WorldWideScience

Sample records for grains seed size

  1. Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Coffea arabica Seeds during Perisperm Tissue Development and Their Relationship to Coffee Grain Size.

    Alves, Leonardo Cardoso; Magalhães, Diogo Maciel De; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Sera, Tumoru; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2016-02-24

    Coffee is one of the most important crops for developing countries. Coffee classification for trading is related to several factors, including grain size. Larger grains have higher market value then smaller ones. Coffee grain size is determined by the development of the perisperm, a transient tissue with a highly active metabolism, which is replaced by the endosperm during seed development. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins during perisperm development in two genotypes with regular (IPR59) and large grain sizes (IPR59-Graudo) in three developmental stages. Twenty-four spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, corresponding to 15 proteins. We grouped them into categories as follows: storage (11S), methionine metabolism, cell division and elongation, metabolic processes (mainly redox), and energy. Our data enabled us to show that perisperm metabolism in IPR59 occurs at a higher rate than in IPR59-Graudo, which is supported by the accumulation of energy and detoxification-related proteins. We hypothesized that grain and fruit size divergences between the two coffee genotypes may be due to the comparatively earlier triggering of seed development processes in IPR59. We also demonstrated for the first time that the 11S protein is accumulated in the coffee perisperm.

  2. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  3. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species.

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan; Chen, Rujin

    2016-11-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes.

  4. Conception, definition, measuring procedure of grain size

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    1976-12-01

    The conception, definition, measuring procedure of ''Grain Size'' were surveyed. A concept ''grain diameter'' was introduced after deriving a calculation formula for the grain diameter for using the Comparison (simple) and Intercept(detailed) procedure. As an example and putting into practice, the grain diameter determination was carried out by means of the Comparison procedure for a UO 2 pellet used in a densification experiment. (auth.)

  5. The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGDC (now NCEI) Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database contains particle size data for over 17,000 seafloor samples worldwide. The file was begun by NGDC in 1976...

  6. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  7. Grain size dependence of wear in ceramics

    Wu, C.C.; Rice, R.W.; Johnson, D.; Platt, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Pin-On-Disk (POD), microwear tests of Al 2 O 3 , MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 , and ZrO 2 , most being dense and essentially single phase, showed the reciprocal of wear following a hall-petch type relationship. However, extrapolation to infinite grain size always gave a lower intercept than most or all single-crystal values; in particular, Al 2 O 3 data projects to a negative intercept. Initial macro wear tests of some of the same Al 2 O 3 materials also indicate a hall-petch type grain-size dependence, but with a greatly reduced grain-size dependence, giving a positive hall-petch intercept. Further, the macrowear grain-size dependence appears to decrease with increased wear. It is argued that thermal expansion anisotropy (of Al 2 O 3 ) significantly affects the grain size dependence of POD wear, in particular, giving a negative intercept, while elastic anisotropy is suggested as a factor in the grain-size dependence of the cubic (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 , and ZrO 2 ) materials. The reduced grain-size dependence in the macrowear tests is attributed to overlapping wear tracks reducing the effects of enhanced wear damage, e.g., from elastic and thermal expansion anisotropies

  8. Tsunami sediments and their grain size characteristics

    Sulastya Putra, Purna

    2018-02-01

    Characteristics of tsunami deposits are very complex as the deposition by tsunami is very complex processes. The grain size characteristics of tsunami deposits are simply generalized no matter the local condition in which the deposition took place. The general characteristics are fining upward and landward, poor sorting, and the grain size distribution is not unimodal. Here I review the grain size characteristics of tsunami deposit in various environments: swale, coastal marsh and lagoon/lake. Review results show that although there are similar characters in some environments and cases, but in detail the characteristics in each environment can be distinguished; therefore, the tsunami deposit in each environment has its own characteristic. The local geological and geomorphological condition of the environment may greatly affect the grain size characteristics.

  9. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size.

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2015-12-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and ...

    Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and Physiological Characteristics of Gmelina Arborea , Roxb. ... African Research Review ... They were grouped into 3 categories as large seed size (LSS), medium seed size ...

  11. Distribution of droplet sizes for seed solution

    Marwah, R.K.; Dixit, N.S.; Venkataramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    In open cycle MHD power generation, power is generated by passing seeded hot combustion products of a fossil fuel through a magnetic field. Seeding is done with a salt which is readily ionizable, preferably in the form of an aqueous solution, such as potassium carbonate, potassium sulphate, etc. Methods of atomization and the theoretical drop size calculations are presented. Basic parameters necessary for droplet size determination and their measurement are also described. (K.B.)

  12. Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat

    Veselinka Zecevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is important factor which influence yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. For this reason, in scientific investigations is constantly investigated optimization of plant number per unit area. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeding rate in grain quality of winter wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted with four winter wheat genotypes ('Ana Morava', 'Vizija', 'L-3027', and 'Perla' at the Small Grains Research Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia, in 3 yr at two seeding rates (SR1 = 500 and SR2 = 650 germinating seeds m-2. The 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, and wet gluten content in divergent wheat genotypes were investigated depending on the seeding rate and ecological factors. Significant differences in quality components were established between investigated seeding rates. The highest values of all investigated quality traits were established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2. Genotypes reacted differently to seeding rate. 'Perla' in average had the highest mean sedimentation value (42.2 mL and wet gluten content (33.76% in SR2 variant and this cultivar responded the best to seeding rate. Significant differences for sedimentation value and wet gluten content were found among cultivars, years, seeding rate, and for all their interactions. Also, ANOVA for 1000-kernel weight showed highly significant differences among investigated varieties, seeding rate and growing seasons, but all their interactions were not significant. In all investigated genotypes, better quality was established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2.

  13. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulat...

  14. Biodegraded polymers as materials for sowing of grain crops seeds

    L. S. Shibryaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of efficiency of grain production, solution of problems of food security demand search and development of innovative technologies at all stages. One of ways of environmentally friendly production is sowing of seeds on an excipient located in the soil, for example, nonwoven fabric made of eco- decomposable decomposed biodegraded polymer. Biodegraded polymeric materials influence on sowing properties of grain crops seeds and provide realization of their potential productivity. The authors used an electroforming method with chloroform and a dichloroethane application to receive nonwoven fabric from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and its compositions together with synthetic nitrile rubber (PHB-SNR. Polymeric material influences on energy of germination and viability of wheat seeds. Germination index is calculated, heat physical parameters are determined for the polymeric excipient. The major factor influencing seeds germination is a structure of nonwoven fabric. Water diffusion, its supply to seeds and their viability depend on morphological features of polymeric material. Polymer excipient structure influence on speed of development of root system on which, in turn, intensity of destruction of polymer depends. The best indicators of energy of germination and viability of seeds correspond to the greatest value of decrease of melting heat of PHB in mix PHB-SNR. In addition, among the studied samples of PHB-SNR the material received from blend of solvents is most effective. The cause is in feature of its structure favorable for a seed germination.

  15. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  16. Grain size segregation in debris discs

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.; Augereau, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Context. In most debris discs, dust grain dynamics is strongly affected by stellar radiation pressure. Because this mechanism is size-dependent, we expect dust grains to be spatially segregated according to their sizes. However, because of the complex interplay between radiation pressure, grain processing by collisions, and dynamical perturbations, this spatial segregation of the particle size distribution (PSD) has proven difficult to investigate and quantify with numerical models. Aims: We propose to thoroughly investigate this problem by using a new-generation code that can handle some of the complex coupling between dynamical and collisional effects. We intend to explore how PSDs behave in both unperturbed discs at rest and in discs pertubed by planetary objects. Methods: We used the DyCoSS code to investigate the coupled effect of collisions, radiation pressure, and dynamical perturbations in systems that have reached a steady-state. We considered two setups: a narrow ring perturbed by an exterior planet, and an extended disc into which a planet is embedded. For both setups we considered an additional unperturbed case without a planet. We also investigated the effect of possible spatial size segregation on disc images at different wavelengths. Results: We find that PSDs are always spatially segregated. The only case for which the PSD follows a standard dn ∝ s-3.5ds law is for an unperturbed narrow ring, but only within the parent-body ring itself. For all other configurations, the size distributions can strongly depart from such power laws and have steep spatial gradients. As an example, the geometrical cross-section of the disc is very rarely dominated by the smallest grains on bound orbits, as it is expected to be in standard PSDs in sq with q ≤ -3. Although the exact profiles and spatial variations of PSDs are a complex function of the set-up that is considered, we are still able to derive some reliable results that will be useful for image or SED

  17. Quantitative determination of grain sizes by means of scattered ultrasound

    Goebbels, K.; Hoeller, P.

    1976-01-01

    The scattering of ultrasounds makes possible the quantitative determination of grain sizes in metallic materials. Examples of measurements on steels with grain sizes between ASTM 1 and ASTM 12 are given

  18. Grain-size sorting and slope failure in experimental subaqueous grain flows

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Asch, Th.W.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Grain-size sorting in subaqueous grain flows of a continuous range of grain sizes is studied experimentally with three mixtures. The observed pattern is a combination of stratification and gradual segregation. The stratification is caused by kinematic sieving in the grain flow. The segregation is

  19. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G [Dnipropetrovsk, UA; Noyes, Ronald T [Stillwater, OK; Potapovych, Larysa P [Dnipropetrovsk, UA

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  20. Grain size refinement of inconel 718 thermomechanical processing

    Okimoto, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Inconel 718 is a Ni-Fe precipitation treated superalloy. It presents good thermal fatigue properties when the material has small grain size. The aim of this work is to study the grain size refinement by thermomechanical processing, through observations of the microstructural evolution and the influence of some of the process variables in the final grain size. The results have shown that this refinement occured by static recrystallization. The presence of precipitates have influenced the final grain size if the deformations are below 60%. For greater deformations the grain size is independent of the precipitate distribution in the matrix and tends to a limit size of 5 μm. (author)

  1. Influence of grain boundary connectivity on the trapped magnetic flux of multi-seeded bulk superconductors

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulks as representatives. A coupling ratio to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside multi-seeded bulks. An averaged trapped magnetic flux density parameter was introduced. The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.

  2. Size, physiological quality, and green seed occurrence influenced by seeding rate in soybeans

    André Sampaio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding rate influences the intraspecific competition, which might affect the development and quality of seeds in soybean. However, the impact of seeding rate on the physical and physiological qualities of soybean seeds needs to be better elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean plant density on the seed size as well as the effects of the interaction between the plant density and seed size on the seed mass, green seed occurence, and physiological seed quality. The experiments were carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013/14 and 2014/15 in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, under a randomized complete block design, using the NK 7059 RR cultivar with six replications. Four plant densities (150, 300, 440, and 560 thousand viable seeds ha–1 were evaluated. After the classification of seeds into four sizes, using a set of sieves, a 4 ×4 factorial scheme was used for the statistical analysis of the four plant densities and four seed sizes. The seed samples were evaluated for the seed mass, green seed percentage, germination, and vigor. Under thermal and water stress during seed development, an increase in the seeding rate led to a reduction in the green seed occurrence and an increase in the seed size and mass. However, in the absence of thermal and water stress, the seed size and mass were not altered by the seeding rate and, there was no occurrence of green seeds.

  3. Physiological behavior of bean's seeds and grains during storage

    FLÁVIA D.R. CASSOL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beans are one of the most used foods to meet the energy needs of the Brazilian diet, requiring farmers to use high seed physiological potential. The aim was to evaluate the physiological quality of beans stored for 360 days. Analyses were performed at 0, 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360 days after receiving the seeds (S1 and S2 and grains (G1 and G2 of BRS Splendor. Tests of germination, accelerated aging, cold, speed of germination, average length of shoots, and root were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized split-plot in time and the means were compared through Tukey test at 5% probability. Seed germination was not affected in S2, while the drop in S1 and G1 was significant. The vigor of grains from field 1 declined from 91 to 50% and from 93% to 76% by accelerated aging and cold, respectively, after 360 days. The germination speed tests performed showed a decreased during the experiment. The grains from field 1 had lower physiological quality. The accelerated aging and cold tests, through the speed of germination parameter, showed decrease in the vigor of the Splendor BRS. The storage period influenced the physiological quality of the beans tested.

  4. Physiological behavior of bean's seeds and grains during storage.

    Cassol, Flávia D R; Fortes, Andréa M T; Mendonça, Lorena C; Buturi, Camila V; Marcon, Thaís R

    2016-05-31

    Beans are one of the most used foods to meet the energy needs of the Brazilian diet, requiring farmers to use high seed physiological potential. The aim was to evaluate the physiological quality of beans stored for 360 days. Analyses were performed at 0, 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360 days after receiving the seeds (S1 and S2) and grains (G1 and G2) of BRS Splendor. Tests of germination, accelerated aging, cold, speed of germination, average length of shoots, and root were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized split-plot in time and the means were compared through Tukey test at 5% probability. Seed germination was not affected in S2, while the drop in S1 and G1 was significant. The vigor of grains from field 1 declined from 91 to 50% and from 93% to 76% by accelerated aging and cold, respectively, after 360 days. The germination speed tests performed showed a decreased during the experiment. The grains from field 1 had lower physiological quality. The accelerated aging and cold tests, through the speed of germination parameter, showed decrease in the vigor of the Splendor BRS. The storage period influenced the physiological quality of the beans tested.

  5. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  6. Effects of seed size and aging on field performance of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. under different irrigation treatments

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of lentil (Lens culinaris ‘Kimia’ seeds was kept as bulk (S1 and another sample was separated to large (S2 and small (S3 seeds. A sub-sample of each size was kept as control or high vigor seed lot (A1 and the two other sub-samples were artificially aged for 2 and 4 days (A2 and A3, respectively. Field performance of these seeds was evaluated during 2011 and 2012. Yield components and grain yield of lentil decreased with decreasing water availability. The highest yield components (except 1000 grain weight and grain yield per unit area were obtained by plants from large seeds. The superiority of plants from large seeds in grain yield was more evident under limited irrigations than under well watering. Seed aging resulted in poor stand establishment and consequently low grain yield per unit area. Plants from aged large seeds showed the lowest reduction in grain yield per unit area, compared with those from aged small and bulk seeds. It seems that cultivation of large seeds somehow can reduce the deleterious effects of drought stress and seed aging on grain yield per unit area of lentil.

  7. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  9. Herbicide tolerance and seed survival of grain amaranth (Amaranthus sp.)

    Kudsk, Per; Taberner, Andreu; de Troiani, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Amaranth is receiving increasing attention as an alternative crop to small grain cereals. From a weed control point of view cultivation of amaranth poses two problems. Firstly, amaranth grows slowly after emergence and hence is very susceptible to competition by weeds and secondly, seed losses...... herbicides examined only clomazone, clopyralid, phenmedipham and triflusulfuron were tolerated by amaranth. Applying clomazone early postemergent instead of pre-emergent provided full crop tolerance even at the highest doses (Pcaused less...... crop damage applied at the 4-6 leaf stage compared to the 2-4 leaf stage while clopyralid was selective at both growth stages. The seed survival studies revealed differences between the countries with higher viability in Spain (up to 18%) than in Argentina and Denmark (up to 6%). Our results showed...

  10. Interlinking backscatter, grain size and benthic community structure

    McGonigle, Chris; Collier, Jenny S.

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between acoustic backscatter, sediment grain size and benthic community structure is examined using three different quantitative methods, covering image- and angular response-based approaches. Multibeam time-series backscatter (300 kHz) data acquired in 2008 off the coast of East Anglia (UK) are compared with grain size properties, macrofaunal abundance and biomass from 130 Hamon and 16 Clamshell grab samples. Three predictive methods are used: 1) image-based (mean backscatter intensity); 2) angular response-based (predicted mean grain size), and 3) image-based (1st principal component and classification) from Quester Tangent Corporation Multiview software. Relationships between grain size and backscatter are explored using linear regression. Differences in grain size and benthic community structure between acoustically defined groups are examined using ANOVA and PERMANOVA+. Results for the Hamon grab stations indicate significant correlations between measured mean grain size and mean backscatter intensity, angular response predicted mean grain size, and 1st principal component of QTC analysis (all p PERMANOVA for the Hamon abundance shows benthic community structure was significantly different between acoustic groups for all methods (p ≤ 0.001). Overall these results show considerable promise in that more than 60% of the variance in the mean grain size of the Clamshell grab samples can be explained by mean backscatter or acoustically-predicted grain size. These results show that there is significant predictive capacity for sediment characteristics from multibeam backscatter and that these acoustic classifications can have ecological validity.

  11. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  12. Influence of grain boundary connectivity on the trapped magnetic flux of multi-seeded bulk superconductors

    Deng, Z.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M.

    2011-09-01

    The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.

  13. Competing Grain Boundary and Interior Deformation Mechanisms with Varying Sizes

    Zhang, Wei [University of Tennessee (UT); Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Nieh, T. G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2018-01-01

    In typical coarse-grained alloys, the dominant plastic deformations are dislocation gliding or climbing, and material strengths can be tuned by dislocation interactions with grain boundaries, precipitates, solid solutions, and other defects. With the reduction of grain size, the increase of material strengths follows the classic Hall-Petch relationship up to nano-grained materials. Even at room temperatures, nano-grained materials exhibit strength softening, or called the inverse Hall-Petch effect, as grain boundary processes take over as the dominant deformation mechanisms. On the other hand, at elevated temperatures, grain boundary processes compete with grain interior deformation mechanisms over a wide range of the applied stress and grain sizes. This book chapter reviews and compares the rate equation model and the microstructure-based finite element simulations. The latter explicitly accounts for the grain boundary sliding, grain boundary diffusion and migration, as well as the grain interior dislocation creep. Therefore the explicit finite element method has clear advantages in problems where microstructural heterogeneities play a critical role, such as in the gradient microstructure in shot peening or weldment. Furthermore, combined with the Hall-Petch effect and its breakdown, the above competing processes help construct deformation mechanism maps by extending from the classic Frost-Ashby type to the ones with the dependence of grain size.

  14. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  15. Hall measurements and grain-size effects in polycrystalline silicon

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rose, A.; Maruska, H.P.; Eustace, D.J.; Feng, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of grain size on Hall measurements in polycrystalline silicon are analyzed and interpreted, with some modifications, using the model proposed by Bube. This modified model predicts that the measured effective Hall voltage is composed of components originating from the bulk and space-charge regions. For materials with large grain sizes, the carrier concentration is independent of the intergrain boundary barrier, whereas the mobility is dependent on it. However, for small grains, both the carrier density and mobility depend on the barrier. These predictions are consistent with experimental results of mm-size Wacker and μm-size neutron-transmutation-doped polycrystalline silicon

  16. Grain dissection as a grain size reducing mechanism during ice microdynamics

    Steinbach, Florian; Kuiper, Ernst N.; Eichler, Jan; Bons, Paul D.; Drury, Martin R.; Griera, Albert; Pennock, Gill M.; Weikusat, Ilka

    2017-04-01

    Ice sheets are valuable paleo-climate archives, but can lose their integrity by ice flow. An understanding of the microdynamic mechanisms controlling the flow of ice is essential when assessing climatic and environmental developments related to ice sheets and glaciers. For instance, the development of a consistent mechanistic grain size law would support larger scale ice flow models. Recent research made significant progress in numerically modelling deformation and recrystallisation mechanisms in the polycrystalline ice and ice-air aggregate (Llorens et al., 2016a,b; Steinbach et al., 2016). The numerical setup assumed grain size reduction is achieved by the progressive transformation of subgrain boundaries into new high angle grain boundaries splitting an existing grain. This mechanism is usually termed polygonisation. Analogue experiments suggested, that strain induced grain boundary migration can cause bulges to migrate through the whole of a grain separating one region of the grain from another (Jessell, 1986; Urai, 1987). This mechanism of grain dissection could provide an alternative grain size reducing mechanism, but has not yet been observed during ice microdynamics. In this contribution, we present results using an updated numerical approach allowing for grain dissection. The approach is based on coupling the full field theory crystal visco-plasticity code (VPFFT) of Lebensohn (2001) to the multi-process modelling platform Elle (Bons et al., 2008). VPFFT predicts the mechanical fields resulting from short strain increments, dynamic recrystallisation process are implemented in Elle. The novel approach includes improvements to allow for grain dissection, which was topologically impossible during earlier simulations. The simulations are supported by microstructural observations from NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) ice core. Mappings of c-axis orientations using the automatic fabric analyser and full crystallographic orientations using electron

  17. Towards modeling intergranular stress corrosion cracks on grain size scales

    Simonovski, Igor; Cizelj, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simulating the onset and propagation of intergranular cracking. ► Model based on the as-measured geometry and crystallographic orientations. ► Feasibility, performance of the proposed computational approach demonstrated. - Abstract: Development of advanced models at the grain size scales has so far been mostly limited to simulated geometry structures such as for example 3D Voronoi tessellations. The difficulty came from a lack of non-destructive techniques for measuring the microstructures. In this work a novel grain-size scale approach for modelling intergranular stress corrosion cracking based on as-measured 3D grain structure of a 400 μm stainless steel wire is presented. Grain topologies and crystallographic orientations are obtained using a diffraction contrast tomography, reconstructed within a detailed finite element model and coupled with advanced constitutive models for grains and grain boundaries. The wire is composed of 362 grains and over 1600 grain boundaries. Grain boundary damage initialization and early development is then explored for a number of cases, ranging from isotropic elasticity up to crystal plasticity constitutive laws for the bulk grain material. In all cases the grain boundaries are modeled using the cohesive zone approach. The feasibility of the approach is explored.

  18. Mapping soil degradation by topsoil grain size using MODIS data

    XIAO, Jieying; SHEN, Yanjun; TATEISHI, Ryutaro

    2005-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] MODIS BRDF reflectance data at the end of April 2004 was selected to make a desertification map base on topsoil grain size by using Gain Size Index at arid and semiarid Asia. After data processing, GSI was applied into desertification mapping, and we find that high GSI area distributed at the desert and its’ marginal area, degraded grassland, desert steppe. The desertification map was output according to the correlation between GSI and grain size distribution, the classification of...

  19. THE EFFECT OF SEDIMENT GRAIN SIZE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT

    Svetlana Maslennikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the natural surroundings tectonical, climatological, dynamic and physico-chemical conditions of sedimentation are the crucial factors in the process of sediment composition formation. Grain size is one of the most investigated reasons of space and temporary variability in heavy metal concentration. In general, the data on grain size measurement afford to appreciate sorption capacity of sediments and arrange them. The dependence heavy metal content on grain size of sediments has been examined in the enormous amount of research works. The main conclusion is that if grain size decreases, metal content increases.We have carried out sediment grain size measurement of two lakes (Chebachje Lake, Piketnoye Lake located in the South of Western Siberia, Russia. To define grain size of these sediments the sorting of samples collected layer-by-layer has been conducted by nest of sieves (from 43 to 1000 µm. Accomplished examinations allow to state that layer-by-layer grain size measurement of sediments has significant importance in reconstruction of paleoecologic peculiarities and also influences organic and inorganic matter concentrating in the sediments in dynamics

  20. Association studies and legume synteny reveal haplotypes determining seed size in Vigna unguiculata

    Mitchell R Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exists because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large-seeded lines. In this work we applied SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For ~800 samples derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to ten trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total ten QTL were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  1. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata.

    Lucas, Mitchell R; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large seeded lines. In this work we applied 1,536-plex SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker-based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For 804 individuals derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to 10 trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total 10 QTLs were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  2. Radon emanation rate as a function of monazite grain size

    Yogesan, S.; Stanley, J.D.; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    In this study, a sample of monazite from local mining area was divided to 7 parts according to size (μm) and each sample was analysed using silicon surface barrier detector and multichannel analyser. From this study it has found that small grain monazite produced more radon that big grain monazite and radium is distributed on or near the surface of the monazite grain

  3. Effects of grain size distribution on the interstellar dust mass growth

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Kuo, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Grain growth by the accretion of metals in interstellar clouds (called `grain growth') could be one of the dominant processes that determine the dust content in galaxies. The importance of grain size distribution for the grain growth is demonstrated in this paper. First, we derive an analytical formula that gives the grain size distribution after the grain growth in individual clouds for any initial grain size distribution. The time-scale of the grain growth is very sensitive to grain size di...

  4. Germinant size of jack pine in relation to seed size and geographic origin

    C.W. Yeatman

    1966-01-01

    The initial size of conifer seedlings is closely related to seed size (Hadders 1963), and seed size is a maternal characteristic that is highly subject to environmental modification (Mergen et al. 1964; Righter 1945). The effect of seed weight must be accounted for in critical studies of seedlings which attempt to attribute differences in growth to specific genetic or...

  5. Tailoring and patterning the grain size of nanocrystalline alloys

    Detor, Andrew J.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline alloys that exhibit grain boundary segregation can access thermodynamically stable or metastable states with the average grain size dictated by the alloying addition. Here we consider nanocrystalline Ni-W alloys and demonstrate that the W content controls the grain size over a very broad range: ∼2-140 nm as compared with ∼2-20 nm in previous work on strongly segregating systems. This trend is attributed to a relatively weak tendency for W segregation to the grain boundaries. Based upon this observation, we introduce a new synthesis technique allowing for precise composition control during the electrodeposition of Ni-W alloys, which, in turn, leads to precise control of the nanocrystalline grain size. This technique offers new possibilities for understanding the structure-property relationships of nanocrystalline solids, such as the breakdown of Hall-Petch strength scaling, and also opens the door to a new class of customizable materials incorporating patterned nanostructures

  6. GRAIN SIZE CONSTRAINTS ON HL TAU WITH POLARIZATION SIGNATURE

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Dullemond, Cornelis P [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Momose, Munetake; Tsukagoshi, Takashi, E-mail: kataoka@uni-heidelberg.de [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    The millimeter-wave polarization of the protoplanetary disk around HL Tau has been interpreted as the emission from elongated dust grains aligned with the magnetic field in the disk. However, the self-scattering of thermal dust emission may also explain the observed millimeter-wave polarization. In this paper, we report a modeling of the millimeter-wave polarization of the HL Tau disk with the self-polarization. Dust grains are assumed to be spherical and to have a power-law size distribution. We change the maximum grain size with a fixed dust composition in a fixed disk model to find the grain size to reproduce the observed signature. We find that the direction of the polarization vectors and the polarization degree can be explained with the self-scattering. Moreover, the polarization degree can be explained only if the maximum grain size is ∼150 μm. The obtained grain size from the polarization is different from that which has been previously expected from the spectral index of the dust opacity coefficient (a millimeter or larger) if the emission is optically thin. We discuss that porous dust aggregates may solve the inconsistency of the maximum grain size between the two constraints.

  7. GRAIN SIZE CONSTRAINTS ON HL TAU WITH POLARIZATION SIGNATURE

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Muto, Takayuki; Momose, Munetake; Tsukagoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The millimeter-wave polarization of the protoplanetary disk around HL Tau has been interpreted as the emission from elongated dust grains aligned with the magnetic field in the disk. However, the self-scattering of thermal dust emission may also explain the observed millimeter-wave polarization. In this paper, we report a modeling of the millimeter-wave polarization of the HL Tau disk with the self-polarization. Dust grains are assumed to be spherical and to have a power-law size distribution. We change the maximum grain size with a fixed dust composition in a fixed disk model to find the grain size to reproduce the observed signature. We find that the direction of the polarization vectors and the polarization degree can be explained with the self-scattering. Moreover, the polarization degree can be explained only if the maximum grain size is ∼150 μm. The obtained grain size from the polarization is different from that which has been previously expected from the spectral index of the dust opacity coefficient (a millimeter or larger) if the emission is optically thin. We discuss that porous dust aggregates may solve the inconsistency of the maximum grain size between the two constraints

  8. The evolution of ferrite grain size in structural steels

    Hodgson, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The refinement of the ferrite grain size is the main aim of modern thermomechanical processes for hot rolled steels. The ferrite grain size is determined by the composition, the state of the austenite at the point of transformation and the cooling rate through transformation. By adding microalloying additions of Ti for grain refinement and Nb to retard recrystallisation, it is possible to reduce the ferrite grain size to less than 5μm at moderate to high cooling rates. However, it is not possible under even the most extreme traditional controlled rolling and accelerated cooling conditions to produce an equiaxed ferrite grain size of less than 3μm. More recent work, though, involving rolling with high undercooling and friction conditions that lead to high shear, suggests that it is possible to produce microstructures in a single rolling pass with an average grain size less than 1μm. This appears to involve a dynamic (ie strain induced) transformation process. The current understanding of static and dynamic transformation and the resultant grain size is reviewed and areas requiring further research are highlighted

  9. A Rare Allele of GS2 Enhances Grain Size and Grain Yield in Rice.

    Hu, Jiang; Wang, Yuexing; Fang, Yunxia; Zeng, Longjun; Xu, Jie; Yu, Haiping; Shi, Zhenyuan; Pan, Jiangjie; Zhang, Dong; Kang, Shujing; Zhu, Li; Dong, Guojun; Guo, Longbiao; Zeng, Dali; Zhang, Guangheng; Xie, Lihong; Xiong, Guosheng; Li, Jiayang; Qian, Qian

    2015-10-05

    Grain size determines grain weight and affects grain quality. Several major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating grain size have been cloned; however, our understanding of the underlying mechanism that regulates the size of rice grains remains fragmentary. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a dominant QTL, grain size on chromosome 2 (GS2), which encodes Growth-Regulating Factor 4 (OsGRF4), a transcriptional regulator. GS2 localizes to the nucleus and may act as a transcription activator. A rare mutation of GS2 affecting the binding site of a microRNA, OsmiR396c, causes elevated expression of GS2/OsGRF4. The increase in GS2 expression leads to larger cells and increased numbers of cells, which thus enhances grain weight and yield. The introduction of this rare allele of GS2/OsGRF4 into rice cultivars could significantly enhance grain weight and increase grain yield, with possible applications in breeding high-yield rice varieties. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study, Grain Size Analyses

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study was funded by NOAA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Program. Dr. L.J. Doyle produced grain size analyses in the...

  11. Sediment grain size and hydrodynamics in Mediterranean coastal ...

    Integrated classification maps were produced by combining sediment grain-size and hydrological data .... Integrated classification of abiotic parameters in lagoons. 1099. Figure 1. ...... spline with tension: I. Theory and implementation; Math.

  12. Multiseeding with (100)/(100) Grain Junctions in Top Seeded Melt Growth Processed YBCO Superconductors

    Kim, C.J.; Gee, Y.A.; Hong, G.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea); Kim, H.J.; Joo, J.H. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea); Han, S.C.; Han, Y.H.; Sung, T.H.; Kim, S.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    Multiseeding with (100)/(100) grain junctions of top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) processed YBCO superconductors was studied. Multiple seeding shortened the processing time for the fabrication of TSMG-processed YBCO superconductors. The relationship among the number of seeds, the levitation forces and the trapped magnetic fields of the TSMG-processed YBCO samples is reported. The characteristic of the (100)/(100) grain junction is discussed in terms of a wetting angle of a melt. (author). 25 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Microhardness and grain size of disordered nonstoichiometric titanium carbide

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Zueva, L.V.; Gusev, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Effect of the disordered nonstoichiometric titanium carbide on its microhardness and grain size is studied. It is established that decrease in defectiveness of carbon sublattice of disordered carbide is accompanied by microhardness growth and decrease in grain size. Possible causes of the TiC y microhardness anomalous behaviour in the area 0.8 ≤ y ≤ 0.9 connected with plastic deformation mechanism conditioned by peculiarities of the electron-energetic spectrum of nonstoichiometric carbide are discussed [ru

  14. Agriproteomics of Bread Wheat: Comparative Proteomics and Network Analyses of Grain Size Variation.

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-07-01

    Agriproteomics signifies the merging of agriculture research and proteomics systems science and is impacting plant research and societal development. Wheat is a frequently consumed foodstuff, has highly variable grain size that in effect contributes to wheat grain yield and the end-product quality. Very limited information is available on molecular basis of grain size due to complex multifactorial nature of this trait. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteomics profiles from grains of wheat genotypes, Rye selection 111 (RS111) and Chinese spring (CS), which differ in their size. Significant differences in protein expression were found, including 33 proteins uniquely present in RS111 and 32 only in CS, while 54 proteins were expressed from both genotypes. Among differentially expressed proteins, 22 were upregulated, while 21 proteins were downregulated in RS111 compared to CS. Functional classification revealed their role in energy metabolism, seed storage, stress tolerance and transcription. Further, protein interactive network analysis was performed to predict the targets of identified proteins. Significantly different interactions patterns were observed between these genotypes with detection of proteins such as Cyp450, Sus2, and WRKY that could potentially affect seed size. The present study illustrates the potentials of agriproteomics as a veritable new frontier of plant omics research.

  15. Size Effect in Tension Perpendicular to Grain

    Astrup, Thomas; Clorius, Christian Odin; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2004-01-01

    The strength of wood is reduced when the stressed volume is increased. The phenomenon is termed size effect and is often explained as being stochastic in the sense that the probability of weak locations occurring in the wood increases with increased volume. This paper presents a hypothesis where ...

  16. Experimental Phase Functions of Millimeter-sized Cosmic Dust Grains

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Escobar-Cerezo, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Vargas-Martín, F. [Department of Electromagnetism and Electronics, University of Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Min, M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sobornnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Hovenier, J. W. [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek,” University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-09-01

    We present the experimental phase functions of three types of millimeter-sized dust grains consisting of enstatite, quartz, and volcanic material from Mount Etna, respectively. The three grains present similar sizes but different absorbing properties. The measurements are performed at 527 nm covering the scattering angle range from 3° to 170°. The measured phase functions show two well-defined regions: (i) soft forward peaks and (ii) a continuous increase with the scattering angle at side- and back-scattering regions. This behavior at side- and back-scattering regions is in agreement with the observed phase functions of the Fomalhaut and HR 4796A dust rings. Further computations and measurements (including polarization) for millimeter-sized grains are needed to draw some conclusions about the fluffy or compact structure of the dust grains.

  17. Estimating the average grain size of metals - approved standard 1969

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    These methods cover procedures for estimating and rules for expressing the average grain size of all metals and consisting entirely, or principally, of a single phase. The methods may also be used for any structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts. The three basic procedures for grain size estimation which are discussed are comparison procedure, intercept (or Heyn) procedure, and planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure. For specimens consisting of equiaxed grains, the method of comparing the specimen with a standard chart is most convenient and is sufficiently accurate for most commercial purposes. For high degrees of accuracy in estimating grain size, the intercept or planimetric procedures may be used

  18. Molecular dynamics study on microstructure of near grain boundary distortion region in small grain size nano- NiAl alloy

    Wang, J.Y.; Wang, X.W.; Rifkin, J.; Li, D.X.

    2001-12-01

    Using the molecular dynamics simulation method, the microstructure of distortion region near curved amorphous-like grain boundary in nano-NiAl alloy is studied. The results showed that due to the internal elastic force of high energy grain boundary, distortion layer exists between grain and grain boundary. The lattice expansion and structure factor decreasing are observed in this region. Stacking fault in sample with grain size 3.8nm is clearly observed across the distortion region at the site very close to grain. The influences of different grain sizes on average distortion degree and volume fractions of distortion region, grain and grain boundary are also discussed. (author)

  19. Seed predators exert selection on the subindividual variation of seed size.

    Sobral, M; Guitián, J; Guitián, P; Larrinaga, A R

    2014-07-01

    Subindividual variation among repeated organs in plants constitutes an overlooked level of variation in phenotypic selection studies, despite being a major component of phenotypic variation. Animals that interact with plants could be selective agents on subindividual variation. This study examines selective pressures exerted during post-dispersal seed predation and germination on the subindividual variation of seed size in hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). With a seed offering experiment and a germination test, we estimated phenotypic selection differentials for average and subindividual variation of seed size due to seed predation and germination. Seed size affects germination, growth rate and the probability of an individual seed of escaping predation. Longer seeds showed higher germination rates, but this did not result in significant selection on phenotypes of the maternal trees. On the other hand, seed predators avoided wider seeds, and by doing so exerted phenotypic selection on adult average and subindividual variation of seed size. The detected selection on subindividual variation suggests that the levels of phenotypic variation within individual plants may be, at least partly, the adaptive consequence of animal-mediated selection. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Interior seeding for the fabrication of single-grain REBCO bulk superconductors

    Kim, C-J; Park, S-D; Jun, B-H; Park, H-W

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new seeding technique, named ‘interior seeding’ which allows the growth of a single REBCO (RE: rare-earth elements) grain in the interior of REBCO compacts. The key techniques of interior seeding are to provide appropriate open space for seeds in the interior of REBCO powder compacts to supply air or oxygen to the seeds, and to minimize the contact area between the seeds and liquid. The advantages of interior seeding are as follows: (1) simultaneous growth from the seed to the top and bottom of the REBCO compacts is possible, (2) fractions of the a-b growth sector and the a-c growth sector on the top surface can be controlled and (3) the top surfaces of the single-grain REBCO bulk superconductors are free from samarium or neodymium contamination from the used seeds. The very large single-grain Y 1.5 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7−y (Y1.5) bulk superconductors (42 mm) were successfully fabricated using a melt growth (MG) process combined with interior seeding. Also, large-grain Y1.5 bulk superconductors (41 mm) with 〈110〉/〈110〉 and 〈100〉/〈100〉 grain junctions were fabricated using multiple interior seeding. In this paper, the detailed process of interior seeding, the development of top surface patterns and the properties of single-grain Y123 bulk superconductors fabricated using interior seeding were reported. (paper)

  1. On Suspended matter grain size in Baltic sea

    Bubnova, Ekaterina; Sivkov, Vadim; Zubarevich, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Suspended matter grain size data were gathered during the 25th research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" cruise (1991, September-October). Initial quantitative data were obtained with a use of the Coulter counter and subsequently modified into volume concentrations (mm3/l) for size intervals. More than 80 samples from 15 stations were analyzed (depth range 0-355 m). The main goal of research was to illustrate the spatial variability of suspended matter concentration and dispersion in Baltic Sea. The mutual feature of suspended matter grain size distribution is the logical rise of particle number along with descending of particle's size. Vertical variability of grain size distribution was defined by Baltic Sea hydrological structure, including upper mixed layer - from the surface to the thermocline - with 35 m thick, cold intermediate layer - from the thermocline to the halocline- and bottom layer, which lied under the halocline. Upper layer showed a rise in total suspended matter concentration (up to 0.6 mm3/l), while cold intermediate level consisted of far more clear water (up to 0.1 mm3/l). Such a difference is caused by the thermocline boarding role. Meanwhile, deep bottom water experienced surges in suspended matter concentration owing to the nepheloid layer presence and "liquid bottom" effect. Coastal waters appeared to have the highest amount of particles (up to 5.0 mm3/l). Suspended matter grain size distribution in the upper mixed layer revealed a peak of concentration at 7 μ, which can be due to autumn plankton bloom. Another feature in suspended matter grain size distribution appeared at the deep layer below halocline, where both O2 and H2S were observed and red/ox barrier is. The simultaneous presence of Fe and Mn (in solutions below red/ox barrier) and O2 leads to precipitation of oxyhydrates Fe and Mn and grain size distribution graph peaking at 4.5 μ.

  2. Standard test methods for characterizing duplex grain sizes

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide simple guidelines for deciding whether a duplex grain size exists. The test methods separate duplex grain sizes into one of two distinct classes, then into specific types within those classes, and provide systems for grain size characterization of each type. 1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use.

  3. Relationships Between Fruits And Seed Sizes, Germination And ...

    Relationships between fruits and seeds sizes; seed germination and early seedling growth of seedlings of 25 plant species were studied at the University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. The destruction of Nigeria rainforest without an assured method of naturally regenerating it, has contributed to some edible plant species ...

  4. Effects of grain size evolution on mantle dynamics

    Schulz, Falko; Tosi, Nicola; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The rheology of planetary mantle materials is strongly dependent on temperature, pressure, strain-rate, and grain size. In particular, the rheology of olivine, the most abundant mineral of the Earth's upper mantle, has been extensively studied in the laboratory (e.g., Karato and Wu, 1993; Hirth and Kohlstedt, 2003). Two main mechanisms control olivine's deformation: dislocation and diffusion creep. While the former implies a power-law dependence of the viscosity on the strain-rate that leads to a non-Newtonian behaviour, the latter is sensitively dependent on the grain size. The dynamics of planetary interiors is locally controlled by the deformation mechanism that delivers the lowest viscosity. Models of the dynamics and evolution of planetary mantles should thus be capable to self-consistently distinguish which of the two mechanisms dominates at given conditions of temperature, pressure, strain-rate and grain size. As the grain size can affect the viscosity associated with diffusion creep by several orders of magnitude, it can strongly influence the dominant deformation mechanism. The vast majority of numerical, global-scale models of mantle convection, however, are based on the use of a linear diffusion-creep rheology with constant grain-size. Nevertheless, in recent studies, a new equation has been proposed to properly model the time-dependent evolution of the grain size (Austin and Evens, 2007; Rozel et al., 2010). We implemented this equation in our mantle convection code Gaia (Hüttig et al., 2013). In the framework of simple models of stagnant lid convection, we compared simulations based on the fully time-dependent equation of grain-size evolution with simulations based on its steady-state version. In addition, we tested a number of different parameters in order to identify those that affects the grain size to the first order and, in turn, control the conditions at which mantle deformation is dominated by diffusion or dislocation creep. References Austin

  5. Heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of rotor steel

    Cheremnykh, V.G.; Derevyankin, E.V.; Sakulin, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of two steels 13Kh1M1FA and 25Kh1M1FA is evaluated. It is shown that exposure time increase at heating temperatures below 1000 deg C up to 10h changes but slightly the size of the Cr-Mo-V ferritic grain of rotor steel cooled with 25 deg C/h rate. Heating up to 1000 deg C and above leads to substantial ferritic grain growth. The kinetics of ferritic grain growth is determined by the behaviour of phases controlling the austenitic grain growth, such as carbonitrides VCsub(0.14)Nsub(0.78) in 13Kh1M1FA steel and VCsub(0.18)Nsub(0.72) in 25Kh1M1FA steel. Reduction of carbon and alloying elements content in steel composition observed at the liquation over rotor length leads to a certain decrease of ferritic grain resistance to super heating

  6. The Effect of Seed Size on Seed Vigor Indices of Different Wheat Cultivars

    H Tavakoli Kakhki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germination and beneficial seedling establishment is affected by different seed vigor indices. In order to study the effect of seed size on seed vigor indices of wheat, a factorial experiment with two factors was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Agricultural Natural Resources Research Center Lab of Khorasan Razavi. The first factor was thirteen genotypes of wheat in three types of growth, containing winter, facultative and spring and the second factor was seed size in four levels including 3, 2.5, 2 and 1.5 millimeter. Germination percentage, germination rate, shoots and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio characteristics were investigated. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of wheat cultivars and seed size on traits was significant (p≤ 0.01 but interaction effect of seed size and wheat cultivar was significant (p≤ 0.01 only for shoot and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio. The highest and lowest seedling growth rate was (15.85 and 8.23 mg dry weight/germinal seedling that they were related to 3 and 1.5mm seed size, respectively. According to these observations the most and least percentage and germination rate was related to these seed size treatments. Correlation coefficient of seed size and seedling growth rate was highly significant (r=0.85 p≤ 0.01. Stepwise regression method indicated that the seed size (x1 and shoot length (x2 as independent variables could be described (r2=0.84 seedling growth rate as a dependent variable in y= -5.000955+(5.128078x1+(0.78494x2 equation. Keywords: Seedling growth rate, Germination rate, Correlation, Regression

  7. Transitional grain-size-sensitive flow of milky quartz aggregates

    Fukuda, J. I.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Fine-grained (~15 μm) milky quartz aggregates exhibit reversible flow strengths in triaxial compression experiments conducted at T = 800-900oC, Pc = 1.5 GPa when strain rates are sequentially decreased (typically from 10-3.5 to 10-4.5 and 10-5.5 s-1), and then returned to the original rate (10-3.5 s-1), while samples that experience grain growth at 1000oC (to 35 μm) over the same sequence of strain rates exhibit an irreversible increase in strength. Polycrystalline quartz aggregates have been synthesized from natural milky quartz powders (ground to 5 μm) by HIP methods at T = 1000oC, Pc = 1.5 GPa and t = 24 hours, resulting in dense, fine-grained aggregates of uniform water content of ~4000 ppm (H/106Si), as indicated by a broad OH absorption band at 3400 cm-1. In experiments performed at 800o and 900oC, grain sizes of the samples are essentially constant over the duration of each experiment, though grain shapes change significantly, and undulatory extinction and deformation lamellae indicate that much of the sample shortening (to 50%) is accomplished, over the four strain-rate steps, by dislocation creep. Differential stresses measured at T = 800oC decrease from 160 to 30 MPa as strain rate is reduced from 10-4.6 to 10-5.5 s-1, and a stress of 140 MPa is measured when strain rate is returned to 10-4.5 s-1. Samples deformed at 1000o and 1100oC experience normal grain growth, with grain boundary energy-driven grain-coarsening textures superposed by undulatory extinction and deformation lamellae. Differential stresses measured at 1000oC and strain rates of 10-3.6, 10-4.6, and 10-5.5 s-1 are 185, 80, and 80 MPa, respectively, while an increased flow stress of 260 MPa is measured (following ~28 hours of prior high temperature deformation and grain growth) when strain rate is returned to 10-3.6 s-1. While all samples exhibit lattice preferred orientations, the stress exponent n inferred for the fine-grained 800oC sample is 1.5 and the stress exponent of the coarse-grained

  8. Application of electric corona discharge for grain seeds treatment before sowing

    Porsev, E. G.; Malozyomov, B. V.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper overviews directions for electrotechnology treatment of grain seeds before sowing. The hypothesis of the germination enhancement of seeds if treated with corona discharge is presented here. Besides, the description of electrotechnology installation and facilities for it including manufacturing process quality obtained as a result of scientific tests are also provided in the paper.

  9. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  10. Effect of coal stress on grain size of the gotten

    Sikora, W; Tront, A

    1988-09-01

    Presents investigation results on the effect of seam stress and strain state on winning as measured by the grain size of the gotten. The investigations were carried out at the Institute of Mining Mechanization of the Silesian Politechnical where the relations between parameters of seams and cutters and their effect on coal grain size and energy consumption have been studied for several years. The effect was examined on coal samples taken from 4 mines in the Upper Silesian coal basin using a model of the system: seam - cutter. Cubic samples (400x400x400 mm) were tested on the CMG KOMAG test stand equipped with the POS-1 cutting apparatus. Two types of coal were distinguished: that particularly sensitive to increased pressure on seam and that only negligibly susceptible. Corresponding graphs of coal grain size versus vertical pressure are shown. A function has been developed that characterizes this sensitivity depending on a material parameter that can be determined by workability tests. The relationship between coal strength and grain size yield greater than 10 mm in the gotten depending on dynamic crushability of coal is shown in graphs. 6 refs.

  11. The effect of surface albedo and grain size distribution on ...

    Sand dams are very useful in arid and semi arid lands (ASALs) as facilities for water storage and conservation. Soils in ASALs are mainly sandy and major water loss is by evaporation and infiltration. This study investigated the effect of sand media characteristics, specifically surface albedo, grain size and stratification on ...

  12. Effects of seed predators of different body size on seed mortality in Bornean logged forest.

    Hautier, Yann; Saner, Philippe; Philipson, Christopher; Bagchi, Robert; Ong, Robert C; Hector, Andy

    2010-07-19

    The Janzen-Connell hypothesis proposes that seed and seedling enemies play a major role in maintaining high levels of tree diversity in tropical forests. However, human disturbance may alter guilds of seed predators including their body size distribution. These changes have the potential to affect seedling survival in logged forest and may alter forest composition and diversity. We manipulated seed density in plots beneath con- and heterospecific adult trees within a logged forest and excluded vertebrate predators of different body sizes using cages. We show that small and large-bodied predators differed in their effect on con- and heterospecific seedling mortality. In combination small and large-bodied predators dramatically decreased both con- and heterospecific seedling survival. In contrast, when larger-bodied predators were excluded small-bodied predators reduced conspecific seed survival leaving seeds coming from the distant tree of a different species. Our results suggest that seed survival is affected differently by vertebrate predators according to their body size. Therefore, changes in the body size structure of the seed predator community in logged forests may change patterns of seed mortality and potentially affect recruitment and community composition.

  13. Effects of grain size and grain boundaries on defect production in nanocrystalline 3C-SiC

    Swaminathan, N.; Kamenski, Paul J.; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    Cascade simulations in single crystal and nanocrystalline SiC have been conducted in order to determine the role of grain boundaries and grain size on defect production during primary radiation damage. Cascades are performed with 4 and 10 keV silicon as the primary knock-on atom (PKA). Total defect production is found to increase with decreasing grain size, and this effect is shown to be due to increased production in grain boundaries and changing grain boundary volume fraction. In order to consider in-grain defect production, a new mapping methodology is developed to properly normalize in-grain defect production rates for nanocrystalline materials. It is shown that the presence of grain boundaries does not affect the total normalized in-grain defect production significantly (the changes are lower than ∼20%) for the PKA energies considered. Defect production in the single grain containing the PKA is also studied and found to increase for smaller grain sizes. In particular, for smaller grain sizes the defect production decreases with increasing distance from the grain boundary while for larger grain sizes the presence of the grain boundaries has negligible effect on defect production. The results suggest that experimentally observed changes in radiation resistance of nanocrystalline materials may be due to long-term damage evolution rather than changes in defect production rates from primary damage.

  14. Grain-size distributions and grain boundaries of chalcopyrite-type thin films

    Abou-Ras, D.; Schorr, S.; Schock, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    CuInSe 2 , CuGaSe 2 , Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and CuInS 2 thin-film solar absorbers in completed solar cells were studied in cross section by means of electronbackscatter diffraction. From the data acquired, grain-size distributions were extracted, and also the most frequent grain boundaries were determined. The grain-size distributions of all chalcopyrite-type thin films studied can be described well by lognormal distribution functions. The most frequent grainboundary types in these thin films are 60 - left angle 221 right angle tet and 71 - left angle 110 right angle tet (near) Σ3 twin boundaries. These results can be related directly to the importance of {112} tet planes during the topotactical growth of chalcopyrite-type thin films. Based on energetic considerations, it is assumed that the most frequent twin boundaries exhibit a 180 - left angle 221 right angle tet constellation. (orig.)

  15. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  16. Seed Size And Physiological Quality Of Three Cultivars Of Cotton

    Luiz Cesar Lopes Filho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important crops, both in the national context and worldwide. Being that, its fiber, constitutes an important raw material for the textile industry. The process of improving cottonseeds, favoured cultivars with smaller seeds. The goal of this work was to evaluate three cultivars of cottonseeds with different sizes through vigour tests. The work was developed in the seeds laboratory and the post-harvest Laboratory of plant products of the Instituto Federal Goiano – Campus Rio Verde. Cottonseeds of 3 cultivars were used (FiberMax 913 GLT, FiberMax 910 and DeltaPine 1648 B2RF, obtained in the crop of 2014 in the city of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with eight replications of 50 seeds. Determinations of moisture content and weight of a hundred seeds, germination test and germination velocity index, emergency test, and emergency speed index, electrical conductivity and accelerated aging were conducted. The dimensions of the size of the seeds (length, width and thickness were also determined, with the aid of digital caliper, and the weight of the seeds, with the aid of a balance of precision of resolution 0, 001g. The data was subjected to analysis of variance and the averages compared to the Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no clear relationship between the size of the seed and its physiological performance in assessed cultivars/batches, making it necessary more studies that can prove that type of association.

  17. Grain size of fine-grained windblown sediment: a powerful proxy for process identification

    Vandenberghe, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dust transport by the wind is not a uniform process but may occur in different modes according to source area conditions and transport height and distance. Subsequently, these differences are expressed in terms of grain-size and fluxes of the aeolian deposits. Transport distances may vary from

  18. Wavelength-Dependent Extinction and Grain Sizes in "Dippers"

    Sitko, Michael; Russell, Ray W.; Long, Zachary; Bayyari, Ammar; Assani, Korash; Grady, Carol; Lisse, Carey Michael; Marengo, Massimo; Wisniewski, John

    2018-01-01

    We have examined inter-night variability of K2-discovered "Dippers" that are not close to being viewed edge-on (as determined from previously-reported ALMA images) using the SpeX spectrograph on NASA's Infrared Telescope facility (IRTF). The three objects observed were EPIC 203850058, EPIC 205151387, and EPIC 204638512 ( = 2MASS J16042165-2130284). Using the ratio of the fluxes from 0.7-2.4 microns between two successive nights, we find that in at least two cases, the extinction increased toward shorter wavelengths. In the case of EPIC 204638512, we find that the properties of the dust differ from that seen in the diffuse interstellar medium and denser molecular clouds. However, the grain properties needed to explain the extinction does resemble those used to model the disks of many young stellar objects. The best fit to the data on EPIC 204638512 includes grains at least 500 microns in size, but lacks grains smaller than 0.25 microns. Since EPIC 204638512 is seen nearly face-on, it is possible the grains are entrained in an accretion flow that preferentially destroys the smallest grains. However, we have no indication of significant gas accretion onto the star in the form of emission lines observed in young low-mass stars. But the He I line at 1.083 microns was seen to change from night to night, and showed a P Cygni profile on one night, suggesting the gas might be outflowing from regions near the star.

  19. A pretreatment method for grain size analysis of red mudstones

    Jiang, Zaixing; Liu, Li'an

    2011-11-01

    Traditional sediment disaggregation methods work well for loose mud sediments, but not for tightly cemented mudstones by ferric oxide minerals. In this paper, a new pretreatment method for analyzing the grain size of red mudstones is presented. The experimental samples are Eocene red mudstones from the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin. The red mudstones are composed mainly of clay minerals, clastic sediments and ferric oxides that make the mudstones red and tightly compacted. The procedure of the method is as follows. Firstly, samples of the red mudstones were crushed into fragments with a diameter of 0.6-0.8 mm in size; secondly, the CBD (citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite) treatment was used to remove ferric oxides so that the cementation of intra-aggregates and inter-aggregates became weakened, and then 5% dilute hydrochloric acid was added to further remove the cements; thirdly, the fragments were further ground with a rubber pestle; lastly, an ultrasonicator was used to disaggregate the samples. After the treatment, the samples could then be used for grain size analysis or for other geological analyses of sedimentary grains. Compared with other pretreatment methods for size analysis of mudstones, this proposed method is more effective and has higher repeatability.

  20. Effect of Seed Distribution and Population on Maize (Zea mays L. Grain Yield

    Bee Khim Chim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize planting is normally accomplished by hand in the developing world where two or more seeds are placed per hill with a heterogeneous plant spacing and density. To understand the interaction between seed distribution and distance between hills, experiments were established in 2012 and 2013 at Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB and Efaw Agronomy Research Stations, near Stillwater, OK. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications and 9 treatments and a factorial treatment structure of 1, 2, and 3 seeds per hill using interrow spacing of 0.16, 0.32, and 0.48 m. Data for normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR, grain yield, and grain N uptake were collected. Results showed that, on average, NDVI and IPAR increased with number of seeds per hill and decreased with increasing plant spacing. In three of four site-years, planting 1 or 2 seeds per hill, 0.16 m apart, increased grain yield and N uptake. Over sites, planting 1 seed, every 0.16 m, increased yields by an average of 1.15 Mg ha−1 (range: 0.33 to 2.46 Mg ha−1 when compared to the farmer practice of placing 2 to 3 seeds per hill, every 0.48 m.

  1. Size effect in tension perpendicular to the grain

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The strength in tension perpendicular to the grain is known to decrease with an increase in the stressed volume. Usually this size effect is explained on a stochastic basis, that is an explanation relying on an increased probability of encountering a strength reducing flaw when the volume...... of the material under stress is increased. This paper presents a small experimental investigation on specimens with well defined structural orientation of the material. The experiments exhibit a larger size effect than expected and furthermore the data and the nature of the failures encountered suggest...... that the size effect can be explained on a deterministic basis. Arguments for such a simple deterministic explanation of size effect is found in finite element modelling using the orthotropic stiffness characteristics in the transverse plane of wood....

  2. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Proceedings series

    1979-01-01

    The following topics were discussed in the five sections of the conference: the world protein and nutritional situation; the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry, and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programs. (HLW)

  3. Effect of grain size on the high temperature mechanical properties of type 316LN stainless steel

    Kim, D. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Ryu, W. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Cho, H. D.; Han, C. H

    2001-02-01

    Nitrogen increases the high temeprature mechanical properties and decreases grain size. The effect of nitrogen on the high temperature mechanical properties was investigated in the viewpoint of grain size. Tensile strength increases with the decrease of grain size and agrees with the Hall-Petch relationship. Effect of grain size on the low cycle fatigue life properties were investigated as measuring the fatigue life from the results which had been obtained by the constant strain rate and various strain range. There was no effect on the low cycle fatigue properties by the grain size. The time to rupture decreased with the increase of grain size. The steady state creep rate decreased to a minimum and then increased as the grain size increased. This result agrees with the result predicted from Garofalo equation. The rupture elongation at the intermediate grain size showed a minimum due to the cavity formed easily by carbide precipitates in the grain boundaries.

  4. Modelling the joint variability of grain size and chemical composition in sediments

    Bloemsma, M.R.; Zabel, M.; Stuut, J.B.W.; Tjallingii, R.; Collins, J.A.; Weltje, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The geochemical composition of siliciclastic sediments correlates strongly with grain size. Hence, geochemical composition may serve as a grain-size proxy. In the absence of grain-size variations, geochemical data of siliciclastic sediments may be used to characterise size-independent processes,

  5. Influence of grain size in the near-micrometre regime on the deformation microstructure in aluminium

    Le, G.M.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, N.; Liu, W.; Winther, G.; Huang, X.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of grain size on deformation microstructure formation in the near-micrometre grain size regime has been studied using samples of aluminium prepared using a spark plasma sintering technique. Samples in a fully recrystallized grain condition with average grain sizes ranging from 5.2 to 0.8 μm have been prepared using this technique. Examination in the transmission electron microscope of these samples after compression at room temperature to approximately 20% reduction reveals that grains larger than 7 μm are subdivided by cell block boundaries similar to those observed in coarse-grained samples, with a similar dependency on the crystallographic orientation of the grains. With decreasing grain size down to approx. 1 μm there is a gradual transition from cell block structures to cell structures. At even smaller grain sizes of down to approx. 0.5 μm the dominant features are dislocation bundles and random dislocations, although at a larger compressive strain of 30% dislocation rotation boundaries may also be found in the interior of grains of this size. A standard 〈1 1 0〉 fibre texture is found for all grain sizes, with a decreasing sharpness with decreasing grain size. The structural transitions with decreasing grain size are discussed based on the general principles of grain subdivision by deformation-induced dislocation boundaries and of low-energy dislocation structures as applied to the not hitherto explored near-micrometre grain size regime

  6. Interactive contribution of grain size and grain orientation to coercivity of melt spun ribbons

    Wang, N.; Li, G.; Yao, W.J.; Wen, X.X.

    2010-01-01

    During melt spinning process, the improvement of certain grain orientation and the refinement of grain size with surface velocity have interactive and contradictory effects on the magnetic properties. The contributions of these effects have seldom been taken into account and they were discussed in this paper via Fe-2, 4, 6.5 wt% Si alloys. Heat treatment at 1173 K for 1 h was performed to show the annealing impact. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the high surface velocity and heat treatment increase the intensity ratio of line (2 0 0) to (1 1 0) of A2 phase. The (2 0 0) line corresponds to (2 0 0) plane in direction, easy magnetization direction of α-Fe phase in Fe-Si alloy. The improvement of this grain orientation with the surface velocity decreases the coercivity, which should increase due to the grain refinement. It is revealed that the texture promoted by the anisotropic heat release during melt spinning process is one factor to improve the magnetic properties and should be considered when preparing soft magnetic materials.

  7. Influence of pre-sowing irradiation of soya seeds with low doses of gamma rays on the yields of grain and on the content of crude protein in the grain

    Nikolov, Ch.V.

    1985-01-01

    Pre-sowing irradiation of air-dry soya seeds of the Hodson variety, calibrated in size and humidity (12%), with gamma rays in the range of relatively low intensities of irradiation of 0.27 to 5 Gy/min and doses of 10 to 20 Gy increases both the yield of grain and the content of crude protein in the grain in relation to the absolute dry matter. The dependence of radiostimulation effect on the factors of the environment cannot be reason for neglecting it as a posssible reserve for increasing the yield of grain from soya and the content of crude protein in the grain. Possible results are exspected from production experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of seeds of Hodson variety using gamma rays in the range of the above intensities and doses

  8. Field establishment and grain yield of maize affected by hydro-priming of differentially aged seeds

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of maize seeds (cv. SC-AR68 with a 100% germination was kept as control, and two other sub-samples were artificially deteriorated at 40 °C for 2 and 3 days, reducing normal germination to 98% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, three seed lots of maize with different levels of vigor were provided. Each seed lot was then divided into four sub-samples, one unprimed and the other three lots were primed in distilled water at 15 °C for 7, 14 and 21 hours, and then dried back to initial moisture content (about 20% at a room temperature of 20–22 °C for 24 hours. The field experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Although germination percentage of seed lots was not significantly affected by hydro-priming, germination rate and seedling dry weight were considerably enhanced as a result of seed priming. Hydro-priming for 21 hours enhanced seedling emergence rate of all seed lots with different levels of vigor. This hydro-priming duration also increased grain yield of maize by about 32%, although this superiority was not statistically significant. This advantage in grain yield of plants from primed seeds was related with rapid germination and seedling growth and early emergence in the field.

  9. Grain-to-grain variations in NbC particle size distributions in an austenitic stainless steel

    Barlow, C.Y.; Ralph, B.; Silverman, B.; Jones, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative information has been obtained concerning the size distributions of NbC precipitate particles in different grains in a deformed and aged austenitic stainless steel specimen. The precipitate size distributions obtained differ from one grain to another. The average disparity measured between the mean precipitate sizes was a function of the distance between the grains compared. The results obtained are considered in terms of differences in precipitation behaviour due to variations in the levels of plastic strain in constituent grains of the deformed specimen. (author)

  10. Some regularity of the grain size distribution in nuclear fuel with controllable structure

    Loktev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    It is known, the fission gas release from ceramic nuclear fuel depends from average size of grains. To increase grain size they use additives which activate sintering of pellets. However, grain size distribution influences on fission gas release also. Fuel with different structures, but with the same average size of grains has different fission gas release. Other structure elements, which influence operational behavior of fuel, are pores and inclusions. Earlier, in Kyoto, questions of distribution of grain size for fuel with 'natural' structure were discussed. Some regularity of grain size distribution of fuel with controllable structure and high average size of grains are considered in the report. Influence of inclusions and pores on an error of the automated definition of parameters of structure is shown. The criterion, which describe of behavior of fuel with specific grain size distribution, is offered

  11. Grain-to-Grain Variations in NbC Particle Size Distributions in an Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Barlow, Claire; Ralph, B.; Silverman, B.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative information has been obtained concerning the size distributions of NbC precipitate particles in different grains in a deformed and aged austenitic stainless steel specimen. The precipitate size distributions obtained differ from one grain to another. The average disparity measured be...

  12. Determination of grain size by XRD profile analysis and TEM counting in nano-structured Cu

    Zhong Yong; Ping Dehai; Song Xiaoyan; Yin Fuxing

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a serial of pure copper sample with different grain sizes from nano- to micro-scale were prepared by sparkle plasma sintering (SPS) and following anneal treatment at 873 K and 1073 K, respectively. The grain size distributions of these samples were determined by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis and transmission electronic microscope (TEM) micrograph counting. Although these two methods give similar distributions of grain size in the case of as-SPS sample with nano-scale grain size (around 10 nm), there are apparent discrepancies between the grain size distributions of the annealed samples obtained from XRD and TEM, especially for the sample annealed at 1073 K after SPS with micro-scale grain size (around 2 μm), which TEM counting provides much higher values of grain sizes than XRD analysis does. It indicates that for large grain-sized material, XRD analysis lost its validity for determination of grain size. It might be due to some small sized substructures possibly existed in even annealed (large grain-sized) samples, whereas there is no substructures in as-SPS (nanocrystalline) sample. Moreover, it has been found that the effective outer cut-off radius R e derived from XRD analysis coincides with the grain sizes given by TEM counting. The potential relationship between grain size and R e was discussed in the present work. These results might provide some new hints for deeper understanding of the physical meaning of XRD analysis and the parameters derived.

  13. Magnetospheric ion sputtering and water ice grain size at Europa

    Cassidy, T. A.; Paranicas, C. P.; Shirley, J. H.; Dalton, J. B., III; Teolis, B. D.; Johnson, R. E.; Kamp, L.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    We present the first calculation of Europa's sputtering (ion erosion) rate as a function of position on Europa's surface. We find a global sputtering rate of 2×1027 H2O s-1, some of which leaves the surface in the form of O2 and H2. The calculated O2 production rate is 1×1026 O2 s-1, H2 production is twice that value. The total sputtering rate (including all species) peaks at the trailing hemisphere apex and decreases to about 1/3rd of the peak value at the leading hemisphere apex. O2 and H2 sputtering, by contrast, is confined almost entirely to the trailing hemisphere. Most sputtering is done by energetic sulfur ions (100s of keV to MeV), but most of the O2 and H2 production is done by cold oxygen ions (temperature ∼ 100 eV, total energy ∼ 500 eV). As a part of the sputtering rate calculation we compared experimental sputtering yields with analytic estimates. We found that the experimental data are well approximated by the expressions of Famá et al. for ions with energies less than 100 keV (Famá, M., Shi, J., Baragiola, R.A., 2008. Sputtering of ice by low-energy ions. Surf. Sci. 602, 156-161), while the expressions from Johnson et al. fit the data best at higher energies (Johnson, R.E., Burger, M.H., Cassidy, T.A., Leblanc, F., Marconi, M., Smyth, W.H., 2009. Composition and Detection of Europa's Sputter-Induced Atmosphere, in: Pappalardo, R.T., McKinnon, W.B., Khurana, K.K. (Eds.), Europa. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.). We compare the calculated sputtering rate with estimates of water ice regolith grain size as estimated from Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data, and find that they are strongly correlated as previously suggested by Clark et al. (Clark, R.N., Fanale, F.P., Zent, A.P., 1983. Frost grain size metamorphism: Implications for remote sensing of planetary surfaces. Icarus 56, 233-245.). The mechanism responsible for the sputtering rate/grain size link is uncertain. We also report a surface composition estimate using

  14. Effects of seed orientation on the growth behavior of single grain REBCO bulk superconductors

    Lee, Hee Gyoun [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study presents a simple method to control the seed orientation which leads to the various growth characteristics of a single grain REBCO (RE: rare-earth elements) bulk superconductors. Seed orientation was varied systematically from c-axis to a-axis with every 30 degree rotation around b-axis. Orientations of a REBCO single grain was successfully controlled by placing the seed with various angles on the prismatic indent prepared on the surface of REBCO powder compacts. Growth pattern was changed from cubic to rectangular when the seed orientation normal to compact surface was varied from c-axis to a-axis. Macroscopic shape change has been explained by the variation of the wetting angle of un-reacted melt depending on the interface energy between YBa2Cu3O7-y (Y123) grain and melt. Higher magnetic levitation force was obtained for the specimen prepared using tilted seed with an angle of 30 degree rotation around b-axis.

  15. Importance and role of grain size in free surface cracking prediction of heavy forgings

    Wang, Zhenhua [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging & Stamping Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Ministry of Education of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, Shuhua; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shi, Zhongping [Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging & Stamping Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Ministry of Education of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Fu, Wantang, E-mail: wtfu@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-02-11

    The importance and role of grain size in predicting surface cracking of heavy forgings were investigated. 18Mn18Cr0.5N steel specimens with four different grain sizes were tensioned between 900 and 1100 °C at a strain rate of 0.1 s{sup −1}. The nucleation sites and crack morphology were analyzed through electron backscatter diffraction analysis, and the fracture morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The nucleation sites were independent of the grain size, and cracks primarily formed at grain boundaries and triple junctions between grains with high Taylor factors. Grains with lower Taylor factors inhibited crack propagation. Strain was found to mainly concentrate near the grain boundaries; thus, a material with a larger grain size cracks more easily because there are fewer grain boundaries. Fine grains can be easily rotated to a lower Taylor factor to further inhibit cracking. The fracture morphology transformed from a brittle to ductile type with a lowering of grain size. At lower temperature, small dimples on the fracture surfaces of specimens with smaller grain sizes were left by single parent grains and the dimple edge was the grain edge. At higher temperature, dimples formed through void coalescence and the dimple edge was the tearing edge. Finally, the relationship between the reduction in area, grain size, and deformation temperature was obtained.

  16. Grain Size of Recall Practice for Lengthy Text Material: Fragile and Mysterious Effects on Memory

    Wissman, Kathryn T.; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The current research evaluated the extent to which the grain size of recall practice for lengthy text material affects recall during practice and subsequent memory. The "grain size hypothesis" states that a smaller vs. larger grain size will increase retrieval success during practice that in turn will enhance subsequent memory for…

  17. The effect of the Tom Thumb dwarfing gene on grain size and grain number of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Gale, M.D.; Flintham, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Tom Thumb dwarfing gene, Rht3, like the related genes Rht1 and Rht2 from Norin 10, has pleiotropic effects on individual ear yields, and grain protein concentrations. An experiment was conducted in which tiller number per plant and grain number per spike were restricted to ascertain whether reduced grain size and protein content are primary or secondary competitive effects in near-isogenic lines. The potential for grain growth was shown to be identical in Rht3 and rht genotypes when grain set was restricted, indicating that the primary effect of the gene is to increase spikelet fertility. Nitrogen accumulation within the grain was also affected by inter-grain competition but decreased nitrogen yields per plant indicated that reduced protein levels are, in part, a primary effect of the gene. Analysis of individual grain yields within Rht3 and rht spikes showed that the gene affected developmental 'dominance' relationships within the spike. (author)

  18. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    NONE

    1978-12-15

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  19. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    1978-01-01

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  20. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-09-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH · ) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  1. Crop size influences pre-dispersal seed predation in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Alexander V. Christianini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many pre-dispersal seed predators are specialized insects that rely on seeds for larval development. These insects may respond to the amount of seeds produced by a plant (i.e. crop size, increasing the proportion of seeds damaged with increases in seed numbers. Large seeds have more resources and spend more time in plants to complete their development and are probably more prone to be preyed on by those insects than small seeds. Here I tested how crop size and seed mass influence pre-dispersal seed predation in plants from the Cerrado savannas of Brazil. I related plant crop size to pre-dispersal seed predation for Xylopia aromatica and Erythroxylum pelleterianum. A literature review was performed to test if seed mass may explain among-species differences in pre-dispersal seed predation. Pre-dispersal losses increased proportionally to crop size in the two species investigated, but some species show positive or no density-dependent seed predation in literature, indicating that seed losses are not a simple function of crop sizes. Seed mass did not explain pre-dispersal seed loss differences among 14 species with data available. Pre-dispersal losses are often small and probably less important than seed dispersal and establishment limitation for plant recruitment in Cerrado savannas.

  2. Blank evaluation in nitrogen determination in seed grains by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

    Wasek, M.; Sterlinski, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the term 'blank' signifies total radiation of the sample analyzed except that the element to be determined (analyte) is absent. On the basis of the evaluation of the blank components (nuclear and spectral interferences, air-nitrogen between grains, etc.), a semiempirical formula for calculating the nitrogen content in plant grain samples is proposed. The reliability of the results obtained with the use of this formula was demonstrated for five sorts of seeds (rye, wheat, barley, broad bean and soybean) which were analyzed by the Kjeldahl method and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis, respectively. (author)

  3. THE EFFECTS OF GRAIN SIZE AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS ON THE FORMATION OF INTERSTELLAR ICE MANTLES

    Pauly, Tyler; Garrod, Robin T., E-mail: tap74@cornell.edu [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Computational models of interstellar gas-grain chemistry have historically adopted a single dust-grain size of 0.1 micron, assumed to be representative of the size distribution present in the interstellar medium. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad grain-size distribution on the chemistry of dust-grain surfaces and the subsequent build-up of molecular ices on the grains, using a three-phase gas-grain chemical model of a quiescent dark cloud. We include an explicit treatment of the grain temperatures, governed both by the visual extinction of the cloud and the size of each individual grain-size population. We find that the temperature difference plays a significant role in determining the total bulk ice composition across the grain-size distribution, while the effects of geometrical differences between size populations appear marginal. We also consider collapse from a diffuse to a dark cloud, allowing dust temperatures to fall. Under the initial diffuse conditions, small grains are too warm to promote grain-mantle build-up, with most ices forming on the mid-sized grains. As collapse proceeds, the more abundant, smallest grains cool and become the dominant ice carriers; the large population of small grains means that this ice is distributed across many grains, with perhaps no more than 40 monolayers of ice each (versus several hundred assuming a single grain size). This effect may be important for the subsequent processing and desorption of the ice during the hot-core phase of star formation, exposing a significant proportion of the ice to the gas phase, increasing the importance of ice-surface chemistry and surface–gas interactions.

  4. The Effects of Grain Size and Temperature Distributions on the Formation of Interstellar Ice Mantles

    Pauly, Tyler; Garrod, Robin T.

    2016-02-01

    Computational models of interstellar gas-grain chemistry have historically adopted a single dust-grain size of 0.1 micron, assumed to be representative of the size distribution present in the interstellar medium. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad grain-size distribution on the chemistry of dust-grain surfaces and the subsequent build-up of molecular ices on the grains, using a three-phase gas-grain chemical model of a quiescent dark cloud. We include an explicit treatment of the grain temperatures, governed both by the visual extinction of the cloud and the size of each individual grain-size population. We find that the temperature difference plays a significant role in determining the total bulk ice composition across the grain-size distribution, while the effects of geometrical differences between size populations appear marginal. We also consider collapse from a diffuse to a dark cloud, allowing dust temperatures to fall. Under the initial diffuse conditions, small grains are too warm to promote grain-mantle build-up, with most ices forming on the mid-sized grains. As collapse proceeds, the more abundant, smallest grains cool and become the dominant ice carriers; the large population of small grains means that this ice is distributed across many grains, with perhaps no more than 40 monolayers of ice each (versus several hundred assuming a single grain size). This effect may be important for the subsequent processing and desorption of the ice during the hot-core phase of star formation, exposing a significant proportion of the ice to the gas phase, increasing the importance of ice-surface chemistry and surface-gas interactions.

  5. The role of grain size in He bubble formation: Implications for swelling resistance

    El-Atwani, O.; Nathaniel, J. E.; Leff, A. C.; Muntifering, B. R.; Baldwin, J. K.; Hattar, K.; Taheri, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    Nanocrystalline metals are postulated as radiation resistant materials due to their high defect and particle (e.g. Helium) sink density. Here, the performance of nanocrystalline iron films is investigated in-situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) using He irradiation at 700 K. Automated crystal orientation mapping is used in concert with in-situ TEM to explore the role of grain orientation and grain boundary character on bubble density trends. Bubble density as a function of three key grain size regimes is demonstrated. While the overall trend revealed an increase in bubble density up to a saturation value, grains with areas ranging from 3000 to 7500 nm2 show a scattered distribution. An extrapolated swelling resistance based on bubble size and areal density indicated that grains with sizes less than 2000 nm2 possess the greatest apparent resistance. Moreover, denuded zones are found to be independent of grain size, grain orientation, and grain boundary misorientation angle.

  6. grain size and heavy mineral analyses of two boreholes in recent

    user

    mineral composition and the grain sizes of the aquifer in the study areas. ... analysis of both wells show that mean, inclusive standard deviation, ..... colourless grains with rectangular outline. .... Nigeria; A Case Study of Onisha and Environ.

  7. Holocene marine transgression as interpreted from bathymetry and sand grain size parameters off Gopalpur

    Rao, K.M.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Rao, T.C.S.

    Grain size statistical parameters of the surface sediment samples collected from the innershelf off Gopalpur were calculated using graphic and moment methods. Fine-grained sand present up to 15 m water depth shows symmetrical skewness and good...

  8. grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon

    PROF EKWUEME

    sediment are medium grain and deposited in a moderate energy condition hence more stable to ... The grain size and amount of sand on a beach depends on wave energy and geological ..... Recent and Pleistocene history of Southeast.

  9. Rapid heating effects on grain-size, texture and magnetic properties ...

    Administrator

    oriented electrical steels (Kumar et ... through changes in recovery and recrystallization beha- viour during the final annealing treatment (Duan et .... recovery, recrystallization and grain coarsening (Doherty et al 1988). The size of recrystallized grain is ...

  10. 7 CFR 52.1850 - Sizes of raisins with seeds-except layer or cluster.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sizes of raisins with seeds-except layer or cluster... Raisins 1 Type III-Raisins with Seeds § 52.1850 Sizes of raisins with seeds—except layer or cluster. The sizes of Raisins with Seeds—except for Layer or Cluster Raisins with Seeds, are not incorporated in the...

  11. Phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of grain legume seeds: A review.

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2017-11-01

    Legumes are a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds which play significant roles in many physiological as well as metabolic processes. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and condensed tannins are the primary phenolic compounds that are present in legume seeds. Majority of the phenolic compounds are present in the legume seed coats. The seed coat of legume seeds primarily contains phenolic acids and flavonoids (mainly catechins and procyanidins). Gallic and protocatechuic acids are common in kidney bean and mung bean. Catechins and procyanidins represent almost 70% of total phenolic compounds in lentils and cranberry beans (seed coat). The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is in direct relation with their chemical structures such as number as well as position of the hydroxyl groups. Processing mostly leads to the reduction of phenolic compounds in legumes owing to chemical rearrangements. Phenolic content also decreases due to leaching of water-soluble phenolic compounds into the cooking water. The health benefits of phenolic compounds include acting as anticarcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-ulcer, anti-artherogenic, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunemodulating, anti-microbial, cardioprotective and analgesic agents. This review provides comprehensive information of phenolic compounds identified in grain legume seeds along with discussing their antioxidant and health promoting activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of iron bioavailability in a mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains ("Human Ration"

    Bárbara Nery Enes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron bioavailability was evaluated in three mixtures of cereals, seeds, and grains ("Human Ration": light, regular, and homemade provided to rats. The animals received an iron depletion diet for 21 days, followed by a repletion diet containing 12 mg·kg-1 of iron for 14 days. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiency and the relative biological value did not differ between the light mixture and control group. The iron bioavailability of the light mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains and the control group were 99.99±27.62 and 80.02±36.63, respectively, while the regular and homemade mixtures of cereals, seeds, and grains showed lower iron bioavailability, 50.12±35.53 and 66.66±15.44, respectively; the iron content of the diet with light cereal mixture light was statistically similar to that of the control (ferrous sulfate 99.99±27.62. The high content of tannin (202.81±19.53 mg·100-1 in the diet with the regular cereal mixture may have contributed to its low iron bioavailability. The higher intake of soluble fiber by the animals fed the light mixture (21.15±0.92 g was moderately correlated (r=0.5712, p=0.0018 with the concentration of propionate in the caecal bulk (65.49±11.08 µmol/g. The short chain fatty acids produced by soluble fiber fermentation, associated with the low-content of tannin may have improved iron solubility and absorption in the light cereal mixture diet. The iron bioavailability in the light mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains was similar to that of ferrous sulfate.

  13. Grain size effect of monolayer MoS2 transistors characterized by second harmonic generation mapping

    Lin, Chih-Pin

    2015-08-27

    We investigated different CVD-synthesized MoS2 films, aiming to correlate the device characteristics with the grain size. The grain size of MoS2 can be precisely characterized through nondestructive second harmonic generation mapping based on the degree of inversion symmetry. The devices with larger grains at the channel region show improved on/off current ratio, which can be explained by the less carrier scattering caused by the grain boundaries.

  14. Using the ''Epiquant'' automatic analyzer for quantitative estimation of grain size

    Tsivirko, E I; Ulitenko, A N; Stetsenko, I A; Burova, N M [Zaporozhskij Mashinostroitel' nyj Inst. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-01-01

    Application possibility of the ''Epiquant'' automatic analyzer to estimate qualitatively austenite grain in the 18Kh2N4VA steel has been investigated. Austenite grain has been clarified using the methods of cementation, oxidation and etching of the grain boundaries. Average linear size of grain at the length of 15 mm has been determined according to the total length of grain intersection line and the number of intersections at the boundaries. It is shown that the ''Epiquant'' analyzer ensures quantitative estimation of austenite grain size with relative error of 2-4 %.

  15. Rapid analysis of seed size in Arabidopsis for mutant and QTL discovery

    Baldwin Samantha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model organism for deciphering the genetic determinants of seed size; however the small size of its seeds makes measurements difficult. Bulk seed weights are often used as an indicator of average seed size, but details of individual seed is obscured. Analysis of seed images is possible but issues arise from variations in seed pigmentation and shadowing making analysis laborious. We therefore investigated the use of a consumer level scanner to facilitate seed size measurements in conjunction with open source image-processing software. Results By using the transmitted light from the slide scanning function of a flatbed scanner and particle analysis of the resulting images, we have developed a method for the rapid and high throughput analysis of seed size and seed size distribution. The technical variation due to the approach was negligible enabling us to identify aspects of maternal plant growth that contribute to biological variation in seed size. By controlling for these factors, differences in seed size caused by altered parental genome dosage and mutation were easily detected. The method has high reproducibility and sensitivity, such that a mutant with a 10% reduction in seed size was identified in a screen of endosperm-expressed genes. Our study also generated average seed size data for 91 Arabidopsis accessions and identified a number of quantitative trait loci from two recombinant inbred line populations, generated from Cape Verde Islands and Burren accessions crossed with Columbia. Conclusions This study describes a sensitive, high-throughput approach for measuring seed size and seed size distribution. The method provides a low cost and robust solution that can be easily implemented into the workflow of studies relating to various aspects of seed development.

  16. Direct growth of large grain polycrystalline silicon films on aluminum-induced crystallization seed layer using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    Wu, Bing-Rui; Lo, Shih-Yung; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Ou, Sin-Liang; Mao, Hsin-Yuan; Wang, Jui-Hao; Horng, Ray-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Large grain polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films on glass substrates have been deposited on an aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) seed layer using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). A poly-Si seed layer was first formed by the AIC process and a thicker poly-Si film was subsequently deposited upon the seed layer using HWCVD. The effects of AIC annealing parameters on the structural and electrical properties of the poly-Si seed layers were characterized by Raman scattering spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and Hall measurements. It was found that the crystallinity of seed layer was enhanced with increasing the annealing duration and temperature. The poly-Si seed layer formed at optimum annealing parameters can reach a grain size of 700 nm, hole concentration of 3.5 × 10 18 cm −3 , and Hall mobility of 22 cm 2 /Vs. After forming the seed layer, poly-Si films with good crystalline quality and high growth rate (> 1 nm/s) can be obtained using HWCVD. These results indicated that the HWCVD-deposited poly-Si film on an AIC seed layer could be a promising candidate for thin-film Si photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: ►Poly-Si seed layers are formed by aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) process. ►Poly-Si on AIC seed layers are prepared by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. ►AIC process parameters affect structural properties of poly-Si films. ►Increasing the annealing duration and temperature increases the film crystallinity.

  17. SMALL GRAIN 1, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, influences grain size in rice.

    Duan, Penggen; Rao, Yuchun; Zeng, Dali; Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Ran; Zhang, Baolan; Dong, Guojun; Qian, Qian; Li, Yunhai

    2014-02-01

    Although grain size is one of the most important components of grain yield, little information is known about the mechanisms that determine final grain size in crops. Here we characterize rice small grain1 (smg1) mutants, which exhibit small and light grains, dense and erect panicles and comparatively slightly shorter plants. The short grain and panicle phenotypes of smg1 mutants are caused by a defect in cell proliferation. The smg1 mutations were identified, using a map-based cloning approach, in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (OsMKK4). Relatively higher expression of OsMKK4/SMG1 was detected in younger organs than in older ones, consistent with its role in cell proliferation. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-OsMKK4/SMG1 fusion proteins appear to be distributed ubiquitously in plant cells. Further results revealed that OsMKK4 influenced brassinosteroid (BR) responses and the expression of BR-related genes. Thus, our findings have identified OsMKK4 as a factor for grain size, and suggest a possible link between the MAPK pathways and BRs in grain growth. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  19. Effects of seed size and habitat on recruitment patterns in grassland and forest plants

    Lönnberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    A trade-off between seed size and seed number is central in seed ecology, and has been suggested to be related to a trade-off between competition and colonization, as well as to a trade-off between stress tolerance and fecundity. Large seeds endure hazards during establishment, such as shading, drought, litter coverage and competition from other plants, better than do small seeds, due to a larger amount of stored resources in the seed. Small seeds, however, are numerous and small-seeded speci...

  20. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Global biogeography of seed dormancy is determined by seasonality and seed size: a case study in the legumes.

    Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Willis, Charles G; Pearse, William D; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2017-06-01

    Seed dormancy is expected to provide ecological advantages by adjusting germination to the favorable growth period. However, many species produce nondormant seeds, particularly in wet tropical forests, a biogeographic pattern that is not well accounted for in current models. We hypothesized that the global distribution of dormant seeds derives from their adaptive value in predictably fluctuating (i.e. seasonal) environments. However, the advantage conferred by dormancy might ultimately depend on other seed attributes, particularly size. This general model was tested within a phylogenetically informed framework using a data set comprising > 216 000 world-wide observations of Fabaceae, spanning three orders of magnitude in seed size and including both dormant and nondormant seeds. Our results confirmed our hypothesis: nondormant seeds can only evolve in climates with long growing seasons and/or in lineages that produce larger seeds. Conversely, dormancy should be evolutionarily stable in temperate lineages with small seeds. When the favorable season is fleeting, seed dormancy is the only adaptive strategy. Based on these results, we predict that, within a given lineage, taxa producing larger, nondormant seeds will necessarily predominate in aseasonal environments, while plants bearing small, dormant seeds will be dominant under short growing seasons. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Effects of sand burial and seed size on seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling biomass of anabasis aphylla

    Wang, T.T.; Chu, G.M.; Jiang, P.; Wang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of sand burial (0-2 cm) and seed size (small, medium and large) on seed germination and seedling growth of Anabasis aphylla, which is typically used as a windbreak and for the fixation of sand in the Gurbantunggut desert of Xinjiang, region of northwest China. The results showed that sand burial significantly affected seed germination, seedling emergence, survival and biomass of A. aphylla. The seed germination rate, seedling emergence rate, seedling survival rate and biomass were highest at the 0.2 and 0.5 cm sand burial depths. At different burial depths, different sizes of A. aphylla seed showed a significant difference in the germination and emergence rate. At the same sand burial depth, the seedling emergence rate of the large seeds was significantly higher than that of medium and small seeds. At sand burial depth of 0.2-2 cm, germination of large seeds and seedling survival rates were significantly higher than those at the same sand burial depth for medium seed germination, and the latter was significantly higher than for small seed. We speculate that tolerance to sand burial and diversity of seed size increased the adaption of A. aphylla to this environment, contributing to its dominance in the windy and sandy area of Gurbantunggut desert. (author)

  3. Effect of Powder Grain Size on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Hexagonal Barium Ferrite Ceramic

    Shao, Li-Huan; Shen, Si-Yun; Zheng, Hui; Zheng, Peng; Wu, Qiong; Zheng, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Compact hexagonal barium ferrite (BaFe12O19, BaM) ceramics with excellent magnetic properties have been prepared from powder with the optimal grain size. The dependence of the microstructure and magnetic properties of the ceramics on powder grain size was studied in detail. Single-phase hexagonal barium ferrite powder with grain size of 177 nm, 256 nm, 327 nm, and 454 nm was obtained by calcination under different conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that 327-nm powder was beneficial for obtaining homogeneous grain size and compact ceramic. In addition, magnetic hysteresis loops and complex permeability spectra demonstrated that the highest saturation magnetization (67.2 emu/g) and real part of the permeability (1.11) at 1 GHz were also obtained using powder with grain size of 327 nm. This relationship between the powder grain size and the properties of the resulting BaM ceramic could be significant for development of microwave devices.

  4. Grain-size effects on thermal properties of BaTiO3 ceramics

    Administrator

    decreasing grain size. Furthermore, the Curie temperature shifts to lower temperature with decreasing grain size. Keywords. Nanocrystalline ceramics; thermal properties; size effect. 1. Introduction. BaTiO3 has been widely used in the electronic industry for its high dielectric constant and low losses above room temperature ...

  5. On the role of the grain size in the magnetic behavior of sintered permanent magnets

    Efthimiadis, K. G.; Ntallis, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this work the finite elements method is used to simulate, by micromagnetic modeling, the magnetic behavior of sintered anisotropic magnets. Hysteresis loops were simulated for different grain sizes in an oriented multigrain sample. By keeping out other parameters that contribute to the magnetic microstructure, such as the sample size, the grain morphology and the grain boundaries mismatch, it has been found that the grain size affects the magnetic properties only if the grains are exchange-decoupled. In this case, as the grain size decreases, a decrease in the nucleation field of a reverse magnetic domain is observed and an increase in the coercive field due to the pinning of the magnetic domain walls at the grain boundaries.

  6. The grain-size lineup: A test of a novel eyewitness identification procedure.

    Horry, Ruth; Brewer, Neil; Weber, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    When making a memorial judgment, respondents can regulate their accuracy by adjusting the precision, or grain size, of their responses. In many circumstances, coarse-grained responses are less informative, but more likely to be accurate, than fine-grained responses. This study describes a novel eyewitness identification procedure, the grain-size lineup, in which participants eliminated any number of individuals from the lineup, creating a choice set of variable size. A decision was considered to be fine-grained if no more than 1 individual was left in the choice set or coarse-grained if more than 1 individual was left in the choice set. Participants (N = 384) watched 2 high-quality or low-quality videotaped mock crimes and then completed 4 standard simultaneous lineups or 4 grain-size lineups (2 target-present and 2 target-absent). There was some evidence of strategic regulation of grain size, as the most difficult lineup was associated with a greater proportion of coarse-grained responses than the other lineups. However, the grain-size lineup did not outperform the standard simultaneous lineup. Fine-grained suspect identifications were no more diagnostic than suspect identifications from standard lineups, whereas coarse-grained suspect identifications carried little probative value. Participants were generally reluctant to provide coarse-grained responses, which may have hampered the utility of the procedure. For a grain-size approach to be useful, participants may need to be trained or instructed to use the coarse-grained option effectively. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Grain size, stress and creep in polycrystalline solids

    Nabarro, FRN

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Taylor lattice stabilized by sigma (p); (iii) Does Lo exceed the value required for a Frank-Read or Bardeen-Herring source to operate within the grain? (iv) Does L (1/2) sigma exceed the Hall-Petch value required for slip to propagate across a grain...

  8. The effect of grain size and cement content on index properties of weakly solidified artificial sandstones

    Atapour, Hadi; Mortazavi, Ali

    2018-04-01

    The effects of textural characteristics, especially grain size, on index properties of weakly solidified artificial sandstones are studied. For this purpose, a relatively large number of laboratory tests were carried out on artificial sandstones that were produced in the laboratory. The prepared samples represent fifteen sandstone types consisting of five different median grain sizes and three different cement contents. Indices rock properties including effective porosity, bulk density, point load strength index, and Schmidt hammer values (SHVs) were determined. Experimental results showed that the grain size has significant effects on index properties of weakly solidified sandstones. The porosity of samples is inversely related to the grain size and decreases linearly as grain size increases. While a direct relationship was observed between grain size and dry bulk density, as bulk density increased with increasing median grain size. Furthermore, it was observed that the point load strength index and SHV of samples increased as a result of grain size increase. These observations are indirectly related to the porosity decrease as a function of median grain size.

  9. Computational Investigation of Effects of Grain Size on Ballistic Performance of Copper

    He, Ge; Dou, Yangqing; Guo, Xiang; Liu, Yucheng

    2018-01-01

    Numerical simulations were conducted to compare ballistic performance and penetration mechanism of copper (Cu) with four representative grain sizes. Ballistic limit velocities for coarse-grained (CG) copper (grain size ≈ 90 µm), regular copper (grain size ≈ 30 µm), fine-grained (FG) copper (grain size ≈ 890 nm), and ultrafine-grained (UG) copper (grain size ≈ 200 nm) were determined for the first time through the simulations. It was found that the copper with reduced grain size would offer higher strength and better ductility, and therefore renders improved ballistic performance than the CG and regular copper. High speed impact and penetration behavior of the FG and UG copper was also compared with the CG coppers strengthened by nanotwinned (NT) regions. The comparison results showed the impact and penetration resistance of UG copper is comparable to the CG copper strengthened by NT regions with the minimum twin spacing. Therefore, besides the NT-strengthened copper, the single phase copper with nanoscale grain size could also be a strong candidate material for better ballistic protection. A computational modeling and simulation framework was proposed for this study, in which Johnson-Cook (JC) constitutive model is used to predict the plastic deformation of Cu; the JC damage model is to capture the penetration and fragmentation behavior of Cu; Bao-Wierzbicki (B-W) failure criterion defines the material's failure mechanisms; and temperature increase during this adiabatic penetration process is given by the Taylor-Quinney method.

  10. Selection of single grain seeds by 14N(n,γ)15N nuclear reaction for protein improvement

    Andras, L.; Csoke, A.; Nagy, A.Z.; Balint, A.

    1979-01-01

    A new non-destructive screening technique was developed for determining the protein (total nitrogen) content of single grain seeds. Here, our first experiment is described where in the case of maize samples, 300 s was used to perform one measurement on a seed with a semiautomatic device. (author)

  11. Grain size dependence of the critical current density in YBa2Cu3Ox superconductors

    Kuwabara, M.; Shimooka, H.

    1989-01-01

    The grain size dependence of the critical current density in bulk single-phase YBa 2 Cu 3 O x ceramics was investigated. The grain size of the materials was changed to range approximately from 1.0 to 25 μm by changing the conditions of power processing and sintering, associated with an increase in the sintered density of the materials with increasing grain size. The critical current density has been found to exhibit a significant grain size dependence, changing from 880 A/cm 2 to a value of 100 A/cm 2 with a small increase in the average grain size from 1.2 to 2.0 μm. This seems to provide information about the nature of the weak link between superconducting grains which might govern the critical current density of the materials

  12. High-temperature grain size stabilization of nanocrystalline Fe–Cr alloys with Hf additions

    Li, Lulu, E-mail: lli18@ncsu.edu; Saber, Mostafa; Xu, Weizong; Zhu, Yuntian; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2014-09-08

    The influence of 1–4 at% Hf additions on the thermal stability of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline Fe–14Cr alloys was studied in this work. XRD-calculated grain size and microhardness results were reported versus isochronal annealing treatments up to 1100 °C. Microstructural evolution was investigated using channeling contrast FIB imaging and TEM. Grain size of samples with 4 at% Hf was found to be maintained in the nanoscale range at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Zener pinning was considered as a major source of high temperature grain size stabilization. By comparing the Orowan strengthening contribution to the total hardness, the deviation of grain size predictions from the actual grain size in Fe–14Cr–4Hf suggests the presence of thermodynamic stabilization by the solute segregation to grain boundaries (GBs). A predictive thermodynamic model indicates that the thermodynamic stabilization can be expected.

  13. Grain-size effect on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline indium tin oxide thin films

    Lee, Jong Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Heon, E-mail: young.h.kim@kriss.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Jung [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Tae Hwan [University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Future Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Seung [Department of Nano Semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-Ro, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanometer-sized small grains were observed in the ITO thin films. • The grain size increased as the post-thermal annealing temperature increased. • The mobility of ITO thin films increased with increasing grain size. • The ITO film annealed at 300 °C was an amorphous phase, while the others were polycrystalline structure. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the electrical properties, depending on grain size, of nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films prepared with a solution process. The size distributions of nanometer-sized ITO film grains increased as the post-annealing temperature increased after deposition; the grain sizes were comparable with the calculated electron mean free path. The mobility of ITO thin films increased with increasing grain size; this phenomenon was explained by adopting the charge-trapping model for grain boundary scattering. These findings suggest that it is possible to improve mobility by reducing the number of trapping sites at the grain boundary.

  14. WIDE AND THICK GRAIN 1, which encodes an otubain-like protease with deubiquitination activity, influences grain size and shape in rice.

    Huang, Ke; Wang, Dekai; Duan, Penggen; Zhang, Baolan; Xu, Ran; Li, Na; Li, Yunhai

    2017-09-01

    Grain size and shape are two crucial traits that influence grain yield and grain appearance in rice. Although several factors that affect grain size have been described in rice, the molecular mechanisms underlying the determination of grain size and shape are still elusive. In this study we report that WIDE AND THICK GRAIN 1 (WTG1) functions as an important factor determining grain size and shape in rice. The wtg1-1 mutant exhibits wide, thick, short and heavy grains and also shows an increased number of grains per panicle. WTG1 determines grain size and shape mainly by influencing cell expansion. WTG1 encodes an otubain-like protease, which shares similarity with human OTUB1. Biochemical analyses indicate that WTG1 is a functional deubiquitinating enzyme, and the mutant protein (wtg1-1) loses this deubiquitinating activity. WTG1 is expressed in developing grains and panicles, and the GFP-WTG1 fusion protein is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Overexpression of WTG1 results in narrow, thin, long grains due to narrow and long cells, further supporting the role of WTG1 in determining grain size and shape. Thus, our findings identify the otubain-like protease WTG1 to be an important factor that determines grain size and shape, suggesting that WTG1 has the potential to improve grain size and shape in rice. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The evolutionary diversification of seed size: using the past to understand the present.

    Sims, Hallie J

    2012-05-01

    The Devonian origin of seed plants and subsequent morphological diversification of seeds during the late Paleozoic represents an adaptive radiation into unoccupied ecological niche space. A plant's seed size is correlated with its life-history strategy, growth form, and seed dispersal syndrome. The fossil record indicates that the oldest seed plants had relatively small seeds, but the Mississippian seed size envelope increased significantly with the diversification of larger seeded lineages. Fossil seeds equivalent to the largest extant gymnosperm seeds appeared by the Pennsylvanian, concurrent with morphological diversification of growth forms and dispersal syndromes as well as the clade's radiation into new environments. Wang's Analysis of Skewness indicates that the evolutionary trend of increasing seed size resulted from primarily passive processes in Pennsylvanian seed plants. The distributions of modern angiosperms indicate a more diverse system of active and some passive processes, unbounded by Paleozoic limits; multiple angiosperm lineages independently evolved though the upper and lower bounds. Quantitative measures of preservation suggest that, although our knowledge of Paleozoic seeds is far from complete, the evolutionary trend in seed size is unlikely to be an artifact of taphonomy. © 2012 The Author. Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. 7 CFR 52.1851 - Sizes of raisins with seeds-layer or cluster.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sizes of raisins with seeds-layer or cluster. 52.1851...-Raisins with Seeds § 52.1851 Sizes of raisins with seeds—layer or cluster. The size of Layer or Cluster... measurement as applicable to layer or cluster raisins with seeds are: (a) 3 Crown size or larger. “3 Crown...

  17. A study of interaction effect theoretical with combination size grain on magnetics in of permanent magnet

    Tarihoran, Doansi; Manaf, Azwar

    2002-01-01

    Stoner-Wohlfarth theory, SW shows a deviation around 30-40% to the measurement result of a permanent magnetic material with nanometer-sized grains. This is caused by this theory neglecting the interacting grain factor. This research modifies SW theory by calculating the grain interacting effect. The modification is made by assuming the interacting energy of a mono-domain grain has ellipsoidal shaped focused at the edge of the grain. SW grain in this calculation model is a box-shaped in a grain with edges of the box placed in the skin's grain. The result shows that interacting effect make remanent polarization increasing drastically and coercive field value decreasing when grain's size reaches 20% of size of the first mono-domain grain. For material with ND 2 Fe 14 B phase, the optimum coercive field value and remanent polarization that producing maximum product energy, (BH) m ax obtained in a material with 5 nanometer-size grains. Qualitatively there is as appropriate result between the calculation and measurement

  18. Highly (002) textured large grain bcc Cr{sub 80}Mn{sub 20} seed layer on Cr{sub 50}Ti{sub 50} amorphous layer for FePt-C granular film

    Jeon, Seong-Jae, E-mail: jsjigst@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Saito, Shin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Hinata, Shintaro [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellow (PD), 5-3-1, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Takahashi, Migaku [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Effect of bcc Cr{sub 80}Mn{sub 20} seed layer and Cr{sub 50}Ti{sub 50} amorphous texture inducing layer on the heteroepitaxy system in FePt-C granular film was studied by introducing a new concept of the layered structure. The concept suggested that the large grain seed layer in which the crystallographic texture was initially formed on an amorphous layer in the layered structure can reduce the angular distribution of (002) c-axis crystal orientation in the FePt-C granular film owing to heteroepitaxial growth. Structure analysis by X-ray diffraction revealed that (1) when the substrate heating temperature was elevated from 300 °C to 500 °C, grain size in the seed layer increased from 9.8 nm to 11.6 nm, and then decreased with further increasing the substrate temperature. The reduction of the grain size over 500 °C corresponds to the crystallization of the amorphous texture inducing layer, (2) when the grain size increased from 9.8 nm to 11.6 nm, the angular distribution of the (002) orientation in the seed layer dramatically decreased from 13.7° to 4.1°. It was shown that the large grain seed layer increased the perpendicular hysteresis in FePt-C granular film.

  19. Grain size distributions and their effects on auto-acoustic compaction

    Taylor, S.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of geophysical and geomorphological processes depend on the response of granular mixtures to shear stress. For example, if shear sliding in a fault zone causes gouge to compact or dilate, this has implications on our understanding of earthquake nucleation and propagation. The behavior of granular flows has previously been found to be strongly dependent on shear rate. At relatively slow shear velocities, a granular flow will support stresses elastically through force chains in what is recognized as the 'quasi-static' regime. At relatively high shear velocities, it will support stresses by transferring momentum in higher velocity grain collisions in the 'grain-inertial' regime, which results in dilation of the flow. Recent experiments conducted using a commercial torsional rheometer found that at intermediate shear velocities, force chain collapse in angular sand samples produced sound waves capable of vibrating the shear zone enough to cause compaction. To expand on the characterization of this newly identified rheological regime, the 'auto-acoustic' regime, we used the same experimental set up to observe how volumetric and acoustic response to shear stress changes with grain size mean and range. Stepped velocity ramp experiments were conducted first on five separate grain size bins, and then on various mixtures of these grain sizes. As expected, larger grain sizes entered the mass-dependent grain-inertial regime at lower shear velocities than smaller grain sizes. Interestingly, smaller grain sizes exhibited more pronounced compaction at slower velocities resulting from the auto-acoustic regime, and the largest grain sizes showed no compaction, implying a grain size threshold for auto-acoustic compaction. In mixtures of different grain size bins, the response of the flow to intermediate shear velocities was consistent with the response of the smallest grain size bin included in the mixture, while the response of the flow to high shear velocities was most

  20. Palaeoenvironmental implication of grain-size compositions of terrace deposits on the western Chinese Loess Plateau

    Liu, Xingxing; Sun, Youbin; Vandenberghe, Jef; Li, Ying; An, Zhisheng

    2018-06-01

    Sedimentary sequences that developed on river terraces have been widely investigated to reconstruct high-resolution palaeoclimatic changes since the last deglaciation. However, frequent changes in sedimentary facies make palaeoenvironmental interpretation of grain-size variations relatively complicated. In this paper, we employed multiple grain-size parameters to discriminate the sedimentary characteristics of aeolian and fluvial facies in the Dadiwan (DDW) section on the western Chinese Loess Plateau. We found that wind and fluvial dynamics have quite different impacts on the grain-size compositions, with distinctive imprints on the distribution pattern. By using a lognormal distribution fitting approach, two major grain-size components sensitive to aeolian and fluvial processes, respectively, were distinguished from the grain-size compositions of the DDW terrace deposits. The fine grain-size component (GSC2) represents mixing of long-distance aeolian and short-distance fluvial inputs, whilst the coarse grain-size component (GSC3) is mainly transported by wind from short-distance sources. Thus GSC3 can be used to infer the wind intensity. Grain-size variations reveal that the wind intensity experienced a stepwise shift from large-amplitude variations during the last deglaciation to small-amplitude oscillations in the Holocene, corresponding well to climate changes from regional to global context.

  1. Species distribution model transferability and model grain size - finer may not always be better.

    Manzoor, Syed Amir; Griffiths, Geoffrey; Lukac, Martin

    2018-05-08

    Species distribution models have been used to predict the distribution of invasive species for conservation planning. Understanding spatial transferability of niche predictions is critical to promote species-habitat conservation and forecasting areas vulnerable to invasion. Grain size of predictor variables is an important factor affecting the accuracy and transferability of species distribution models. Choice of grain size is often dependent on the type of predictor variables used and the selection of predictors sometimes rely on data availability. This study employed the MAXENT species distribution model to investigate the effect of the grain size on model transferability for an invasive plant species. We modelled the distribution of Rhododendron ponticum in Wales, U.K. and tested model performance and transferability by varying grain size (50 m, 300 m, and 1 km). MAXENT-based models are sensitive to grain size and selection of variables. We found that over-reliance on the commonly used bioclimatic variables may lead to less accurate models as it often compromises the finer grain size of biophysical variables which may be more important determinants of species distribution at small spatial scales. Model accuracy is likely to increase with decreasing grain size. However, successful model transferability may require optimization of model grain size.

  2. Neutron depolarisation study of the austenite grain size in TRIP steels

    Dijk, N.H. van; Zhao, L.; Rekveldt, M.Th.; Fredrikze, H.; Tegus, O.; Brueck, E.; Sietsma, J.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2004-01-01

    We have performed combined neutron depolarisation and magnetisation measurements in order to obtain an in situ determination of the average grain size and volume fraction of the retained austenite phase in TRIP steels. The average grain size of the retained austenite was found to decrease for an increase in austenite volume fraction at two different annealing temperatures

  3. Seed priming with iron and zinc in bread wheat: effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield.

    Reis, Sara; Pavia, Ivo; Carvalho, Ana; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Correia, Carlos; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-07-01

    Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed priming with different dosages (1 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 ) of Fe and/or Zn in germination, mitosis and yield of bread wheat cv. 'Jordão' when compared with control. Overall, our results showed that: micronutrient dosages higher than 4 mg L -1 negatively affect the germination; Fe and/or Zn concentrations higher than 2 mg L -1 significantly decrease the mitotic index and increase the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies; treatments performed with 8 mg L -1 of Fe and/or 8 mg L -1 Zn caused negative effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield. Moreover, seed priming with 2 mg L -1 Fe + 2 mg L -1 Zn has been shown to be non-cytotoxic, ensuring a high rate of germination (80%) and normal dividing cells (90%) as well as improving tillering and grain yield. This work revealed that seed priming with Fe and Zn micronutrients constitutes a useful and alternative approach for the agronomic biofortification of bread wheat.

  4. Grain-Size Dynamics Beneath Mid-Ocean Ridges: Implications for Permeability and Melt Extraction

    Turner, A. J.; Katz, R. F.; Behn, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The permeability structure of the sub-ridge mantle plays an important role in how melt is focused and extracted at mid-ocean ridges. Permeability is controlled by porosity and the grain size of the solid mantle matrix, which is in turn controlled by the deformation conditions. To date, models of grain size evolution and mantle deformation have not been coupled to determine the influence of spatial variations in grain-size on the permeability structure at mid-ocean ridges. Rather, current models typically assume a constant grain size for the whole domain [1]. Here, we use 2-D numerical models to evaluate the influence of grain-size variability on the permeability structure beneath a mid-ocean ridge and use these results to speculate on the consequences for melt focusing and extraction. We construct a two-dimensional, single phase model for the steady-state grain size beneath a mid-ocean ridge. The model employs a composite rheology of diffusion creep, dislocation creep, dislocation accommodated grain boundary sliding, and a brittle stress limiter. Grain size is calculated using the "wattmeter" model of Austin and Evans [2]. We investigate the sensitivity of the model to global variations in grain growth exponent, potential temperature, spreading-rate, and grain boundary sliding parameters [3,4]. Our model predicts that permeability varies by two orders of magnitude due to the spatial variability of grain size within the expected melt region of a mid-ocean ridge. The predicted permeability structure suggests grain size may promote focusing of melt towards the ridge axis. Furthermore, the calculated grain size structure should focus melt from a greater depth than models that exclude grain-size variability. Future work will involve evaluating this hypothesis by implementing grain-size dynamics within a two-phase mid-ocean ridge model. The developments of such a model will be discussed. References: [1] R. F. Katz, Journal of Petrology, volume 49, issue 12, page 2099

  5. Adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and seed quality.

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; Pereira, J L A R; Carvalho, M L M

    2017-05-10

    This study aimed at verifying the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars, considering the grain yield and quality of seeds, adopting univariate and multivariate approaches. The experiments were conducted in two crops, three environments, in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 crop seasons, in the county of Inconfidentes, Lavras, and Patos de Minas, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We evaluated 17 commercial soybean cultivars. For adaptability and stability evaluations, the Graphic and GGE biplot methods were employed. Previously, a selection index was estimated based on the sum of the standardized variables (Z index). The data relative to grain yield, mass of one thousand grain, uniformity test (sieve retention), and germination test were standardized (Z ij ) per cultivar. With the sum of Z ij , we obtained the selection index for the four traits evaluated together. In the Graphic method evaluation, cultivars NA 7200 RR and CD 2737 RR presented the highest values for selection index Z. By the GGE biplot method, we verified that cultivar NA 7200 RR presented greater stability in both univariate evaluations, for grain yield, and for selection index Z.

  6. Genetic dissection of grain size and grain number trade-offs in CIMMYT wheat germplasm.

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability.

  7. Algorithm for repairing the damaged images of grain structures obtained from the cellular automata and measurement of grain size

    Ramírez-López, A.; Romero-Romo, M. A.; Muñoz-Negron, D.; López-Ramírez, S.; Escarela-Pérez, R.; Duran-Valencia, C.

    2012-10-01

    Computational models are developed to create grain structures using mathematical algorithms based on the chaos theory such as cellular automaton, geometrical models, fractals, and stochastic methods. Because of the chaotic nature of grain structures, some of the most popular routines are based on the Monte Carlo method, statistical distributions, and random walk methods, which can be easily programmed and included in nested loops. Nevertheless, grain structures are not well defined as the results of computational errors and numerical inconsistencies on mathematical methods. Due to the finite definition of numbers or the numerical restrictions during the simulation of solidification, damaged images appear on the screen. These images must be repaired to obtain a good measurement of grain geometrical properties. Some mathematical algorithms were developed to repair, measure, and characterize grain structures obtained from cellular automata in the present work. An appropriate measurement of grain size and the corrected identification of interfaces and length are very important topics in materials science because they are the representation and validation of mathematical models with real samples. As a result, the developed algorithms are tested and proved to be appropriate and efficient to eliminate the errors and characterize the grain structures.

  8. Preparation of bimodal grain size 7075 aviation aluminum alloys and their corrosion properties

    Wenming TIAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The bimodal grain size metals show improved strength and ductility compared to traditional metals; however, their corrosion properties are unknown. In order to evaluate the corrosion properties of these metals, the bimodal grain size 7075 aviation aluminum alloys containing different ratios of coarse (100 μm in diameter and fine (10 μm in diameter grains were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS. The effects of grain size as well as the mixture degree of coarse and fine grains on general corrosion were estimated by immersion tests, electrochemical measurements and complementary techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope-energy disperse spectroscopy (TEM-EDS. The results show that, compared to fine grains, the coarse grains have a faster dissolution rate in acidic NaCl solution due to the bigger size, higher alloying elements content and larger area fraction of second phases in them. In coarse grains, the hydrogen ions have a faster reduction rate on cathodic second phases, therefore promoting the corrosion propagation. The mixture of coarse and fine grains also increases the electrochemical heterogeneity of alloys in micro-scale, and thus the increased mixture degree of these grains in metal matrix accelerates the corrosion rate of alloys in acidic NaCl solution.

  9. Fission gas release during post irradiation annealing of large grain size fuels from Hinkley point B

    Killeen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    A series of post-irradiation anneals has been carried out on fuel taken from an experimental stringer from Hinkley Point B AGR. The stringer was part of an experimental programme in the reactor to study the effect of large grain size fuel. Three differing fuel types were present in separate pins in the stringer. One variant of large grain size fuel had been prepared by using an MgO dopant during fuel manufactured, a second by high temperature sintering of standard fuel and the third was a reference, 12μm grain size fuel. Both large grain size variants had similar grain sizes around 35μm. The present experiments took fuel samples from highly rated pins from the stringer with local burn-up in excess of 25GWd/tU and annealed these to temperature of up to 1535 deg. C under reducing conditions to allow a comparison of fission gas behaviour at high release levels. The results demonstrate the beneficial effect of large grain size on release rate of 85 Kr following interlinkage. At low temperatures and release rates there was no difference between the fuel types, but at temperatures in excess of 1400 deg. C the release rate was found to be inversely dependent on the fuel grain size. The experiments showed some differences between the doped and undoped large grains size fuel in that the former became interlinked at a lower temperature, releasing fission gas at an increased rate at this temperature. At higher temperatures the grain size effect was dominant. The temperature dependence for fission gas release was determined over a narrow range of temperature and found to be similar for all three types and for both pre-interlinkage and post-interlinkage releases, the difference between the release rates is then seen to be controlled by grain size. (author). 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Fission gas release during post irradiation annealing of large grain size fuels from Hinkley point B

    Killeen, J C [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    A series of post-irradiation anneals has been carried out on fuel taken from an experimental stringer from Hinkley Point B AGR. The stringer was part of an experimental programme in the reactor to study the effect of large grain size fuel. Three differing fuel types were present in separate pins in the stringer. One variant of large grain size fuel had been prepared by using an MgO dopant during fuel manufactured, a second by high temperature sintering of standard fuel and the third was a reference, 12{mu}m grain size fuel. Both large grain size variants had similar grain sizes around 35{mu}m. The present experiments took fuel samples from highly rated pins from the stringer with local burn-up in excess of 25GWd/tU and annealed these to temperature of up to 1535 deg. C under reducing conditions to allow a comparison of fission gas behaviour at high release levels. The results demonstrate the beneficial effect of large grain size on release rate of {sup 85}Kr following interlinkage. At low temperatures and release rates there was no difference between the fuel types, but at temperatures in excess of 1400 deg. C the release rate was found to be inversely dependent on the fuel grain size. The experiments showed some differences between the doped and undoped large grains size fuel in that the former became interlinked at a lower temperature, releasing fission gas at an increased rate at this temperature. At higher temperatures the grain size effect was dominant. The temperature dependence for fission gas release was determined over a narrow range of temperature and found to be similar for all three types and for both pre-interlinkage and post-interlinkage releases, the difference between the release rates is then seen to be controlled by grain size. (author). 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs.

  11. Effect of freeze-thaw cycling on grain size of biochar.

    Liu, Zuolin; Dugan, Brandon; Masiello, Caroline A; Wahab, Leila M; Gonnermann, Helge M; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-01

    Biochar may improve soil hydrology by altering soil porosity, density, hydraulic conductivity, and water-holding capacity. These properties are associated with the grain size distributions of both soil and biochar, and therefore may change as biochar weathers. Here we report how freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling impacts the grain size of pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and sewage waste biochars under two drainage conditions: undrained (all biochars) and a gravity-drained experiment (mesquite biochar only). In the undrained experiment plant biochars showed a decrease in median grain size and a change in grain-size distribution consistent with the flaking off of thin layers from the biochar surface. Biochar grain size distribution changed from unimodal to bimodal, with lower peaks and wider distributions. For plant biochars the median grain size decreased by up to 45.8% and the grain aspect ratio increased by up to 22.4% after 20 F-T cycles. F-T cycling did not change the grain size or aspect ratio of sewage waste biochar. We also observed changes in the skeletal density of biochars (maximum increase of 1.3%), envelope density (maximum decrease of 12.2%), and intraporosity (porosity inside particles, maximum increase of 3.2%). In the drained experiment, mesquite biochar exhibited a decrease of median grain size (up to 4.2%) and no change of aspect ratio after 10 F-T cycles. We also document a positive relationship between grain size decrease and initial water content, suggesting that, biochar properties that increase water content, like high intraporosity and pore connectivity large intrapores, and hydrophilicity, combined with undrained conditions and frequent F-T cycles may increase biochar breakdown. The observed changes in biochar particle size and shape can be expected to alter hydrologic properties, and thus may impact both plant growth and the hydrologic cycle.

  12. Metal-assisted chemical etching of CIGS thin films for grain size analysis

    Xue, Chaowei [Research and Development Centre, Hanergy Thin Film Power Group Limited, Chengdu (China); Loi, Huu-Ha; Duong, Anh; Parker, Magdalena [Failure Analysis Department, MiaSole Hi-Tech Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Grain size of the CIGS absorber is an important monitoring factor in the CIGS solar cell manufacturing. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis is commonly used to perform CIGS grain size analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Although direct quantification on SEM image using the average grain intercept (AGI) method is faster and simpler than EBSD, it is hardly applicable on CIGS thin films. The challenge is that, not like polycrystalline silicon, to define grain boundaries by selective chemical etching is not easily realizable for the multi-component CIGS alloy. In this Letter, we present direct quantification of CIGS thin film grain size using the AGI method by developing metal-assisted wet chemical etching process to define CIGS grain boundaries. The calculated value is similar to EBSD result. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Grain-size dependent accommodation due to intragranular distributions of dislocation loops

    Richeton, T.; Berbenni, S.; Berveiller, M.

    2009-01-01

    A grain-size dependent accommodation law for polycrystals is deduced from an inclusion/matrix problem (i.e., each grain is seen as embedded in a homogeneous equivalent medium) where plastic strain inside the inclusion is given as a discrete distribution of circular coaxial glide dislocation loops. The loops are assumed constrained at spherical grain boundaries. From thermodynamic considerations specific to a process of identical plastification in all the loops (considered as 'super-dislocations'), an average back-stress over the grain is derived. In order to compute the very early stages of plastic deformation in a face-centred cubic polycrystal, this back-stress is incorporated into a diluted model in terms of concentration of plastic grains. Contrary to conventional mean-field approaches, a grain-size effect is obtained for the initial overall strain-hardening behaviour. This size effect results from an intrinsic contribution of intragranular slip heterogeneities on the kinematical hardening

  14. The effects of surface finish and grain size on the strength of sintered silicon carbide

    You, Y. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Lee, J. G.; Kim, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment and microstructure, especially abnormal grain growth, on the strength of sintered SiC were studied. The surfaces of sintered SiC were treated with 400, 800 and 1200 grit diamond wheels. Grain growth was induced by increasing the sintering times at 2050 C. The beta to alpha transformation occurred during the sintering of beta-phase starting materials and was often accompanied by abnormal grain growth. The overall strength distributions were established using Weibull statistics. The strength of the sintered SiC is limited by extrinsic surface flaws in normal-sintered specimens. The finer the surface finish and grain size, the higher the strength. But the strength of abnormal sintering specimens is limited by the abnormally grown large tabular grains. The Weibull modulus increases with decreasing grain size and decreasing grit size for grinding.

  15. A statistical mixture model for estimating the proportion of unreduced pollen grains in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) via the size of pollen grains

    Jansen, R.C.; Nijs, A.P.M. den

    1993-01-01

    The size of pollen grains is commonly used to indicate the ploidy level of pollen grains. In this paper observations of the diameter of pollen grains are evaluated from one diploid accession of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which was expected to produce diploid (unreduced) pollen grains in

  16. Grain-size variations on a longitudinal dune and a barchan dune

    Watson, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The grain-size characteristics of the sand upon two dunes—a 40 m high longitudinal dune in the central Namib Desert and a 6.0 m high barchan in the Jafurah sand sea of Saudi Arabia—vary with position on the dunes. On the longitudinal dune, median grain size decreases, sorting improves and the grain-size distributions are less skewed and more normalized toward the crest. Though sand at the windward toe is distinct, elsewhere on the dune the changes in grain-size characteristics are gradual. An abrupt change in grain size and sorting near the crest—as described by Bagnold (1941, pp. 226-229)—is not well represented on this dune. Coarse grains remain as a lag on concave slope units and small particles are winnowed from the sand on the steepest windward slopes near the crest. Avalanching down slipfaces at the crest acts only as a supplementary grading mechanism. On the barchan dune median grain size also decreases near the crest, but sorting becomes poorer, though the grain-size distributions are more symmetric and more normalized. The dune profile is a Gaussian curve with a broad convex zone at the apex upon which topset beds had accreted prior to sampling. Grain size increases and sorting improves down the dune's slipface. However, this grading mechanism does not influence sand on the whole dune because variations in wind regime bring about different modes of dune accretion. On both dunes, height and morphology appear to influence significantly the grain-size characteristics.

  17. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data.

  18. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data

  19. On grain-size-dependent void swelling in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Zinkle, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of grain size on void swelling has its origin in the intrinsic property of grain boundaries as neutral and unsaturable sinks for both vacancies and self-interstitial atoms. The phenomenon had already been investigated in the 1970s and it was demonstrated that the grain......-size-dependent void swelling measured under irradiation producing only Frenkel pairs could be satisfactorily explained in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) and dislocation bias. Experimental results reported in the 1980s demonstrated, on the other hand, that the effect of grain boundaries on void swelling under...

  20. Consequences of intraspecific seed-size variation in Sparganium emersum for dispersal by fish

    Pollux, B.J.A.; Ouborg, J.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The potential for seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory) is likely to vary within aquatic plant species, depending on intraspecific variation in phenotypic seed traits. 2. We studied the effect of seed size variation within the unbranched burreed (Sparganium emersum) on the potential for internal

  1. A buffer bridge process for growing multiple YBa2Cu3O7-y grains from one top seed

    Lee, J-H; Park, S-D; Jun, B-H; Lee, J S; Kim, C-J; Han, S C; Han, Y H

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a buffer bridge process that allows growing multiple YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (Y123) grains from one top seed. This process uses a buffer bridge pellet (Y 2 BaCuO 5 or Y123) to deliver the Y123 growth from one seed to several Y123 compacts. The top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process combined with the buffer bridge process facilitated the fabrication of several single-grained Y123 superconductors using one seed. In addition to achieving the growth of multiple Y123 grains, this process ensured a uniform distribution of superconducting properties of the top surface because the seed/compact interface area (the number of seeds), which is the route for the impurities from the seeds, was minimized. Additionally, the impurity contamination from a seed was considerably suppressed using a buffer pellet. One (110) diagonal facet line, as a result of the corner-to-corner growth, developed on the top surfaces of the prepared Y123 compacts, which is comparable to the x-like facet line of the conventional TSMG processed samples. The trapped magnetic field (H) profiles at 77 K of the prepared Y123 compacts, which were estimated using an Nd-B-Fe permanent magnet, showed the H contour map of a single-grain mode. The force-distance curves for the field cooled and zero-field cooled Y123 compacts at 77 K showed high and reliable levitation forces with a small deviation among compacts. The buffer bridge process can be applied to a batch process for the mass production of single-grain REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (RE: rare-earth elements) superconductors with uniform top surface properties.

  2. Investigating selective transport and abrasion on an alluvial fan using quantitative grain size and shape analysis

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Selective sorting and abrasion are the two major fluvial processes that are attributed to the downstream fining of sediments in rivers and alluvial fans. Selective transport is the process by which smaller grains are preferentially transported downstream while larger grains are deposited closer to the source. Abrasion is defined by the production of fine sediments and sand that occurs by saltation of gravel, where particle-to-particle collisions supply the energy required to break apart grains. We hypothesize that abrasion results in the gradual fining of large grains and the production of fine sands and silts, while sorting accounts for the differences in transport of these two grain-size fractions produced from abrasion, thereby creating the abrupt gravel-sand transition observed in many channel systems. In this research, we explore both selective transport and abrasion processes on the Dog Canyon alluvial fan near Alamogordo, New Mexico. We complete an extensive grain size analysis down the main channel of the fan employing an image-based technique that utilizes an autocorrelation process. We also characterize changes in grain shape using standard shape parameters, as well as Fourier analysis, which allows the study of contributions of grain roughness on a variety of length scales. Sorting appears to dominate the upper portion of the fan; the grain-size distribution narrows moving downstream until reaching a point of equal mobility, at which point sorting ceases. Abrasion exerts a subtle but persistent effect on grains during transport down the fan. Shape analysis reveals that particles become more rounded by the removal of small-scale textural features, a process that is expected to only modestly influence grain size of gravel, but should produce significant quantities of sand. This study provides a better understanding of the importance of grain abrasion and sorting on the downstream fining of channel grains in an alluvial fan, as well as an improved knowledge

  3. ON ESTIMATION AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING OF THE GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY THE SALTYKOV METHOD

    Yuri Gulbin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of validity of unfolding the grain size distribution with the back-substitution method. Due to the ill-conditioned nature of unfolding matrices, it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy and precision of parameter estimation and to verify the possibility of expected grain size distribution testing on the basis of intersection size histogram data. In order to review these questions, the computer modeling was used to compare size distributions obtained stereologically with those possessed by three-dimensional model aggregates of grains with a specified shape and random size. Results of simulations are reported and ways of improving the conventional stereological techniques are suggested. It is shown that new improvements in estimating and testing procedures enable grain size distributions to be unfolded more efficiently.

  4. Manipulation of Auxin Response Factor 19 affects seed size in the woody perennial Jatropha curcas

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Xiyuan; Mao, Huizhu; Zhu, Changxiang; Wen, Fujiang; Wang, Xianghua; Lu, Zhijun; Yue, Genhua; Xu, Zengfu; Ye, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J. curcas. Importantly, transgenic overexpression of JcARF19 significantly increased seed size and seed yield in plants Arabidopsis thaliana and J. curcas, indicating the importance of auxin pathway in seed yield controlling in dicot plants. Transcripts analysis indicated that ectopic expression of JcARF19 in J. curcas upregulated auxin responsive genes encoding essential regulators in cell differentiation and cytoskeletal dynamics of seed development. Our data suggested the potential of improving seed traits by precisely engineering auxin signaling in woody perennial plants. PMID:28102350

  5. Effect of weed patch size on seed removal by harvester ants

    Westermann, Paula R.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In dryland cereals in North-eastern Spain, the harvester ant, Messor barbarus L., is responsible for removal of a large proportion of the newly produced weed seeds (40-100%. The probability that seeds will be found by the ants may be influenced by weed patch size. To investigate this source of variability, 30 seed patches were created in each of three, 50 × 50 m, blocks in a cereal field after harvest, by sequentially seeding (10, 16 and 17 August 2010 with 2000 seeds m-2 of Avena sativa L.. Patch size varied from 0.25 to 9 m2. Twenty four hours after seeding, the remaining seeds were collected and seed removal rates estimated. Average seed removal rate was lowest in the smallest (78-94% and highest in the largest patches (99-100%. Differences were mainly caused by the fact that some of the smaller patches (9.7% were not found. However, when patches were found, they were exploited at equal rates (98-100%. As predicted, the probability of finding a patch increased slightly, but significantly, with increasing patch size. When a patch was found, it was almost always fully exploited, resulting in very high seed removal rates, irrespective of patch size. These results indicate that the size of the seed patch is only a minor source of variation influencing this form of biological control of weeds.

  6. Charging of Individual Micron-Size Interstellar/Planetary Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with UV/X-ray radiation, as well as by electron/ion impact. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of individual dust grains is required for understanding of the physical and dynamical processes in space environments and the role of dust in formation of stellar and planetary systems. In this paper, we discuss experimental results on dust charging by electron impact, where low energy electrons are scattered or stick to the dust grains, thereby charging the dust grains negatively, and at sufficiently high energies the incident electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly by low energy electron impact. Available theoretical models based on the Sternglass equation (Sternglass, 1954) are applicable for neutral, planar, and bulk surfaces only. However, charging properties of individual micron-size dust grains are expected to be different from the values measured on bulk materials. Our recent experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance facility (at NASA-MSFC) indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (e.g. Abbas et al, 2010). Here we discuss the complex nature of SEE charging properties of individual micron-size lunar dust grains and silica microspheres.

  7. The effect of grain size on dynamic tensile extrusion behaviour

    Park Leeju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE tests were conducted on coarse grained and ultrafine grained (UFG OFHC Cu, Interstitial free (IF Steel, and pure Ta. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP of 16passes with Bc for Cu, IF Steel and 4 passes for Ta was employed to fabricated UFG materials. DTE tests were carried out by launching the sphere samples (Dia. 7.62 mm to the conical extrusion die at a speed of ∼500 m/sec. The fragmentation behavior of the soft-recovered fragments were examined and compared with each other. The DTE fragmentation behavior of CG and UFG was numerically simulated by the LS-DYNA FEM code.

  8. Influence of grain size on the extraordinary Hall effect in magnetic granular alloys

    Granovsky, Alexander B.; Kalitsov, Alan V.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    A quantum statistical theory of the influence of grain size on the residual extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) in magnetic metal-insulator granular alloys is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the quasi-classical size-effect (QSE) can lead to similar behaviors of EHE in metal-metal and metal-insulator alloys. The possible dependences of EHE coefficient on the grain size and the role of the QSE in the giant EHE in nanocomposites are discussed

  9. Influence of grain size on the extraordinary Hall effect in magnetic granular alloys

    Granovsky, Alexander B. E-mail: granov@magn.ru; Kalitsov, Alan V.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    A quantum statistical theory of the influence of grain size on the residual extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) in magnetic metal-insulator granular alloys is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the quasi-classical size-effect (QSE) can lead to similar behaviors of EHE in metal-metal and metal-insulator alloys. The possible dependences of EHE coefficient on the grain size and the role of the QSE in the giant EHE in nanocomposites are discussed.

  10. Influence of temperature and grain size on the tensile ductility of AISI 316 stainless steel

    Mannan, S.L.; Samuel, K.G.; Rodriguez, P.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of tmeperature and grain size on the tensile ductility of AISI 316 stainless steel has been examined in the temperature range 300-1223 K for specimens with grain sizes varying from 0.025 to 0.650 mm at a nominal strain rate of 3 X 10 -4 s -1 . The percentage total elongation and reduction in area at fracture show minimum ductility at an intermediate temperature, and the temperature corresponding to this ductility minimum has been found to increase with increase in grain size. The total elongation is found to decrease with increase in grain size at high temperatures where failures are essentially intergranular in nature. At 300 K, both uniform and total elongation increase with increase in grain size and then show a small decrease for a very coarse grain size. The high ductility observed at low temperatures (300 K) is consistent with the observation of characteristic dimples associated with transgranular ductile fracture. The ductility minimum with respect to temperature is associated with the occurrence of intergranular fracture, as evidenced by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The present results support the suggestion that the ductility minimum coincides with the maximum amount of grain boundary sliding; at temperatures beyond the ductility minimum, grain boundary separation by cavitation is retarded by the occurrence of grain boundary migration, as evidenced by the grain boundary cusps. In tests conducted at various strain rates in the range 10 -3 -10 -6 s -1 at 873 K the ductility was found to decrease with decreasing strain rate, emphasizing the increased importance of grain boundary sliding at lower strain rates. (Auth.)

  11. Determining the effect of grain size and maximum induction upon coercive field of electrical steels

    Landgraf, Fernando José Gomes; da Silveira, João Ricardo Filipini; Rodrigues-Jr., Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Although theoretical models have already been proposed, experimental data is still lacking to quantify the influence of grain size upon coercivity of electrical steels. Some authors consider a linear inverse proportionality, while others suggest a square root inverse proportionality. Results also differ with regard to the slope of the reciprocal of grain size-coercive field relation for a given material. This paper discusses two aspects of the problem: the maximum induction used for determining coercive force and the possible effect of lurking variables such as the grain size distribution breadth and crystallographic texture. Electrical steel sheets containing 0.7% Si, 0.3% Al and 24 ppm C were cold-rolled and annealed in order to produce different grain sizes (ranging from 20 to 150 μm). Coercive field was measured along the rolling direction and found to depend linearly on reciprocal of grain size with a slope of approximately 0.9 (A/m)mm at 1.0 T induction. A general relation for coercive field as a function of grain size and maximum induction was established, yielding an average absolute error below 4%. Through measurement of B50 and image analysis of micrographs, the effects of crystallographic texture and grain size distribution breadth were qualitatively discussed.

  12. Fracture toughness of WWER Uranium dioxide fuel pellets with various grain size

    Sivov, R.; Novikov, V.; Mikheev, E.; Fedotov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Uranium dioxide fuel pellets with grain sizes 13, 26, and 33 μm for WWER were investigated in the present work in order to determine crack formation and the fracture toughness.The investigation of crack formation in uranium oxide fuel pellets of the WWER-types showed that Young’s modulus and the microhardness of polycrystalline samples increase with increasing grain size, while the fracture toughness decreases. Characteristically, radial Palmqvist cracks form on the surface of uranium dioxide pellets for loads up to 1 kg. Transgranular propagation of cracks over distances several-fold larger than the length of the imprint diagonal is observed in pellets with large grains and small intragrain pores. Intergranular propagation of cracks along grain boundaries with branching occurs in pellets with small grains and low pore concentration on the grain boundaries. Blunting on large pores and at breaks in direction does not permit the cracks to reach a significant length

  13. [Characteristics and its forming mechanism on grain size distribution of suspended matter at Changjiang Estuary].

    Pang, Chong-guang; Yu, Wei; Yang, Yang

    2010-03-01

    In July of 2008, under the natural condition of sea water, the Laser in-situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST-100X Type C) was used to measure grain size distribution spectrum and volume concentration of total suspended matter in the sea water, including flocs at different layers of 24 sampling stations at Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent sea. The characteristics and its forming mechanism on grain size distribution of total suspended matter were analyzed based on the observation data of LISST-100X Type C, and combining with the temperature, salinity and turbidity of sea water, simultaneously observed by Alec AAQ1183. The observation data showed that the average median grain size of total suspended matter was about 4.69 phi in the whole measured sea area, and the characteristics of grain size distribution was relatively poor sorted, wide kurtosis, and basically symmetrical. The conclusion could be drawn that vertically average volume concentration decreased with the distance from the coastline, while median grain size had an increase trend with the distance, for example, at 31.0 degrees N section, the depth-average median grain size had been increased from 11 microm up to 60 microm. With the increasing of distance from the coast, the concentration of fine suspended sediment reduced distinctly, nevertheless some relatively big organic matter or big flocs appeared in quantity, so its grain size would rise. The observation data indicated that the effective density was ranged from 246 kg/m3 to 1334 kg/m, with average was 613 kg/m3. When the concentration of total suspended matter was relatively high, median grain size of total suspended matter increased with the water depth, while effective density decreased with the depth, because of the faster settling velocity and less effective density of large flocs that of small flocs. As for station 37 and 44, their correlation coefficients between effective density and median grain size were larger than 0.9.

  14. Evaluation of Pure Aluminium Inoculated with Varying Grain Sizes of an Agro-waste based Inoculant

    Adeyemi I. Olabisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure Aluminium and its alloy are widely utilized in Engineering and Industrial applications due to certain significant properties such as softness, ductility, corrosion resistance, and high electrical conductivity which it possesses. Addition of an agro-waste based grain refiner to the melt can alter the characteristics positively or negatively. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the inoculating capability of an agro-waste based inoculant and the effect of adding varying sizes of its grains on some of the properties of pure aluminium after solidification. The beneficial outcome of this investigation would enhance the economic value of the selected agro-waste and also broaden the applications of aluminium in Engineering. The assessed properties include; microstructure, micro hardness, ductility, and tensile strength. The agro-waste used as the grain refiner is pulverised cocoa bean shells (CBS. Three sets of test samples were produced using dry sand moulding process, with each melt having a specified grain size of the inoculant added to it (150, 225 and 300microns respectively. Ladle inoculation method was adopted. The cast samples after solidification were machined to obtain various shapes/sizes for the different analysis. The microstructural examination showed that the mechanical properties are dependent on the matrix as the aluminium grains became more refined with increasing grain size of the inoculant. I.e. Due to increasing grain size of the inoculant, the micro hardness increased (56, 61, 72HB as the aluminium crystal size became finer. Meanwhile, the tensile strength (284, 251, 223N/mm2 and ductility (1.82, 0.91, 0.45%E decreased as grain size of the inoculant increased. The overall results showed that the used agro-waste based inoculant has the capability of refining the crystal size of pure aluminium as its grain size increases. This will make the resulting aluminium alloy applicable in areas where hardness is of

  15. Effects of seed geometry on the crystal growth and the magnetic properties of single grain REBCO bulk superconductors

    Lee, Hwi Joo; Lee, Hee Gyoun [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soon Dong; Jun, Bung Hyack; Kim, Chan Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    This study presents that the orientation and the geometry of seed affect on the growth behavior of melt processed single grain REBCO bulk superconductor and its magnetic properties. The effects of seed geometry have been investigated for thin 30mm x 30mm rectangular powder compacts. Single grain REBCO bulk superconductors have been grown successfully by a top seed melt growth method for 8-mm thick vertical thin REBCO slab. Asymmetric structures have been developed at the front surface and at the rear surface of the specimen. Higher magnetic properties have been obtained for the specimen that c-axis is normal to the specimen surface. The relationships between microstructure, grain growth and magnetic properties have been discussed.

  16. Trends in Solidification Grain Size and Morphology for Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V

    Gockel, Joy; Sheridan, Luke; Narra, Sneha P.; Klingbeil, Nathan W.; Beuth, Jack

    2017-12-01

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is used for both prototyping and production of final parts. Therefore, there is a need to predict and control the microstructural size and morphology. Process mapping is an approach that represents AM process outcomes in terms of input variables. In this work, analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches are combined to provide a holistic view of trends in the solidification grain structure of Ti-6Al-4V across a wide range of AM process input variables. The thermal gradient is shown to vary significantly through the depth of the melt pool, which precludes development of fully equiaxed microstructure throughout the depth of the deposit within any practical range of AM process variables. A strategy for grain size control is demonstrated based on the relationship between melt pool size and grain size across multiple deposit geometries, and additional factors affecting grain size are discussed.

  17. Preliminary study of determination of UO2 grain size using X-ray diffraction method

    Mulyana, T.; Sambodo, G. D.; Juanda, D.; Fatchatul, B.

    1998-01-01

    The determination of UO 2 grain size has accomplished using x-ray diffraction method. The UO 2 powder is obtained from sol-gel process. A copper target as radiation source in the x-ray diffractometer was used in this experiment with CμKα characteristic wavelength 1.54433 Angstrom. The result indicate that the UO 2 mean grain size on presintered (temperature 800 o C) has the value 456.8500 Angstrom and the UO 2 mean grain size on sintered (temperature 1700 o C) has value 651.4934 Angstrom

  18. Effect of grain size on tensile stress and ductility in Al99.99

    Kovacs-Csetenyi, E.; Horvath, M.; Chinh, N.Q.; Kovacs, I.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of recrystallized grain size on the tensile stress and ductility of 99.99% purity aluminium was investigated at room temperature. It was proved that the grain size dependence of flow stress follows a modified Hall-Petch equation with coefficients depending linearly on ε 1/2 up to the stability limit. The uniform strain can also be described by a linear dependence on d -1/2 according to which the uniform elongation increases with increasing grain size. The post-uniform elongation changes inversely to that of the uniform one accompanied by the decrease of the strain rate sensitivity. (orig.)

  19. Seed-mediated growth and manipulation of Au nanorods via size-controlled synthesis of Au seeds

    Liu Juncheng; Duggan, Jennifer N.; Morgan, Joshua; Roberts, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Seed-mediated growth of gold (Au) nanorods with highly controllable length, width, and aspect ratio was accomplished via carefully size-controlled synthesis of the original Au seeds. A slow dynamic growth of Au nanoparticle seeds was observed after reduction of the Au salt (i.e., hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) hydrate) by sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). As such, the size of the Au nanoparticle seeds can therefore be manipulated through control over the duration of the reaction period (i.e., aging times of 2, 8, 48, 72, and 144 h were used in this study). These differently sized Au nanoparticles were subsequently used as seeds for the growth of Au nanorods, where the additions of Au salt, CTAB, AgNO 3 , and ascorbic acid were employed. Smaller Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via short growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with higher aspect ratio and thus longer longitudinal surface plasmon wavelength (LSPW). The larger Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via longer growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with lower aspect ratio and shorter LSPW.

  20. The relevance of grain dissection for grain size reduction in polar ice: insights from numerical models and ice core microstructure analysis

    Steinbach, Florian; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan N.; Eichler, Jan; Bons, Paul D.; Drury, Martyn R.; Griera, Albert; Pennock, Gill M.; Weikusat, Ilka

    2017-09-01

    The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modelling and analysed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser). Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighbouring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modelling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be used to

  1. The Relevance of Grain Dissection for Grain Size Reduction in Polar Ice: Insights from Numerical Models and Ice Core Microstructure Analysis

    Florian Steinbach

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modeling and analyzed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser. Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighboring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modeling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be

  2. Austenite Grain Size Estimtion from Chord Lengths of Logarithmic-Normal Distribution

    Adrian H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear section of grains in polyhedral material microstructure is a system of chords. The mean length of chords is the linear grain size of the microstructure. For the prior austenite grains of low alloy structural steels, the chord length is a random variable of gamma- or logarithmic-normal distribution. The statistical grain size estimation belongs to the quantitative metallographic problems. The so-called point estimation is a well known procedure. The interval estimation (grain size confidence interval for the gamma distribution was given elsewhere, but for the logarithmic-normal distribution is the subject of the present contribution. The statistical analysis is analogous to the one for the gamma distribution.

  3. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, Richard M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ∼80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ∼2 m s−1during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ∼600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ∼6–7.5 cm s−1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  4. Impact of grain sizes on the quantitative concrete analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Gottlieb, C.; Günther, T.; Wilsch, G.

    2018-04-01

    In civil engineering concrete is the most used building material for making infrastructures like bridges and parking decks worldwide. It is as a porous and multiphase material made of aggregates with a defined grain size distribution, cement and water as well as different additives and admixtures depending on the application. Different grain sizes are important to ensure the needed density and compressive strength. The resulting porous cement matrix contains a mixture of flour grains (aggregates with a grain size below 125 μm) and cement particles (particle size ≈ 50μm). Harmful species like chlorides may penetrate together with water through the capillary pore space and may trigger different damage processes. The damage assessment of concrete structures in Germany is estimated due to the quantification of harmful elements regarding to the cement content only. In the evaluation of concrete using LIBS a two-dimensional scanning is necessary to consider the heterogeneity caused by the aggregates. Therefore, a LIBS system operating with a low energy NdCr:YAG laser, a pulse energy of 3 mJ, a wavelength of 1064 nm, a pulse width of 1.5 ns and a repetition rate of 100 Hz has been used. Different Czerny-Turner spectrometers with CCD detectors in the UV and NIR range have been used for the detection. Large aggregates (macro-heterogeneity) can be excluded from the evaluation, whereas small aggregates in the range of the laser spot size (flour grains) cannot be spatially resolved. In this work the micro heterogeneity caused by flour grains and their impact on the quantification with LIBS will be discussed. To analyze the effect of changing grain sizes and ratios, the ablation behavior has been determined and compared. Samples with defined grain sizes were made and analyzed using LIBS. The grain size distributions were analyzed with laser diffraction (LDA).

  5. GS6, a member of the GRAS gene family, negatively regulates grain size in rice.

    Sun, Lianjun; Li, Xiaojiao; Fu, Yongcai; Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Sun, Xianyou; Sun, Xuewen; Sun, Chuanqing

    2013-10-01

    Grain size is an important yield-related trait in rice. Intensive artificial selection for grain size during domestication is evidenced by the larger grains of most of today's cultivars compared with their wild relatives. However, the molecular genetic control of rice grain size is still not well characterized. Here, we report the identification and cloning of Grain Size 6 (GS6), which plays an important role in reducing grain size in rice. A premature stop at the +348 position in the coding sequence (CDS) of GS6 increased grain width and weight significantly. Alignment of the CDS regions of GS6 in 90 rice materials revealed three GS6 alleles. Most japonica varieties (95%) harbor the Type I haplotype, and 62.9% of indica varieties harbor the Type II haplotype. Association analysis revealed that the Type I haplotype tends to increase the width and weight of grains more than either of the Type II or Type III haplotypes. Further investigation of genetic diversity and the evolutionary mechanisms of GS6 showed that the GS6 gene was strongly selected in japonica cultivars. In addition, a "ggc" repeat region identified in the region that encodes the GRAS domain of GS6 played an important historic role in the domestication of grain size in rice. Knowledge of the function of GS6 might aid efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control grain development and evolution in rice plants, and could facilitate the genetic improvement of rice yield. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  7. Size Distribution and Rate of Dust Generated During Grain Elevator Handling

    Dust generated during grain handling is an air pollutant that produces safety and health hazards. This study was conducted to characterize the particle size distribution (PSD) of dust generated during handling of wheat and shelled corn in the research elevator of the USDA Grain Marketing and Product...

  8. The role of grain size in He bubble formation: Implications for swelling resistance

    El-Atwani, O., E-mail: oelatwan25@gmail.com [Drexel University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nathaniel, J.E.; Leff, A.C. [Drexel University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Muntifering, B.R. [Department of Radiation Solid Interactions, Sandia National Laboratories, NM (United States); Baldwin, J.K. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hattar, K. [Department of Radiation Solid Interactions, Sandia National Laboratories, NM (United States); Taheri, M.L. [Drexel University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Nanocrystalline metals are postulated as radiation resistant materials due to their high defect and particle (e.g. Helium) sink density. Here, the performance of nanocrystalline iron films is investigated in-situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) using He irradiation at 700 K. Automated crystal orientation mapping is used in concert with in-situ TEM to explore the role of grain orientation and grain boundary character on bubble density trends. Bubble density as a function of three key grain size regimes is demonstrated. While the overall trend revealed an increase in bubble density up to a saturation value, grains with areas ranging from 3000 to 7500 nm{sup 2} show a scattered distribution. An extrapolated swelling resistance based on bubble size and areal density indicated that grains with sizes less than 2000 nm{sup 2} possess the greatest apparent resistance. Moreover, denuded zones are found to be independent of grain size, grain orientation, and grain boundary misorientation angle.

  9. Dependency of annealing behaviour on grain size in Al–TiC ...

    This work investigates the effect of grain size on annealing behaviour in both coarse-grained and ultrafinegrained Al–TiC composite processed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB). Microstructural analysis indicates that annealingbehaviour of the specimens are essentially determined by the level of strain accumulation or ...

  10. Grain size and boundary-related effects on the properties of nanocrystalline barium titanate ceramics

    Buscaglia, V.; Buscaglia, M. T.; Viviani, M.; Mitoseriu, L.; Nanni, P.; Trefiletti, V.; Piaggio, P.; Gregora, Ivan; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Pokorný, Jan; Petzelt, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2006), s. 2889-2898 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 525.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : grain size * grain boundaries * spectroscopy * dielectric properties * BaTiO 3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.576, year: 2006

  11. Functional Marker Development and Effect Analysis of Grain Size Gene GW2 in Extreme Grain Size Germplasm in Rice

    Zhang Ya-dong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available GW2 is an important gene that regulates grain width and weight. We used cDNA clone to obtain the sequences of GW2 from large- and small-grained rice varieties, TD70 and Kasalath, respectively. Then, we developed a dCAPS (derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker on the basis of the sequence difference between functional and nonfunctional GW2 genes to analyze the genotypes and phenotypes of recombinant inbred lines. Results showed that the sequence of GW2TD70 had a single nucleotide deletion at site 316 that generates a termination codon. This codon terminated the GW2 protein in advance. By contrast, the sequence of GW2Kasalath encoded an intact protein. A novel dCAPS marker was designed in accordance with a base A deletion at site 316 of the sequence. After the PCR product was digested by ApoI, TD70 showed 21 and 30 bp fragments, and Kasalath showed a 51 bp fragment. Up to 82 lines contained GW2TD70, and 158 lines contained GW2Kasalath. The lines that contained TD70 alleles displayed substantial increases in width and 1000-grain weight. This result suggested that GW2 played a critical role in rice breeding.

  12. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub......-sets of different sizes were chosen randomly with several iterations and using the spectral-based sample selection algorithms DUPLEX and CADEX. An independent test set was used to validate the developed classification models. The results showed that 200 seeds were optimal in a calibration set for both cabbage...... using all 600 seeds in the calibration set. Thus, the number of seeds in the calibration set can be reduced by up to 67% without significant loss of classification accuracy, which will effectively enhance the cost-effectiveness of NIR spectral analysis. Wavelength regions important...

  13. Seed size effects on the response of seedlings of Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd to water stress

    El Atta, H.A.; Areef, I.M.; Ahmed, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are characterized by unpredictable spells of drought and climate change. Saudi Arabia mostly falls within the arid zone and some few scattered areas fall in the semiarid zone mainly in the South Western region. Rainfall is sparse and with sporadic distribution. Drought is the most critical factor for restoration of the tree cover. Within a tree, seeds vary in size from large to small seeds. Although several researchers have studied the effect of within species variation in seed size on seedlings growth parameters, however there is a lack of knowledge regarding the effect of seed size on stress tolerance (Khurana and Singh 2000). We assumed that seedlings grown from different seed sizes from the same tree species may influence their response to water stress. Seeds of Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd. were categorized into large, medium and small seeds on the basis of the seed weight. Seedlings from the three seed sizes were grown in potted soil and subjected to 5 levels of field water capacity (FC) (100, 75, 50, 25 and 15 percent) in the greenhouse. The Objective was to evaluate the response of seedling grown (from different seed sizes) to water stress and to understand the acclimation of seedlings to water stress. Water stress significantly reduced RWC, leaf area, and shoot length, fresh and dry weight. Significant correlations between growth parameters and water stress level were recorded. Seedlings from large seeds were heavier and comparatively less affected by drought compared to seedlings from smaller seeds. In all seedlings root length increased significantly and more biomass was allocated to roots than to shoots. However, at severe water stress (15 percent FC) no significant differences were reported between the three seedling categories. Therefore, raising of seedlings from large seeds is more appropriate for tree restoration programs under drought conditions. (author)

  14. Transport, retention, and size perturbation of graphene oxide in saturated porous media: Effects of input concentration and grain size

    Accurately predicting the fate and transport of graphene oxide (GO) in porous media is critical to assess its environmental impact. In this work, sand column experiments were conducted to determine the effect of input concentration and grain size on transport, retention, and size perturbation of GO ...

  15. Effect of grain size on corrosion of nanocrystalline copper in NaOH solution

    Luo Wei; Xu Yimin; Wang Qiming; Shi Peizhen; Yan Mi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Coppers display an active-passive-transpassive behaviour with duplex passive film. → Grain size variation has little effect on the overall corrosion behaviour of Cu. → Little effect on corrosion may be due to duplex passivation in NaOH solution. → Bulk nanocrystalline Cu show bamboo-like flake corrosion structure. - Abstract: Effect of grain size on corrosion of bulk nanocrystalline copper was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 0.1 M NaOH solution. Bulk nanocrystalline copper was prepared by inert gas condensation and in situ warm compress (IGCWC) method. The grain sizes of all bulk nanocrystalline samples were determined to be 48, 68 and 92 nm using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that bulk coppers displayed an active-passive-transpassive behaviour with duplex passive films. From polycrystalline to nanocrystalline, grain size variation showed little effect on the overall corrosion resistance of copper samples.

  16. NON-COHESIVE SOILS’ COMPRESSIBILITY AND UNEVEN GRAIN-SIZE DISTRIBUTION RELATION

    Anatoliy Mirnyy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation of soil compression phases with consideration of various granulometric composition. Materials and Methods Experimental soil box with microscale video recording for compression phases studies is described. Photo and video materials showing the differences of microscale particle movements were obtained for non-cohesive soils with different grain-size distribution. Results The analysis of the compression tests results and elastic and plastic deformations separation allows identifying each compression phase. It is shown, that soil density is correlating with deformability parameters only for the same grain-size distribution. Basing on the test results the authors suggest that compaction ratio is not sufficient for deformability estimating without grain-size distribution taken into account. Discussion and Conclusions Considering grain-size distribution allows refining technological requirements for artificial soil structures, backfills, and sand beds. Further studies could be used for developing standard documents, SP45.13330.2012 in particular.

  17. Estimation of mean grain size of seafloor sediments using neural network

    De, C.; Chakraborty, B.

    The feasibility of an artificial neural network based approach is investigated to estimate the values of mean grain size of seafloor sediments using four dominant echo features, extracted from acoustic backscatter data. The acoustic backscatter data...

  18. Grain Size Data from the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains grain size data from samples acquired under the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from the Outer...

  19. Influence of austenite grain size on recrystallisation-precipitation interaction in a V-microalloyed steel

    Quispe, A.; Medina, S.F.; Gomez, M.; Chaves, J.I.

    2007-01-01

    By means of torsion tests using small specimens, the influence of austenite grain size on strain induced precipitation kinetics has been determined in a vanadium microalloyed steel. Determination of recrystallisation-precipitation-time-temperature (RPTT) diagrams for two austenite grain sizes allows values of the aforementioned magnitudes to be determined. An ample discussion is made of the quantitative influence found and its relation with nucleation and growth mechanisms of precipitates. The results are compared with the quantitative influence exerted by the other variables, reaching the conclusion that the austenite grain size has a notable influence on strain induced precipitation kinetics which should not be underestimated. Finally, the influence of austenite grain size is included in a strain induced precipitation model constructed by the authors of this work and which also takes into account the other aforementioned variables

  20. National Marine Fisheries Service Grain Size Data from the Baltimore Canyon Trough

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Grain size analyses produced by Robert Reid of the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service for the NOAA/BLM Outer Continental Shelf Mid-Atlantic Project, Baltimore...

  1. Grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon ...

    Grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon coastal system, Lagos, Nigeria; its implication on coastal erosion. R Abdulkarim, EA Akinnigbagbe, DO Imo, MT Imhansoloeva, VO Aniebone, MP Ibitola, BR Faleye, O Shonde, YJ Appia ...

  2. The influence of grain size, grain color, and suspended-sediment concentration on light attenuation: why fine-grained terrestrial sediment is bad for coral reef ecosystems

    Storlazzi, Curt; Norris, Benjamin; Rosenberger, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Sediment has been shown to be a major stressor to coral reefs globally. Although many researchers have tested the impact of sedimentation on coral reef ecosystems in both the laboratory and the field and some have measured the impact of suspended sediment on the photosynthetic response of corals, there has yet to be a detailed investigation on how properties of the sediment itself can affect light availability for photosynthesis. We show that finer-grained and darker-colored sediment at higher suspended-sediment concentrations attenuates photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) significantly more than coarser, lighter-colored sediment at lower concentrations and provide PAR attenuation coefficients for various grain sizes, colors, and suspended-sediment concentrations that are needed for biophysical modeling. Because finer-grained sediment particles settle more slowly and are more susceptible to resuspension, they remain in the water column longer, thus causing greater net impact by reducing light essential for photosynthesis over a greater duration. This indicates that coral reef monitoring studies investigating sediment impacts should concentrate on measuring fine-grained lateritic and volcanic soils, as opposed to coarser-grained siliceous and carbonate sediment. Similarly, coastal restoration efforts and engineering solutions addressing long-term coral reef ecosystem health should focus on preferentially retaining those fine-grained soils rather than coarse silt and sand particles.

  3. The effects of particle size distribution and induced unpinning during grain growth

    Thompson, G.S.; Rickman, J.M.; Harmer, M.P.; Holm, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of a second-phase particle size distribution on grain boundary pinning was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. Simulations were run using a constant number density of both whisker and rhombohedral particles, and the effect of size distribution was studied by varying the standard deviation of the distribution around a constant mean particle size. The results of present simulations indicate that, in accordance with the stereological assumption of the topological pinning model, changes in distribution width had no effect on the pinned grain size. The effect of induced unpinning of particles on microstructure was also studied. In contrast to predictions of the topological pinning model, a power law dependence of pinned grain size on particle size was observed at T=0.0. Based on this, a systematic deviation to the stereological predictions of the topological pinning model is observed. The results of simulations at higher temperatures indicate an increasing power law dependence of pinned grain size on particle size, with the slopes of the power law dependencies fitting an Arrhenius relation. The effect of induced unpinning of particles was also studied in order to obtain a correlation between particle/boundary concentration and equilibrium grain size. The results of simulations containing a constant number density of monosized rhombohedral particles suggest a strong power law correlation between the two parameters. copyright 1996 Materials Research Society

  4. Autonomous bed-sediment imaging-systems for revealing temporal variability of grain size

    Buscombe, Daniel; Rubin, David M.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hatcher, Gerald; Chezar, Henry; Wyland, Robert; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a remotely operated video microscope system, designed to provide high-resolution images of seabed sediments. Two versions were developed, which differ in how they raise the camera from the seabed. The first used hydraulics and the second used the energy associated with wave orbital motion. Images were analyzed using automated frequency-domain methods, which following a rigorous partially supervised quality control procedure, yielded estimates to within 20% of the true size as determined by on-screen manual measurements of grains. Long-term grain-size variability at a sandy inner shelf site offshore of Santa Cruz, California, USA, was investigated using the hydraulic system. Eighteen months of high frequency (min to h), high-resolution (μm) images were collected, and grain size distributions compiled. The data constitutes the longest known high-frequency record of seabed-grain size at this sample frequency, at any location. Short-term grain-size variability of sand in an energetic surf zone at Praa Sands, Cornwall, UK was investigated using the ‘wave-powered’ system. The data are the first high-frequency record of grain size at a single location of a highly mobile and evolving bed in a natural surf zone. Using this technology, it is now possible to measure bed-sediment-grain size at a time-scale comparable with flow conditions. Results suggest models of sediment transport at sandy, wave-dominated, nearshore locations should allow for substantial changes in grain-size distribution over time-scales as short as a few hours.

  5. Microdochium nivale and Microdochium majus in seed samples of Danish small grain cereals

    Nielsen, L. K.; Justesen, A. F.; Jensen, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Microdochium nivale and Microdochium majus are two of fungal species found in the Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) complex infecting small grain cereals. Quantitative real-time PCR assays were designed to separate the two Microdochium species based on the translation elongation factor 1a gene (TEF-1a......) and used to analyse a total of 374 seed samples of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oat sampled from farmers’ fields across Denmark from 2003 to 2007. Both fungal species were detected in the five cereal species but M. majus showed a higher prevalence compared to M. nivale in most years in all cereal...... species except rye, in which M. nivale represented a larger proportion of the biomass and was more prevalent than M. majus in some samples. Historical samples of wheat and barley from 1957 to 2000 similarly showed a strong prevalence of M. majus over M. nivale indicating that M. majus has been the main...

  6. In Situ Sampling of Relative Dust Devil Particle Loads and Their Vertical Grain Size Distributions.

    Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Balme, Matthew R; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2017-04-19

    During a field campaign in the Sahara Desert in southern Morocco, spring 2012, we sampled the vertical grain size distribution of two active dust devils that exhibited different dimensions and intensities. With these in situ samples of grains in the vortices, it was possible to derive detailed vertical grain size distributions and measurements of the lifted relative particle load. Measurements of the two dust devils show that the majority of all lifted particles were only lifted within the first meter (∼46.5% and ∼61% of all particles; ∼76.5 wt % and ∼89 wt % of the relative particle load). Furthermore, ∼69% and ∼82% of all lifted sand grains occurred in the first meter of the dust devils, indicating the occurrence of "sand skirts." Both sampled dust devils were relatively small (∼15 m and ∼4-5 m in diameter) compared to dust devils in surrounding regions; nevertheless, measurements show that ∼58.5% to 73.5% of all lifted particles were small enough to go into suspension (grain size classification). This relatively high amount represents only ∼0.05 to 0.15 wt % of the lifted particle load. Larger dust devils probably entrain larger amounts of fine-grained material into the atmosphere, which can have an influence on the climate. Furthermore, our results indicate that the composition of the surface, on which the dust devils evolved, also had an influence on the particle load composition of the dust devil vortices. The internal particle load structure of both sampled dust devils was comparable related to their vertical grain size distribution and relative particle load, although both dust devils differed in their dimensions and intensities. A general trend of decreasing grain sizes with height was also detected. Key Words: Mars-Dust devils-Planetary science-Desert soils-Atmosphere-Grain sizes. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

  7. Fatigue Resistance of the Grain Size Transition Zone in a Dual Microstructure Superalloy Disk

    Gabb, T. P.; Kantzos, P. T.; Telesman, J.; Gayda, J.; Sudbrack, C. K.; Palsa, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical property requirements vary with location in nickel-based superalloy disks. To maximize the associated mechanical properties, heat treatment methods have been developed for producing tailored microstructures. In this study, a specialized heat treatment method was applied to produce varying grain microstructures from the bore to the rim portions of a powder metallurgy processed nickel-based superalloy disk. The bore of the contoured disk consisted of fine grains to maximize strength and fatigue resistance at lower temperatures. The rim microstructure of the disk consisted of coarse grains for maximum resistance to creep and dwell crack growth at high temperatures up to 704 C. However, the fatigue resistance of the grain size transition zone was unclear, and needed to be evaluated. This zone was located as a band in the disk web between the bore and rim. Specimens were extracted parallel and transverse to the transition zone, and multiple fatigue tests were performed at 427 and 704 C. Mean fatigue lives were lower at 427 C than for 704 C. Specimen failures often initiated at relatively large grains, which failed on crystallographic facets. Grain size distributions were characterized in the specimens, and related to the grains initiating failures as well as location within the transition zone. Fatigue life decreased with increasing maximum grain size. Correspondingly, mean fatigue resistance of the transition zone was slightly higher than that of the rim, but lower than that of the bore. The scatter in limited tests of replicates was comparable for all transition zone locations examined.

  8. Effect of grain size on high temperature low-cycle fatigue properties of inconel 617

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Masaki; Ohtomo, Akira

    1982-01-01

    The effect of grain size on the high temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior and other material strength properties of Inconel 617 was studied at 1 273 K in air. The strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted with a symmetrical (FF type) and an asymmetrical (SF type) strain wave forms. The latter wave form was used for the evaluation of creep-fatigue interaction. The main results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) The tensile strength slightly increased with the increase of the grain diameter. On the other hand, the tensile ductility remarkabley decreased with the increase of the grain diameter. 2) The creep rupture life remarkabley increased with the increase of the grain diameter, especially at the lower stress levels. The effect of grain size on creep ductility has not detailed. 3) The low-cycle fatigue life remarkably decreased with the increase of the grain diameter, especially at the lower strain ranges. 4) The creep-fatigue life was less sensitive to the grain diameter than the fatigue life, because the grain size effects on creep and on fatigue were contrary. It is seemed that the creep-fatigue life is determined by the proportion of the creep and fatigue contribution. 5) The fatigue and creep-fatigue test results have good relations with the tensile and creep ductilities at the test temperature. (author)

  9. Dependence of corrosion properties of AISI 304L stainless steel on the austenite grain size

    Sabooni, Soheil; Rashtchi, Hamed; Eslami, Abdoulmajid; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Enayati, Mohammad Hossein; Raeissi, Keyvan; Imani, Reihane Faghih [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Ngan, Alfonso Hing Wan [The Univ. of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-07-15

    The corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels is known to be hampered by the loss of chromium available for passive surface layer formation as a result of chromium carbide precipitation at austenite grain boundaries during annealing treatments. Although high-temperature annealing can promote carbide dissolution leading to better corrosion resistance, grain coarsening also results, which would lead to poorer mechanical properties. Processing methods to achieve both good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are thus highly desirable for austenitic stainless steels. In the present study, we show that the corrosion resistance of AISI 304L stainless steel can be improved by grain refinement into the ultrafine-grained regime. Specifically, samples with different austenite grain sizes in the range of 0.65-12 μm were studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. All samples showed a typical passive behavior with similar corrosion potential, but the corrosion current density decreased significantly with decreasing grain size. The results show that the sample with the finest grain size had the best corrosion resistance due to a higher resistance of the passive layer to pitting attacks. This study indicates that grain refinement which improves mechanical properties can also significantly improve the corrosion resistance of AISI 304L stainless steel.

  10. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Growth Restriction on Grain Size in Binary Cu Alloys

    Andreas Cziegler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain refinement by elemental addition has been extensively investigated within the last decades in Al or Mg alloys. In contrast, in the Cu system, the role of solute on grain size is less investigated. In this study, the grain refinement potency of several alloying elements of the Cu system was examined. To predict grain size depending on the growth restriction factor Q, grain size modelling was performed. The results obtained by the grain size model were compared to variations in the grain size of binary Cu alloys with increasing solute content under defined cooling conditions of the TP-1 grain refiner test of the Aluminium Association©. It was found that the experimental results differed significantly from the predicted grain size values for several alloying elements. A decreasing grain size with increasing alloy concentration was observed independently of the growth restriction potency of the alloying elements. Furthermore, excessive grain coarsening was found for several solutes beyond a transition point. It is assumed that contradictory variations in grain size result from a change in the nucleating particle density of the melt. Significant decreases in grain size are supposed to be due to the in-situ formation of potent nucleation sites. Excessive grain coarsening with increasing solute content may occur due to the removal of nucleating particles. The model shows that the difference in the actual number of particles before and beyond the transition point must be in the range of several orders of magnitude.

  11. Non-thermal plasma treatment as a new biotechnology in relation to seeds, dry fruits, and grains

    Božena, ŠERÁ; Michal, ŠERÝ

    2018-04-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology offers wide potential use in the food technology, the same as in the unconventional agriculture. Some seeds, dry fruits, grains and their sprouts gain popularity in the culinary industry as ‘raw seeds’. This review paper draws the current research and trends in NTP pre-treatment of selected seeds/fruits that are useable as ‘raw seeds’. The main applications are connected with activation of seed germination, early growth of seedlings, microbial inactivation of seed/fruit surface, and possibility of increasing quantity of biological active compounds in sprouting seeds. The paper presents a list of plant species that are able to be used as ‘raw seed’ including current information about main type of NTP treatment implemented.

  12. Effect of initial grain size on dynamic recrystallization in high purity austenitic stainless steels

    El Wahabi, M.; Gavard, L.; Montheillet, F.; Cabrera, J.M.; Prado, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of initial microstructure on discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) has been investigated by using high purity and ultra high purity austenitic stainless steels with various initial grain sizes. After uniaxial compression tests at constant strain rates and various temperatures, the steady state microstructure or the state corresponding to the maximum strain (ε = 1) attained in the test was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy aided with automated electron back scattering diffraction. Recrystallized grain size d rec and twin boundary fraction f TB measurements were carried out. The mechanical behavior was also investigated by comparing experimental stress-strain curves with various initial grain sizes. DDRX kinetics was described by the classical Avrami equation. It was concluded that larger initial grain sizes promoted a delay in the DDRX onset in the two alloys. It was also observed that the softening process progressed faster for smaller initial grain sizes. The effect of initial grain size is larger in the HP material and becomes more pronounced at low temperature

  13. Grain size effect in corrosion behavior of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni coatings in alkaline solution

    Wang Liping; Zhang Junyan; Gao Yan; Xue Qunji; Hu Litian; Xu Tao

    2006-01-01

    Effects of grain size reduction on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of nanocrystalline Ni produced by pulse electrodeposition were characterized using potentiodynamic polarization testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to confirm the electrochemical measurements and the suggested mechanisms. The corrosion resistance of Ni coatings in alkaline solutions considerably increased as the grain size decreased from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline. The higher corrosion resistance of NC Ni may be due to the more rapid formation of continuous Ni(OH) 2 passive films compared with coarse-grained Ni coatings

  14. Cohesion of Mm- to Cm-Sized Asteroid Simulant Grains: An Experimental Study

    Brisset, Julie; Colwell, Joshua E.; Dove, Adrienne; Jarmak, Stephanie; Anderson, Seamus

    2017-10-01

    The regolith covering the surfaces of asteroids and planetary satellites is very different from terrestrial soil particles and subject to environmental conditions very different from what is found on Earth. The loose, unconsolidated granular material has angular-shaped grains and a broad size distribution. On small and airless bodies (Earth surface gravity, the cohesion behavior of the regolith grains will dictate the asteroid’s surface morphology and its response to impact or spacecraft contact.Previous laboratory experiments on low-velocity impacts into regolith simulant with grain sizes landing missions to small bodies such as asteroids or Martian moons.

  15. On the room temperature microstrain of vanadium of different grain size

    Timm, J.; Guttmann, V.

    1977-01-01

    The present work deals with the plastic behaviour of polycrystalline vanadium from the onset of plastic deformation to the upper yield point. The stress-strain relation was found to be omega approximately epsilonsub(p)sup(1/2). The influence of the grain size on stress followed a omega approximately d -1 relationship. The initial yield stress was independent of grain size. By means of optical and electron microscopy it was found, that the first dislocation movement starts at grain boundaries. (orig.) [de

  16. Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China

    Wen Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index.

  17. Impact of grain size and rock composition on simulated rock weathering

    Israeli, Yoni; Emmanuel, Simon

    2018-05-01

    Both chemical and mechanical processes act together to control the weathering rate of rocks. In rocks with micrometer size grains, enhanced dissolution at grain boundaries has been observed to cause the mechanical detachment of particles. However, it remains unclear how important this effect is in rocks with larger grains, and how the overall weathering rate is influenced by the proportion of high- and low-reactivity mineral phases. Here, we use a numerical model to assess the effect of grain size on chemical weathering and chemo-mechanical grain detachment. Our model shows that as grain size increases, the weathering rate initially decreases; however, beyond a critical size no significant decrease in the rate is observed. This transition occurs when the density of reactive boundaries is less than ˜ 20 % of the entire domain. In addition, we examined the weathering rates of rocks containing different proportions of high- and low-reactivity minerals. We found that as the proportion of low-reactivity minerals increases, the weathering rate decreases nonlinearly. These simulations indicate that for all compositions, grain detachment contributes more than 36 % to the overall weathering rate, with a maximum of ˜ 50 % when high- and low-reactivity minerals are equally abundant in the rock. This occurs because selective dissolution of the high-reactivity minerals creates large clusters of low-reactivity minerals, which then become detached. Our results demonstrate that the balance between chemical and mechanical processes can create complex and nonlinear relationships between the weathering rate and lithology.

  18. phosphorus sorption in relation to soil grain size and geochemical

    Mgina

    use and landscape in the Simiyu and Kagera River basins were determined using the Langmuir ... determination of key soil properties that .... deviation) of selected soil properties in the Simiyu (S) and Kagera (K) basins. Particle size. % dry weight. Sample. %. Sand. % Silt. % Clay. pH. Al2O3. Fe2O3. CaO. Na2O. K2O. S1.

  19. Influence of the grain size on deleterious phase precipitation in superduplex stainless steel UNS S32750

    Pardal, J.M.; Tavares, S.S.M.; Fonseca, M. Cindra; Souza, J.A. de; Corte, R.R.A.; Abreu, H.F.G. de

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of grain size on deleterious phase precipitation in a superduplex stainless steel was investigated. The materials studied were heat treated isothermally at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C and 900 deg. C for times up to 120 min. Hardness tests, light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were carried out to detect sigma and other harmful precipitate phases. The ferritic and austenitic grain sizes in the solution treated condition of the two steels analyzed were measured by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Cyclic polarization corrosion tests were performed to evaluate the effect of grain size on the corrosion resistance. The results presented show that the precipitation of deleterious phases such as χ, σ and γ 2 , which can occur during welding and forming operations, is retarded by grain growth

  20. The magnetized sheath of a dusty plasma with grains size distribution

    Ou, Jing; Gan, Chunyun; Lin, Binbin; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    The structure of a plasma sheath in the presence of dust grains size distribution (DGSD) is investigated in the multi-fluid framework. It is shown that effect of the dust grains with different sizes on the sheath structure is a collective behavior. The spatial distributions of electric potential, the electron and ion densities and velocities, and the dust grains surface potential are strongly affected by DGSD. The dynamics of dust grains with different sizes in the sheath depend on not only DGSD but also their radius. By comparison of the sheath structure, it is found that under the same expected value of DGSD condition, the sheath length is longer in the case of lognormal distribution than that in the case of uniform distribution. In two cases of normal and lognormal distributions, the sheath length is almost equal for the small variance of DGSD, and then the difference of sheath length increases gradually with increase in the variance

  1. A new look at grain size and load effects in the hardness of ceramics

    Krell, A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Sinterwerkstoffe (IKTS), Dresden (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    A simple model describes the load effect (size effect) in the hardness, assuming an increasing microplastic deformability, when the further extension of the plastic zone growth and multiplication of pre-existing elements of plasticity are more effective than the generation of new dislocations or twins in the virgin material around the indentation site. The model explains experiments with sintered alumina which indicate a reduced load effect in increasingly fine-grained microstructures due to a grain size effect that is more pronounced at higher testing loads (larger indents) than in the microhardness range. A large difference between the hardness of plastically deformed volumes in single crystals and in polycrystalline microstructures consisting of grains with the same size, respectively, reveals a substantial contribution of the grain boundaries to plastic deformation at the indentation site even at room temperature and even for coarser microstructures. (orig.) 18 refs.

  2. Effect of grain size on superelasticity in Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy wire

    T. Omori

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of grain size on superelastic properties in Fe-34Mn-15Al-7.5Ni alloy wires with a ⟨110⟩ fiber-texture were investigated by cyclic tensile tests. It was confirmed that the critical stress for induced martensitic transformation and the superelastic strain are functions of relative grain size d/D (d: mean grain diameter, D: wire diameter, and that the critical stress is proportional to (1–d/D2 as well as in Cu-based shape memory alloys. A large superelastic strain of about 5% was obtained in the specimen with a large relative grain size over d/D = 1.

  3. Deformation mechanisms and grain size evolution in the Bohemian granulites - a computational study

    Maierova, Petra; Lexa, Ondrej; Jeřábek, Petr; Franěk, Jan; Schulmann, Karel

    2015-04-01

    A dominant deformation mechanism in crustal rocks (e.g., dislocation and diffusion creep, grain boundary sliding, solution-precipitation) depends on many parameters such as temperature, major minerals, differential stress, strain rate and grain size. An exemplary sequence of deformation mechanisms was identified in the largest felsic granulite massifs in the southern Moldanubian domain (Bohemian Massif, central European Variscides). These massifs were interpreted to result from collision-related forced diapiric ascent of lower crust and its subsequent lateral spreading at mid-crustal levels. Three types of microstructures were distinguished. The oldest relict microstructure (S1) with large grains (>1000 μm) of feldspar deformed probably by dislocation creep at peak HT eclogite facies conditions. Subsequently at HP granulite-facies conditions, chemically- and deformation- induced recrystallization of feldspar porphyroclasts led to development of a fine-grained microstructure (S2, ~50 μm grain size) indicating deformation via diffusion creep, probably assisted by melt-enhanced grain-boundary sliding. This microstructure was associated with flow in the lower crust and/or its diapiric ascent. The latest microstructure (S3, ~100 μm grain size) is related to the final lateral spreading of retrograde granulites, and shows deformation by dislocation creep at amphibolite-facies conditions. The S2-S3 switch and coarsening was interpreted to be related with a significant decrease in strain rate. From this microstructural sequence it appears that it is the grain size that is critically linked with specific mechanical behavior of these rocks. Thus in this study, we focused on the interplay between grain size and deformation with the aim to numerically simulate and reinterpret the observed microstructural sequence. We tested several different mathematical descriptions of the grain size evolution, each of which gave qualitatively different results. We selected the two most

  4. Effect of grain size on the hardness and reactivity of plasma-sintered beryllium

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Beryllium and its intermetallic compounds have attracted great attention as promising neutron multipliers in fusion reactors. In this study, mechanical and chemical properties of fabricated plasma-sintered beryllium (PS-Be) with different grain-sizes are investigated. Density and hardness analysis results of the fabricated PS-Be samples infer that a smaller grain size in the sintered Be indicates higher porosity and hardness. Sintered Be with a large grain size exhibits better resistance toward oxidation at 1273 K in dry air and at 1073 K in Ar/1% H 2 O, since oxidation at the grain boundaries of the determines the rate. In contrast, at 1273 K in Ar/1% H 2 O, a catastrophic oxidation is indicated by the increase of weight of the samples and the generation of H 2 from the bulk Be

  5. Influence of phosphorous and sulphur as well as grain size on creep in pure copper

    Andersson, Henrik; Seitisleam, Facredin; Sandstroem, Rolf

    1999-12-01

    Uniaxial creep tests have been performed at 175 deg C for extruded oxygen-free copper. The effect of different contents of phosphorous and sulphur as well as different grain sizes have been studied. The copper with < 1 ppm phosphorous and with a 6 ppm sulphur content showed significantly lower creep life and ductility than batches with higher P content. An increase of the P content to 29 ppm increased the creep life and ductility, but a further increase did not affect the properties further. A similar drop in the creep properties was found in the material with a grain size of about 2000 μm. A reduction of the mean grain size to 800 μm had a beneficial effect on the creep ductility. A further reduction of the grain size did not give any further improvements. All tests except those with a phosphorous content of less than 1 ppm P and those with a mean grain size of about 2000 μm failed at an elongation greater than 20%, most of them at 30-40%. The variation in sulphur content from 6 to 12 ppm did not affect the creep properties. The main creep rupture mechanisms were found to be cavitation and microcracking at the grain boundaries. Master curves for extrapolation are provided for creep rupture as well as for 5% and 10% creep strain

  6. Influence of Fe(Cr) miscibility on thin film grain size and stress

    Zhou, Xuyang; Kaub, Tyler; Martens, Richard L.; Thompson, Gregory B., E-mail: gthompson@eng.ua.edu

    2016-08-01

    During the post coalescence portion of thin film deposition, thin film stress is related to the grain size and adatom mobility of the depositing material. Using a Fe(Cr) alloy thin film, the manipulation of the tensile stress for thick films was studied as a function of Cr solute content up to 8 at.%. Solute concentrations up to 4 at.% resulted in an approximate 50% increase in grain size that resulted in a reduction of the tensile stress to be lower than either elemental film. Upon increasing the Cr content, the grain size refined and the tensile stress of the films increased. Atom probe characterization of the grain boundaries confirmed Cr chemical partitioning which refined the grain size and altered the film's texture, both of which contributed to the change in film stress. The use of intrinsic segregation, rather than deposition processing parameters, appears to be another viable option for regulating film stress. - Highlights: • Solute segregation to regulate grain size in controlling film stress • Quantification of Cr interfacial excess as a function of alloy content • Quantification of texture fiber alignment as a function of Cr content.

  7. The effect of growth conditions on the seed size/number trade-off.

    Cloé Paul-Victor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available If the amount of resources allocated to reproduction (K is fixed, then an increase in seed mass (S can only be achieved by a decrease in seed number (n = K/S. Thus, log(n = log(K-log(S producing a slope of -1 when seed mass and number are plotted on log-log axes. However, in comparative studies, empirical support for a slope of -1 is limited and contentious, leading some to question the utility of this concept.First, we show that the expected slope depends on whether genotypes and species producing seeds of different mass are expected to reach the same adult size and that this in turn depends partly on the nature of growth. Second, we present experimental results using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs of Arabidopsis thaliana. When these RILs are grown in large pots with plentiful nutrients, they exhibit a trade-off between seed size and number with a slope of -1.68 (+/-0.18 on log-log axes. This occurs because of genetic correlations between seed mass and adult size so that, under the right growth conditions, lines producing lighter seeds have the genetic potential to produce larger rosettes and hence a greater total mass of seeds. We re-grew lines in small pots (10 and 40 mm diameter in a nutrient-poor substrate so that final adult size was heavily restricted by pot size.Under our growth conditions, small-seeded lines were unable to produce a greater total mass of seeds. Hence a trade-off emerged between seed mass and seed number with a slope of -1.166+/-0.319 on log-log axes in 40-mm diameter pots (close to the expected value of -1, although the slope was 0.132+/-0.263 in 10-mm diameter pots, demonstrating that the nature of the trade-off is sensitive to the growth conditions.

  8. Micromorphological study (ultrastructure of lamina surface, seeds, ultrasculpture of pollen grains of Gladiolus L. species (Iridaceae Juss. of Ukrainian flora

    Zhygalova Svitlana L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-morphological characteristics of the four Gladiolus L. species of the Ukrainian flora (G. imbricatus L., G. italicus Mill., G. palustris Gaudin and G. tenuis M. Bieb. as regards leaves, seeds and pollens are presented with this investigation in a detailed way. An examination of the surface structure of the leaves, seeds and pollen grains of the Gladiolus species indicates that the characteristics of the ultrastructure of leaves and of pollen grains are not diagnostic for distinguishing species, but they could be important at genus level (leaves: features such as being amphistomatic, having the same quantity of immersed stomata on both surfaces and having a high stomata index, the presence and localisation of papillae, the shape of epidermal cells; pollen grains: monosulcate type with two operculums. However, the type of surface ultrastructure of the seed coat is a diagnostic feature as at genus level so for species. It can be mentioned that propose the use of features such as the shape and position of the cicatricle, the type of cuticle, the shape and boundaries of cells of testa, and the anticlinal cell walls as diagnostic features at genera level. The shape of seeds, the presence and disposition of wing, the level of the periclinal cell walls of the seed coat and types of relief are additional diagnostic features for distinguishing of Gladiolus species.

  9. Seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by nuclear size reduction and increased chromatin condensation.

    van Zanten, Martijn; Koini, Maria A; Geyer, Regina; Liu, Yongxiu; Brambilla, Vittoria; Bartels, Dorothea; Koornneef, Maarten; Fransz, Paul; Soppe, Wim J J

    2011-12-13

    Most plant species rely on seeds for their dispersal and survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Seeds are characterized by their low moisture content and significantly reduced metabolic activities. During the maturation phase, seeds accumulate storage reserves and become desiccation-tolerant and dormant. Growth is resumed after release of dormancy and the occurrence of favorable environmental conditions. Here we show that embryonic cotyledon nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds have a significantly reduced nuclear size, which is established at the beginning of seed maturation. In addition, the chromatin of embryonic cotyledon nuclei from mature seeds is highly condensed. Nuclei regain their size and chromatin condensation level during germination. The reduction in nuclear size is controlled by the seed maturation regulator ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 3, and the increase during germination requires two predicted nuclear matrix proteins, LITTLE NUCLEI 1 and LITTLE NUCLEI 2. Our results suggest that the specific properties of nuclei in ripe seeds are an adaptation to desiccation, independent of dormancy. We conclude that the changes in nuclear size and chromatin condensation in seeds are independent, developmentally controlled processes.

  10. Seed size and photoblastism in species belonging to tribe Cacteae (Cactaceae).

    Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana; Mandujano, María C; Golubov, Jordan K

    2013-05-01

    The response of seed germination towards light and the relationship to seed traits has been studied particularly well in tropical forests. Several authors have shown a clear adaptive response of seed size and photoblastism, however, the evolutionary significance of this relationship for species inhabiting arid environments has not been fully understood and only some studies have considered the response in a phylogenetic context. We collected seeds from 54 cacti species spread throughout the tribe Cacteae to test whether there was correlated evolution of photoblastism, seed traits and germination using a reconstructed phylogeny of the tribe. For each species we determined the photoblastic response under controlled conditions, and seed traits, and analyzed the results using phylogenetically independent contrasts. All studied species were positive photoblastic contrasting with the basal Pereskia suggesting an early evolution of this trait. Seeds from basal species were mostly medium-sized, diverging into two groups. Seeds tend to get smaller and lighter suggesting an evolution to smaller sizes. No evidence exists of a relationship between seed size and photoblastic response suggesting that the photoblastic response within members of this tribe is not adaptive though it is phylogenetically fixed and that is coupled with environmental cues that fine tune the germination response.

  11. Investigations of grain size dependent sediment transport phenomena on multiple scales

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Sediment transport processes in coastal and fluvial environments resulting from disturbances such as urbanization, mining, agriculture, military operations, and climatic change have significant impact on local, regional, and global environments. Primarily, these impacts include the erosion and deposition of sediment, channel network modification, reduction in downstream water quality, and the delivery of chemical contaminants. The scale and spatial distribution of these effects are largely attributable to the size distribution of the sediment grains that become eligible for transport. An improved understanding of advective and diffusive grain-size dependent sediment transport phenomena will lead to the development of more accurate predictive models and more effective control measures. To this end, three studies were performed that investigated grain-size dependent sediment transport on three different scales. Discrete particle computer simulations of sheet flow bedload transport on the scale of 0.1--100 millimeters were performed on a heterogeneous population of grains of various grain sizes. The relative transport rates and diffusivities of grains under both oscillatory and uniform, steady flow conditions were quantified. These findings suggest that boundary layer formalisms should describe surface roughness through a representative grain size that is functionally dependent on the applied flow parameters. On the scale of 1--10m, experiments were performed to quantify the hydrodynamics and sediment capture efficiency of various baffles installed in a sediment retention pond, a commonly used sedimentation control measure in watershed applications. Analysis indicates that an optimum sediment capture effectiveness may be achieved based on baffle permeability, pond geometry and flow rate. Finally, on the scale of 10--1,000m, a distributed, bivariate watershed terain evolution module was developed within GRASS GIS. Simulation results for variable grain sizes and for

  12. Grain size effect on yield strength of titanium alloy implanted with aluminum ions

    Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurev, Ivan, E-mail: yiywork@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the microstructure and phase state of commercially pure titanium VT1-0 implanted by aluminum ions. This study has been carried out before and after the ion implantation for different grain size, i.e. 0.3 µm (ultra-fine grain condition), 1.5 µm (fine grain condition), and 17 µm (polycrystalline condition). This paper presents details of calculations and analysis of strength components of the yield stress. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress. So, both before and after the ion implantation, the increase of the grain size leads to the decrease of the alloy hardening. Thus, hardening in ultra-fine and fine grain alloys increased by four times, while in polycrystalline alloy it increased by over six times.

  13. Seed size and provenance mediate the joint effects of disturbance and seed predation on community assembly

    John L. Maron; Dean E. Pearson; Teal Potter; Yvette K. Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Local plant community assembly is influenced by a series of filters that affect the recruitment and establishment of species. These filters include regional factors that limit seeds of any given species from reaching a local site as well as local interactions such as post-dispersal seed predation and disturbance, which dictate what species actually establish. How these...

  14. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  15. Size effect of glulam beams in tension perpendicular to grain

    Astrup, Thomas; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The strength of wood is reduced when the stressed volume is increased. The phenomenon is termed size effect and is often explained as being stochastic in the sense that the probability of weak locations occurring in the wood increases with increased volume. This paper presents the hypothesis...... that the lower strength is caused by stress concentrations. The stress concentrations arise from the anisotropic structure of wood, and are therefore deterministic. The hypothesis is substantiated through extensive FEM-calculations and experiments. A reasonable agreement between ultimate stresses determined...

  16. Grain-size effects on PIXE and INAA analysis of IAEA-336 lichen reference material

    Marques, A. P.; Freitas, M. C.; Wolterbeek, H. Th.; Verburg, T. G.; De Goeij, J. J. M.

    2007-02-01

    IAEA-336 lichen certified reference material was used to compare outcomes from INAA and PIXE elemental analyses, in relationship with grain size. The IAEA material (grain size lichen reference material's particle size distribution follows a bimodal distribution, which is turning more and more monomodal after further fine sieving. Replicates of each fraction were analysed by INAA and PIXE. Results for Cl, K, Mn, Fe and Zn by both techniques were compared by application of z-values tested against the criterion ∣ z∣ limited amount of lichen material as "seen" in the PIXE analysis and the grain size distribution in the lichen material were no causes of measurable differences between the results of both techniques. However, fractionation into smaller grain sizes showed to be associated with lower element content, for Na, Cl, K, Mn and Sr even up to a factor of 2. The observed increases of the proportion of algae in the smaller grain-size fractions and the possible accumulation capacity for certain elements in the fungal part of the lichen may explain the observed phenomenon. The sieving process and consequently the discarding of part of the material have lead to a change of the properties of the original sample, namely algae/fungus percentage and elemental contents.

  17. Plastic strain and grain size effects in the surface roughening of a model aluminum alloy

    Moore, Eric Joseph

    To address issues surrounding improved automotive fuel economy, an experiment was designed to study the effect of uniaxial plastic tensile deformation on surface roughness and on slip and grain rotation. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning laser confocal microscopy (SLCM) were used to track grain size, crystallographic texture, and surface topography as a function of incremental true strain for a coarse-grained binary alloy that is a model for AA5xxx series aluminum alloys. One-millimeter thick sheets were heat treated at 425°C to remove previous rolling texture and to grow grains to sizes in the range ˜10-8000 mum. At five different strain levels, 13 sample regions, containing 43 grains, were identified in both EBSD and SLCM micrographs, and crystallographic texture and surface roughness were measured. After heat treatment, a strong cube texture matrix emerged, with bands of generally non-cube grains embedded parallel to the rolling direction (RD). To characterize roughness, height profiles from SLCM micrographs were extracted and a filtered Fourier transform approach was used to separate the profiles into intergranular (long wavelength) and intragranular (short wavelength) signatures. The commonly-used rms roughness parameter (Rq) characterized intragranular results. Two important parameters assess intergranular results in two grain size regimes: surface tilt angle (Deltatheta) and surface height discontinuity (DeltazH) between neighboring grains at a boundary. In general, the magnitude of Rq and Deltatheta increase monotonically with strain and indicate that intergranular roughness is the major contributor to overall surface roughness for true strains up to epsilon = 0.12. Surface height discontinuity DeltazH is defined due to exceptions in surface tilt angle analyses. The range of observed Deltatheta= 1-10° are consistent with the observed 3-12° rotation of individual grains as measured with EBSD. For some grain boundaries with Deltatheta

  18. Fatigue Failure Modes of the Grain Size Transition Zone in a Dual Microstructure Disk

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Kantzos, Pete T.; Palsa, Bonnie; Telesman, Jack; Gayda, John; Sudbrack, Chantal K.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical property requirements vary with location in nickel-based superalloy disks. In order to maximize the associated mechanical properties, heat treatment methods have been developed for producing tailored grain microstructures. In this study, fatigue failure modes of a grain size transition zone in a dual microstructure disk were evaluated. A specialized heat treatment method was applied to produce varying grain microstructure in the bore to rim portions of a powder metallurgy processed nickel-based superalloy disk. The transition in grain size was concentrated in a zone of the disk web, between the bore and rim. Specimens were extracted parallel and transversely across this transition zone, and multiple fatigue tests were performed at 427 C and 704 C. Grain size distributions were characterized in the specimens, and related to operative failure initiation modes. Mean fatigue life decreased with increasing maximum grain size, going out through the transition zone. The scatter in limited tests of replicates was comparable for failures of uniform gage specimens in all transition zone locations examined.

  19. Thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon: importance of grain size and frequency-dependent mean free paths.

    Wang, Zhaojie; Alaniz, Joseph E; Jang, Wanyoung; Garay, Javier E; Dames, Chris

    2011-06-08

    The thermal conductivity reduction due to grain boundary scattering is widely interpreted using a scattering length assumed equal to the grain size and independent of the phonon frequency (gray). To assess these assumptions and decouple the contributions of porosity and grain size, five samples of undoped nanocrystalline silicon have been measured with average grain sizes ranging from 550 to 64 nm and porosities from 17% to less than 1%, at temperatures from 310 to 16 K. The samples were prepared using current activated, pressure assisted densification (CAPAD). At low temperature the thermal conductivities of all samples show a T(2) dependence which cannot be explained by any traditional gray model. The measurements are explained over the entire temperature range by a new frequency-dependent model in which the mean free path for grain boundary scattering is inversely proportional to the phonon frequency, which is shown to be consistent with asymptotic analysis of atomistic simulations from the literature. In all cases the recommended boundary scattering length is smaller than the average grain size. These results should prove useful for the integration of nanocrystalline materials in devices such as advanced thermoelectrics.

  20. Influence of grain size on the tensile and creep properties of a type 316 stainless steel

    Mannan, S.L.; Samuel, K.G.; Rodriguez, P.

    The influence of grain size, on the tensile deformation behaviour in the temperature range 300-1223 K and on the creep rate at 873 and 973 K over a wide range of applied stresses, in a type 316 stainless steel has been investigated. For the tensile results, the Hall-Petch relation was found to be valid up to 1023 K. The variations of flow stress and work hardening rate with temperature and grain size have been found to be influenced by dynamic strain aging which occurs in the temperature range 523-923 K. The creep experiments revealed that grain boundaries contribute to strengthening at high stresses (180-260 MPa) at 873 K but this strengthening does not correlate with the available models which attempt to incorporate the Hall-Petch strengthening effect into creep rate equations. At 973 K the creep rate was generally constant but increased at small grain sizes and at lower stresses due to increased contribution from grain boundary sliding. The difference in the grain size effects on creep at the two temperatures is attributed to the difference in the substructures developed during creep. (author)

  1. On grain size dependent void swelling in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, M.; Golubov, S.I.; Zinkle, S.J.

    2001-03-01

    The effect of grain size on void swelling has its origin in the intrinsic property of grain boundaries as neutral and unsaturable sinks for both vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs). The phenomenon was investigated already in the 1970s and it was demonstrated that the grain size dependent void swelling measured under irradiation producing only Frenkel pairs could be satisfactorily explained in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) and dislocation bias. Experimental results reported in the 1980s demonstrated, on the other hand, that the effect of grain boundaries on void swelling under cascade damage conditions was radically different and could not be explained in terms of the SRT. In an effort to understand the source of this significant difference, the effect of grain size on void swelling under cascade damage conditions has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons at 623K to a dose level of ∼0.3 dpa (displacement per atom). The post-irradiation defect microstructure including voids was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The evolution of void swelling was calculated within the framework of the production bias model (PBM) and the SRT. The grain size dependent void swelling measured experimentally is in good accord with the theoretical results obtained using PMB. Implications of these results on modeling of void swelling under cascade damage conditions are discussed. (au)

  2. Effect of time and temperature on grain size of V and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Grain growth studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of time and temperature on the grain size of pure V, V-4 wt.%Cr-4 wt.%Ti, and V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloys. The temperatures used in the study were 500, 650, 800, and 1000 degrees C, and exposure times ranged between 100 and ∼5000 h. All three materials exhibited negligible grain growth at 500, 650, and 800 degrees C, even after ∼5000 h. At 1000 degrees C, pure V showed substantial grain growth after only 100 h, and V-4Cr-4Ti showed growth after 2000 h, while V-5Cr-5Ti showed no grain growth after exposure for up to 2000 h

  3. Seed crop size variation in the dominant South American conifer Araucaria angustifolia

    Souza, Alexandre F.; Uarte de Matos, Daniele; Forgiarini, Cristiane; Martinez, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variation in seed crop size of the long-lived pioneer conifer Araucaria angustifolia was studied in subtropical South America. We evaluated the expectations that: 1) A. angustifolia presents highly variable seed production (mast seeding behavior); 2) A. angustifolia has endogenous cycles of reproduction of two or three years; 3) There is a tendency for a high seed production year to be followed by an unusually low production year; 4) populations show synchrony in seed production at a geographical scale; 5) seed crop size is influenced by distinct climatic factors occurring during "key" reproductive stages and 6) as an expression of plant productivity, seed crop size should depend on integrated resource availability during the reproductive cycle. We obtained data from two distinct sources: 1) seed harvesting records from a private forest (14 years), and 2) commercial data from 22 municipalities in the Rio Grande do Sul State. Expectations 1, 2, 3 and 5 were not met, while expectations 4 and 6 were supported by the data. A. angustifolia showed environmentally triggered, continuous, moderately fluctuating, and regionally synchronous reproduction. Seed set seems to track variations in resource abundance as well as respond continuously to improved opportunities for successful regeneration.

  4. influence of delta ferrite on the flow stress grain size relationship

    user

    SIZE RELATIONSHIP OF AN AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL by ... The effect of delta ferrite on the flow stress-grain size relation is investigated. ... some of these deviations, new models have .... J. N. Petch, J of Iron and Steel Inst., 174 25,.

  5. Grain Size and Parameter Recovery with TIMSS and the General Diagnostic Model

    Skaggs, Gary; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Hein, Serge F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the degree of grain size of the attributes and the sample sizes that can support accurate parameter recovery with the General Diagnostic Model (GDM) for a large-scale international assessment. In this resampling study, bootstrap samples were obtained from the 2003 Grade 8 TIMSS in Mathematics at varying…

  6. Final report on: Grain size determination in zirconium alloys (IAEA Research Contract No. 6025/Rb.)

    Martinez M, E.

    1991-12-01

    In spite of the amount of research developed the knowledge still is far from complete and in this basis the International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA), by means of the Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology, initiated, in 1990 the Coordinated Research Programme named Grain Size Determination In Zirconium Alloys. Several countries were invited to participate and to contribute to the main objective of the programme, which can be state as: To develop a unified metallographic technique capable to show the microstructure of zircaloy in a reproducible and uniform manner. To fulfill the objective the following goals were established: A. To measure the grain size and perform an statistical treatment, in samples prepared specifically to show different amounts of cold work, recrystallization and grain growth. B. To compare the results obtained by the different laboratories involved in the programme. C. Finally, after the Ugine meeting, also the determination of the recrystallization and grain growth kinetics. (Author)

  7. Notes on representing grain size distributions obtained by electron backscatter diffraction

    Toth, Laszlo S.; Biswas, Somjeet; Gu, Chengfan; Beausir, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Grain size distributions measured by electron backscatter diffraction are commonly represented by histograms using either number or area fraction definitions. It is shown here that they should be presented in forms of density distribution functions for direct quantitative comparisons between different measurements. Here we make an interpretation of the frequently seen parabolic tales of the area distributions of bimodal grain structures and a transformation formula between the two distributions are given in this paper. - Highlights: • Grain size distributions are represented by density functions. • The parabolic tales corresponds to equal number of grains in a bin of the histogram. • A simple transformation formula is given to number and area weighed distributions. • The particularities of uniform and lognormal distributions are examined

  8. Effect of texture and grain size on the residual stress of nanocrystalline thin films

    Cao, Lei; Sengupta, Arkaprabha; Pantuso, Daniel; Koslowski, Marisol

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses develop in thin film interconnects mainly as a result of deposition conditions and multiple thermal loading cycles during the manufacturing flow. Understanding the relation between the distribution of residual stress and the interconnect microstructure is of key importance to manage the nucleation and growth of defects that can lead to failure under reliability testing and use conditions. Dislocation dynamics simulations are performed in nanocrystalline copper subjected to cyclic loading to quantify the distribution of residual stresses as a function of grain misorientation and grain size distribution. The outcomes of this work help to evaluate the effect of microstructure in thin films failure by identifying potential voiding sites. Furthermore, the simulations show how dislocation structures are influenced by texture and grain size distribution that affect the residual stress. For example, when dislocation loops reach the opposite grain boundary during loading, these dislocations remain locked during unloading.

  9. Forecasting grain size distribution of coal cut by a shearer loader

    Sikora, W; Chodura, J; Siwiec, J

    1983-02-01

    Analyzed are effects of shearer loader design on grain size distribution of coal, particularly on proportion of the finest size group and proportion of largest coal grains. The method developed by the IGD im. A.A. Skochinski Institute in Moscow is used. Effects of cutting tool design and mechanical coal properties are analyzed. Of the evaluated factors, two are of decisive importance: thickness of the coal chip cut by a cutting tool and coefficient of coal disintegration which characterizes coal behavior during cutting. Grain size distribution is also influenced by cutting tool geometry. Two elements of cutting tool design are of major importance: dimensions of the cutting edge and angle of attack. Effects of cutting tool design and coal mechanical properties on grain size distribution are shown in 12 diagrams. Using the forecasting method developed by the IGD im. A.A. Skochinski Institute in Moscow grain size distribution of coal cut by three shearer loaders is calculated: the KWB-3RDU with a drum 1600 mm in diameter, the KWB-6W with a drum 2500 mm in diameter, and a shearer loader being developed with a 1550 mm drum. The results of comparative evaluations are shown in two tables. 5 references.

  10. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae)

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 6 (2017), s. 957-964 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Aesculus * chromosome number * genome size * phylogeny * seed mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  11. Relative effect(s) of texture and grain size on magnetic properties in a low silicon non-grain oriented electrical steel

    PremKumar, R.; Samajdar, I.; Viswanathan, N.N.; Singal, V.; Seshadri, V.

    2003-01-01

    Hot rolled low Si (silicon) non-grain oriented electrical steel was cold rolled to different reductions. Cold rolled material was subsequently recrystallized, 650 deg. C and 2 h, and then temper rolled (to 7% reduction) for the final grain growth annealing and decarburization treatment at 850 deg. C for 2-24 h. The development of texture, grain size and magnetic properties were characterized at different stages of processing. Effect of texture on magnetic properties (watt loss and permeability) was observed to be best represented by the ratio of volume fractions of (1 1 1) /(0 0 1) fibers, as estimated by convoluting X-ray ODFs (orientation distribution functions) with respective model functions. Such a ratio was termed as generalized texture factor (tf) for the non-grain oriented electrical steel. An effort was made to delink effects of grain size and texture, as represented by respective tf, on watt loss and permeability by careful analysis of experimental data. In general, low tf and/or high grain size were responsible for low watt loss and high permeability. However, individual effect of grain size or tf on magnetic properties was less significant at low tf or large grain size, respectively. An attempt was made to fit regression equations, namely--linear, exponential and power, relating magnetic properties with tf and grain size, limiting the fitting parameters to 3. Least standard deviations, between experimental and predicted values, were obtained by power regression equations for both magnetic properties

  12. Correlation vs. Causation: The Effects of Ultrasonic Melt Treatment on Cast Metal Grain Size

    J. B. Ferguson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in ultrasonic treatment of liquid metal has waxed and waned for nearly 80 years. A review of several experiments representative of ultrasonic cavitation treatment of Al and Mg alloys shows that the theoretical mechanisms thought to be responsible for grain refinement are (1 cavitation-induced increase in melting temperature predicted by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and (2 cavitation-induced wetting of otherwise unwetted insoluble particles. Neither of these theoretical mechanisms can be directly confirmed by experiment, and though they remain speculative, the available literature generally assumes that one or the other or both mechanisms are active. However, grain size is known to depend on temperature of the liquid, temperature of the mold, and cooling rate of the entire system. From the reviewed experiments, it is difficult to isolate temperature and cooling rate effects on grain size from the theoretical effects. Ultrasonic treatments of Al-A356 were carried out to isolate such effects, and though it was found that ultrasound produced significant grain refinement, the treatments also significantly chilled the liquid and thereby reduced the pouring temperature. The grain sizes attained closely correlated with pouring temperature suggesting that ultrasonic grain refinement is predominantly a result of heat removal by the horn and ultrasonic stirring.

  13. Statistical considerations for grain-size analyses of tills

    Jacobs, A.M.

    1971-01-01

    Relative percentages of sand, silt, and clay from samples of the same till unit are not identical because of different lithologies in the source areas, sorting in transport, random variation, and experimental error. Random variation and experimental error can be isolated from the other two as follows. For each particle-size class of each till unit, a standard population is determined by using a normally distributed, representative group of data. New measurements are compared with the standard population and, if they compare satisfactorily, the experimental error is not significant and random variation is within the expected range for the population. The outcome of the comparison depends on numerical criteria derived from a graphical method rather than on a more commonly used one-way analysis of variance with two treatments. If the number of samples and the standard deviation of the standard population are substituted in a t-test equation, a family of hyperbolas is generated, each of which corresponds to a specific number of subsamples taken from each new sample. The axes of the graphs of the hyperbolas are the standard deviation of new measurements (horizontal axis) and the difference between the means of the new measurements and the standard population (vertical axis). The area between the two branches of each hyperbola corresponds to a satisfactory comparison between the new measurements and the standard population. Measurements from a new sample can be tested by plotting their standard deviation vs. difference in means on axes containing a hyperbola corresponding to the specific number of subsamples used. If the point lies between the branches of the hyperbola, the measurements are considered reliable. But if the point lies outside this region, the measurements are repeated. Because the critical segment of the hyperbola is approximately a straight line parallel to the horizontal axis, the test is simplified to a comparison between the means of the standard

  14. Composition and grain size effects on the structural and mechanical properties of CuZr nanoglasses

    Adibi, Sara; Branicio, Paulo S.; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Joshi, Shailendra P.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoglasses (NGs), metallic glasses (MGs) with a nanoscale grain structure, have the potential to considerably increase the ductility of traditional MGs while retaining their outstanding mechanical properties. We investigated the effects of composition on the structural and mechanical properties of CuZr NG films with grain sizes between 3 to 15 nm using molecular dynamics simulations. Results indicate a transition from localized shear banding to homogeneous superplastic flow with decreasing grain size, although the critical average grain size depends on composition: 5 nm for Cu 36 Zr 64 and 3 nm for Cu 64 Zr 36 . The flow stress of the superplastic NG at different compositions follows the trend of the yield stress of the parent MG, i.e., Cu 36 Zr 64 yield/flow stress: 2.54 GPa/1.29 GPa and Cu 64 Zr 36 yield/flow stress: 3.57 GPa /1.58 GPa. Structural analysis indicates that the differences in mechanical behavior as a function of composition are rooted at the distinct statistics of prominent atomic Voronoi polyhedra. The mechanical behavior of NGs is also affected by the grain boundary thickness and the fraction of atoms at interfaces for a given average grain size. The results suggest that the composition dependence of the mechanical behavior of NGs follows that of their parent MGs, e.g., a stronger MG will generate a stronger NG, while the intrinsic tendency for homogeneous deformation occurring at small grain size is not affected by composition.

  15. A new database sub-system for grain-size analysis

    Suckow, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Detailed grain-size analyses of large depth profiles for palaeoclimate studies create large amounts of data. For instance (Novothny et al., 2011) presented a depth profile of grain-size analyses with 2 cm resolution and a total depth of more than 15 m, where each sample was measured with 5 repetitions on a Beckman Coulter LS13320 with 116 channels. This adds up to a total of more than four million numbers. Such amounts of data are not easily post-processed by spreadsheets or standard software; also MS Access databases would face serious performance problems. The poster describes a database sub-system dedicated to grain-size analyses. It expands the LabData database and laboratory management system published by Suckow and Dumke (2001). This compatibility with a very flexible database system provides ease to import the grain-size data, as well as the overall infrastructure of also storing geographic context and the ability to organize content like comprising several samples into one set or project. It also allows easy export and direct plot generation of final data in MS Excel. The sub-system allows automated import of raw data from the Beckman Coulter LS13320 Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer. During post processing MS Excel is used as a data display, but no number crunching is implemented in Excel. Raw grain size spectra can be exported and controlled as Number- Surface- and Volume-fractions, while single spectra can be locked for further post-processing. From the spectra the usual statistical values (i.e. mean, median) can be computed as well as fractions larger than a grain size, smaller than a grain size, fractions between any two grain sizes or any ratio of such values. These deduced values can be easily exported into Excel for one or more depth profiles. However, such a reprocessing for large amounts of data also allows new display possibilities: normally depth profiles of grain-size data are displayed only with summarized parameters like the clay

  16. Calibrating your grain drill or seeder can save both seed and money

    The agronomic impact of over-seeding or under-seeding a field is complex. Most farmers have worked out a seeding rate with their agronomist. Exceeding that rate may not be productive, especially at $265+ per bag of alfalfa ($500 for switchgrass). Over-seeding costs add up, even across a small number...

  17. Higher seed size and germination rate may favour autotetraploids of Vicia cracca L. (Fabaceae)

    Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-73 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Vicia * autotetraploid * seed size * germination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  18. Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew ...

    Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew Anacardium occidentale (L) on seedlings emergence and height under treatment with organic and inorganic fertilizer in Gidan-Waya, Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria.

  19. Effects of grain size on high temperature creep of fine grained, solution and dispersion hardened V-1.6Y-8W-0.8TiC

    Furuno, T. [Ehime Univerisity, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kurishita, H., E-mail: kurishi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nagasaka, T.; Nishimura, A.; Muroga, T. [Fusion Engineering Research Center, National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Oroshi-cho 322-6, Tok, Gifu 292 (Japan); Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K. [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime Univerisity, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Creep resistance is the major concern of vanadium and its alloys for fusion reactor structural applications. In order to elucidate the effects of grain size on the creep behavior of solution and dispersion strengthened vanadium alloys, V-1.6Y-8W-0.8TiC specimens with fine grain sizes from 0.58 to 1.45 {mu}m were prepared by mechanical alloying and HIP without any plastic working and tested at 1073 K and 250 MPa in vacuum. It is shown that the creep resistance of V-1.6Y-8W-0.8TiC depends strongly on grain size and increases with increasing grain size: The creep life for the grain size of 1.45 {mu}m is almost one order longer than that of 0.58 {mu}m, and about two orders longer than that of V-4Cr-4Ti (NIFS-Heat 2) although the grain size of V-4Cr-4Ti is as large as 17.8 {mu}m. The observed creep behavior is discussed in terms of grain size effects on dislocation glide and grain boundary sliding.

  20. The influence of tungsten powder grain size on the properties of small bars and thick wires

    Jesionek, B.; Ludynski, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the investigations was, if possible, to determine the exact significance of the influence of the pressing parameters on the properties of tungsten bars and larger diameter wires, with special reference to the size of the tungsten grains. Tungsten powders, reduced under different conditions and with different grain sizes, were used for the investigations. These powders were pressed in steel dies at three different pressures, 72.5, 108, and 176 MPa, and the pressings were sintered. After sintering, the following properties of the bars were examined: ability to sinter, strength, and grain size. The bars were then worked down to 1.02 mm diameter wire and the following properties measured: tensile strength, plastic properties and the occurence of internal flaws (cracks). Finally, the optimum pressing parameters of the tungsten powder were determined. (Auth.)

  1. Study on the Effect of Diamond Grain Size on Wear of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Cutter

    Abdul-Rani, A. M.; Che Sidid, Adib Akmal Bin; Adzis, Azri Hamim Ab

    2018-03-01

    Drilling operation is one of the most crucial step in oil and gas industry as it proves the availability of oil and gas under the ground. Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bit is a type of bit which is gaining popularity due to its high Rate of Penetration (ROP). However, PDC bit can easily wear off especially when drilling hard rock. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the grain sizes of the diamond and wear rate of the PDC cutter using simulation-based study with FEA software (ABAQUS). The wear rates of a PDC cutter with a different diamond grain sizes were calculated from simulated cuttings of cutters against granite. The result of this study shows that the smaller the diamond grain size, the higher the wear resistivity of PDC cutter.

  2. Spectral Profiler Probe for In Situ Snow Grain Size and Composition Stratigraphy

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Molotch, Noah P.; Painter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An ultimate goal of the climate change, snow science, and hydrology communities is to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) from satellite measurements. Seasonal SWE is highly sensitive to climate change and provides fresh water for much of the world population. Snowmelt from mountainous regions represents the dominant water source for 60 million people in the United States and over one billion people globally. Determination of snow grain sizes comprising mountain snowpack is critical for predicting snow meltwater runoff, understanding physical properties and radiation balance, and providing necessary input for interpreting satellite measurements. Both microwave emission and radar backscatter from the snow are dominated by the snow grain size stratigraphy. As a result, retrieval algorithms for measuring snow water equivalents from orbiting satellites is largely hindered by inadequate knowledge of grain size.

  3. Effect of woodland patch size on rodent seed predation in a fragmented landscape

    J. Loman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Predation on large woody plant seeds; chestnuts, acorns and sloe kernels, was studied in deciduous forests of two size classes: small woodlots (<1 ha and large woods (at least 25 ha in southern Sweden. Seeds used for the study were artificially distributed on the forest ground and seed predation measured as seed removal. Predation rate was similar in both types of woods. However, rodent density was higher in small woodlots and a correction for differences in rodent density showed that predation rate per individual rodent was higher in the large woods. This suggests that the small woodlots (including the border zone and their adjacent fields have more rodent food per area unit. A small woodlot cannot be considered a representative sample of a large continuous forest, even if the habitats appear similar. There was a strong effect of rodent density on seed predation rate. This suggests that rodents are major seed predators in this habitat.

  4. Inhomogeneity of the grain size of aircraft engine turbine polycrystalline blades

    J. Chmiela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the behaviour of inhomogeneous materials with a complex microstructure requires taking into account the inhomogeneity of the grain size, as it is the basis for the process of designing and modelling effective behaviours. Therefore, the functional description of the inhomogeneity is becoming an important issue. The paper presents an analytical approach to the grain size inhomogeneity, based on the derivative of a logarithmic-logistic function. The solution applied enabled an effective evaluation of the inhomogeneity of two macrostructures of aircraft engine turbine blades, characterized by a high degree of diversity in the grain size. For the investigated single-modal and bimodal grain size distributions on a perpendicular projection and for grains with a non-planar surface, we identified the parameters that describe the degree of inhomogeneity of the constituents of weight distributions and we also derived a formula describing the overall degree of inhomogeneity of bimodal distributions. The solution presented in the paper is of a general nature and it can be used to describe the degree of inhomogeneity of multi-modal distributions. All the calculations were performed using the Mathematica® package.

  5. Tamanho de grão comercial em cultivares de feijoeiro Commercial grain size in common bean cultivars

    Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do trabalho foram avaliar e indicar parâmetros de seleção para classificação de grãos de feijão que atendam as exigências do mercado consumidor. Foram instalados experimentos contendo 19 genótipos de feijoeiro em nove ambientes, no Estado de São Paulo. A produção de grãos foi estratificada em peneiras de classificação 10 (10/64" pol. a 15 (15/64" pol. e avaliada a produção relativa de grãos em peneiras 13 e 14, rendimento de peneira, massa de 1.000 grãos, tamanho de grãos e para os índices J=perfil e H=forma do grão. A produção relativa de grãos, rendimento de peneira, forma e perfil foram as características que apresentaram diferenças estatísticas significativas, indicando presença de variabilidade genética. Por meio da comparação dos resultados com testemunhas de feijoeiro já recomendadas para o setor produtivo, conclui-se que uma cultivar de feijoeiro deve apresentar alta massa de 1.000 grãos (251 a 300g, produção relativa de grãos em peneiras 13 e 14 com valores acima de sete, rendimento de peneira acima de 70,0% e também sementes elípticas e perfil semiachatado.The aim of this research was to evaluate and to direct the genetic parameters to classify the grain size of common bean, according to the market demand. Experiments with 19 common bean genotypes were assembled in nine sites in the São Paulo State. The grain yield was stratified following sieve classification 10 (10/64" inch to 15 (15/64" inch. The following parameters were evaluated: relative yield with 13 and 14 sieves, sieve yield, thousand grain weight, grain size, J and H indexes (J=grain profile; H=grain shape. The relative grain yield, sieve yield, shapes and grain profiles presented significant statistical differences, indicating the presence of genetic variability among the genotypes. Compared to the market recommended and productive checks, the results showed that a common bean cultivar should present high thousand grain

  6. A universal approximation to grain size from images of non-cohesive sediment

    Buscombe, D.; Rubin, D.M.; Warrick, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The two-dimensional spectral decomposition of an image of sediment provides a direct statistical estimate, grid-by-number style, of the mean of all intermediate axes of all single particles within the image. We develop and test this new method which, unlike existing techniques, requires neither image processing algorithms for detection and measurement of individual grains, nor calibration. The only information required of the operator is the spatial resolution of the image. The method is tested with images of bed sediment from nine different sedimentary environments (five beaches, three rivers, and one continental shelf), across the range 0.1 mm to 150 mm, taken in air and underwater. Each population was photographed using a different camera and lighting conditions. We term it a “universal approximation” because it has produced accurate estimates for all populations we have tested it with, without calibration. We use three approaches (theory, computational experiments, and physical experiments) to both understand and explore the sensitivities and limits of this new method. Based on 443 samples, the root-mean-squared (RMS) error between size estimates from the new method and known mean grain size (obtained from point counts on the image) was found to be ±≈16%, with a 95% probability of estimates within ±31% of the true mean grain size (measured in a linear scale). The RMS error reduces to ≈11%, with a 95% probability of estimates within ±20% of the true mean grain size if point counts from a few images are used to correct bias for a specific population of sediment images. It thus appears it is transferable between sedimentary populations with different grain size, but factors such as particle shape and packing may introduce bias which may need to be calibrated for. For the first time, an attempt has been made to mathematically relate the spatial distribution of pixel intensity within the image of sediment to the grain size.

  7. Passive acoustic measurement of bedload grain size distribution using self-generated noise

    T. Petrut

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring sediment transport processes in rivers is of particular interest to engineers and scientists to assess the stability of rivers and hydraulic structures. Various methods for sediment transport process description were proposed using conventional or surrogate measurement techniques. This paper addresses the topic of the passive acoustic monitoring of bedload transport in rivers and especially the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution from self-generated noise. It discusses the feasibility of linking the acoustic signal spectrum shape to bedload grain sizes involved in elastic impacts with the river bed treated as a massive slab. Bedload grain size distribution is estimated by a regularized algebraic inversion scheme fed with the power spectrum density of river noise estimated from one hydrophone. The inversion methodology relies upon a physical model that predicts the acoustic field generated by the collision between rigid bodies. Here we proposed an analytic model of the acoustic energy spectrum generated by the impacts between a sphere and a slab. The proposed model computes the power spectral density of bedload noise using a linear system of analytic energy spectra weighted by the grain size distribution. The algebraic system of equations is then solved by least square optimization and solution regularization methods. The result of inversion leads directly to the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution. The inversion method was applied to real acoustic data from passive acoustics experiments realized on the Isère River, in France. The inversion of in situ measured spectra reveals good estimations of grain size distribution, fairly close to what was estimated by physical sampling instruments. These results illustrate the potential of the hydrophone technique to be used as a standalone method that could ensure high spatial and temporal resolution measurements for sediment transport in rivers.

  8. Passive acoustic measurement of bedload grain size distribution using self-generated noise

    Petrut, Teodor; Geay, Thomas; Gervaise, Cédric; Belleudy, Philippe; Zanker, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring sediment transport processes in rivers is of particular interest to engineers and scientists to assess the stability of rivers and hydraulic structures. Various methods for sediment transport process description were proposed using conventional or surrogate measurement techniques. This paper addresses the topic of the passive acoustic monitoring of bedload transport in rivers and especially the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution from self-generated noise. It discusses the feasibility of linking the acoustic signal spectrum shape to bedload grain sizes involved in elastic impacts with the river bed treated as a massive slab. Bedload grain size distribution is estimated by a regularized algebraic inversion scheme fed with the power spectrum density of river noise estimated from one hydrophone. The inversion methodology relies upon a physical model that predicts the acoustic field generated by the collision between rigid bodies. Here we proposed an analytic model of the acoustic energy spectrum generated by the impacts between a sphere and a slab. The proposed model computes the power spectral density of bedload noise using a linear system of analytic energy spectra weighted by the grain size distribution. The algebraic system of equations is then solved by least square optimization and solution regularization methods. The result of inversion leads directly to the estimation of the bedload grain size distribution. The inversion method was applied to real acoustic data from passive acoustics experiments realized on the Isère River, in France. The inversion of in situ measured spectra reveals good estimations of grain size distribution, fairly close to what was estimated by physical sampling instruments. These results illustrate the potential of the hydrophone technique to be used as a standalone method that could ensure high spatial and temporal resolution measurements for sediment transport in rivers.

  9. Grain Size and Phase Purity Characterization of U3Si2 Pellet Fuel

    Hoggan, Rita E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, Kevin R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cappia, Fabiola [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wagner, Adrian R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Characterization of U3Si2 fresh fuel pellets is important for quality assurance and validation of the finished product. Grain size measurement methods, phase identification methods using scanning electron microscopes equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction, and phase quantification methods via image analysis have been developed and implemented on U3Si2 pellet samples. A wide variety of samples have been characterized including representative pellets from an initial irradiation experiment, and samples produced using optimized methods to enhance phase purity from an extended fabrication effort. The average grain size for initial pellets was between 16 and 18 µm. The typical average grain size for pellets from the extended fabrication was between 20 and 30 µm with some samples exhibiting irregular grain growth. Pellets from the latter half of extended fabrication had a bimodal grain size distribution consisting of coarsened grains (>80 µm) surrounded by the typical (20-30 µm) grain structure around the surface. Phases identified in initial uranium silicide pellets included: U3Si2 as the main phase composing about 80 vol. %, Si rich phases (USi and U5Si4) composing about 13 vol. %, and UO2 composing about 5 vol. %. Initial batches from the extended U3Si2 pellet fabrication had similar phases and phase quantities. The latter half of the extended fabrication pellet batches did not contain Si rich phases, and had between 1-5% UO2: achieving U3Si2 phase purity between 95 vol. % and 98 vol. % U3Si2. The amount of UO2 in sintered U3Si2 pellets is correlated to the length of time between U3Si2 powder fabrication and pellet formation. These measurements provide information necessary to optimize fabrication efforts and a baseline for future work on this fuel compound.

  10. Incision and Landsliding Lead to Coupled Increase in Sediment Flux and Grain Size Export

    Roda-Boluda, D. C.; Brooke, S.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Whittaker, A. C.; Armitage, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The rates and grain sizes of sediment fluxes modulate the dynamics and timing of landscape response to tectonics, and dictate the depositional patterns of sediment in basins. Over the last decades, we have gained a good quantitative understanding on how sediment flux and grain size may affect incision and basin stratigraphy. However, we comparably still have limited knowledge on how these variables change with varying tectonic rates. To address this question, we have studied 152 catchments along 8 normal fault-bounded ranges in southern Italy, which are affected by varying fault slip rates and experiencing a transient response to tectonics. Using a data set of 38 new and published 10Be erosion rates, we calibrate a sediment flux predictive equation (BQART), in order to estimate catchment sediment fluxes. We demonstrate that long-term sediment flux is governed by fault slip rates and the tectonically-controlled transient incision, and that sediment flux estimates from the BQART, steady-state assumptions, and incised volumes are highly correlated. This is supported by our 10Be erosion rates, which are controlled by fault slip and incision rates, and the associated landsliding. Based on a new landslide inventory, we show that erosion rate differences are likely due to differences in incision-related landslide activity across these catchments, and that landslides are a major component of sediment fluxes. From a data set of >13000 grain size counts on hillslope grain size supply and fluvial sediment at catchment outlets, we observe that landslides deliver material 20-200% coarser than other sediment sources, and that this coarse supply has an impact on the grain size distributions being exported from the catchments. Combining our sediment flux and grain size data sets, we are able to show that for our catchments, and potentially also for any areas that respond to changes in climate or tectonics via enhanced landsliding, sediment flux and grain size export increase

  11. The effect of grain size on the mechanical response of a metastable austenitic stainless steel

    Sinclair C.W.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of high environmental resistance and excellent strength, elongation and energy absorption make austenitic stainless steels potentially attractive for transportation applications. In the case of metastable grades that undergo a strain induced martensitic transformation it is possible to significantly change the mechanical properties simply by changing the austenite grain size. Predicting such behaviour using physically based models is, however, extremely challenging. Here, some recent work on the coupling between grain size and mechanical response will be presented for a metastable AISI 301 LN stainless steel. Successes and continuing challenges will be highlighted.

  12. Effect of grain size on the melting point of confined thin aluminum films

    Wejrzanowski, Tomasz; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Sikorski, Krzysztof; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Materials Design Division, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-28

    The melting of aluminum thin film was studied by a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. The effect of the grain size and type of confinement was investigated for aluminum film with a constant thickness of 4 nm. The results show that coherent intercrystalline interface suppress the transition of solid aluminum into liquid, while free-surface gives melting point depression. The mechanism of melting of polycrystalline aluminum thin film was investigated. It was found that melting starts at grain boundaries and propagates to grain interiors. The melting point was calculated from the Lindemann index criterion, taking into account only atoms near to grain boundaries. This made it possible to extend melting point calculations to bigger grains, which require a long time (in the MD scale) to be fully molten. The results show that 4 nm thick film of aluminum melts at a temperature lower than the melting point of bulk aluminum (933 K) only when the grain size is reduced to 6 nm.

  13. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation of Micron Size Cosmic Dust Grains with Radiation

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E.; Weingartner, J.; Witherow, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment along the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approx. 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  14. The influence of slow cooling on Y211 size and content in single-grain YBCO bulk superconductor through the infiltration-growth process

    Ouerghi, A [Systems and Applied Mechanics Laboratory LASMAP, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, Rue El Kawarezmi La Marsa 743, Université de Carthage Tunis (Tunisia); Moutalbi, N., E-mail: nahed.moutalbi@yahoo.fr [Systems and Applied Mechanics Laboratory LASMAP, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, Rue El Kawarezmi La Marsa 743, Université de Carthage Tunis (Tunisia); Noudem, J.G. [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN (UMR-CNRS 6508), Université de Caen-Basse-Normandie, F-14050 Caen (France); LUSAC, Université de Caen-Basse-Normandie F-50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); M' chirgui, A. [Systems and Applied Mechanics Laboratory LASMAP, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, Rue El Kawarezmi La Marsa 743, Université de Carthage Tunis (Tunisia)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • YBCO bulk superconductors are produced by optimized Seeded Infiltration and Growth process. • The slow cooling time, in a fixed slow cooling temperature window, affects considerably the surface morphology and the bulk’s microstructure. • The Y211 particle’s size and content depend on the slow cooling time and its distribution behavior changes from one position to another. • There is an optimum slow cooling time, estimated to 88h, over which the shrinkage for both the liquid phase and the Y211 pellet is maximal, without any improvement of the crystal grain growth. • The magnetic trapped flux distribution for a given sample brings out the single grain characteristic. - Abstract: Highly textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (Y123) superconductors were produced using modified Textured Top Seeded Infiltration Growth (TSIG) process. The liquid source is made of only Y123 powder whereas the solid source is composed of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) powder. We aim to control the amount of liquid that infiltrates the solid pellet, which in turn controls the final amount of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} particles in Y123 matrix. The effect of the slow cooling kinetics on sample morphology, on grain growth and on final microstructure was too investigated. It is shown that appropriate slow cooling time may also contribute to the control of the amount of Y211 inclusions in the final structure of Y123 bulk. We report herein the Y211 particle size and density distribution in the whole Y123 matrix. The present work proves that finest Y211 particles locate under the seed and that their size and density increase with distance from the seed.

  15. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae).

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávnícek, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species. Flow cytometric measurements of 2C nuclear DNA values were conducted on eight species, and mean seed mass values were estimated for the same taxa. The same chromosome number, 2 n = 40, was determined in all investigated taxa. Original measurements of 2C values for seven Aesculus species (eight taxa), added to just one reliable datum for A. hippocastanum , confirmed the notion that the genome size in this genus with relatively large seeds is surprisingly low, ranging from 0·955 pg 2C -1 in A. parviflora to 1·275 pg 2C -1 in A. glabra var. glabra. The chromosome number of 2 n = 40 seems to be conclusively the universal 2 n number for non-hybrid species in this genus. Aesculus genome sizes are relatively small, not only within its own family, Sapindaceae, but also within woody angiosperms. The genome sizes seem to be distinct and non-overlapping among the four major Aesculus clades. These results provide an extra support for the most recent reconstruction of Aesculus phylogeny. The correlation between the 2C values and seed masses in examined Aesculus species is slightly negative and not significant. However, when the four major clades are treated separately, there is consistent positive association between larger genome size and larger seed mass within individual lineages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  16. Constraints on Circumstellar Dust Grain Sizes from High Spatial Resolution Observations in the Thermal Infrared

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Danen, R. M.; Gwinn, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    We describe how high spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar dust at a wavelength of about 10 micron, combined with knowledge of the source spectral energy distribution, can yield useful information about the sizes of the individual dust grains responsible for the infrared emission. Much can be learned even when only upper limits to source size are available. In parallel with high-resolution single-telescope imaging that may resolve the more extended mid-infrared sources, we plan to apply these less direct techniques to interpretation of future observations from two-element optical interferometers, where quite general arguments may be made despite only crude imaging capability. Results to date indicate a tendency for circumstellar grain sizes to be rather large compared to the Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck size distribution traditionally thought to characterize dust in the general interstellar medium. This may mean that processing of grains after their initial formation and ejection from circumstellar atmospheres adjusts their size distribution to the ISM curve; further mid-infrared observations of grains in various environments would help to confirm this conjecture.

  17. Grain-size effects on PIXE and INAA analysis of IAEA-336 lichen reference material

    Marques, A.P.; Freitas, M.C.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Verburg, T.G.; Goeij, J.J.M. de

    2007-01-01

    IAEA-336 lichen certified reference material was used to compare outcomes from INAA and PIXE elemental analyses, in relationship with grain size. The IAEA material (grain size <125 μm) was ground and sieved through nylon nets with 64 μm, 41 μm and 20 μm pores. Particle sizes were determined by Laser Light Scattering technique: the data indicate that, after sieving, the IAEA-336 lichen reference material's particle size distribution follows a bimodal distribution, which is turning more and more monomodal after further fine sieving. Replicates of each fraction were analysed by INAA and PIXE. Results for Cl, K, Mn, Fe and Zn by both techniques were compared by application of z-values tested against the criterion vertical bar z vertical bar < 3 for approval of results at the 99.7% confidence level. Under the conditions of this study, the limited amount of lichen material as 'seen' in the PIXE analysis and the grain size distribution in the lichen material were no causes of measurable differences between the results of both techniques. However, fractionation into smaller grain sizes showed to be associated with lower element content, for Na, Cl, K, Mn and Sr even up to a factor of 2. The observed increases of the proportion of algae in the smaller grain-size fractions and the possible accumulation capacity for certain elements in the fungal part of the lichen may explain the observed phenomenon. The sieving process and consequently the discarding of part of the material have lead to a change of the properties of the original sample, namely algae/fungus percentage and elemental contents

  18. The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?

    Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-Φ). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product

  19. Numerical modelling of intergranular fracture in polycrystalline materials and grain size effects

    P. Wriggers

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the phenomenon of intergranular fracture in polycrystalline materials is investigated using a nonlinear fracture mechanics approach. The nonlocal cohesive zone model (CZM for finite thickness interfaces recently proposed by the present authors is used to describe the phenomenon of grain boundary separation. From the modelling point of view, considering the dependency of the grain boundary thickness on the grain size observed in polycrystals, a distribution of interface thicknesses is obtained. Since the shape and the parameters of the nonlocal CZM depend on the interface thickness, a distribution of interface fracture energies is obtained as a consequence of the randomness of the material microstructure. Using these data, fracture mechanics simulations are performed and the homogenized stress-strain curves of 2D representative volume elements (RVEs are computed. Failure is the result of a diffuse microcrack pattern leading to a main macroscopic crack after coalescence, in good agreement with the experimental observation. Finally, testing microstructures characterized by different average grain sizes, the computed peak stresses are found to be dependent on the grain size, in agreement with the trend expected according to the Hall-Petch law.

  20. Cooling Crystallization of Indomethacin: Effect of Supersaturation, Temperature and Seeding on Polymorphism and Crystal Size Distribution

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Qu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, effect of crystallization parameters i.e., supersaturation, seeding, and temperature on polymorphism and crystal size of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (IMC), was investigated. Firstly, several crystallization solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone...... of IMC from ethanol confirmed that the supersaturation, operating temperature and seeding does affect the polymorphism as well as crystal size distribution of IMC. Fine needle shaped crystals of metastable α-IMC were obtained at 5 °C with high supersaturation even in presence of γ-IMC seeds, while...... rhombic plates like crystals of thermodynamically stable γ-IMC were obtained in remaining experiments. The amount of seed loading only marginally influenced the crystal growth rate and median particle diameter (d50). Particle size analysis of crystals obtained showed bimodal distribution in all...

  1. Effect of Salinity and Seed Size on Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik Germination and Seedling Growth Properties

    Y Alizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Both soil and water salinity is one of the main reasons in decreasing germination, seedling growth and establishment in many arid and semiarid parts of world especially in our country. For this reason in order to evaluate the effect of lentil seed size on germination and seedling growth properties that was under effect of salinity stress, a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and 3 replications conducted using two lentils genotypes (Robatt and Gachsaran, two small and large seed sizes (34.8 and 59 mg in Robatt and 41.5 and 69 mg in Gachsaran per seed, respectively and five drought levels (0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.7 percent of NaCl in 2008s. Results showed that Robatt genotype had higher germination rate and salinity tolerance than Gachsaran. In addition seed size had significant different (P

  2. Size distribution of dust grains: A problem of self-similarity

    Henning, TH.; Dorschner, J.; Guertler, J.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution functions describing the results of natural processes frequently show the shape of power laws. It is an open question whether this behavior is a result simply coming about by the chosen mathematical representation of the observational data or reflects a deep-seated principle of nature. The authors suppose the latter being the case. Using a dust model consisting of silicate and graphite grains Mathis et al. (1977) showed that the interstellar extinction curve can be represented by taking a grain radii distribution of power law type n(a) varies as a(exp -p) with 3.3 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 3.6 (example 1) as a basis. A different approach to understanding power laws like that in example 1 becomes possible by the theory of self-similar processes (scale invariance). The beta model of turbulence (Frisch et al., 1978) leads in an elementary way to the concept of the self-similarity dimension D, a special case of Mandelbrot's (1977) fractal dimension. In the frame of this beta model, it is supposed that on each stage of a cascade the system decays to N clumps and that only the portion beta N remains active further on. An important feature of this model is that the active eddies become less and less space-filling. In the following, the authors assume that grain-grain collisions are such a scale-invarient process and that the remaining grains are the inactive (frozen) clumps of the cascade. In this way, a size distribution n(a) da varies as a(exp -(D+1))da (example 2) results. It seems to be highly probable that the power law character of the size distribution of interstellar dust grains is the result of a self-similarity process. We can, however, not exclude that the process leading to the interstellar grain size distribution is not fragmentation at all

  3. Application of Polymerase Chain Reaction for High Sensitivity Detection of Roundup Ready™ Soybean Seeds and Grains in Varietal Mixtures

    Ashok Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong increase in the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs observed over the years has led to a consolidation of transgenic seed industries worldwide. The dichotomy between the evaluated risk and the perceived risk of transgenic use has defined their level of acceptability among different global societies. GMOs have been widely applied to agricultural commodities, among them the Roundup Ready™ (RR™ soybean line GTS 40-3-2 has become the most prevalent transgenic crop in the world. This variety was developed to confer plant tolerance against glyphosate-based agricultural herbicide Roundup Ready™. Issues related to detection and traceability of GMOs have gained worldwide interest due to their increasing global diffusion and the related socioeconomic and health implications. Also, due to the widespread use of GMOs in food production, labelling regulations have been established in some countries to protect the right of consumers and producers. Besides regulatory demand, consumer concern issues have resulted in the development of several methods of detecting and quantifying foods derived from genetically engineered crops and their raw materials. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been proven to be the method of choice to detect the presence or absence of the introduced genes of GMOs at DNA level. The present paper aims to verify whether the PCR technique can detect RR™ soybean seeds among conventional ones to further certification as non-GM soybean seeds and grains. This analysis could be accomplished through the development of new methodology called 'intentional contamination' of soybean conventional seeds or grains with the respective RR™ soybeans. The results show that the PCR method can be applied with high sensitivity in order to certify conventional soybean seeds and grains.

  4. Corrosion resistant surface for vanadium nitride and hafnium nitride layers as function of grain size

    Escobar, C. A.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this research it was studied vanadium nitride (VN) and hafnium nitride (HfN) film, which were deposited onto silicon (Si (100)) and AISI 4140 steel substrates via r.f. magnetron sputtering technique in Ar/N2 atmosphere with purity at 99.99% for both V and Hf metallic targets. Both films were approximately 1.2±0.1 μm thick. The crystallography structures that were evaluated via X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed preferential orientations in the Bragg planes VN (200) and HfN (111). The chemical compositions for both films were characterized by EDX. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology; the results reveal grain sizes of 78±2 nm for VN and 58±2 nm for HfN and roughness values of 4.2±0.1 nm for VN and 1.5±0.1 nm for HfN films. The electrochemical performance in VN and HfN films deposited onto steel 4140 were studied by Tafel polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy methods (EIS) under contact with sodium chloride at 3.5 wt% solution, therefore, it was found that the corrosion rate decreased about 95% in VN and 99% for HfN films in relation to uncoated 4140 steel, thus demonstrating, the protecting effect of VN and HfN films under a corrosive environment as function of morphological characteristics (grain size). VN(grain size)=78±2.0 nm, VN(roughness)=4.2±0.1 nm, VN(corrosion rate)=40.87 μmy. HfN(grain size)=58±2.0 nm, HfN(roughness)=1.5±0.1 nm, HfN(corrosion rate)=0.205 μmy. It was possible to analyze that films with larger grain size, can be observed smaller grain boundary thus generating a higher corrosion rate, therefore, in this work it was found that the HfN layer has better corrosion resistance (low corrosion rate) in relation to VN film which presents a larger grain size, indicating that the low grain boundary in (VN films) does not restrict movement of the Cl- ion and in this way the corrosion rate increases dramatically.

  5. Influence of domain on grain size effects of the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 nanoceramics and nanoparticles

    Fang Chao; Chen Liangyan; Zhou Dongxiang

    2013-01-01

    The dielectric property of BaTiO 3 nanoparticles and nanoceramics has been studied on the basis of Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic theory. In this paper, considering nanodomains, Landau coefficients have been written as a function of grain size, and the dielectric constant of the material has been calculated at a variety of temperatures and grain size. The results indicate that with decreasing grain size, the dielectric peak decreases. The two lower dielectric peaks of the orthorhombic-rhombohedral phase and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase move to higher temperature, while cubic-tetragonal phase dielectric peak moves to lower temperature. The dielectric constant of BaTiO 3 ceramics decreases with decreasing grain size. The dielectric constant peak at room temperature is at the grain size which is larger than the critical grain size 17-30 nm. The calculated result is consistent with the experimental data.

  6. Seed size and its rate of evolution correlate with species diversification across angiosperms.

    Javier Igea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL. This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches. However, the magnitude and direction of the association between seed mass and diversification has not been assessed across the angiosperm phylogeny. Here, we show that absolute seed size and the rate of change in seed size are both associated with variation in diversification rates. Based on the largest available angiosperm phylogenetic tree, we found that smaller-seeded plants had higher rates of diversification, possibly due to improved colonisation potential. The rate of phenotypic change in seed size was also strongly positively correlated with speciation rates, providing rare, large-scale evidence that rapid morphological change is associated with species divergence. Our study now reveals that variation in morphological traits and, importantly, the rate at which they evolve can contribute to explaining the extremely uneven distribution of diversity across the ToL.

  7. Film Grain-Size Related Long-Term Stability of Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-09-22

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cell is high enough to be commercially viable. The next important issue is the stability of the device. This article discusses the effect of the perovskite grain-size on the long-term stability of inverted perovskite solar cells. Perovskite films composed of various sizes of grains were prepared by controlling the solvent annealing time. The grain-size related stability of the inverted cells was investigated both in ambient atmosphere at relative humidity of approximately 30-40 % and in a nitrogen filled glove box (H 2 Operovskite film having the grain size larger than 1 μm (D-10) decreases less than 10 % with storage in a glove box and less than 15 % when it was stored under an ambient atmosphere for 30 days. However, the cell using the perovskite film composed of small (∼100 nm) perovskite grains (D-0) exhibits complete loss of PCE after storage under the ambient atmosphere for only 15 days and a PCE loss of up to 70 % with storage in the glove box for 30 days. These results suggest that, even under H 2 O-free conditions, the chemical- and thermal-induced production of pin holes at the grain boundaries of the perovskite film could be the reason for long-term instability of inverted perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Development of a generic seed crystal for the fabrication of large grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    Shi, Y; Babu, N Hari; Cardwell, D A

    2005-01-01

    The critical current density, J c , irreversibility field, B irr , and magnetic field trapping ability of (LRE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors, where LRE is a light rare earth element such as Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd, are generally superior to those of the more common melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO). The lack of availability of a suitable seed crystal to grow large, single grain (LRE)-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with controlled orientation, however, has hindered severely the development of these materials for engineering applications over the past ten years. In this communication we report for the first time the development of a generic seed crystal that can be used to fabricate any rare earth (RE) based (RE)-Ba-Cu-O ((RE)BCO) superconductor in the form of a large single grain with controlled orientation. The new seed crystal will potentially enable large grain (LRE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors to be fabricated routinely, as is the case for YBCO. This will enable the field trapping and current-carrying characteristics of these materials to be explored in more detail than has been possible to date. (rapid communication)

  9. Taxonomic evaluation using pollen grain sculpture and seed coat characters of 11 taxa of genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae in Egypt

    M.A. El-Kholy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology and seed coat characters of 11 cultivars belonging to two species of genus Hibiscus (Family Malvaceae namely H. esculentus, H. abelmoschus and H. sabdariffa were investigated. This study was carried out using light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Pollen morphology of this genus is fairly uniform. Generally radially symmetrical apolar, mostly spheroidal, pantoporate. Seed exomorphic characters revealed four types of ornamentations; reticulate, ocealate, foveolate and ruminate. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE was employed to characterize those taxa. Thirty-one bands of seed protein profiles have been constructed from the gel. The produced dendrograms that were analyzed by STATISCA program using UPGMA clustering method showed a close affinity among the seven H. esculentus cultivars and the four H. sabdariffa cultivars.

  10. Retrieval of snow albedo and grain size using reflectance measurements in Himalayan basin

    H. S. Negi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, spectral reflectance measurements of Himalayan seasonal snow were carried out and analysed to retrieve the snow albedo and effective grain size. The asymptotic radiative transfer (ART theory was applied to retrieve the plane and spherical albedo. The retrieved plane albedo was compared with the measured spectral albedo and a good agreement was observed with ±10% differences. Retrieved integrated albedo was found within ±6% difference with ground observed broadband albedo. The retrieved snow grain sizes using different models based on the ART theory were compared for various snow types and it was observed that the grain size model using two channel method (one in visible and another in NIR region can work well for the Himalayan seasonal snow and it was found consistent with temporal changes in grain size. This method can work very well for clean, dry snow as in the upper Himalaya, but sometimes, due to the low reflectances (<20% using wavelength 1.24 μm, the ART theory cannot be applied, which is common in lower and middle Himalayan old snow. This study is important for monitoring the Himalayan cryosphere using air-borne or space-borne sensors.

  11. Grain-size data from four cores from Walker Lake, Nevada

    Yount, J.C.; Quimby, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    A number of cores, taken from within and near Walker Lake, Nevada are being studied by various investigators in order to evaluate the late-Pleistocene paleoclimate of the west-central Great Basin. In particular, the cores provide records that can be interpreted in terms of past climate and compared to proposed numerical models of the region's climate. All of these studies are being carried out as part of an evaluation of the regional paleoclimatic setting of a proposed high-level nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Changes in past climate often manifest themselves in changes in sedimentary processes or in changes in the volume of sediment transported by those processes. One fundamental sediment property that can be related to depositional processes is grain size. Grain size effects other physical properties of sediment such as porosity and permeability which, in turn, affect the movement and chemistry of fluids. The purposes of this report are: (1) to document procedures of sample preparation and analysis, and (2) to summarize grain-size statistics for 659 samples from Walker Lake cores 84-4, 84-5, 84-8 and 85-2. Plots of mean particle diameter, percent sand, and the ratio of silt to clay are illustrated for various depth intervals within each core. Summary plots of mean grain size, sorting, and skewness parameters allow comparison of textural data between each core. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Bimodal grain-size distribution of Chinese loess, and its palaeoclimatic implications

    Sun, D.G.; Bloemendal, J.; Rea, D.K.; An, Z.S.; Vandenberghe, J.; Lu, H.; Su, R.; Liu, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Grain-size analysis indicates that Chinese loess generally shows a bimodal distribution with a coarse and a fine component. The coarse component, comprising the main part of the loess, has pronounced kurtosis and is well sorted, which is interpreted to be the product of dust storms generated by

  13. H2O grain size and the amount of dust in Mars' residual North polar cap

    Kieffer, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    In Mars' north polar cap the probable composition of material residual from the annual condensation cycle is a mixture of fine dust and H2O grains of comparable size and abundance. However, metamorphism of such material will gradually lower its albedo by increasing the size of the H2O grains only. If the cap is undergoing net annual sublimation (as inferred from water vapor observations), late summer observations should be of old ice with H2O grain sizes of 100 ??m or more. Ice of this granularity containing 30% fine dust has a reflectivity similar to that of dust alone; the observed albedo and computed ice grain size imply dust concentrations of 1 part per 1000 or less. The brightness of the icy areas conflicts with what would be expected for a residual cap deposited by an annual cycle similar to that observed by Viking and aged for thousands of years. The residual cap surface cannot be "old dirty' ice. It could be old, coarse, and clean; or it could be young, fine, and dirty. This brings into question both the source of the late summer water vapor and the formation rate of laminated terrain. -Author

  14. Tribological Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Reinforced Arc Sprayed Coatings using Different Carbide Grain Size Fractions

    W. Tillmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide reinforced coatings play an important role in the field of surface engineering to protect stressed surfaces against wear. For thermally sprayed coatings, it is already shown that the tribological properties get mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Within the scope of this study, the tribological characteristics of iron based WC-W2C reinforced arc sprayed coatings deposited using cored wires consisting of different carbide grain size fractions were examined. Microstructural characteristics of the produced coatings were scrutinized using electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. Ball-on-disk test as well as Taber Abraser and dry sand rubber wheel test were employed to analyze both the dry sliding and the abrasive wear behavior. It was shown that a reduced carbide grain size fraction as filling leads to an enhanced wear resistance against sliding. In terms of the Taber Abraser test, it is also demonstrated that a fine carbide grain size fraction results in an improved wear resistant against abrasion. As opposed to that, a poorer wear resistance was found within the dry sand rubber wheel tests. The findings show that the operating mechanisms for both abrasion tests affect the stressed surface in a different way, leading either to microcutting or microploughing.

  15. Grain size effects in multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity

    Turteltaub, S.R.; Suiker, A.S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the austenitic grain size on the overall stress-strain behavior in a multiphase carbon steel is analyzed through three-dimensional finite element simulations. A recently developed multiscale martensitic transformation model is combined with a plasticity model to simulate the

  16. The Strain and Grain Size Dependence of the Flow Stress of Copper

    Hansen, Niels; Ralph, B.

    1982-01-01

    Tensile stress strain data for 99.999% copper at room and liquid nitrogen temperature as a function of grain size are presented together with some microstructural observations made by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that the flow stress data, at constant strain may be expressed...

  17. Modeling grain-size dependent bias in estimating forest area: a regional application

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    A better understanding of scaling-up effects on estimating important landscape characteristics (e.g. forest percentage) is critical for improving ecological applications over large areas. This study illustrated effects of changing grain sizes on regional forest estimates in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan of the USA using 30-m land-cover maps (1992 and 2001)...

  18. The Effect of Grain Size on Mechanical Instability in Single-Phase Li-Alloy Anodes

    Wolfenstine, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    .... The results of this study suggest that decreasing the particle and/or grain size is not a practical approach to solving the mechanical instability problem of single phase Li alloys that are intended to be used as anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  19. Using LiDAR derivatives to estimate sediment grain size on beaches in False Bay

    Burns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available of these parameters (beach slope, grain size, wave energy) can therefore theoretically be used as a proxy to predict the other factors. This information would be of particular interest for coastal protection and disaster risk management. Field assessments and surveys...

  20. Significant effect of grain size distribution on compaction rates in granular aggregates

    Niemeijer, André|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132; Elsworth, Derek; Marone, Chris

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the role of pressure solution in deformation of upper- to mid-crustal rocks using aggregates of halite as a room temperature analog for fluid-assisted deformation processes in the Earth's crust. Experiments evaluate the effects of initial grain size distribution on macroscopic

  1. The effects of seed size on hybrids formed between oilseed rape (Brassica napus and wild brown mustard (B. juncea.

    Yong-Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories.Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents.Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study.

  2. Kinetics of Sub-Micron Grain Size Refinement in 9310 Steel

    Kozmel, Thomas; Chen, Edward Y.; Chen, Charlie C.; Tin, Sammy

    2014-05-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the development of novel manufacturing processes capable of producing microstructures dominated by sub-micron grains. For structural applications, grain refinement has been shown to enhance mechanical properties such as strength, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness. Through control of the thermo-mechanical processing parameters, dynamic recrystallization mechanisms were used to produce microstructures consisting of sub-micron grains in 9310 steel. Starting with initial bainitic grain sizes of 40 to 50 μm, various levels of grain refinement were observed following hot deformation of 9310 steel samples at temperatures and strain rates ranging from 755 K to 922 K (482 °C and 649 °C) and 1 to 0.001/s, respectively. The resulting deformation microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to quantify the extent of carbide coarsening and grain refinement occurring during deformation. Microstructural models based on the Zener-Holloman parameter were developed and modified to include the effect of the ferrite/carbide interactions within the system. These models were shown to effectively correlate microstructural attributes to the thermal mechanical processing parameters.

  3. Hardening by ion implantation of VT1-0 alloy having different grain size

    Nikonenko, Alisa, E-mail: aliska-nik@mail.ru; Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk Russia (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the structural and phase state of commercially pure titanium implanted by aluminum ions. TEM study has been carried out for two types of grains, namely coarse (0.4 µm) and small (0.5 µm). This paper presents details of the yield stress calculations and the analysis of strength components for the both grain types in two areas of the modified layer: at a distance of 0-150 nm (surface area I) and ∼300 nm (central area II) from the irradiated surface. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress in areas I and II. Thus, near the ion-alloyed layer, the yield stress decreases with the increase of the grain size, whilst area II demonstrates its increase. Moreover, the contribution to the general hardening of the alloy made by certain hardening mechanisms differs from contributions made by each of these mechanisms in each certain case.

  4. Study of variation grain size in desulfurization process of calcined petroleum coke

    Pintowantoro, Sungging; Setiawan, Muhammad Arif; Abdul, Fakhreza

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is a country with abundant natural resources, such as mineral mining and petroleum. In petroleum processing, crude oil can be processed into a source of fuel energy such as gasoline, diesel, oil, petroleum coke, and others. One of crude oil potentials in Indonesia is petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a product from oil refining process. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum cokes can be done by desulfurization process. The industries which have potential to become petroleum coke processing consumers are industries of aluminum smelting (anode, graphite block, carbon mortar), iron riser, calcined coke, foundry coke, etc. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum coke can be done by thermal desulfurization process with alkaline substance NaOH. Desulfurization of petroleum coke process can be done in two ways, which are thermal desulfurization and hydrodesulphurization. This study aims to determine the effect of various grain size on sulfur, carbon, and chemical bond which contained by calcined petroleum coke. The raw material use calcined petroleum coke with 0.653% sulfur content. The grain size that used in this research is 50 mesh, then varied to 20 mesh and 100 mesh for each desulfurization process. Desulfurization are tested by ICP, UV-VIS, and FTIR to determine levels of sulfur, carbon, chemical bonding and sulfur dissolved water which contained in the residual washing of calcined petroleum coke. From various grain size that mentioned before, the optimal value is on 100 mesh grain size, where the sulfur content in petroleum coke is 0.24% and carbon content reaches the highest level of 97.8%. Meanwhile for grain size 100 mesh in the desulfurization process is enough to break the chemical bonds of organic sulfur in petroleum coke.

  5. Grain size effect on the mechanical properties of neutron irradiated niobium

    Gusev, M. N.; Maksimkin, O.P.

    2000-01-01

    Samples for mechanical tests were prepared from niobium of technical purity and have form of plates (10·3.5 ·0.3mm) with grain size from 2 to 100 mcm. Neutron irradiation was carried out at the reactor WWR-K to the fluence of 2·10 22 n/m 2 ( Angstroem >0.1 MeV). Tests on uniaxial tension at 293K were performed at the facility, evolving Calvet's microcalorimeter and miniature rapture machine. The developed technique enabled to record heat effects just during the deformation process. As experimental results the characteristics of strength and ductility were defined, as well as values of the latent energy E s , accumulated in material in the process of its deformation up to the moment of destruction. It was found that irradiation of niobium with large-grain structure by neutrons leads to increasing of strength characteristics (yield strength σ 0 .2 changes from 130 to 210 MPa, time-resistance σ b from 200 to 230 MPa) and decreasing of ductility from 36 to 28%. As this takes place the capability of the material to accumulate and dissipate energy of plastic deformation suffers substantial change. There were revealed some additional effects, for instance, the radiation annealing hardening (RAH) (i.e. additional change of properties of irradiated material at annealing), whose maximum takes place at 473K. Its temperature and kinetic parameters were determined in this work. Decreasing of grain size usually leads to decreasing of strengthening under irradiation and to decreasing of RAH effect intensity at subsequent annealing. At the same time decreasing of radiation embrittlement is observed. Consequently, creation of fine-grain structure for some cases can favored the stability of material's properties under irradiation. The obtained results are discussed in context of views on grain boundaries as a defect sink. The relation 'grain boundary volume - grain matrix volume', its influence on RAH-effect and value of latent energy are considered

  6. Magnetic properties in an ash flow tuff with continuous grain size variation: a natural reference for magnetic particle granulometry

    Till, J.L.; Jackson, M.J.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Solheid, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff contains dispersed nanoscale Fe-Ti-oxide grains with a narrow magnetic grain size distribution, making it an ideal material in which to identify and study grain-size-sensitive magnetic behavior in rocks. A detailed magnetic characterization was performed on samples from the basal 5 m of the tuff. The magnetic materials in this basal section consist primarily of (low-impurity) magnetite in the form of elongated submicron grains exsolved from volcanic glass. Magnetic properties studied include bulk magnetic susceptibility, frequency-dependent and temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence acquisition, and hysteresis properties. The combined data constitute a distinct magnetic signature at each stratigraphic level in the section corresponding to different grain size distributions. The inferred magnetic domain state changes progressively upward from superparamagnetic grains near the base to particles with pseudo-single-domain or metastable single-domain characteristics near the top of the sampled section. Direct observations of magnetic grain size confirm that distinct transitions in room temperature magnetic susceptibility and remanence probably denote the limits of stable single-domain behavior in the section. These results provide a unique example of grain-size-dependent magnetic properties in noninteracting particle assemblages over three decades of grain size, including close approximations of ideal Stoner-Wohlfarth assemblages, and may be considered a useful reference for future rock magnetic studies involving grain-size-sensitive properties.

  7. Producing laminated NiAl with bimodal distribution of grain size by solid–liquid reaction treatment

    Fan, G.H.; Wang, Q.W.; Du, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of combining laminated structure design and grain size tailoring to toughen brittle materials is examined. Laminated NiAl consisting of coarse-grained layers and fine-grained layers was fabricated by solid–liquid reaction treatment of stacking Ni and Al foils. The fracture toughness...

  8. Effects of grain size on the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium by cooling rate-controlled solidification

    Liu, Yichi; Liu, Debao; You, Chen; Chen, Minfang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grain size on the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium developed for biomedical applications. High-purity magnesium samples with different grain size were prepared by the cooling rate-controlled solidification. Electrochemical and immersion tests were employed to measure the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium with different grain size. The electrochemical polarization curves indicated that the corrosion susceptibility increased as the grain size decrease. However, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and immersion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium is improved as the grain size decreases. The improvement in the corrosion resistance is attributed to refine grain can produce more uniform and density film on the surface of sample.

  9. Elaboration of austenitic stainless steel samples with bimodal grain size distributions and investigation of their mechanical behavior

    Flipon, B.; de la Cruz, L. Garcia; Hug, E.; Keller, C.; Barbe, F.

    2017-10-01

    Samples of 316L austenitic stainless steel with bimodal grain size distributions are elaborated using two distinct routes. The first one is based on powder metallurgy using spark plasma sintering of two powders with different particle sizes. The second route applies the reverse-annealing method: it consists in inducing martensitic phase transformation by plastic strain and further annealing in order to obtain two austenitic grain populations with different sizes. Microstructural analy ses reveal that both methods are suitable to generate significative grain size contrast and to control this contrast according to the elaboration conditions. Mechanical properties under tension are then characterized for different grain size distributions. Crystal plasticity finite element modelling is further applied in a configuration of bimodal distribution to analyse the role played by coarse grains within a matrix of fine grains, considering not only their volume fraction but also their spatial arrangement.

  10. The Effect of Grain Size and Strain on the Tensile Flow Stress of Aluminium at Room Temperature

    Hansen, Niels

    1977-01-01

    stress-grain size relationship was analyzed in terms of matrix strengthening and grain boundary strengthening according to the dislocation concept of Ashby. At intermediate strains this approach gives a good description of the effect of strain, grain size and purity on the flow stress.......Tensile-stress-strain data over a strain range from 0.2 to 30% were obtained at room temperature for 99.999 and 99.5% aluminium as a function of grain size. The yield stress-grain size relationship can be expressed by a Petch-Hall relation with approximately the same slope for the two materials....... The flow stress-grain size relationship can adequately be expressed by a modified Petch-Hall relation; for 99.999% aluminium material the slope increases with strain through a maximum around 15–20%, whereas for 99.5% aluminium the slope decreases with the strain to zero at strains about 10%. The flow...

  11. Absorption Efficiencies of Forsterite. I: DDA Explorations in Grain Shape and Size

    Lindsay, Sean S.; Wooden, Diane; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S.; Woodward, Charles E.; Murphy, Jim R.

    2013-01-01

    We compute the absorption efficiency (Q(sub abs)) of forsterite using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) in order to identify and describe what characteristics of crystal grain shape and size are important to the shape, peak location, and relative strength of spectral features in the 8 - 40 micron wavelength range. Using the DDSCAT code, we compute Q(sub abs) for non-spherical polyhedral grain shapes with a(sub eff) = 0.1 micron. The shape characteristics identified are: 1) elongation/reduction along one of three crystallographic axes; 2) asymmetry, such that all three crystallographic axes are of different lengths; and 3) the presence of crystalline faces that are not parallel to a specific crystallographic axis, e.g., non-rectangular prisms and (di)pyramids. Elongation/reduction dominates the locations and shapes of spectral features near 10, 11, 16, 23.5, 27, and 33.5 micron, while asymmetry and tips are secondary shape effects. Increasing grain sizes (0.1 - 1.0 micron) shifts the 10, 11 micron features systematically towards longer wavelengths and relative to the 11 micron feature increases the strengths and slightly broadens the longer wavelength features. Seven spectral shape classes are established for crystallographic a-, b-, and c-axes and include columnar and platelet shapes plus non-elongated or equant grain shapes. The spectral shape classes and the effects of grain size have practical application in identifying or excluding columnar, platelet or equant forsterite grain shapes in astrophysical environs. Identification of the shape characteristics of forsterite from 8 - 40 micron spectra provides a potential means to probe the temperatures at which forsterite formed.

  12. Rapid Grain Size Reduction in the Upper Mantle at a Plate Boundary

    Kidder, S. B.; Scott, J.; Prior, D. J.; Lubicich, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    A few spinel peridotite xenoliths found near the Alpine Fault, New Zealand, exhibit a mylonitic texture and, locally, an extremely fine 30 micron grain size. The harzburgite xenoliths were emplaced in a 200 km-long elongate dike zone interpreted as a gigantic tension fracture or Reidel shear associated with Alpine Fault initiation 25 Ma. The presence of thin ( 1 mm) ultramylonite zones with px-ol phase mixing and fine grain sizes, minimal crustal-scale strain associated with the dike swarm, and the absence of mylonites at four of the five xenolith localities associated with the dike swarm indicate that upper mantle deformation was highly localized. Strings of small, recrystallized grains (planes in 3D) are found in the interiors of olivine porphyroclasts. In some cases, bands 1-2 grains thick are traced from the edges of olivine grains and terminate in their interiors. Thicker zones of recrystallized grains are also observed crossing olivine porphyroclasts without apparent offset of the unrecrystallized remnants of the porphyroclasts. We suggest a brittle-plastic origin for these features since the traditional recrystallization mechanisms associated with dislocation creep require much more strain than occurred within these porphyroclasts. Analogous microstructures in quartz and feldspar in mid-crust deformation zones are attributed to brittle-plastic processes. We hypothesize that such fine-grained zones were the precursors of the observed, higher-strain ultramylonite zones. Given the size of the new grains preserved in the porphyroclasts ( 100 micron) and a moho temperature > 650°C, grain growth calculations indicate that the observed brittle-plastic deformation occurred <10,000 yrs. prior to eruption. It is likely then that either brittle-plastic deformation was coeval with the ductile shearing occurring in the ultramylonite bands, or possibly, if deformation can be separated into brittle-plastic (early) and ductile (later) phases, that the entire localization

  13. Strain Amount Dependent Grain Size and Orientation Developments during Hot Compression of a Polycrystalline Nickel Based Superalloy

    Guoai He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlling grain size in polycrystalline nickel base superalloy is vital for obtaining required mechanical properties. Typically, a uniform and fine grain size is required throughout forging process to realize the superplastic deformation. Strain amount occupied a dominant position in manipulating the dynamic recrystallization (DRX process and regulating the grain size of the alloy during hot forging. In this article, the high-throughput double cone specimen was introduced to yield wide-range strain in a single sample. Continuous variations of effective strain ranging from 0.23 to 1.65 across the whole sample were achieved after reaching a height reduction of 70%. Grain size is measured to be decreased from the edge to the center of specimen with increase of effective strain. Small misorientation tended to generate near the grain boundaries, which was manifested as piled-up dislocation in micromechanics. After the dislocation density reached a critical value, DRX progress would be initiated at higher deformation region, leading to the refinement of grain size. During this process, the transformations from low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs to high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs and from subgrains to DRX grains are found to occur. After the accomplishment of DRX progress, the neonatal grains are presented as having similar orientation inside the grain boundary.

  14. Evaluating the performance of species richness estimators: sensitivity to sample grain size

    Hortal, Joaquín; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Gaspar, Clara

    2006-01-01

    and several recent estimators [proposed by Rosenzweig et al. (Conservation Biology, 2003, 17, 864-874), and Ugland et al. (Journal of Animal Ecology, 2003, 72, 888-897)] performed poorly. 3.  Estimations developed using the smaller grain sizes (pair of traps, traps, records and individuals) presented similar....... Data obtained with standardized sampling of 78 transects in natural forest remnants of five islands were aggregated in seven different grains (i.e. ways of defining a single sample): islands, natural areas, transects, pairs of traps, traps, database records and individuals to assess the effect of using...

  15. Dependence of ultrasound attenuation in rare earth metals on ratio of grain size and wavelength

    Kanevskij, I.N.; Nisnevich, M.M.; Spasskaya, A.A.; Kaz'mina, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Results of investigation of dependences of ultrasound attenuation coefficient α on the ratio of grain average size D and wavelength lambda are presented. The investigations were carried out on rare earth metal samples produced by arc remelting in a vacuum furnace. It is shown that the way of α dependence curves of D/lambda for each of the rare earth metal is determined only by the D. This fact permits to use ultrasound measurement for control average diameter of the rare earth metal grain

  16. Grain size control method for the nozzles of AP1000 primary coolant pipes

    Wang, Shenglong [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Yanhui [Collaborative Innovation Center of Steel Technology, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Bin, E-mail: byang@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Steel Technology, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Mingxian [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Design a new forging technology for AP1000 primary coolant pipe. • Method combining FEM and scale-down experiments is adopted. • The grain size and distribution in simulation and experiment are consistent. • Get optimal forging parameters for production guiding. - Abstract: AP1000 primary coolant pipe is made of 316LN austenitic stainless steel. It is a large special-shaped pipe manufactured by integral forging technology. Owing to non-uniform temperature and deformation during forging, coarse grains often occur in the boss sections of the pipe especially in the nozzles’ parts. In the present study, a new forging technology was proposed to control the grain size. The finite element method was used to optimize the forging speed and friction coefficient, then the scale-down experiments were performed for comparison. The forging speed is suggested to be less than 20 mm/s, and effective lubricants should be used to decrease the friction coefficient. The errors of the grain size between the experiment and simulation are less than 20%.

  17. Grain size control method for the nozzles of AP1000 primary coolant pipes

    Wang, Shenglong; Sun, Yanhui; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Mingxian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a new forging technology for AP1000 primary coolant pipe. • Method combining FEM and scale-down experiments is adopted. • The grain size and distribution in simulation and experiment are consistent. • Get optimal forging parameters for production guiding. - Abstract: AP1000 primary coolant pipe is made of 316LN austenitic stainless steel. It is a large special-shaped pipe manufactured by integral forging technology. Owing to non-uniform temperature and deformation during forging, coarse grains often occur in the boss sections of the pipe especially in the nozzles’ parts. In the present study, a new forging technology was proposed to control the grain size. The finite element method was used to optimize the forging speed and friction coefficient, then the scale-down experiments were performed for comparison. The forging speed is suggested to be less than 20 mm/s, and effective lubricants should be used to decrease the friction coefficient. The errors of the grain size between the experiment and simulation are less than 20%.

  18. Grain size dependent electrical studies on nanocrystalline SnO2

    Bose, A. Chandra; Thangadurai, P.; Ramasamy, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline tin oxide (n-SnO 2 ) with different grain sizes were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Size variation was achieved by changing the hydrolysis processing time. Structural phases of the nanocrystalline SnO 2 were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The grain sizes of the prepared n-SnO 2 were found to be in the range 5-20 nm which were estimated using the Scherrer formula and they were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. The electrical properties of nanocrystalline SnO 2 were studied using impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectroscopy results showed that, in the temperature range between 25 and 650 deg. C, the conductivity has contributions from two different mechanisms, which are attributed to different conduction mechanisms in the grain and the grain boundary regions. This is because of the different relaxation times available for the conduction species in those regions. However, for the temperatures above 300 deg. C, there is no much difference between these two different relaxation times. The Arrhenius plots gave the activation energies for the conduction process in all the samples

  19. Enhanced ductility of surface nano-crystallized materials by modulating grain size gradient

    Li, Jianjun; Soh, A K

    2012-01-01

    Surface nano-crystallized (SNC) materials with a graded grain size distribution on their surfaces have been attracting increasing scientific interest over the past few decades due to their good synergy of high strength and high ductility. However, to date most of the existing studies have focused on the individual contribution of three different aspects, i.e. grain size gradient (GSG), work-hardened region and surface compressive residual stresses, which were induced by surface severe plastic deformation processes, to the improved strength of SNC materials as compared with that of their coarse grained (CG) counterparts. And the ductility of these materials has hardly been studied. In this study, a combination of theoretical analysis and finite element simulations was used to investigate the role of GSG in tuning the ductility of SNC materials. It was found that the ductility of an SNC material can be comparable to that of its CG counterpart, while it simultaneously possessed a much higher strength than its CG core if the optimal GSG thickness and grain size of the topmost phase were adopted. A design map that can be used as a guideline for fabrication of SNC materials was also plotted. Our predictions were also compared with the corresponding experimental results. (paper)

  20. GRAIN-SIZE MEASUREMENTS OF FLUVIAL GRAVEL BARS USING OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Pedro Castro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for classifying the average grain size in gravel bars require manual measurements of each grain diameter. Aiming productivity, more efficient methods have been developed by applying remote sensing techniques and digital image processing. This research proposes an Object-Based Image Analysis methodology to classify gravel bars in fluvial channels. First, the study evaluates the performance of multiresolution segmentation algorithm (available at the software eCognition Developer in performing shape recognition. The linear regression model was applied to assess the correlation between the gravels’ reference delineation and the gravels recognized by the segmentation algorithm. Furthermore, the supervised classification was validated by comparing the results with field data using the t-statistic test and the kappa index. Afterwards, the grain size distribution in gravel bars along the upper Bananeiras River, Brazil was mapped. The multiresolution segmentation results did not prove to be consistent with all the samples. Nonetheless, the P01 sample showed an R2 =0.82 for the diameter estimation and R2=0.45 the recognition of the eliptical ft. The t-statistic showed no significant difference in the efficiencies of the grain size classifications by the field survey data and the Object-based supervised classification (t = 2.133 for a significance level of 0.05. However, the kappa index was 0.54. The analysis of the both segmentation and classification results did not prove to be replicable.

  1. Grain size effects on stability of nonlinear vibration with nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy

    Xia, Minglu; Sun, Qingping

    2017-10-01

    Grain size effects on stability of thermomechanical responses for a nonlinear torsional vibration system with nanocrystalline superelastic NiTi bar are investigated in the frequency and amplitude domains. NiTi bars with average grain size from 10 nm to 100 nm are fabricated through cold-rolling and subsequent annealing. Thermomechanical responses of the NiTi bar as a softening nonlinear damping spring in the torsional vibration system are obtained by synchronised acquisition of rotational angle and temperature under external sinusoidal excitation. It is shown that nonlinearity and damping capacity of the NiTi bar decrease as average grain size of the material is reduced below 100 nm. Therefore jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses become less significant or even vanish and the vibration system becomes more stable. The work in this paper provides a solid experimental base for manipulating the undesired jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses and stabilising the mechanical vibration system through grain refinement of NiTi SMA.

  2. On Techniques to Characterize and Correlate Grain Size, Grain Boundary Orientation and the Strength of the SiC Layer of TRISO Coated Particles: A Preliminary Study

    I.J.van Rooyen; J.L. Dunzik Gougar; T. Trowbridge; Philip M van Rooyen

    2012-10-01

    The mechanical properties of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer of the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated particle (CP) for high temperature gas reactors (HTGR) are performance parameters that have not yet been standardized by the international HTR community. Presented in this paper are the results of characterizing coated particles to reveal the effect of annealing temperature (1000 to 2100°C) on the strength and grain size of unirradiated coated particles. This work was further expanded to include possible relationships between the grain size and strength values. The comparative results of two strength measurement techniques and grain size measured by the Lineal intercept method are included. Preliminary grain boundary characterization results determined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are included. These results are also important for future fission product transport studies, as grain boundary diffusion is identified as a possible mechanism by which 110mAg, one of the fission activation products, might be released through intact SiC layers. Temperature is a parameter known to influence the grain size of SiC and therefore it is important to investigate the effect of high temperature annealing on the SiC grain size. Recommendations and future work will also be briefly discussed.

  3. SPEED DEPENDENCE OF ACOUSTIC VIBRATION PROPAGATION FROM THE FERRITIC GRAIN SIZE IN LOW-CARBON STEEL

    I. A. Vakulenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is determining the nature of the ferrite grain size influence of low-carbon alloy steel on the speed propagation of acoustic vibrations. Methodology. The material for the research served a steel sheet of thickness 1.4 mm. Steel type H18T1 had a content of chemical elements within grade composition: 0, 12 % C, 17, 5 % Cr, 1 % Mn, 1, 1 % Ni, 0, 85 % Si, 0, 9 % Ti. The specified steel belongs to the semiferritic class of the accepted classification. The structural state of the metal for the study was obtained by cold plastic deformation by rolling at a reduction in the size range of 20-30 % and subsequent recrystallization annealing at 740 – 750 ° C. Different degrees of cold plastic deformation was obtained by pre-selection of the initial strip thickness so that after a desired amount of rolling reduction receives the same final thickness. The microstructure was observed under a light microscope, the ferrite grain size was determined using a quantitative metallographic technique. The using of X-ray structural analysis techniques allowed determining the level of second-order distortion of the crystal latitude of the ferrite. The speed propagation of acoustic vibrations was measured using a special device such as an ISP-12 with a working frequency of pulses 1.024 kHz. As the characteristic of strength used the hardness was evaluated by the Brinell’s method. Findings. With increasing of ferrite grain size the hardness of the steel is reduced. In the case of constant structural state of metal, reducing the size of the ferrite grains is accompanied by a natural increasing of the phase distortion. The dependence of the speed propagation of acoustic vibrations up and down the rolling direction of the ferrite grain size remained unchanged and reports directly proportional correlation. Originality. On the basis of studies to determine the direct impact of the proportional nature of the ferrite grain size on the rate of propagation of sound

  4. The mechanical behavior of metal alloys with grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates

    Skripnyak, V. A.; Skripnyak, V. V.; Skripnyak, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper discusses a multiscale simulation approach for the construction of grain structure of metals and alloys, providing high tensile strength with ductility. This work compares the mechanical behavior of light alloys and the influence of the grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates. The influence of the grain size distribution on the inelastic deformation and fracture of aluminium and magnesium alloys is investigated by computer simulations in a wide range of strain rates. It is shown that the yield stress depends on the logarithm of the normalized strain rate for light alloys with a bimodal grain distribution and coarse-grained structure.

  5. Seed origin and size of ponderosa pine planting stock grown at several California nurseries

    Frank J. Baron; Gilbert H. Schubert

    1963-01-01

    Ponderosa pine planting stock (1-0 and 2-0) grown from five different seed collection zones in the California pine region differed noticeably in size. On the west side of the Sierra Nevada, seeds from zones above 4,000 feet yielded smaller seedlings than those from lower zones, but larger seedlings than those from east-side sources. Average dimensions (seedling weight...

  6. Quantitative analysis of crystal/grain sizes and their distributions in 2D and 3D

    Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver

    2011-01-01

    data for grain size data are either 1D (i.e. line intercept methods), 2D (area analysis) or 3D (e.g., computed tomography, serial sectioning). These data have been used for different data treatments over the years, whereas several studies assume a certain probability function (e.g., logarithm, square......-piezometers or grain size sensitive flow laws. Such compatibility is tested for different data treatments using one- and two-dimensional measurements. We propose an empirical conversion matrix for different datasets. These conversion factors provide the option to make different datasets compatible with each other...... is important for studies of nucleation and growth of minerals. The shape of the crystal size distribution of garnet populations is compared between different 2D and 3D measurements, which are serial sectioning and computed tomography. The comparison of different direct measured 3D data; stereological data...

  7. Application of carbon extraction replicas in grain-size measurements of high-strength steels using TEM

    Poorhaydari, Kioumars; Ivey, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the application of carbon extraction replicas in grain-size measurements is introduced and discussed. Modern high-strength microalloyed steels, used as structural or pipeline materials, have very small grains with substructures. Replicas used in transmission electron microscopes can resolve the grain boundaries and can be used for systematic measurement of grain size in cases where the small size of the grains pushes the resolution of conventional optical microscopes. The grain-size variations obtained from replicas are compared with those obtained from optical and scanning electron microscopy. An emphasis is placed on the importance of using the correct technique for imaging and the optimal magnification. Grain-size measurements are used for estimation of grain-boundary strengthening contribution to yield strength. The variation in grain size is also correlated with hardness in the base metal of several microalloyed steels, as well as the fine-grained heat-affected zone of a weld structure with several heat inputs

  8. Uncovering the genetic architecture of seed weight and size in intermediate wheatgrass through linkage and association mapping

    Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG); Thinopyrum intermedium) is being developed as a new perennial grain crop that has a large allohexaploid genome similar to that of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Breeding for increased seed weight is one of the primary goals for improving grain yield of IWG. As a new crop, ...

  9. Grain Size Distribution in Mudstones: A Question of Nature vs. Nurture

    Schieber, J.

    2011-12-01

    Grain size distribution in mudstones is affected by the composition of the source material, the processes of transport and deposition, and post-depositional diagenetic modification. With regard to source, it does make a difference whether for example a slate belt is eroded vs a stable craton. The former setting tends to provide a broad range of detrital quartz in the sub 62 micron size range in addition to clays and greenschist grade rock fragments, whereas the latter may be biased towards coarser quartz silt (30-60 microns), in addition to clays and mica flakes. In flume experiments, when fine grained materials are transported in turbulent flows at velocities that allow floccules to transfer to bedload, a systematic shift of grain size distribution towards an increasingly finer grained suspended load is observed as velocity is lowered. This implies that the bedload floccules are initially constructed of only the coarsest clay particles at high velocities, and that finer clay particles become incorporated into floccules as velocity is lowered. Implications for the rock record are that clay beds deposited from decelerating flows should show subtle internal grading of coarser clay particles; and that clay beds deposited from continuous fast flows should show a uniform distribution of coarse clays. Still water settled clays should show a well developed lower (coarser) and upper (finer) subdivision. A final complication arises when diagenetic processes, such as the dissolution of biogenic silica, give rise to diagenetic quartz grains in the silt to sand size range. This diagenetic silica precipitates in fossil cavities and pore spaces of uncompacted muds, and on casual inspection can be mistaken for detrital quartz. In distal mudstone successions close to 100 % of "apparent" quartz silt can be of that origin, and reworking by bottom currents can further enhance a detrital perception by producing rippled and laminated silt beds. Although understanding how size

  10. Influence of grain size on lithium storage performance of germanium oxide films

    Feng, J.K.; Lai, M.O.; Lu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deposited GeO 2 thin films at different temperatures to form different grain sizes. ► Li storage of GeO 2 as anode was studied, which shows that the GeO 2 with grain size of about 10 nm reveals high capacity retention. ► Nanograined GeO 2 also shows better rate capability and cyclability. - Abstract: Germanium oxide (GeO 2 ) films with two different grain sizes of 10 nm (GeO 2 (10 nm)) and 100 nm (GeO 2 (100 nm)) were grown via reactive radio frequency sputtering at different temperatures. Electrochemical measurements of the GeO 2 (10 nm) thin film used as an anode in Li ion rechargeable batteries show superior capacity retention and rate capability compared to those of GeO 2 (100 nm). The GeO 2 (10 nm) thin film possesses an initial capacity of 930 mAh g −1 with 89% capacity retention after 100 cycles, compared with 455 mAh g −1 with 53% of GeO 2 (100 nm) and 225 mAh g −1 , 30% (10 cycles) of common macro-size GeO 2 . Microstructural studies reveal that the GeO 2 (10 nm) thin film can better accommodate volume changes during Li–Ge alloying and de-alloying processes.

  11. Size and density sorting of dust grains in SPH simulations of protoplanetary discs

    Pignatale, F. C.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Cuello, Nicolas; Bourdon, Bernard; Fitoussi, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    The size and density of dust grains determine their response to gas drag in protoplanetary discs. Aerodynamical (size × density) sorting is one of the proposed mechanisms to explain the grain properties and chemical fractionation of chondrites. However, the efficiency of aerodynamical sorting and the location in the disc in which it could occur are still unknown. Although the effects of grain sizes and growth in discs have been widely studied, a simultaneous analysis including dust composition is missing. In this work, we present the dynamical evolution and growth of multicomponent dust in a protoplanetary disc using a 3D, two-fluid (gas+dust) smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the dust vertical settling is characterized by two phases: a density-driven phase that leads to a vertical chemical sorting of dust and a size-driven phase that enhances the amount of lighter material in the mid-plane. We also see an efficient radial chemical sorting of the dust at large scales. We find that dust particles are aerodynamically sorted in the inner disc. The disc becomes sub-solar in its Fe/Si ratio on the surface since the early stage of evolution but sub-solar Fe/Si can be also found in the outer disc-mid-plane at late stages. Aggregates in the disc mimic the physical and chemical properties of chondrites, suggesting that aerodynamical sorting played an important role in determining their final structure.

  12. Radon diffusion through sandy construction materials: effect of temperature and grain size

    Narula, A.K.; Goyal, S.K.; Jain, Ravinder; Kant, Krishan; Yadav, Mani Kant; Chauhan, R.P.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion process from the point of origin, say, under ground soil and building materials used in construction of house following alpha decay of radium. The radon diffusion through different building construction materials can be compared by calculating radon diffusion coefficient for them. In the present work, we studied the effect of temperature and grain size on radon diffusion of coarse sand as construction material. The coarse sand was collected from Yamuna river bed, originated from Himalayas. For this study, a steel pipe of diameter 10 cm and length 30 cm., divided into four sectors of equal size, was filled in different sectors with different grain sized (800, 600 and 425 μm) sand as building construction material. A number LR-115 type-II particle track detectors were placed with inter-detector distance of 10 cm in the sectorial compartments. The bottom end of steel pipe assembly was fixed with a radon chamber containing radon source with upper end sealed with a cap. The whole arrangement was then placed into a sand-clay pipe wrapped around by a controlled heating filament, resulting into temperature variations from 25℃ to 60℃. After 100 days interval, the detectors were retrieved processed, and the α - tracks counted for the calculation of radon concentration. It is observed that the radon diffusion coefficient increases with the increase in temperature and decreases with decrease in grain size of the coarse sand. (author)

  13. Distribution of garnet grain sizes and morphologies across the Moine Supergroup, northern Scottish Caledonides

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Thigpen, J. Ryan; Law, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is used in a wide range of geologic studies due to its important physical and chemical characteristics. While the mineral is useful for thermobarometry and geochronology constraints and can often be correlated to deformation and fabric development, difficulties remain in making meaningful interpretations of such data. In this study, we characterize garnet grain sizes and crystal morphologies from 141 garnet-bearing metasedimentary rock samples collected from the northern part of the Moine Supergroup in the Scottish Caledonides. Larger, euhedral crystals are indicative of prograde metamorphic growth and are typically associated with the most recent phase of orogenesis (Scandian, ˜430 Ma). Small, rounded ("pin-head") garnets are interpreted as detrital in origin. A subhedral classification is more subjective and is used when garnets contains portions of straight boundaries but have rounded edges or rims that have been altered through retrograde metamorphic reactions. From our collection, 88 samples contain anhedral garnets (maximum measured grain size d = 0.46 ± 0.21 mm), 34 bear subhedral garnets (d = 2.0 ± 1.0 mm), and the remaining 19 samples contain garnets with euhedral grains (d = 4.4 ± 2.6 mm). Plotting the distribution of garnets relative to the mapped thrust contacts reveals an abrupt change in morphology and grain size when traced from the Moine thrust sheet across the Ben Hope and Sgurr Beag thrusts into the higher-grade, more hinterland-positioned thrust sheets. The dominance of anhedral garnets in the Moine thrust sheet suggests that these grains should not be used for peak P - T estimation associated with relatively low temperature (advance of interpreting large suits of garnet-derived thermodynamic and geochronologic data.

  14. Influence of the initial grain size of silicon on microstructure and mechanical properties of reaction-sintered silicon nitride

    Heinrich, J.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the initial grain size of the silicon powder on the microstructure and the resulting mechanical properties are studied. The smaller the grain size of the silicon powders used, the higher will be the degree of reaction at the beginning of the nitridation reaction and the higher the amount of α-modification in the fully nitridated samples. Moreover, the nitrification time can be considerably shortened when fine-grained silicon powders ( [de

  15. Ultrasound Assisted Particle Size Control by Continuous Seed Generation and Batch Growth

    Jordens, Jeroen; Canini, Enio; Gielen, Bjorn; Van Gerven, Tom; Braeken, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Controlling particle size is essential for crystal quality in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Several articles illustrate the potential of ultrasound to tune this particle size during the crystallization process. This paper investigates how ultrasound can control the particle size distribution (PSD) of acetaminophen crystals by continuous seed generation in a tubular crystallizer followed by batch growth. It is demonstrated that the supersaturation ratio at which ultrasound starts s...

  16. Effect of grain size and arrangement on dynamic damage evolution of ductile metal

    Qi Mei-Lan; Zhong Sheng; Fan Duan; Zhao Li; He Hong-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Plate-impact experiments have been carried out to examine the effect of grain size and grain arrangement on the damage evolution of ultrapure aluminum. Two groups of samples, “cross-cut“ and “longitudinal-cut,“ are obtained from the rolled aluminum rod along different directions. The peak compressive stress is approximately 1.25 GPa−1.61 GPa, which can cause incipient spall damage that is correlated to the material microstructure. The metallographic analyses of all recovered samples show that nearly all damage nucleates at the grain boundaries, especially those with larger curvature. Moreover, under lower shock stress, the spall strength of the “longitudinal-cut“ sample is smaller than that of the “cross-cut“ sample, because the different grain sizes and arrangement of the two samples cause different nucleation, growth, and coalescence processes. In this study, the difference in the damage distribution between “longitudinal-cut“ and “cross-cut“ samples and the causes for this difference under lower shock-loading conditions are also analyzed by both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. It is very important for these conclusions to establish a reasonable and perfect equation of damage evolution for ductile metals. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  17. Quantification by image analysis of grain size of the high temperature phase (austenite) of martensitic steels 9Cr-1Mo

    Barcelo, F.; Brachet, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In martensitic steels, the austenitic grain size before transformation may influence mechanical properties. 9Cr-1Mo steel (EM10) is used in hexagonal pipes fabrication in fast neutrons reactors. Image analysis allows to quantify the older grain size in function of the austenization heat treatment conditions. (A.B.). 2 figs

  18. Correlation Between Grain Size Distribution and Silicon and Oxygen Contents at Wadi Arar Sediments, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    M. A. M. Alghamdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Quartz is the major mineral of Wadi Arar sediments. The top two elements contents are oxygen with 63.96 wt%, followed by silicon with 16.35 wt%. There is a positive, weak to medium correlation between grain size and silicon and oxygen contents. The correlation between oxygen and grain size is four times higher than that of silicon. At grain size ranges between 0.8 and 1.0 mm, both oxygen and silicon show the maximum correlation, which decrease gradually with finer and coarser grain sizes. For each element, the correlation between the element content and grain size is a fourth degree polynomial in the grain size. Theoretically, the best two math models that represent the relation between the grain size distribution and each of individual oxygen and silicon content are y=8.84∙ln(x+39.5 and y=2.26∙ln(x+10.1 respectively, where y represents the element content percentage and x represents the corresponding grain size in mm.

  19. Effect of grain size and cold working on high temperature strength of Hastelloy X

    Fujioka, J.; Murase, H.; Matsuda, S.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of grain size and cold working on creep, creep rupture, low cycle fatigue and tensile strengths of Hastelloy X were studied at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000 0 C. In order to apply these data to design, the allowable design stresses were estimated by expanding the criteria of ASME Code Case 1592 to such a high temperature range. The allowable design stress increased, on the other hand, the low cycle fatigue life decreased with increasing grain size. Cold working up to a ratio of 5 per cent may not be a serious problem in design, because the allowable design stress and the fatigue life were little affected. The cause of these variations in strength was discussed by examining the initiation and growth of cracks, and the microstructures. (author)

  20. Identifying grain-size dependent errors on global forest area estimates and carbon studies

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    Satellite-derived coarse-resolution data are typically used for conducting global analyses. But the forest areas estimated from coarse-resolution maps (e.g., 1 km) inevitably differ from a corresponding fine-resolution map (such as a 30-m map) that would be closer to ground truth. A better understanding of changes in grain size on area estimation will improve our...

  1. Grain Size and Heat Source Effect on the Drying Profile of Cocoa ...

    Four sweat boxes were constructed with wooden material (0.95 x 0.25 x 0.25m) L x W x H and one electric bulb with 100,200,300 and 400watts rating hoisted in each box interchangeably. Cocoa bean cleaned and sorted into four different grain sizes samples (A, B, C, D) was subjected to drying till 13-14% moisture content ...

  2. Effect of grain size, deformation, aging and anisotropy on hysteresis loss of electrical steels

    Landgraf, F.J.G.; Emura, M.; Teixeira, J.C.; Campos, M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of cold deformation, anisotropy, aging and grain size on the shape of the hysteresis curve of non-oriented electrical steels shows that most of the hysteresis energy is dissipated in the high-induction region (above the maximum permeability induction). It indicates that more attention should be given to the energy dissipation mechanisms in that region, such as the domain annihilation and nucleation

  3. Effect of effective grain size on Charpy impact properties of high-strength bainitic steels

    Shin, Sang Yong; Han, Seung Youb; Lee, Sung Hak; Hwang, Byoung Chul; Lee, Chang Gil

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with the effect of Cu and B addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength bainitic steels. Six kinds of steels were fabricated by varying alloying elements and hot-rolling conditions, and their microstructures and tensile and Charpy impact properties were investigated. Their effective grain sizes were also characterized by the electron back-scatter diffraction analysis. The tensile test results indicated that the B- or Cu-containing steels had the higher yield and tensile strengths than the B- or Cu-free steels because their volume fractions of bainitic ferrite and martensite were quite high. The B- or Cu-free steels had the higher upper shelf energy than the B- or Cu-containing steels because of their higher volume fraction of granular bainite. In the steel containing 10 ppm B without Cu, the best combination of high strengths, high upper shelf energy, and low energy transition temperature could be obtained by the decrease in the overall effective grain size due to the presence of bainitic ferrite having smaller effective grain size

  4. Development Support Environment of Business ApplicationsBased on a Multi-Grain-Size Repository

    Terai, Koichi; Izumi, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In order to build the Web-based application as a shopping site on the Web, various ideas from the different viewpoints are required, such as enterprise modeling, workflow modeling, software development, and so on. From the above standpoint, this paper proposes an integrated environment to support the whole development process of analysis, design and implementation of business application. In order to reuse know-hows of various ideas in the business application development, we device a multi-grain-size repository, which consists of coarse-, middle-, and fine-grain-size repositories that correspond to the enterprise models, workflow models, and software models, respectively. We also provide a methodology that rebuilds heterogeneous information resources required for the business applications development into a multi-grain-size repository based on ontologies. The contents of the repositories are modeled by the is-a, has-a, and E-R relations, and described by the XML language. We have implemented Java-based prototype environment with the tools dealing with the multi-layered repository and confirmed that it supports us in various phases of business application development including business model manifestation, detailed business model definition and an implementation of business software applications.

  5. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution for different depositional environments

    Rosas, Jorge

    2013-06-06

    Over 400 unlithified sediment samples were collected from four different depositional environments in global locations and the grain-size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured using standard methods. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations (e.g., Hazen, Carman-Kozeny) commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values with errors ranging to over 500%. To improve the empirical estimation methodology, the samples were grouped by depositional environment and subdivided into subgroups based on lithology and mud percentage. The empirical methods were then analyzed to assess which methods best estimated the measured values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and addition of offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, offshore marine, and river sediments. Estimated hydraulic conductivity errors were reduced to 6 to 7.1m/day for the beach subgroups, 3.4 to 7.1m/day for dune subgroups, and 2.2 to 11m/day for offshore sediments subgroups. Improvements were made for river environments, but still produced high errors between 13 and 23m/day. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  6. New empirical relationship between grain size distribution and hydraulic conductivity for ephemeral streambed sediments

    Rosas, Jorge

    2014-07-19

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were determined for 39 sediment samples collected from ephemeral streams (wadis) in western Saudi Arabia. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain size analyses. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly with the measured hydraulic conductivity values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and statistical offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improved the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for wadi sediments. The Chapuis, Hazen, Kozeny, Slichter, Terzaghi, and Barr equations produced the best correlations, but still had relatively high predictive errors. The Chapius equation was modified for wadi sediments by incorporating mud percentage and the standard deviation (in phi units) into a new equation that reduced the predicted hydraulic conductivity error to ±14.1 m/day. The equation is best applied to ephemeral stream samples that have hydraulic conductive values greater than 2 m/day.

  7. Effects of Particle Size on the Shear Behavior of Coarse Grained Soils Reinforced with Geogrid

    Daehyeon Kim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to design civil structures that are supported by soils, the shear strength parameters of soils are required. Due to the large particle size of coarse-grained soils, large direct shear tests should be performed. In this study, large direct shear tests on three types of coarse grained soils (4.5 mm, 7.9 mm, and 15.9 mm were performed to evaluate the effects of particle size on the shear behavior of coarse grained soils with/without geogrid reinforcements. Based on the direct shear test results, it was found that, in the case of no-reinforcement, the larger the maximum particle size became, the larger the friction angle was. Compared with the no-reinforcement case, the cases reinforced with either soft geogrid or stiff geogrid have smaller friction angles. The cohesion of the soil reinforced with stiff geogrid was larger than that of the soil reinforced with soft geogrid. The difference in the shear strength occurs because the case with a stiff geogrid has more soil to geogrid contact area, leading to the reduction in interlocking between soil particles.

  8. Effects of Particle Size on the Shear Behavior of Coarse Grained Soils Reinforced with Geogrid.

    Kim, Daehyeon; Ha, Sungwoo

    2014-02-07

    In order to design civil structures that are supported by soils, the shear strength parameters of soils are required. Due to the large particle size of coarse-grained soils, large direct shear tests should be performed. In this study, large direct shear tests on three types of coarse grained soils (4.5 mm, 7.9 mm, and 15.9 mm) were performed to evaluate the effects of particle size on the shear behavior of coarse grained soils with/without geogrid reinforcements. Based on the direct shear test results, it was found that, in the case of no-reinforcement, the larger the maximum particle size became, the larger the friction angle was. Compared with the no-reinforcement case, the cases reinforced with either soft geogrid or stiff geogrid have smaller friction angles. The cohesion of the soil reinforced with stiff geogrid was larger than that of the soil reinforced with soft geogrid. The difference in the shear strength occurs because the case with a stiff geogrid has more soil to geogrid contact area, leading to the reduction in interlocking between soil particles.

  9. Energy saving cement production by grain size optimisation of the raw meal

    B. Simons

    Full Text Available The production of cement clinker is an energy consuming process. At about 50% of the energy is associated with grinding and milling of the raw meal, that normally is in the range 100% <200 μm with 90% <90 μm. Question: is it possible to use coarser components of the raw meal without reducing the clinker quality. With synthetic raw meals of various grain sizes the clinker formation was studied at static (1100 - 1450°C and dynamic conditions (heating microscope. A routine to adjust the grain size of the components for industrial raw meals is developed. The fine fraction <90 μm should mainly contain the siliceous and argileous components, whereas the calcitic component can be milled separately to a grain size between 200-500 μm, resulting in lower energy consumption for milling. Considering the technical and economical realizability the relation fine/coarse should be roughly 1:1. The energy for milling can be reduced significantly, that in addition leads to the preservation of natural energy resources.

  10. Grain size and burnup dependence of spent fuel oxidation: Geological repository impact

    Kansa, E.J.; Hanson, B.D.; Stout, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Further refinements to the oxidation model of Stout et al. have been made. The present model incorporates the burnup dependence of the oxidation rate and an allowance for a distribution of grain sizes. The model was tested by comparing the model results with the oxidation histories of spent-fuel samples oxidized in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) or oven dry-bath (ODB) experiments. The experimental and model results are remarkably close and confirm the assumption that grain-size distributions and activation energies are the important parameters to predicting oxidation behavior. The burnup dependence of the activation energy was shown to have a greater effect than decreasing the effective grain size in suppressing the rate of the reaction U 4 O 9 r↓U 3 O 8 . Model results predict that U 3 O 8 formation of spent fuels exposed to oxygen will be suppressed even for high burnup fuels that have undergone restructuring in the rim region, provided the repository temperature is kept sufficiently low

  11. Influence of grain size distribution on dynamic shear modulus of sands

    Dyka Ireneusz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory tests, that verify the correlation between the grain-size characteristics of non-cohesive soils and the value of the dynamic shear modulus. The problem is a continuation of the research performed at the Institute of Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics in Karlsruhe, by T. Wichtmann and T. Triantafyllidis, who derived the extension of the applicability of the Hardin’s equation describing the explicite dependence between the grain size distribution of sands and the values of dynamic shear modulus. For this purpose, piezo-ceramic bender elements generating elastic waves were used to investigate the mechanical properties of the specimens with artificially generated particle distribution. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis that grain size distribution of non-cohesive soils has a significant influence on the dynamic shear modulus, but at the same time they have shown that obtaining unambiguous results from bender element tests is a difficult task in practical applications.

  12. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution for different depositional environments

    Rosas, Jorge; Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Missimer, Thomas M.; Coulibaly, Kapo M.; Dehwah, Abdullah; Sesler, Kathryn; Rodri­ guez, Luis R. Lujan; Mantilla, David

    2013-01-01

    Over 400 unlithified sediment samples were collected from four different depositional environments in global locations and the grain-size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured using standard methods. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations (e.g., Hazen, Carman-Kozeny) commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values with errors ranging to over 500%. To improve the empirical estimation methodology, the samples were grouped by depositional environment and subdivided into subgroups based on lithology and mud percentage. The empirical methods were then analyzed to assess which methods best estimated the measured values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and addition of offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, offshore marine, and river sediments. Estimated hydraulic conductivity errors were reduced to 6 to 7.1m/day for the beach subgroups, 3.4 to 7.1m/day for dune subgroups, and 2.2 to 11m/day for offshore sediments subgroups. Improvements were made for river environments, but still produced high errors between 13 and 23m/day. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  13. New empirical relationship between grain size distribution and hydraulic conductivity for ephemeral streambed sediments

    Rosas, Jorge; Jadoon, Khan; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were determined for 39 sediment samples collected from ephemeral streams (wadis) in western Saudi Arabia. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain size analyses. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly with the measured hydraulic conductivity values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and statistical offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improved the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for wadi sediments. The Chapuis, Hazen, Kozeny, Slichter, Terzaghi, and Barr equations produced the best correlations, but still had relatively high predictive errors. The Chapius equation was modified for wadi sediments by incorporating mud percentage and the standard deviation (in phi units) into a new equation that reduced the predicted hydraulic conductivity error to ±14.1 m/day. The equation is best applied to ephemeral stream samples that have hydraulic conductive values greater than 2 m/day.

  14. A visual basic program to generate sediment grain-size statistics and to extrapolate particle distributions

    Poppe, L.J.; Eliason, A.H.; Hastings, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Measures that describe and summarize sediment grain-size distributions are important to geologists because of the large amount of information contained in textural data sets. Statistical methods are usually employed to simplify the necessary comparisons among samples and quantify the observed differences. The two statistical methods most commonly used by sedimentologists to describe particle distributions are mathematical moments (Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938) and inclusive graphics (Folk, 1974). The choice of which of these statistical measures to use is typically governed by the amount of data available (Royse, 1970). If the entire distribution is known, the method of moments may be used; if the next to last accumulated percent is greater than 95, inclusive graphics statistics can be generated. Unfortunately, earlier programs designed to describe sediment grain-size distributions statistically do not run in a Windows environment, do not allow extrapolation of the distribution's tails, or do not generate both moment and graphic statistics (Kane and Hubert, 1963; Collias et al., 1963; Schlee and Webster, 1967; Poppe et al., 2000)1.Owing to analytical limitations, electro-resistance multichannel particle-size analyzers, such as Coulter Counters, commonly truncate the tails of the fine-fraction part of grain-size distributions. These devices do not detect fine clay in the 0.6–0.1 μm range (part of the 11-phi and all of the 12-phi and 13-phi fractions). Although size analyses performed down to 0.6 μm microns are adequate for most freshwater and near shore marine sediments, samples from many deeper water marine environments (e.g. rise and abyssal plain) may contain significant material in the fine clay fraction, and these analyses benefit from extrapolation.The program (GSSTAT) described herein generates statistics to characterize sediment grain-size distributions and can extrapolate the fine-grained end of the particle distribution. It is written in Microsoft

  15. Size and Density of Artemisia annua Stomata Soaked in Water Extract of Gloriosa superba Seeds

    Sri Indah Rahmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herbaceous plant that produces artemisinin as a malaria drug, haemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial. Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains high colchicine compounds, especially on the seeds. Gloriosa superba extracts of tubers, stems, seeds, and leaves were used as biomutagen for many plants. Colchicine contains of these plants as antimitotic have been studied and proven by the mitotic index plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds was used as a mutagen for Artemisia annua. The aim of this study was to determine the size and density of Artemisia annua stomata soaked in water extract of Gloriosa superba seeds as a mutagen. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained naturally on Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul by using a maceration method with water solvent (1:1. Artemisia annua sprouts were obtained from B2P2TOOT Tawangmangu. Variables treatment on sprouts using water extract concentration of Gloriosa superba seeds and soaking time of Artemisia annua sprouts. Measurements of stomatal length, width and density were conducted in epidermis of Artemisia annua leaf. Observation and measurements of the stomata were conducted by using a light microscope. The results showed that the length and width of stomata were 0.025 mm and 0.017 mm respectively. The stomatal density of the control leaf (174.69 amount/mm2 was lower than the other treated plants. Stomatal size and density has increased with the increasing concentration extracts on treated plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds proved the effects on stomatal size and density of treated plants.  

  16. DUST DYNAMICS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISK WINDS DRIVEN BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE: A MECHANISM FOR FLOATING DUST GRAINS WITH CHARACTERISTIC SIZES

    Miyake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: miyake.tomoya@e.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: stakeru@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    We investigate the dynamics of dust grains of various sizes in protoplanetary disk winds driven by magnetorotational turbulence, by simulating the time evolution of the dust grain distribution in the vertical direction. Small dust grains, which are well-coupled to the gas, are dragged upward with the upflowing gas, while large grains remain near the midplane of a disk. Intermediate-size grains float near the sonic point of the disk wind located at several scale heights from the midplane, where the grains are loosely coupled to the background gas. For the minimum mass solar nebula at 1 au, dust grains with size of 25–45 μm float around 4 scale heights from the midplane. Considering the dependence on the distance from the central star, smaller-size grains remain only in an outer region of the disk, while larger-size grains are distributed in a broader region. We also discuss the implications of our result for observations of dusty material around young stellar objects.

  17. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.

    Clark, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic

  18. Effect of Different Size Dust Grains on the Properties of Solitary Waves in Space Environments

    Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    Propagation of nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of dust grains obey power law dust size distribution and nonthermal ions are investigated. For nonlinear DA waves, a reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the first-order potential. The effects of a dust size distribution, dust radius and the non-thermal distribution of ions on the soliton amplitude, width and energy of electrostatic solitary structures are presented

  19. Seed maturation associated transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying genotypic difference in seed dormancy and size/weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Gao, Feng; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2017-09-16

    Maturation forms one of the critical seed developmental phases and it is characterized mainly by programmed cell death, dormancy and desiccation, however, the transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying acquisition of dormancy and deposition of storage reserves during the maturation phase of seed development are poorly understood in wheat. The present study performed comparative spatiotemporal transcriptomic analysis of seed maturation in two wheat genotypes with contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotype. The embryo and endosperm tissues of maturing seeds appeared to exhibit genotype-specific temporal shifts in gene expression profile that might contribute to the seed phenotypic variations. Functional annotations of gene clusters suggest that the two tissues exhibit distinct but genotypically overlapping molecular functions. Motif enrichment predicts genotypically distinct abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) regulated transcriptional networks contribute to the contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotypes between the two genotypes. While other ABA responsive element (ABRE) motifs are enriched in both genotypes, the prevalence of G-box-like motif specifically in tissues of the dormant genotype suggests distinct ABA mediated transcriptional mechanisms control the establishment of dormancy during seed maturation. In agreement with this, the bZIP transcription factors that co-express with ABRE enriched embryonic genes differ with genotype. The enrichment of SITEIIATCYTC motif specifically in embryo clusters of maturing seeds irrespective of genotype predicts a tissue specific role for the respective TCP transcription factors with no or minimal contribution to the variations in seed dormancy. The results of this study advance our understanding of the seed maturation associated molecular mechanisms underlying variation in dormancy and weight/size in wheat seeds, which is a critical step towards the designing of molecular strategies

  20. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Grains against Cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) Using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils

    Ilesanmi, Joana O.; Gungula, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea) of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfe...

  1. Interpreting Hydraulic Conditions from Morphology, Sedimentology, and Grain Size of Sand Bars in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    Rubin, D. M.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.; Grams, P. E.; Buscombe, D.; East, A. E.; Wright, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    During three decades of research on sand bars and sediment transport in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, we have collected unprecedented quantities of data on bar morphology, sedimentary structures, grain size of sand on the riverbed (~40,000 measurements), grain size of sand in flood deposits (dozens of vertical grain-size profiles), and time series of suspended sediment concentration and grain size (more than 3 million measurements using acoustic and laser-diffraction instruments sampling every 15 minutes at several locations). These data, which include measurements of flow and suspended sediment as well as sediment within the deposits, show that grain size within flood deposits generally coarsens or fines proportionally to the grain size of sediment that was in suspension when the beds were deposited. The inverse problem of calculating changing flow conditions from a vertical profile of grain size within a deposit is difficult because at least two processes can cause similar changes. For example, upward coarsening in a deposit can result from either an increase in discharge of the flow (causing coarser sand to be transported to the depositional site), or from winnowing of the upstream supply of sand (causing suspended sand to coarsen because a greater proportion of the bed that is supplying sediment is covered with coarse grains). These two processes can be easy to distinguish where suspended-sediment observations are available: flow-regulated changes cause concentration and grain size of sand in suspension to be positively correlated, whereas changes in supply can cause concentration and grain size of sand in suspension to be negatively correlated. The latter case (supply regulation) is more typical of flood deposits in Grand Canyon.

  2. Microstructure and grain size effects on irradiation hardening of low carbon steel for reactor tanks

    Milasin, N [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-05-15

    Irradiation hardening of steel for reactor pressure vessels has been studied extensively during the past few years. A great number of experimental results concerning the behaviour of these steels in the radiation field and several review papers (1,2) have been published. Most of the papers deal with the effects of specific metallurgical factors or irradiation conditions (temperature, flux) on irradiation hardening and embrittlement. In addition, a number of experiments are performed to give evidence on the mechanism of irradiation hardening of these steels. However, this mechanism is still unknown due to the complexity of steel as a system. Among different methods used in radiation damage studies, the changes of mechanical properties have been mainly investigated. By using Hall-Petch's empirical relation, {sigma}{sub y}={sigma}{sub i}+k{sub y} d{sup -1/2} between lower yield stress, {sigma}{sub y}, and grain size, 2d, the information about the effect of irradiation on the parameters {sigma}{sub i} and k{sub y} is obtained. Taking as a base interpretation of {sigma}{sub i} and k{sub y} given by Petch and his co-workers it has been concluded that radiation does not change the stress to start slip but that it increase the friction that opposes the passage of free dislocations across a slip plane. In attempting to apply Hall-Petch's relation to one unirradiated ferritic steel with a carbon content higher than 0.15% some difficulties were encountered. The results obtained indicate that the influence of grain size can not be isolated from other factors introduced by the treatments used to produce different grain sizes. This paper deals with a similar problem in the case of irradiated steel. The results obtained give the changes of the mechanical properties of steel in neutron irradiation field as a function of microstructure and grain size. In addition, the mechanical properties of irradiated steel are measured after annealing at 150 deg C and 450 deg C. On the basis of

  3. Microstructure and grain size effects on irradiation hardening of low carbon steel for reactor tanks

    Milasin, N.

    1964-05-01

    Irradiation hardening of steel for reactor pressure vessels has been studied extensively during the past few years. A great number of experimental results concerning the behaviour of these steels in the radiation field and several review papers (1,2) have been published. Most of the papers deal with the effects of specific metallurgical factors or irradiation conditions (temperature, flux) on irradiation hardening and embrittlement. In addition, a number of experiments are performed to give evidence on the mechanism of irradiation hardening of these steels. However, this mechanism is still unknown due to the complexity of steel as a system. Among different methods used in radiation damage studies, the changes of mechanical properties have been mainly investigated. By using Hall-Petch's empirical relation, σ y =σ i +k y d -1/2 between lower yield stress, σ y , and grain size, 2d, the information about the effect of irradiation on the parameters σ i and k y is obtained. Taking as a base interpretation of σ i and k y given by Petch and his co-workers it has been concluded that radiation does not change the stress to start slip but that it increase the friction that opposes the passage of free dislocations across a slip plane. In attempting to apply Hall-Petch's relation to one unirradiated ferritic steel with a carbon content higher than 0.15% some difficulties were encountered. The results obtained indicate that the influence of grain size can not be isolated from other factors introduced by the treatments used to produce different grain sizes. This paper deals with a similar problem in the case of irradiated steel. The results obtained give the changes of the mechanical properties of steel in neutron irradiation field as a function of microstructure and grain size. In addition, the mechanical properties of irradiated steel are measured after annealing at 150 deg C and 450 deg C. On the basis of the experimental results obtained the relative microstructure and

  4. The effect of current density and saccharin addition on the grain size of nickel coatings

    Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Yung; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Recently, the main advantage of a radioisotope 'fuel' is concentrated, because it is 'burned' at the rate of the isotopes half life. In other words, given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery would still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on thin non radioactive nickel foil. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To establish the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles were dissolved in an acid solution and electroplated on the Ni sheet. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of the Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the influence of current density and saccharin concentration on the grain size, was investigated. The proposed model can also be applied for radioactive Ni 63 electroplating.

  5. The effect of current density and saccharin addition on the grain size of nickel coatings

    Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Yung; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the main advantage of a radioisotope 'fuel' is concentrated, because it is 'burned' at the rate of the isotopes half life. In other words, given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery would still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on thin non radioactive nickel foil. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To establish the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles were dissolved in an acid solution and electroplated on the Ni sheet. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of the Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the influence of current density and saccharin concentration on the grain size, was investigated. The proposed model can also be applied for radioactive Ni 63 electroplating

  6. A Simple Size Effect Model for Tension Perpendicular to the Grain

    Pedersen, M. U.; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The strength in tension perpendicular to the grain is known to decrease with an increase in the stressed volume. Usually this size effect is explained on a stochastic basis, that is, an explanation relying on the increased probability of encountering a strength reducing flaw when the volume...... of the material under stress is increased. This paper presents an experimental investigation on specimens with a well-defined structural orientation of the material. The experiments exhibit a large size effect and the nature of the failures encountered suggests that the size effect can be explained...... on a deterministic basis. Arguments for such a simple deterministic explanation of size effect is found in finite element modelling, using the orthotropic stiffness characteristics in the transverse plane of wood....

  7. Variation in fruit size and susceptibility to seed predation among and within populations of the cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L.

    Hare, J Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Burr size is the major factor affecting variation in the intensity of predation by two species of insect on the seeds of the cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium. Mean burr size varied among 10 adjacent local populations studied over three years, as did intensity of seed predation. Seed predation was more intense in populations with low mean burr length and declined linearly with increasing burr length under field and experimental conditions. Seed predation thus is a selective factor influencing the evolution of both burr size and correlated protective characteristics such as burr spine length and wall thickness. As in some other plants, morphological rather than chemical features appear to pose the major barrier to attack by host-specific seed predators. The advantage of more highly developed tissues protecting seeds may occur at the expense of total seed production.

  8. The effect of oxide particles on the strength and ductility of bulk iron with a bimodal grain size distribution

    Casas, C.; Tejedor, R. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rodríguez-baracaldo, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. Colombia (Colombia); Benito, J.A., E-mail: Josep.a.benito@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain)

    2015-03-11

    The strength and ductility of bulk nanostructured and ultrafine-grained iron containing 0.39% oxygen by weight was determined by tensile tests. Samples were obtained by consolidation of milled iron powder at 500 °C. Heat treatments were designed to cover a wide range of grain sizes spanning from 100 to 2000 nm with different percentages of coarse and nanostructured grain areas, which was defined as a bimodal grain size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the diameter, volume fraction and location of oxides in the microstructure. The strength was analysed following two approaches. The first one was based on the strong effect of oxides and involved the use of a mixed particle-grain boundary strengthening model, and the second one was based on simple grain boundary strengthening. The mixed model underestimated the strength of nanostructured samples, whereas the simple grain boundary model worked better. However, for specimens with a bimodal grain size, the fitting of the mixed model was better. In this case, the more effective particle strengthening was related to the dispersion of oxides inside the large ferrite grains. In addition, the bimodal samples showed an acceptable combination of strength and ductility. Again, the ferrite grains containing oxides promoted strain hardening due to the increase in dislocation activity.

  9. Effects of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex on offspring fitness in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Damme, van J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    1 Male steriles (MS) must have a fitness advantage relative to hermaphrodites (H) if they are to be maintained in gynodioecious species. We report experiments in which we disentangle the relative contributions of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex to the fitness advantage of male steriles in

  10. Influence of grain size and exchange interaction on the LLB modeling procedure

    Vogler, Christoph; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Suess, Dieter; Praetorius, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Reliably predicting bit-error rates in realistic heat-assisted magnetic recording simulations is a challenging task. Integrating the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch (LLB) equation, within a coarse graining approach, can reduce the computational effort to determine the magnetization dynamics in the vicinity of the Curie temperature, compared to solving the atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. If the aim is that the dynamics of both approaches coincide, temperature dependent material functions, such as the zero-field equilibrium magnetization as well as the parallel and normal susceptibilities, must be modeled carefully in order to use them as input in the LLB equation. We present an extensive study on how these functions depend on grain size and exchange interactions. We show that, if the size or the exchange constant of a reference grain is modified, the material functions can be scaled, according to the changed Curie temperature, yielding negligible errors. This is shown to be valid for volume changes of up to ±40% and variations of the exchange constant of up to ±10%. Besides the temperature dependent material curves, computed switching probabilities also agree well with probabilities separately determined for each system. Our study suggests that there is no need to recalculate the required LLB input functions for each particle. Within the presented limits, it is sufficient to scale them to the Curie temperature of the altered system.

  11. Implications of seed size for seedling survival in Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae)

    Bowers, Janice E.; Pierson, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Larger seeds have been shown to convey benefits for seedling survival but the mechanisms of this process are not well understood. In this study, seed size and seedling survival were compared for 2 sympatric cactus species, Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose and Ferocactus wislizeni (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose, in laboratory and field experiments in the northern Sonoran Desert. Both species have small seeds, but Ferocactus seeds are nearly twice as long and 3 times as heavy as those of Carnegiea. The difference in size is perpetuated after germination: new Ferocactus seedlings have 4 times the estimated volume of new Carnegiea seedlings. In an outdoor experiment, annual survivorship of both species was low but was 6 times higher for Ferocactus (6 seedlings, 8.1%) than Carnegiea (1 seedling, 1.4%). The pattern of seedling mortality in relation to temperature and rain suggests that, after the initial flush of seed and seedling predation, drought and heat took a greater toll on Carnegiea than Ferocactus seedlings, probably because the larger seedling volume of Ferocactus conferred greater drought tolerance. In addition, F. wislizeni could become established without benefit of nurse plants whereas C. gigantea could not; this might reflect differential tolerance to high soil temperatures.

  12. The effect of grain size and phosphorous-doping of polycrystalline 3C–SiC on infrared reflectance spectra

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; Henry, A.; Janzén, E.; Neethling, J.H.; Rooyen, P.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► IR is investigated as a technique to measure grain size and P-doping of polycrystalline SiC. ► Infrared plasma minima can be used to determine doping levels in 3C–SiC for doping levels greater than 5 × 10 17 cm −3 . ► A linear relationship is found between FWHM and the inverse of grain size of 3C–SiC irrespective of P-doping level. ► It is further found that ω p is not influenced by the grain size. ► P-doping level has no significant effect on the linear relationship between grain size and surface roughness. - Abstract: The effect of P-doping and grain size of polycrystalline 3C–SiC on the infrared reflectance spectra is reported. The relationship between grain size and full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggest that the behavior of the 3C–SiC with the highest phosphorous doping level (of 1.2 × 10 19 at. cm −3 ) is different from those with lower doping levels ( 18 at. cm −3 ). It is also further demonstrated that the plasma resonance frequency (ω p ) is not influenced by the grain size.

  13. The effect of grain size and phosphorous-doping of polycrystalline 3C-SiC on infrared reflectance spectra

    Rooyen, I.J. van, E-mail: Isabella.vanRooyen@inl.gov [Fuel Performance and Design Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Engelbrecht, J.A.A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Henry, A.; Janzen, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping 58183 (Sweden); Neethling, J.H. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Rooyen, P.M. van [Philip M van Rooyen Network Consultants, Midlands Estates (South Africa)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR is investigated as a technique to measure grain size and P-doping of polycrystalline SiC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared plasma minima can be used to determine doping levels in 3C-SiC for doping levels greater than 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A linear relationship is found between FWHM and the inverse of grain size of 3C-SiC irrespective of P-doping level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is further found that {omega}{sub p} is not influenced by the grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P-doping level has no significant effect on the linear relationship between grain size and surface roughness. - Abstract: The effect of P-doping and grain size of polycrystalline 3C-SiC on the infrared reflectance spectra is reported. The relationship between grain size and full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggest that the behavior of the 3C-SiC with the highest phosphorous doping level (of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} at. cm{sup -3}) is different from those with lower doping levels (<6.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} at. cm{sup -3}). It is also further demonstrated that the plasma resonance frequency ({omega}{sub p}) is not influenced by the grain size.

  14. Effect of nanoprecipitates and grain size on the mechanical properties of advanced structural steels

    Suarez, M.A.; Alvarez-Perez, M.A.; Alvarez-Fregoso, O.; Juarez-Islas, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The composition of the steel responded positively to the thermomechanical processing. → Yield strength was increased due to micrometric grain size of 2.2 μm. → Mechanical properties were improved due to nanometric precipitates of 5 nm. → Yield strength values of the API steel were improved up to 877.9 MPa. - Abstract: The microstructure and nanometric precipitates present in advanced structured steel have been studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersion X-ray microanalysis, in order to relate the nanometric precipitates and grain size with the improvement of the yield strength value of the API steel. The microstructure and nanometric precipitates of the advanced steel were obtained by a combination of thermo-mechanical controlled hot rolling and accelerated cooling procedures. The API steel composition consisted of hot rolled Nb-Ti microalloyed with: 0.07C, 1.40Mn, 0.24Si, 0.020Al, 0.009P, 0.001S, 0.05Mo, 0.5Cr, 0.05Nb, 0.25Ni, 0.10Cu, 0.012Ti, 0.05N in wt%. As a result, this hot rolled steel tested at a strain rate of 5 x 10 -3 s -1 showed an improved yield strength from 798 MPa to 878 MPa due to the micrometric grain size of 2.2 μm and to the nanometric precipitates with a size of around 5 nm in the microstructure of the steel studied.

  15. The 1845 Hekla eruption: Grain-size characteristics of a tephra layer

    Gudnason, Jonas; Thordarson, Thor; Houghton, Bruce F.; Larsen, Gudrun

    2018-01-01

    The 1845 eruption is commonly viewed as a typical Hekla eruption. It is a key event in the eruptive history of the volcano, as it is one of the best documented Hekla eruptions, in terms of contemporary accounts and observations. The eruption started on 2 September 1845 with an intense, hour long explosive Plinian phase that passed into effusive activity, ending on the 16 March 1846. The amount of tephra produced in the opening phase was 0.13 km3/7.5 × 1010 kg. The total grain-size distribution of the deposit is bimodal with a dominant coarse mode at - 2.5 φ (5.6 mm) and a broad finer mode at 3 to 4.5 φ (0.125 to 0.045 mm). At individual sites, the grain-size distribution of the tephra from the Plinian opening phase is also commonly (not always) bimodal. Deconvolved grain-size distributions exhibit distinctly different sedimentation patterns of the coarse and fine subpopulations. The lapilli-dominated subpopulation fines rapidly with transport, while the ash-dominated subpopulation shows less changes with distance, indicating premature sedimentation of fines by aggregation from the 1845 volcanic plume. Tephra deposition was to the ESE of the volcano from a 19 km (a.s.l.) high eruption plume. The plume front travelled at speeds of 16-19 m s- 1. Reports of ash deposition onto ships near the Faroe and Shetland Islands, 700 to 1100 km away from Hekla, demonstrate that even moderate-sized Hekla eruptions can affect very large parts of European air-space.

  16. Beyond the threshold for motion: river channel geometry and grain size reflect sediment supply

    Pfeiffer, A.; Finnegan, N. J.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    In many gravel-bedded rivers, floods that fill the ch­­annel banks create just enough shear stress to move the median-sized gravel particles on the bed surface (D50). Because this observation is common and is supported by theory, the coincidence of bankfull flow and the incipient motion of D50 has become a­­ commonly employed assumption. However, not all natural gravel channels actually conform to this simple relationship; some channels maintain bankfull stresses far in excess of the critical stress required to initiate sediment transport. We use a database of >300 gravel-bedded rivers and >600 10Be-derived erosion rates from across North America to explore the hypothesis that sediment supply drives the magnitude of bankfull shear stress relative to the critical stress required to mobilize the median bed surface grain size. We find that the ratio of bankfull to critical stress is significantly higher in West Coast river reaches (2.47, n= 84) than in river reaches in the rest of the continent (1.03, n = 245). This pattern parallels trends in erosion rates (and hence sediment supplies). Supporting our hypothesis, we find a significant correlation between upstream erosion rate and local τ*bf/τ*c at sites where this comparison is possible. Our analysis reveals a decrease in bed surface armoring with increasing τ*bf/τ*c, suggesting that channels accommodate changes in sediment supply through adjustments in bed surface grain size, as predicted through numerical modeling. Our findings demonstrate that sediment supply is encoded in the bankfull hydraulic geometry of gravel-bedded channels through its control on bed surface grain size.

  17. Grain size and shape analysis of the AD 1226 tephra layer, Reykjanes volcanic system

    Ösp Magnúsdóttir, Agnes; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Guðrún; Tumi Guðmunsson, Magnús; Sigurgeirsson, Magnús Á.

    2014-05-01

    Recent explosive eruptions in Iceland have drawn attention to long range tephra transport in the atmosphere. In Iceland tephra forming explosion eruptions are frequent, due to abundance of water. However, the volcanism on the island is principally basaltic. Volcanism along the Reykjanes Peninsula is divided into five distinct volcanic systems. Volcano-tectonic activity within these systems is periodic, with recurrence intervals in the range of 1 ka. Last volcano-tectonic sequence began around AD 940, shortly after settlement of Iceland, and lasted through AD 1340. During this period activity was characterized by basaltic fissure eruptions. Furthermore, this activity period on the Reykjanes peninsula began within the eastern most volcanic system and gradually moved towards the west across the peninsula. The 1226 eruption was a basaltic fissure eruption with in the Reykjanes volcanic system. The eruption began on land and gradually progressed towards the SW until the volcanic fissure extended into the sea. Water-magma interaction changed the eruption from effusive into explosive forming the largest tephra layer on the peninsula. Due to its close proximity to the Keflavik international airport and that of the capital of Iceland it is important to get an insight into, the characteristics, generation and distribution of such tephra deposits. In this eruption the tephra produced had an approximate volume of 0.1 km3 and covered an area of some 3500 km2 within the 0.5 cm isopach. Total grain size distribution of this tephra layer will be presented along with analysis of principal grain shapes of the finer portion of the tephra layer as a function of distance from the source. The tephra grain size is dominated by particles finer than 1 millimeter with an almost complete absence of large grains independent of distance from the source. Comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of tephra generated in this eruption can help us to understand hazards posed by future

  18. Grain size controls on sediment supply from debris-mantled dryland hillslopes

    Michaelides, K.

    2011-12-01

    Debris-mantled hillslopes are common in arid and semiarid environments where low rates of chemical weathering give rise to thin, non-cohesive soils mantled with a layer of coarse rock fragments derived from weathered bedrock that can reach boulder size. The grain size distributions (GSDs) on the surface of these hillslopes interact with different magnitudes and frequencies of runoff-producing rainfall events that selectively transport grain sizes of different classes depending on flow, grain position on the slope, and hillslope attributes. Sediment transport over many runoff events determines sediment delivery to the slope base, which ultimately modifies the GSD of valley floors. The relationship between hillslope attributes and sediment flux forms the basis of geomorphic transport laws used to model the topographic evolution of drainage basins over >104 y timescales, but the specific responses of sediment flux across the hillslope and the corresponding changes in GSDs to individual storm events are poorly understood. Sheetwash erosion of coarse fragments presents a particular set of conditions for sediment transport that is poorly resolved in current models. A particle-based model for sheetwash sediment transport on debris-mantled hillslopes was developed within a rainfall-runoff model. The rainfall-runoff model produces spatial values of flow depth and velocity which are used to drive a particle-by-particle force-balance model derived from first principles for grain sizes > 1 mm. Particles on the hillslope surface are represented explicitly and can be composed of mixed grain sizes of any distribution or of uniform sizes of any diameter. The model resolves all the forces on each particle at each time and space step based on the flow hydraulics acting on them, so no assumptions are made about incipient motion using Shield's criterion. This research examines how the interplay between hillslope GSD, hillslope attributes (gradient and length) and runoff

  19. [Spatial change of the grain-size of aeolian sediments in Qira oasis-desert ecotone, Northwest China].

    Lin, Yong Chong; Xu, Li Shuai

    2017-04-18

    In order to understand the environmental influence of oasis-desert ecotone to oasis ecological system, we comparatively analyzed the grain size characteristics of various aeolian sediments, including the sediments in oasis-desert ecotone, shelterbelt and the inside oasis and in Qira River valley. The results showed that the grain size characteristics (including grain-size distribution curve, grain size parameters, and content of different size classes) of sediments in the oasis-desert ecotone were consistent along the prevailing wind direction with a grain-size range of 0.3-200 μm and modal size of 67 μm. All of the sediments were good sorting and mainly composed of suspension components and saltation components, but not denatured saltation and creeping components (>200 μm). They were typically aeolian deposits being short-range transported. The grain sizes of sediments in oasis-desert ecotone were smaller than that in the material sources of Qira River valley and desert (0.3-800 μm), but very similar to those of the modern aeolian deposits in oasis-desert ecotone, shelterbelt and the inside oasis. The denatured saltation and creep components (>200 μm) were suppressed to transport into oasis-desert ecotone because of the high vegetation cover in oasis-desert ecotone. Therefore, like the shelterbelts, the oasis-desert ecotone could also block the invasion of desert. They safeguarded the oasis ecological environment together.

  20. Grain Size Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Outdoor Dust in Chengdu, Southwestern China.

    Chen, Mengqin; Pi, Lu; Luo, Yan; Geng, Meng; Hu, Wenli; Li, Zhi; Su, Shijun; Gan, Zhiwei; Ding, Sanglan

    2016-04-01

    A total of 27 outdoor dust samples from roads, parks, and high spots were collected and analyzed to investigate the contamination of 11 metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb) in Chengdu, China. The results showed that the samples from the high spots exhibited the highest heavy metal level compared with those from the roads and the parks, except for Ni, Cu, and Pb. The dust was classified into five grain size fractions. The mean loads of each grain size fraction of 11 determined metals displayed similar distribution, and the contribution of median size (63-125, 125-250, 250-500 μm) fractions accounted for more than 70% of overall heavy metal loads. The health risk posed by the determined metals to human via dust ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation was investigated. Oral and respiratory bioaccessible parts of the metals in dust were extracted using simulated stomach solution and composite lung serum. The mean bioaccessibilities of 11 investigated metals in the gastric solution were much higher than those in the composite lung serum, especially Zn, Cd, and Pb. Ingestion was the most important exposure pathway with percentage greater than 70% for both children and adults. Risk evaluation results illustrated that children in Chengdu might suffer noncarcinogenic risk when exposed to outdoor dust. Given that the cancer risk values of Pb and Cr larger than 1 × 10(-4), potential carcinogenic risk might occur for Chengdu residents through outdoor dust intake.

  1. Comparison of different methods to retrieve optical-equivalent snow grain size in central Antarctica

    T. Carlsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical-equivalent snow grain size affects the reflectivity of snow surfaces and, thus, the local surface energy budget in particular in polar regions. Therefore, the specific surface area (SSA, from which the optical snow grain size is derived, was observed for a 2-month period in central Antarctica (Kohnen research station during austral summer 2013/14. The data were retrieved on the basis of ground-based spectral surface albedo measurements collected by the COmpact RAdiation measurement System (CORAS and airborne observations with the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART. The snow grain size and pollution amount (SGSP algorithm, originally developed to analyze spaceborne reflectance measurements by the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, was modified in order to reduce the impact of the solar zenith angle on the retrieval results and to cover measurements in overcast conditions. Spectral ratios of surface albedo at 1280 and 1100 nm wavelength were used to reduce the retrieval uncertainty. The retrieval was applied to the ground-based and airborne observations and validated against optical in situ observations of SSA utilizing an IceCube device. The SSA retrieved from CORAS observations varied between 27 and 89 m2 kg−1. Snowfall events caused distinct relative maxima of the SSA which were followed by a gradual decrease in SSA due to snow metamorphism and wind-induced transport of freshly fallen ice crystals. The ability of the modified algorithm to include measurements in overcast conditions improved the data coverage, in particular at times when precipitation events occurred and the SSA changed quickly. SSA retrieved from measurements with CORAS and MODIS agree with the in situ observations within the ranges given by the measurement uncertainties. However, SSA retrieved from the airborne SMART data slightly underestimated the ground-based results.

  2. Comparison of different methods to retrieve optical-equivalent snow grain size in central Antarctica

    Carlsen, Tim; Birnbaum, Gerit; Ehrlich, André; Freitag, Johannes; Heygster, Georg; Istomina, Larysa; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Orsi, Anaïs; Schäfer, Michael; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-11-01

    The optical-equivalent snow grain size affects the reflectivity of snow surfaces and, thus, the local surface energy budget in particular in polar regions. Therefore, the specific surface area (SSA), from which the optical snow grain size is derived, was observed for a 2-month period in central Antarctica (Kohnen research station) during austral summer 2013/14. The data were retrieved on the basis of ground-based spectral surface albedo measurements collected by the COmpact RAdiation measurement System (CORAS) and airborne observations with the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART). The snow grain size and pollution amount (SGSP) algorithm, originally developed to analyze spaceborne reflectance measurements by the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), was modified in order to reduce the impact of the solar zenith angle on the retrieval results and to cover measurements in overcast conditions. Spectral ratios of surface albedo at 1280 and 1100 nm wavelength were used to reduce the retrieval uncertainty. The retrieval was applied to the ground-based and airborne observations and validated against optical in situ observations of SSA utilizing an IceCube device. The SSA retrieved from CORAS observations varied between 27 and 89 m2 kg-1. Snowfall events caused distinct relative maxima of the SSA which were followed by a gradual decrease in SSA due to snow metamorphism and wind-induced transport of freshly fallen ice crystals. The ability of the modified algorithm to include measurements in overcast conditions improved the data coverage, in particular at times when precipitation events occurred and the SSA changed quickly. SSA retrieved from measurements with CORAS and MODIS agree with the in situ observations within the ranges given by the measurement uncertainties. However, SSA retrieved from the airborne SMART data slightly underestimated the ground-based results.

  3. Strengthening of Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys by grain size refinement

    Sato, A.; Masuya, T.; Kumai, S.; Inoue, A.

    2000-01-01

    Degree of the shape memory effect was measured either by bending, tensile and compression tests in the temperature range 77∝300 K. The yield stress increased substantially by the grain size refinement, yet maintaining a good shape memory effect. In addition to usual mentioned slow strain rate tests (about 10 -3 s -1 ), shape deformation was given at high strain rate (10 3 s -1 ) by hammering, in order to induce fine structure. It is also found that the shape memory effect under an opposing force was improved by the high-speed deformation. (orig.)

  4. Study of sandy soil grain-size distribution on its deformation properties

    Antropova, L. B.; Gruzin, A. V.; Gildebrandt, M. I.; Malaya, L. D.; Nikulina, V. B.

    2018-04-01

    As a rule, new oil and gas fields' development faces the challenges of providing construction objects with material and mineral resources, for example, medium sand soil for buildings and facilities footings of the technological infrastructure under construction. This problem solution seems to lie in a rational usage of the existing environmental resources, soils included. The study was made of a medium sand soil grain-size distribution impact on its deformation properties. Based on the performed investigations, a technique for controlling sandy soil deformation properties was developed.

  5. Effect of Prior Austenite Grain Size on the Morphology of Nano-Bainitic Steels

    Singh, Kritika; Kumar, Avanish; Singh, Aparna

    2018-04-01

    The strength in nanostructured bainitic steels primarily arises from the fine platelets of bainitic ferrite embedded in carbon-enriched austenite. However, the toughness is dictated by the shape and volume fraction of the retained austenite. Therefore, the exact determination of processing-morphology relationships is necessary to design stronger and tougher bainite. In the current study, the morphology of bainitic ferrite in Fe-0.89C-1.59Si-1.65Mn-0.37Mo-1Co-0.56Al-0.19Cr (wt pct) bainitic steel has been investigated as a function of the prior austenite grain size (AGS). Specimens were austenitized at different temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1150 °C followed by isothermal transformation at 300 °C. Detailed microstructural characterization has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the bainitic laths transformed in coarse austenite grains are finer resulting in higher hardness, whereas smaller austenite grains lead to the formation of thicker bainitic laths with a large fraction of blocky type retained austenite resulting in lower hardness.

  6. The Role of Grain Size on Neutron Irradiation Response of Nanocrystalline Copper

    Walid Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of grain size on the developed microstructure and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated nanocrystalline copper was investigated by comparing the radiation response of material to the conventional micrograined counterpart. Nanocrystalline (nc and micrograined (MG copper samples were subjected to a range of neutron exposure levels from 0.0034 to 2 dpa. At all damage levels, the response of MG-copper was governed by radiation hardening manifested by an increase in strength with accompanying ductility loss. Conversely, the response of nc-copper to neutron irradiation exhibited a dependence on the damage level. At low damage levels, grain growth was the primary response, with radiation hardening and embrittlement becoming the dominant responses with increasing damage levels. Annealing experiments revealed that grain growth in nc-copper is composed of both thermally-activated and irradiation-induced components. Tensile tests revealed minimal change in the source hardening component of the yield stress in MG-copper, while the source hardening component was found to decrease with increasing radiation exposure in nc-copper.

  7. Grain size refinement in nanocrystalline Hitperm-type glass-coated microwires

    Talaat, A.; Val, J.J. del; Zhukova, V.; Ipatov, M.; Klein, P.; Varga, R.; González, J.; Churyukanova, M.; Zhukov, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new-Fe 38.5 Co 38.5 B 18 Mo 4 Cu 1 Hitperm glass-coated microwires obtained by Taylor-Ulitovsky technique with nanocrystalline structure consisting of about 23 nm of BCC α-FeCo and an amorphous precursors in as-prepared samples. Annealing resulted in a considerable decrease of such nano-grains down to (11 nm). Obtained results are discussed in terms of the stress diffusion of limited crystalline growth and the chemical composition. Rectangular hysteresis loops have been observed on all annealed samples that are necessary conditions to obtain fast domain wall propagation. An enhancement of the domain wall velocity as well as mobility after annealing has been obtained due to the structural relaxation of such grains with positive magnetostriction. These structure benefits found in the nanocrystalline Hitperm glass-coated microwires are promising for developing optimal magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Grains size refinement upon annealing. • Enhancement of the domain wall velocity as well as mobility after annealing. • Nanocrystalline structure in as-prepared microwires.

  8. Relationship between casting modulus and grain size in cast A356 aluminium alloys

    Niklas, A; Abaunza, U; Fernández-Calvo, A I; Lacaze, J

    2012-01-01

    Microstructure of Al-Si alloy castings depends most generally on melt preparation and on the cooling rate imposed by the thermal modulus of the component. In the case of Al-Si alloys, emphasis is put during melt preparation on refinement of pro-eutectic (Al) grains and on modification of the Al-Si eutectic. Thermal analysis has been used since long to check melt preparation before casting, i.e. by analysis of the cooling curve during solidification of a sample cast in an instrumented cup. The conclusions drawn from such analysis are however valid for the particular cooling conditions of the cups. It thus appeared of interest to investigate how these conclusions could extrapolate to predict microstructure in complicated cast parts showing local changes in the solidification conditions. For that purpose, thermal analysis cups and instrumented sand and die castings with different thermal moduli and thus cooling rates have been made, and the whole set of cooling curves thus recorded has been analysed. A statistical analysis of the characteristic features of the cooling curves related to grain refinement in sand and die castings allowed determining the most significant parameters and expressing the cube of grain size as a polynomial of these parameters. After introduction of a further parameter quantifying melt refining an excellent correlation, with a R 2 factor of 0.99 was obtained.

  9. The Grain-size Patchiness of Braided Gravel-Bed Streams - example of the Urumqi River (northeast Tian Shan, China)

    Guerit, L.; Barrier, L.; Narteau, C.; Métivier, F.; Liu, Y.; Lajeunesse, E.; Gayer, E.; Meunier, P.; Malverti, L.; Ye, B.

    2014-02-01

    In gravel-bed rivers, sediments are often sorted into patches of different grain-sizes, but in braided streams, the link between this sorting and the channel morpho-sedimentary elements is still unclear. In this study, the size of the bed sediment in the shallow braided gravel-bed Urumqi River is characterized by surface-count and volumetric sampling methods. Three morpho-sedimentary elements are identified in the active threads of the river: chutes at flow constrictions, which pass downstream to anabranches and bars at flow expansions. The surface and surface-layer grain-size distributions of these three elements show that they correspond to only two kinds of grain-size patches: (1) coarse-grained chutes, coarser than the bulk river bed, and (2) finer-grained anabranches and bars, consistent with the bulk river bed. In cross-section, the chute patches are composed of one coarse-grained top layer, which can be interpreted as a local armour layer overlying finer deposits. In contrast, the grain size of the bar-anabranch patches is finer and much more homogeneous in depth than the chute patches. Those patches, which are features of lateral and vertical sorting associated to the transport dynamics that build braided patterns, may be typical of active threads in shallow gravel-bed rivers and should be considered in future works on sorting processes and their geomorphologic and stratigraphic results.

  10. Laboratory Measurements on Charging of Individual Micron-Size Apollo-11 Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Observations made during Apollo missions, as well as theoretical models indicate that the lunar surface and dust grains are electrostatically charged, levitated and transported. Lunar dust grains are charged by UV photoelectric emissions on the lunar dayside and by the impact of the solar wind electrons on the nightside. The knowledge of charging properties of individual lunar dust grains is important for developing appropriate theoretical models and mitigating strategies. Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size size lunar dust grains in particular by low energy electron impact. However, experimental results based on extensive laboratory measurements on the charging of individual 0.2-13 micron size lunar dust grains by the secondary electron emissions (SEE) have been presented in a recent publication. The SEE process of charging of micron-size dust grains, however, is found to be very complex phenomena with strong particle size dependence. In this paper we present some examples of the complex nature of the SEE properties of positively charged individual lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB), and show that they remain unaffected by the variation of the AC field employed in the above mentioned measurements.

  11. Effects of grain size and humidity on fretting wear in fine-grained alumina, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC, and zirconia

    Krell, A. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Ceramic Technologies and Sintered Materials, Dresden (Germany); Klaffke, D. [Federal Inst. for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    Friction and wear of sintered alumina with grain sizes between 0.4 and 3 {micro}m were measured in comparison with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC composites and with tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dependence on the grain boundary toughness and residual microstresses is investigated, and a hierarchical order of influencing parameters is observed. In air, reduced alumina grain sizes improve the micromechanical stability of the grain boundaries and the hardness, and reduced wear is governed by microplastic deformation, with few pullout events. Humidity and water slightly reduce the friction of all of the investigated ceramics. In water, this effect reduces the wear of coarser alumina microstructures. The wear of aluminas and of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC composite is similar; it is lower than observed in zirconia, where extended surface cracking occurs at grain sizes as small as 0.3 {micro}m.

  12. Grain size determination in zirconium alloys. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme, 1989-1992

    1995-04-01

    A research programme was planned as an exercise to establish procedures and evaluate the success of technology transfer. The first programme under this scheme was proposed by the IAEA on the research topic: grain size determination in zirconium alloys. The host laboratory was Siemens AG Erlangen, in Germany. The programme was supervised by experts selected from participating countries. This report contains the results of the work carried out under this programme. The grain size of Zircaloy, the measurement methods, distribution of grain size in the matrix and dependence of grain size on temperature time of annealing are discussed in this report. The report also includes some information on the organizational arrangements and discusses possibilities for future collaboration. 38 figs, 11 tabs

  13. Effect of noise-induced nucleation on grain size distribution studied via the phase-field crystal method

    Hubert, J; Cheng, M; Emmerich, H

    2009-01-01

    We contribute to the more detailed understanding of the phase-field crystal model recently developed by Elder et al (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 245701), by focusing on its noise term and examining its impact on the nucleation rate in a homogeneously solidifying system as well as on successively developing grain size distributions. In this context we show that principally the grain size decreases with increasing noise amplitude, resulting in both a smaller average grain size and a decreased maximum grain size. Despite this general tendency, which we interpret based on Panfilis and Filiponi (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 88 562), we can identify two different regimes in which nucleation and successive initial growth are governed by quite different mechanisms.

  14. Analysis of Grain Size Distribution and Hydraulic Conductivity for a Variety of Sediment Types with Application to Wadi Sediments

    Rosas Aguilar, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity from over 400 unlithified sediment samples were analized. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations

  15. Enhancement of coercivity with reduced grain size in CoCrPt film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Liang, Q.; Hu, X.F.; Li, H.Q.; He, X.X.; Wang, Xiaoru; Zhang, W.

    2006-01-01

    We report a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) growth of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer with a magnetic coercivity (H c ) of 2.2 kOe and a grain size of 12 nm. The effects of VMn underlayer on magnetic properties of CoCrPt layer were studied. The coercivity, H c , and squareness, S, of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer, is dependent on the thickness of VMn. The grain size of the CoCrPt film can also be modified by laser parameters. High laser fluence used for CoCrPt deposition produces a smaller grain size. Enhanced H c and reduced grain size in VMn/CoCrPt is explained by more pronounced surface phase segregation during deposition at high laser fluence

  16. Effects of laser power density and initial grain size in laser shock punching of pure copper foil

    Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Xiu; Zhang, Yiliang; Ji, Zhong; Luan, Yiguo; Song, Libin

    2018-06-01

    The effects of laser power density and initial grain size on forming quality of holes in laser shock punching process were investigated in the present study. Three different initial grain sizes as well as three levels of laser power densities were provided, and then laser shock punching experiments of T2 copper foil were conducted. Based upon the experimental results, the characteristics of shape accuracy, fracture surface morphology and microstructures of punched holes were examined. It is revealed that the initial grain size has a noticeable effect on forming quality of holes punched by laser shock. The shape accuracy of punched holes degrades with the increase of grain size. As the laser power density is enhanced, the shape accuracy can be improved except for the case in which the ratio of foil thickness to initial grain size is approximately equal to 1. Compared with the fracture surface morphology in the quasistatic loading conditions, the fracture surface after laser shock can be divided into three zones including rollover, shearing and burr. The distribution of the above three zones strongly relates with the initial grain size. When the laser power density is enhanced, the shearing depth is not increased, but even diminishes in some cases. There is no obvious change of microstructures with the enhancement of laser power density. However, while the initial grain size is close to the foil thickness, single-crystal shear deformation may occur, suggesting that the ratio of foil thickness to initial grain size has an important impact on deformation behavior of metal foil in laser shock punching process.

  17. Effects of phosphor proportion and grain size on photon energy response of CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD discs

    Pradhan, A.S.; Bhatt, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of phosphor proportion and grain size on the photon energy dependence of CaSO 4 :Dy embedded teflon TLD discs have been studied. It was found that in the commonly used TLD disc compositions, the proportion of phosphor has only little effect on energy dependence. This dependence could be significantly reduced by using phosphor of grain size less than 1 μm. The experimental results are compared with calculated results. (Auth.)

  18. Bulk YBCO seeded with 45°–45° bridge-seeds of different lengths

    Shi, Y-H; Durrell, J H; Dennis, A R; Cardwell, D A

    2013-01-01

    Single grain, (RE)BCO (rare earth–barium–copper oxide) bulk superconductors in large or complicated geometries are required for a variety of potential applications, such as in motors and generators and magnetic shielding devices. As a result, top, multi-seeded, melt growth has been investigated over the past 15 years in an attempt to enlarge the size of (RE)BCO single grains specifically for such applications. Of these multi-seeding techniques, so-called bridge-seeding provides the best alignment of two seeds in a single grain growth process. Here we report, for the first time, the successful growth of YBCO (yttrium–barium–copper oxide) using a special, 45°–45°, arrangement of bridge-seeds. The superconducting properties, including trapped field, of the multi-seeded YBCO grains have been measured for different bridge lengths of the 45°–45° bridge-seeds. The boundaries at the impinging growth front and the growth features of the top, multi-seeded surface and cross-section of the multi-seeded, samples have been analysed using optical microscopy. The results suggest that an impurity-free boundary between the two seeds of each leg of the bridge-seed can form when 45°–45° bridge-seeds are used to enlarge the size of YBCO grains. (paper)

  19. Correlation between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty acid composition in soybean genotypes

    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups IV, V, VI or VII were grown in 1995/96 at the Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA of Manfredi and Marcos Juárez, Argentina. The aim of this research was to determine possible associations between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty composition. Seed size varied between 13.9-21.0 g/100 seeds. Protein and oil contents ranged from 331 to 448 and from 198 to 267 g kg-1, respectively, and showed no significant correlation with seed size. There were significant correlations between seed size and individual fatty adds: positive with stearic and oleic and negative with linoleic. The results obtained suggest that seed size and its relationship with individual fatty acids must be considered in soybean breeding programs.

    Se analizaron 18 genotipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez IV, V, VI o VIl, cultivados en 1995/96 en la Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA de Manfredi y Marcos Juárez, Argentina. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar posibles asociaciones entre el tamaño del grano, los contenidos de proteínas y aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos del mismo. El tamaño del grano varió entre 13.9-21.0 g/100 granos. Los porcentajes de proteínas y aceite estuvieron comprendidos entre 331-448 y entre 198-267 g kg-1 respectivamente, y no mostraron correlaciones significativas con el tamaño del grano. Se observaron correlaciones significativas entre el tamaño del grano y determinados ácidos grasos: positivas con esteárico y oleico y negativa con linoleico. Las asociaciones encontradas podrían ser de utilidad en programas de mejoramiento de soja.

  20. The use of cubic Nd-Ba-Cu-O seeds to create θ[100], 900-θ[100], and θ[001] tilt Y-Ba-Cu-O grain boundaries

    Field, M. B.

    1998-01-01

    Using seeding techniques to control the orientation of grains, we have been able to create a wide variety of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , grain boundaries. In addition to five domain samples with 90 degree[100] twist and tilt grain boundaries, we have now developed a method to produce grain boundaries in the same sample that have the misorientations θ[001] tilt, θ[100] tilt, and 90 degree ∼ θ[100], where the disorientation angle θ is fully controllable. We will demonstrate how these boundaries can be synthesized, give experimental evidence via polarized light microscopy and electron backscatter patterns (EBSP) that the intended grain boundaries were indeed formed, and discuss the importance of these boundaries in future grain boundary studies

  1. Downwind changes in grain size of aeolian dust; examples from marine and terrestrial archives

    Stuut, Jan-Berend; Prins, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    Aeolian dust in the atmosphere may have a cooling effect when small particles in the high atmosphere block incoming solar energy (e.g., Claquin et al., 2003) but it may also act as a 'greenhouse gas' when larger particles in the lower atmosphere trap energy that was reflected from the Earth's surface (e.g., Otto et al., 2007). Therefore, it is of vital importance to have a good understanding of the particle-size distribution of aeolian dust in space and time. As wind is a very size-selective transport mechanism, the sediments it carries typically have a very-well sorted grain-size distribution, which gradually fines from proximal to distal deposition sites. This fact has been used in numerous paleo-environmental studies to both determine source-to-sink changes in the particle size of aeolian dust (e.g., Weltje and Prins, 2003; Holz et al., 2004; Prins and Vriend, 2007) and to quantify mass-accumulation rates of aeolian dust (e.g., Prins and Weltje 1999; Stuut et al., 2002; Prins et al., 2007; Prins and Vriend, 2007; Stuut et al., 2007; Tjallingii et al., 2008; Prins et al., 2009). Studies on modern wind-blown particles have demonstrated that particle size of dust not only is a function of lateral but also vertical transport distance (e.g., Torres-Padron et al., 2002; Stuut et al., 2005). Nonetheless, there are still many unresolved questions related to the physical properties of wind-blown particles like e.g., the case of "giant" quartz particles found on Hawaii (Betzer et al., 1988) that can only originate from Asia but have a too large size for the distance they travelled through the atmosphere. Here, we present examples of dust particle-size distributions from terrestrial (loess) as well as marine (deep-sea sediments) sedimentary archives and their spatial and temporal changes. With this contribution we hope to provide quantitative data for the modelling community in order to get a better grip on the role of wind-blown particles in the climate system. Cited

  2. Model for phonon transmission through a NbN grain-size distribution: Comparison with tunneling-spectroscopy observations

    Chicault, R.; Joly, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Transport properties of phonons in granular NbN thin film with left-angle 111 right-angle texture are discussed. We propose a model in which each grain has an acoustic resonance when phonons propagate parallel to the film and where a coupling through the amorphous boundaries exists. A statistical study shows that the most homogeneous chains in the grain stack are selected because of the strong efficiency of their transport properties and that they give a fine structure of phonon modes even if the grain-size distribution is quite large. A reasonable agreement is obtained between our tunneling-spectroscopy experiments and the model. A typical experimental result has been fitted using an inelastic phonon-electron-interaction mean free path Λ ph ∼215 nm and a mean grain size d M ∼25.7 nm, the full width at half maximum of the grain distribution being 14 nm

  3. Control of thickness uniformity and grain size in graphene films for transparent conductive electrodes

    Wu Wei; Yu Qingkai; Pei, Shin-Shem; Peng Peng; Bao Jiming; Liu Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale and transferable graphene films grown on metal substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) still hold great promise for future nanotechnology. To realize the promise, one of the key issues is to further improve the quality of graphene, e.g., uniform thickness, large grain size, and low defects. Here we grow graphene films on Cu foils by CVD at ambient pressure, and study the graphene nucleation and growth processes under different concentrations of carbon precursor. On the basis of the results, we develop a two-step ambient pressure CVD process to synthesize continuous single-layer graphene films with large grain size (up to hundreds of square micrometers). Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy characterizations confirm the film thickness and uniformity. The transferred graphene films on cover glass slips show high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance that make them suitable as transparent conductive electrodes. The growth mechanism of CVD graphene on Cu is also discussed, and a growth model has been proposed. Our results provide important guidance toward the synthesis of high quality uniform graphene films, and could offer a great driving force for graphene based applications. (paper)

  4. Significant enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit of polycrystalline Si films by reducing grain size

    Valalaki, K; Nassiopoulou, A G; Vouroutzis, N

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of p-type polycrystalline silicon thin films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) were accurately determined at room temperature and the thermoelectric figure of merit was deduced as a function of film thickness, ranging from 100 to 500 nm. The effect of film thickness on their thermoelectric performance is discussed. More than threefold increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit of the 100 nm thick polysilicon film was observed compared to the 500 nm thick film, reaching a value as high as 0.033. This enhancement is mainly the result of the smaller grain size in the thinner films. With the decrease in grain size the resistivity of the films is increased twofold and electrical conductivity decreased, however the Seebeck coefficient is increased by 30% and the thermal conductivity is decreased eightfold, being mainly at the origin of the increased figure of merit of the 100 nm film. Our experimental results were compared to known theoretical models and the possible mechanisms involved are presented and discussed. (paper)

  5. Seedling performance within eight different seed-size alpine forbs under experimentation with irradiance and nutrient gradients

    Dong, W.; Jun, Z.Y.; Lin, W.G.; Jin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Relative performance of seedlings of species with different seed sizes may vary in response to resource availability, and may affect seedling growth. The objective was to test this hypothesis from alpine forbs species in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We examined the relative growth rate, allocation and performances of eight native forbs species covering a wide range of seed size in response to four light and three nutrient regimes. Light availability had a significant effect on seedling emergence time, but not on other seedling morphological performances. Seedling emergence time and seed size were negatively correlated with each other for three species within Asteraceae family, i.e. heaviest seeds emerged earlier. Seed size, nutrient availability and their interaction affected most of studied morphological and growth traits of seedlings. Fertilisation modified the relationship between seed size and seedling biomass. Our study showed that seed size and nutrient availability had significant effects on seedling performance in alpine meadows. Seedlings from the larger-seed species presented stronger advantage in initial seedling mass and height under most of resources conditions. (author)

  6. THE EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS FOR POSTFLOTATION SEDIMENTS ON ASSESSMENT OF THEIR APPLICABILITY IN EARTH STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION

    Magdalena Walczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of the results of laboratory tests of postflotation sediments grain size distributions, originating from the copper ore flotation process. The paper also presents the results of statistical analysis conducted on grain size parameters. Statistically significant differences were shown in the assessment of grain size distribution, which result from the selection of the research procedure. A comparison of results recorded for wet and dry sieving methods was conducted within a group of the same samples of postflotation deposits. The selection of an appropriate research method and procedure should also be preceded by a thorough analysis and preliminary determination of the soil medium. A correctly determined grain size distribution is essential for its further classification and then, through grain size criteria, for the assessment of suitability of the analysed material in earth structure construction. This problem is of even greater importance in the case of anthropogenic soils, which are used to construct dams or seal hydroengineering structures. In practical terms knowledge on the limitations resulting from the application of a given method prevents erroneous conclusions on research results. This problem may be perfectly illustrated based on the selection of a method assessing parameters and soil grain size distributions.

  7. Experimental Investigations of the Physical and Optical Properties of Individual Micron/Submicron-Size Dust Grains in Astrophysical Environments

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains constitute a significant component of matter in the universe, and play an important and crucial role in the formation and evolution of the stellar/planetary systems in interstellar dust clouds. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of dust grains is required for understanding of a variety of processes in astrophysical and planetary environments. The currently available and generally employed data on the properties of dust grains is based on bulk materials, with analytical models employed to deduce the corresponding values for individual small micron/submicron-size dust grains. However, it has been well-recognized over a long period, that the properties of individual smallsize dust grains may be very different from those deduced from bulk materials. This has been validated by a series of experimental investigations carried out over the last few years, on a laboratory facility based on an Electrodynamic Balance at NASA, which permits levitation of single small-size dust grains of desired composition and size, in vacuum, in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present a brief review of the results of a series of selected investigations carried out on the analogs of interstellar and planetary dust grains, as well as dust grains obtained by Apollo-l1-17 lunar missions. The selected investigations, with analytical results and discussions, include: (a) Direct measurements of radiation on individual dust grains (b) Rotation and alignments of dust grains by radiative torque (c) Charging properties of dust grains by: (i) UV Photo-electric emissions (ii) Electron Impact. The results from these experiments are examined in the light of the current theories of the processes involved.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical strength of near- and sub-micrometre grain size copper prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Zhu, K. N.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been used to prepare fully dense samples of copper in a fully recrystallized condition with grain sizes in the near- and sub-micrometre regime. Two synthesis routes have been investigated to achieve grain size control: (i) SPS at different temperatures from 800...... transmission electron microscope, and on electron back-scatter diffraction studies, confirms the samples are in a nearly fully recrystallized condition, with grains that are dislocation-free, and have a random texture, with a high fraction of high angle boundaries. The mechanical strength of the samples has...

  9. The Relevance of Grain Dissection for Grain Size Reduction in Polar Ice : Insight from Numerical Models and Ice Core Microstructure Analysis

    Steinbach, F.; Kuiper, E.N.; Eichler, J.; Bons, P. D.; Drury, M. R.; Griera, A.; Pennock, G.M.; Weikusat, I.

    2017-01-01

    The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We

  10. THE EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF AN ADAPTIVE MATERNAL EFFECT: EGG SIZE PLASTICITY IN A SEED BEETLE.

    Fox, Charles W; Czesak, Mary Ellen; Mousseau, Timothy A; Roff, Derek A

    1999-04-01

    In many organisms, a female's environment provides a reliable indicator of the environmental conditions that her progeny will encounter. In such cases, maternal effects may evolve as mechanisms for transgenerational phenotypic plasticity whereby, in response to a predictive environmental cue, a mother can change the type of eggs that she makes or can program a developmental switch in her offspring, which produces offspring prepared for the environmental conditions predicted by the cue. One potentially common mechanism by which females manipulate the phenotype of their progeny is egg size plasticity, in which females vary egg size in response to environmental cues. We describe an experiment in which we quantify genetic variation in egg size and egg size plasticity in a seed beetle, Stator limbatus, and measure the genetic constraints on the evolution of egg size plasticity, quantified as the genetic correlation between the size of eggs laid across host plants. We found that genetic variation is present within populations for the size of eggs laid on seeds of two host plants (Acacia greggii and Cercidium floridum; h 2 ranged between 0.217 and 0.908), and that the heritability of egg size differed between populations and hosts (higher on A. greggii than on C. floridum). We also found that the evolution of egg size plasticity (the maternal effect) is in part constrained by a high genetic correlation across host plants (r G > 0.6). However, the cross-environment genetic correlation is less than 1.0, which indicates that the size of eggs laid on these two hosts can diverge in response to natural selection and that egg size plasticity is thus capable of evolving in response to natural selection. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Measurement of grain size of polycrystalline materials with confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Li, Fangzuo; Sun, Xuepeng; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-11-11

    The confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction (EDMXRD) based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used to determine the grain size of polycrystalline materials. The grain size of a metallographic specimen of nickel base alloy was measured by using the confocal EDMXRD. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal EDMXRD had potential applications in measuring large grain size.

  12. Substantiation of basic scheme of grain cleaning machine for preparation of agricultural crops seeds

    Giyevskiy, A. M.; Orobinsky, V. I.; Tarasenko, A. P.; Chernyshov, A. V.; Kurilov, D. O.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents data on the feasibility of the concept of a high-efficiency seed cleaner with the consistent use of the air flow in aspiration and the multi-tier placement of the sorting grids in grating mills. As a result of modeling, the directions for further improvement of air-screen seed cleaning machines have been identified: an increase in the proportion of sorting grids in the mills up to 70 ... 80% and an increase in the speed of the air flow in the channel of the pre-filter cleaning up to 8.0 m / s. Experiments have established the competence of using mathematical modeling of airflow in the pneumatic system with the use of a finite-volume method for solving hydrodynamic equations for substantiating the basic parameters of the pneumatic system.

  13. Influence of grain size on the mechanical properties of nano-crystalline copper; insights from molecular dynamics simulation

    Rida, A.; Makke, A.; Rouhaud, E.; Micoulaut, M.

    2017-10-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanical properties of a columnar nanocrystalline copper with a mean grain size between 8.91 nm and 24 nm. The used samples were generated by using a melting cooling method. These samples were submitted to uniaxial tensile test. The results reveal the presence of a critical mean grain size between 16 and 20 nm, where there is an inversion in the conventional Hall-Petch tendency. This inversion is illustrated by the increase of flow stress with the increase of the mean grain size. This transition is caused by shifting of the deformation mechanism from dislocations to a combination of grain boundaries sliding and dislocations. Moreover, the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline copper has been investigated. The results show a decrease of the flow stress and Young's modulus when the temperature increases.

  14. Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under Two Rice Cultivation Systems

    Y.V. SINGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement, less pest attack, shorter crop duration, higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation. With this background, SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during two wet seasons (2009–2011. In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design, two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44 were used under seven crop nutrition treatments, viz. T1, 120 kg/hm2 N, 26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2, 20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM; T3, 10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA; T6, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla, and T7, N0P0K0 (control, no NPK application to study the effect on seed quality, yield and water use. In SRI, soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2–3 cm was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice, however, in CT, standing water was maintained in crop growing season. Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI. Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT. Integrated nutrient management (INM resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties. Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill, panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer. The grain yield

  15. Field test comparison of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size using a digital 'beachball' camera versus traditional methods

    Barnard, P.L.; Rubin, D.M.; Harney, J.; Mustain, N.

    2007-01-01

    This extensive field test of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size from digital images was conducted using a digital bed-sediment camera, or 'beachball' camera. Using 205 sediment samples and >1200 images from a variety of beaches on the west coast of the US, grain size ranging from sand to granules was measured from field samples using both the autocorrelation technique developed by Rubin [Rubin, D.M., 2004. A simple autocorrelation algorithm for determining grain size from digital images of sediment. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 74(1): 160-165.] and traditional methods (i.e. settling tube analysis, sieving, and point counts). To test the accuracy of the digital-image grain size algorithm, we compared results with manual point counts of an extensive image data set in the Santa Barbara littoral cell. Grain sizes calculated using the autocorrelation algorithm were highly correlated with the point counts of the same images (r2 = 0.93; n = 79) and had an error of only 1%. Comparisons of calculated grain sizes and grain sizes measured from grab samples demonstrated that the autocorrelation technique works well on high-energy dissipative beaches with well-sorted sediment such as in the Pacific Northwest (r2 ??? 0.92; n = 115). On less dissipative, more poorly sorted beaches such as Ocean Beach in San Francisco, results were not as good (r2 ??? 0.70; n = 67; within 3% accuracy). Because the algorithm works well compared with point counts of the same image, the poorer correlation with grab samples must be a result of actual spatial and vertical variability of sediment in the field; closer agreement between grain size in the images and grain size of grab samples can be achieved by increasing the sampling volume of the images (taking more images, distributed over a volume comparable to that of a grab sample). In all field tests the autocorrelation method was able to predict the mean and median grain size with ???96% accuracy, which is more than

  16. Heavy metal speciation in various grain sizes of industrially contaminated street dust using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Yıldırım, Gülşen; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife

    2016-02-01

    A total of 36 street dust samples were collected from the streets of the Organised Industrial District in Kayseri, Turkey. This region includes a total of 818 work places in various industrial areas. The modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in street dusts of the study area. The BCR was classified into three steps: water/acid soluble fraction, reducible and oxidisable fraction. The remaining residue was dissolved by using aqua regia. The concentrations of the metals in street dust samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Also the effect of the different grain sizes (dust samples on the mobility of the metals was investigated using the modified BCR procedure. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the first three phases (for grain size) was: Cd (71.3)>Cu (48.9)>Pb (42.8)=Cr (42.1)>Ni (41.4)>Zn (40.9)>Co (36.6)=Mn (36.3)>Fe (3.1). No significant difference was observed among metal partitioning for the three particle sizes. Correlation, principal component and cluster analysis were applied to identify probable natural and anthropogenic sources in the region. The principal component analysis results showed that this industrial district was influenced by traffic, industrial activities, air-borne emissions and natural sources. The accuracy of the results was checked by analysis of both the BCR-701 certified reference material and by recovery studies in street dust samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Downstream lightening and upward heavying, sorting of sediments of uniform grain size but differing in density

    Viparelli, E.; Solari, L.; Hill, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Downstream fining, i.e. the tendency for a gradual decrease in grain size in the downstream direction, has been observed and studied in alluvial rivers and in laboratory flumes. Laboratory experiments and field observations show that the vertical sorting pattern over a small Gilbert delta front is characterized by an upward fining profile, with preferential deposition of coarse particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The present work is an attempt to answer the following questions. Are there analogous sorting patterns in mixtures of sediment particles having the same grain size but differing density? To investigate this, we performed experiments at the Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. During the experiments a Gilbert delta formed and migrated downstream allowing for the study of transport and sorting processes on the surface and within the deposit. The experimental results show 1) preferential deposition of heavy particles in the upstream part of the deposit associated with a pattern of "downstream lightening"; and 2) a vertical sorting pattern over the delta front characterized by a pattern of "upward heavying" with preferential deposition of light particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The observed downstream lightening is analogous of the downstream fining with preferential deposition of heavy (coarse) particles in the upstream part of the deposit. The observed upward heavying was unexpected because, considering the particle mass alone, the heavy (coarse) particles should have been preferentially deposited in the lowermost part of the deposit. Further, the application of classical fractional bedload transport relations suggests that in the case of mixtures of particles of uniform size and different densities equal mobility is not approached. We hypothesize that granular physics mechanisms traditionally associated with sheared granular flows may be responsible for the observed upward heavying and for the

  18. The transcriptome of the developing grain: a resource for understanding seed development and the molecular control of the functional and nutritional properties of wheat.

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2017-10-11

    Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85). At 14dpa, most of the transcripts were associated with the synthesis of the major seed components including storage proteins and starch. At 30dpa, a diverse range of genes were expressed at low levels with a predominance of genes associated with seed defence and stress tolerance. RNA-Seq analysis of changes in expression between 14dpa and 30dpa stages revealed 26,477 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed at a FDR corrected p-value cut-off at ≤0.01. Functional annotation and gene ontology mapping was performed and KEGG pathway mapping allowed grouping based upon biochemical linkages. This analysis demonstrated that photosynthesis associated with the pericarp was very active at 14dpa but had ceased by 30dpa. Recently reported genes for flour yield in milling and bread quality were found to influence wheat quality largely due to expression patterns at the earlier seed development stage. This study serves as a resource providing an overview of gene expression during wheat grain development at the early (14dpa) and late (30dpa) grain filling stages for use in studies of grain quality and nutritional value and in understanding seed biology.

  19. A triple-scale crystal plasticity modeling and simulation on size effect due to fine-graining

    Kurosawa, Eisuke; Aoyagi, Yoshiteru; Tadano, Yuichi; Shizawa, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a triple-scale crystal plasticity model bridging three hierarchical material structures, i.e., dislocation structure, grain aggregate and practical macroscopic structure is developed. Geometrically necessary (GN) dislocation density and GN incompatibility are employed so as to describe isolated dislocations and dislocation pairs in a grain, respectively. Then the homogenization method is introduced into the GN dislocation-crystal plasticity model for derivation of the governing equation of macroscopic structure with the mathematical and physical consistencies. Using the present model, a triple-scale FE simulation bridging the above three hierarchical structures is carried out for f.c.c. polycrystals with different mean grain size. It is shown that the present model can qualitatively reproduce size effects of macroscopic specimen with ultrafine-grain, i.e., the increase of initial yield stress, the decrease of hardening ratio after reaching tensile strength and the reduction of tensile ductility with decrease of its grain size. Moreover, the relationship between macroscopic yielding of specimen and microscopic grain yielding is discussed and the mechanism of the poor tensile ductility due to fine-graining is clarified. (author)

  20. Effect of dust size distribution on ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas with different dust grains

    Gao, Dong-Ning; Yang, Yang; Yan, Qiang [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China); Wang, Xiao-Yun [Lanzhou Jiao Tong University, Department of Mathematics and Physics (China); Duan, Wen-Shan, E-mail: duanws@126.com [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Theoretical studies are carried out for ion acoustic solitons in multicomponent nonuniform plasma considering the dust size distribution. The Korteweg−de Vries equation for ion acoustic solitons is given by using the reductive perturbation technique. Two special dust size distributions are considered. The dependences of the width and amplitude of solitons on dust size parameters are shown. It is found that the properties of a solitary wave depend on the shape of the size distribution function of dust grains.

  1. Effect of current and atomized grain size distribution on the solidification of Plasma Transferred Arc coatings

    Danielle Bond

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA is the only thermal spray process that results in a metallurgical bond, being frequently described as a hardfacing process. The superior properties of coatings have been related to the fine microstructures obtained, which are finer than those processed under similar heat input with welding techniques using wire feedstock. This observation suggests that the atomized feedstock plays a role on the solidification of coatings. In this study a model for the role of the powders grains in the solidification of PTA coatings is put forward and discussed. An experiment was setup to discuss the model which involved the deposition of an atomized Co-based alloy with different grain size distributions and deposition currents. X ray diffraction showed that there were no phase changes due to the processing parameters. Microstructure analysis by Laser Confocal Microscopy, dilution with the substrate steel and Vickers microhardness were used the characterized coatings and enriched the discussion confirming the role of the powdered feedstock on the solidification of coatings.

  2. Grain size influence on residual stresses in alumina/zirconia composites

    Sergo, V.; Sbaizero, O.; Pezzotti, G.; Nishida, T.

    1998-01-01

    The grain size (GS) and volume fraction of alumina have been systematically varied in composites with a zirconia matrix and the corresponding residual stresses have been assessed by means of piezospectroscopy. The compressive stress in alumina depends on the volume fraction and it is well predicted by a stochastic model based on information theory. No dependence with GS has been detected, except at the highest volume content (20% vol. alumina). Conversely the stress distribution is independent from the volume fraction and depends on GS: intermediate values of GS exhibit the wider stress distribution. The tensile stress in zirconia shows no clear correlation with the volume fraction and increases with increasing zirconia GS. This latter behavior has been compared with a model based on diffusion relaxation of stresses. The model reproduces correctly the stress change due to different alumina contents, but it diverges from the experimental data at smaller GSs, overestimating the residual stress. It is suggested that grain boundary sliding may also contribute to the relaxation of stresses

  3. Effect of non-metallic precipitates and grain size on core loss of non-oriented electrical silicon steels

    Wang, Jiayi; Ren, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Lifeng

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the number density and size of non-metallic precipitates and the size of grains on the core loss of the 50W800 non-oriented electrical silicon steel sheets were investigated. The number density and size of precipitates and grains were statistically analyzed using an automatic scanning electron microscope (ASPEX) and an optical microscope. Hypothesis models were established to reveal the physical feature for the function of grain size and precipitates on the core loss of the steel. Most precipitates in the steel were AlN particles smaller than 1 μm so that were detrimental to the core loss of the steel. These finer AlN particles distributed on the surface of the steel sheet. The relationship between the number density of precipitates (x in number/mm2 steel area) and the core loss (P1.5/50 in W/kg) was regressed as P1.5/50 = 4.150 + 0.002 x. The average grain size was approximately 25-35 μm. The relationship between the core loss and grain size (d in μm) was P1.5/50 = 3.851 + 20.001 d-1 + 60.000 d-2.

  4. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Baiyegunhi Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  5. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Liu, Kuiwu; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-11-01

    Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  6. Trace, isotopic analysis of micron-sized grains -- Mo, Zr analysis of stardust (SiC and graphite grains).

    Pellin, M. J.; Nicolussi, G. K.

    1998-02-19

    Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry using resonant laser ionization can provide for both high useful yields and high discrimination while maintaining high lateral and depth resolutions. An example of the power of the method is measurement of the isotopic composition of Mo and Zr in 1-5 {micro}m presolar SiC and graphite grains isolated from the Murchison CM2 meteorite for the first time. These grains have survived the formation of the Solar System and isotopic analysis reveals a record of the stellar nucleosynthesis present during their formation. Mo and Zr, though present at less than 10 ppm in some grains, are particularly useful in that among their isotopes are members that can only be formed by distinct nucleosynthetic processes known as s-, p-, and r-process. Successful isotopic analysis of these elements requires both high selectivity (since these are trace elements) and high efficiency (since the total number of atoms available are limited). Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy is particularly useful and flexible in this application. While the sensitivity of this t.edmique has often been reported in the past, we focus hereon the very low noise properties of the technique. We further demonstrate the efficacy of noise removal by two complimentary methods. First we use the resonant nature of the signal to subtract background signal. Second we demonstrate that by choosing the appropriate resonance scheme background can often be dramatically reduced.

  7. Attraction of likely charged nano-sized grains in dust-electron plasmas

    Vishnyakov, Vladimir I., E-mail: eksvar@ukr.net [Physical-Chemical Institute for Environmental and Human Protection, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine)

    2016-01-15

    Dust-electron plasma, which contains only the dust grains and electrons, emitted by them, is studied. Assumption of almost uniform spatial electrons distribution, which deviates from the uniformity only near the dust grains, leads to the grain charge division into two parts: first part is the individual for each grain “visible” charge and the second part is the common charge of the neutralized background. The visible grain charge can be both negative and positive, while the total grain charge is only positive. The attraction of likely charged grains is possible, because the grain interaction is determined by the visible charges. The equilibrium state between attraction and repulsion of grains is demonstrated.

  8. New Technology/Old Technology: Comparing Lunar Grain Size Distribution Data and Methods

    Fruland, R. M.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; Gonzalexz, C. P.; McKay, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Laser diffraction technology generates reproducible grain size distributions and reveals new structures not apparent in old sieve data. The comparison of specific sieve fractions with the Microtrac distribution curve generated for those specific fractions shows a reasonable match for the mean of each fraction between the two techniques, giving us confidence that the large existing body of sieve data can be cross-correlated with new data based on laser diffraction. It is well-suited for lunar soils, which have as much as 25% of the material in the less than 20 micrometer fraction. The fines in this range are of particular interest because they may contain a record of important space weathering processes.

  9. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains

    Sharma, Giriraj, E-mail: grsharma@gmail.com [SRJ Government Girls’ College, Neemuch (M P) (India); Dad, R. C. [Government P G College, Mandsaur (M P) (India); Ghosh, S. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain, (M P) (India)

    2015-07-31

    A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered.

  10. ANN modelling for the determination of moulding sand matrix grain size

    J. Jakubski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broader application in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castings and supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressure castings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presented investigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The aim of the investigations was to select the neural network suitable for prediction the moulding sand matrix grain size on the basis of the determined sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility, and compressive strength.

  11. TESTING THE GRAIN-SIZE DISTRIBUTION DETERMINED BY LASER DIFFRACTOMETRY FOR SICILIAN SOILS

    Costanza Di Stefano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the soil grain-size distribution determined by Laser Diffraction method (LDM is tested using the Sieve-Hydrometer method (SHM applied for 747 soil samples representing a different texture classification, sampled in Sicily. 005_Di_Stefano(599_39 28-12-2011 15:01 Pagina 45 The analysis showed that the sand content measured by SHM can be assumed equal to the one determined by LDM. An underestimation of the clay fraction measured by LDM was obtained with respect to the SHM and a set of equations useful to refer laser diffraction measurements to SHM was calibrated using the measurements carried out for 635 soil samples. Finally, the proposed equations were tested using independent measurements carried out by LDM and SHM for 112 soil samples with a different texture classification.

  12. Vibracore, Radiocarbon, Microfossil, and Grain-Size Data from Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Twichell, D.C.; Pendleton, E.A.; Poore, R.Z.; Osterman, L.E.; Kelso, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 24 vibracores within Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vibracores were collected by using a Rossfelder electric percussive (P-3) vibracore system during a cruise on the Research Vessel (R/V) G.K. Gilbert. Selection of the core sites was based on a geophysical survey that was conducted during 2005 and 2006 in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Coastal Services Center (CSC) and the Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. This report contains the vibracore data logs, photographs, and core-derived data including grain-size analyses, radiocarbon ages, microfossil counts, and sedimentological interpretations. The long-term goal of this study is to provide maps, data, and assistance to the Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in their effort to monitor and understand the geology and ecology of Apalachicola Bay Estuary. These data will inform coastal managers charged with the responsibility for resource preservation.

  13. Nanocrystalline growth and grain-size effects in Au-Cu electrodeposits

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Saw, Cheng K.; Harper, Jennifer F.; Vallier, Bobby F.; Ferreira, James L.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    The processing-structure-property relationship is investigated for electrodeposited foils of the gold-copper alloy system. A model is presented that relates the deposition process parameters to the nanocrystalline grain size. An activation energy of 1.52 eV atom -1 for growth is determined for a long-pulse (> 10 msec) mode, and is 0.16 eV atom -1 for short pulses ( 6 nm) is observed for Au-Cu samples with 1-12 wt.% Cu as tested in cross-section. The hardness increases three-fold from a rule-of-mixtures value < 1 GPa to a maximum of 2.9 GPa

  14. Grain size increase in pentacene thin films prepared in low-pressure gas ambient

    Yokoyama, Takamichi; Park, Chang Bum; Nagashio, Kosuke; Kita, Koji; Toriumi, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied a mechanism of grain size increase (that is, island density decrease) in pentacene film prepared in hydrogen (H 2 ) ambient. The island densities of pentacene films prepared in helium and deuterium were lower than those of vacuum-deposited films. This indicates that the decrease in the island density was not due to the chemical interaction between H 2 and pentacene or the substrate surface. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the island density indicates that there is no difference in the surface diffusion energy in a vacuum and in H 2 . We also improved mobility significantly in the pentacene thin film transistor fabricated on film grown in H 2 ambient on a chemically treated substrate.

  15. Response of Physiological Growth Indices and Bulb Dry Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L. Genotypes to Priming and Seed Size

    M. Izadkhah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Priming is one of the most common methods of improving seed quality, which significantly affects their storability. Seed priming is a seed treatment that allows imbibition and activation of the initial metabolic events associated with seed germination, but prevents radicle emergence and growth. In other words, phase one and two of seed water imbibition curve are passed, but seeds do not enter the third phase of water uptake. Then seeds are dried back to their original water content. Seed priming is a pre-sowing strategy for influencing seed germination and seedling development by modulating pre-germination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant performance. Naturally, when speed and percentage emergence of germinating seeds are being high, growing sources like light, water and nutrient will be more used. Another factor that can affect the seed germination and seedling establishment is the seed size. As generally known, among producing factors, seed as the first consumer store, plays an important role in the transfer of genetic characters and improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits of production. One of the most important factors in maximizing crop yield is planting high quality seed. Seed size is an important physical indicator of seed quality that affects vegetative growth and is frequently related to yield, market grade factors and harvest efficiency. In the present paper, effects of different pre-sowing treatments and seed size on physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion cultivars were investigated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the response of physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion to priming and seed size, a field experiment was conducted in 2012-2013 cropping season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of East, Azarbayjan, Iran. This experiment was a factorial experiment based on a

  16. Flow Characteristics and Grain Size Distribution of Granular Gangue Mineral by Compaction Treatment

    Ran Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A test system for water flow in granular gangue mineral was designed to study the flow characteristics by compaction treatment. With the increase of the compaction displacement, the porosity decreases and void in granular gangue becomes less. The main reason causing initial porosity decrease is that the void of larger size is filled with small particles. Permeability tends to decrease and non-Darcy flow factor increases under the compaction treatment. The change trend of flow characteristics shows twists and turns, which indicate that flow characteristics of granular gangue mineral are related to compaction level, grain size distribution, crushing, and fracture structure. During compaction, larger particles are crushed, which in turn causes the weight of smaller particles to increase, and water flow induces fine particles to migrate (weight loss; meanwhile, a sample with more weight of size (0–2.5 mm has a higher amount of weight loss. Water seepage will cause the decrease of some chemical components, where SiO2 decreased the highest in these components; the components decreased are more likely locked at fragments rather than the defect of the minerals. The variation of the chemical components has an opposite trend when compared with permeability.

  17. Grain size effect on the electrical response of SnO2 thin and thick film gas sensors

    Raluca Savu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous nano and micro crystalline tin oxide films were deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering and doctor blade techniques, respectively. Electrical resistance and impedance spectroscopy measurements, as a function of temperature and atmosphere, were performed in order to determine the influence of the microstructure and working conditions over the electrical response of the sensors. The conductivity of all samples increases with the temperature and decreases in oxygen, as expected for an n-type semiconducting material. The impedance plots indicated the existence of two time constants related to the grains and the grain boundaries. The Nyquist diagrams at low frequencies revealed the changes that took place in the grain boundary region, with the contribution of the grains being indicated by the formation of a second semicircle at high frequencies. The better sensing performance of the doctor bladed samples can be explained by their lower initial resistance values, bigger grain sizes and higher porosity.

  18. Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum.

    Gao, Libo; Ren, Wencai; Xu, Huilong; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhenxing; Ma, Teng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Lian-Mao; Bao, Xinhe; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-02-28

    Large single-crystal graphene is highly desired and important for the applications of graphene in electronics, as grain boundaries between graphene grains markedly degrade its quality and properties. Here we report the growth of millimetre-sized hexagonal single-crystal graphene and graphene films joined from such grains on Pt by ambient-pressure chemical vapour deposition. We report a bubbling method to transfer these single graphene grains and graphene films to arbitrary substrate, which is nondestructive not only to graphene, but also to the Pt substrates. The Pt substrates can be repeatedly used for graphene growth. The graphene shows high crystal quality with the reported lowest wrinkle height of 0.8 nm and a carrier mobility of greater than 7,100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) under ambient conditions. The repeatable growth of graphene with large single-crystal grains on Pt and its nondestructive transfer may enable various applications.

  19. Effect of grain size upon the fatigue-crack propagation behavior of alloy 718 under hold-time cycling at elevated temperature

    James, L A

    1986-01-01

    Fatigue-crack propagation tests were conducted in air at 538/sup 0/C on several specimens of Alloy 718 representing several different producers, melt practices and product forms. This variety resulted in a range of grain sizes from ASTM Size 5 to 11.5. Tests at low cyclic frequency employing a tensile hold-time revealed a relationship between crack growth rates and grain size: higher growth rates were associated with fine-grain material and lower rates with larger-grain material. The lowest crack growth rates were associated with a necklace microstructure, whereby large grains are associated with necklaces of very small grains.

  20. Comparison of layer grain size analysis with pipette and sieve analysis: a solution for the underestimation of the clay fraction

    Konert, M.; Vandenberghe, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Classically, the grain size of soil and sediment samples is determined by the sieve method for the coarse fractions and by the pipette method, based on the 'Stokes' sedimentation rates, for the fine fractions. Results from the two methods are compared with results from laser diffraction size

  1. [Effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on soil water and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert].

    Sun, Yan-Wei; Li, Sheng-Yu; Xu, Xin-Wen; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Li, Ying

    2009-08-01

    By using mcirolysimeter, a laboratory simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on the soil water evaporation and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. Under the same initial soil water content and deposition thickness condition, finer-textured (grain size of dust deposits on soil water evaporation had an inflection point at the grain size 0.20 mm, i. e., increased with increasing grain size when the grain size was 0.063-0.20 mm but decreased with increasing grain size when the grain size was > 0.20 mm. With the increasing thickness of dust deposits, its inhibition effect on soil water evaporation increased, and there existed a logarithmic relationship between the dust deposits thickness and water evaporation. Surface soil salt accumulation had a negative correlation with dust deposits thickness. In sum, the dust deposits in study area could affect the stability of arid desert ecosystem.

  2. Seeded Growth Synthesis of Gold Nanotriangles: Size Control, SAXS Analysis, and SERS Performance.

    Kuttner, Christian; Mayer, Martin; Dulle, Martin; Moscoso, Ana; López-Romero, Juan Manuel; Förster, Stephan; Fery, Andreas; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Contreras-Cáceres, Rafael

    2018-04-04

    We studied the controlled growth of triangular prismatic Au nanoparticles with different beveled sides for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. First, in a seedless synthesis using 3-butenoic acid (3BA) and benzyldimethylammonium chloride (BDAC), gold nanotriangles (AuNTs) were synthesized in a mixture with gold nanooctahedra (AuNOCs) and separated by depletion-induced flocculation. Here, the influence of temperature, pH, and reducing agent on the reaction kinetics was initially investigated by UV-vis and correlated to the size and yield of AuNT seeds. In a second step, the AuNT size was increased by seed-mediated overgrowth with Au. We show for the first time that preformed 3BA-synthesized AuNT seeds can be overgrown up to a final edge length of 175 nm and a thickness of 80 nm while maintaining their triangular shape and tip sharpness. The NT morphology, including edge length, thickness, and tip rounding, was precisely characterized in dispersion by small-angle X-ray scattering and in dry state by transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. For sensor purposes, we studied the size-dependent SERS performance of AuNTs yielding analytical enhancement factors between 0.9 × 10 4 and 5.6 × 10 4 and nanomolar limit of detection (10 -8 -10 -9 M) for 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and BDAC. These results confirm that the 3BA approach allows the fabrication of AuNTs in a whole range of sizes maintaining the NT morphology. This enables tailoring of localized surface plasmon resonances between 590 and 740 nm, even in the near-infrared window of a biological tissue, for use as colloidal SERS sensing agents or for optoelectronic applications.

  3. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes.

    Tian, Y Z; Zhao, L J; Chen, S; Shibata, A; Zhang, Z F; Tsuji, N

    2015-11-19

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE.

  4. Trade-offs between seed and leaf size (seed-phytomer-leaf theory): functional glue linking regenerative with life history strategies … and taxonomy with ecology?

    Hodgson, John G; Santini, Bianca A; Montserrat Marti, Gabriel; Royo Pla, Ferran; Jones, Glynis; Bogaard, Amy; Charles, Mike; Font, Xavier; Ater, Mohammed; Taleb, Abdelkader; Poschlod, Peter; Hmimsa, Younes; Palmer, Carol; Wilson, Peter J; Band, Stuart R; Styring, Amy; Diffey, Charlotte; Green, Laura; Nitsch, Erika; Stroud, Elizabeth; Romo-Díez, Angel; de Torres Espuny, Lluis; Warham, Gemma

    2017-11-10

    While the 'worldwide leaf economics spectrum' (Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M, et al. 2004. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature : 821-827) defines mineral nutrient relationships in plants, no unifying functional consensus links size attributes. Here, the focus is upon leaf size, a much-studied plant trait that scales positively with habitat quality and components of plant size. The objective is to show that this wide range of relationships is explicable in terms of a seed-phytomer-leaf (SPL) theoretical model defining leaf size in terms of trade-offs involving the size, growth rate and number of the building blocks (phytomers) of which the young shoot is constructed. Functional data for 2400+ species and English and Spanish vegetation surveys were used to explore interrelationships between leaf area, leaf width, canopy height, seed mass and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). Leaf area was a consistent function of canopy height, LDMC and seed mass. Additionally, size traits are partially uncoupled. First, broad laminas help confer competitive exclusion while morphologically large leaves can, through dissection, be functionally small. Secondly, leaf size scales positively with plant size but many of the largest-leaved species are of medium height with basally supported leaves. Thirdly, photosynthetic stems may represent a functionally viable alternative to 'small seeds + large leaves' in disturbed, fertile habitats and 'large seeds + small leaves' in infertile ones. Although key elements defining the juvenile growth phase remain unmeasured, our results broadly support SPL theory in that phytometer and leaf size are a product of the size of the initial shoot meristem (≅ seed mass) and the duration and quality of juvenile growth. These allometrically constrained traits combine to confer ecological specialization on individual species. Equally, they appear conservatively expressed within major taxa. Thus, 'evolutionary canalization' sensu Stebbins (Stebbins GL

  5. Model for evolution of grain size in the rim region of high burnup UO{sub 2} fuel

    Xiao, Hongxing, E-mail: xiaohongxing2003@163.com; Long, Chongsheng; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-04-01

    The restructuring process of the high burnup structure (HBS) formation in UO{sub 2} fuel results in sub-micron size grains that accelerate the fission gas swelling, which will raise some concern over the safety of extended the nuclear fuel operation life in the reactor. A mechanistic and engineering model for evolution of grain size in the rim region of high burnup UO{sub 2} fuel based on the experimental observations of the HBS in the literature is presented. The model takes into account dislocations evolution under irradiation and the grain subdivision occur successively at increasing local burnup. It is assumed that the original driving force for subdivision of grain in the HBS of UO{sub 2} fuel is the production and accumulation of dislocation loops during irradiation. The dislocation loops can also be annealed through thermal diffusion when the temperature is high enough. The capability of this model is validated by the comparison with the experimental data of temperature threshold of subdivision, dislocation density and sub-grain size as a function of local burnup. It is shown that the calculated results of the dislocation density and subdivided grain size as a function of local burnup are in good agreement with the experimental results. - Highlights: • A model for evolution of dislocation density and grain size in HBS is proposed. • The dislocation can also be annealed when the temperature is high enough. • Original driving force for subdivision is mostly accumulation of dislocation loops. • The temperature threshold of the subdivision is predicted at 1300–1400 K.

  6. Effect of ammonium perchlorate grain sizes on the combustion of solid rocket propellant

    Hegab, A.; Balabel, A. [Menoufia Univ., Menoufia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The combustion of heterogeneous solid rocket propellant consisting of ammonium perchlorate (AP) particles was discussed with reference to the chemical and physical complexity of the propellant and the microscopic scale of the combustion zone. This study considered the primary flame between the decomposition products of the binder and the AP oxidizer; the primary diffusion flame from the oxidizer; density and conductivity of the AP and binder; temperature-dependent gas-phase transport properties; and, an unsteady non-planer regression surface. Three different random packing disc models for the AP particles imbedded in a matrix of a hydroxyl terminated polybutadience (HTPB) fuel-binder were used as a base of the combustion code. The models have different AP grain sizes and distribution with the fuel binder. A 2D calculation was developed for the combustion of heterogeneous solid propellant, accounting for the gas phase physics, the solid phase physics and an unsteady non-planar description of the regressing propellant surface. The mathematical model described the unsteady burning of a heterogeneous propellant by simultaneously solving the combustion fields in the gas phase and the thermal field in the solid phase with appropriate jump condition across the gas/solid interface. The gas-phase kinetics was represented by a two-step reaction mechanism for the primary premixed flame and the primary diffusion flame between the decomposition products of the HTPB and the oxidizer. The essentially-non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme was used to describe the propagation of the unsteady non-planer regression surface. The results showed that AP particle size has a significant effect on the combustion surface deformation as well as on the burning rate. This study also determined the effect of various parameters on the surface propagation speed, flame structure, and the burning surface geometry. The speed by which the combustion surface recedes was found to depend on the exposed pressure

  7. A Conceptual Model for Spatial Grain Size Variability on the Surface of and within Beaches

    Edith Gallagher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Grain size on the surface of natural beaches has been observed to vary spatially and temporally with morphology and wave energy. The stratigraphy of the beach at Duck, North Carolina, USA was examined using 36 vibracores (~1–1.5 m long collected along a cross-shore beach profile. Cores show that beach sediments are finer (~0.3 mm and more uniform high up on the beach. Lower on the beach, with more swash and wave action, the sand is reworked, segregated by size, and deposited in layers and patches. At the deepest measurement sites in the swash (~−1.4 to −1.6 m NAVD88, which are constantly being reworked by the energetic shore break, there is a thick layer (60–80 cm of very coarse sediment (~2 mm. Examination of two large trenches showed that continuous layers of coarse and fine sands comprise beach stratigraphy. Thicker coarse layers in the trenches (above mean sea level are likely owing to storm erosion and storm surge elevating the shore break and swash, which act to sort the sediment. Those layers are buried as water level retreats, accretion occurs and the beach recovers from the storm. Thinner coarse layers likely represent similar processes acting on smaller temporal scales.

  8. German and English Bodies: No Evidence for Cross-Linguistic Differences in Preferred Orthographic Grain Size

    Xenia Schmalz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that words and nonwords with many body neighbours (i.e., words with the same orthographic body, e.g., 'cat, brat, at' are read faster than items with fewer body neighbours. This body-N effect has been explored in the context of cross-linguistic differences in reading where it has been reported that the size of the effect differs as a function of orthographic depth: readers of English, a deep orthography, show stronger facilitation than readers of German, a shallow orthography. Such findings support the psycholinguistic grain size theory, which proposes that readers of English rely on large orthographic units to reduce ambiguity of print-to-speech correspondences in their orthography. Here we re-examine the evidence for this pattern and find that there is no reliable evidence for such a cross-linguistic difference. Re-analysis of a key study (Ziegler et al., 2001, analysis of data from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007, and a large-scale analysis of nine new experiments all support this conclusion. Using Bayesian analysis techniques, we find little evidence of the body-N effect in most tasks and conditions. Where we do find evidence for a body-N effect (lexical decision for nonwords, we find evidence against an interaction with language.

  9. Grain size stabilization of tetragonal phase of zirconia in sputtered Zr- O cermet films

    M. S. Hadavi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this research, thin films of Zr/ZrO2 composites were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering technique on Si and fused Silica substrates, and their structures were investigated by XRD method. During the deposition of the cermet layers, a Zr metallic target was sputtered in a gas mixture of Ar and O2. By controlling of O2 flow rate, the different metal volume fractions in the cermet layers were achieved. The optical response of the samples was studied using spectroscopy methods. Also the effect of vacuum annealing on the structures and the optical properties were studied. XRD results indicated that the prepared samples were amorphous and vacuum annealing induced crystallization in the cermet films. This research also showed that without doping, the tetragonal phase of zirconia can be stabilized at a temperature lower than the normal transition temperature. This is “grain size stabilization” and relates to the small size of the crystallites. In order to study the electron diffraction in the selected area patterns (SAD, the samples were analyzed by a high-resolution transmission microscope. The SAD results showed that all of the as prepared samples were amorphous showing evidence of very small Zr crystallites immersed in a dielectric medium.The SAD results are in close agreement with those obtained by XRD analysis.

  10. Internal dispersal of seeds by waterfowl: effect of seed size on gut passage time and germination patterns

    Figuerola, J.; Charalambidou, I.; Santamaria, L.; Green, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Long distance dispersal may have important consequences for gene flow and community structure. The dispersal of many plants depends on transport by vertebrate seed dispersers. The shapes of seed shadows produced by vertebrates depend both on movement patterns of the dispersers and on the dynamics

  11. Prediction of as-cast grain size of inoculated aluminum alloys melt solidified under non-isothermal conditions

    Du, Qiang; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-scale as-cast grain size prediction model is proposed to predict as-cast grain size of inoculated aluminum alloys melt solidified under non-isothermal condition, i.e., the existence of temperature gradient. Given melt composition, inoculation and heat extraction boundary conditions, the model is able to predict maximum nucleation undercooling, cooling curve, primary phase solidification path and final as-cast grain size of binary alloys. The proposed model has been applied to two Al-Mg alloys, and comparison with laboratory and industrial solidification experimental results have been carried out. The preliminary conclusion is that the proposed model is a promising suitable microscopic model used within the multi-scale casting simulation modelling framework. (paper)

  12. Optically stimulated luminescence dating as a tool for calculating sedimentation rates in Chinese loess: comparisons with grain-size records

    Stevens, Thomas; Lu, HY

    2009-01-01

    Understanding loess sedimentation rates is crucial for constraining past atmospheric dust dynamics, regional climatic change and local depositional environments. However, the derivation of loess sedimentation rates is complicated by the lack of available methods for independent calculation......) the influences on sediment grain-size and accumulation; and (ii) their relationship through time and across the depositional region. This uncertainty has led to the widespread use of assumptions concerning the relationship between sedimentation rate and grain-size in order to derive age models and climate...... reconstructions. To address this uncertainty, detailed independent age models, based on optically stimulated luminescence dating, undertaken at 10 to 40 cm intervals at five sections across the Loess Plateau in China, have been used to calculate sedimentation rates and make comparisons with grain-size changes...

  13. Analysis of Grain Size Distribution and Hydraulic Conductivity for a Variety of Sediment Types with Application to Wadi Sediments

    Rosas Aguilar, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity from over 400 unlithified sediment samples were analized. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain size analyses. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and statistical off sets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, off shore marine, and wadi sediments. Expected hydraulic conductivity estimation errors were reduced. Correction factors were proposed for wadi sediments, taking mud percentage and the standard deviation (in phi units) into account.

  14. Grain size-dependent strength of phyllosilicate-rich gouges in the shallow crust: Insights from the SAFOD site

    Phillips, Noah John; White, Joseph Clancy

    2017-07-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project directly sampled a transitional (between creeping and locked) segment of the San Andreas Fault at 2.7 km depth. At the site, changes in strain rate occur between periods of coseismic slip (>10-7 s-1) and interseismic creep (10-10 s-1) over decadal scales ( 30 years). Microstructural observations of core retrieved from the SAFOD site show throughgoing fractures and gouge-rich cores within the fractures, evidence of predominantly brittle deformation mechanisms. Within the gouge-rich cores, strong phases show evidence of deformation by pressure solution once the grain size is reduced to a critical effective grain size. Models of pressure solution-accommodated creep for quartz-phyllosilicate mixtures indicate that viscous weakening of quartz occurs during the interseismic period once a critical effective grain size of 1 μm is achieved, consistent with microstructural observations. This causes pronounced weakening, as the strength of the mixture is then controlled by the frictional properties of the phyllosilicate phases. These results have pronounced implications for the internal deformation of fault zones in the shallow crust, where at low strain rates, deformation is accommodated by both viscous and brittle deformation mechanisms. As strain rates increase, the critical effective grain size for weakening decreases, localizing deformation into the finest-grained gouges until deformation can no longer be accommodated by viscous processes and purely brittle failure occurs.

  15. Development of a new ultrafine grained dual phase steel and examination of the effect of grain size on tensile deformation behavior

    Saeidi, N., E-mail: navidsae@gmail.com; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Niroumand, B.

    2014-04-01

    Ultrafine grained dual phase (DP) steels are among the newest grades of DP steels that incorporate the uniform distribution of fine martensite particles (in the order of 1–2 μm) within a ferrite matrix. These new grades of steels have been developed in response to the world's demand for decreasing the fuel consumption in automobiles by increasing the strength to weight ratio. In the present research, a new kind of ultrafine grained DP (UFG-DP) steel with an average grain size of about 2 μm as well as a coarse grained DP (CG-DP) steel with an average grain size of about 5.4 μm was produced by consecutive intercritical annealing and cold rolling of low carbon AISI 8620 steel. The martensite volume fraction for both microstructures was the same and about 50 percent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructural examination and room temperature tensile deformation analyses were performed on both UFG-DP and CG-DP steels and their deformation behavior in terms of strength, elongation and strain hardening was studied and compared. Room-temperature uniaxial tensile tests revealed that for a given martensite volume fraction, yield and tensile strengths were not very sensitive to martensite morphology. However, uniform and total elongation values were noticeably affected by refining martensite particles. The higher plasticity of fine martensite particles as well as the more uniform strain distribution within the UFG-DP microstructure resulted in higher strain hardenability and, finally, the higher ductility of the UFG-DP steel.

  16. Small grain size zirconium-based coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures

    Jimenez, O., E-mail: omar.jimenez.udg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Audronis, M.; Leyland, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Flores, M.; Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Kanakis, K.; Matthews, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Hard, partly amorphous, ZrTiB(N) coatings were deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) onto (111) silicon wafers at low substrate temperatures of 85 and 110 °C using Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering. A segmented rectangular sputter target composed of three pieces (Zr/TiB{sub 2}/Zr) was used as the source of evaporation of coating components. Two different substrate biases (i.e. floating potential and − 50 V) and N{sub 2} reactive-gas flow rates of 2, 4 and 6 sccm were employed as the main deposition parameter variables. The chemical composition, structure, morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using a variety of analytical techniques such as Glow-Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) and nanoindentation. With other parameters fixed, coating properties were found to be dependent on the substrate negative bias and nitrogen flow rate. Linear scan profiles and SEM imaging revealed that all coatings were smooth, dense and featureless (in fracture cross section) with no apparent columnar morphology or macro-defects. GAXRD structural analysis revealed that mostly metallic phases were formed for coatings containing no nitrogen, whereas a solid solution (Zr,Ti)N single phase nitride was found in most of the reactively deposited coatings — exhibiting a very small grain size due to nitrogen and boron grain refinement effects. Hardness values from as low as 8.6 GPa up to a maximum of 25.9 GPa are related mainly to solid solution strengthening effects. The measured elastic moduli correlated with the trends in hardness behaviour; values in the range of 120–200 GPa were observed depending on the selected deposition parameters. Also, high H/E values (> 0.1) were achieved with several of the coatings.

  17. Seed maturation in Arabidopsis is characterised by nuclear size reduction and increased chromatin condensation

    Zanten, van M.; Koini, M.A.; Geyer, R.; Liu, Y.; Brambilla, V.; Bartels, D.; Koornneef, M.; Fransz, P.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most plant species rely on seeds for their dispersal and survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Seeds are characterized by their low moisture content and significantly reduced metabolic activities. During the maturation phase, seeds accumulate storage reserves and become

  18. Seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by nuclear size reduction and increased chromatin condensation

    van Zanten, M.; Koini, M. A.; Geyer, R.; Liu, Y.; Brambilla, V.; Bartels, D.; Koornneef, M.; Fransz, P.; Soppe, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Most plant species rely on seeds for their dispersal and survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Seeds are characterized by their low moisture content and significantly reduced metabolic activities. During the maturation phase, seeds accumulate storage reserves and become

  19. Grain Refinement and Mechanical Properties of Cu-Cr-Zr Alloys with Different Nano-Sized TiCp Addition.

    Zhang, Dongdong; Bai, Fang; Wang, Yong; Wang, Jinguo; Wang, Wenquan

    2017-08-08

    The TiC p /Cu master alloy was prepared via thermal explosion reaction. Afterwards, the nano-sized TiC p /Cu master alloy was dispersed by electromagnetic stirring casting into the melting Cu-Cr-Zr alloys to fabricate the nano-sized TiC p -reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites. Results show that nano-sized TiC p can effectively refine the grain size of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys. The morphologies of grain in Cu-Cr-Zr composites changed from dendritic grain to equiaxed crystal because of the addition and dispersion of nano-sized TiC p . The grain size decreased from 82 to 28 μm with the nano-sized TiC p content. Compared with Cu-Cr-Zr alloys, the ultimate compressive strength (σ UCS ) and yield strength (σ 0.2 ) of 4 wt% TiC p -reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites increased by 6.7% and 9.4%, respectively. The wear resistance of the nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites increased with the increasing nano-sized TiCp content. The wear loss of the nano-sized TiC p -reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites decreased with the increasing TiC p content under abrasive particles. The eletrical conductivity of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys, 2% and 4% nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites are 64.71% IACS, 56.77% IACS and 52.93% IACS, respectively.

  20. Numerical simulation of temperature distribution using finite difference equations and estimation of the grain size during friction stir processing

    Arora, H.S.; Singh, H.; Dhindaw, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Magnesium alloy AE42 was friction stir processed under different cooling conditions. ► Heat flow model was developed using finite difference heat equations. ► Generalized MATLAB code was developed for solving heat flow model. ► Regression equation for estimation of grain size was developed. - Abstract: The present investigation is aimed at developing a heat flow model to simulate temperature history during friction stir processing (FSP). A new approach of developing implicit form of finite difference heat equations solved using MATLAB code was used. A magnesium based alloy AE42 was friction stir processed (FSPed) at different FSP parameters and cooling conditions. Temperature history was continuously recorded in the nugget zone during FSP using data acquisition system and k type thermocouples. The developed code was validated at different FSP parameters and cooling conditions during FSP experimentation. The temperature history at different locations in the nugget zone at different instants of time was further utilized for the estimation of grain growth rate and final average grain size of the FSPed specimen. A regression equation relating the final grain size, maximum temperature during FSP and the cooling rate was developed. The metallurgical characterization was done using optical microscopy, SEM, and FIB-SIM analysis. The simulated temperature profiles and final average grain size were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The presence of fine precipitate particles generated in situ in the investigated magnesium alloy also contributed in the evolution of fine grain structure through Zener pining effect at the grain boundaries.

  1. Modeling the Effect of Grain Size Mixing on Thermal Inertia Values Derived from Diurnal and Seasonal THEMIS Measurements

    McCarty, C.; Moersch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentary processes have slowed over Mars' geologic history. Analysis of the surface today can provide insight into the processes that may have affected it over its history. Sub-resolved checkerboard mixtures of materials with different thermal inertias (and therefore different grain sizes) can lead to differences in thermal inertia values inferred from night and day radiance observations. Information about the grain size distribution of a surface can help determine the degree of sorting it has experienced or it's geologic maturity. Standard methods for deriving thermal inertia from measurements made with THEMIS can give values for the same location that vary by as much as 20% between scenes. Such methods make the assumption that each THEMIS pixel contains material that has uniform thermophysical properties. Here we propose that if a mixture of small and large particles is present within a pixel, the inferred thermal inertia will be strongly dominated by whichever particle is warmer at the time of the measurement because the power radiated by a surface is proportional (by the Stefan-Boltzmann law) to the fourth power of its temperature. This effect will result in a change in thermal inertia values inferred from measurements taken at different times of day and night. Therefore, we expect to see correlation between the magnitude of diurnal variations in inferred thermal inertia values and the degree of grain size mixing for a given pixel location. Preliminary work has shown that the magnitude of such diurnal variation in inferred thermal inertias is sufficient to detect geologically useful differences in grain size distributions. We hypothesize that at least some of the 20% variability in thermal inertias inferred from multiple scenes for a given location could be attributed to sub-pixel grain size mixing rather than uncertainty inherent to the experiment, as previously thought. Mapping the difference in inferred thermal inertias from day and night THEMIS

  2. A Visual Basic program to plot sediment grain-size data on ternary diagrams

    Poppe, L.J.; Eliason, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentologic datasets are typically large and compiled into tables or databases, but pure numerical information can be difficult to understand and interpret. Thus, scientists commonly use graphical representations to reduce complexities, recognize trends and patterns in the data, and develop hypotheses. Of the graphical techniques, one of the most common methods used by sedimentologists is to plot the basic gravel, sand, silt, and clay percentages on equilateral triangular diagrams. This means of presenting data is simple and facilitates rapid classification of sediments and comparison of samples.The original classification scheme developed by Shepard (1954) used a single ternary diagram with sand, silt, and clay in the corners and 10 categories to graphically show the relative proportions among these three grades within a sample. This scheme, however, did not allow for sediments with significant amounts of gravel. Therefore, Shepard's classification scheme was later modified by the addition of a second ternary diagram with two categories to account for gravel and gravelly sediment (Schlee, 1973). The system devised by Folk (1954, 1974)\\ is also based on two triangular diagrams, but it has 21 categories and uses the term mud (defined as silt plus clay). Patterns within the triangles of both systems differ, as does the emphasis placed on gravel. For example, in the system described by Shepard, gravelly sediments have more than 10% gravel; in Folk's system, slightly gravelly sediments have as little as 0.01% gravel. Folk's classification scheme stresses gravel because its concentration is a function of the highest current velocity at the time of deposition as is the maximum grain size of the detritus that is available; Shepard's classification scheme emphasizes the ratios of sand, silt, and clay because they reflect sorting and reworking (Poppe et al., 2005).The program described herein (SEDPLOT) generates verbal equivalents and ternary diagrams to

  3. A study on density, porosity and grain size of unirradiated ROX fuels and simulated ROX fuels

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Shirasu, Noriko; Ohmichi, Toshihiko

    1999-05-01

    The unirradiated ROX fuels made of (1) 23wt%PuO 2 -17wt%SZR-56wt%Al 2 O 3 -4wt%MgO (ROX-SZR) and (2) 20wt%PuO 2 -29wt%ThO 2 -48wt%Al 2 O 3 -3wt%MgO (ROX-ThO 2 ) were fabricated by JAERI. Additionally, 9 simulated ROX fuels (used UO 2 instead of PuO 2 ) were fabricated by NFI. Densities, porosity and grain sizes of those were studied. Obtained results are: (1) ROX fuels: The estimated theoretical density (TD) was 5.6g/cc for the ROX-SZR and 6.2g/cc for the ROX-ThO 2 . Those were about half of that in UO 2 (10.96g/cc). As-fabricated density determined was 4.6g/cc (82%TD) for the former and 5.2g/cc (83%TD) for the latter. The %TD of those was low than that of UO 2 (95%TD). One of main reason is that the ROX fuels were sintered at temperature of 1,400degC while UO 2 was sintered at temperature of 1,700degC. The average pore diameter was about 3 μm and the porosity was 17-18%, implying that the ROX fuels were resulted in containing a lot of small pores 2 . As-fabricated density determined in the present study was about 4.5-5.5g/cc. The %TD of the simulated ROX fuels ranged about 94-98%TD. They were in the same as that of UO 2 because as high sintering temperature of 1,750degC as UO 2 . The average pore diameter was about 4-8 μm and the porosity was <6%. Grain size was revealed to be about 1-4 μm. (author)

  4. Effect of gamma-irradiation on rice seed DNA. Pt. 1. Yield and molecular size of DNA extracted from irradiated rice seeds

    Kawamura, Yoko; Konishi, Akihiro; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the DNA of hulled rice seeds was investigated. The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method was preferred for the extraction of DNA from rice seeds because of its high quality and good yield. The yield of DNA that was determined by gel electrophoresis, decreased as the irradiation dose increased from 1 kGy. DNA extracted from rice seeds irradiated with a 30 kGy dose showed a molecular size of less than 20 kb, while that from unirradiated rice showed more than 100 kb in electrophoretic profiles. It can be assumed that the decrease in yield was mainly induced by the crosslinking between protein and DNA, and the reduction in molecular size was induced by double-strand breaks. (J.P.N.)

  5. Seasonal variation in soil seed bank size and species composition of selected habitat types in Maputaland, South Africa

    M. J. S. Kellerman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in seed bank size and species composition of five selected habitat types within the Tembe Elephant Park. South Africa, was investigated. At three-month intervals, soil samples were randomly collected from five different habitat types: a, Licuati forest; b, Licuati thicket; c, a bare or sparsely vegetated zone surrounding the forest edge, referred to as the forest/grassland ecotone; d, grassland; and e, open woodland. Most species in the seed bank flora were either grasses, sedges, or forbs, with hardly any evidence of woody species. The Licuati forest and thicket soils produced the lowest seed densities in all seasons.  Licuati forest and grassland seed banks showed a two-fold seasonal variation in size, those of the Licuati thicket and woodland a three-fold variation in size, whereas the forest/grassland ecotone maintained a relatively large seed bank all year round. The woodland seed bank had the highest species richness, whereas the Licuati forest and thicket soils were poor in species. Generally, it was found that the greatest correspondence in species composition was between the Licuati forest and thicket, as well as the forest/grassland ecotone and grassland seed bank floras.

  6. Volatile and non-volatile elements in grain-size separated samples of Apollo 17 lunar soils

    Giovanoli, R.; Gunten, H.R. von; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Meyer, G.; Wegmueller, F.; Gruetter, A.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1977-01-01

    Three samples of Apollo 17 lunar soils (75081, 72501 and 72461) were separated into 9 grain-size fractions between 540 and 1 μm mean diameter. In order to detect mineral fractionations caused during the separation procedures major elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses performed on small aliquots of the separated samples. Twenty elements were measured in each size fraction using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques. The concentration of the main elements in sample 75081 does not change with the grain-size. Exceptions are Fe and Ti which decrease slightly and Al which increases slightly with the decrease in the grain-size. These changes in the composition in main elements suggest a decrease in Ilmenite and an increase in Anorthite with decreasing grain-size. However, it can be concluded that the mineral composition of the fractions changes less than a factor of 2. Samples 72501 and 72461 are not yet analyzed for the main elements. (Auth.)

  7. The influence of spatial grain size on the suitability of the higher-taxon approach in continental priority-setting

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    The higher-taxon approach may provide a pragmatic surrogate for the rapid identification of priority areas for conservation. To date, no continent-wide study has examined the use of higher-taxon data to identify complementarity-based networks of priority areas, nor has the influence of spatial gr...... grain size been assessed. We used data obtained from 939 sub-Saharan mammals to analyse the performance of higher-taxon data for continental priority-setting and to assess the influence of spatial grain sizes in terms of the size of selection units (1°× 1°, 2°× 2° and 4°× 4° latitudinal...... as effectively as species-based priority areas, genus-based areas perform considerably less effectively than species-based areas for the 1° and 2° grain size. Thus, our results favour the higher-taxon approach for continental priority-setting only when large grain sizes (= 4°) are used.......The higher-taxon approach may provide a pragmatic surrogate for the rapid identification of priority areas for conservation. To date, no continent-wide study has examined the use of higher-taxon data to identify complementarity-based networks of priority areas, nor has the influence of spatial...

  8. Influence of the Grain Size on the Properties of CH3NH3PbI3 Thin Films.

    Shargaieva, Oleksandra; Lang, Felix; Rappich, Jörg; Dittrich, Thomas; Klaus, Manuela; Meixner, Matthias; Genzel, Christoph; Nickel, Norbert H

    2017-11-08

    Hybrid perovskites have already shown a huge success as an absorber in solar cells, resulting in the skyrocketing rise in the power conversion efficiency to more than η = 22%. Recently, it has been established that the crystal quality is one of the most important parameters to obtain devices with high efficiencies. However, the influence of the crystal quality on the material properties is not fully understood. Here, the influence of the morphology on electronic properties of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 thin films is investigated. Postannealing was used to vary the average grain size continuously from ≈150 to ≈1000 nm. Secondary grain growth is thermally activated with an activation energy of E a = 0.16 eV. The increase in the grain size leads to an enhancement of the photoluminescence, indicating an improvement in the material quality. According to surface photovoltage measurements, the charge-carrier transport length exhibits a linear increase with increasing grain size. The charge-carrier diffusion length is limited by grain boundaries. Moreover, an improved morphology leads to a drastic increase in power conversion efficiency of the devices.

  9. Effect of Grain Size on Differential Desorption of Volatile Species and on Non-ideal MHD Diffusivity

    Zhao, Bo; Caselli, Paola; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2018-05-01

    We developed a chemical network for modeling the chemistry and non-ideal MHD effects from the collapsing dense molecular clouds to protostellar disks. First, we re-formulated the cosmic-ray desorption rate by considering the variations of desorption rate over the grain size distribution. We find that the differential desorption of volatile species is amplified by the grains larger than 0.1 μm, because larger grains are heated to a lower temperature by cosmic-rays and hence more sensitive to the variations in binding energies. As a result, atomic nitrogen N is ˜2 orders of magnitude more abundant than CO; N2H+ also becomes a few times more abundant than HCO+ due to the increased gas-phase N2. However, the changes in ionization fraction due to freeze-out and desorption only have minor effects on the non-ideal MHD diffusivities. Our chemical network confirms that the very small grains (VSGs: below a few 100 Å) weakens the efficiency of both ambipolar diffusion and Hall effect. In collapsing dense cores, a maximum ambipolar diffusion is achieved when truncating the MRN size distribution at 0.1 μm, and for a maximum Hall effect, the truncation occurs at 0.04 μm. We conclude that the grain size distribution is crucial to the differential depletion between CO and N2 related molecules, as well as to the non-ideal MHD diffusivities in dense cores.

  10. A high sensitivity optically stimulated luminescence scanning system for measurement of single sand-sized grains

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Kohsiek, P.

    1999-01-01

    An instrument has been designed for the routine analysis of the optically stimulated luminescence signal from single grains of sand. The system is capable of analysing over 3000 individual grains in a single measurement sequence, and the OSL signal from each grain can be read in less than 3 s....... The design principles are described, along with preliminary measurements that illustrate the operation of the system and its capabilities....

  11. Generation of a few femtoseconds pulses in seeded FELs using a seed laser with small transverse size

    Li, Heting, E-mail: liheting@ustc.edu.cn; Jia, Qika

    2016-09-11

    We propose a simple method to generate a few femtosecond pulses in seeded FELs. We use a longitudinal energy-chirped electron beam passing through a dogleg where transverse dispersion will generate a horizontal energy chirp, then in the modulator, a seed laser with narrow beam radius will only modulate the center portion of the electron beam and then short pulses at high harmonics will be generated in the radiator. Using a representative realistic set of parameters, we show that 30 nm XUV pulse based on the HGHG scheme and 9 nm soft x-ray pulse based on the EEHG scheme with duration of about 8 fs (FWHM) and peak power of GW level can be generated from a 180 nm UV seed laser with beam waist of 75 μm. This new scheme can provide an optional operation mode for the existing seeded FEL facilities to meet the requirement of short-pulse FEL.

  12. Effect of weak magnetic field on the grain size of electrodeposited nickel

    Ansari, M.S.; Gul, N.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of weak magnetic field on the electro-deposition of nickel onto copper electrode has been investigated. The working conditions were optimized through adjustment of cathodic current density (CCD), deposition time, bath temperature and pH of the medium. For electro-deposition in the absence of magnetic field, the optimum conditions comprised of pH = 4.0+- 0.5, average CCD = 22.5 +- 0.5 mA cm/sup -2/ and bath temperature in the range from 25 to 30 degree C. The same conditions were maintained for the electrodeposition while applying magnetic field of 0.75 kG. The morphological features of the Ni-deposits on copper cathode were compared for the two cases. The applied magnetic field not only enhanced the amount of nickel deposition but also improved the quality of the deposit. Surface morphology of the electro-deposited nickel has been monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the preliminary investigation has shown that the grain size decreased with the applied magnetic field case. One possible explanation to this behavior is the convection flow of cations close to the electrode surface induced by the Lorentz force which also influences the ion-migration. (author)

  13. A constitutive equation for hot deformation range of 304 stainless steel considering grain sizes

    Parsa, M.H.; Ohadi, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A hot deformation constitutive equation based on invariant theory is proposed. • Deformation variables are evaluated based on objectivity, entropy principle, etc. • Using hot compression tests, coefficients of equation have been found. • The ability of equation to show the variation of stress with strain is examined. - Abstract: A general constitutive equation based on the framework of invariant theory by consideration of hot deformation key variables and also the properties of the material such as initial grain size is presented in the current work. Soundness of the considered parameters to be used in the developed formula was initially verified based on the important axioms such as objectivity, entropy principle, and thermodynamics stability. To access the prediction ability of the method, the formula was simplified for the simple hot compression test. To evaluate the simplified formula, single-hit hot compression tests were carried out at the temperature range of 900–1100 °C under true strain rate of 0.01–1 s −1 on a AISI 304 stainless steel. The capability of proposed formula for reproducing the variation of flow stress with strain and the strain hardening rate with stress for the resultant flow stress data was examined. The good agreement between model predictions and actual results signified the applicability of this method as a general constitutive equation in hot deformation studies

  14. A procedure for partitioning bulk sediments into distinct grain-size fractions for geochemical analysis

    Barbanti, A.; Bothner, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    A method to separate sediments into discrete size fractions for geochemical analysis has been tested. The procedures were chosen to minimize the destruction or formation of aggregates and involved gentle sieving and settling of wet samples. Freeze-drying and sonication pretreatments, known to influence aggregates, were used for comparison. Freeze-drying was found to increase the silt/clay ratio by an average of 180 percent compared to analysis of a wet sample that had been wet sieved only. Sonication of a wet sample decreased the silt/clay ratio by 51 percent. The concentrations of metals and organic carbon in the separated fractions changed depending on the pretreatment procedures in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that aggregates consist of fine-grained organic- and metal-rich particles. The coarse silt fraction of a freeze-dried sample contained 20–44 percent higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, and organic carbon than the coarse silt fraction of the wet sample. Sonication resulted in concentrations of these analytes that were 18–33 percent lower in the coarse silt fraction than found in the wet sample. Sonication increased the concentration of lead in the clay fraction by an average of 40 percent compared to an unsonicated sample. Understanding the magnitude of change caused by different analysis protocols is an aid in designing future studies that seek to interpret the spatial distribution of contaminated sediments and their transport mechanisms.

  15. Brightness temperature simulation of snow cover based on snow grain size evolution using in situ data

    Wu, Lili; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Kai; Zheng, Xingming; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Snow depth parameter inversion from passive microwave remote sensing is of great significance to hydrological process and climate systems. The Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) model is a commonly used snow emission model. Snow grain size (SGS) is one of the important input parameters, but SGS is difficult to obtain in broad areas. The time series of SGS are first evolved by an SGS evolution model (Jordan 91) using in situ data. A good linear relationship between the effective SGS in HUT and the evolution SGS was found. Then brightness temperature simulations are performed based on the effective SGS and evolution SGS. The results showed that the biases of the simulated brightness temperatures based on the effective SGS and evolution SGS were -6.5 and -3.6 K, respectively, for 18.7 GHz and -4.2 and -4.0 K for 36.5 GHz. Furthermore, the model is performed in six pixels with different land use/cover type in other areas. The results showed that the simulated brightness temperatures based on the evolution SGS were consistent with those from the satellite. Consequently, evolution SGS appears to be a simple method to obtain an appropriate SGS for the HUT model.

  16. Refinement of ferrite grain size during hot direct rolling of hsla steel

    Ajmal, M.

    2001-01-01

    Steel ingots containing 0.04 wt % Nb and varying contents of carbon were made in laboratory, that simulated thin slab casting. Mn and Si content were kept constant at 1.35 % and 0.25 % respectively. After each casting the mould assembly was transferred to the rolling mill and the temperature of the ingot was monitored. Each ingot was rolled to 4mm thickness in three passes. The first pass of 43% reduction for all the ingots were given at 1140 degree C. The second pass (reduction, 35 %) for all the ingots were given at 1040 degree C. However the temperature for third pass (reduction, 30 %) was varied to retain more strain in the austenite prior to transformation. It was shown that third pass at lower temperature i.e. 810 degree C in the austenite range yields a ferrite grains size of 2-3 micrometer. A yield strength of 465 Mpa and tensile strength of 530 Mpa can also be achieved in these plates. (author)

  17. Enhancement of grain size and crystallinity of thin layers of pentacene grown under magnetic field

    Tabata, Kenichi [Division of Materials Science, Faculty of pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yohei, E-mail: yamamoto@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp [Division of Materials Science, Faculty of pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science (TIMS), Faculty of pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Technology (CiRfSE), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-03-31

    Field-effect mobilities (μ) of pentacene films, prepared by a thermal deposition under a magnetic field (H-field), were largely enhanced, in comparison with that prepared without an H-field. Under a perpendicular H-field with respect to the substrate surface, the crystallinity of the edge-on pentacene orientation is enhanced, resulting in the 9-fold enhancement of μ. Furthermore, under parallel H-field with respect to the substrate surface, μ of the pentacene films were 23-fold greater than that prepared without the H-field. The surface morphology studies by atomic force microscopy of the ultra thin films of pentacene clarified that the grain size of the pentacene at the interface with the substrate is larger for films under parallel H-field than that prepared without an H-field. The simple and effective method for enhancing the semiconducting properties of the organic thin films gives high technological impact in its application to organic electronics. - Highlights: • Magnetic-field effect on the crystallinity of pentacene thin films • Magnetic-field effect on the morphology of pentacene thin films • Enhanced field-effect charge carrier mobility of pentacene thin films.

  18. Enhancement of grain size and crystallinity of thin layers of pentacene grown under magnetic field

    Tabata, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Field-effect mobilities (μ) of pentacene films, prepared by a thermal deposition under a magnetic field (H-field), were largely enhanced, in comparison with that prepared without an H-field. Under a perpendicular H-field with respect to the substrate surface, the crystallinity of the edge-on pentacene orientation is enhanced, resulting in the 9-fold enhancement of μ. Furthermore, under parallel H-field with respect to the substrate surface, μ of the pentacene films were 23-fold greater than that prepared without the H-field. The surface morphology studies by atomic force microscopy of the ultra thin films of pentacene clarified that the grain size of the pentacene at the interface with the substrate is larger for films under parallel H-field than that prepared without an H-field. The simple and effective method for enhancing the semiconducting properties of the organic thin films gives high technological impact in its application to organic electronics. - Highlights: • Magnetic-field effect on the crystallinity of pentacene thin films • Magnetic-field effect on the morphology of pentacene thin films • Enhanced field-effect charge carrier mobility of pentacene thin films

  19. Effect of grain size on yield strength of Ni3Al and other alloys

    Takeyama, M.; Liu, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of grain size on yield stress of ordered Ni 3 Al and Zr 3 Al, and mild steels that show Lueders band propagation after yielding, using the Hall--Petch relation, σ/sub y/ = σ 0 +k/sub y/ d -1 /sup // 2 , and the new relation proposed by Schulson et al., σ/sub y/ = σ 0 +kd/sup -(//sup p//sup +1)/2/ [Schulson et al., Acta Metall. 33, 1587 (1985)]. The major emphasis is placed on the analysis of Ni 3 Al data obtained from published and new results, with a careful consideration of the alloy stoichiometry effect. All data, except for binary stoichiometric Ni 3 Al prepared by powder extrusion, fit the Hall--Petch relation, whereas the data from boron-doped Ni 3 Al and mild steels do not follow the Schulson relation. However, no conclusion can be made simply from the curve fitting using either relation. The results are also discussed in terms of Lueders strain and alloy preparation methods. On the basis of the Hall--Petch analysis, the small slope k/sub y/ is obtained only for hypostoichiometric Ni 3 Al with boron, which would be related to a stronger segregation of boron in nickel-rich Ni 3 Al. In addition, the potency for the solid solution strengthening effect of boron is found to be much higher for stoichiometric Ni 3 Al than for hypostoichiometric alloys

  20. Are fixed grain size ratios useful proxies for loess sedimentation dynamics? Experiences from Remizovka, Kazakhstan

    Schulte, Philipp; Sprafke, Tobias; Rodrigues, Leonor; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.

    2018-04-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are sensitive terrestrial archives of past aeolian dynamics and paleoclimatic changes within the Quaternary. Grain size (GS) analysis is commonly used to interpret aeolian dynamics and climate influences on LPS, based on granulometric parameters such as specific GS classes, ratios of GS classes and statistical manipulation of GS data. However, the GS distribution of a loess sample is not solely a function of aeolian dynamics; rather complex polygenetic depositional and post-depositional processes must be taken into account. This study assesses the reliability of fixed GS ratios as proxies for past sedimentation dynamics using the case study of Remizovka in southeast Kazakhstan. Continuous sampling of the upper 8 m of the profile, which shows extremely weak pedogenic alteration and is therefore dominated by primary aeolian activity, indicates that fixed GS ratios do not adequately serve as proxies for loess sedimentation dynamics. We find through the calculation of single value parameters, that "true" variations within sensitive GS classes are masked by relative changes of the more frequent classes. Heatmap signatures provide the visualization of GS variability within LPS without significant data loss within the measured classes of a sample, or across all measured samples. We also examine the effect of two different commonly used laser diffraction devices on GS ratio calculation by duplicate measurements, the Beckman Coulter (LS13320) and a Malvern Mastersizer Hydro (MM2000), as well as the applicability and significance of the so-called "twin peak ratio" previously developed on samples from the same section. The LS13320 provides higher resolution results than the MM2000, nevertheless the GS ratios related to variations in the silt-sized fraction were comparable. However, we could not detect a twin peak within the coarse silt as detected in the original study using the same device. Our GS measurements differ from previous works at

  1. Signal or noise? Separating grain size-dependent Nd isotope variability from provenance shifts in Indus delta sediments, Pakistan

    Jonell, T. N.; Li, Y.; Blusztajn, J.; Giosan, L.; Clift, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth element (REE) radioisotope systems, such as neodymium (Nd), have been traditionally used as powerful tracers of source provenance, chemical weathering intensity, and sedimentary processes over geologic timescales. More recently, the effects of physical fractionation (hydraulic sorting) of sediments during transport have called into question the utility of Nd isotopes as a provenance tool. Is source terrane Nd provenance resolvable if sediment transport strongly induces noise? Can grain-size sorting effects be quantified? This study works to address such questions by utilizing grain size analysis, trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotope geochemistry of bulk and grain-size fractions (Pakistan. Here we evaluate how grain size effects drive Nd isotope variability and further resolve the total uncertainties associated with Nd isotope compositions of bulk sediments. Results from the Indus delta indicate bulk sediment ɛNd compositions are most similar to the <63 µm fraction as a result of strong mineralogical control on bulk compositions by silt- to clay-sized monazite and/or allanite. Replicate analyses determine that the best reproducibility (± 0.15 ɛNd points) is observed in the 125-250 µm fraction. The bulk and finest fractions display the worst reproducibility (±0.3 ɛNd points). Standard deviations (2σ) indicate that bulk sediment uncertainties are no more than ±1.0 ɛNd points. This argues that excursions of ≥1.0 ɛNd points in any bulk Indus delta sediments must in part reflect an external shift in provenance irrespective of sample composition, grain size, and grain size distribution. Sample standard deviations (2s) estimate that any terrigenous bulk sediment composition should vary no greater than ±1.1 ɛNd points if provenance remains constant. Findings from this study indicate that although there are grain-size dependent Nd isotope effects, they are minimal in the Indus delta such that resolvable provenance-driven trends can be

  2. Influence of domain on grain size effects of the dielectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoceramics and nanoparticles

    Fang Chao, E-mail: yyohjh@sina.com [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Chen Liangyan [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Zhou Dongxiang [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan City Hubei Province 430074 (China)

    2013-01-15

    The dielectric property of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles and nanoceramics has been studied on the basis of Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic theory. In this paper, considering nanodomains, Landau coefficients have been written as a function of grain size, and the dielectric constant of the material has been calculated at a variety of temperatures and grain size. The results indicate that with decreasing grain size, the dielectric peak decreases. The two lower dielectric peaks of the orthorhombic-rhombohedral phase and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase move to higher temperature, while cubic-tetragonal phase dielectric peak moves to lower temperature. The dielectric constant of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics decreases with decreasing grain size. The dielectric constant peak at room temperature is at the grain size which is larger than the critical grain size 17-30 nm. The calculated result is consistent with the experimental data.

  3. seeds

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  4. Effect of corn grain particle size on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of Holstein steers fed total mixed ration

    Do Hyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of corn grain particle size on ruminant fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed total mixed ration (TMR as a basal diet to explain fundamental data of corn grain for cattle in Korea. Methods Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (body weight 592±29.9 kg fed TMR as a basal diet were housed individually in an auto temperature and humidity modulated chamber (24°C and 60% for 22 h/d. Treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design were TMR only (control, TMR with whole corn grain (WC, coarsely ground corn grain (CC, and finely ground corn grain (FC, respectively. The corn feeds substituted for 20% energy intake of TMR intake. To measure the ruminal pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA, ruminal digesta was sampled through ruminal cannula at 1 h intervals after the morning feeding to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics. Blood was sampled via the jugular vein after the ruminal digesta sampling. Results There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between different corn particle size because the DM intake was restricted to 1.66% of body weight. Different corn particle size did not change mean ammonia N and total VFA concentrations whereas lower (p<0.05 ruminal pH and a ratio of acetate to propionate, and higher (p<0.05 propionate concentration were noted when the steers consumed CC compared with WC and FC. Concentration of blood metabolites were not affected by different particle size of corn grain except for blood triglyceride concentration, which was significantly (p<0.05 increased by FC. Conclusion Results indicate that feeding CC may increase feed digestion in the rumen, whereas the FC group seemed to obtain inadequate corn retention time for microbial degradation in the rumen.

  5. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    promoting rhizobacteria application on yield, yield components and grain filling period of soybean. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and some agronomic characteristics of soybean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2013 at the research farm of the Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch. Factors were included foliar application of Nano-Zinc oxide at four levels (Zero as control, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g l-1 and seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria at five levels (without inoculation as control, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+Azosprillum lipoferum strain OF, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+Psedomonas putida, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+ Azosprillum lipoferum strain OF+ Psedomonas putida. Results and Discussion The results of growth indices showed that the maximum total dry matter (530 g m-2, crop growth rate (9.48 g.m-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.1 g.g-1.day-1 were obtained at foliar application of 0.9 g l-1 Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation with rhizobium+Azosprillum+ Psedomonas and the least of these indices were obtained without of foliar application Nano-Zinc oxide × seed inoculation. The results showed that plant height, the number of nodules per plant, the number of pod per plant, grain yield and grain 100 weight were significantly affected by Nano-Zinc oxide, seed inoculation and interaction of Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation. Maximum of plant height, grain 100 weight, the number of nodules per plant and grain yield were obtained at foliar application of 0.9 g l-1 of Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation with rhizobium and PGPR. Dry weight of nodules per plant, the number of pod per plant and the number of grains per plant

  6. Comparing spatial grain-size trends inferred from textural parameters using percentile statistical parameters and those based on the log-hyperbolic method

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Christiansen, C.; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2007-01-01

    The Folk&Ward (F&W) and the log-hyperbolic methods are applied to a small - and easy to overlook - number of typical sand sized grain-size distributions from the Danish Wadden Sea. The sand originates from the same source, and the pattern of change in the grain-size distributions is, therefore...

  7. Over-expression of CYP78A98, a cytochrome P450 gene from Jatropha curcas L., increases seed size of transgenic tobacco

    Yinshuai Tian

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicated that CYP78A98 played a role in Jatropha seed size control. This may help us to better understand the genetic regulation of Jatropha seed development, and accelerate the breeding progress of Jatropha.

  8. Magnetic properties of different grain-sized particles of sediments from the Okinawa Trough and their relationships to sedimentary environment

    LI Ping; LI Peiying; ZHANG Xiaolong; CAO Chengxiao; XU Xingyong; DU Jun; LIU Lejun

    2005-01-01

    Multiple magnetic parameters were measured for nine different grain-sized fractions separated from the sediment samples that are representatives of four different sedimentary environments of the Okinawa Trough. Based on the measured results, the contributions of different grain-sized particles to total magnetic susceptibility of bulk sediments, the magnetic mineral assemblage and magnetic domain state as well as their relationships to sedimentary environment were discussed. Our research shows that the magnetic mineral is dominated by magnetite with a small amount of hematite and is primarily in pseudo-single-domain state. That indicates that the different sedimentary environments in the Okinawa Trough have certain correlation in material provenance. The magnetic minerals enrich in different grain-sized particles in response to different sedimentary environments. The contribution of the grain sizes from coarse to fine to coarse and fine to the magnetic susceptibility from the west to the east is in accordance with terrigenous material transportation from continental shelf of the East China Sea to the Okinawa Trough. It also shows difference in magnetic properties as a result of some environmental factors.

  9. Experimental investigation of grain size effect on fatigue crack growth rate in turbine disc superalloy GH4169 under different temperatures

    Hu, Dianyin [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Aero-Engine Structure and Strength, Beijing 100191 (China); Mao, Jianxing [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Song, Jun, E-mail: jun.song2@mcgill.ca [Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Meng, Fanchao [Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Shan, Xiaoming [China Aviation Powerplant Research Institute, Zhuzhou 412002 (China); Wang, Rongqiao, E-mail: wangrq@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Aero-Engine Structure and Strength, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-07-04

    Systematic experiments for fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate on compact tension (CT) specimens have been conducted in nickel-based superalloy GH4169 at a broad range of temperatures with a frequency of 10 Hz and a stress ratio of 0.1. In order to investigate the crack closure behavior, FCG experiments at stress ratio of 0.5 were also performed by comparing with the results at stress ration of 0.1. CT specimens were cut from three typical locations of an actual forged turbine disc to investigate the effect of grain size on the FCG behaviors. The grain size distribution, precipitates and fracture surface characteristics at different locations of the turbine disc were examined through optical microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analyses. Digital image correlation (DIC), optical interferometry and oxide film measurements were carried out to investigate the presence and inducement of the crack closure. Then a modified FCG model, with a distribution factor that evaluates the scattering in the FCG rate, was formulated to describe the dependence of FCG rate on grain size. Finally, the possible microscopic mechanisms to explain the grain size effect on the FCG behaviors based on crack deflection and blockage, and the crack closure inducements involving plasticity and oxide were discussed in this study.

  10. Glacial and interglacial eolian dust dispersal patterns across the Chinese Loess Plateau inferred from decomposed loess grain-size records.

    Prins, M.A.; Vriend, M.G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a genetically meaningful decomposition (unmixing) of loess grainsize distributions can be accomplished with the end-member modeling algorithm EMMA. The independent decomposition of two series of loess grain-size records from the NE Tibetan Plateau and Loess

  11. Nanoscale size effects on the mechanical properties of platinum thin films and cross-sectional grain morphology

    Abbas, K; Alaie, S; Ghasemi Baboly, M; Elahi, M M M; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Chaieb, Saharoui; Leseman, Z C

    2015-01-01

    -1700 MPa) are recorded and explained by the variable morphology. This work suggests that in addition to the in-plane grain size of thin films, the transitions in cross-sectional morphologies of the Pt films significantly affect their mechanical behavior.

  12. Grain size distribution of soils within the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: An indicator of basic mechanical properties for slope stability evaluation

    Novotný, J.; Klimeš, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2014), s. 563-577 ISSN 1672-6316 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : moraines * grain size distribution * shear strength * hydraulic conductivity * Cordillera Blanca Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2014

  13. Snow Grain Size Retrieval over the Polar Ice Sheets with the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Observations

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Han, Mei; Palm, Stephen P.; Harding, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Snow grain size is an important parameter for cryosphere studies. As a proof of concept, this paper presents an approach to retrieve this parameter over Greenland, East and West Antarctica ice sheets from surface reflectances observed with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) at 1064 nanometers. Spaceborne lidar observations overcome many of the disadvantages in passive remote sensing, including difficulties in cloud screening and low sun angle limitations; hence tend to provide more accurate and stable retrievals. Results from the GLAS L2A campaign, which began on 25 September and lasted until 19 November, 2003, show that the mode of the grain size distribution over Greenland is the largest (approximately 300 microns) among the three, West Antarctica is the second (220 microns) and East Antarctica is the smallest (190 microns). Snow grain sizes are larger over the coastal regions compared to inland the ice sheets. These results are consistent with previous studies. Applying the broadband snow surface albedo parameterization scheme developed by Garder and Sharp (2010) to the retrieved snow grain size, ice sheet surface albedo is also derived. In the future, more accurate retrievals can be achieved with multiple wavelengths lidar observations.

  14. Ultrasonic attenuation as a function of heat treatment and grain size in 79Ni--6Mo--15Fe alloy

    Gieske, J.H.

    1978-03-01

    A pulse echo ultrasonic technique was used to measure the attenuation coefficient for 79Ni-6Mo-15Fe alloy specimens. The attenuation coefficient was determined using a 25 MHz ultrasonic transducer for specimens which had undergone different time-temperature heat treatments. The ultrasonic attenuation data versus heat treat time was used to assess grain size growth in the specimens

  15. Semi-empirical relationship between the hardness, grain size and mean free path of WC-Co

    Makhele-Lekala, L

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available , grain size of WC and mean free path in Co was obtained. It was found that the empirical formula fitted our measured hardness well. However, when used against results of other researchers, it did not reproduce them satisfactorily at values higher than...

  16. NEAMS FPL M2 Milestone Report: Development of a UO₂ Grain Size Model using Multicale Modeling and Simulation

    Tonks, Michael R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, Xianming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes development work funded by the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation program's Fuels Product Line (FPL) to develop a mechanistic model for the average grain size in UO₂ fuel. The model is developed using a multiscale modeling and simulation approach involving atomistic simulations, as well as mesoscale simulations using INL's MARMOT code.

  17. Inert gases in a terra sample - Measurements in six grain-size fractions and two single particles from Lunar 20.

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Walton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of inert gas measurements performed on six grain-size fractions and two single particles from four samples of Luna 20 material. Presented and discussed data include the inert gas contents, element and isotope systematics, radiation ages, and Ar-36/Ar-40 systematics.

  18. Effect of the Grain Size of the Initial Structure of 1565chM Alloy on the Structure and Properties of the Joints Fabricated by Friction Stir Welding

    Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Drits, A. M.; Gureeva, M. A.; Malov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the initial grain size in the structure of the aluminum 1565chM alloy on the mechanical properties of the welded joints formed by friction stir welding and on the grain size in the weld core is studied. It is shown that the design of tool and, especially, the parameters of a screw groove exert a great effect on the grain size in the weld core.

  19. On the importance of grain size in luminescence dating using quartz

    Timar-Gabor, A.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Guralnik, B.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese loess, thus pointing to a potential worldwide phenomenon. While age underestimation is often attributed to signal saturation problems, this is not the case for fine grain material, which saturates at higher doses than coarse grains, yet begins to underestimate true ages earlier. Here we examine...

  20. Size and density distribution of very small dust grains in the Barnard 5 cloud

    Lis, Dariusz C.; Leung, Chun Ming

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the temperature fluctuations in small graphite grains on the energy spectrum and the IR surface brightness of an isolated dust cloud heated externally by the interstellar radiation field were investigated using a series of models based on a radiation transport computer code. This code treats self-consistently the thermal coupling between the transient heating of very small dust grains and the equilibrium heating of conventional large grains. The model results were compared with the IRAS observations of the Barnard 5 (B5) cloud, showing that the 25-micron emission of the cloud must be produced by small grains with a 6-10 A radius, which also contribute about 50 percent to the observed 12-micron emission. The remaining 12 micron flux may be produced by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The 60-and 100-micron radiation is dominated by emission from large grains heated under equilibrium conditions.