of the very important role input plays in language development and examination of the relationship between the development of grammatical competence and traditional instruction in grammar. (CB)

  2. Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

  3. Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

  4. Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rohrmeier

    Full Text Available Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

  5. The relationship between executive functioning and language: Examining vocabulary, syntax, and language learning in preschoolers attending Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lisa J; Alexander, Alexandra; Greenfield, Daryl B

    2017-12-01

    Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills. To address this gap, this study examined the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and three aspects of language: syntax, vocabulary, and language learning. A diverse sample of 182 children (67% Latino and 33% African American) attending Head Start were assessed on both EF and language ability. Findings demonstrated that EF related to a comprehensive latent construct of language composed of vocabulary, syntax, and language learning. EF also related to each individual component of language. This study furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between language and cognitive development by measuring EF as it relates to various components of language in a sample of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Compiler generation based on grammar inheritance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Mostert, Rene; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of grammar inheritance is introduced. Grammar inheritance is a structural organization of grammar rules by which a grammar inherits rules from ancestor grammars or may have its own rules inherited by descendant grammars. Grammar inheritance supports reusability and extensibility of

  7. Strategies for Better Learning of English Grammar: Chinese vs. Thais

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supakorn, Patnarin; Feng, Min; Limmun, Wanida

    2018-01-01

    The success of language learning significantly depends on multiple sets of complex factors; among these are language-learning strategies of which learners in different countries may show different preferences. Needed areas of language learning strategy research include, among others, the strategy of grammar learning and the context-based approach…

  8. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  9. Mobile-Assisted Grammar Exercises: Effects on Self-Editing in L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the development and implementation of a web-based mobile application, "Grammar Clinic," for an ESL writing class. Drawing on insights from the interactionist approach to Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the Noticing Hypothesis, and mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), "Grammar Clinic" was…

  10. The Effect of MALL-Based Tasks on EFL Learners' Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh; Alian, Jalal ed-din; Soleimani, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of tasks on language learning. Nowadays, many teachers apply different kinds of tasks in their classrooms. The current study investigated the effect of mobile assisted language learning tasks (MALL) on participants' English grammar learning. The researcher administered a pre-validated grammar test to 90…

  11. Grammar and Grammar Teaching——A Reflective Journal of Grammar and Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction When we talk about grammar, we will usually refer to the detailed instruction rules of grammar. In China, grammar is usually taught explicitly in formal instructions, which is different from that in some western countries. So there are some controversial questions coming out: Should there be formal instruction of grammar?

  12. Does Teaching Grammar Really Hinder Students' Speaking Abilities?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Araki

    2015-01-01

    In the history of formal English education in Japan, grammar used to be the mainstream. In the secondary education system, teachers used to spend many hours teaching grammar to the students. However, it has been replaced by the aural/oral method of teaching a foreign language. There was even a remark that teaching grammar hinders students from communicating fluently. Literally, there was a time when grammar was set aside in formal English education. However, the author noticed that in grammar classes, the students speak English more loudly and confidently without much hesitation than in other types of English classes. One of the reasons is that they are not worried about the contents of the speeches. They are simply concentrating on the forms. They are not afraid of making major mistakes, and the errors they make are minor so they do not feel embarrassed in public. The atmosphere of the grammar classes is very positive and the students enjoy speaking English. In this paper, the author shows how grammar classes can contribute to the acquisition of the students' speaking abilities and manners. "Learning grammar was a precious experience", one student reported after the course.

  13. Examining Transcription, Autonomy and Reflective Practice in Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study explores language development among a class of L2 students who were required to transcribe and reflect upon spoken performances. The class was given tasks for self and peer-evaluation and afforded the opportunity to assume more responsibility for assessing language development of both themselves and their peers. Several studies…

  14. Dwie (antyfilozoficzne „gramatyki” Wittgensteina [Two (anti philosophical grammars of Ludwig Wittgenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nowaczyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein is the author of two conceptions of “grammar”, that were meant to be tools of reaching the same goal: discrediting of the traditional, i.e. “metaphysical” questions of philosophy. His early conception concerns logical grammar being the language of logic notation, which is devoid of logical constants. This idea was supported by the ontological thesis that there are no logical objects. In fact, it was not indispensable for achieving the intended purpose, since the elimination of philosophical problems was provided by the semantic argument that the only sensible statements are those of the natural sciences. The second concept of grammar, presented in the writings of the later Wittgenstein, seems more ambiguous. Grammar is a set of rules of the language game, having a status of grammatical statements. Examples of such statements are diverse, and desirable, according to the authors, reformulation of them all into concrete orders or prohibitions seems problematic. In the Investigations Wittgenstein distinguishes between deep and surface grammar, which serves to determine the proper task of philosophy as description of the deep grammar (especially the grammar of philosophically relevant words. In this sense New Philosophy is a kind of philosophical grammar. Wittgensteinian grammar is also anti-philosophical, as it aims at the elimination of erroneous (pseudometaphysical claims derived from misleading forms of surface grammar. Despite the differences in the concepts of language and grammar in the early and late Wittgenstein, he has not changed his critical approach to the traditional philosophical questions.

  15. A human-assisted computer generated LA-grammar for simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... of computer programs to generate Left Associative Grammars (LAGs) for natural languages is described. The generation proceeds from examples of correct sentences and needs ...

  16. Analysis of computer programming languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risset, Claude Alain

    1967-01-01

    This research thesis aims at trying to identify some methods of syntax analysis which can be used for computer programming languages while putting aside computer devices which influence the choice of the programming language and methods of analysis and compilation. In a first part, the author proposes attempts of formalization of Chomsky grammar languages. In a second part, he studies analytical grammars, and then studies a compiler or analytic grammar for the Fortran language

  17. On the interaction of Linguistic Typology and Functional Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, J.

    2002-01-01

    of adjectives as a distinct word class. Conversely it will be shown that facts from many different languages have played an important role in the development of a layered model of the noun phrase in Functional Grammar and how currently these facts are used to test hypotheses concerning parallels between NPs...... empirical research in a wide variety of languages as practiced in the context of linguistic typology and one particular theory, Simon Dik's theory of Functional Grammar. In my view, the relationship between Functional Grammar and linguistic typology is an excellent example of the fruitful combination...... of theory driven data collection and data driven hypothesis formation. Furthermore, typological facts do not only serve to confirm the theory of Functional Grammar, but they also serve as a heuristics for an extension of the theory.Research conducted within the wider theoretical framework of Dik...

  18. Grammar Correction in the Writing Centre: Expectations and Experiences of Monolingual and Multilingual Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Although most writing centres maintain policies against providing grammar correction during writing tutorials, it is undeniable that students expect some level of grammar intervention there. Just how much students expect and receive is a matter of speculation. This article examines the grammar-correction issue by reporting on a survey of L1, L2,…

  19. Dynamic Systems Theory and Universal Grammar: Holding up a Turbulent Mirror to Development in Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Pust, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Research over the last decades has shown that language development in its multiple forms is characterized by a succession of stable and unstable states. However, the variation observed is neither expected nor can it be accounted for on the basis of traditional learning concepts conceived of within the Universal Grammar (UG) paradigm. In this…

  20. Effect of Direct Grammar Instruction on Student Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lisa; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Grammar Instruction has an important role to play in helping students to speak and write more effectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of direct grammar instruction on the quality of student's writing skills. The participants in this study included 18 fifth grade students and two fifth grade teachers. Based on the results…

  1. Importance of Grammar in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天毓

    2011-01-01

    Grammar teaching is one of the most difficult and important points in the middle school. However, there exist some problems with present grammar teaching, such as students' poor knowledge of grammar, improper teaching methods and the ignorance of grammar

  2. Descrição de línguas indígenas em gramáticas missionárias do Brasil colonial Description of indian languages in missionary grammars of the colonial period in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo de Oliveira Batista

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos séculos XVI e XVII, jesuítas escreveram gramáticas de duas das línguas indígenas faladas no Brasil colonial: José de Anchieta e Luís Figueira descreveram o tupi antigo em 1595 e ca. 1621 respectivamente; Luís Vincencio Mamiani, a língua indígena quiriri em 1699. Essa produção teve como objetivo facilitar, por meio da aprendizagem das línguas, o contato entre jesuítas e indígenas, tendo em vista a colonização e a catequização. Neste trabalho, são analisados alguns dos métodos e práticas de descrição das línguas pelos jesuítas. Para isso, seguem-se as indicações metodológicas da historiografia lingüística (Koerner 1989, 1996 e Swiggers 1979, 1981, 1983 em relação à seleção, descrição e análise do material, procurando caracterizar o que chamamos de tradição brasileira da lingüística missionária. O exame das obras nos mostrará uma forma de produção gramatical comum aos três autores e a sua inserção numa tradição posteriormente chamada de lingüística missionária, que teve como uma de suas características mais destacadas a relação com o que se convencionou nomear na história da lingüística de Gramática Tradicional.In the 16th and 17th centuries, Jesuits wrote two of the Indian language grammar spoken in Brazil in the colonial period. José de Anchieta and Luiz Figueira described the ancient Tupi in 1595 and in about 1621 respectively, and Luiz Vincencio Mamiani the Quiriri Indian Language in 1699. This production aimed at facilitating, through language learning, the contact between Indians and Jesuits and consequently their colonization and catechization. Some methods and practices of Jesuits language description will be analyzed in this paper. To do so, we will follow linguistic historiography methodologies (Koerner 1989, 1996 and Swiggers 1979, 1983 concerning material selection, description and analysis, trying to characterize what we call missionary linguistics in the Brazilian

  3. Multiple Grammars and the Logic of Learnability in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom W Roeper

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to enhance the technical description of multi-lingual speakers in terms of a theoryof Multiple Grammars where more than one language utilizes a grammar. The challenge of V2 and itsimplications for interfaces from the perspective of the L2 learner is the focus. A number of constructionsare considered including: Quotation, Topicaliation, Empty subjects and Objects, Expletives, and Subject-auxiliary inversoni.

  4. De la rutina a la reflexión. En defensa de una enseñanza reflexiva de la gramática en las clases de Lengua / Toward a reflective grammar teaching in language courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Izquierdo Zaragoza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presentan los resultados extraídos de una investigación realizada en 2013 con alumnos de 1º de Bachillerato y de 3º de Grado en Lengua y Literatura Españolas con objeto de evaluar su grado de reflexión gramatical y de dominio de las destrezas gramaticales que son necesarias para la producción y la comprensión textual. Los datos obtenidos en la investigación ponen de manifiesto la ineficacia del método tradicional de enseñanza de la gramática para desarrollar en ellos la competencia metalingüística y, por consiguiente, la necesidad de formular un modelo de gramática alternativo para las clases de Lengua que fomente las relaciones entre la reflexión gramatical y el uso lingüístico. Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the results extracted from a survey circulated during 2012-2013 academic year among high school and undergraduate students. The main outcome of our research was to assess their degree of grammatical reflection and their proficiency of grammatical skills that are considered necessary for comprehension and production of complex texts. Results from the survey show the ineffectiveness of the traditional method of grammar teaching to help students to develop the metalinguistic competence. As a contribution, we propose an alternative model of grammar for language courses that promotes relations between grammatical reflection and language use.

  5. High-level methodologies for grammar engineering, introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Duchier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grammar Engineering is the task of designing and implementing linguistically motivated electronic descriptions of natural language (so-called grammars. These grammars are expressed within well-defined theoretical frameworks, and offer a fine-grained description of natural language. While grammars were first used to describe syntax, that is to say, the relations between constituents in a sentence, they often go beyond syntax and include semantic information. Grammar engineering provides precise descriptions which can be used for natural language understanding and generation, making these valuable resources for various natural language applications, including textual entailment, dialogue systems, or machine translation. The first attempts at designing large-scale resource grammars were costly because of the complexity of the task (Erbach et al. 1990 and of the number of persons that were needed (see e.g. Doran et al. 1997. Advances in the field have led to the development of environments for semi-automatic grammar engineering, borrowing ideas from compilation (grammar engineering is compared with software development and machine learning. This special issue reports on new trends in the field, where grammar engineering benefits from elaborate high-level methodologies and techniques, dealing with various issues (both theoretical and practical.

  6. Examination of Sign Language Education According to the Opinions of Members from a Basic Sign Language Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav

    2016-01-01

    Being hearing impaired limits one's ability to communicate in that it affects all areas of development, particularly speech. One of the methods the hearing impaired use to communicate is sign language. This study, a descriptive study, intends to examine the opinions of individuals who had enrolled in a sign language certification program by using…

  7. Examining the Effects of Gender and Second Language Proficiency on Hispanic Writers' Persuasive Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Andrea B.; Prater, Doris L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of persuasive responses by Hispanic second-language writers and categorizes these responses by level of language proficiency and gender. Findings indicate that students exit English-as-a-Second-Language classes without having achieved a higher level of expertise in the use of persuasive discourse and that females elaborate more…

  8. The Comparative Effect of Online Self-Correction, Peer- correction, and Teacher Correction in Descriptive Writing Tasks on Intermediate EFL Learners’ Grammar Knowledge The Prospect of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Aghajani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available 60 participants of the study were selected based on their scores on the Nelson proficiency test and divided into three Telegram groups comprising a peer-correction, a self-correction and a teacher-correction group, each with 20 students. The pretest was administered to measure the subjects' grammar knowledge. Subsequently, three Telegram groups each with 21 members (20 students + 1 teacher were formed. Then during a course of nearly one academic term the grammatical notions were taught by the teacher. The members were required to write on the prompt in about 50 to 70 words and post it on the group. Then, their writings were corrected through self-correction, peer-correction and teacher-correction under the feedback provided by the researcher. The study used a pretest-posttest design to compare the learners’ progress after the application of three different types of treatment. One-Way between-groups ANOVA was run to test whether there was any statistically significant difference in grammar knowledge in descriptive writing of intermediate EFL learners’ who receive mobile-assisted self-correction, peer-correction and teacher-correction. The researcher also used Post-Hoc Tests to determine the exact difference between correction methods. Online self-correction, peer-correction and teacher-correction were the independent variables and grammar knowledge was the dependent variable. Examining the result of the study prove that significance level between self-correction and teacher-correction was the strongest (sig. = 0.000 but the significance level was a little less strong between peer-correction and teacher-correction whereas no significance was observed between self-correction and peer-correction.

  9. Explicit grammar teaching in EAL classrooms: Suggestions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the subject English Additional Language (EAL) to serve as a strong support subject in explicitly teaching learners the grammar of English is suggested as an interim solution to the effects of the non-implementation of the 1997 South African Language in Education Policy. To identify specific grammatical ...

  10. USING PREZI PRESENTATION AS INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Yusny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing digital technology as a medium for educational instruction has now become one of the 21 century pedagogy trends. Numerous researches suggested that using digital technology provides positive impacts as it gives more access to resources for the learning. In Foreign language pedagogy, using digital technology fosters learners’ autonomy by self-managing the amount of learning inputs outside the classroom. However, many studies emphasize more on the communicative and the vast resources accessible for the learners. Very limited attention given to the impact of the visual aid that focuses on aesthetic values of instructional design. English Grammar is one of many subjects that often received complaints by learners and claimed as a “boring” subject. Many English teachers especially in developing countries still utilize traditional method in teaching grammar. They introduce sentence structure using grammar formulas. Although, this method is still very popular, it often considered monotonous by many learners. This paper discusses about the study of using Prezi.com presentation to deliver grammar instruction materials in an English language classroom. From the study, it was found that the majority of the students involved in the study are fond of the materials and the post-test results showed grammar mastery improvement after receiving a grammar lesson that shows instructional materials using prezi. On the other hand, the control class that uses only writing boards and worksheets showed less improvement. This research provides new technique in developing grammar instruction design using a web tool called Prezi in enhancing the display of the instruction material. The experiment was given to students of English Language Education. The result of the study shows students’ positive perception toward the use of Prezi in English grammar instructional material.

  11. Functional discourse grammar: pragmatic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannay, M.; Hengeveld, K.; Brisard, F.; Östman, J.O.; Verschueren, J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter introduces Functional Discourse Grammar, focusing on the way in which this model is capable of accounting for the grammatical encoding of pragmatic distinctions and for the typological variation found in this area of grammar.

  12. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Attali

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  13. Beliefs on Learning and Teaching Language Components: The Case of Iranian EAP and EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsi, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    The present study intended to investigate the possible difference between EAP and EFL learners' beliefs concerning learning and teaching of language components, namely, vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar. Furthermore, this study examined the association between EAP and EFL learners' beliefs and their language components' development. To this…

  14. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  15. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  16. GRAMMAR IN TEFL: A CRITIQUE OF INDONESIAN HIGH SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Collins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this paper is to critically assess the presentation of English grammar in textbooks used in secondary schools in Indonesia. The influence of the Communicative Approach is in evidence in the books examined, and yet the importance of explicit grammar instruction is not ignored, reflecting the view of many today that grammatical forms cannot be successfully learnt merely on the basis of comprehensible input. Despite recognition of its central role, the grammar instruction presented in the textbooks invites questions as to its linguistic adequacy and accuracy. Writers often seem unwilling to take on board the insights recorded in the influential and authoritative descriptive grammars of recent years, continuing to accept tacitly the principles exposed in Traditional Grammar.

  17. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  18. Communicative Language Teaching in Second Language Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Juan

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionReturn the class to the students and let the students be the masters of the class.This is what I have changed during the last three years in my class.I have been using Communicative Language Teaching method instead of Grammar Translation method.In the Grammar Translation method, students only study grammar and learn lists of words and then translate what they have learned into Chinese.In the classroom,the teacher uses the students' first language to explain the grammar and vocabulary in the text and then helps the students to translate it.This method is based on the idea that language is made up of words and that language changes according to the grammar rules.

  19. English as an Additional Language (EAL) "viva voce": The EAL Doctoral Oral Examination Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Is the doctoral "viva voce" a reasonable method of examination? This exploratory paper proposes that the doctoral "viva voce" (oral examination) is a slightly different hurdle for doctoral candidates for whom English is an additional language (EAL, also termed ESL) than for those whose first language is English. It investigates…

  20. Cognitive grammar and aphasic discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Molly; Franklin, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive grammar (CG), there is no clear division between language and other cognitive processes; all linguistic form is conceptually meaningful. In this pilot study, a CG approach was applied to investigate whether people with aphasia (PWA) have cognitive linguistic difficulty not predicted from traditional, componential models of aphasia. Narrative samples from 22 PWA (6 fluent, 16 non-fluent) were compared with samples from 10 participants without aphasia. Between-group differences were tested statistically. PWA had significant difficulty with temporal sequencing, suggesting problems that are not uniquely linguistic. For some, these problems were doubly dissociated with naming, used as a general measure of severity, which indicates that cognitive linguistic difficulties are not linked with more widespread brain damage. Further investigation may lead to a richer account of aphasia in line with contemporary linguistics and cognitive science approaches.

  1. Skype Videoconferencing for Less Commonly Taught Languages: Examining the Effects on Students' Foreign Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terantino, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This study compared students' foreign language anxiety levels while completing oral assessments administered face-to-face (F2F) and via Skype videoconferencing for university courses delivered under the self-instructional language program (SILP) model (Dunkel, Brill, & Kohl, 2002). Data were gathered by administering a modified Foreign…

  2. Language Learning Motivation in the United States: An Examination of Language Choice and Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2017-01-01

    With the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) as a framework, this study is an investigation of the relationships among motivation, language choice, and multilingualism using data from 195 undergraduate learners of languages other than English (LOTEs) in the context of the United States. Motivation is operationalized by the three aspects of self…

  3. Child first language and adult second language are both tied to general-purpose learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Phillip; Lum, Jarrad A G; Ullman, Michael T

    2018-02-13

    Do the mechanisms underlying language in fact serve general-purpose functions that preexist this uniquely human capacity? To address this contentious and empirically challenging issue, we systematically tested the predictions of a well-studied neurocognitive theory of language motivated by evolutionary principles. Multiple metaanalyses were performed to examine predicted links between language and two general-purpose learning systems, declarative and procedural memory. The results tied lexical abilities to learning only in declarative memory, while grammar was linked to learning in both systems in both child first language and adult second language, in specific ways. In second language learners, grammar was associated with only declarative memory at lower language experience, but with only procedural memory at higher experience. The findings yielded large effect sizes and held consistently across languages, language families, linguistic structures, and tasks, underscoring their reliability and validity. The results, which met the predicted pattern, provide comprehensive evidence that language is tied to general-purpose systems both in children acquiring their native language and adults learning an additional language. Crucially, if language learning relies on these systems, then our extensive knowledge of the systems from animal and human studies may also apply to this domain, leading to predictions that might be unwarranted in the more circumscribed study of language. Thus, by demonstrating a role for these systems in language, the findings simultaneously lay a foundation for potentially important advances in the study of this critical domain.

  4. TEACHING GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: WHY AND HOW?

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Maulidiyah

    2017-01-01

    Grammar is an important component of English. Without grammar, it is not possible to communicate meaning successfully. Therefore, teachers and educators have to pay close attention to teaching grammar effectively. Based on the writer‘s experience in teaching grammar using the traditional way, many students still had difficulty in acquiring the grammar points. The grammar meetings were not effective, and the students did not thoroughly understand the grammar exercises. The students seemed bore...

  5. Abductive Logic Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...

  6. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  7. English Grammar For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    If you're confused by commas, perplexed by pronouns, and plain terrified by tenses, English Grammar For Dummies will put your fears to rest. Packed with expert guidance, it covers everything from sentence basics to rules even your English teacher didn't know - if you want to brush up on your grammar, this is the only guide you'll ever need. Discover how to: avoid common grammatical errors; get to grips with apostrophes; structure sentences correctly; use verbs and find the right tense; and decide when to use slang or formal English.  

  8. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  9. Contemporary Tutorial Call: Using Purpose-Built Video as a Grammar Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Jarrad R.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increased emphasis on form-focused instruction (FFI), the use of the computer as a grammar tutor has remained largely unexamined for nearly two decades. With new technologies at hand, there is a need to take a fresh look at online grammar tutors and link designs more strongly to contemporary second language acquisition (SLA) principles…

  10. Noticing Grammar in L2 Writing and Problem-Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Noticing plays an important role for second language acquisition. Since the formulation of the output hypothesis (Swain, 1985), it has been proven that producing output can lead to noticing. Studies on noticing have revealed little focus on grammar, and an in-depth investigation of grammar noticing has not been conducted so far. Studies into…

  11. Confidence and Competence among Community College Students: Self-Efficacy and Performance in Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Steve; Bissell, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    Proper grammar is crucial for effective communication. Two surveys of students in an introductory writing course sought to identify predictors of grammar ability. Students demonstrated a limited grasp of the language, struggling with such issues as the distinction between "it's" and "its." Women performed better than men at the beginning of the…

  12. Teachers' Attitudes towards Teaching English Grammar: A Scale Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Murat

    2017-01-01

    In most ELT classes, the importance of grammar, how it should be taught or how much it should be integrated into language teaching are still matters of discussion. Considering this fact, learning teachers' attitudes towards teaching grammar is significantly valuable for researchers. This study thus aimed to design a scale that identifies teachers'…

  13. Density of Visual Input Enhancement and Grammar Learning: A Research Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) has been done to ascertain the effectiveness of visual input enhancement (VIE) on grammar learning. However, one issue remains unexplored: the effects of VIE density on grammar learning. This paper presents a research proposal to investigate the effects of the density of VIE on English…

  14. [Benefits of Measures to Promote Development in Language, Mathematics and Singing in Kindergardeners: Analysis of Data Collected at School Entrance Examination in the County of Biberach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ulrike; Wildner, Manfred; Krämer, Daniela; Crispin, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the benefits of implementing measures to promote skills in the areas of language, mathematics and singing in kindergardeners by statistical analysis of data collected during the school entrance examination (ESU) of 4-5-year-old children from the county of Biberach. Study 1 employs multivariate regression analysis to analyse - in chronological order - the ESU data on 4 cohorts (2011-2014; n=7 148) of children of the Biberach county. Study 2 qualitatively compares identical data representative of the entire state of Baden-Württemberg (N=3×80 000) with the Biberach results. Study 3 focuses on the cohort 2014 in Biberach county (n=1 783) and employs logistical regression techniques to correlate curriculum content and child development. There are significant performance improvements in the Biberach population (2011-2014) in the development of language and early mathematics, as well as in visual comprehension and visuomotor skills, but not in the area of gross motor skills. Similar improvements are much more difficult to demonstrate for the entire state of Baden-Württemberg. The detailed analysis of the 2014 Biberach County data reveal that kindergardeners with increased exposure to mathematics will have a decreased risk of failure in early mathematics (OR 0.72) and grammar skills (OR 0.53-0.75). Children with speech impairment or children not fluent in German that had extra language tutorials, typically in small groups and 4 times a week for 30 min, still have a higher risk of failure in all developmental aspects, save gross motor skills (e. g. OR 3.32 in grammar skills, OR 3.08 for hyperactivity). Programs with emphasis on singing have little effect on the above data. The risk of failure in German language is high (OR 2.78) for those of non-German backgrounds, but less in visuomotor skills (OR 0.52) and hyperactivity (OR 0.51). Statistical analyses show positive correlation of curriculum content and early child development for the kindergardens

  15. Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.

  16. SERIOUS GRAMMAR CAN BE FUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionToday many Chinese students think of English grammar as an unpopular and difficult part of theirEnglish lessons Even more worryingly,that attitude is one they have usually picked up from theirteachers.Namely,grammar seems to be hard work for EFL teachers and students.So should grammarteaching be abolishedWhy do many teachers and students take a negative attitude toward grammarInthis paper,first,I will attempt to discuss the place of grammar in EFL teaching.Next,I will outline thetraditional methods of grammar teaching and the results of this kind of grammar teaching.Finally,I willput forward some suggestions on how to make grammar teaching more interesting in Chinese classrooms.

  17. Using Games in Primary Schools for Effective Grammar Teaching: a Case Study from Sebha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mubarak Pathan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning a foreign language like English is not easy task. The situation become more difficult when the learners are primary school children and teaching and learning focus is grammar, an activity often regarded as ‘boring, ‘uninteresting’ and ‘’tedious’. However, one’s mastery over a language is determined by the appropriate use of language by that individual following grammatical rules and failing to follow the rules of grammar marks one’s use of language as erroneous. Therefore, systematic attempt is done to teach grammatical rules and structures to the language learners from the beginning of language teaching and learning process. However, the success or failure of learning, mastering and using the grammatical rules and structures is largely determined by the technique and approach used by the grammar teacher to teach. The leaner-cantered, interesting, motivating technique of grammar teaching is believed to generate positive results whereas traditional, teacher-centered, uninteresting, uninvolving method is believed to be a cause of failure for learners to learn and master grammar rules and structures. Therefore, the grammar teaching technique, which involves language learners, to maximum, in learning in amusing and creative way, motivating, challenging and stimulating his/her mental processes, and reducing classroom anxiety and fear, is desired and recommended for fruitful language teaching and learning process. In this respect, the present paper discusses the effectiveness of using games for teaching grammar to primary school students as a technique which could easily be utilised and exploited for maximum benefits for learners. The study is based on the practical experiment done on the students of two primary schools in Sebha city of Libya using grammar games. The results, which proved to be fruitful and positive, are discussed as a basis for the argument in support of using games for teaching grammar to school

  18. Route description in Iwaidja: grammar and conceptualisation of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cris Edmonds-Wathen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focussed on the effect of grammar of Iwaidja, an indigenous Australian language, on mathematical conceptualisation. It investigated route description in Iwaidja. Spatial concepts such as direction, height and movement in relation to another object are briefly described using examples. Differences between English and Iwaidja are used to illustrate the some of the impact of grammar on mathematical conceptualisation. The implications are discussed in terms of how understanding these grammatical features can help teachers, especially when children are not fluent in the language of instruction, as well as providing keys to cross-linguistic investigations of mathematical cognition.

  19. Grammar-Lexicon Distinction in a Neurocognitive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishkhanyan, Byurakn

    hypotheses and testing them through using various methods. The grammar-lexicon distinction and working memory are thus central topics of this thesis. The results suggest a potential for a successful integration of the two theories. The findings further provide evidence for Boye & Harder’s (2012......) understanding of the grammar-lexicon distinction, and for the involvement of working memory in language production, as the REF-model would predict. As a starting point for integrating the two theories, the present thesis gives directions for future research on the neurocognitive underpinning of language and its...... relation to working memory....

  20. Grammar Is a System That Characterizes Talk in Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Jonathan; Poesio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Much of contemporary mainstream formal grammar theory is unable to provide analyses for language as it occurs in actual spoken interaction. Its analyses are developed for a cleaned up version of language which omits the disfluencies, non-sentential utterances, gestures, and many other phenomena that are ubiquitous in spoken language. Using evidence from linguistics, conversation analysis, multimodal communication, psychology, language acquisition, and neuroscience, we show these aspects of language use are rule governed in much the same way as phenomena captured by conventional grammars. Furthermore, we argue that over the past few years some of the tools required to provide a precise characterizations of such phenomena have begun to emerge in theoretical and computational linguistics; hence, there is no reason for treating them as "second class citizens" other than pre-theoretical assumptions about what should fall under the purview of grammar. Finally, we suggest that grammar formalisms covering such phenomena would provide a better foundation not just for linguistic analysis of face-to-face interaction, but also for sister disciplines, such as research on spoken dialogue systems and/or psychological work on language acquisition.

  1. Teachers' understanding of the communicative language teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers' understanding of the communicative language teaching approach: The case of English language teachers in Thohoyandou. ... with CLT theories and practice. Keywords: communicative competence, approach versus method, Grammar translation method, direct method, first additional language, second language ...

  2. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant

  3. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regular extensions of some classes of grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Culik and Cohen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this report we consider the analogous extension of the LL(k) grammers, called the LL-regular grammars. The relations of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars are shown. Every LL-regular

  5. An inquiry into unidirectionality as a foundational element of grammaticalization: On the role played by analogy and the synchronic grammar system in processes of language change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, O.; De Smet, H.; Ghesquière, L.; Van de Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assumes that in order to explain rather than describe language change, historical linguists should not only consider what happens diachronically at the language output level but also, crucially, what speaker-listeners do at the processing level. The reason for this is that the structure

  6. An inquiry into unidirectionality as a foundational element of grammaticalization: on the role played by analogy and the synchronic grammar system in processes of language change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper assumes that in order to explain rather than describe language change, historical linguists should not only consider what happens diachronically at the language output level but also, crucially, what speaker-listeners do at the processing level. The reason for this is that the structure

  7. Explicit Grammar Instruction in L2 Learners’Writing Development:Effective or Ineffective?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀峰

    2012-01-01

      It has long been in dispute about whether explicit grammar teaching is more effective in second language learning or implicit grammar teaching is. However, there are more than one factor to take into consideration while discussing which way is better for L2 learners. This short essay aims at depicting three respects concerning grammar teaching, namely learning context, language learners’beliefs and needs, and grammar instruction. When educators and practitioners try to adopt grammar instruction either implicitly or explicitly in L2 learners’writing development, they probably need to consider the above three factors and to find out the best way to produce more effective teaching results among their students

  8. Examining Preschool-Aged Dual Language Learners' Language Use: From a Functional Approach. WCER Working Paper No. 2016-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahyoung Alicia; Kondo, Akira; Castro, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increase in the number of preschool-aged dual language learners (DLLs), there is a need to understand their language development and how to better support them. Although DLLs' language development has traditionally been studied from a structuralist perspective, few have examined their language use from a functional approach, which…

  9. What explains the correlation between growth in vocabulary and grammar? New evidence from latent change score analyses of simultaneous bilingual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Quinn, Jamie M; Giguere, David

    2018-03-01

    A close relationship between children's vocabulary size and the grammatical complexity of their speech is well attested but not well understood. The present study used latent change score modeling to examine the dynamic relationships between vocabulary and grammar growth within and across languages in longitudinal data from 90 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children who were assessed at 6-month intervals between 30 and 48 months. Slopes of vocabulary and grammar growth were strongly correlated within each language and showed moderate or nonsignificant relationships across languages. There was no evidence that vocabulary level predicted subsequent grammar growth or that the level of grammatical development predicted subsequent vocabulary growth. We propose that a common influence of properties of input on vocabulary and grammatical development is the source of their correlated but uncoupled growth. An unanticipated across-language finding was a negative relationship between level of English skill and subsequent Spanish growth. We propose that the cultural context of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US is the reason that strong English skills jeopardize Spanish language growth, while Spanish skills do not affect English growth. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/qEHSQ0yRre0. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Examining the Language Phenotype in Children with Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra; Hoover, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys…

  11. Reseña de Bybee, J. and S. Fleischman (1995, Modality in Grammar and Discourse, (TypologicalStudies in Language 32, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins Publishing Company.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Berbeira Gardón

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Se trata de una reseña de Bybee, J. and S. Fleischman (1995, Modality in Grammar and Discourse, (TypologicalStudies in Language 32, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins Publishing Company.

  12. English and Mauritian Creole: A Reflection on How the Vocabulary, Grammar and Syntax of the Two Languages Create Difficulties for Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Kobita Kumari Jugnauth

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the various linguistic reasons that cause Mauritian students to experience difficulties while learning English. As Mauritius is a former British and French colony, most Mauritians are bilinguals. Both English and French are compulsory subjects up to Cambridge O’Level. English is the official language and also the language of instruction but French is much more widely used and spoken. Also Mauritian Creole is the mothertongue of the majority of Maurit...

  13. Reading Strategies That Motivate English as a Second Language Learners: An Examination of English as a Second Language Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kristine Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine teachers' perceptions of motivational literacy instructional strategies for use with English as a second language learners (ESLs). Self-determination theory's basic psychological needs theory and organismic integration theory acted as the lens through which this topic was explored. A Likert-type…

  14. A communicative grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    A Communicative Grammar of English has long been established as a grammar innovative in approach, reliable in coverage, and clear in its explanations. This fully revised and redesigned third edition provides up-to-date and accessible help to teachers, advanced learners and undergraduate students of English. Part One looks at the way English grammar varies in different types of English, such as 'formal' and 'informal', 'spoken' and 'written'; Part Two focuses on the uses of grammar rather than on grammatical structure and Part Three provides a handy alphabetically arranged guide to

  15. Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai, Muthiah

    2009-01-01

    Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezh...

  16. The Effect of Target Language and Code-Switching on the Grammatical Performance and Perceptions of Elementary-Level College French Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viakinnou-Brinson, Lucie; Herron, Carol; Cole, Steven P.; Haight, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Grammar instruction is at the center of the target language (TL) and code-switching debate. Discussion revolves around whether grammar should be taught in the TL or using the TL and the native language (L1). This study investigated the effects of French-only grammar instruction and French/English grammar instruction on elementary-level students'…

  17. A CONCISE ANALYSIS OF THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE EXAMINATION (YDS IN TURKEY AND ITS POSSIBLE WASHBACK EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Külekçi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, some basic information about the Foreign Language Examination (YDS is presented before the construct of the test is analysed in respect of assessing language proficiency. Then, the issues such as reliability and validity of the test are briefly addressed, and both current and possible outcomes of YDS are discussed. Finally, some suggestions for the future direction are presented as the necessity of using computer/internet assistance and encompassing more areas of language knowledge and language skills are highlighted. While this paper provides a ground for future studies to examine YDS, it is strongly emphasized that further and detailed research with empirical data on the test is necessary in order to reveal a much more accurate examination.

  18. How do Spanish EFL learners perceive grammar instruction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study of an exploratory-interpretive nature mainly focuses on the role and effectiveness of grammar instruction and corrective feedback as controversial areas of language instruction of considerable debate in SLA research and L2 pedagogy. Since the question today is no longer whether or not to teach ...

  19. A Model for Teaching Literary Analysis Using Systemic Functional Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrocklin, Shannon; Slater, Tammy

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces an approach that middle-school teachers can follow to help their students carry out linguistic-based literary analyses. As an example, it draws on Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) to show how J.K. Rowling used language to characterize Hermione as an intelligent female in "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows."…

  20. The preverbal locative NP in Lexical Functional Grammar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data is drawn from some of the findings of the study I conducted on the locative inversion constructions in Botswana in 2003. I explore an information structure analysis of the findings. I also propose an analysis within Lexical Functional Grammar (Henceforth LFG), a non-transformational theory which considers languages ...

  1. Effectiveness of Using Games in Teaching Grammar to Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolageldili, Gulin; Arikan, Arda

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of using games in teaching grammar to young learners from the view points of Turkish EFL teachers working in primary schools. English language teacher' (n = 15) opinions were collected through a questionnaire and the results of this study demonstrated that Turkish EFL teachers have a…

  2. Time and Space Complexity of Inside-Out Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Starting form Fischer's IO Standard Form Theorem we show that for each inside-out (or IO-) macro language $L$ there exists a $\\lambda$-free IO macro grammar with the following property: for each $x$ in $L$ there is a derivation of $x$ of length at most linear in the length of $x$. Then we construct

  3. A gramática estadunidense como alteridade para a gramatização brasileira do português no século XIX : análise da composição da gramática Holmes Brazileiro ou Grammatica da Puericia de Júlio Ribeiro (1886 a partir do modelo do compêndio A Grammar of the English Language de George Frederick Holmes (1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edicarlos de Aquino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo analisa os procedimentos de Júlio Ribeiro para compor a sua gramática Holmes Brazileiro Grammatica da Puericia, em 1886, com base no modelo do compêndio A Grammar of the English Language, lançada por George Frederick Holmes em 1878. Ilustrando em detalhes o mecanismo de transferência de tecnologia entre línguas segundo o conceito de gramatização de Auroux (1992, essa análise nos permite trazer à luz um elemento pouco observado na história das ideias linguísticas no Brasil, isto é, a alteridade que a gramática estadunidense representa para a gramatização brasileira do português no século XIX. Dessa forma, detalhamos as várias modificações que Júlio Ribeiro opera no texto de Holmes ao traduzi-lo e adaptá-lo para a escrita de uma gramática do português, mostrando como elas se realizam por exigência das especificidades da ordem da própria língua, mas também como significam um gesto de autoria do gramático brasileiro sobre o conhecimento linguístico, inserindo, inclusive, referências ao Brasil no discurso gramatical. Palavras-chave: gramatização brasileira; século XIX; Júlio Ribeiro; George Frederick Holmes; gramática brasileira, gramática estadunidense; gramática latina extensa. Abstract: This article analyzes the procedures of Júlio Ribeiro to compose his grammar Holmes Brazileiro Grammatica da Puericia, in 1886, from the model of the compendium A Grammar of the English Language, released by George Frederick Holmes in 1878. Illustrating in detail the technology transfer mechanism between languages according to Auroux’s concept of grammatization (1992, this analysis allows us to bring to light an unobserved element observed in the history of linguistic ideas in Brazil, that is, the alterity that the American grammar represents for the Brazilian grammatization of Portuguese in the nineteenth century. In this way, we detail the various modifications that Júlio Ribeiro operates in Holmes

  4. Generic Graph Grammar: A Simple Grammar for Generic Procedural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2012-01-01

    in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...

  5. Explicit teaching of grammar and improvement in the grammar of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explicit teaching of grammar and improvement in the grammar of student writing. J Parkinson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  6. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  7. ULTRA: Universal Grammar as a Universal Parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, David P

    2018-01-01

    A central concern of generative grammar is the relationship between hierarchy and word order, traditionally understood as two dimensions of a single syntactic representation. A related concern is directionality in the grammar. Traditional approaches posit process-neutral grammars, embodying knowledge of language, put to use with infinite facility both for production and comprehension. This has crystallized in the view of Merge as the central property of syntax, perhaps its only novel feature. A growing number of approaches explore grammars with different directionalities, often with more direct connections to performance mechanisms. This paper describes a novel model of universal grammar as a one-directional, universal parser. Mismatch between word order and interpretation order is pervasive in comprehension; in the present model, word order is language-particular and interpretation order (i.e., hierarchy) is universal. These orders are not two dimensions of a unified abstract object (e.g., precedence and dominance in a single tree); rather, both are temporal sequences, and UG is an invariant real-time procedure (based on Knuth's stack-sorting algorithm) transforming word order into hierarchical order. This shift in perspective has several desirable consequences. It collapses linearization, displacement, and composition into a single performance process. The architecture provides a novel source of brackets (labeled unambiguously and without search), which are understood not as part-whole constituency relations, but as storage and retrieval routines in parsing. It also explains why neutral word order within single syntactic cycles avoids 213-like permutations. The model identifies cycles as extended projections of lexical heads, grounding the notion of phase. This is achieved with a universal processor, dispensing with parameters. The empirical focus is word order in noun phrases. This domain provides some of the clearest evidence for 213-avoidance as a cross

  8. Smart I’rab: Smart Aplicasion for Arabic Grammar Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syd. Ali Zein Farmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabic grammar, known as nahwu, is necessary to comprehend the Holy Qur’an that is completely written in Arabic. However, many people get trouble to study this skill because there are various kinds of word formation and sentences that may be created from a single verb, noun, adjective, subject, predicate, object, adverb or another formation. This research proposes a new approach to identify the position and word function in Arabic sentence. The approach creates smart process that employs Natural Language Processing (NLP and expert system with modeling based on knowledge and inference engine in determining the word position. The knowledge base determines the part of speech while the inference engine shows the word function in the sentence. On processing, the system uses 82 templates consisting of 34 verb templates, 34 subject pronouns, 14 pronouns for object or possessive word. All the templates are in the form of char array for harakat (vowel and letters which become the comparators for determining the part of speech from input word sentence. Output from the system is an i’rab (the explanation of word function in sentence written in Arabic. The system has been tested for 159 times to examine word and sentence. The examination for word that is done 117 times has not made any error except for the word that is really like another word. While the detection for word function in sentence that is done 42 times experiment, there is no error too. An error happens when the part of speech from the word being examined is not included in the system yet, influencing the following word function detection. Keywords: I’rab, Arabic grammar, NLP, expert system, knowledge base, inference engine

  9. Issues of validity and generalisability in the Grade 12 English Home Language examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Plessis, Colleen Lynne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Very little research has been devoted to evaluating the national English Home Language (HL curriculum and assessment system. Not only is there a lack of clarity on whether the language subject is being offered at an adequately high level to meet the declared objectives of the curriculum, but the reliability of the results obtained by Grade 12 learners in the exit-level examination has been placed under suspicion. To shed some light on the issue, this study takes a close look at the language component of the school-leaving examination covering the period 2008-2012, to see whether evidence of high language ability can be generated through the current selection of task types and whether the inferred ability can be generalised to non-examination contexts. Of primary interest here are the validity of the construct on which the examination is built and the sub-abilities that are being measured, as well as the validity of the scoring. One of the key findings of the study is that the language papers cannot be considered indicators of advanced and differential language ability, only of basic and general proficiency. The lack of specifications in the design of the examination items and construction of the marking memoranda undermine the validity and reliability of the assessment. As a consequence hereof, the inferences made on the basis of the scores obtained by examinees are highly subjective and cannot be generalised to other domains of language use. The study hopes to draw attention to the importance of the format and design of the examination papers in maintaining educational standards.

  10. An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues against the hypothesis of a "phonological mind" advanced by Berent. It establishes that there is no evidence that phonology is innate and that, in fact, the simplest hypothesis seems to be that phonology is learned like other human abilities. Moreover, the paper fleshes out the original claim of Philip Lieberman that Universal Grammar predicts that not everyone should be able to learn every language, i.e., the opposite of what UG is normally thought to predict. The paper also underscores the problem that the absence of recursion in Pirahã represents for Universal Grammar proposals.

  11. Object grammars and random generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dutour

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new systematic approach for the uniform random generation of combinatorial objects. The method is based on the notion of object grammars which give recursive descriptions of objects and generalize context-freegrammars. The application of particular valuations to these grammars leads to enumeration and random generation of objects according to non algebraic parameters.

  12. TRAINING TREE ADJOINING GRAMMARS WITH HUGE TEXT CORPUS USING SPARK MAP REDUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Krishna Menon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tree adjoining grammars (TAGs are mildly context sensitive formalisms used mainly in modelling natural languages. Usage and research on these psycho linguistic formalisms have been erratic in the past decade, due to its demanding construction and difficulty to parse. However, they represent promising future for formalism based NLP in multilingual scenarios. In this paper we demonstrate basic synchronous Tree adjoining grammar for English-Tamil language pair that can be used readily for machine translation. We have also developed a multithreaded chart parser that gives ambiguous deep structures and a par dependency structure known as TAG derivation. Furthermore we then focus on a model for training this TAG for each language using a large corpus of text through a map reduce frequency count model in spark and estimation of various probabilistic parameters for the grammar trees thereafter; these parameters can be used to perform statistical parsing on the trained grammar.

  13. Advanced grammar in use a self-study reference and practice book for advanced students of English : with answers and CD-ROM

    CERN Document Server

    Hewings, Martin

    2013-01-01

    An updated version of the highly successful Advanced Grammar in Use. This third edition, with answers and CD-ROM, is ideal for self-study. The book contains 100 units of grammar reference and practice materials, with illustrations in full colour and a user-friendly layout. It is ideal for learners preparing for the Cambridge Advanced, Proficiency or IELTS examinations, and is informed by the Cambridge International Corpus, which ensures the language is authentic and up-to-date. The CD-ROM includes 200 interactive exercises to reinforce the language learned in the book, plus customised tests and audio recordings to accompany the main exercises. Versions without answers and without the CD-ROM are available to purchase separately.

  14. The association between expressive grammar intervention and social and emergent literacy outcomes for preschoolers with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla N

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether (a) expressive grammar intervention facilitated social and emergent literacy outcomes better than no intervention and (b) expressive grammar gains and/or initial expressive grammar level predicted social and emergent literacy outcomes. This investigation was a follow-up to a recently published study exploring the impact of grammatical language intervention on expressive grammar outcomes for preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI). Twenty-two 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers received ten 20-minute intervention sessions addressing primary deficits in grammatical morphology. Participants' social and emergent literacy skills were not targeted. Twelve children awaiting intervention, chosen from the same selection pool as intervention participants, served as controls. Blind assessments of social and emergent literacy outcomes were completed at preintervention, immediately postintervention, and 3 months postintervention. Only intervention participants experienced significant gains in social and emergent literacy outcomes and maintained these gains for 3 months postintervention. Expressive grammar gains was the only single significant predictor of these outcomes. Expressive grammar intervention was associated with broad impacts on social and emergent literacy outcomes that were maintained beyond the intervention period. Gains in expressive grammar predicted these outcomes. Social and emergent literacy skills were positively affected for preschoolers with SLI during a grammatical language intervention program.

  15. Chomsky's Universal Grammar and Halliday's Systemic Functional Linguistics: An Appraisal and a Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavali, Mohammad; Sadighi, Firooz

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in theories of language (grammars) seem to share a number of tenets which mark a drastic shift from traditional disentangled descriptions of language: emphasis on a big number of discrete grammatical rules or a corpus of structure patterns has given way to a more unitary, explanatory powerful description of language informed by…

  16. Folk Tale as a Tool for the Teaching of French Grammar: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the use of songs, teaching aids and text books in a French language teaching class, folk tale could be used to teach grammar, composition or any aspect of the French language. It makes for easy understanding of the language and improves the students' fluency in class. Bruno sees it as an alphabet primer ...

  17. Teachers’ Attitudes towards Teaching English Grammar: A Scale Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Polat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In most ELT classes, the importance of grammar, how it should be taught or how much it should be integrated into language teaching are still matters of discussion. Considering this fact, learning teachers’ attitudes towards teaching grammar is significantly valuable for researchers. This study thus aimed to design a scale that identifies teachers’ attitudes towards the role of grammar in the process of teaching English, to pilot it, and to find out the psychometric qualities like reliability and validity of the scale designed. The scale was developed in two phases; it was first aimed to explore the factor structure of the scale, then to confirm the structure gained from the exploration of the items. The study was carried out in 2015 and 247 volunteer language teachers from 3 state universities in Eskişehir and Kütahya were included. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the scale developed in this study was a considerably valid and reliable data collection tool including three factors. Finally, the analyses indicated that gender and graduate faculties did not create significant differences whereas age and the degrees obtained by the teachers created a considerable difference on language teachers’ attitudes towards grammar teaching (p<.05

  18. Structural priming, action planning, and grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Maryellen C; Weiss, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is poorly understood and cannot inform accounts of grammar for two reasons. First, those who view performance as grammar + processing will always be able to attribute psycholinguistic data to processing rather than grammar. Second, structural priming may be simply an example of hysteresis effects in general action planning. If so, then priming offers no special insight into grammar.

  19. The History of Modern Chinese Grammar Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peverelli, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the way Chinese scholars developed a national grammar. Chinese didnt develop grammar until Chinas contact with Western grammar books in the 19th Century. The first indigenous grammar was published in 1889. It included some traditional notions, but mainly imitated European

  20. The Effectiveness of Grammar Learning in Impro ving Reading Comprehension of English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓

    2015-01-01

    The importance of grammar knowledge has al-ways been neglected in reading comprehension. To help English teachers and learners see the value of grammar analysis, this pa-per, therefore, explores the correlation between grammar and reading comprehension. Forty-four freshmen of English majors were involved in the experiment, completing two tests of grammar and reading comprehension respectively, and it was followed by a personal interview for some exceptional cases after a week. The result of data analysis shows that grammar analysis accompanying with vocabulary, emotion, as well as other factors produce an ef-fect on learners’reading comprehension to a certain degree. It is suggested that language teachers as well as learners therefore should attach importance to learning grammatical knowledge.

  1. Pedagogical Gestures as Interactional Resources for Teaching and Learning Tense and Aspect in the ESL Grammar Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yumi; Dobs, Abby Mueller

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the functions of gesture in teaching and learning grammar in the context of second language (L2) classroom interactions. The data consisted of video-recorded interactions from a beginner- and an advanced-level grammar classroom in an intensive English program at a U.S. university. The sequences of talk-in-interaction…

  2. The application of neuroimaging to social inequity and language disparity: A cautionary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood-Lowe, Monica E; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-12-01

    In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES), researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children's neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children's developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children's language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences. This issue is complicated by the fact that SES is confounded with such linguistic factors as cultural language use, first language, and bilingualism. Thus, SES-associated differences in brain regions that support language may not necessarily indicate differences in neurocognitive abilities. In this review we consider the multidimensionality of SES, discuss studies that have found SES-related differences in structure and function in brain regions that support language, and suggest future directions for studies in the area of cognitive neuroscience of SES that are less reliant on reverse inference. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The application of neuroimaging to social inequity and language disparity: A cautionary examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica E. Ellwood-Lowe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES, researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children’s neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children’s developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children’s language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences. This issue is complicated by the fact that SES is confounded with such linguistic factors as cultural language use, first language, and bilingualism. Thus, SES-associated differences in brain regions that support language may not necessarily indicate differences in neurocognitive abilities. In this review we consider the multidimensionality of SES, discuss studies that have found SES-related differences in structure and function in brain regions that support language, and suggest future directions for studies in the area of cognitive neuroscience of SES that are less reliant on reverse inference.

  4. Mapping Between Semantic Graphs and Sentences in Grammar Induction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Kovacs

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed transformation module performs mapping be-
    tween two di®erent knowledge representation forms used in grammar induction systems. The kernel knowledge representation form is a special predicate centered conceptual graph called ECG. The ECG provides a semantic-based, language independent description of the environment. The other base representation form is some kind of language. The sentences of the language should meet the corresponding grammatical rules. The pilot project demonstrates the functionality of a translator module using this transformation engine between the ECG graph and the Hungarian language.

  5. CLIL in physics lessons at grammar school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefančínová, Iveta; Valovičová, Ľubomíra

    2017-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is one of the most outstanding approaches in foreign language teaching. This teaching method has promising prospects for the future of modern education as teaching subject and foreign languages are combined to offer a better preparation for life in Europe, especially when the mobility is becoming a highly significant factor of everyday life. We realized a project called Foreign languages in popularizing science at grammar school. Within the project five teachers with approbation subjects of English, French, German and Physics attended the methodological courses abroad. The teachers applied the gained experience in teaching and linking science teaching with the teaching of foreign languages. Outputs of the project (e.g. English-German-French-Slovak glossary of natural science terminology, student activity sheets, videos with natural science orientation in a foreign language, physical experiments in foreign languages, multimedia fairy tales with natural contents, posters of some scientists) are prepared for the CLIL-oriented lessons. We collected data of the questionnaire for students concerning attitude towards CLIL. The questionnaire for teachers showed data about the attitude, experience, and needs of teachers employing CLIL in their lessons.

  6. Implicit memory in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Margulis, Elizabeth H; Wong, Patrick C M

    2011-01-01

    Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and their associated neural structures in the acquisition of linguistic or musical grammar. These findings motivate potential new work that examines music and language comparatively in the context of the implicit memory system.

  7. TEACHING GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: WHY AND HOW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Maulidiyah

    2017-04-01

    Then the paper explains the concept of context in teaching grammar and describes the reasons for teaching grammar in context. The last part of the paper demonstrates how grammar is taught in context. These sample lessons are taken from different sources based on experts when teaching grammar in context.Teaching grammar in context is more useful and can help the students to master English better.

  8. Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.

  9. The Lattice-Valued Turing Machines and the Lattice-Valued Type 0 Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to study a class of the natural languages called the lattice-valued phrase structure languages, which can be generated by the lattice-valued type 0 grammars and recognized by the lattice-valued Turing machines. Design/Methodology/Approach. From the characteristic of natural language, this paper puts forward a new concept of the l-valued Turing machine. It can be used to characterize recognition, natural language processing, and dynamic characteristics. Findings. The mechanisms of both the generation of grammars for the lattice-valued type 0 grammar and the dynamic transformation of the lattice-valued Turing machines were given. Originality/Value. This paper gives a new approach to study a class of natural languages by using lattice-valued logic theory.

  10. The Construction of Cultural Values and Beliefs in Chinese Language Textbooks: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbing

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the discourses of cultural values and beliefs constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying story grammar analysis in the framework of critical discourse analysis, the article critically investigates how the discourses are constructed and what ideological…

  11. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, Nuala

    2010-01-01

    English Grammar Workbook For Dummies, UK Edition is grammar First Aid for anyone wanting to perfect their English and develop the practical skills needed to write and speak correctly. Each chapter focuses on key grammatical principles, with easy-to-follow theory and examples as well as practice questions and explanations. From verbs, prepositions and tenses, to style, expressions and tricky word traps, this hands-on workbook is essential for both beginners looking to learn and practise the basics of English grammar, and those who want to brush up skills they already have - quickly, easily, and

  12. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  13. Designing an Intelligent Mobile Learning Tool for Grammar Learning (i-MoL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Shuib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available English is the most important second language in most non-English speaking countries, including Malaysia. A good English proficiency comes from good grasp of grammar. To conquer the problems of low English proficiency among Malaysians, it is important to identify the key motivators that could facilitate the process of grammar learning. In this digital age, technology can play a very important role and mobile technology could be one of it. Thus, this study aims at designing a mobile learning tool, namely the Intelligent Mobile Learning Tool for Grammar Learning (i-MoL to act as the “on-the-go” grammar learning support via mobile phones. i-MoL helps reinforce grammar learning through mobile phone with game-like applications, inquiry-based activities and flashcard-like information. The intelligent part of i-MoL lies in its ability to map the mobile-based grammar learning content to individual’s preferred learning styles based on Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM. The instructional system design through the ADDIE model was used in this study as a systematic approach in designing a novel and comprehensive mobile learning tool for grammar learning. In terms of implications, this study provides insights on how mobile technologies can be utilized to meet the mobility demand among language learners today.

  14. Examining English Language Teachers' TPACK in Oral Communication Skills Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbagh, Mohammed; Jones, W. Monty

    2018-01-01

    This case study utilized the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) theoretical framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) as a lens to examine the instructional strategies of four English as a second language (ESL) teachers and their rationales for incorporating technology into their instructional practices in teaching oral communication…

  15. The Role of the School Psychologist in the Examination of Complex Language Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werder, Hans

    1988-01-01

    School psychologists must utilize an interdisciplinary approach to understand and analyze language disturbances, by examining the student's motor coordination, sensorium, perception, cognition, emotionality, and sociability. Implications for the practice of school psychology are offered in the areas of dyslalia, dysgrammatia, retardation of…

  16. A Closer Look: Examining Teachers' Language around UDL, Inclusive Classrooms, and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, K. Alisa; Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Howery, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the language teachers used to discuss inclusion, Universal Design for Learning (UDL), and learners with intellectual disability (ID) in an effort to better understand how teachers describe the relationship between those three. Utilizing a secondary analysis procedure, interview transcripts from seven…

  17. Toward Implementing Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Assessment in the Official Spanish University Entrance Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ana Gimeno; Pavón, Ana Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 the Spanish Government announced the inclusion of an oral section in the foreign language exam of the National University Entrance Examination during the year 2012 (Royal Decree 1892/2008, of 14 November 2008, Ministerio de Educación, Gobierno de España, 2008). Still awaiting the implementation of these changes, and in an attempt to offer…

  18. Introducing Laptops to Children: An Examination of Ubiquitous Computing in Grade 3 Reading, Language, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Robert M.; Bethel, Edward Clement; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the achievement outcomes accompanying the implementation of a Grade 3 laptop or so-­called "ubiquitous computing" program in a Quebec school district. CAT­3 reading, language, and mathematics batteries were administered at the end of Grade 2 and again at the end of Grade 3, after the first year of computer…

  19. Examining English Language Arts Common Core State Standards Instruction through Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Tatum, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…

  20. Efficacy of language assessment in Alzheimer's disease: comparing in-person examination and telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, Lindsey; Smith-Olinde, Laura; Hicks, Gretchen; Hutton, Terri; Hart, John

    2006-01-01

    With the large number of aging individuals requiring screening of cognitive functions for dementing illnesses, there is a necessity for innovative evaluation approaches. One domain that should allow for online, at a distance, examination is speech and language dysfunction, if the auditory and visual transmission is of sufficient quality to allow adequate patient participation and reliable, valid interpretation of signs and symptoms (Duffy et al 1997). Examine the effectiveness of language assessment in mild Alzheimer's patients using telemedicine (TM) compared with traditional in-person (IP) assessment. Ten patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, enrolled at a Geriatric Memory Clinic received a battery of standard language tests under two conditions: face-to-face and via satellite TM. Comparison of TM and IP testing conditions were assessed within each for scores on each test in the two conditions. On each of the five language tasks, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test indicated no significant difference on performance between the TM and IP conditions for each participant. Overall acceptance of the TM evaluation in an elderly population was rated at a high level except for one individual. Telemedicine can improve access to speech and language evaluation services which is relevant to both dementia and other neurological diseases of the elderly. In particular, this specific assessment tool can be used to provide evaluations in under-served rural areas.

  1. Performance of children with developmental dyslexia on high and low topological entropy artificial grammar learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Pesia; Kahta, Shani; Sasson, Ayelet; Schiff, Rachel

    2017-07-01

    Graph complexity as measured by topological entropy has been previously shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning tasks among typically developing children. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of graph complexity on implicit sequential learning among children with developmental dyslexia. Our goal was to determine whether children's performance depends on the complexity level of the grammar system learned. We conducted two artificial grammar learning experiments that compared performance of children with developmental dyslexia with that of age- and reading level-matched controls. Experiment 1 was a high topological entropy artificial grammar learning task that aimed to establish implicit learning phenomena in children with developmental dyslexia using previously published experimental conditions. Experiment 2 is a lower topological entropy variant of that task. Results indicated that given a high topological entropy grammar system, children with developmental dyslexia who were similar to the reading age-matched control group had substantial difficulty in performing the task as compared to typically developing children, who exhibited intact implicit learning of the grammar. On the other hand, when tested on a lower topological entropy grammar system, all groups performed above chance level, indicating that children with developmental dyslexia were able to identify rules from a given grammar system. The results reinforced the significance of graph complexity when experimenting with artificial grammar learning tasks, particularly with dyslexic participants.

  2. Negative Transfer of L1 on English Grammar Learning in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀琳

    2015-01-01

    At present,many scholars pay more attention to the positive transfer of native language on the English learning,while ignoring the negative transfer of L1 on English grammar learning.Therefore native transfer of L1 often appears on English grammar learning.This paper aims to point out that the negative transfer of L1 has a profound and vast influence on the English grammar learning,to find out the countermeasures to reduce the influence of negative transfer of L1 and finally to bring the benefits to the following relative studies.

  3. The Journalism Writing Course: Evaluation of Hybrid versus Online Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jensen; Jones, Khristen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined introductory journalism writing courses and compared hybrid (part online/part classroom) versus online grammar instruction. The hybrid structure allowed for grammar topics to be taught online, with a pretest following, and then reviewing missed/difficult pretest concepts in class prior to a posttest. The quasi-experimental…

  4. Input-Based Approaches to Teaching Grammar: A Review of Classroom-Oriented Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Examines the theoretical rationales (universal grammar, information-processing theories, skill-learning theories) for input-based grammar teaching and reviews classroom-oriented research (i.e., enriched-input studies, input-processing studies) that has integrated this option. (Author/VWL)

  5. Corrections on Grammar, Sentence Variety and Developing Detail to Qualify Academic Essay of Indonesian Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Imroatus

    2017-01-01

    This experimental research examines: (1) significant differences of corrections on grammar, sentence variety and developing details on the quality of the essay by Indonesian learners; and (2) different effect of corrections on grammar, sentence variety, and developing details on the quality of the essay. Treatments for each were served as follows:…

  6. Mathematical grammar of biology

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza

    2017-01-01

    This seminal, multidisciplinary book shows how mathematics can be used to study the first principles of DNA. Most importantly, it enriches the so-called “Chargaff’s grammar of biology” by providing the conceptual theoretical framework necessary to generalize Chargaff’s rules. Starting with a simple example of DNA mathematical modeling where human nucleotide frequencies are associated to the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Ratio through an optimization problem, its breakthrough is showing that the reverse, complement and reverse-complement operators defined over oligonucleotides induce a natural set partition of DNA words of fixed-size. These equivalence classes, when organized into a matrix form, reveal hidden patterns within the DNA sequence of every living organism. Intended for undergraduate and graduate students both in mathematics and in life sciences, it is also a valuable resource for researchers interested in studying invariant genomic properties.

  7. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  8. GRAMMAR RULE BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL MODEL FOR BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nadana Ravishankar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though Information Retrieval (IR in big data has been an active field of research for past few years; the popularity of the native languages presents a unique challenge in big data information retrieval systems. There is a need to retrieve information which is present in English and display it in the native language for users. This aim of cross language information retrieval is complicated by unique features of the native languages such as: morphology, compound word formations, word spelling variations, ambiguity, word synonym, other language influence and etc. To overcome some of these issues, the native language is modeled using a grammar rule based approach in this work. The advantage of this approach is that the native language is modeled and its unique features are encoded using a set of inference rules. This rule base coupled with the customized ontological system shows considerable potential and is found to show better precision and recall.

  9. The short short story as a teaching resource for the acquisition of grammar in SFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nayra Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we intend to make a reflection on the introduction of target language literature in foreign language classrooms. We will analyze the use of short-short stories as a didactic resource in Spanish as Foreign Language classrooms. To this end, we will research different teaching methodologies that have been implemented and investigate the validity of this genre as a suitable material for teaching grammar. We will make an approximation to Focus on Form as an effective approach, which integrates grammar teaching within a communicative context.

  10. Prevalence of Ascariasis among the Students of Jooro Grammar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study to know the prevalence of ascariasis among the students and teachers of Jooro Grammar School, Ibule-Soro, Ondo State, was undertaken. A total of 243 subjects examined. Stool sample was collected from each subject and examined for the presence of the parasite, using wet preparation and concentration methods ...

  11. Spoken grammar awareness raising: Does it affect the listening ability of Iranian EFL learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Rashtchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in spoken corpora analysis have brought about new insights into language pedagogy and have led to an awareness of the characteristics of spoken language. Current findings have shown that grammar of spoken language is different from written language. However, most listening and speaking materials are concocted based on written grammar and lack core spoken language features. The aim of the present study was to explore the question whether awareness of spoken grammar features could affect learners’ comprehension of real-life conversations. To this end, 45 university students in two intact classes participated in a listening course employing corpus-based materials. The instruction of the spoken grammar features to the experimental group was done overtly through awareness raising tasks, whereas the control group, though exposed to the same materials, was not provided with such tasks for learning the features. The results of the independent samples t tests revealed that the learners in the experimental group comprehended everyday conversations much better than those in the control group. Additionally, the highly positive views of spoken grammar held by the learners, which was elicited by means of a retrospective questionnaire, were generally comparable to those reported in the literature.

  12. Second Language Writing Anxiety, Computer Anxiety, and Performance in a Classroom versus a Web-Based Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracopoulos, Effie; Pichette, François

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that involved distance learning. Contrary to previous…

  13. Methods of English language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Козелецька, І.С.

    2013-01-01

    The grammar translation method instructs students in grammar, and provides vocabulary with direct translations to memorize. It was the predominant method in Europe in the 19th century. Most instructors now acknowledge that this method is ineffective by itself. It is now most commonly used in the traditional instruction of the classical languages.

  14. A grammar of Dime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyoum, Mulugeta

    2008-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive study of Dime, an endangered Omotic language spoken by about 5400 speakers in south-west Ethiopia. The study presents analysis of the phonology, morphology and syntax of the language as well as a sample of ten texts and an extensive word list. The author

  15. A Python-based Interface for Wide Coverage Lexicalized Tree-adjoining Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ziqi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of a Python-based interface for wide coverage Lexicalized Tree-adjoining Grammars. The grammars are part of the XTAG Grammar project at the University of Pennsylvania, which were hand-written and semi-automatically curated to parse real-world corpora. We provide an interface to the wide coverage English and Korean XTAG grammars. Each XTAG grammar is lexicalized, which means at least one word selects a tree fragment (called an elementary tree or etree. Derivations for sentences are built by combining etrees using substitution (replacement of a tree node with an etree at the frontier of another etree and adjunction (replacement of an internal tree node in an etree by another etree. Each etree is associated with a feature structure representing constraints on substitution and adjunction. Feature structures are combined using unification during the combination of etrees. We plan to integrate our toolkit for XTAG grammars into the Python-based Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK: nltk.org. We have provided an API capable of searching the lexicalized etrees for a given word or multiple words, searching for a etree by name or function, display the lexicalized etrees to the user using a graphical view, display the feature structure associated with each tree node in an etree, hide or highlight features based on a regular expression, and browsing the entire tree database for each XTAG grammar.

  16. A Critical Examination of Chinese Language Media’s Normative Goals and News Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic media are an integral part of a multicultural communication infrastructure benefiting all Canadians, as they provide services pivotal to immigrants’ settlement, integration, and participation in Canadian society, yet numerous studies of ethnic media reveal deficiencies in their performance. This analysis informed by interview data examines Chinese language media’s normative goals in relation to news decision-making. Outlet news workers convey commendable goals, and those who stress citizen building dedicate themselves to journalistic roles despite unfavourable circumstances. Meanwhile, Chinese language media outlets operate according to norms of social responsibility divergent from mainstream media. Narrow definitions of social responsibility, audience tastes, and perceived community needs influence content and boundaries in and for Chinese language reportage on Canada. Market competition and profit concerns also shape reporting quality, with normative goals trumped by commercial aims. New Canadians with language barriers require informational help if they are to truly become part of Canadian society, exercise their rights, and live up to their responsibilities as citizens. Improvements include professional training for ethnic media workers, inclusion of minority narratives into mainstream media, and publically funded multilingual communications.

  17. Snowball Throwing in Teaching Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarti Apsari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to describe the implementation of snowball throwing in teaching grammar and to investigate the benefits of applying snowball throwing. The research was conducted at STKIP Siliwangi Bandung. This study applied qualitative research involving one class consisting of second semester students in English Department who were taking the subject of foundation of English Grammar. The data were obtained from classroom observation and students’ interview. The findings showed that there are seven stages in implementing snowball throwing in teaching grammar. The stages consist of preparing teaching material, forming group, re-explaining the material to the member of the group, formulating question, tossing the ball, answering questions and evaluating teaching and learning process. In addition, the findings also revealed that there are some benefits from applying snowball throwing in teaching grammar such as improving students’ comprehension in learning grammar, creating enjoyable learning atmosphere, increasing students’ vocabulary, developing students’ speaking skill, developing students’ cooperation skill and increasing students’ participation in the class.

  18. Examination of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Achievement in Foreign Language in Turkish University Students in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yunus; Tuncer, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This correlational survey study aimed to investigate whether the Turkish prep-class students' foreign language classroom anxiety levels and foreign language achievement significantly differ in terms of such variables as their gender, their experience abroad, perceived level of income and any third language (other than Turkish and English) they…

  19. Grammar in Boys With Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder and Boys With Fragile X Syndrome Plus Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra

    2018-04-17

    Some boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys with fragile X syndrome and a codiagnosis of ASD (FXS+ASD) have impairments in expressive grammatical abilities. The current study compared grammatical performance in these 2 groups of school-age boys. Thirty-seven boys similar on mean length of utterance participated in the current study (FXS: n = 19, ASD: n = 18). Participants completed an ASD assessment, nonverbal IQ testing, and conversation language samples. Convergent validity of a sentence imitation task with a norm-referenced assessment of grammar was examined in addition to divergent validity of the measures with nonverbal IQ and vocabulary comprehension and production. The boys with ASD outperformed the boys with FXS+ASD on the norm-referenced assessment of "be," and effect sizes indicate that the boys with ASD had better performance on past tense probes on the sentence imitation task and "do" on the norm-referenced assessment. The two measures of grammar had good convergent validity except for copula and auxiliary "be" and "do." Grammatical performance was not correlated with nonverbal IQ, and trends indicate a relationship between vocabulary and grammar. Despite being similar on mean length of utterance, there were group differences on grammatical performance. The sentence imitation task had good convergent validity with a norm-referenced assessment of grammar for the third-person singular and past tense probes and therefore could be an inexpensive and valid tool to use clinically for these populations. Future research should continue to refine this task, particularly for the probes with high rates of unscorable responses (i.e., "be" and "do").

  20. Pre-Service English Teachers’ Beliefs Towards Grammar And Its Teaching At Two Turkish Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Zeki DİKİCİ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines pre-service English teachers’ beliefs towards grammar studying at two Turkish Universities. A total of 90 pre-service English teachers, 57 of whom were studying at Muğla University and 33 of whom were studying at Onsekiz Mart University in Turkey, were involved in this study. The research participants completed two questionnaires. The aim of this paper is to look into pre-service English teachers’ beliefs towards grammar and its teaching as well as their knowledge on the metalanguage of grammar. The findings reveal that although a great majority of the participants favour the use of metalanguage in teaching grammar, and support the deductive grammar teaching practises, they themselves still have serious problems even with the most basic grammatical terminology.

  1. CLIMB grammars: three projects using metagrammar engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, A.S.; Avgustinova, T.; Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the CLIMB (Comparative Libraries of Implementations with Matrix Basis) methodology and grammars. The basic idea behind CLIMB is to use code generation as a general methodology for grammar development in order to create a more systematic approach to grammar development. The

  2. A Construction Grammar for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

  3. Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

  4. Reframing the English Grammar Schools Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca; Perry, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In October 2015 the Department for Education (DfE) permitted a grammar school in Tonbridge, Kent, to open up an annexe in Sevenoaks, 10 miles away. Amidst claims that the annexe was essentially a new grammar school, the decision reignited an old debate about the value of academically-selective "grammar" schools in England. The intensity…

  5. THE MATHEMATICS-LANGUAGE SYMBIOSIS: THE LEARNERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... will touch some basic concepts in grammar or language. The consequence is that such ..... programming. The concept of the function ..... mathematical problems solving are closely related to language. They share the idea that ...

  6. Study of Applying Cognitive Linguistic Theory into Japanese Grammar Teaching——Taking Causative Sentence as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yu[1

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Japanese grammar teaching often only pays attention to the interpretation of syntax and the integrity of grammar structure. This violates the cultivation of communicative competence, and is not in conformity with the society’s requirements of applied foreign language talents. Cognitive linguistics theory, which links language form with semantic concept, reveals the internal relation of man’s thinking and language. If we can subtly apply cognitive linguistic theory into Japanese grammar teaching to explore the cognitive process in the speakers’ brain while expressing, we can get a good understanding of diffi cult points and “special case”. This paper explores the introductory methods and efficacy of the cognitive linguistics theory applied in Japanese grammar teaching method, by lecturing causative sentences an example.

  7. Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

    2003-06-01

    This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy

  8. Developmental Constraints on Learning Artificial Grammars with Fixed, Flexible and Free Word Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iga Nowak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human learning, although highly flexible and efficient, is constrained in ways that facilitate or impede the acquisition of certain systems of information. Some such constraints, active during infancy and childhood, have been proposed to account for the apparent ease with which typically developing children acquire language. In a series of experiments, we investigated the role of developmental constraints on learning artificial grammars with a distinction between shorter and relatively frequent words (‘function words,’ F-words and longer and less frequent words (‘content words,’ C-words. We constructed 4 finite-state grammars, in which the order of F-words, relative to C-words, was either fixed (F-words always occupied the same positions in a string, flexible (every F-word always followed a C-word, or free. We exposed adults (N = 84 and kindergarten children (N = 100 to strings from each of these artificial grammars, and we assessed their ability to recognize strings with the same structure, but a different vocabulary. Adults were better at recognizing strings when regularities were available (i.e., fixed and flexible order grammars, while children were better at recognizing strings from the grammars consistent with the attested distribution of function and content words in natural languages (i.e., flexible and free order grammars. These results provide evidence for a link between developmental constraints on learning and linguistic typology.

  9. A Closer Look: Examining Teachers' Language Around UDL, Inclusive Classrooms, and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, K Alisa; Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Howery, Kathy

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the language teachers used to discuss inclusion, Universal Design for Learning (UDL), and learners with intellectual disability (ID) in an effort to better understand how teachers describe the relationship between those three. Utilizing a secondary analysis procedure, interview transcripts from seven general education teachers were reanalyzed to identify language used by teachers to refer to inclusive educational settings, the implementation of UDL, and learners with intellectual disability. The identified themes were then juxtaposed against the UDL framework (principles, guidelines, and checkpoints) and the current literature related to UDL and inclusive education. We end with recommendations for future practice and research involving inclusive classrooms, UDL, and learners with ID.

  10. Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp

    disambiguation. The first algorithm operates in two passes in a semi-streaming fashion, using a constant amount of working memory and an auxiliary tape storage which is written in the first pass and consumed by the second. The second algorithm is a single-pass and optimally streaming algorithm which outputs...... as much of the parse tree as is semantically possible based on the input prefix read so far, and resorts to buffering as many symbols as is required to resolve the next choice. Optimality is obtained by performing a PSPACE-complete pre-analysis on the regular expression. In the second part we present...... Kleenex, a language for expressing high-performance streaming string processing programs as regular grammars with embedded semantic actions, and its compilation to streaming string transducers with worst-case linear-time performance. Its underlying theory is based on transducer decomposition into oracle...

  11. Grammar and vocabulary for First and First for schools with answers

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Barbara; Matthews, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Grammar and Vocabulary reference and practice for the revised Cambridge English: First (FCE) and Cambridge English: First (FCE) for Schools from 2015 Cambridge Grammar and Vocabulary for First and First for Schools provides complete coverage of the grammar and vocabulary needed for the Cambridge First exams, and develops listening skills at the same time. It includes the full range of First and First for Schools exam tasks from the Reading and Use of English, Writing and Listening papers, and contains helpful grammar explanations. This edition is updated for the new exam to be introduced from 2015. It is informed by the Cambridge Learner Corpus to ensure that the language tackles real learner errors. The accompanying listening material is available online for download.

  12. Rough Finite State Automata and Rough Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulprakasam, R.; Perumal, R.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Dare, V. R.

    2018-04-01

    Sumita Basu [1, 2] recently introduced the concept of a rough finite state (semi)automaton, rough grammar and rough languages. Motivated by the work of [1, 2], in this paper, we investigate some closure properties of rough regular languages and establish the equivalence between the classes of rough languages generated by rough grammar and the classes of rough regular languages accepted by rough finite automaton.

  13. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Cormier, Kearsy; Johnston, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological 'complexity' and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological 'complexification'), the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005); in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored.

  14. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Cormier, Kearsy; Johnston, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological ‘complexification’), the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005); in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored. PMID:29515506

  15. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schembri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011, applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological ‘complexification’, the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005; in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored.

  16. Language and Recursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  17. Using a Corpus in a 300-Level Spanish Grammar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…

  18. Grammar Errors Made by ESL Tertiary Students in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charanjit Kaur Swaran; Singh, Amreet Kaur Jageer; Razak, Nur Qistina Abd; Ravinthar, Thilaga

    2017-01-01

    The educational context in Malaysia demands students to be equipped with sound grammar so that they can produce good essays in the examination. However, despite having learnt English in primary and secondary schools, students in the higher learning institutions tend to make some grammatical errors in their writing. This study presents the…

  19. Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Finding language in the matter of the brain: origins of the clinical aphasia examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Heidi L

    2002-12-01

    The origins of the aphasia examination can be traced back to the 19th century when physicians and scientists began to understand how higher mental functions such as language could be localized in the brain. Paul Broca, Carl Wernicke, and Hughlings Jackson developed different models of brain function, and each contributed important insights to the study of aphasia. Broca's contributions were influenced by the fundamental question of whether higher mental function could be localized in the brain at all; Wernicke's contributions were influenced by an attempt to unite more mechanistic and physiological principles to a model of higher brain functions; and Jackson's contributions were influenced by British association psychology. In addition to reviewing the origins of the aphasia examination, this article reviews the historical context in which these contributors worked, the factors that affected the reception of their views, and the manner in which their views have affected the aphasia examination and understanding of aphasia today.

  1. Procedure Of Teaching Grammar Using Memory Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herri Susanto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching grammar has been regarded as a process of understanding from the context. It means a teacher teaches the pupils contextually more than just the rules. However, I have my own experience that teaching grammar methods must depend on the purposes of learning grammar. Some people learn grammar as a means to fulfill the syllabus needs for schools but other people learn grammar for special purposes out of school syllabus, such as for entrance test. For these reasons, the methods of teaching grammar should be different. The students who learn grammar based on the school syllabus probably needs longer procedure of learning that usually uses contextual teaching through listening, speaking, writing, and reading. Nevertheless, students who learn grammar for test need shorter procedure of learning such as memorizing. Therefore, I propose giving a workshop of teaching grammar using memory enhancement as another alternative teaching grammar method. This workshop would show the class that grammar can be learnt through memory enhancement process, i.e.; mind map, music, memory technique and drill to boost up students understanding for test preparation.

  2. Critical thinking about fables: examining language production and comprehension in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W; Cramond, Paige M; Kirk, Cecilia; Hayward-Mayhew, Christine; MacKinnon, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed primarily to determine if a critical-thinking task involving fables would elicit greater syntactic complexity than a conversational task in adolescents. Another purpose was to determine how well adolescents understand critical-thinking questions about fables. Forty adolescents (N=20 boys and 20 girls; mean age=14 years) with typical language development answered critical-thinking questions about the deeper meanings of fables. They also participated in a standard conversational task. The syntactic complexity of their responses during the speaking tasks was analyzed for mean length of communication unit (MLCU) and clausal density (CD). Both measures of syntactic complexity, MLCU and CD, were substantially greater during the critical-thinking task compared with the conversational task. It was also found that the adolescents understood the questions quite well, earning a mean accuracy score of 80%. The critical-thinking task has potential for use as a new type of language-sampling tool to examine language production and comprehension in adolescents.

  3. Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie P

    2013-08-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915) developed his network model of language processing, modality deficits and correlated lesion localizations in the 1860s and was a leading clinical authority for over four decades. Although his ideas are little referenced today, having been overshadowed by his more eminent Queen Square colleague John Hughlings Jackson, his work on aphasia and paralysis was highly regarded by contemporaries. This paper traces Bastian's lasting but largely unattributed contribution to the development of standardized clinical assessment of language disorders. From 1867 onwards, Bastian trained generations of medical students in neurology. In his 1875 book On Paralysis there is evidence in his case descriptions that Bastian had already implemented a detailed set of procedures for examining aphasic patients. In 1886, Bastian published a 'Schema for the Examination of Aphasic and Amnesic Persons'. Bastian insisted on the utility of this battery for diagnosis, classification and lesion localization; he argued that its consistent use would allow the development of a patient corpus and the comparison of cases from other hospitals. In 1898 his Treatise on Aphasia included a list of 34 questions that were to be used to examine all patients to provide detailed and systematic evidence of spared and impaired abilities in all receptive and expressive modalities. Bastian's contribution to the development of standardized clinical aphasia assessment is reassessed through detailed analysis of his publications and those of his contemporaries as well as new material from archives and casebooks. This evidence demonstrates that his approach to diagnosis of language and other cognitive impairments has propagated through the decades. His legacy can be seen in the approach to standardized aphasia testing developed in the latter 20th century through to today.

  4. Dissertation Notice: A Grammar of Wutun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Benjamin Brosig

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Erika Sandman. 2016. A Grammar of Wutun. Helsinki: University of Helsinki. Doctoral dissertation, xii, 370 p. [http://bit.ly/2C0jMCY, accessed 13 December 2017]. An occasional problem when doing research on the languages of northern China is that while there are medium-sized structuralist, historical, and contemporary grammars for many local non-Sinitic varieties (e.g., Todaeva 1966, Chen and Cinggeltei 1986, and Fried 2010 for Bonan, the same does not seem to be equally true for their Sinitic contact varieties. A Grammar of Wutun, a dissertation written by Erika Sandman at the two departments of World Culture and Modern Languages at the University of Helsinki, helps close this gap for what has since Chen (1981 been known as one of the most idiosyncratic varieties of North-Western Mandarin. This language formed as part of the Amdo Sprachbund in intensive contact with Amdo Tibetan and, to some extent, Qinghai Bonan. A Grammar of Wutun is based on Basic Linguistic Theory (Dixon 1997, 2010 and tends to make use of well-established classics for individual linguistic domains (e.g., Lamprecht 1994 for information structure, Yap et al. 2011 for nominalization. Based on a corpus of approximately 1,300 naturally attested and 1,100 elicited clauses mostly collected by the author herself, it first describes the sociolinguistic and research context (1-18, the phonology (19-41, following Janhunen et al. 2008 and word classes (42-175, nouns, verbs, minor of Wutun. After attested morphological forms are thus accounted for, it continues by describing functional domains such as aspect (176-205; evidentiality and egophoricity (206-239; clausal word order, valency, and information structure (240-286; clause-type-related morphological mechanisms for interrogating, ordering, and negating (287-310; and clause connection (311-348. The book closes with glossed and translated transcriptions of three short procedural monologues (349-361. In the nominal domain, Wutun

  5. Performance and competence in usage-based construction grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    While formalist approaches in the Chomskian tradition to language distinguish sharply between performance and competence in their modeling of language competence, performance and competence are considered to be in a mutually influential relation in usage-based models of language. Language...... competence, in the latter approach, is, much like in Dell Hymes’ notion of communicative competence, held to be experientially based in the sense that speakers establish their competence through inductive social-cognitive processes of schematization and conventionalization. Making a case for the usage......-based definition of the language system, his paper explores the interplay between performance and competence in a construction grammar perspective in which grammatical constructions are considered meaningful symbolic units on par with lexemes, in relation to the [V until ADJ]-construction, based on a study...

  6. Explaining phenomena of first and second language acquisition with the constructs of implicit and explicit learning: The virtues and pitfalls of a two-system view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Rebuschat, P.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines to what extent Krashen’s (1981) distinction between acquired (implicit) and learned (explicit) knowledge can be upheld from a usage-based view on first and second language learning and in the light of recent advancement in (neuro)cognitive research on artificial grammar

  7. May I quote you on that? a guide to grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Spector, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We all use language in different ways, depending on the situations we find ourselves in. In formal contexts we are usually expected to use a formal level of Standard English-the English codified in grammars, usage guides, and dictionaries. In May I Quote You on That? Stephen Spector offers a new approach to learning Standard English grammar and usage. The product of Spector's forty years of teaching courses on the English language, this book makes the conventions of formal writing and speech easier and more enjoyable to learn than traditional approaches usually do. Each lesson begins with humo

  8. Examination of the Triarchic Assessment Procedure for Inconsistent Responding in six non-English language samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Shannon E; van Dongen, Josanne D M; Donnellan, M Brent; Edens, John F; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Fossati, Andrea; Howner, Katarina; Somma, Antonella; Sörman, Karolina

    2018-05-01

    The Triarchic Assessment Procedure for Inconsistent Responding (TAPIR; Mowle et al., 2016) was recently developed to identify inattentiveness or comprehension difficulties that may compromise the validity of responses on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010). The TAPIR initially was constructed and cross-validated using exclusively English-speaking participants from the United States; however, research using the TriPM has been increasingly conducted internationally, with numerous foreign language translations of the measure emerging. The present study examined the cross-language utility of the TAPIR in German, Dutch, Swedish, and Italian translations of the TriPM using 6 archival samples of community members, university students, forensic psychiatric inpatients, forensic detainees, and adolescents residing outside the United States (combined N = 5,404). Findings suggest that the TAPIR effectively detects careless responding across these 4 translated versions of the TriPM without the need for language-specific modifications. The TAPIR total score meaningfully discriminated genuine participant responses from both fully and partially randomly generated data in every sample, and demonstrated further utility in detecting fixed "all true" or "all false" response patterns. In addition, TAPIR scores were reliably associated with inconsistent responding scores from another psychopathy inventory. Specificity for a range of tentative cut scores for assessing profile validity was modestly reduced among our samples relative to rates previously obtained with the English version of the TriPM; however, overall the TAPIR appears to demonstrate satisfactory cross-language generalizability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Evidential subtypes and tense systems in Brazilian Native Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Mattos Dall’Aglio HATTNHER

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to illustrate the possibility of interaction between Functional Discourse Grammar and typological studies by examining the relationship between evidentiality and tense in a sample of native languages of Brazil. More specifically, it shows that the nature of the mental process involved in the construction of evidential meaning determines its combination with different dimensions of past, present and future.

  10. Is Dosage Important? Examining Head Start Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Learning after One versus Two Years of "ExCELL"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined whether Head Start children who experienced a high-quality preschool intervention, "Exceptional Coaching for Early Language and Literacy" ("ExCELL"), as three-year-olds began the subsequent pre-kindergarten (or four-year-old) year with stronger language and literacy skills than same-age peers who…

  11. Probabilistic Approaches to Examining Linguistic Features of Test Items and Their Effect on the Performance of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses validity and fairness in the testing of English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are developing English as a second language. It discusses limitations of current approaches to examining the linguistic features of items and their effect on the performance of ELL students. The article submits that…

  12. Grammar Texts and Consumerist Subtexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    While several checklists exist for the evaluation of ESL/EFL textbooks, none includes suggestions for looking for specific biases, especially those found in the content of examples and sample sentences. Growing awareness in publishing has reduced problems in the presentation of gender-based and racial biases in most ESL/EFL grammar textbooks, but…

  13. Network Analysis with Stochastic Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    rules N = 0 //non-terminal index clusters = cluster(W) //number of clusters drive the number S productions //cluster function described in text...Essa, “Recognizing multitasked activities from video using stochastic context-free grammar,” AAAI/IAAI, pp. 770–776, 2002. [18] R. Nevatia, T. Zhao

  14. Construction Grammar in ICALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Mathias; Penner, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    The choice of grammatical framework in ICALL--the branch of CALL that applies artificial intelligence techniques--has important implications for both research and development. Matthews (1993) argued for one "that potentially meshes with SLA (second language acquisition)" (p. 5) and sketches three criteria that facilitate the crucial…

  15. Grammar-translation” method, a linguistic historic err or of perspective: origins, dynamics and inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Grammar-Translation method is frequently referred to as the traditional ineffective approach par excellence. Such view is often justified by the claim that before the Audiolingual method oral performance in foreign language was not reached, and language classes were reduced to memorizing grammar rules and lists of vocabulary. Nevertheless, this opinion is derived from unproved claims, mainly made by misinformed authors for they offer no compelling empirical evidence to validate their restrictive descriptions where translation is shown as an invalid metacognitive strategy. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that Grammar-Translation is merely an arbitrary historic label, developed by methodologists and theoreticians to encompass the history of language teaching from 1790 through 1950. References to Grammar-Translation are critically reviewed to make evident they are biased inferences based on partial evidence to account for the existence of any such methodology. The assumption that Grammar-Translation did exist, and that it is the negative model of teaching practices that should be better avoided at all costs, might reflect an unconstructive and unfounded ideological interest of mainstream theoreticians and unsuspecting teachers.

  16. Learning System of Web Navigation Patterns through Hypertext Probabilistic Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cortez Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One issue of real interest in the area of web data mining is to capture users’ activities during connection and extract behavior patterns that help define their preferences in order to improve the design of future pages adapting websites interfaces to individual users. This research is intended to provide, first of all, a presentation of the methodological foundations of the use of probabilistic languages to identify relevant or most visited websites. Secondly, the web sessions are represented by graphs and probabilistic context-free grammars so that the sessions that have the highest probabilities are considered the most visited and most preferred, therefore, the most important in relation to a particular topic. It aims to develop a tool for processing web sessions obtained from a log server represented by probabilistic context-free grammars.

  17. Educational Environment and Cultural Transmission in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Muhammet Rasit

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language teaching is not to teach grammar and vocabulary of the target language and to gain basic language skills only. Foreign language teaching is teaching of the language's culture at the same time. Because of language and community develop and shape together, learning, understanding and speaking a foreign language literally requires…

  18. Provability, complexity, grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai

    1999-01-01

    The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.

  19. Is it culture or is it language? Examination of language effects in cross-cultural research on categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Jun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Nisbett, Richard E

    2004-07-01

    Differences in reasoning styles between Chinese and European Americans held even when controlling for the language of testing. Bilingual Chinese organized objects in a more relational and less categorical way than European Americans, whether tested in English or in Chinese. Thus, culture affects categorization independent of the testing language. Nevertheless, language affected some Chinese bilinguals' categorization. The responses of Chinese from the Mainland and Taiwan were more relational when tested in Chinese than when tested in English. Responses of Chinese from Hong Kong and Singapore were equally relational when tested in Chinese and in English. Age and context of learning English are discussed to explain the differential language effects among different Chinese groups. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  20. Bringing Fun and Meaning into Grammar Learning: A Case Study of a Secondary-Level EFL Class in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Congchao; Li, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture materials are generally believed to have positive effects on L2 learning. This study examined the effectiveness of popular culture materials in enhancing Hong Kong EFL students' grammar learning. In a quasi-experimental design, 20 secondary school students were taught grammar in two ways: with the use of popular culture materials,…

  1. Characteristics of Early Vocabulary and Grammar Development in Slovenian-Speaking Infants and Toddlers: A CDI-Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slovenian…

  2. Connectivity of the hippocampus and Broca's area during acquisition of a novel grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; de Rover, Mischa; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2018-01-15

    Following Opitz and Friederici (2003) suggesting interactions of the hippocampal system and the prefrontal cortex as the neural mechanism underlying novel grammar learning, the present fMRI study investigated functional connectivity of bilateral BA 44/45 and the hippocampus during an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. Our results, contrary to the previously reported interactions, demonstrated parallel (but separate) contributions of both regions, each with their own interactions, to the process of novel grammar acquisition. The functional connectivity pattern of Broca's area pointed to the importance of coherent activity of left frontal areas around the core language processing region for successful grammar learning. Furthermore, connectivity patterns of left and right hippocampi (predominantly with occipital areas) were found to be a strong predictor of high performance on the task. Finally, increasing functional connectivity over time of both left and right BA 44/45 with the right posterior cingulate cortex and the right temporo-parietal areas points to the importance of multimodal and attentional processes supporting novel grammar acquisition. Moreover, it highlights the right-hemispheric involvement in initial stages of L2 learning. These latter interactions were found to operate irrespective of the task performance, making them an obligatory mechanism accompanying novel grammar learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining the linguistic coding differences hypothesis to explain individual differences in foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that foreign language learning problems result from difficulties with native language learning and hypothesized that difficulties with phonological processing may be the locus of foreign language learning difficulties for some poor foreign language learners. Evidence is described that supports these positions. It is argued that conceptualizing foreign language learning problems as alanguage problem allows researchers to more clearly specify deficits related to the learning of a foreign language. Research evidence which shows that good and poor foreign language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native language skill and phonological processing is summarized. Finally, potential challenges to my hypotheses as an explanation for foreign language learning problems are reviewed.

  4. Intensive Language Action Therapy in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Clinical Trial Examining Guidance by Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek,, Edward J.; Stokes, Polly; Li, Minming; Andrianopoulos, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intensive language action therapy (ILAT) can be effective in overcoming learned nonuse in chronic aphasia. It is suggested that all three guiding principles (constraint, communication embedding, massed practice) are essential to ILAT's success. We examined whether one of these, guidance by constraint, is critical. Method Twenty-four participants with aphasia (PWAs) were assigned to ILAT or a modified version of promoting aphasic communicative effectiveness (PACE) in a randomized block, single-blind, parallel-group treatment study. Blocking was by severity (mild/moderate, moderate to severe, severe). Both groups received intensive treatment in the context of therapeutic language action games. Whereas the ILAT group was guided toward spoken responses, the PACE group could choose any response modality. Results All participants, whether assigned to ILAT or PACE groups, improved on the primary outcome measure, picture naming. There was a Severity × Treatment interaction, with the largest effects estimated for PWAs with mild/moderate and moderate to severe aphasia. Regardless of severity, the ILAT group outperformed the PACE group on untrained pictures, suggesting some benefit of ILAT to generalization. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Although the groups differed in subtle ways, including better generalization to untrained pictures for ILAT, the study was inconclusive on the influence of guidance by constraint. PMID:27997954

  5. Intensive Language Action Therapy in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Clinical Trial Examining Guidance by Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurland, Jacquie; Stanek, Edward J; Stokes, Polly; Li, Minming; Andrianopoulos, Mary

    2016-12-01

    Intensive language action therapy (ILAT) can be effective in overcoming learned nonuse in chronic aphasia. It is suggested that all three guiding principles (constraint, communication embedding, massed practice) are essential to ILAT's success. We examined whether one of these, guidance by constraint, is critical. Twenty-four participants with aphasia (PWAs) were assigned to ILAT or a modified version of promoting aphasic communicative effectiveness (PACE) in a randomized block, single-blind, parallel-group treatment study. Blocking was by severity (mild/moderate, moderate to severe, severe). Both groups received intensive treatment in the context of therapeutic language action games. Whereas the ILAT group was guided toward spoken responses, the PACE group could choose any response modality. All participants, whether assigned to ILAT or PACE groups, improved on the primary outcome measure, picture naming. There was a Severity × Treatment interaction, with the largest effects estimated for PWAs with mild/moderate and moderate to severe aphasia. Regardless of severity, the ILAT group outperformed the PACE group on untrained pictures, suggesting some benefit of ILAT to generalization. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Although the groups differed in subtle ways, including better generalization to untrained pictures for ILAT, the study was inconclusive on the influence of guidance by constraint.

  6. Grammar in Art

    OpenAIRE

    Edward eSegel; Lera eBoroditsky

    2011-01-01

    Roman Jakobson (1959) reports: The Russian painter Repin was baffled as to why Sin had been depicted as a woman by German artists: he did not realize that sin is feminine in German (die Sünde), but masculine in Russian (грех). Does the grammatical gender of nouns in an artist’s native language indeed predict the gender of personifications in art? In this paper we analyzed works in the ARTstor database (a digital art library containing over a million images) to measure this correspondenc...

  7. Conceptual graph grammar--a simple formalism for sublanguage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S B

    1998-11-01

    There are a wide variety of computer applications that deal with various aspects of medical language: concept representation, controlled vocabulary, natural language processing, and information retrieval. While technical and theoretical methods appear to differ, all approaches investigate different aspects of the same phenomenon: medical sublanguage. This paper surveys the properties of medical sublanguage from a formal perspective, based on detailed analyses cited in the literature. A review of several computer systems based on sublanguage approaches shows some of the difficulties in addressing the interaction between the syntactic and semantic aspects of sublanguage. A formalism called Conceptual Graph Grammar is presented that attempts to combine both syntax and semantics into a single notation by extending standard Conceptual Graph notation. Examples from the domain of pathology diagnoses are provided to illustrate the use of this formalism in medical language analysis. The strengths and weaknesses of the approach are then considered. Conceptual Graph Grammar is an attempt to synthesize the common properties of different approaches to sublanguage into a single formalism, and to begin to define a common foundation for language-related research in medical informatics.

  8. Grammar Games: A Case for Instructionist Game Models to Enhance Grammar Awareness and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Brian; Santos, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Based on our own experiences teaching grammar in developmental writing classes and classes not dedicated to writing instruction, along with a history of scholarship that indicates a need for grammar pedagogies (e.g., Dougherty, 2012), instructor-designed grammar games can likely help facilitate learning about these mechanics of writing while…

  9. Effect of X-Word Grammar and Traditional Grammar Instruction on Grammatical Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Sue; Toce, Andi; Casey, Toce; Montoya, Fernando; Hart, Bonny R.; O'Flaherty, Carmela

    2018-01-01

    This study first briefly describes an instructional approach to teaching grammar known as X-Word Grammar and then compares its effectiveness in assisting students in achieving grammatical accuracy with traditionally taught grammar. Two groups of L2 pre-college students were taught using curricula and practice procedures in two different grammar…

  10. Fast Parsing using Pruning and Grammar Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Manny; Carter, David

    1996-01-01

    We show how a general grammar may be automatically adapted for fast parsing of utterances from a specific domain by means of constituent pruning and grammar specialization based on explanation-based learning. These methods together give an order of magnitude increase in speed, and the coverage loss entailed by grammar specialization is reduced to approximately half that reported in previous work. Experiments described here suggest that the loss of coverage has been reduced to the point where ...

  11. Grammar in Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward eSegel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roman Jakobson (1959 reports: The Russian painter Repin was baffled as to why Sin had been depicted as a woman by German artists: he did not realize that sin is feminine in German (die Sünde, but masculine in Russian (грех. Does the grammatical gender of nouns in an artist’s native language indeed predict the gender of personifications in art? In this paper we analyzed works in the ARTstor database (a digital art library containing over a million images to measure this correspondence. This analysis provides a measure of artists’ real-world behavior. Our results show a clear correspondence between grammatical gender in language and personified gender in art. Grammatical gender predicted personified gender in 78% of the cases, significantly more often than if the two factors were independent. This analysis offers a new window on an age-old question about the relationship between linguistic structure and patterns in culture and cognition.

  12. Multiword Constructions in the Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicover, Peter W; Jackendoff, Ray; Audring, Jenny

    2017-07-01

    There is ample evidence that speakers' linguistic knowledge extends well beyond what can be described in terms of rules of compositional interpretation stated over combinations of single words. We explore a range of multiword constructions (MWCs) to get a handle both on the extent of the phenomenon and on the grammatical constraints that may govern it. We consider idioms of various sorts, collocations, compounds, light verbs, syntactic nuts, and assorted other constructions, as well as morphology. Our conclusion is that MWCs highlight the central role that grammar plays in licensing MWCs in the lexicon and the creation of novel MWCs, and they help to clarify how the lexicon articulates with the rest of the grammar. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Implications of Hegel's Theories of Language on Second Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…

  14. Examination of the Relationship between Autonomy and English Achievement as Mediated by Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbandordinejad, Farhad; Ahmadabad, Roghayyeh Moradian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement among third-grade high school students as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety in a city in the north-west of Iran. A sample of 400 students (187 males, and 213 females) was assessed for their levels of autonomy and foreign language anxiety using…

  15. The Work of Ideology: Examining Class, Language Use, and Attitudes among Moroccan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrani, Brahim; Huang, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates overt language attitudes and linguistic practices among French-taught university students in Morocco, showing the relationship between language behavior and attitudes. The results reveal a class-based divide in respondents' patterns of language use, in their support of the French monolingual sanitized classroom, and in…

  16. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  17. [Language Competence and Behavioural Problems in Preschool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rißling, J K; Melzer, J; Menke, B; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2015-10-01

    Children with language disorders are at increased risk of developing behavioural and emotional problems. The analysis focused on the question whether behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit. The present study examines the behaviour of preschool children with different language impairments. The results of N=540 children aged between 4;0 and 5;11 years were analyzed. Language impairments were classified into phonetics/phonology (n=44), vocabulary (n=44), grammar (n=58), pragmatics (n=26) and multiple language impairments (n=171). In addition, a distinction was made between deficits in language production and comprehension. The children were compared with an unimpaired control group (n=197). The extent of emotional and behavioural problems were analyzed. The results indicate that emotional and behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit already in preschoolers. Especially deficits in language comprehension, pragmatic impairments and multiple language impairments increase the risk of behavioural and emotional problems and hyperactivity. The relationship between language skills and emotional and behavioural problems should be emphasized in the developmental observation and documentation in preschool. In particular, the distinction between deficits in pragmatics and behavioural problems requires a differentiated examination to ensure an optimal intervention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  19. A Grammatical View of Language Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bel-Enguix, Gemma; Christiansen, Henning; Jiménez-López, M. Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Language evolves gradually through its use: over time, new forms come into fashion and others become obsolete. While traditionally a grammar provides a snapshot of an individual’s or a society’s linguistic competence at a given point in time, our aim is to extend grammars to incorporate competenc...

  20. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...