WorldWideScience

Sample records for grain world markets

  1. STUDY ON GRAIN MARKET IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena COFAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global economy, the market occupies a representative place because the grain is grown on a large area and it is important both to ensure food security and safety, but also for animal feed. In order to accomplish this study we have used certain indicators, of which the most representative are: acreage, production obtained, yield per hectare, food consumption, imports, exports and last but not least the price. World market of cereals has increased in the past decade due to increased consumption of cereals, especially in less developed countries economically. World grain market evolution in the analyzed period was disrupted on one side by the global economic crisis and on the other side by bad weather changes that occur on a global scale and have had a negative impact on acreage, production achieved, prices etc. According to forecasts the global market for cereals is expected to increase trade with cerereale, while diminishing stocks.

  2. Competitive Structure of U.S. Grain Exporters in the World Market: A Dynamic Panel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun J. Jin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the competitive structure of U.S. wheat, corn, and soybeans exporters in the world market. A dynamic two¡ⓒway panel estimator is utilized in the analysis in place of typically used two¡ⓒway fixed effects panel estimator. A broader (in terms of the number of destination markets and more recent data sample is analyzed in this study in comparison to previous studies in order to reflect vast changes that occurred in world grain markets during the last twenty years. Results indicate the presence of pricing¡ⓒto¡ⓒmarkets behavior by U.S. grain exporters overall, and toward some importing countries in particular.

  3. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF GRAIN MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Maslak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is a set of theoretical, methodological and practical fundamentals of organizational and economic functioning are integrated agricultural formations in the grain market of Ukraine. The methodological basis of research is the complex analysis of economic processes in the grain market in Ukraine and the world. During research we used such methods as method of systematization and comparison, statistic, economic, balance, constructive, target-oriented, and the methods of induction and deduction, analogy and comparison. Main aim of this article is the analysis of the situation on the grain market in Ukraine, defining the role of integrated agricultural formations in this market, improving the organizational-economic mechanism of its functioning, identifies ways of improving the competitiveness of Ukraine among world exporters of grain. Using results of the studies we examined trends grain market in Ukraine; influence of businesses in grain production; analysis of constraints to improve production efficiency of grain; defined domestic (internal needs of grain in Ukraine; assessed the status and expediency transformation infrastructure of the grain market of Ukraine; defined priority directions of development of the grain market in Ukraine. As a result of the preparation of articles, it is obtained the following conclusions: Ukraine is the world's largest producers and exporters of grain, the production of integrated agricultural units to a third of the total grain; technical condition of farm does not meet the needs of production; the domestic market is unable to provide the existing demand for grain production, contributing to export growth; Ukraine has a number of problems due to increased grain production, namely the shortage of storage capacity for the storage of grain, limited performance transshipment of grain in port elevators and imperfection and depreciation of transport systems; solving the existing problems is

  5. World market of marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels John

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the total world market market research in the year 2001 was US$15,890 million, a 2.8% increase on the previous year. This is the first of several articles to be published in Research World on the results from ESOMAR's latest annual study on the market research sector worldwide

  6. World helicopter market study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  7. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  8. The world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Lambda Power Supply Group, with headquarters in Melville, Long Island owned by UNITECH PLC, based in Reading in the United Kingdom. The Group forms the greatest Power Supply manufacturing and marketing organization in the world, with sales for 1989/90 in excess of $300 million. World markets have distinct trends which need to be recognized in the years ahead. In general, these trends are now commercially driven and center around: The globalization of world markets and the need to service the same customer in the Far East, North America and Europe. The drive to reduce physical size, improve performance and quality and the need to reduce costs. This requires significant investment in research and development to maintain technological leadership. The increasing speed of new product introductions requires power supply companies to work hand-in-hand with their customers as a partner, or even as an extension of the OEM's own development department. A significant trend within Europe is the perception by Far Eastern equipment manufacturers that, by 1992, trade barriers will be erected, and these large manufacturers are increasingly establishing factories within Europe, where they will need local content in their products. Whilst addressing a Global Market with products which are suitable for worldwide sale, it is important to note that local presence is vital, not only to service the customer, but also to monitor the customers needs which have significant differences in certain markets

  9. View on world market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, J. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Reasons contributing to a potential growth in wind power are cited. Increased demand is expected to arise due to increased energy needs and environmental concerns. Barriers, primarily political, to the development of wind energy are assessed. Development is predicted to occur first in countries with a demand for new capacity and political decisions to protect the environment.

  10. World oil market simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive simulation model of the world oil market - the World Oil Market Simulation Model (WOMS). The objective was to construct a computationally simple model which provides a transparent view of the workings of the oil market. In the event WOMS has a number of features which distinguish it from other published models: the effect of exchange rate movements is incorporated in the supply and demand functions; both demand and supply functions are dynamic; the non-OPEC supply functions account for the geological as well as the economic aspects of supply; oil prices can be determined either by OPEC setting prices (as normally included in this type of model) or by OPEC setting volumes and market forces determining the price; and consistency checks on consumers' and producers' behaviour are incorporated to confirm the plausibility of model projections. The paper commences with an outline of the model structure followed by an examination of the choice of the appropriate data. The main sections of the paper discuss the estimation of the demand and non-OPEC supply functions. Finally the modelling of OPEC's behaviour is addressed. Comparisons are made throughout with other published work. As the model was estimated using data covering 1960 to 1985, brief comments are also made comparing the events of 1986 with model determined values. (author)

  11. World coking coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. The world enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.; McCants, C.; Rutkowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The enrichment market can be divided into two periods: the near-term market (1991 to 1995) and the long-term market (1995 and beyond). The near-term market is characterized by limited unfilled requirements of 4% per year, to be supplied by national stockpiles and excess inventories. This low-cost material will be drawn down by about 1993, causing a subsequent price rise. As the price rises, primary supplier activity is expected to increase. In the near-term, two contracting activities are apparent: spot; and intermediate-term. The current spot market is expected to last until available low cost inventories are drawn down. Recently, in attempts to gain market share, suppliers have offered attractively priced intermediate-term (3 year) contracts for 1996 to 1998. While a small spot market will continue after 1995, it is anticipated that utilities will prefer a mix of medium- and long-term (5 to 10 year) contracts from primary suppliers for most of their enrichment requirements. As national stockpiles and utility inventories are consumed, low-cost supply available to the spot market is expected to diminish. Consequently, with little low-cost supply available, the only apparent source of material will be from primary suppliers, and the resulting competition over market share is expected to be intense. (author)

  13. Energy independence versus world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2003-01-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  14. World uranium markets: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The current state of the world's uranium market and its effect on US nuclear-fueled utilities is discussed. Major uranium-related issues that will confront US utility nuclear fuel managers in the coming years are presented, emphasizing the perspectives of supply, demand, world market adjustment, and US market restrictions on imports. It is stated that the US market is essential by non-US producers to help equilibrate an otherwise excessive supply which would cause chaos in the market. To avoid another ten-year boom/bust cycle, the US is urged to reexamine its position on long-term contracts - which permit greater price stability in contrast to the spot market and its price fluctuations. 13 figures, 6 tables

  15. Causality Between Market Liquidity and Depth for Energy and Grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Sari (Ramazan); S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the roles of futures prices of crude oil, gasoline, ethanol, corn, soybeans and sugar in the energy-grain nexus. It also investigates the own- and cross-market impacts for lagged grain trading volume and open interest in the energy and grain markets. According to the

  16. MIDDLEMEN IN THE MARKET FOR GRAIN: CHANGES AND COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Eschelbach Hansen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of middlemen in the market for grain changed with the advent of standardized grain grading. Prior to grain grading, economies of scale were limited because of the requirement that middlemen develop strong personal reputations though the maintenance of multi-faceted relationships with clients. Grain grading homogenized grain, making it possible for middlemen to take advantage of economies of scale in their operations.

  17. Towards a world development of LNG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The world development of the LNG trade was the theme of the second workshop of the 7. summit of natural gas industry leaders. With the increasing development of the LNG industry, a world scale natural gas market is becoming possible and should replace the present day regional markets. This article analyzes the expected economic impacts of such a market. (J.S.)

  18. Stabilisation of the grain market by the flexible use of grain for bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews whether the grain market and grain price can be stabilised by the variation of the use of grain in the EU-27's production of bioethanol. The time horizon of this study is 2020, whereby account is taken of the minimum 10% obligation for biofuel use in the EU-27. An economic

  19. The World Bank's innovation market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert Chapman; Hamel, Gary

    2002-11-01

    Large, tradition-bound organizations can make space for radical, low-cost (and therefore low-risk) innovations. Just ask executives at the World Bank. The story of this best practice begins in 1998, when a young new-products group at the international funding agency proposed holding an Innovation Marketplace to capture novel ideas within the Bank for alleviating poverty. The forum, which eventually was opened to external participants, let people informally present their antipoverty ideas to potential funding sources. Funders could move among hundreds of booths and evaluate proposals for, say, a program that would provide postdisaster reconstruction insurance in developing countries or a vaccination development initiative. The marketplace truncated the Bank's standard project-review processes, which often stretched to a year or more, and gave funders permission to make commitments in the tens of thousands of dollars, rather than in the tens of millions more typical of Bank-financed projects. The marketplace concept met with some skepticism at the beginning. Some senior executives at the Bank felt no group had the right to spend the agency's money without following its well-established resource allocations process. But the marketplace team believed an open process for allocating grants would produce more breakthrough ideas in the long run than a centralized one. In this article, the authors describe how the new-products team brainstormed to create a market for ideas, how it got senior management's support, and how it has expanded on the original concept for these innovation marketplaces. The program's success, they contend, offers hope both for the world's poor and for business leaders looking to find new ideas under the hard crust of corporate dogma, conformance, and bureaucracy.

  20. Relevance of standardization and grading in marketing of grains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the relevance of standardization and grading as a facilitating function in marketing of grains. The various measurement units, their acceptability and adoption by the consumers and traders along with the relationship of prices to different grades of grains was critically assessed. The study revealed that ...

  1. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  2. Views on world markets - Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passmore, J. [Canadian Wind Energy Association, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    If {open_quotes}market{close_quotes} is defined by hardware in the ground (as it should be), then the Canadian wind power market has been virtually non-existent (only 23 MW to date). The potential on the other hand is enormous (6400 MW likely to be developed). This potential has not been pursued because of unregulated electric utility monopolies, lack of political knowledge and interest, and punitive tax treatment for renewables. Recent initiatives including utility restructuring, federal plans for green power procurement, and proposed tax measures suggest that situation has potential for change. Interested parties should start familiarizing themselves with the Canadian players / market now, in order to be ready to move when the time comes (likely in the next three years). 3 tabs.

  3. Coal princes on the world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The prices on fuel and coking coals on the world market are presented. The data on specific combustion heat content of volatile substances, sulfur and ash content of the corresponding types of coals are also given

  4. World nuclear fuel market. Seventeenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The papers presented at the seventeenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged individually. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: historical and current aspects of the uranium and plutonium market with respect to supply and demand, pricing, spot market purchasing, and other market phenomena; impact of reprocessing and recycling uranium, plutonium, and mixed oxide fuels; role of individual countries in the market: Hungary, Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, France, and the US; the impact of public opinion and radioactive waste management on the nuclear industry, and a debate regarding long term versus short term contracting by electric utilities for uranium and enrichment services

  5. FORMATION INNOVATIVELY FOCUSED INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE GRAIN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Latynin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The perspective scheme of infrastructure of the modern grain market is directed on perfection merchandising grains by means of liquidation of is material disproportions between its participants for decrease in logistical costs counting upon 1 t grains, and creations of the alternative organized channel merchandising, providing a direct output on the wholesale market of direct commodity producers of grain and their participation in distribution of profit received from export. Elimination of is material disproportions on all circuit passage of grain from the supplier of production up to the end user is necessary for connecting with the organization merchandising on principles of logistics. It will allow to ensure the general synergistic effect exceeding total effect at separate participants of a circuit. The structure of Association participants of the grain market, is directed on creation mutual interest by a deepening specialization of each participant merchandising, consolidations of their investment resources to development of this circuit, to decrease in logistical costs. Feature of the modern period functioning of the grain market is necessity acceleration of scientific and technical progress on the basis of innovative processes. Innovative activity causes necessity of faster development of an infrastructure of the grain market. One directions promotion of innovations is development in region techno park formations. Their advantage consists in an opportunity initiators of new technologies independently to carry out their scientific and design development and to advance a grain husbandry through commercialization and a transfer. With a view modernization of a regional infrastructure of the grain market in modern conditions creation electronic trading platform, introduction system of electronic commerce is extremely actual. By means of electronic technologies economic attitudes in the market essentially change, giving to them scale

  6. World nuclear fuel market. Eighteenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented at the eighteenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged separately. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: world uranium enrichment capacity and enriched uranium inventories; the impact of new enrichment technologies; predictions of future market trends; non-proliferation aspects of nuclear trade; and a debate as to whether uranium can be successfully traded on a commodities exchange

  7. The world turn of the gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.

    1998-01-01

    The second meeting of the natural gas industry leaders, at Paris in november 1997, allowed to lay down a panorama of gaseous markets around the world. The specificities of the different countries, their restraints and their opportunities show the good statement of the gaseous markets. (A.L.B.)

  8. THE FEATURES OF THE WORLD REINSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prokofjeva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the worldwide reinsurance market during the global recession and the main players of the market. Also analyzed key indicators and the most devastating losses for 2008-2012. Analyzed the amount of premiums received in the last five years, major re insurers in the world.

  9. World Copper Market Outlook: 2003-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Florela Stoian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents synthetically the copper market outlook (demand, supply, and prices) during 2003-2014, highlighting the impact of economic crisis of 2008-2009 on the world copper market. During the crisis, the decline in demand caused increases in excess supply of metal, as the supply has followed an upward trend, contributing to the imbalances of the copper market and putting pressure on stock prices at LME London Metal Exchange.

  10. A model of the world uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieu, L.H.; Savage, E.; Dwyer, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the structure of the world uranium market is analysed and an econometric model developed. The modelling effort is focused on the spot market because developments in the spot market are increasingly being reflected in contract agreements and it is more transparent than the contract market. Changing surplus supplies of uranium on the spot market have led to wide variations in the spot price and this relationship is a focus of the analysis. The results indicate that stocks will reduce to a point where a gradual rise in spot prices can be expected after 1993 but the recovery will be sensitive to new supply entering from non-traditional market sources. (Author)

  11. World NGL markets continue rapid expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-01

    The international LPG industry has expanded rapidly during the 1990s and undergone significant changes. LPG consumption has expanded at nearly twice the rate of world petroleum demand. In particular, LPG use in residential and commercial markets has more than doubled in many developing countries. Markets for LPG and other petroleum products have been opened in many countries, accelerating demand growth and creating investment opportunities in all downstream segments. This has led to an overall strengthening of global LPG pricing and the development of many new export gas-processing projects. The paper discusses world LPG demand in residential and commercial markets and in petrochemicals, world LPG supply, regional increases, international trade, the US situation in natural gas, NGL supply, and NGL demand

  12. Towards a convergence of world gas markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.

    2002-01-01

    This 7. summit of the world natural gas industry leaders was jointly organized by Petrostrategies, IFP-ENSPM (French institute of petroleum and national upper school of petroleum and engines), and SPTEC consulting. Three themes were debated: the natural gas market in Europe at the eve of the second directive (while the first directive has not been fully enforced), the world development of LNG market, the gas-electric power convergence and the effects of a growing up interdependence between both energy sources. (J.S.)

  13. 76 FR 28726 - Grain Market News Reports; Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Service [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0035] Grain Market News Reports; Request for Extension of a Currently Approved... grain market news reports. DATES: Comments must be received by July 18, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments should... Lynch, Chief, Livestock and Grain Market News Branch, Livestock and Seed Program, Agricultural Marketing...

  14. German nuclear expansion: state, capital, world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper intends to discuss the technological development as it happened in Germany or, better, it places in the scene of world market, where it did. In the attention center is the big achievement of pacific use of atomic technology: the nuclear power plants, which the new energy is used in electric generation. (C.M.)

  15. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  16. ORGANIC GRAIN PRODUCTION MARKET OF UKRAINE: PROSPECTS AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Bondar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the prospects of the market of organic products in Ukraine. The article studies the market for organic produce dynamic area of organic farmland, number of organic farms in volume production of organic products. Identified key factors influencing the market for organic products Ukraine, outlined areas of the market based on its current state. Grain industry serves as a source of sustainable development of agriculture, determines the socio-economic condition of society and is the basis of agricultural exports. Therefore, the development of the organic market of grain and its products are of particular importance and led to the goal and objectives of bottom investigation. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study are works of economists on the development of ecology management, general scientific methods and approaches in the field of business management: historical, dialectical, abstract logical methods of system-structural analysis and synthesis of scientific research and provision of economic theory, management. Results. Proved that Ukraine has considerable potential as a producer of agricultural products, including organic farming, export, consumption in the domestic market. To determine the market trends of organic products studied the dynamics of agricultural surfaces of Ukraine, reserved for growing organic products. To further study the characteristics and trends of the market for organic products in Ukraine, examined the dynamics of the number of organic farms. For determining the main trends and the prospects of the organic products market, and in addition for researching proposals, examined demand for market research of market demand for organic products in terms of production of organic products in Ukraine. Practical implications. The main problem of Ukraine of organic production is exported domestic products as organic production of agricultural products. Analysis of key

  17. Spatial Price Discovery, Dynamics, and Leadership in Evolving Distiller’s Grain Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Van Winkle, Tyler W.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent dramatic growth in corn-based bio-refining has generated considerable growth in the by-product of this process, distiller’s grains. Distiller’s grains are rapidly becoming important livestock feed ingredient sources. However, little public market information is available on distiller’s grain. This study determines spatial and temporal price relationships among distiller’s grain markets. Results indicate spatial distiller’s grain markets operate somewhat independently suggesting potenti...

  18. The hydroelectric power market in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junius, A.

    2004-10-01

    This work makes a synthesis of the hydroelectric power market, of its present day capacity in the world, and of its perspectives of development in the future. The first part treats of the hydroelectric facilities and of the market of hydroelectric power plants. It presents the technology used and the different types of plants, the evolution of their geographical setting and the future potentialities of development. The second part deals with the competitiveness of this industry with respect to: the energy policy stakes, the profitability, the energy independence of countries, the regulation of power networks and the environmental impacts. (J.S.)

  19. Prospects for the world nuclear energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    Over the last few years projections of nuclear power generating capacity growth for the next two decades have progressively decreased. Dwindling load growth, increasing load lead time, costs of delays and high cost inflation, industrial recession, and fuel cycle delays are discussed as the main causes of the setback. The state of the fuel cycle business in the world market is examined and data are presented and discussed for predicted world supply and demand. Nuclear plans and fuel policies and requirements are then examined for individual countries.

  20. The world coke market. Problems and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Outlooks to the world coke market are considered with regard to supply and demand as well as the current state of capacities for its production in some countries of Asia, Western and Eastern Europe, USA. In experts opinion increase of coke import from China, increase in service life of currently operating coke furnaces, as well as more extensive use of PCI coal mixture are among the most feasible opportunities for its Western consumers [ru

  1. Canada in the world power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Canadian exports around the world are discussed. Canada is already playing a role, or has entered into an agreement with development of nuclear power in Argentina, South Korea, Romania and Mexico. Power generation projects are underway in parts of Asia, Africa and Pacific regions. Exports are taking place to Central and South America, Europe and the Middle East. Federal government assistance in the export market is also discussed. (T.I.)

  2. Appearance and substance: World petroleum market review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This review of supply and demand trends in the world petroleum market includes comments on the influence of the Brent quotations, political unrest in the Middle East and OPEC's reaction to the carbon tax proposed during the Rio Earth's Summit on global environmental protection. Overall, the analysis suggests increases in surplus, following a 15 month period of stagnant demand, with increases in Asiatic countries balanced by decreases in the Eastern Bloc nations currently periencing difficulties with their transition economies

  3. Changing winds. BTM's world market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2006-01-01

    An update of what has happened in the past year in the worldwide wind energy market, and what is expected to happen in the near future, are given. In 2005, the USA was the world's single biggest wind market, installing 2431 MW. Data are also given for some European and Asian states, and Australasia. The increase in the USA was due to the reintroduction of the Production Tax Credit. Vestas maintained its position as world leader in turbine manufacture but its market share decreased from 34% to 27.9%. Data for all top ten manufacturers are given. In 2005, there were increases of up to 30% in the price of turbines due to an increase in cost of raw materials and increased profit margins in a seller's market. The increase in prices has had a marked impact on offshore systems where the economics were already marginal. Summaries of the future prospects of 15 individual countries are given, together with forecasts for 2011-2015

  4. Market, Country and World Effects on Regional Equity Market Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wooi Hooy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the fundamental driving forces of regional equity market integration in a trading bloc. The determinant factors are categorized into market attribute, economic fundamentals and world information. Our sample consists of 26 equity markets of ive regional trading blocs, namely AFTA, CER, EFTA, EU and NAFTA over the period of January 1999 to  August  2005.  We  measure  market  integration  based  on  pricing  errors  as  proposed  by Korajczyk (1996 and Levine and Zervos (1998. Using panel regressions, our results show that  equity  integration  in  these  trading  blocs  is  driven  internally,  where  only  individual-market  volatility  and  economic  fundamentals  play  a  signiicant  role  in  the  process.  Intra-bloc  trade  is  found  to  enhance  regional  equity  market  integration,  supporting  the  notion that  regional  convergence  extends  beyond  the  trade  sector  that  is  promoted  in  the  trade agreements.  We  also  document  regime  shifting  effects  during  stock  market  crises,  where most  of  these  markets  became  strongly  integrated  after  a  regional  crisis,  but  integration was signiicantly weakened during a crisis that affected the world markets. Also, the level of equity market integration differs across trading blocs, where the blocs with a smaller number of country members are relatively more integrated. ";} // -->activate javascript

  5. Price formation and market mechanisms in world nuclear fuel markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of world markets for uranium, UF6 and enriched uranium product (EUP) have changed greatly since the 1970s. In the old model, firms specializing in mining, conversion, enrichment and fabrication played independent and sequential steps in the making of nuclear fuel. The great majority of users dealt directly with primary suppliers. Competition took place among suppliers at each stage of the fuel cycle and price formation occurred independently for each stage. Long-term contracts directly between primary supplier and end user dominated, whether for U3O8, conversion, enrichment or fabrication. The old model is effectively gone. uranium producers compete with traders, some of whom can offer a much larger menu of products and terms than primary suppliers. Where once there was a straight engineering-like sequence of processing from uranium to EUP for end use, today things are often reversed and far more complicated, with de-enrichment, de-conversion, loans, swaps, and other transactions. Those able to bring financial and entrepreneurial skills to bear on this complexity have an advantage. Long-term contracts between primary producers and end users no longer dominate new transactions, especially in the critical role of price formation - the process of determining or discovery of the market price. These changes have raised the question of whether participants in the nuclear fuel market need, or could benefit from, new institutional mechanisms, specifically some sort of formal exchange or commodity market

  6. Canada in the world power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The role of Canadian exports in power projects and industrial development throghout the world is discussed in a series of regional articles. Sales of CANDU reactors in Argentina, South Korea and Romania are mentioned along with possible sales to Japan, China and Mexico. Other technologies, including telecommunications in the Middle East, copper smelters in Chile and pulp mills in Argentina are introduced as examples of Canadian exports. The impact of technology transfer throughout the Americas, Asia, Africa and Europe is stressed. Services available from Canadian government agencies such as the Export Development Corporation and the Canadian International Development Agency are described along wth international development agencies to illustrate the assistance available to the export market. The role of consultants in other projects is also described. (T.I.)

  7. Russian oil prices: courting the world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The export and oil pricing of Russian crude was discussed. Russian crude and oil product exports are not yet wholly competitive with world oil markets. It was suggested that to do so, would be neither desirable nor actually possible at present. The reason for this is related to Russia's export duties regime and Russia's trade with its neighbouring countries which include the former Soviet republics. In the first half of 1995, the average border price of crude destined for those countries was US$75.04/tonne as opposed to US$114.77/tonne for crude exported to 'far-abroad', hard-currency markets. A breakdown of Russia's export duties for liquid fuels and a typical breakdown of export and domestic prices for Russian oil was provided. Russian crude is considerably under-priced mainly because of the poor state of the national refining industry which is in need of radical modernization. It was suggested that instead of globalization, it would be more appropriate to redirect the priorities of Russian energy policy towards defining optimal use of Russia's available energy potential, and rationalizing its domestic price structure first, which is the root cause of the national price problem. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  8. World market of nuclear fuel: new capabilities and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maks, A.; Kening, R.

    1992-01-01

    History of beginning, state and development prospects of the world market of nuclear fuel are considered. In detail is discussed the role of countries, being at the former USSR territory, in the uranium production and its market deliveries

  9. Cross-correlations and influence in world gold markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) coefficient and the detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA) coefficient, we investigate cross-correlations and net cross-correlations among five major world gold markets (London, New York, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Mumbai) at different time scales. We propose multiscale influence measures for examining the influence of individual markets on other markets and on the entire system. We find (i) that the cross-correlations, net cross-correlations, and net influences among the five gold markets vary across time scales, (ii) that the cross-market correlation between London and New York at each time scale is intense and inherent, meaning that the influence of other gold markets on the London-New York market is negligible, (iii) that the remaining cross-market correlations (i.e., those other than London-New York) are greatly affected by other gold markets, and (iv) that the London gold market significantly affects the other four gold markets and dominates the world-wide gold market. Our multiscale findings give market participants and market regulators new information on cross-market linkages in the world-wide gold market.

  10. The world's largest LNG producer's next market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.; Isworo Suharno; Simandjuntak, W.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the domestic gas market in Indonesia, the world's largest liquefied natural gas producing country, is described as part of the overall impact of the country's oil and gas production. The first large scale use of natural gas in Indonesia was established in 1968 when a fertiliser plant using gas as the feedstock was built. Ultimately, through increased yields, this has enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in rice and an exporter of fertiliser. Problems which stand in the way of further developments include: capital, though Pertamina and PGN are perceived as attractive for foreign investment; the lack of a regulatory framework for gas; geographical constraints, among them the fact that the gas deposits are remote from the largest population concentrations; lack of infrastructure. There are nevertheless plans for expansion and the provision of an integrated gas pipeline system. Pertamina, which has responsibility for all oil and gas developments, and PGN, whose primary role has been as a manufacturer and distributor of gas, are now working together in the coordination of all gas activities. (10 figures). (UK)

  11. Marketing to physicians in a digital world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Christopher; Ross, Joseph S; Grande, David

    2014-11-13

    Pharmaceutical marketing can lead to overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and overuse of medications. Digital advertising creates new pathways for reaching physicians, allowing delivery of marketing messages at the point of care, when clinical decisions are being made.

  12. Indicators on the world petroleum markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents tendencies of the petroleum industry market. It analyses the petroleum demand and supply, the prices elaboration, the petroleum market and the OPEC objective, the third petroleum crisis of the year 2000 and gives some data concerning the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  13. Marketing Opportunities in the Digital World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, G. Reza

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the opportunities offered by the Web to marketers. Considers the Web as a two-way communication model in which four different communication states can take place. Suggests the necessity of new concepts and models for marketers to manage their Web sites, and presents opportunities supporting the marketers' objectives in the new…

  14. Reference data on world oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper makes a status of the 2004 activity of worldwide oil markets: oil demand, oil supplies (OPEC and non-OPEC countries, unused production capacities), formation of oil prices (role of stockpiles, role of terminal markets, impact of dollar rate), economic data: OPEC objectives, market vision, volatility of prices, supply and demand. (J.S.)

  15. OPEC strategy on world petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.

    1994-01-01

    OPEC has to choose between two options, either a regulated market or a situation of whole competition. The other big producers refuse to share responsibility of a market stabilization and oblige OPEC to a strategy 'uncertainty' which is in fact a 'non-interference' policy but it is not sure that OPEC accepts to be the only market regulator and then the residual supplier when supply is bigger than demand

  16. The American market for uranium enrichment and its effects on the world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek-Fink, P.

    1992-01-01

    DOE as the sole supplier of the West dominated the market for a long time. The Russian supplier TENEX brought some movement into the world market. Urenco want to build a plant in the USA with American partners, in order to have a foot in the door of the largest market in the world. The authorisation process is proceeding. (DG) [de

  17. The world nuclear market and its prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-07-01

    This market study of the nuclear industry presents: 1 - the dynamics of nuclear markets: organisation of the nuclear industry (fuel cycle, reactors), market analysis and key figures (uranium production, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor manufacturing, spent fuel reprocessing), strengths in presence and competition structure (companies ranking, market shares, positioning); 2 - nuclear renaissance and its basis: a suitable answer to the present day energy and environmental challenges (carbon-free energy and low volatility of fuel price), conjunction of favourable conditions (security of fuel supplies, political support, necessity of plants renewal), three main uncertainties (waste management, safety aspect, public opinion weight); 3 - perspectives of development at the 2030 prospects: data (scope of renaissance, market size), sector reconfiguration scenarios (evolution of competition, reconfiguration paths, concentration trend); 4 - analysis of the strategy of 13 companies, suppliers of the nuclear industry, with their key figures, positioning and strategy (production capacity, partnerships, external growth investments, new technical developments etc.). (J.S.)

  18. World cheating on the carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    According to several non-governmental organizations, some industrial producers take advantage of a flaw in one of the carbon market mechanisms set up by the Kyoto protocol. These industrialists, mainly from China and India, are involved in the production of HCFC22 refrigerants, and make a substantial profit by artificially generating more greenhouse gases (HFC23) than necessary, then destroying them in order to collect carbon credits which they sell on the carbon market. Explanations about the cheat, details about companies and banks involved in the system, review of past trickeries in carbon quotas, and ways to improve the carbon market are presented

  19. Importance of marketing management in the world pfarmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Kesič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The world pharmaceutical industry has changed tremendously in the last decade. Globalization processes reinforce a consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry. Mergers and acquisitions prevail more and more as a strategic orientation of numerous world pharmaceutical companies. In our research we found out that marketing management has been playing an increasingly important or even a crucial role in day-today activities and strategic business operations of the world pharmaceutical companies. We may point out that a rapid consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry is definitely a market-driven process, one conditioned by typical strategic marketing management issues, such as a lack of brand new products, intense competitiveness, globalization processes, increased global marketing and sales activities, changing structure of global competitors as well as a furious fight for global market shares and customers’ loyalty. We estimate that marketing management is to play an even more important and, especially, the top priority strategic role in the future globalization and concentration processes of the world pharmaceutical industry. Some experiences and lessons from the global perspective of the world pharmaceutical industry could also be useful to the management of pharmaceutical companies in the transition countries of the Central and Eastern European region. Taking into consideration the current market position of these companies, some marketing management guidelines for their marketing management policies and strategies could be suggested. We conclude that underestimating, or even complete neglect of the importance of marketing management issues may pose the greatest threat to the future strategic orientation and performance of the world pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Adaptive Markets and the New World Order

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    In the adaptive markets hypothesis (AMH) intelligent but fallible investors learn from and adapt to changing economic environments. This implies that markets are not always efficient but are usually competitive and adaptive, varying in their degree of efficiency as the environment and investor population change over time. The AMH has several implications, including the possibility of negative risk premiums, alpha converging to beta, and the importance of macro factors and risk budgeting in as...

  1. Marketing your practice in a social world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley; Grundin, Erica; Harrison, Dash; Espinoza, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Social media use has moved beyond just being a way for family and friends to keep in touch. Now it is imperative that all businesses implement a social media strategy into their overall marketing plan. Medical practices are no exception. Using social media within your medical practice will allow you take your marketing to a new level of success. It also allows you to connect with patients on a more personal, less corporate level.

  2. From market games to real-world markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M. L.; Hui, P. M.; Johnson, N. F.

    2001-04-01

    This paper uses the development of multi-agent market models to present a unified approach to the joint questions of how financial market movements may be simulated, predicted, and hedged against. We first present the results of agent-based market simulations in which traders equipped with simple buy/sell strategies and limited information compete in speculatory trading. We examine the effect of different market clearing mechanisms and show that implementation of a simple Walrasian auction leads to unstable market dynamics. We then show that a more realistic out-of-equilibrium clearing process leads to dynamics that closely resemble real financial movements, with fat-tailed price increments, clustered volatility and high volume autocorrelation. We then show that replacing the `synthetic' price history used by these simulations with data taken from real financial time-series leads to the remarkable result that the agents can collectively learn to identify moments in the market where profit is attainable. Hence on real financial data, the system as a whole can perform better than random. We then employ the formalism of Bouchaud in conjunction with agent based models to show that in general risk cannot be eliminated from trading with these models. We also show that, in the presence of transaction costs, the risk of option writing is greatly increased. This risk, and the costs, can however be reduced through the use of a delta-hedging strategy with modified, time-dependent volatility structure.

  3. Importance of marketing management in the world pfarmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Kesič; Andrej Bertoncelj

    2008-01-01

    The world pharmaceutical industry has changed tremendously in the last decade. Globalization processes reinforce a consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry. Mergers and acquisitions prevail more and more as a strategic orientation of numerous world pharmaceutical companies. In our research we found out that marketing management has been playing an increasingly important or even a crucial role in day-today activities and strategic business operations of the world pharmaceutical compa...

  4. THE ROLE OF THE WORLD INSURANCE MARKET INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Sholoiko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to define a role and significance of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Tasks of the study are the next: to consider the dynamics of development of the world insurance market from 2012 to 2016; to define groups of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; to characterize elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Methodology. These tasks are done because of using such methods as: grouping of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; a collection of information about elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; generalization to define role and significance of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Results. World insurance premiums were increasing and decreasing from 2012 to 2016 and did not exceed 6.3% of Gross Domestic Product. Lots of factors influence global insurance premium volume as an indicator of the development of world insurance market. One of them is an activity of the elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. It is necessary to divide them into some groups: A International insurance associations (associations of organizations connected with insurance but members of such associations do not provide insurance services – International Association of Insurance Supervisors, International Association of Insurance Fraud Agencies, Global Federation of Insurance Associations, International Insurance Foundation; B International associations of insurers (includes associations of insurers and other organizations in a certain area of insurance – International Association of Deposit Insurers, International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers, International Association of Agricultural Production Insurers, International Group of P&I Clubs, International Union of Aerospace Insurers, International Union of Marine Insurance, International Association of Engineering Insurers; C International associations of insurance experts

  5. Is the world oil market 'one great pool'? A test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.E.; Williams, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent paper (Weiner, 1991) it was argued that crude oil markets are regionalized, thus challenging the assertion that the world oil market is homogeneous. This argument bears on the effectiveness of various energy policies. It is argued that these policies should be analyzed using constructs such as antitrust markets, rather than in relation to an ad-hoc definition of regionalization like that used by Weiner. Regionalization and geographic antitrust markets, empirics, and policy implications of regional markets are discussed. By drawing clear parallels between the concept of regionalization and antitrust markets, it is shown that: due to Wiener's flawed methodological and empirical approach, it is not clear that crude oil markets are, in fact, regional; and policies that appear at first glance to require regional markets to be effective, may be explained even in a unified world market. Strong evidence is found in support of a unified world oil market. Some policy implications in the area of import taxes are discussed. 35 refs., 1 tab

  6. Natural gas foothold in world energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ermo, V.; Forli, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the expansion of natural gas from the '50s to the early '80s is analyzed. Following its positive success in industrial, residential and thermoelectric uses, natural gas still has new market spaces to win both in conventional and technical and process innovation-oriented industries

  7. Energy independence versus world market; Independance energetique versus marche mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2003-07-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  8. Implications of a North American grain marketing system for prairie transportation and elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The balance of this report will examine the experiences U.S. production agriculture has had with deregulation of the transportation industry. It will highlight the evolution of the procurement segment of grain marketing, concentrating on the wheat or...

  9. Analysis of the Determinants of Small-Scale Farmers' Grain Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In some cases, farmers may sell at low price when they face financial constraints, especially ... Analysis of the Determinants of Small-Scale Farmers' Grain Market Participations. [76] ...... An MSc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate.

  10. Price Discovery and Risk Management in the U.S. Distiller’s Grain Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Xiaoli L.; Hoffman, Linwood A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the spatial nature of the price discovery process in regional distiller’s grain markets in the US and the price relationships among distiller’s grains, corn, and soybean meals since the beginning of the biofuel boom. We use multivariate and pairwise cointegration analyses to examine spatial integrations among regions and to investigate whether a stable long-term price relationship exists in the market. Error correction models are estimated to determine the speed of ...

  11. Outlook for the world gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Driven by an economic growth of 3.2%, world energy demand could grow by about 1.7%/year by 2030, according to the IEA (WEO 2004), representing a global increase of almost 60% over 2002. Fossil fuels, which meet more than 80% of world primary energy needs, will continue to play a major role, as they are abundant and well adapted to various uses. Already underway for more than a decade, energy diversification in favour of gas will continue, stimulated by the need for using more environment-friendly sources of energy. (author)

  12. Dynamics of world oil crops market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the harvested area, oil crops are the second most important crops after cereals. Soybean is the most important oil crop in terms of production and trade of oilseeds and meals, and second most important in terms of production and trade of vegetable oils after palm oil. Dynamics of prices of derived oil crop products in the international market is conditioned by the relationship between supply and demand in the overall market of oil crops. The substitution of animal fats with vegetable oils in human nutrition, the expansion of biodiesel industry and intensification of livestock production have led to increased demand for oil crops. The objective of this paper was to identify trends in production, consumption and trade of soybeans, rapeseed and sunflower and their derived products.

  13. World oil and gas markets in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In front of insufficient production capacities, the petroleum and gas spot prices have won historical records in 2005. This paper analyzes this situation using the highlights of this exceptional year and concerning the producing countries (political situation), the oil and gas markets (exchange rates, demand, production capacity), the European quotations of petroleum products (automotive and domestic fuels), and the prices of petroleum products in France. (J.S.)

  14. New markets in the new world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, T.

    1991-01-01

    Two important shifts occurred during the early 1990s that have enhanced the long-term market opportunities for natural gas, notes the author of this paper. First, as a result of the Gulf Crisis, there was renewed concern about energy security, reinforcing the position of natural gas as an attractive alterative fuel to oil. Second, the perhaps more significant, there was the sudden realization by many in the industry that the gas supply was not rapidly declining and that with expanding imports, severe competition may lie ahead if new markets were not developed. These changes have broken the rules about gas price parity with oil and may lead to greater flexibility toward and interest in long-term contracts. Many of the new markets that are being pursued focus on the opportunities arising from the energy security/environmental agenda, including fuel switching in the residential and utility sectors; the development of compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles; and opportunities for gas arising from the Clean Air Act of 1990

  15. Canada in the world power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The role of Canadian exports in power projects and industrial development throughout the world is discussed in a series of regional articles. Interest in Canada's CANDU reactor system by Yugoslavia, Mexico and Japan is discussed along with progress being made with the CANDU project in Korea. Other technological projects for the Americas, Europe, Asia and Africa are also described. (T.I.)

  16. Canada in the world power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, Susan; Rogers, Bryan.

    1983-01-01

    Canadian power and industrial projects world-wide are highlighted in this annual feature. A short section on the CANDU Wolsung Reactor in the Republic of Korea mentions that it went critical in November 1982 after taking only 60 months to complete

  17. Energy markets and European Integration: The World Energy Council role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy market reform brings many benefits. Central and East Europe's challenge is to establish such markets when, at list in the case of electricity, the established market economies are still wrestling with how to apply competitive principles to this market. Design challenges include the natural monopoly elements within the electricity supply chain and the fact that it is, in practical terms, as essential social service. There is no one single model suitable to all markets at all stages of development. At the same time, there is a need for sustainable energy pricing, which means prices should cover all costs, with transparent and time-limited subsidies bringing the afford ability gap. Cross-border integration extends the benefits available from market reform by overcoming constraints at the national level and by broadening the geographical limits of a market. The World Energy Council works with its Central and East European members to analyse, understand and meet these challenges. (author)

  18. The world market for subsea technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvinnsland, O.-J.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the Petrobase 2000 system designed for forecasting and analysis of offshore activities covering files of exploration, field development and operations. The electronic tool system forecasts offshore activities in a total of 90 countries around the world. Exploration activities are analysed on the basis of prospectivity of basin geology, availability of exploration acreage, terms of conditions applying as well as availability exploration services, regionally or nationally. The field development file contains data on all known discoveries offshore and announced plans for development. For discoveries where no plans for development exist, the tool system allows for a probability analysis to identify the most likely scheme and scheduling. 10 figs

  19. Withdrawal of cerivastatin from the world market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Bertram

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cerivastatin was recently withdrawn from the market because of 52 deaths attributed to drug-related rhabdomyolysis that lead to kidney failure. The risk was found to be higher among patients who received the full dose (0.8 mg/day and those who received gemfibrozil concomitantly. Rhabdomyolysis was 10 times more common with cerivastatin than the other five approved statins. We address three important questions raised by this withdrawal. Should we continue to approve drugs on surrogate efficacy? Are all statins interchangeable? Do the benefits outweigh the risks of statins? We conclude that decisions regarding the use of drugs should be based on direct evidence from long-term clinical outcome trials.

  20. Marketing and transportation of grain by local cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study focuses on first-handlers-of-grain cooperatives for the fiscal years ending in calendar year 1991. It is comparable with studies previously conducted by the Agricultural Cooperative Service covering 1985-86 (ACS Research Report 70), 1982-8...

  1. VIRTUAL WORLD MARKETING: THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ON SOCIAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    EVERTON DAMIÃO TAVANO SANTOS; JOÃO PAULO DA SILVA GOMES; CARLOS EDUARDO CICCONE

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly present at peolpe´s daily life and seeking to satisfy their wishes, marketing is searching to adapt itself to consumer´s real necessities as well as to the environments currently used by them. With the growing use of technology and internet access, marketing ceases to act only on physical media such as magazines, newspapers and pamphlets to go further, searching for a new environment where customers go like social networking in virtual world where the dissemination of informa...

  2. HOW AFFECTED WAS WORLD INSURANCE MARKET BY GLOBAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economic and financial crisis triggered in 2008 had a significant impact with effects in economical life worldwide. Insurance industry wasn't spared but was less affected than other sectors of the world economy. The aim of the present paper is to underline the main crisis effects on global insurance market through a comparative study between different regions from the world, taking into consideration the main indicators which give us an insurance market dimension, such as: gross premium volume, insurance density and insurance penetration.

  3. The world coal market: supplies, prices, transport (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdnik, I.D.; Kaftan, Yu.S.; Dolzhanskaya, Yu.B.

    1998-01-01

    The state of the world coal market in the period of 1994-1997 is reviewed, its long-term outlooks are presented. The major world coal exporters-Australia, Canada, China, Poland, Russia, the USA, SAR, and Ukraine are briefly characterized. It is pointed out that in the foreseeable future coal will retain its importance of a primary energy carrier along with petroleum and natural gas

  4. Tendencies of development of the world market of business tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekhtyar Nadiya A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is detection of common tendencies of MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, and Exhibitions industry functioning and identification of directions of development of the national market of business tourism. The article considers the problems of the Ukrainian business tourism at this stage, provides a review of recommendations regarding increase of competitiveness of the national tourist product, conducts a statistical study of main macro-economic indicators of the world market of tourist services and segment of business tourism as one of its most important components, conducts analysis of dynamics of the industry development using examples of the leading countries of the world. A special attention is paid to exhibition activity – the most large scale element of the MICE industry. In the result of the study the article reveals changes in ratings of indicators of functioning of the sphere of business tourism in some countries, lists leading exporters and importers of tourist products on the basis of data of the World Travel and Tourism Council and the World Bank, and identifies position of Ukraine at separate segments of the market of business tourism, due to which it makes a recommendation to use the niche strategy. Prospects of further studies in this direction are analysis of interrelations between basic indicators of development of the world industry of business tourism with the use of economic and mathematical methods and construction of forecast models by micro-regions of the world.

  5. World chicken meat market – its development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vladimirovna Belova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global meat market and primarily the chicken meat market represents a very dynamically developing area. The objective of the present article is the analysis of the chicken meat market in the world in order to identify the basic development trends associated with the development of production of and trade in chicken meat, and also in order to identify the individual entities controlling the global chicken meat market. In methodological terms, the article analyzes the development of production of, consumption of and trade (export and import in chicken meat in the years 1961–2009. The main sources of data necessary for the processing of the individual analyses are the FAOSTAT and UN COMTRADE databases. The results of the conducted analysis show the following findings. World production of poultry meat increased from 7.5 million tons to more than 86 million tons. The global market reacted in a flexible manner, in which there was an increase in volumes of executed trade from 271 thousand tons/year in the year 1961 to more than 10.7 million tons/year in the year 2010. Further, the value of world trade in chicken meat within the analyzed period increased from approximately USD 169 million to approximately USD 16 billion. If we analyze the global chicken meat market, it may be stated that it is very concentrated. The analysis of the global market further shows that Brazil, the USA and China represent, in terms of global production, consumption and trade, the main driving force on the chicken meat market. These three countries have a share in global production of approximately 46%, their share in global consumption ranges at a level of over 40%. The share of these countries in global export ranges at a level exceeding 50%.

  6. World and Russian Market of Mergers and Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya S. Zagrebel’Naya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the global and Russian markets of mergers and acquisitions (M&A. The article also presents the dynamics of M&A deals in the world and in Russia for the period 2010-2014, the geography of transactions and their sectoral structure. The overall analysis is supported by the examples of ten largest M&A deals in the world and in Russia, committed in 2014. In the market economy many companies, mostly large, consider M&A as means to improve the material and the production sector, increase profitability, sustainability, creating a positive image. Such transactions could improve a company's development, make business more competitive and profitable. In today's global economy we could observe the growing trend of global integration, which is manifested in the access of various types of companies into new markets, as well as the concentration of capital and consolidation of business, on the one hand. However, on the other hand, there is deterioration in the conditions of the companies due to the ongoing financial, economic and political crises and economic sanctions. This leads to changes in the activity on the world and Russian markets of M&A. Thus, to study its dynamics and trends in the contemporary world and in Russia is one of the most important and actual issues.

  7. New competition in the world market of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2005-01-01

    As nuclear orders are picking up a little, there are strengths competing against one another in the world industry of reactors, an industry that has been deeply affected for twenty years, by the smallness of the market and the reorganization of the electromechanical industry. Competition remains particularly difficult, even though, in terms of exports, national markets in industrialized countries such as the American market and European market are now open to foreign newcomers. One of the reasons of the difficulty is the increased commercial competition based on advanced reactor techniques untested due to strong faith in technology leading to forget the learning difficulties of older reactor types. On a narrow market, demanding and with very specific political interference, the reasoning is not like on an ordinary capital equipment market. Each builder tries to sell by relying on the assets it has in addition to the offered price and related services: industrial reputation and experience that play confusedly when untested advanced reactors are competing with one another, credit terms offered by the State and the government's influence on the market of emerging economies, the backing o the State's financial insurance in the event of risks taken in the sale of turnkey untested reactors. In the competition of the five manufacturers in the export market, American builders do not seem to have the best place, though even the leading position of Framatome ANP shows some limits. (author)

  8. Growth, Structure and Firm Dynamics in Grain Markets: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    market, firms faced with a U-shaped average cost curve will grow until they reach the ... Regulation and institutional challenges may also deter firm owners from making .... owners/managers account for only 10% of the grain traders. Women ...

  9. Econometric analysis of the effect of marketing costs on grain prices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric analysis of the effect of marketing costs on grain prices in Kaduna State of Nigeria. JAL Effiong. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol. 6 (1) 2006: pp. 11-14. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. The prospects for the world nuclear energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last few years projections of nuclear power generating capacity growth for the next two decades have progressively decreased. Dwindling load growth, increasing load lead time, costs of delays and high cost inflation, industrial recession and fuel cycle delays are discussed as the main causes of the setback. The state of the fuel cycle business in the world market is examined and data are presented and discussed for predicted world supply and demand. Nuclear plans and fuel policies and requirements are then examined for individual countries. (U.K.)

  11. The new competition in the world market for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The current revival in the world market for nuclear reactors, notwithstanding Fukushima, completes the re-composition of the world's nuclear industry that started in the early 1990's and which has displaced nuclear power's centre of gravity towards Asia. In this new context, the capability to provide full-fledged financing for the buyers and to set up consortia that may include the operator have become major advantages at this stage, relegating to a lower order the ability to supply reactors with a high level of safety. (author)

  12. Physical quality of grains subjected to moistening and drying processes for marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Coradi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim was to evaluate the physical quality of conventional and transgenic corn grains, through drying and wetting processes for marketing. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (7 x 3 x 2, corresponding to seven drying times (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min, three temperatures of the drying air (80, 100 and 120 °C and two hybrids of corn (conventional AG 1051 and transgenic Herculex@ 30S31H. Grain drying was held in convection oven with forced air ventilation while the wetting was done in a B.O.D chamber. The water movement in the grain, the volume and the electrical conductivity were evaluated periodically. The results showed that the transgenic corn grain reduced the negative effects of drying and moistening on the physical quality. The increase in drying air temperature accelerated the physical deterioration of conventional and transgenic corn grains. The increase in water content by the moistening process caused losses in grain physical quality, similar to the drying process, for both the conventional and transgenic corn grains.

  13. The outlook for the world and Australian oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, K.; Fok, G.

    1996-01-01

    Global demand for oil is projected to continue its upward trend to 2000-1, with growth in the transport sector expected to underpin future increases in oil consumption. World oil consumption is projected to be matched by global production, keeping the average annual oil price relatively stable. In many countries, the diversion of oil revenue to other projects is threatening to constrain increases in production capacity, particularly in the OPEC countries. The encouragement of foreign investment in state oil industries is a likely method of easing the constraint. Australian exploration activity is rising steadily with the prospect of stable oil prices, expanding gas markets and the incentives provided by a number of recent discoveries. While the geographical pattern of Australian production has now changed, with Western Australian production exceeding Victoria production, Australia is expected to maintain its position in the world oil market as a significant producer, importer and exporter. (author). 6 figs., 23 refs

  14. State of the art in oil market in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, F. E.

    2007-01-01

    Things move fast in the world of oil and unfortunately many events do not always receive an appropriate interpretation. The present update reviews the on-going oil peak debate, providing evidence against unjustified optimistic propositions, discussing the predictable shortage of energy materials and its influence on prices. Moreover, the return of OPEC to the oil market drivers seat and the irruption of state oil companies from exporting countries are also commented. (Author)

  15. Changes in the world market in oil and oil refinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristik, Julija

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980's the world market for crude oil and oil products has faced significant changes that are going to have a grate influence on the supply and consumption of crude oil derivatives in Macedonia. The knowledge of these changes would have a grate contribution in planning the future development of this part of the energetic system of Macedonia. The purpose of this paper (which is a short version of the introductory report for the ZEMAK session with a theme 'Energetic policy and development of energetics in Macedonia') is to present the actual situation on the market for crude oil products, as well as to give the main factors that would have influence on this market in the future. (author). 4 refs., 3 ills

  16. World nuclear power generation market and prospects of industry reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    In late years there are many trends placing nuclear energy with important energy in various countries in the world due to a remarkable rise to an energy price, importance of energy security and a surge of recognition to a global environment problem. Overseas nuclear industry's acquisition by a Japanese nuclear power plant maker and its capital or business tie-up with an overseas company, were announced in succession in 2006. A nuclear power plant maker has played an extremely important role supporting wide technology in all stages of a design, construction, operation and maintenance in a nuclear power generation business. After having surveyed the recent trend of world nuclear power generation situation, a background and the summary of these acquisition/tie-ups made were investigated and analyzed to consider the influence that movement of such an industry gives a world nuclear power generation market. (T. Tanaka)

  17. The Economics of Biofuel Policies. Impacts on Price Volatility in Grain and Oilseed Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de H.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    The global food crises of 2008 and 2010 and the increased price volatility revolve around biofuels policies and their interaction with each other, farm policies and between countries. The Economics of Biofuel Policies focuses on the role of biofuel policies in creating turmoil in the world grains

  18. Taxing the difference: World oil market projections 1994-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Considine, J.I.; MacKay, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    The likely impacts of key uncertainties affecting the oil market were assessed, and reference price path to aid industry and governments in their investment and policy decisions, was provided. The reference market outlook corresponded to an annual growth of around 1.5% and a price of $ 18.00 per barrel. The greatest weakness of the market projections were found to be the expected performance of petroleum product demand growth. There was strong evidence that governments of major oil consuming countries had taken action to weaken the response of petroleum product demand to declines in the crude price, by driving an ever increasing fiscal wedge between the crude price and the corresponding product prices.The outcome is an asymmetry in demand response to crude price movements. Incorporation of this asymmetry into the world oil market model could have some disturbing results: under the reference case market assumptions, continuation of this tax and pricing policy would not only eliminate the price gains projected, but move the oil price below current levels on a sustained basis. The study concluded that OPEC members and the governments of the major industrialized oil consuming countries should strive to reach an agreement to avoid catastrophic price instability. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Grain production trends in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan: New opportunities in an increasingly unstable world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioubimtseva, Elena; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2012-06-01

    Grain production in the countries of the former USSR sharply declined during the past two decades and has only recently started to recover. In the context of the current economic and food-price crisis, Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan might be presented with a window of opportunity to reemerge on the global agricultural market, if they succeed in increasing their productivity. The future of their agriculture, however, is highly sensitive to a combination of internal and external factors, such as institutional changes, land-use changes, climate variability and change, and global economic trends. The future of this region's grain production is likely to have a significant impact on the global and regional food security over the next decades.

  20. A New World for Museum Marketing? Facing the Old Dilemmas while Challenging New Market Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Komarac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Museums are part of a wider cultural and entertainment environment, which is ruled by highly demanding visitors who seek immersive experiences (edutainment and time-saving arrangement. This has encouraged and, in some opinions, forced museums to turn their focus from collections to visitors. In addition, museums have faced competition and new technologies in the form of virtual museums and virtual reality. This has emphasized the need to accept marketing as a survival tool and to make it into a link between museums and visitors. This article attempts to give current insights into museum marketing as part of the arts marketing field. Its aim is also to identify and explain some of the major challenges and opportunities facing everyday museum business, in order to provide insight into the complex world of museum marketing. Former findings about the development of museum marketing and its biggest changes and challenges are presented, summarized and analyzed.

  1. Market-sharing approach to the world nuclear sales problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribicoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The recent decisions by West Germany and France to sell nuclear fuel facilities to Brazil and Pakistan, respectively, mark the first sharp divergence by major industrial nations from long-established U.S. nonproliferation policy. Thus far, the U.S. has been ineffective in seeking to persuade Germany and France not to proceed with them. This indicates a serious weakness in the execution of American nonproliferation policy, which if left uncorrected, could result in the rapid spread of nuclear weapons material and capability around the world. It is clear that complex problems are raised by the concept of market-sharing. A principal advocate, Dr. Lawrence Scheinman from ERDA, says that traditional arguments against market-sharing do not qualify as reasons against the concept. He does identify three basic arguments against market-sharing, which the author discusses in this article, namely: (1) reactor market-sharing is contrary to U.S. anti-cartel policy and in violation of antitrust laws; (2) other nuclear supplier countries would reject a market-sharing arrangement; and (3) the recipient countries of the Third World would view it as a nuclear cartel and refuse to do business with it. The author advocates that at the very least, the U.S. should enter the next round of supplier negotiations prepared to propose multinational arrangements for closing the commercial nuclear fuel cycle and for making all weapons-grade material generated by the fuel cycle unavailable to any nation on a sovereign basis. The U.S. should also make clear that it would view with the gravest concern the continuation of the present export policies of West Germany and France

  2. Directions of effective development of the grain market in the aspect of solving food security problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mizanbekova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of development of the market for feed grain and production, which accounts for about a third of the gross harvest of grain crops. The need to ensure the effective development of the market for feed grain of Kazakhstan and Russia acquires special relevance in modern conditions due to the variety of factors of internal and external influence. Grain firing by production volumes, quality and assortment does not meet the needs of the livestock sector in nutritious and affordable concentrate fodder. In connection with this, the poor quality of the feed base caused a decrease in production volumes with a deterioration in the provision of foodstuffs of animal origin to the population, which necessitated an increase in the import of livestock products, followed by a decrease in the demand for domestic feed grain by domestic agricultural producers. Similar problems adversely affect the dynamics of market development fodder grain and livestock in Kazakhstan and Russia. To ensure the product safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan, to improve the quality of life of the population, it is necessary to develop a set of measures to improve the forage bases of animal husbandry, stimulate and increase the production of high-quality meat products that can compete in domestic and foreign markets. Technical re-equipment and modernization of the enterprises for the production of mixed fodders in accordance with the requirements of international standards, the perspective development and placement of these enterprises in the regions should proceed from the technological features of the cattle-breeding industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan, taking into account the modern requirements of domestic and foreign markets for meat products. The introduction of effective mechanisms to meet the current needs of regional producers in a quality and affordable feed base will allow the Republic of Kazakhstan, on the basis of its own high resource

  3. Network marketing on a small-world network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Jun, Tackseung; Kim, Jeong-Yoo; Choi, M. Y.

    2006-02-01

    We investigate a dynamic model of network marketing in a small-world network structure artificially constructed similarly to the Watts-Strogatz network model. Different from the traditional marketing, consumers can also play the role of the manufacturer's selling agents in network marketing, which is stimulated by the referral fee the manufacturer offers. As the wiring probability α is increased from zero to unity, the network changes from the one-dimensional regular directed network to the star network where all but one player are connected to one consumer. The price p of the product and the referral fee r are used as free parameters to maximize the profit of the manufacturer. It is observed that at α=0 the maximized profit is constant independent of the network size N while at α≠0, it increases linearly with N. This is in parallel to the small-world transition. It is also revealed that while the optimal value of p stays at an almost constant level in a broad range of α, that of r is sensitive to a change in the network structure. The consumer surplus is also studied and discussed.

  4. Merger and Acquisition Market: from World Experience to National Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrechana Svitlana I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of tendencies and prospects of development of the merger and acquisition market of Ukraine in the context of influence of the world M and A experience upon this process under conditions of globalisation. In the result of the study the article analyses the most significant merger and acquisition operations that took place in the world practice and in Ukraine in recent years. The article reveals and deeply assesses the variety of motives and mechanisms of their realisation from the position of practice of developed countries and trans-national corporations and also domestic associations of enterprises. It shows that transactions of tough or forced character of acquisition prevail in Ukraine, specific features of which are not only the reduced cost but also direct belonging of buyers to oligarchic-political structures. It explains negative influence of these specific features upon volume and activity of the national M and A market. It formulates and offers a system of state and economic subjects measures, immediate application of which would allow creation of favourable conditions for development of the national merger and acquisition market.

  5. World market integration of Vietnamese rice markets during the 2008 food price crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckmann, J.; Ihle, R.; Kleinwechter, U.; Grethe, H.

    2015-01-01

    World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. In mid 2008, prices reached levels never seen before. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice and rice is also the main staple food of the country. Given the importance of rice for domestic food security, the Vietnamese

  6. Swedish market entry strategy utilizing Internet marketing: the utilization of Internet marketing in a cost effective and efficient way to market a virtual world

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to review published literature both printed and electronic on the subject of Internet marketing. This will aid to provide guidance on how a newly started virtual world company would be able to conduct as cost effective and efficient Internet marketing as possible with focus on entering the Swedish market. The theory part of the thesis will review the most relevant technologies and marketing concepts for the commissioner of this work. The empirical part of the the...

  7. Relationship between Major Developed Equity Markets and Major Frontier Equity Markets of World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mansoor Baig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The core aim of this study is to compute the long run relationship between frontier equity markets Pakistan (KSE 100 Index, Argentina (MERVAL BUENOS AIRES stock Exchange, NSE.20 (Kenya, MSM 30 (MSI Oman and equity markets of developed world (OMXS30 Sweden, SMI (Switzerland, SSE Composite Index (China and STI index (Singapore by taking weekly values from stock return prices for the period 1st week of January-2000 to last week of January/2014. Descriptive statistic, Correlation, Augmented dickey fuller (ADF, Phillips Perron test, Johanson and Jelseluis test of co-integration, Granger causality test, Variance Decomposition Test and Impulse Response are used to find the relationship among frontier and developed markets. The results of this study reveal that frontier markets have no long run relationship with equity markets of developed world. Furthermore, this study is helpful for investors to enhance the returns by diversifying the unsystematic risk at given level of profit because results of this study confirm that markets are no cointegrated.

  8. Oil markets and prices: the Brent market and the formation of world oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, Paul; Mabro, Robert.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to enhance our understanding of the complex working of the world petroleum market and of the formation of oil prices in international trade. It devotes particular attention to the Brent market which involves spot, physical forward and futures trading of a blend of North Sea crudes known as Brent which has become one of the most important markers for world oil prices. Because the Brent market is central the research presented here examines its relationship to the constellation of other oil markets: those which deal on a spot basis with the main export crude of Africa, the Gulf, the Far East and the North Sea, the market for Dubai, another marker crude, and that for West Texas Intermediate (WTI). Finally an analysis of pricing mechanisms used by OPEC and many non-OPEC exporting countries for their oil sales under term contracts and which use Brent prices as one of their references complete this study on oil markets and prices. (author)

  9. Near-term world oil markets : economics, politics and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwarkin, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the three main factors that will determine how OPEC oil production will impact on energy markets. OPEC reassured the market in September 2001, following the terrorist attack in New York that it would not cut oil production, but by December 2001, OPEC was threatening that it would cut production unless many key non-OPEC producers collaborated to shore up prices. On January 1, 2002, OPEC members went ahead with a quota reduction, based on pledges of cuts from the non-OPEC oil exporting countries. World economies, oil demand, and the path which the U.S. economy will take during 2002 is critical in determining what happens next in terms of oil production from OPEC. Another important factor is knowing whether non-OPEC producers will actually cut output to a significant extent. The most critical factor will be the response by OPEC members if non-OPEC exporting countries do not keep their promise

  10. Research and services provision on the world research market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Wiśniowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to create new knowledge for the development of the economy. The source of new knowledge are research: basic, applied and industrial, which complement each other to form one whole. Each of these research has other sources of financing and other purposes. Due to the large influx of foreign technology to Poland industrial research is not growing as we would expect. To balance this deficiency the Research Institutes may provide services on the world market. It would be advisable to seek the provision of services on the global research market so that it could became a Polish smart specialization. This specialization would include the sale of intellect, which should never run out of customers.

  11. Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

    2014-07-01

    In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 μg g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the world market for small and medium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    In the past decades, the major focus for nuclear power has been the design and construction of nuclear plants of ever increasing size. This was appropriate for many industrialized countries, which could readily add generation capability to their electrical grids in large increments. However, recently there has been an increasing emphasis on the development of small and medium reactors especially to meet needs in developing countries where electrical grids cannot accept the additional capacity of a large nuclear plant. The paper presents an estimation of the world market for small and medium sized reactors giving the basic assumptions, criteria, scope, methods and important factors. (author)

  13. State and prospects of Russian and world gallium market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Larichkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the state of Russian and world mineral and raw materials base of gallium, the main spheres of application in various branches and industries of the national economy. The article presents the generalization and analysis of trends in world and Russian production, consumption of rare metal and its compounds, the world trade and global market of gallium and products based on it, consuming it in new science-intensive innovative industries, including the production of military equipment. The unique chemical properties of gallium remained unclaimed for a long time. Only after the discovery of the semiconductor properties of gallium compounds has the situation radically changed: the rate of growth in production and consumption of metallic gallium at the end of the twentieth and beginning of the 21st century amounted to an average of more than 8% per year. The largest area of consumption of gallium is the production of semiconductor materials – gallium arsenide (GaAs and gallium nitride (GaN. The areas of application of gallium not related to the semiconductor industry are very small. Industry structure of consumption of GaAs and GaN: in integrated circuits is 66%; optoelectronic devices (light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, photodetectors and solar batteries – 20%; the remaining 14% – scientific research, special alloys, etc. Optoelectronic devices are used in aerospace industry, consumer goods, industrial and medical equipment and telecommunications. Integral circuits are used in the military industry, high-power computers and electronic communications. The most significant growing sectors of the market are LEDs, electronics based on gallium nitride and solar cells. Solar energy has become the fastest growing branch of the world economy. The volumes of gallium production in Russia do not correspond to its raw material, scientific and technological potential as the country and require the development activation based on state

  14. A literature review of demand studies in world oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, F.; Tayyebi Jazayeri, S.M.

    2004-04-01

    The literature on world oil market demands was reviewed, summarized and organized into seven major groupings. The objective was to model economic behaviour before and after price shocks. In particular, the paper demonstrated how the price elasticity of demand in world oil markets is estimated. It also showed how the relationship between energy and oil consumption and income are estimated. The income elasticity of demand was also estimated, and empirical estimates of the elasticity of aggregate output regarding crude oil and energy prices were presented. The paper also referred to the transportation sector and estimates of the changing nature of seasonal factors. The review showed that there is much heterogeneity of econometric results. The literature showed that demand increased considerably in response to the price shocks of the 1970s, but these shocks were reversed in the 1980s when the increase in demand did not correspond with the decrease in price. Some of the literature is driven by the belief that there must be a stable, non-linear model that fits the data both before and after price shocks. The authors question whether this could be true and propose an alternative hypothesis that there is a different model that pertains to economic behaviour after price shocks. 15 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Whole grains and health: attitudes to whole grains against a prevailing background of increased marketing and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMackin, Elaine; Dean, Moira; Woodside, Jayne V; McKinley, Michelle C

    2013-04-01

    To explore current awareness and perceptions of whole grain foods and perceived barriers and facilitators of whole grain consumption. Focus groups were conducted to investigate consumer attitudes to whole grains. Discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Discussions were held throughout Northern Ireland with adults who were at least partly responsible for food shopping. Seven focus groups were held (n 43; thirty-three females, ten males). All participants were aware of the term 'whole grain' and had a basic level of awareness of their health benefits. Prominent barriers and facilitators of whole grain intake were related to perceptions of the sensory properties (most dominant factor) of whole grains; knowledge of how to locate, identify and use whole grains; and awareness of the health benefits, perceived cost and family influences. Parents of young children appeared to be altruistically motivated with many stating they wanted to ensure their children consumed whole grains in order to establish good eating habits. Participants were generally aware of the term 'whole grain'; however, even against a background of increased availability and promotion of whole grain foods, many key barriers to whole grain consumption were still evident. Alongside general education efforts, opportunities and challenges exist for the food industry to develop novel, but affordable, food products that are able to deliver whole grains in a wide variety of forms, including whole grains 'in disguise' for those who are most resistant to change.

  16. Marketing communication of World championship in acrobatic rock and roll 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Zbořilová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Title: Marketing communication of World championship in acrobatic rock and roll 2013 Goal: Evaluation of marketing communication of World championship in Acrobatic Rock and Roll 2009 and proposing marketing communication of 2013 Methods: In this work were used analysis of texts and documents, qualitative interview, observation and SWOT analysis. Results: New integrated proposal of marketing communication with two appearance variations of advertising leaflets. Key words: Marketing, communicati...

  17. Russian nuclear industry and the perspectives on the world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, G. F.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the NPP capacities in Russia is presented. Federal Target Program 'Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia in 2007-2010 and till 2015' (Government Decree of October 06 2006) is adopted. The scope of financing under the Program till 2015 is €41bill., of which budget financing is €19 bln. The goals are: to launch 10 new NPP units and to start 10 more projects by 2015; to actively promote the Russian nuclear fuel cycle organizations production on the world markets; to expand NPP construction and and operation outside Russia. The institutional reform to meet the goals is presented. NPP with russian VVER projects worldwide are presented

  18. World Energy Markets Observatory. November 2017 - 19. Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, Colette; Stoneman, Perry; Modi, Gaurav; Lindhaus, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The study reveals that progress in the sector's generation technologies has caused an acceleration in the Energy Transition, while related renewable growth continues to destabilize the wholesale electricity markets and key players. The study also highlights a profound change in customer energy usage, behaviors and expectations, with, for example, self-consumption, Smart Homes, Smart Buildings, Smart Plants, Smart Cities and the creation of communities to purchase or manage energy differently. As a result, the financial situation of established Utilities remains challenging. The report encourages Utilities to accelerate their transformation efforts and to leverage increasingly the power of Digital Transformation. The three main findings of the 2017 edition of the World Energy Markets Observatory report are: 1. Rapid evolution of generation technologies makes the renewables penetration unstoppable, thanks to their competitiveness gains, and despite the end of feed-in tariffs in Europe; 2. Empowered Smart Energy consumers are pushing Utilities to deliver new energy services; 3. Established Utilities, heavily hit by Energy Transition and customers' evolving expectations, have started large transformations. It's now time to accelerate by leveraging Digital Transformation

  19. Big questions cloud Iraq's future role in world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Iraq raises questions for the world oil market beyond those frequently asked about when and under what circumstances it will resume exports. Two wars since 1981 have obscured encouraging results from a 20 year exploration program that were only beginning to come to light when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. Those results indicate the country might someday be able to produce much more than the 3.2 million b/d it was flowing before a United Nations embargo blocked exports. If exploratory potential is anywhere near what officials asserted in the late 1980s, and if Iraq eventually turns hospitable to international capital, the country could become a world class opportunity for oil companies as well as an exporter with productive capacity approaching that of Saudi Arabia. But political conditions can change quickly. Under a new, secular regime, Iraq might welcome non-Iraqi oil companies and capital as essential to economic recovery. It's a prospect that warrants a new industry look at what the country has revealed about its geology and exploration history

  20. Marketing in the E-Business World, Parts I & II | Smith | LBS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing in the E-Business World, Parts I & II. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... of many of Americas largest companies gather at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City for the Conference Boards Annual Marketing Conference.

  1. The world petroleum market in 2007. DIREM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    2007: the world is becoming used to a high oil price. With an average price of 72.6 US$ per barrel for the ICE Brent, the crude rates show a 9.8% rise with respect to the 2006 ones (66.11 US$/b) following the 20% rise observed in 2006. Price rates show a sawtooth evolution but with a general rise over the full year. Thanks to a US$ change rate favorable to the euro, the 2007 average is of 52.76 euro/b with respect to 52.65 euro/b in 2006. At the end of the year 2007 the barrel price reached 93.85 US$/b with respect to 60.86 US$/b at the end of 2006. The document analyses the impact of these high prices on the economies of oil-consuming and oil-producing countries. It presents the 2007 highlights of the main OPEC countries (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Venezuela, Iraq, Nigeria, Angola), and then analyses the international quotations of petroleum products on the Rotterdam market and the prices of petroleum products in France. (J.S.)

  2. World oil market fundamentals - Part One: The near term outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwarkin, J.; Morton, K.; Datta, R.

    1998-03-01

    Potential implications of a number of uncertainties currently affecting the world oil market are assessed. The influence of the interplay of geopolitical events on demand and supply, inventories, prices and price trends are reviewed. Reference prices which industry and governments can use for investment and policy evaluations are provided. In this volume, the emphasis is on near term developments, with a review of the uncertainties surrounding these projections. Three different scenarios are postulated for the near term, each one taking into account different levels of Iraqi exports during the period which would effect available inventories, and hence price. Depending on which of the three scenarios actually comes to pass, unless refiners are prepared to build up inventories well beyond seasonal norms, or producers shut in, the prevailing view is that oil prices will be under severe pressure during most of 1998 and 1999. Over the longer term, however, the analysis suggests that an average real value of US$18.00 - $18.50 per barrel remains a reasonable expectation as a sustainable price. 34 refs., tabs., figs

  3. RESPONSIVENESS OF SPATIAL PRICE VOLATILITY TO INCREASED GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN MAIZE GRAIN AND MAIZE MEAL MARKETING IN ZAMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Syampaku, E.M; Mafimisebi, Taiwo Ejiola

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the responsiveness of maize grain and maize meal spatial price volatilities to increased government participation in maize grain marketing in Zambia using descriptive statistics and vector auto-regression (VAR). This was achieved by comparing spatial price volatility means and spatial price means for the period under increased government participation with respective means for periods under limited government participation. Also, spatial price volatilities were regressed ag...

  4. Study to forecast and determine characteristics of world satellite communications market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, R. T.; Schnapf, A.; Fordyce, S. W.

    1983-01-01

    The world commercial communications satellite market during the spring and summer of 1983 was examined and characteristics and forecasts of the market extending to the year 2000 were developed. Past, present and planned satellites were documented in relation to frequencies, procurement and launch dates, costs, transponders, and prime contractor. Characteristics of the market are outlined for the periods 1965 - 1985, 1986 - 1989, and 1990 - 2000. Market share forecasts, discussions of potential competitors in various world markets, and profiles of major communication satellite manufacturing and user countries are documented.

  5. Battle for market share: World oil market projections, 1995-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considine, J.I.; Reinsch, A.E.

    1995-09-01

    A world-wide market assessment and scenario analyses were described. They were said to suggest a more bearish outlook for crude oil prices relative to last years projections. The price of WTI was projected to weaken over the 1996-1998 period due to rising non-OPEC production, gradual reintegration of Iraqi exports, a lack of unified accommodation by the rest of OPEC for incremental Iraqi volumes, and demand growth insufficient to absorb the additional production at current prices. Crude prices could be expected to lie in the $15.50-$17.50 (US) per barrel range from 1996 to 1998, and in the $14.50-$20.50 per barrel range during the first decade of the 21. century. Long-term price risk was expected to be weighted to the down side. The reasoning behind these predictions was explained in detail. 24 figs., 83 tabs., 70 refs

  6. Africa Rising in an Emerging World: An International Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Boso, Nathaniel; Debrah, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal of this introductory article is to highlight important contemporary themes in international marketing strategy from the perspective of Sub-Saharan African firms. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted is a review and synopsis of the existing body of research on international marketing research in Sub-Saharan African, and a discussion of the manuscripts included in the special issue. \\ud \\ud Findings: International marketing in Sub-Sahara Africa is ...

  7. The perspectives of the nuclear market development in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Since the end of the second petroleum crisis the context has never been so favourable to the nuclear return. This situation is also realized by the implementing of the CO 2 emission quotas. Thinking that the renewable energies are not sufficient, this study presents the nuclear power as an imperative solution. The different technological channels are detailed. It provides also informations on the different operators of the market, the market volume in 2030, the more attractive markets and the groups ready to capture the market. (A.L.B.)

  8. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  9. The World Oil Market: The Search for Balance in the New “Oil” Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjiana A. Malova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of change of the world oil market in the face of new "oil" reality. Factors of formation of new "oil" reality in the global world defined. Scientific background and current state of research of the problem are described. It is shownthat in the Russian and foreign literature the considerable attention is paid to the analysis of dynamics of the quantitative variables characterizing fluctuations and shocks in the oil market. At the same time the search for balance in the new "oil" reality are not considerably investigated yet. The proposed approach allows toreveal the substance of the transformation of the world oil market, to assess the changes in the oil market with the development of rhenium in terms of efficiency and functioning of the mechanism, the prospects of price volatility in the oil market. The main directions of transformation of the oil market are follows. Development of a subject basis of the oil market due to changes of a role of the main market players whose structure includes the USA, Saudi Arabia, Russia now. The impact of regulatory factors complex in the oil market towards equilibrium, which include activity of OPEC, supply of shale oil, future market,activity of the uniform regulator and national regulators. Transformation of the oil market in the direction of perfection of the competitive relations, achievement of optimum market balance as a result of coordination and interaction of interests of participants of the global oil market.

  10. Engaging Marketing Students: Student Operated Businesses in a Simulated World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R.; Kuhn, Kerri-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Engaged students are committed and more likely to continue their university studies. Subsequently, they are less resource intensive from a university's perspective. This article details an experiential second-year marketing course that requires students to develop real products and services to sell on two organized market days. In the course,…

  11. The world PV market 2000: shifting from subsidy to 'fully economic'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, Paul

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the world grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) market concentrating on the US, Japan and Germany. The PV markets in the three countries are examined, and PV module shipments, the economics of residential PVs in the markets, and forecasts of the grid-connected market are discussed. Details are given of the German 100,000 roofs PV roof subsidy programme to stimulate the residential and commercial grid-connected market. A summary of the grid-connected PV markets in the three countries, and economic information on German grid-connected PV roofs are tabulated

  12. The integration of China into the world crude oil market since 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Raymond; Leung, Guy C.K.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of China into the world oil market is an important issue for at least two reasons. First, the influence of the country on the world oil market is dependent on the level of the integration. Second, integration into the world oil market means that China is opening itself up to potential disturbances in the world market and this leads to significant energy security concerns for the country. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether or not China is an integral part of the world oil market. By reviewing the relevant trade and pricing policies of the Chinese government as well as the behavior of the Chinese national oil companies, we find that China is actively engaging itself in the world oil market. Our time-series results show that the Chinese oil price is cointegrated with the major oil prices in the world and a high degree of co-movement between the prices is found. Causality between the price pairs is found to be bi-directional in most cases. The empirical results suggest that China is now an integral part of the world oil market. - Highlights: → Review of the oil trade and pricing policies of the Chinese government. → Review of the behavior of the Chinese national oil companies. → China is actively engaging itself in the world oil market. → Shipment data show that China can no longer be regarded as a separate market. → Strong co-movement between the Chinese oil price and the international oil prices.

  13. Changes of hierarchical network in local and world stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwary, Enayet Ullah; Lee, Jong Youl; Nobi, Ashadun; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-10-01

    We consider the cross-correlation coefficients of the daily returns in the local and global stock markets. We generate the minimal spanning tree (MST) using the correlation matrix. We observe that the MSTs change their structure from chain-like networks to star-like networks during periods of market uncertainty. We quantify the measure of the hierarchical network utilizing the value of the hierarchy measured by the hierarchical path. The hierarchy and betweenness centrality characterize the state of the market regarding the impact of crises. During crises, the non-financial company is established as the central node of the MST. However, before the crisis and during stable periods, the financial company is occupying the central node of the MST in the Korean and the U.S. stock markets. The changes in the network structure and the central node are good indicators of an upcoming crisis.

  14. Testing for long-range dependence in world stock markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cajueiro, Daniel Oliveira; Tabak, Benjamin Miranda

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show a novel approach to rank stock market indices in terms of weak form efficiency using state of the art methodology in statistical physics. We employ the R/S and V/S methodologies to test for long-range dependence in equity returns and volatility. Empirical results suggests that although emerging markets possess stronger long-range dependence in equity returns than developed economies, this is not true for volatility. In the case of volatility, Hurst exponents...

  15. Charting the new world order: proceedings of the 15. CERI international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The 15th International Oil and Gas Markets Conference, organized by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) and held in Calgary, AB, provided a wide variety of opportunities for discussion of the global oil and gas market outlook, international oil and gas market strategies and corporate planning in the new world order, competition for investments, the re-emergence of the geopolitics of energy, energy in the Americas, international gas market strategies, and the financing of Canadian international operations. More than 100 delegates from around the world attended the conference to hear some 20 presentations. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Perspectives of development of the nuclear market in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Since the end of the second oil shock, the context has never been as favorable as today for a re-launching of nuclear energy. The growth of energy demand requires heavy investments in new power production capacities. The explosion of fossil fuel prices and the implementation of the carbon trade market in Europe have burdened the competitiveness and price of electricity generated from these energy sources. New and renewable energies will not be capable to take up the challenge of production capacities and thus the nuclear power appears as the inevitable solution, despite the investments needed and the problem of wastes management. Moreover, most nuclear plants in operation today were built during the 1970-1980 era and, despite their lifetime extension, the USA, France, Japan, Russia and Germany will have to replace 80 to 100% of their nuclear park within the next 20 years. Taking into account the administrative and construction delays, the investment decisions will have to be taken in the coming years. This study answers the following questions: what reactor technologies dominate the market today? What are the forces in presence at each sector of the nuclear industry? What is the weight of each market segment? Who are the operators positioned in the market of 3. generation reactors? What will be the size of the market by 2030? What are the most attractive markets? Who are the best positioned groups to capture these markets? This study is based on the analysis of 14 representative groups of the nuclear sector: vertically integrated operators, fuel cycle front-end specialists, reactor construction specialists and atypical nuclear fuel companies. (J.S.)

  17. International wind energy development. World market update 2011. Forecast 2012-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The World Market Update 2011 is BTM Consult's seventeenth edition of this annual wind energy market report. The report includes more than 80 tables, charts and graphs illustrating global wind market development, as well as a wind market forecast for 2012 - 2016 and predictions for the wind market through 2021. The report delivers several views on the fast-growing wind market, including: 1) Record installation of 41.7 GW. 2) Strong presence of four Chinese wind turbine suppliers in the Top 10 list. 3) China maintains the No. 1 market position in the world, with 17.6 GW of new capacity. 4) Offshore wind is on track for increased contribution to wind power in Europe. 5) Market value will grow from Euro 52.2 billion in 2011 to Euro 86.3 billion in 2016. 6) Direct drive turbines now account for 21.2% of the world's supply of wind power capacity. 7) Wind power will deliver 2.26% of the world's electricity in 2012. 8) Forecasts and predictions to 2021 indicate that wind power can meet 8.0% of the world's consumption of electricity by 2021. International Wind Energy Development - World Update 2011 includes individual country wind market assessments, incentives around the world, and detailed analysis of both the demand and supply sides of the wind market in 2011. This year's report reviews the latest developments in hydraulic drivetrains, identifies the pros and cons, and compares the hydraulic technology to the industry's three currently established drivetrain technologies: conventional gear-, direct and hybrid-drivetrains. (Author)

  18. World electricity generation, nuclear power, and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Striking changes have characterized the world's production and use of energy over the past 15 years. Most prominent have been the wide price fluctuations, politicization of world oil prices and supply, along with profound changes in patterns of production and consumption. This report, based on a study by energy analysts at Science Concepts, Inc., in the United States, traces changes in world energy supply since 1973-74 - the time of the first oil ''price shocks''. In so doing, it identifies important lessons for the future. The study focused in particular on the role of the electric power sector because the growth in fuel use in it has been accomplished without oil. Instead, the growth has directly displaced oil. In the pre-1973 era, the world relied increasingly on oil for many energy applications, including the production of electricity. By 1973, more than on-fourth of the world's electricity was produced by burning oil. By 1987, however, despite a large increase in electric demand, the use of oil was reigned back to generating less than 10% of the world's electricity. Nuclear power played a major role in this turnaround. From 1973-87, analysts at Science Concepts found, nuclear power displaced the burning of 11.7 billion barrels of oil world-wide and avoided US $323 billion in oil purchases

  19. Assessment of the world market for small and medium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The market for SMRs until 2015 was assessed by individual countries, taking into account energy demand and supply patterns, growth rates, energy resources, economic and financial resources, electric grids, industrial and technical development, infrastructure availability, environmental and nuclear safety concerns and other policy issues. The market assessment includes all applications of these reactors, that is electricity generation as well as the supply of process head and district heating. It is expected that SMRs will be deployed primarily in countries which have already started nuclear projects, in particular in countries which have developed SMR designs themselves. Thus, projects would be supplied predominantly by domestic sources in the years ahead; later, the export market is expected to attain more importance. It is further expected that over two thirds of the SMR units would be in the medium size range, i.e. from 300 to 700 MW(e), the rest would be smaller. About one third of the SMRs to be implemented are expected to supply heat and/or electricity to integrated seawater desalination plants. More than half of these reactors would be below 300 MW(e) or 1000 MW(th). The overall market is estimated at about 60 to 100 SMR units to be implemented up to the year 2015. It is recognized that forecasts, just like national development plans, tend to err on the optimistic side. Therefore, an overall market estimate of 70 to 80 units seems reasonable. (author)

  20. Are Financial Markets an Aspect of Quantum World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Racorean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing the article “Time independent pricing of options in range bound markets” [1], the question in the title came naturally to my mind. It is stated, in the above article, that in certain market conditions the stock price is subjected to an equation that exactly matches a time independent Schrodinger equation. The time independent equation for options valuation is used further to explain a stock market phenomenon that resembles an α particle decay tunneling effect. The transmission coefficient for the stock price tunneling effect it is also deduced. Although, it may not have important impact in quantum physics, the philosophical aspects residing in the use of quantum mechanics for stock market specific are very important.

  1. The market for steam turbine generators around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandement, O.; Anglaret, P.; Ledermann, P.

    2012-01-01

    As a discrete market (in the mathematical meaning of the word) with irregular sales from one year to the next, the market for steam turbine generators in nuclear plants requires working out a strategy adapted to each project. The diversity of the reactors proposed (technology, thermal power, the thermodynamic characteristics of the steam supplied), the variety of the cold sources to be used (ranging from the Baltic Sea to the Indian Ocean) and the different frequencies of electricity grids (50 or 60 Hz) necessitate developing platforms of solutions. Furthermore, the requirement that local businesses have a share in contracts often entails partnerships. After pointing out the diversity of this market, the effort is made to point out its principal characteristics. (authors)

  2. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF THE WORLD MARKET OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena COFAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evolution of global market of meat in 2007-2011 and has been possible because the authors used an important set of indicators, namely: livestock, achieved production, imports, exports, trade balance, price etc. The data used in this work was provided by the following institutions accredited for collecting and processing statistical data: National Institute of Statistics, EUROSTAT, FAOSTAT, FAPRI and USDA. The analysis global market of meat is primarily a quantitative analysis. In the period which is analysed, the demand, the production, the imports, the exports and the prices have evolved differently, especially meat categories, so all these indicators have influenced global market of meat. In mainly, the meat consumption is influenced by the pattern of food consumption and price level. In the future, expect a increase prices, which is based on increasing production costs. Therefore, first it is necessary to adopt measures to support the farmers.

  3. The world market-situation for uranium and its enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the uranium market is described as well as all pertinent facts which may have contributed to the strong rise in uranium prices of the past three years. The policies of countries which may in the future become major uranium exporters are discussed. For the conversion of uranium there is sufficient capacity. However, if construction of new plants is not started soon shortages could occur in the early 80ies. The market for enrichment has characterized in past years by substantial overcapacities. If new enrichment plants are constructed according to present schedules this overcapacity may prevail into the early 90ies. (orig.) [de

  4. Growth, Structure and Firm Dynamics in Grain Markets: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    In this paper we consider the microeconomic evidence on the determinants of firm performance in Ethiopia, with a focus on grain traders. We analyse both internal and external factors, and the relative impacts of these factors on the performance of grain traders. Different economic indicators seem to suggest that grain ...

  5. Post-crisis asymmetries of the world market development of banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav Тіpanov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were analyzed theoretical backgrounds for defining the concept «banking service» by scientists from different countries: considered its main characteristics and classification, determined the key peculiarities of the world market functioning of banking services and its structure, found out the present-day developments of the world market of banking services under conditions of post-crisis period.

  6. Management a marketing sportovní akce: ICF Slalom World Ranking Race Prague 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kubričan, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Title: Management and marketing of sport's event: ICF Slalom World Ranking Race Prague 2009 Objectives: Present strengths and weaknesses of ICF Slalom World Ranking Race Prague 2009 based on analyse of recent years and present ideas for its improvement. Methods: Descriptive analysis, SWOT analysis and interview with expert. Results: Conclusion and advices for organizers of sport's events. Key words: Management, marketing, SWOT analysis, descriptive analysis, sport's event, canoe slalom compet...

  7. MARKET ORIENTATION IN DIGITAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES IN A WEB 2.0 NETWORKED WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    NEIL HAIR; LYLE R. WETSCH; CLYDE EIRÍKUR HULL; VICTOR PEROTTI; YU-TING CAISY HUNG

    2012-01-01

    Strong market orientation is essential to firm success. In the diverse and dynamic digital environment, a strong market orientation philosophy is even more important to the digital entrepreneur. We explore the advantages and challenges that the networked world offers the market-oriented digital entrepreneur. In particular, we examine the role of electronic community and communication and how successful digital entrepreneurs takes advantage of electronic community technologies to facilitate mo...

  8. Impact of exchange rates on the world uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, M.E.; Combs, G.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the relationship between exchange rates and US uranium prices and product ion is presented. This analysis supplements the discussions on the broader topic of fuel prices, exchange rates and other international economic phenomena scheduled during the 1985 EPRI Fuel Supply Seminar. By varying exchange rate assumptions in the recently developed Uranium Market Model, estimates of the magnitude and timing of price and production effects were obtained. These effects do indeed appear to be large and have implications in procurement, fuel planning and commodity policy. While analysts may differ on details, the inescapable conclusion is that exchange rates matter a great deal in the uranium market. The case described is for a scenario of exchange rates with other currencies returning to their 1980 levels. A second case, an across the board weakening of the dollar by 25%, the results of which are somewhat less dramatic is also examined

  9. Sectoral labour market effects of the 2006 FIFA World Cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Maennig, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Using the case of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, this study is the first to test the employment effects of a mega-sporting event on the basis of data that combines both regional and sectoral data. It is also the first study of sporting events to use a semi-parametric test method. Earlier studies...

  10. THE WORLDS OF FLEXICURITY-LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionete Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, European integration has concentrated first of all on profound economic integration, creating the Single Market with common rules and regulations throughout the European Union. European integration has been more limited in the labour market and social field, where the national state remains the dominant level of regulation. Although linguistically somewhat strange, “flexicurity”, the combination of labour market flexibility and security for employees, has become recently a much praised cornerstone of European labour market policies. Obviously, in an environment with rapid technical progress and frequently changing market conditions, employers need to manage their labour force flexibly. In order to achieve this flexibility without creating an unbearable situation for employees, security is the second pillar of the concept. As such, the concept looks like an innovative European way of consolidating economic and social interests, although some argue that much flexibility is gained while the security aspect is being neglected. Flexicurity forms a part of efforts to experiment with new forms of governance in the social and employment law of the European Union. It is compatible with attempts to introduce policies at supranational level that can influence self-transformation processes at the level of Member States in order to reach overarching economic goals defined by the Lisbon agenda. It is central in the debate over the reform of labour law systems since it is a key, if not the key concept in the 2006 Green Paper on modernising labour law in the European Union. The concept has been successfully adopted in some European countries, notably Denmark and the Netherlands. The experience in these two countries will thus be described in some detail, followed by a review of flexicurity-type policies in other European countries. The current paper is realized in the doctoral programme entitled “PhD in economics at the standards

  11. 77 FR 60984 - World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2654-001] World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of World Digital...

  12. Open source marketing: Camel cigarette brand marketing in the "Web 2.0" world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B; Chapman, S

    2009-06-01

    The international trend towards comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising has seen the tobacco industry become increasingly innovative in its approach to marketing. Further fuelling this innovation is the rapid evolution and accessibility of web-based technology. The internet, as a relatively unregulated marketing environment, provides many opportunities for tobacco companies to pursue their promotional ambitions. In this paper, "open source marketing" is considered as a vehicle that has been appropriated by the tobacco industry, through a case study of efforts to design the packaging for the Camel Signature Blends range of cigarettes. Four sources are used to explore this case study including a marketing literature search, a web-based content search via the Google search engine, interviews with advertising trade informants and an analysis of the Camel brand website. RJ Reynolds (RJR) has proven to be particularly innovative in designing cigarette packaging. RJR engaged with thousands of consumers through their Camel brand website to design four new cigarette flavours and packages. While the Camel Signature Blends packaging designs were subsequently modified for the retail market due to problems arising with their cartoon-like imagery, important lessons arise on how the internet blurs the line between marketing and market research. Open source marketing has the potential to exploit advertising ban loopholes and stretch legal definitions in order to generate positive word of mouth about tobacco products. There are also lessons in the open source marketing movement for more effective tobacco control measures including interactive social marketing campaigns and requiring plain packaging of tobacco products.

  13. Branding as a Factor in Increasing the Bank’s Competitiveness in the World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkodinа Iryna V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the branding of banks in the world market for banking services in the context of fierce competition between financial institutions. The stages of brand formation were researched as a basis for building the bank's commodity policy. The main elements of brand to improve the market position of bank have been identified. The indicators for building strong bank brands have been reviewed and the efficiency of the contemporary marketing strategies has been determined. The most efficient innovative marketing strategies for branding are determined (subscription business models, chat bots, e-commerce, digital targeted advertising to improve the market position of bank in today’s environment. The need to develop new internet marketing tools, original and risk projects in order to create efficient content and to excel the competitors. Prospects for further research in this direction is to consider e-commerce as an innovation marketing strategy that should become an integral part of branding.

  14. World uranium supply and demand: The changing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.H.; Mueller Kahle, E.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of uranium supply and demand under the current conditions of this developing global market. While an analysis is possible, it should be borne in mind that available information is not always complete under conditions of major reorganization, and consequently some speculative assessment is required. Therefore, although this article is based on the latest information available, it should be considered as background material for further analysis rather than as an accurate forecast for the future. The level of uncertainty is particularly high regarding the future availability of nuclear materials produced in newly independent States emerging from the former Soviet Union

  15. World market survey: Emerging industrial countries provide the sales opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.; Greenhalgh, G.

    1981-01-01

    The prospects for nuclear power around the world are reviewed. The sharp contrast in attitudes between the Western industrialised countries and developing countries is highlighted. In the West, political uncertainty and economic conditions have retarded implementation of nuclear programmes. The underdeveloped countries, with a desperate need to cut oil consumption and stimulate economic and social development, are persuing nuclear power energetically. Nuclear power programmes from selected countries are described to illustrate these themes. (U.K.)

  16. The world oil market is not one great pool: A reply to Rodriguez and Williams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    In a paper by Rodriguez and Williams (Energy Studies Review, 1993), the case for a single-pool world oil market is put forward. Criticisms of the assumptions and conclusions are offered. To counter the paper's assumption that antitrust is the relevant metric for measuring the extent of geographic markets, it is argued that for energy security policy decisions, it is the economic market which matters. The paper does show that the world oil market is indeed unified in the long run, but this is not relevant to the short term, the relevant time-frame for energy security decisions. The paper's choice of spot market data for its cointegration analysis is also criticized by using several examples of pricing decisions that would not make sense in a unified world market but which do make sense in a regionalized market. It is also unclear how representative spot prices are of the oil market. Finally, the conclusions of the paper that favor policies focusing on secure vs insecure import sources and supplier diversification are seen as unsupported by the paper's statistical findings. 15 refs

  17. Effect of NAFTA, EUMFTA and China addition to WTO on the cucumber world market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Guajardo-Quiroga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically analyzed the potential effects of the complete operation of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, European Union and Mexico Free Trade Agreement (EUMFTA, and the integration of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO, on the cucumber world market. Special emphasis on the impact on Mexico was presented, from a worldwide perspective. A spatial equilibrium model with endogenous prices was constructed for this purpose. Among the findings are: (1 Mexican producers benefited from the complete implementation of NAFTA and EUMFTA. (2 The incorporation of China as a member of the WTO showed a negligible effect on the commercial flows and prices in the cucumber world market. (3 Mexican cucumber production is highly competitive, in the world market, because it has the lowest supply costs.

  18. Competitive electricity markets around the world: approaches to price risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on wholesale electricity markets, and traces the histories of the US and UK power industries. Risk management in the new electricity market is examined covering price risk, location basis risk, volume risk, and margin and cross-commodity risk. Specific competitive market systems that have been implemented around the world including mandatory pools, voluntary pools, and bilateral markets are discussed. Panels describing the functions of ancillary services, electricity price volatility, and the problems of capacity payments and the UK pool are presented

  19. The infrastructure path to a sustainable world market for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, M.C.; Mrohs, M.

    1997-01-01

    As the markets for photovoltaics grow and become more main stream, customers and financing institutions will increasingly require assurances of design, installation, and maintenance competency and professionalism. This can either evolve as a large number of uncoordinated and dissimilar local and regional regulations, or may be developed within a common framework that ensures quality, continuity, and transportability, reducing the ultimate burden of compliance on designers and installers. This paper is a summary of the issues confronting efforts to develop industry standards, current efforts to develop global standards for systems hardware and training, and projections for the phased development of these quality programs for the photovoltaics industry. The paper also discusses the impact of such a standardization program on access to financing and the impact on the creation of local, sustainable jobs

  20. Challenging OPEC: World oil market projections, 1992-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Considine, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A number of alternatives to the scenario of continued OPEC cooperation and adherence to a low price/ high volume market strategy favoured by Saudi Arabia, were examined. The strategy of continued solidarity in support of a stable price path was considered to be ultimately most favorable to all OPEC members, however, there were two uncertainties to contend with: (1) the speed and timing of recovery of both production and product demand within the former Soviet Union, and (2) the outcome of the energy-economy-environment debate in which the international community was engaged. The study showed that OPEC could find itself caught in the vise of rising product prices and weak or declining crude prices, a situation from which it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to extricate itself. figs., tabs., refs

  1. Geopolitics of petroleum. A new market. New risks. New worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestrange, C. de; Paillard, Ch.A.; Zelenko, P.

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this book is to shade light on a complex world in complete evolution, the stakes of which for today's societies being proportional to the energy and economical importance of petroleum. The big petroleum fear of consuming countries and the reactions linked with oil shocks are now old stories. The producing countries are today at least as vulnerable to price variations and fluxes restrictions as the consumers of developed countries. Two countries, USA and Saudi Arabia, and one organisation, the OPEC, play a key role in the regulation of this system, the equilibrium of which is now threatened by the reinforcement of preoccupations like environment and human rights protection. New challenges occur: the increase of demand, the concentration of offer, some technological changes that would limit the petroleum needs in the future, and the increasing insecurity of key oil-producing regions. At a shorter term, the geopolitical context of Middle-East is the most worrying. (J.S.)

  2. Uranium-world reserves and the trend of the world market price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijadi, Soetjipto

    1980-01-01

    Theoritically the reserves of uranium can be said to be unlimited, since it is a very common commodity and it is found in almost every kind of rock. The geochemical abundance of U is similar to Sn, around 1 p.p.m. Before the year 1973 the price of uranium was very stable because for 20 years the commercial uranium market history could be described only two price phases. (author)

  3. The Development of Petroleum Refining in the World Market Dimensions of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Shapran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of petroleum refining in the world market dimensions of sustainable development investigated by the author's interpretation of the OECD model "pressure – state – response", where the pressure parameters proposed use – CO2 emissions, the state parameters – indicators of output and foreign trade refining sector; indicators to community response – (GDP eco-intensity. On the basis of economic and mathematical modeling performed of the adaptation and their value for use in the model parameters, performed a quantitative assessment of the relationship between the key requirements for sustainable development and development of the world petroleum refining market. This approach gave to perform a quantitative assessment of the level and impact of individual factors on the development of world petroleum market in countries with different technological structures.

  4. A review of the world market of indium (Economy of indium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the current state of the world and Russian markets of indium and indium-containing products was made based on the publications of the last years. Main fields of indium application are given, in particular, its using for neutron absorbing regulating rods in nuclear reactors. The second γ-radiation resulted from neutron absorption allows using indium as a neutron detector. Indium market stabilization is expected due to supply from China and South Korea [ru

  5. TOURISM MARKETING - KEY CONCEPT OF TOURISM IN A WORLD OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA Ana-Maria; CRETOIU Raluca Ionela

    2012-01-01

    The latest trends in tourism emphasize the power of the globalized tourist-consumer, in the context of mondialisation of the market and of the diversity of tourism services, the tourism organizations must answer to a range of different tourism motivations meant to meet the needs and wishes of the tourism consumers over the period they travel for. Tourism marketing is a result of globalization, since, just like the globalization process, it creates links between the states of the world, the au...

  6. International wind energy development. World market update 2006. Forecast 2007-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    The report covers development in the international wind power market during 2006 and the new Forecast until 2011. Furthermore a long term Prediction is made up to 2016. With 15,016 MW of new installations, the total installed capacity of wind power grew to around 74,300 MW. This was an increase in cumulative installation of 25%. Looking at the annual installation of 15,016 MW there was an increase of 30%. This is on top of a 2005 growth of 42%. The key figures for development during 2006 were: a) 15,016 MW of newly installed wind power capacity. b)Cumulative installed capacity by the end of 2006 reached 74,306 MW, consisting of around 10,600 wind turbines dispersed in 36 countries. c) Europe maintained its role as the largest wind power continent. 51% of all new installation in 2006 took place in Europe. d) The Americas had a record year thanks to the development in the US, where 2,454 MW of new capacity was added. The reason is the PTC (Production Tax Credit) in the US market in force again and will be so until end of 2008. The Americas accounted for 23.4% of the world's installation in 2006. e) Asia showed significant growth. Including OECD Pacific, Asia doubled its installation, from 7,890 MW in 2005 to 11.601 MW by the end of 2006. India was by far the leading country, with 1,840 MW of new capacity in 2006. China also showed strong progress, with almost 1,334 MW of new installation. The region as a whole accounted for 24.7% of the year's world wide total. f) Among the Top Ten markets USA maintained its position as largest market in 2006. Germany, the world's largest market for a decade, increased its installation from 2005 to installing 2.233 MW, after three year on decline. It is, however, enough to maintain their position as no. 2 market in the world. France and Portugal showed remarkable growth. Spain is still No.2 market in Europe, with 1,587 MW of new installation. g) Penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply reached 0.82% by the end of

  7. Market structure, excess capacity and price movement: implications for the world oil market in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwayemi, A.

    1992-01-01

    World Oil Market developments, since the second half of the 1980s, have demonstrated again the conventional wisdom in economics that competitive production and pricing strategies have among producers, when the industry is characterized by significant excess capacity, in exerting strong downward pressure on the price. The magnitude and speed of the price falls depends not only on the size and utilization of the available excess capacity, but also on the perception of the markets as regards the degree of the imbalance between demand and supply. The impact of output competition on oil revenues in the short run depends on the magnitude of the price elasticity of demand. The most vivid illustration of this phenomenon is captured by the experience of 1986, when competition for market share among oil producers, despite the existence of about 20 per cent excess capacity, culminated in a sharp drop in price, with only a marginal improvement in demand. (author)

  8. The behavior of hake prices in Chile: is the world market leading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Quezada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed price determination throughout the Chilean hake market chain. To analyze the relationship between different prices participating in this chain, a VECM model was successfully estimated. One cointegration vector was identified. Tests for weak exogenous variables, causality, and significance of different variables were performed, and a parsimonious version of the model was selected. The results obtained in this paper outline a price determination process that, in the end, is governed by world market conditions. Moreover, the diverse links in the hake market chain seem to be well integrated, which implies that there is little room for domestic price determination.

  9. Modelling the world oil market: Assessment of a quarterly econometric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dees, Stephane; Karadeloglou, Pavlos; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Sanchez, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structural econometric model of the world oil market that can be used to analyse oil market developments and risks. Oil demand depends on domestic economic activity and the real price of oil. Oil supply for non-OPEC producers, based on competitive behaviours, is constrained by geological and institutional conditions. Oil prices are determined by a 'price rule' that includes market conditions and OPEC behaviour. Policy simulations indicate that oil demand and non-OPEC supply are rather inelastic to changes in price, while OPEC decisions about quota and capacity utilisation have a significant, immediate impact on oil prices

  10. Effect of NAFTA, EUMFTA and China addition to WTO on the cucumber world market

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Guajardo-Quiroga

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically analyzed the potential effects of the complete operation of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), European Union and Mexico Free Trade Agreement (EUMFTA), and the integration of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO), on the cucumber world market. Special emphasis on the impact on Mexico was presented, from a worldwide perspective. A spatial equilibrium model with endogenous prices was constructed for this purpose. Among the findings are: (1) Mexican produce...

  11. Prof. Wu Xiaoqiu:China Is Striving for the World's Most Developed Capital Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Zhang Yue

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's capital market is a hot issue in the new year. The best strategy to develop the Chinese capital market in the coming 15 to 20 years was discussed in the China Capital Market Forum, which was held in China at Renmin University on January 13. Government officials, scholars, and entrepreneurs commented that by 2020, the Chinese capital market will develop into one of the best capital markets in the world,not only in terms of size, but also asset quality, liquidity and dynamic trade. Is this a realistic goal? What steps should we take to pursue this target? With these questions in mind, after the forum, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Prof. Wu Xiaoqiu, Vice President of Renmin University of China,and the Director of the Finance & Securities Institute of Renmin University.

  12. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  13. A New World for Museum Marketing? Facing the Old Dilemmas while Challenging New Market Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Komarac

    2014-01-01

    Museums are part of a wider cultural and entertainment environment, which is ruled by highly demanding visitors who seek immersive experiences (edutainment) and time-saving arrangement. This has encouraged and, in some opinions, forced museums to turn their focus from collections to visitors. In addition, museums have faced competition and new technologies in the form of virtual museums and virtual reality. This has emphasized the need to accept marketing as a survival tool and to make it int...

  14. Volatility spillover from world oil spot markets to aggregate and electricity stock index returns in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soytas, Ugur; Oran, Adil

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the inter-temporal links between world oil prices, ISE 100 and ISE electricity index returns unadjusted and adjusted for market effects. The traditional approaches could not detect a causal relationship running from oil returns to any of the stock returns. However, when we examine the causality using Cheung-Ng approach we discover that world oil prices Granger cause electricity index and adjusted electricity index returns in variance, but not the aggregate market index returns. Hence, our results show that the Cheung-Ng procedure with the use of disaggregated stock index returns can uncover new information that went unnoticed with the traditional causality tests using aggregated market indices. (author)

  15. A unified world oil market: Regions in physical, economic, geographic, and political space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Banerjee, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus that the market is unified, here we quantify the factors that create regions by analyzing the price relation between 33 crude oils. ADF statistics indicate that 447 of the 528 crude oil pairings cointegrate; 81 do not. The presence/absence of cointegration is analyzed using a logit model. The likelihood that the prices for two crude oils cointegrate depends on their physical characteristics (density and sulfur content), economic factors (country risk for the nation of origin), their geographic location (distance between supply ports), and political factors (OPEC membership). Over the sample period, the technology to refine heavy crude oils penetrates the market, and this reduces the price difference between heavy and light crude oils. The effect of country risk implies that crude oils from high risk nations are not perfect substitutes for crude oils of similar quality from low risk nations. Finally, crude oils from widely separated suppliers are more likely to cointegrate than crude oils from near-by nations, which suggests consumers diversify supply across transportation chokepoints. For this sample, these sources of regionalization add $0.20 per barrel to the $2.86 average price difference between crude oils in the same market. Together, these factors have important implications for the efficacy of policy aimed at reducing dependence on unreliable suppliers and the spill-over effects of holding inventories. - Highlights: • The world oil market is not completely unified. • Regions are defined by differences in API gravity and sulfur content. • Country risk regionalizes the world oil market. • Shipping chokepoints regionalize the world oil market. • Regionalization adds $0.20 to $2.86 price difference between oils in same market

  16. Universal and nonuniversal allometric scaling behaviors in the visibility graphs of world stock market indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Mengcen; Jiang Zhiqiang; Zhou Weixing

    2010-01-01

    The investigations of financial markets from a complex network perspective have unveiled many phenomenological properties, in which the majority of these studies map the financial markets into one complex network. In this work, we investigate 30 world stock market indices through their visibility graphs by adopting the visibility algorithm to convert each single stock index into one visibility graph. A universal allometric scaling law is uncovered in the minimal spanning trees, whose scaling exponent is independent of the stock market and the length of the stock index. In contrast, the maximal spanning trees and the random spanning trees do not exhibit universal allometric scaling behaviors. There are marked discrepancies in the allometric scaling behaviors between the stock indices and the Brownian motions. Using surrogate time series, we find that these discrepancies are caused by the fat-tailedness of the return distribution and the nonlinear long-term correlation.

  17. The costs of climate policies in a second best world with labour market imperfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarch, C.; Crassous, R.; Sassi, O.; Hallegatte, St.

    2009-09-01

    This article explores the critical role of labour market imperfections in climate stabilisation costs formation. To do so, we use a dynamic recursive energy-economy model that represents a second best world with market imperfections and short-run adjustments constraints along a long-term growth path. We show that the degree of rigidity of the labour markets is a central parameter and we conduct a systematic sensitivity analysis of the model results to this parameter. When labour markets are represented as highly flexible, the model results are in the usual range of existing literature, i.e. less than 2% GDP losses in 2030 for a stabilisation target at 450 ppm CO 2 equivalent, But when labour markets rigidities are accounted for, mitigation costs increase dramatically. In a second time, the article identifies accompanying measures, namely labour subsidies, which guarantees against the risk of large stabilisation costs in the case of high rigidities of the labour markets. That vision complements the usual view that mitigation is a long-term matter that depends on technology, innovation, investment and behavioural change. Here we add the warning that mitigation is also a shorter-term issue and a matter of transition on the labour market. (authors)

  18. International wind energy development. World market update 2012. Forecast 2013-2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The BTM wind report, World Market Update 2012, published by Navigant Research, is the eighteenth edition of this annual wind energy market report. The report includes more than 80 tables, charts and graphs illustrating global wind market development, as well as a wind market forecast for 2013?2017 and highlighted trends for the wind market through 2022. The report delivers several views on the fast?growing wind market, including: 1) More than 285 GW of wind power now installed globally; 2) 45GW of new capacity added in 2012, including 1.1 GW from offshore wind; 3) The United States surpassed China as the largest market in terms of new installations in 2012; 4) Europe lost its position as the largest world region in terms of new installations; 5) Wind installations in the Americas grew by 12.3 percent compared with 2011; 6) Big shake?up in the top ten wind turbine supplier ranking; 7) Strong Chinese presence among top 15 wind owner?operators; 8) Wind market structures continue to evolve; 9) The penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply has reached 2.62 percent; 10) Offshore wind more than doubled the capacity added in 2011, with more than 4 GW currently under construction. With the addition of 44,951 MW in new installations in 2012, world wind power capacity grew to around 285,700 MW, an increase in the total wind power installation base of 18.6 percent. Market growth year-over-year in 2012, though a modest 7.8 percent, was still higher than in 2011. Average annual growth for the past five years has been 17.8 percent, achieved during the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, with traditionally large markets for wind power in economic recession in America and Europe. The wind power industry continues to demonstrate its ability to rapidly evolve to meet new demands in markets that face a variety of challenges. The focus on product diversification grows with wind turbine vendors designing machines for maximum energy production in low wind speed

  19. 75 FR 57016 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2522-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...-referenced proceeding of Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  20. Transfer of Labour Time on the World Market: Religious Sanctions and Economic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Sandemose

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which a term like “globalization”, especially in its sense of implying the existence of a system, or of dominant features favouring development towards some system, is adaptable to a theory of a world economy which is to take due notice of the structure of the exchange value of commodities on the world market. A leading idea is that religious outlooks, in the way they were conceptualized by Karl Marx, have a strong bearing upon the difference in labour intensities in countries contributing to the world market, and thereby upon the differences in international values and prices. These differences are expressed in a scale-based, rigid structure on the world market itself—a structure which gives us the fundamental reason why certain specific countries or areas may get steadily poorer in relative terms, while others may constantly get relatively richer through the same mechanism. Consequently, when (as it is done here religion is taken to express the quintessence of the cultural level of societies, it can be said that the comparative study of religions gives us a key to the understanding of crucial economic differences between nations. The differences in question are primarily those prevailing between capitalist societies on the one hand, and non-capitalist, or what is here called patrimonial societies, on the other.

  1. Strategies for OPEC's pricing decisions. [Using model of world energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gately, D; Kyle, J F; Fischer, D

    1977-11-01

    A model of the world energy market that incorporates price expectations and lagged adjustments of demand and supply is used to examine implications of various price-paths that could be selected by OPEC. After demonstrating the sensitivity of the results to changes in functional specifications and certain parameter values, the authors discuss a variety of rule-of-thumb pricing strategies under which OPEC sets prices in response to available market signals. A strategy that is relatively cautious about further major price increases serves OPEC relatively well in comparison with other stategies, but there exists a real possibility of major, abrupt price increases within the next ten years.

  2. Design considerations of the World Bank-assisted $55 million photovoltaic market development project in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabraal, A.; Bradley, J.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank's first loan for photovoltaic (PV) power systems was approved on December 17, 1992. The $55-million project will offer concessional financing through the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) for the purchase of PV systems. The objective of the PV Market Development Project is to encourage the establishment of sustainable product supply, delivery, after-sales service, and financing mechanisms to support marketing PV products on a commercial basis. This paper outlines the issues and steps involved in the project design including: (1) technical viability, (2) financial and economic viability, (3) infrastructure issues, and (4) the economic and financial viability of the project as a whole

  3. Chinese and world equity markets : A review of the volatilities and correlations in the first fifteen years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Kuan Pin; Menkveld, Albert J.; Yang, Zhishu

    2009-01-01

    After more than 15 years of Chinese equity markets, we study how variance, covariance, and correlations have developed in these markets relative to world markets, based on the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) model of Engle [Engle, R., 2002. A dynamic conditional correlation: A simple class of

  4. Neoliberalism revised? A critical account of World Bank conceptions of good governance and market friendly intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, R

    1998-01-01

    This article examines recent World Bank reports on the role of the state in the development process, with particular reference to the rise of the East Asian newly industrializing countries and the crisis of "governance" in sub-Saharan Africa. The concepts of market friendly intervention and good governance are critically discussed, and are found to be inadequate as explanations for East Asian "success" and African "failure." The author presents an alternative explanation for the rise of the newly industrializing countries, which draws out some of the implications for the developing world.

  5. International wind energy development. World market update 1998. Forecast 1999-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This is the fourth issue of the annual World Market Update from BTM Consult ApS, covering the year 1998. All figures in the status part refer to end of the year 1998, the past 3 years development is also assessed and the forecast looks 5 years ahead. The most significant figures and trends in 1998 were: The marketplace - The annual installation of new wind power capacity increased by 55% resulting in a cumulative installation by the end of 1998 of 10.153 MW. 1.766 MW was installed in Europe and the region is still the leading market regarding utilization of wind energy. The US market took a rapid pace and installed 577 MW during the year. The large Enron Wind Corp has taken the larger part of this market. On the supply side Danish NEG Micon A/S has consolidated the position as being the supplier of the most MW wind capacity in the world and the company has a world market share of 23,5 per cent. The company acquired the Danish Wind World af 1997 A/S which was among the larger companies in 1997. Also the Dutch manufacturer NedWind B.V. was acquired by NEG Micon A/S curing 1998. The group of 'other' manufactureres represents a minor percentage of deliveries than earlier and concentration in the industry seems to continue. The liberalized Energy Market and how to position the industry in this different economic environment will be a challenge for the wind industry way into the next century. In Europe, the European Commission's draft Directive with proposal for an outline of common rules for support of among other renewables wind energy has been set on another route which seems to delay the paper. In the US there are still hopes for a new period with PTC (Production Tax Credit). There are in some States hopes among the wind energy people that the 'Green Market Programs' will play a more dominant role in the future. In Asia the crises seems to halt the wind power development. Forecast and Technical trends - Based on the positive trends in the markets for wind power

  6. International wind energy development. World market update 2002. Forecast 2003-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report highlights the development of the international wind power market during 2002 and the new forecast up to 2007. The data presented includes both supply side and demand side information. With 7,227 MW of new installations the total installed capacity of wind power grew to over 32,000 MW. This is the highest figure ever in a single year. The growth rate of 6% over 2001, however, was the lowest since 1996. In spite of this modest figure, the average growth rate over the past five years (from 1997) has been much higher, at 35.7%, and last year's record growth (2001 over 2000) was 52%. The key features of development during 2002 were: 7,227 MW new installed wind power; cumulative installed capacity by the end of 2002 had reached 32,037 MW, consisting of around 61,500 wind turbines dispersed over more than 40 countries; A major share of new installations took place in Europe, with 85.4% of the total. Germany accounted for 53% of the European total; America fell back form its peak level of 1,745 MW in 2001 to a modest 494 MW in 2002, with the majority installed in the USA; Development in Asia was lower than in 2001; Of the emerging markets in the Far East/Pacific, China and Australia were the only two markets to show growth over 2001; The Top Ten markets in the world are headed by Germany, Spain, Denmark and the USA. Newcomers to the Top Ten markets ranking were Australia and the Netherlands; In terms of cumulative installation, the German market passed the 10,000 MW milestone and is by far the largest market in the world. There were 12,000 MW installed in Germany by end of 2002. Spain became No. 2 with 5,042 MW; Penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply had reached 0.4% by end of 2002. Ten of the world's roughly 25 suppliers of wind turbines are responsible for more than 90% of total supply in the global market. This trend is continuing, with the Top Ten manufacturers in 2002 delivering 95% of the total record installation. Vestas Wind

  7. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin Salleh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1 could be detected in 56 (68.2% samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2 in 35 (42.6% samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3 in 26 (31.7% samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg.

  8. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R. N.; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg). PMID:22069576

  9. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in stored wheat grains marketed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R N; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-12-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F.verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15-155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12-86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13-64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg).

  10. The nuclear fuel elements' world market and the position of the Argentine Republic as producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondo, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the nuclear fuel elements' industry is analyzed, both in the present and projected world market, up to the year 2000, in the light of the situation affecting the nucleoelectric industry. By means of the offer/demand function, an analysis is made of the behaviour of the fuel elements' market throughout the fuel cycle structure. The regional unbalances between availability and demand of uranium resources are considered, as well as the factors having an unfavorable incidence on the fuel cycle's economic equation. The economic structure to be used for the calculation of the nucleoelectric generating cost is presented, in order to situate, within said nuclear economy, the component corresponding to the fuel cycle cost. Emphasis is placed on the 'front end' stages of the fuel cycle, but also considering those stages belonging to the 'back end'. Argentina's fuel elements market and its present and projected nucleoelectric park are analyzed, indicating their relative position in the world market. (R.J.S.) [es

  11. A theory of planning horizons (1: market design in a post-neoclassical world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic B. Jennings, Jr.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The neoclassical case supporting competitive frames and market solutions has failed to promote stable world-wide economic development. Other approaches in economics incorporate social culture, increasing returns, market power, ecological limits and complementarity, yielding broader applications for development theory. In this paper a theory of planning horizons is introduced to raise some meaningful questions about the traditional view with respect to its substitution, decreasing returns and independence assumptions. Suppositions of complementarity, increasing returns and interdependence suggest that competition is inefficient by upholding a myopic culture resistant to learning. Growth – though long believed to rise from markets and competitive values – may not derive from these sources. Instead, as civilizations advance, shifting from material wants to higher-order intangible output, they evolve from market tradeoffs (substitution and scarcity into realms of common need (complementarity and abundance. The policy implications of horizonal theory are explored, with respect to regulatory aims and economic concerns. Such an approach emphasizes strict constraints against entry barriers, ecological harm, market power abuse and ethical lapses. Social cohesion – not competition – is sought as a means to extend horizons and thereby increase efficiency, equity and ecological health. The overriding importance of horizon effects for regulatory assessment dominates other orthodox standards in economics and law. Reframing economics along horizonal lines suggests some meaningful insight on the proper design of economic systems.

  12. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ''more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison

  13. International wind energy development. World market update 2010. Forecast 2011-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    This is the sixteenth edition of the annual World Market Update produced by BTM Consult ApS - a part of Navigant Consulting, and covers developments in the wind energy sector during 2010. As in previous editions, the report also assesses important changes over the last three years and forecasts progress for five years ahead. The special topic in this year's WMU is a review of Direct-Drive concept versus traditional Drive Train with gearbox. The global market for wind power produced a record for new installations in 2010 of 39.4 GW installed capacity, however, with a much lower growth rate than in the period 2005 to 2009. The rapid increase in the rate of installations in both Asia and the US was already clear in 2008-09. That trend has continued in China but the US experienced a significant slow-down in 2010. Europe stayed relatively stable - old markets stagnated but new emerging markets grew. Another new reality is that most of the world's manufacturing of wind turbines now takes place in China. Companies producing wind turbines there have experienced an explosive rate of growth. As a result four Chinese companies are among the world's Top Ten turbine manufacturers. An inevitable impact of this shift is that the market shares of the traditional industry leaders from the US and Europe have decreased significantly with Vestas and Siemens as exception in 2010. At the same time a rapid expansion of manufacturing capacity by European turbine makers has taken place in the US. Europe contributed 29.9% of the newly added capacity - 10,920 MW - taking the continent's total wind power generation capacity to 87,565 MW. The growth in Asia's markets has once again been staggering. With 21,130 MW of new installations, South and East Asia accounted for 53.6% of the global total in 2010.China was the major contributor, with 18,928 MW of new capacity, 37% over that of 2009. In terms of cumulative installed wind power, China surpassed the US in 2010, with

  14. Why the developing world is the perfect market place for solid state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christoph; Platonova, Inna; Doluweera, Ganesh; Irvine-Halliday, Dave

    2008-08-01

    Much has been written about the daily challenge for survival faced by countless millions of developing world families and the overdeveloped world has offered a number of solutions by which those at the base of the economic pyramid (BOP) can help themselves. Light Up The World (LUTW), the global leader in bringing Renewable Energy (RE) based Solid State Lighting (SSL) to the developing world, offers yet another solution, and one that comes with a very high probability of success. In this paper we discuss: the critical role played by micro credit (banking for the poor); a typical example of a developing world community and their lighting needs and expenditures; how SSL can contribute positively to all eight of the Millennium Development Goals; the micro and macroeconomics of SSL at the BOP, its numerous societal benefits and its potential perverse outcomes; and thought there will always be a role for the donation based model, it is only through the market model that safe, healthy and affordable SSL will reach the majority of the BOP, such are the staggering numbers involved. LUTW's fundamental goal, through the facilitation of RE based SSL, is to improve the quality of life of those, who through no fault of their own, find themselves trapped in a cycle of poverty.

  15. Contraceptive social marketing in the third world: a case of multiple transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, R

    1991-01-01

    A researcher conducted a case study of the Family Planning Social Marketing Project (FPSMP) in Bangladesh between 1974-1987 to point out the irreducible qualitative differences between the commercial and social contexts and between the developed and developing world. The research consisted of interviews with chief personnel of the technical assistance contractor Population Services International (PSI), project documentation, a review of marketing principles and methods, and summary reports on contraceptive social marketing projects in various countries. FPSMP, a vertical marketing organization, marketed 3 condom brands, 2 oral contraceptive brands, and 1 vaginal foam tablet. At least 70% of the advertising budget was allocated for conventional media (television [TV], radio, and newspapers), even though the poor and illiterate target population did not own a radio or TV and could not read a newspaper. In fact, conventional media were basically accessible to the urban elite. A PSI leader defended the use of conventional media because opinion leaders (urban elite) exert considerable influence on the population so they must receive the family planning messages in order to support family planning. Yet this assumption had not been tested, but was based on the experience of technical assistance contractors from previous projects in developing countries. Moreover, FPSMP based acceptability of message content on the elite's definition and not on the definition of the target group. Its information strategy included emphasis on the sales indicator and the creation of positive product associations while downplaying information about side effects and contraindications. This indicated that FPSMP did not consider client health and well being as important. Another issue was the need to satisfy USAID and the government. More research on other social marketing projects is needed.

  16. International wind energy development. World market update 2009. Forecast 2010-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    This is the fifteenth edition of the annual World Market Update produced by BTM Consult ApS, and covers developments in the wind energy sector during 2009. As in previous editions, the report also assesses important changes over the last three years and forecasts progress for five years ahead. The special topic in this year's WMU is an evaluation of the aftermath of the COP-15 climate change negotiations in relation to future wind power development. The global market for wind power not only produced a record for new installations in 2009 of 38 GW installed capacity, it also created a new order in the balance of international wind power. The rapid increase in the rate of installations in both Asia and the US was already clear in 2008; that trend has continued at a faster pace in 2009. By far the largest number of new wind projects were seen in the US and China. Another new reality is that most of the world's manufacturing of wind turbines now takes place in China. As a result three Chinese companies are among the world's top ten turbine manufacturers. At the same time a rapid expansion of manufacturing capacity by European turbine makers has taken place in the US. Europe contributed 28.2% of the newly added capacity - 10,738 MW - taking the continent's total wind power generation capacity to 76,553 MW. The growth in Asia's markets has once again been staggering. With 14,991 MW of new installations, South and East Asia accounted for 39.4% of the global total in 2009. China was the major contributor, with 13,750 MW of new capacity, more than double that installed in 2008. In terms of cumulative installed wind power, the US is still the world leader, with 35,159 MW. China overtook Germany with a margin of less than 50 MW. China now has a total of 25,853 MW, followed by Germany's 25,813 MW. A new world order in wind power has become a reality. The forecast released in this WMU shows an average growth rate of 13.5% for the period 2010

  17. References in the Digital Age: Marketing and Services in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia-Luciana Porumbeanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The digital age has brought major changes at the level of the reference services offered by libraries. The emergence of competition, represented by numerous organizations that also provide information services, has necessitated the reorganization of reference services so that they function according to the market laws. In this context marketing has become an essential tool for libraries. They must develop strategies to make sure that users will continue to ask for their services. The number of those attracted to online information services is growing and many traditional users of libraries may be encountered at present in virtual environments where the possibilities for communication and interaction, for sharing information and generating knowledge are clearly better. Many libraries have already taken the step towards the virtual world and offer now assistance and information services in environments such as Second Life where there are possible both games and educational activities.

  18. Production, inventories and HEU in the world uranium market: Production's vital role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyses recent uranium supply and demand relationship and projects supply through 2010. The extremely depressed record low market prices have led to the ongoing annual inventory drawdown of over 25,000 t U resulting from the current 45% world production shortfall. The policy of the European Union and anti-dumping related activities in the USA are restricting imports of uranium from CIS producers to a majority of the world's nuclear utilities. These factors are reducing low priced uranium supply and forcing buyers to again obtain more of their requirements from producers. It discusses how the sale of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) produced from of 550 t High Enriched Uranium (HEU) from Russia and Ukraine could potentially supply about 15% of world requirements through 2010. However, legislation currently being developed by the US Congress may ration the sale of this material, extending the LEU supply well into the next century. Nuclear generation capacity and its uranium requirements are projected to grow at about 1.5% through 2010. Demand for new uranium purchases is however, increasing at the much higher rate of 25-30% over the next 10-15 years. This increasing demand in the face of decreasing supply is resulting in a market recovery in which the spot price for non-CIS produced uranium has risen over 25% since October 1994. Prices will continue to increase as the market equilibrium shifts from a balance with alternative excess low priced supply to an equilibrium between production and demand. 19 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Alcohol marketing in the Americas and Spain during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Feulner, Melissa; Vendrame, Alan; Monteiro, Maristela

    2017-01-01

    To identify the nature of visual alcohol references in alcohol advertisements during televised broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament matches and to evaluate cross-national differences according to alcohol marketing policy restrictiveness. Content analysis using the Delphi method and identification of in-game sponsorships. Television broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Finland, France, Mexico, Spain and the United States. Eighty-seven alcohol advertisements; 20 matches. Quantitative rating scales, combined with the Delphi rating technique, were used to determine compliance of the alcohol advertisements with the International Alliance for Responsible Drinking's (IARD) Guiding Principles. Recordings of five matches from four countries were also used to identify the number of in- and out-of-game alcohol brand appearances. A total of 86.2% of all unique alcohol advertisements contained at least one violation of IARD's Guiding Principles, with violation rates ranging from 72.7% (Mexico) to 100% (Brazil). Countries with the least restrictive marketing policies had a higher prevalence of violations in guidelines designed to protect minors. There were 2.76 in-game alcohol brand appearances and 0.83 out-of-game alcohol brand appearances per minute. Brand appearances did not differ across countries or according to a country's marketing policy restrictiveness. Self-regulation and statutory policies were ineffective at limiting alcohol advertising during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament television broadcasts. Most advertisements contained content that violated the self-regulation codes, and there were high levels of within-broadcast brand appearances. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Is “economic freedom” strictly free market capitalism? A decompositional analysis of the Economic Freedom of the World index

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Joseph N

    2009-01-01

    The Frasier Institute’s Economic Freedom of the World is often taken as a metric of market capitalism. This paper argues that the index is an amalgam of measures capturing free markets and good governance, and analysts should remain cognizant of this conceptual conflation when using the index to develop policy prescriptions. Implicitly, the “economic freedom” literature suggests that countries embrace an “Anglo-Swiss” policy model, although the rich world offers alternative models that maximi...

  1. Present supply and demand on the world uranium market and decision of the nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luqing

    1994-01-01

    The present supply and demand relationship on the world uranium market due to the change of international situation in the last years is described and the falling price on the world uranium market is estimated. It is pointed out that the falling price would continue for a long time. Based on it the three different policy decisions on the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed

  2. How to develop a world class electrical utility for the free markets of electrical energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, J.E.; Takala, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electricity distribution in Finland is going to the new stage where the electrical energy market will be gradually free from competition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of the world class utility. A feasibility study was made to research the condition in logistics and suitable methods for the implementation. Some ideas have been piloted to verify and find acceptable approaches of the implementation to practice. Utilities improved the cost efficiency and strategical business logistics in a customer oriented and flexible way. The methods and findings can be used on other public and industrial areas, too

  3. A Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of the Ising Financial Markets Model with Small World Topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ang-Hui; Li Xiao-Wen; Su Gui-Feng; Zhang Yi

    2015-01-01

    We present a multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) of the time series of return generated by our recently-proposed Ising financial market model with underlying small world topology. The result of the MFDFA shows that there exists obvious multifractal scaling behavior in produced time series. We compare the MFDFA results for original time series with those for shuffled series, and find that its multifractal nature is due to two factors: broadness of probability density function of the series and different correlations in small- and large-scale fluctuations. This may provide new insight to the problem of the origin of multifractality in financial time series. (paper)

  4. The instability of world oil market and its impact on economic development: Indonesia's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patmosukismo, S.

    1991-01-01

    The world oil market has been characterized by fluctuating prices which have a direct impact on the world economy. If the world oil price rises in real terms, upstream activities become more attractive to producers, and if the price declines, downstream opportunities become more attractive. The world oil market is currently determined not only by producers and consumers, but also by the futures trade. In addition, the elasticity of oil prices has increased since the 1970s through competition among producers and competition from other energy sources. The Asia Pacific countries are experiencing rapid economic growth, and are thus heavily dependent on oil, but generally have small reserves. Their reserves/production ratio is ca 20 years, with a major share coming from China and Indonesia. The current situation of tight and inadequate supply may increase the region's dependence on Middle East sources. The effects of the three recent major oil crises on the Asia Pacific countries are reviewed and the role of oil and gas in Indonesia's economic development is described. Export earnings from oil and gas represent a major share of total Indonesian export revenues, and taxes and receipts from oil companies continue to be the largest receipts in Indonesian government revenues. Slow changes in the primary fuel mix and high growth in domestic consumption may turn Indonesia into a net oil importer before the year 2000. A major effort to decrease domestic oil consumption has been implemented by using natural gas and coal in the power generation sector. On the supply side, recoverable oil and gas reserves of 50 billion bbl and 200 trillion ft 3 respectively may be present but their development depends on the investment scheme of the continuing exploration program

  5. International wind energy development. World market update 1997. Forecast 1998-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This is the third issue of the annual World Market Update from BTM Consult ApS, covering the year 1997. All figures in the status part refer to end of the year 1997, the past 3 years development is also assessed and the forecast looks 5 years ahead. The annual installation of new wind power capacity increased by 21% resulting in a cumulative installation by the end of 1997 of 7,636 MW. Approx. 84% of the new capacity (1,566 MW), was installed in Europe emphasizing this region as the leading market regarding utilisation of wind energy. India remains halted (since 1996) and it has been very difficult to get reliable figures from this market. The US market is still very slow, but some very big projects are under construction. The first two years of the five year forecast has been adjusted downwards compared to forecast presented last year. The main reason is due to the economic situation in Asia. The cumulative MW in the five year forecast shows a slight increase compared to last years 5 year forecast, justified by higher expectations to other markets. The surprising pace in the commercialization of MW-turbines and their projected use for offshore applications few years ahead is assessed in the report. A total of 129 turbines of 1-1.65 MW are already in operation - most of them in Germany. On the international arena it is expected, that the wind power development will gain benefits from the Kyoto-Protocol (December 1997) and the 'White Paper' from the EU commission, although it will take some years to transfer these political targets into operational schemes. This report can be found on Internet Web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  6. International wind energy development. World market update 2001. Forecast 2002-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    In the year 2001, the wind power development took another major step forward. Installed capacity set a new record with the addition of 6,824 MW of new generating capacity. This is 2,329 MW more than the record set in year 2000. Growth in new capacity is up from 15% in year 2000 to 52% in 2001. This confirmed that the trend of wind energy being the preferred technology over other technologies for new generating capacity is continuing. Europe is the leading region for wind power. Of the new capacity added in 2001, 4,527 MW was installed in Europe. Germany once more shows this country's potential as the single most active market with the installation of 2,627 MW in new capacity, nearly 1,000 MW more than in the previous year. Germany consolidated its position as the world's leading developer of wind energy. The market in the US is once again the second largest wind energy market ahead of Spain. The expiration of the PTC at the end of the year 2001 gave some rush in the installation at the end of the year. The Danish market is on a deroute and lost pace completely in a changed political climate which means that the development of windpower is slowing down. Denmark has a very high penetration of windpower. On the supplier side Vestas Wind Systems A/S maintained its position as being the world's largest manufacturer of wind turbines. Vestas Wind Systems is now followed by Enercon GmbH. Without counting the US market figures Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Enercon has become the very closed in terms of sold MW. In the 3rd place is the Danish company NEG Micon A/S. Newcomers in the Top Ten list are Mitsubishi (JP) and REpower (GE). The most significant technological trend in the market is the continuing upscaling of machines. From year 2001 the average size of WTGs is 915 kW (in 2000: 800kW). In the very near future there will be erected wind turbines mainly dedicated for the upcoming offshore market of 4.5-5.0 MW. On Offshore there is only 10 MW installed during the year 2001

  7. Recent Trends in the World Gas Market: Economical, Geopolitical and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Toscano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is considered by energy experts to be the most promising fossil fuel for the 21st century, and as a matter of fact, the International Energy Agency (IEA introduced for the first time in the 2011 World Energy Outlook a high gas use scenario called the “Golden Age of Gas”. Natural gas is an easy to burn and clean fuel; its proven reserves are large and furthermore, enormous possibilities are offered by unconventional resources. There are anyway some geopolitical concerns in the global gas market, since the most important reserves are concentrated in a limited number of countries; the environmental impacts in the extraction of shale gas should also be taken into account. The paper presents an updated and thorough overview of recent advances and trends in the global gas market, highlighting the role of Europe in the World scenario. Statistical data from the main international reports are presented; economical, geopolitical and especially environmental aspects are presented and discussed.

  8. Ground Handling Business at Non-European Biggest World Airports as a Problem of Market Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tomová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyse the market structures of ground handling at the biggest non-European passenger and cargo airports in accordance with the ACI list of the most important world airports in 2014. Using the IATA IGHC database as of spring 2015, our analysis revealed that out of Europe double digit numbers of providers are rare what contrasts with situation in Europe where ground handling markets were deregulated by the Council Directive 96/67/EC. The analysis also brought that the monopolistic structures of ground handling markets were more specific for the regions of Asia and the Middle East. Airports as ground handling providers were not found within the analysed sample in North America, Latin America, Africa and Australia and Oceania, while this arrangement was to a larger extent present at the analysed Asian airports. Asia and the Middle East biggest airports are identified by us as candidates for further deregulation of ground handling arguing by forecasted demand for air services in the regions, although expected deregulation may be curbed by national regulators.

  9. The lightest market in the world: light and mild cigarettes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Chapman, Simon

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews the history of the introduction and use of light and mild labeled cigarettes in Japan, the "lightest" market in the world. Systematic keyword and opportunistic Web site searches were conducted on tobacco industry internal documents relevant to Japan, supplemented with relevant material from the tobacco trade and sociological literatures. Certain "market quirks" of the Japanese society benefited the tobacco industry in promoting its light and mild cigarettes. Japan's is a trend-conscious society with a penchant for new fashion and products. The Japanese are innovative, with the propensity to transform concepts into something characteristically their own marked by a distinct cultural style, such as the concept of keihaku tansho ("light-thin-short-small"). With big-budget sophisticated advertising, tobacco companies developed a lucrative market for mild, light, and ultra-low-tar cigarettes. Smokers had a preference for charcoal filters, which they believed protected them. Tar numbers meant little to smokers. The transnational tobacco companies capitalized on consumer concerns about the health hazards of smoking to promote low-tar cigarettes as a safer alternative. This may be one factor that explains why smoking prevalence in Japan remains high. Light and mild cigarettes are popular in Japan because Japanese smokers believe low tar/nicotine cigarette with charcoal filters protect them and help mollify their health concerns about smoking.

  10. Uranium in the new world market: a statistical update of supply and demand 1991-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Uranium Institute first issued a statistical update to its biennial report on the uranium market in 1990. It was felt then that certain parameters in the supply-demand equation had changed significantly and that therefore the main data should be reviewed. Since publication of the 1991 report, Uranium in the New World Market, the changes have not been as far-reaching, nevertheless some trends have been confirmed, while others have been reversed. More information has also come to light from Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and China. Unforeseen developments since the 1991 report include the major revision of Ontario Hydro's plans which resulted in the deferral of additional power plants, the decision to complete the Philippine's mothballed reactor, the announcement of North Korea's nuclear programme and most recently the decision to suspend construction of Cuba's nuclear power plant and to put its nuclear programme on hold indefinitely. In order to evaluate the potential impact of these and other events on the uranium market, key statistical data have been reviewed. The data were collected in early 1992. The main changes since the 1991 report are summarized. The revisions have resulted in changes in the forecasts; the forecast nuclear generating capacity has been revised downwards, the forecast reactor requirements for western countries in 2000 have increased slightly whereas for 2000 there is almost no change. (Author)

  11. ABOUT THE STATE OF THE WORLD WHEAT MARKET AT THE CURRENT STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorelyy M.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the Phillips curve in the historical aspect. In the article there is a mention that there were examples when the Phillips curve was not confirmed. Then the author goes on to describe the post-crisis economic situation. The author refers to the food problem as a global problem, which has been designated in the papers of the Club of Rome. Then the author characterizes world wheat production for the period 2003-2013. The author gives an example that shows the volatility of the wheat market (CBOT. The author explains why he uses quotations of forward contracts, and not in the spot market. The author scrutinizes the quotations of CBOT wheat futures contracts in the paper. The author substantiates the need for an econometric model in the research process of futures CBOT wheat prices. The author justifies the chosen scientific approach that defines the methods of research and research model. The author uses econometric approach in the paper. The author uses linear regression as a method of the research. The author creates the equation of linear regression using the software. The author makes a conclusion that there is a certain linear relationship between the price of the futures contract CBOT wheat and the level of unemployment in the United States during the period. The author verifies the effect of Phillips curve. Results of this paper allow the analyst to make informed pricing decisions on the organized market of wheat trade in the medium term.

  12. Yield risks in global maize markets: Historical evidence and projections in key regions of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson B. Villoria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous worldwide crop failures stemming from a more unstable climate may reduce the scope for international trade to compensate food shortages and stabilize food prices across the various regions of the world. Understanding the effects of changes in crop productivity on global markets requires knowledge about the extent to which crop yields may be systematically related across producing and consuming centers. This short communication contributes to this knowledge by investigating the potential changes in the strength of two key sources of supply risks in global maize markets: yield variance and cross-country yield correlation. We focus on the largest producing and consuming countries of the world. We capitalize on yield projections from the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison project. Exploratory analysis of the skill of the underlying GGCMI models in reproducing key moments of the distribution of observed yields reveals that they overstate observed variances but faithfully reproduce observed patterns of cross-country correlations. We find no evidence of an increase in the degree of cross-country dependency of maize yields. We also find a higher incidence of what would be considered extremely low maize yields by present-time standards stemming from the projected downward trend in yields levels toward mid-century. The weak dependency of maize yields across countries, an the possibility of reducing the higher incidence of extremes through policies aimed to reverse the climate-induced downward trends in yields, suggest that international trade can become a valuable tool to ameliorate the effects of more unstable crop yields. Keywords: Extremely low yields, Maize markets, Food prices, Agricultural yields, Systemic risk in agriculture, Global agriculture, AgMIP, Global gridded crop model intercomparison

  13. The World gas model. A multi-period mixed complementarity model for the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, Ruud; Holz, Franziska; Gabriel, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    We provide the description, mathematical formulation and illustrative results of the World Gas Model, a multi-period complementarity model for the global natural gas market with explicit consideration of market power in the upstream market. Market players include producers, traders, pipeline and storage operators, LNG (liquefied natural gas) liquefiers and regasifiers as well as marketers. The model data set contains more than 80 countries and regions and covers 98% of world wide natural gas production and consumption. We also include a detailed representation of cross-border natural gas pipelines and constraints imposed by long-term contracts in the LNG market. The model is calibrated to match production and consumption projections from the PRIMES [EC. European energy and transport: trends to 2030-update 2007. Brussels: European Commission; 2008] and POLES models [EC. World energy technology outlook - 2050 (WETO-H2). Brussels: European Commission; 2006] up to 2030. The results of our numerical simulations illustrate how the supply shares of pipeline and LNG in various regions in the world develop very differently over time. LNG will continue to play a major role in the Asian market, also for new importers like China and India. Europe will expand its pipeline import capacities benefiting from its relative proximity to major gas suppliers. (author)

  14. Russian geological education in the world market (the case of Russian State Geological Prospecting University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Ivanovich Lisov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher geological education in Russia and in MSGPI-RSGPU specific. It - engineering. The mineral deposits determine the development of the global industry and foreign trade. Growing global demand for the profession of geologists and mining engineers. Training of foreign students in Russia has its own geopolitical and economic importance. In Russia a strong resource-based economy. It attracts students from developing countries. MGRI-RSGPU is the leading universities training specialists for mining. The article presents data about the University and types of education. Shown scientific and educational problems in higher education. This article discusses the prospects for the promotion of Russian higher geological education at the world market of educational services. The increasing role of new scientific and technological achievements in mining, enhanced environmental as well as staff requirements is revealed. Given that the leading schools in the mining industry, in addition to Russia, are formed in Canada, Germany, USA, Australia, Great Britain, many developing countries rich in natural resources, have begun to form their own national centers for training in this area. Under such competitive conditions Russian geological education maintains its own niche. Recognition of this is the active participation of Russian universities in the creation and development of the World Forum of sustainable development of mineral universities (WFURS, described in the article. The main factors of competitiveness that led to leading positions of Russian State Geological Prospecting University in system of the Russian geological education are described. Particular attention is paid to the international activities of Russian higher educational institutions including Geological Prospecting University. The basic statistics (both in the context of the country, and in the field of foreign undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at this university is provided. The

  15. International wind energy development. World market update 2000. Forecast 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    In the year 2000, the wind power development took another major step forward. Installed capacity set a new record with the additon of 4,495 MW of new generating capacity, this is 574 MW more than the record set in 1999. Growth in new capacity declined from 51% in 1999 to 15% in 2000. Nevertheless, the trend of wind energy being preferred over other technologies for new generating capacity is continuing. Europe remains the major market for wind power. Of the new capacity added in 2000, 86% was installed in Europe. Germany again took the lead as the single most active market with the installation of 1,665 MW in new capacity, 100 MW more than in the previous year. In doing so, Germany extended its reign as the world's leading developer of wind energy. Spain also took a major step towards meeting its renewable energy goals with the installation of some 1,024 MW of new wind generating capacity. Denmark replaced the United States as the world's third largest market. The Danes installed a new record of 603 MW. This was due to a last-minute rush of contracts signed at the end of 1999 in order to utilize attractive payment rates for new installations, which expired at the end of the year. The turbines were then installed in 2000. Market leaders among wind turbine manufacturers changed from previous years. Vestas Wind Systems A/S is now the world's largest manufacturer of wind turbines, followed by Gamesa S.A. of Spain (Vestas owns 40% of the shares in the Spanish company). Enercon GmbH has become the third largest manufacturer of wind turbines. It is interesting to note that Enercon GmbH made steady progress in sales to several emerging markets throughout the world. New on the Top-10 list is an Indian manufacturer. Suzlon Energy Ltd. installed 103 MW of capacity and thereby becomes the number 10 in the list of the worlds largest manufacturer. The cumulative installed capacity of 18,449 MW at the end of 2000 will supply approximately 37 TWh (37 billion kWh) per year. The

  16. Market-oriented Programming Using Small-world Networks for Controlling Building Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigei, Noritaka; Miyajima, Hiromi; Osako, Tsukasa

    The market model, which is one of the economic activity models, is modeled as an agent system, and applying the model to the resource allocation problem has been studied. For air conditioning control of building, which is one of the resource allocation problems, an effective method based on the agent system using auction has been proposed for traditional PID controller. On the other hand, it has been considered that this method is performed by decentralized control. However, its decentralization is not perfect, and its performace is not enough. In this paper, firstly, we propose a perfectly decentralized agent model and show its performance. Secondly, in order to improve the model, we propose the agent model based on small-world model. The effectiveness of the proposed model is shown by simulation.

  17. Designing "Real-World" trials to meet the needs of health policy makers at marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-07-01

    There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Food marketing to children in India: comparative review of regulatory strategies across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Kaur, Ravneet; Dudeja, Puja

    2014-11-01

    Food marketing directed to children is an issue of concern in the present day society. Revolution in food industry, increasing globalization and boom in information technology has introduced various types of food products and the way they are placed in front of likely consumers. This has resulted in rising trend of obesity and switch from communicable to non-communicable diseases, which is not cost effective for nation as a whole. Multinational companies have targeted children as a naïve audience to boost their sales. In-ethical practice of misleading claims in the advertisements is instrumental in many cases. Food marketing to children has been assumed a public health threat since times of yore. World Health Organization has resolutions and recommendations on this subject. Member countries, including India are a signatory to this declaration. However, much needs to be done to counter these multinational food giants. Regulations and policies need to be enforced at national and institutional levels. Parents must be educated; schools and social organizations to be made proactive on this aspect.

  19. Analysis of Saudi Arabia's behavior within OPEC and the world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhathlan, Khalid; Gately, Dermot; Javid, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    We analyze oil export behavior by Saudi Arabia and the Rest of OPEC since 1973. In the literature there has been a wide range of estimates of their correlation: from positive, to zero, to negative. We find that the correlation has varied over time, from moderately high (0.7) in normal periods, to negative during each of five interruptions; the average correlation has been 0.19. Saudi Arabia's oil market behavior depends upon circumstances, but its primary goal is the stability of OPEC and the world oil market. It will coordinate export reductions with the Rest of OPEC when faced with declining demand, but it will increase exports when faced with interruptions elsewhere in OPEC. Allowing for such differences provides evidence of intelligent, context-dependent consistency. But ignoring context – by wrongly assuming the same Saudi response in Normal periods and Interruptions – can lead to a conclusion of Saudi “inconsistency” because the difference in the responses has been obscured

  20. Planning Oil Prices In The World Market And Preventive Policies In Energy Sector Of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raees Dana, Fariborz

    1999-01-01

    The planning of oil prices in the world can not be analyzed by means of the market-competition theory or the game theory. The current prices seem to be influenced greatly by large energy consuming industries of developed countries, oil producing corporations and cartels, and oil productions outside of OPEC. There is a lack of necessary long term policies and planning so that drastic changes in market prices can be avoided. The goal of this paper is to suggest new policies by means of discussing in following issues: 1.Initiating some form of a financial support for OPEC with the necessary follow up. 2. Utilization of oil income in sectors organized to have the least susceptibility against income loss and the lowest impact on other sectors. 3. Reducing of oil production level in the local and global framework and starting in industrialization process. 4. Replacement of oil with natural gas at a faster rate. 5. improving the oil industry infrastructure for lowering production costs and increasing variety in products in light of country economic policies and occupational strategies. 6. Imposing self-reliance on development of oil-production technology

  1. International wind energy development. World market update 1996. Forecast 1997-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is intended topublish and update this report `International Wind Power Development - Market Update 1996` every year in March. The latest issue was published in December of 1995 by BTM Consult ApS. Market data for demand side does normally, where it has been possible, only include installed wind turbines which has been connected to the grid during 1996. Supply side data is based on collected information (reference lists) from the 12-15 largest wind turbine manufacturers in the world. Due to these circumstances there are some conflicts between demand side and supply side data. Another important factor is that all wind turbine manufacturers do not use the same methodology when they are making their reference lists. Some manufacturers include only installed and operating wind turbines, while others include all units shipped from the factory. This is another conflict that might cause some differences in the data. Lately another new issue has been added to the list of uncertain factors, which is: is a Nordex Balcke-Duerr wind turbine Danish or German? And is a Gamesa Eolica wind turbine Danish or Spanish? etc. To minimize annual variations, this report includes the last 3 years data for the largest markets and wind turbine manufacturers. The prognosis includes data for the next 5 years until the year 2001, and an estimate has also been included for development until the year 2005. This version of the report can be found on internet web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  2. Model or Myopia? Exploiting Water Markets to Address Population and Drought Risks in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, population demands, and evolving land-use represent strong risks to the sustainable development and stability of world-wide urban water supplies. There is a growing consensus that non-structural supply management instruments such as water markets have significant potential to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities in complex urban water systems. This paper asks a common question, what are the tradeoffs for a city using water market supply instruments?. This question emerges quickly in policy and management, but its answer is deceptively difficult to attain using traditional planning tools and management frameworks. This research demonstrates new frameworks that facilitate rapid evaluation of hypotheses on the reliability, resiliency, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of urban water supply systems. This study considers a broader exploration of the issues of "nonstationarity" and "uncertainty" in urban water planning. As we invest in new information and prediction frameworks for the coupled human-natural systems that define our water, our problem definitions (i.e., objectives, constraints, preferences, and hypotheses) themselves evolve. From a formal mathematical perspective, this means that our management problems are structurally uncertain and nonstationary (i.e., the definition of optimality changes across regions, times, and stakeholders). This uncertainty and nonstationarity in our problem definitions needs to be more explicitly acknowledged in adaptive management and integrated water resources management. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of exploring these issues in the context of a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas, USA determining how to use its regional water market to manage population and drought risks.

  3. International wind energy development. World market update 1996. Forecast 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    It is intended topublish and update this report 'International Wind Power Development - Market Update 1996' every year in March. The latest issue was published in December of 1995 by BTM Consult ApS. Market data for demand side does normally, where it has been possible, only include installed wind turbines which has been connected to the grid during 1996. Supply side data is based on collected information (reference lists) from the 12-15 largest wind turbine manufacturers in the world. Due to these circumstances there are some conflicts between demand side and supply side data. Another important factor is that all wind turbine manufacturers do not use the same methodology when they are making their reference lists. Some manufacturers include only installed and operating wind turbines, while others include all units shipped from the factory. This is another conflict that might cause some differences in the data. Lately another new issue has been added to the list of uncertain factors, which is: is a Nordex Balcke-Duerr wind turbine Danish or German? And is a Gamesa Eolica wind turbine Danish or Spanish? etc. To minimize annual variations, this report includes the last 3 years data for the largest markets and wind turbine manufacturers. The prognosis includes data for the next 5 years until the year 2001, and an estimate has also been included for development until the year 2005. This version of the report can be found on internet web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  4. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKET BAD PRICE DYNAMICS THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grodzievskaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is about main threats of the bad price dynamics on the world agricultural market for agriculture producers. Scientific point of view on the risks is considered. Mostly theoretical point of view allows understanding how deep and wide scientists could research this problem. Author considers reasons of this menaces and ways out, how to avoid or estimate the rate of undesirable consequences for agriculture producers and agriculture price conjuncture. Researcher distinguishes several main reasons of the agriculture threats among them: production, finance, inflation and conjuncture fluctuation. In this article readers can find new ideas for governmental way to operate risky and low informative level situations in agricultural sphere. Researchers can use structural approach of the risk identification due to the scheme of risks realization reasons. Also few formulas provided for cybernetic way to research this problem. Scientist proposes ways for neutralization threats, among them are: adaptation, insurance, spends minimization, etc. Author analyzes Ukrainian agricultural tendencies in the last decades and draws a conclusion for socio-economic trend in witch modern world economy moves.

  5. Coal: Cornerstone of America`s competitive advantage in world markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, M.P. [Mills-McCarthy and Associates Inc., Chevy Chase, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The United States` competitive position in world markets will be determined by many forces. Two of the fundamental factors are the increased use of new technologies, and the availability of low-cost electricity to operate those technologies. The US currently has an will likely continue to have market dominance in both these critical areas. Both of these factors are intimately related since the primary source of new technologies is electric in nature. And, because low-cost coal now dominates and will continue to dominate the electric supply system, and because the US has both an abundance of coal and the world`s largest fleet of coal-fired power plants, the US will have an expanding base of low-cost electricity that will secure its current competitive advantage for years to come. Electric technologies and, increasingly, computer-based technologies integrated with electric technologies are the primary sources of innovative advancement and economic growth. As a consequence, the growth in electricity, which has historically tracked GNP growth, is expected to continue. And, with the restructuring of the electric utility industry and the emergence of vigorous competition, prices are expected to decline as competition increases. The net effect of these forces will be to dramatically increase the use of electric technologies -- and those sources of electricity that can provide low-cost electricity. The data show that coal, the primary source of new los-cost electricity, will supply between one-half and three-fourths of all new electric supply through 2010, at prices of about 3{cents}/kWh, and can do so without new power plant construction. Since the use of coal is expected to rise by at least 200 to 250 million tons/year over the current consumption of 850 million tons, and could increase as much as 400 million tons/yr, some have raised concerns about the emissions impact from the power plants. This report also shows that the net effect of increased electric use, assuming

  6. Do emerging markets matter in the world oil pricing system? Evidence of imported crude by China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Li; Lin Xiaowen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the changing structure of world oil price system by identifying an additional driver-emerging market factor. We choose China and India as a representative of emerging markets to examine if the quantity of crude oil imported by China and India is significant in the existing oil pricing system (. Our data starts from January 2002 and ends in March 2010, which includes the oil shock of 2007-2008. We utilize cointegration and error correction model framework developed by and in the analysis. Our results indicate that demand from emerging markets has become a significant factor in the world oil pricing system since 2003. This result is significant as it lends empirical support to the widely held conjecture that the oil shock of 2007-2008 is a demand-led shock (). Our result also has significant policy implications that go beyond the oil shock. The emerging market factor is there to stay and reflects the changing power between emerging and developed economies in the world economic system as a result of decades of fast economic development in the former. It will certainly influence policy issues related to oil and beyond. - Highlights: → We test the existing oil price modelling with data from 2002-2010. → We find evidence of structural breaks in the world oil pricing model. → We find that emerging market factor is a new driver in the world oil pricing system since 2003. → The emerging market factor lends empirical support to 'consumption-led' conjecture of oil shock. → New factor reflects significant changes of oil demand landscape following shifting economic power.

  7. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  8. Analysis of World Nuclear Market and Strategy of Korean NPP's Competitiveness Improvement for Exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Roh, Seungkook; Chang, Soon Heung

    2016-01-01

    China, India and USA (nuclear adopted countries) are planning tremendous number of NPPs to meet their increasing electricity demand and Saudi Arabia, Vietnam (nuclear adopting countries) are also planning to include nuclear power in their energy mix as a long-term plan. Korea has exported 4 units of APR1400 to the UAE in December, 2009. Korea became sixth NPP supplier country and our economic feasibility and safety features were started to evaluate worldwide. Nuclear industries became a new driver of Korea’s export and nuclear industries in Korea are now expecting another NPP export to Middle-eastern countries, including UAE and Saudi Arabia, based on the first-mover’s advantage at the UAE. In 2000s, five countries (Japan, USA, France, Russia and Korea), which are able to build NPP, focused on NPP export more than domestic construction. Global trend of world nuclear market changed rapidly, especially after NPP export to the UAE. By the global trend, hegemony of nuclear market migrated from supplier country to buyer country. Nuclear companies started cooperating rather than competing. Financing to developing countries become more important. In general, one of the considerable combinations is Korea-Japan-USA alliance. Korea is in charge of EPC, Japan supports financing and deficient technology (with USA partner), and Japan-USA handles fuel supply and back-end fuel cycle based on new agreed terms of ROK-US Nuclear Cooperation Agreement. This combination was judged to best way to collaborate with global companies. Paying attention to many delayed (or potentially delayed) constructions from Russia, intercepting the construction work will be available in case of contracted countries. Korea can emphasize the short construction time, high responsiveness and mild/equal diplomatic position to the target countries

  9. New competition in the world market of nuclear reactors; La nouvelle concurrence sur le marche mondial des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), CIRED (EHESS et CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-06-01

    As nuclear orders are picking up a little, there are strengths competing against one another in the world industry of reactors, an industry that has been deeply affected for twenty years, by the smallness of the market and the reorganization of the electromechanical industry. Competition remains particularly difficult, even though, in terms of exports, national markets in industrialized countries such as the American market and European market are now open to foreign newcomers. One of the reasons of the difficulty is the increased commercial competition based on advanced reactor techniques untested due to strong faith in technology leading to forget the learning difficulties of older reactor types. On a narrow market, demanding and with very specific political interference, the reasoning is not like on an ordinary capital equipment market. Each builder tries to sell by relying on the assets it has in addition to the offered price and related services: industrial reputation and experience that play confusedly when untested advanced reactors are competing with one another, credit terms offered by the State and the government's influence on the market of emerging economies, the backing o the State's financial insurance in the event of risks taken in the sale of turnkey untested reactors. In the competition of the five manufacturers in the export market, American builders do not seem to have the best place, though even the leading position of Framatome ANP shows some limits. (author)

  10. Petroleum products price interactions on the world markets: an econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maack, Laetitia de; Lantz, Frederic

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between crude oil and petroleum products prices in the European, Asian and North American markets. We develop an econometric model, based on the long term equilibrium between the prices, which takes into account the changes in the oil product demand trends. We explain price behaviors by the impact of the demand trends. Because the refining industry which transforms crude into petroleum products is a joint product industry, petroleum product pricing is affected by demand trends both in terms of quality and quantity. Consequently, the long term equilibrium between prices, estimated through a co-integration approach, are affected by several structural breaks. We also develop a panel econometric model which simultaneously takes into account the relative prices of ail world products towards one crude. Finally, the different results are compared to the marginal costs derived from an oil refining optimization model. This econometric modeling approach enables a better understanding of the long term equilibrium between prices of petroleum products and crude. (authors)

  11. OPEC at middle age: facing an uncertain future in the world oil market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    International institutions, like individuals, groups, and even societies and cultures, pass through various stages in their development as they grow from youth through middle age into more experienced and mature members of the international community. OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is no exception to this generally observable phenomenon on the world economic scene. It has clearly undergone a gradual process of growth over the past three decades or so since its establishment by five founding states in Baghdad in September 1960. OPEC's history since then could be characterized as being divided into three distinct developmental stages. The first decade, the 1960s, was a period of consolidation of OPEC's power over the oil companies and their control over the member countries'oil resources. The second decade - the 1970s - was a decade characterized by almost continuous and prolonged producer - consumer confrontation as well as revelation of some of the more basic cleavages within OPEC as an organization. This was followed by the decade of the 1980s -- a period of relative accommodation between producers and consumers in the interest of longer term market stability

  12. Overview of the LNG world market; Panorama mundial do mercado de GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Costa, Julia Rotstein Smith da Silva; Moreira, Tathiany Rodrigues [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The commercialization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has been gaining great prominence worldwide and in Brazil, in recent days, due to the ever-increasing need for diversification of energy sources and for flexibilization of gas offer, in order to ensure the importing countries' supply. In this scenario, LNG has been positioning itself, around the world, as an important alternative, especially in cases where there is uncertainty concerning the fulfillment of delivery contracts, the transportation network is still incipient or inexistent, the gas pipelines operate at full capacity and the country's gas demand is met by more than one exporting source, sometimes by different transport modals. In the case of Brazil, the recent restrictions to the gas offer bring to the agenda the search for better solutions in energy policy in order to appropriately meet the totality of national demand. This article presents the current situation of the LNG market and identifies the main agents involved in its commerce, drawing attention to, in light of the originality of LNG projects in Brazil, the need for perfecting the regulation in order to boost the development of the national gas industry. (author)

  13. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-03-29

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  14. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Obata

    Full Text Available Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots. are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  15. African customer is Sun King. Enormous market for solar energy in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malsch, I.

    2001-01-01

    A brief overview is given in the enormous market for solar energy in Africa. Special attention is paid to one of the leaders in the market for solar energy: Free Energy Europe in Eindhoven, Netherlands. 3 refs

  16. Monte Carlo tests of small-world architecture for coarse-grained networks of the United States railroad and highway transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Preston R.; El-Zabet, Jermeen; Hassan, Seerat; Briguglio, Joseph; Aliaj, Enela; Radcliffe, Maria; Mirza, Taha; Comar, Timothy; Nadolski, Jeremy; Huebner, Cynthia D.

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have shown that human transportation networks exhibit small-world structure, meaning they have high local clustering and are easily traversed. However, some have concluded this without statistical evaluations, and others have compared observed structure to globally random rather than planar models. Here, we use Monte Carlo randomizations to test US transportation infrastructure data for small-worldness. Coarse-grained network models were generated from GIS data wherein nodes represent the 3105 contiguous US counties and weighted edges represent the number of highway or railroad links between counties; thus, we focus on linkage topologies and not geodesic distances. We compared railroad and highway transportation networks with a simple planar network based on county edge-sharing, and with networks that were globally randomized and those that were randomized while preserving their planarity. We conclude that terrestrial transportation networks have small-world architecture, as it is classically defined relative to global randomizations. However, this topological structure is sufficiently explained by the planarity of the graphs, and in fact the topological patterns established by the transportation links actually serve to reduce the amount of small-world structure.

  17. Effects of US biofuel policies on US and world petroleum product markets with consequences for greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Wyatt; Whistance, Jarrett; Meyer, Seth

    2011-01-01

    US biofuel policy includes greenhouse gas reduction targets. Regulators do not address the potential that biofuel policy can have indirect impacts on greenhouse gases through its impacts on petroleum product markets, and scientific research only partially addresses this question. We use economic models of US biofuel and agricultural markets and US and world petroleum and petroleum product markets to show that discontinuing biofuel tax credits and ethanol tariff lower biofuel use could lead to increased US petroleum product use, and a reduction in petroleum product use in other parts of the world. The net effect is lower greenhouse gas emissions. Under certain assumptions, we show that biofuel use mandate elimination can have positive or negative impacts on greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude and the direction of effects depend on how US biofuel trade affects biofuel in other countries with different emissions, context that determines how important use mandates are in the first place, who pays mandate costs, and the price responsiveness of global petroleum supplies and uses. However, our results show that counter-intuitive effects are possible and discourage broad conclusions about the greenhouse gas impacts of removing these elements of US biofuel policy. - Highlights: → Biofuel policy has counter-intuitive greenhouse gas effects under certain conditions. → US biofuel policies affect global petroleum markets, with implications for GHGs. → US biofuel use mandate GHG effects depend on whether they are binding and who pays. → US biofuel GHGs are sensitive to policy, petroleum market responses, and biofuel trade.

  18. World nuclear-fuel procurement: relationships between uranium and enrichment markets. Final report. International energies studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.

    1982-03-01

    This article explores the relationships between international uranium and enrichment markets under current contracting and equity arrangements and in comparison with actual feed requirements for existing and committed reactors. We begin with an overview of the world situation, examining current and prospective conditions. We then consider enrichment and uranium supply and demand situations of the three consumer nations outside the United States with the largest nuclear programs: France, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. We conclude with an evaluation of likely directions of change in the coupled markets for uranium and enrichment services

  19. The trends of the market of electric power production in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allal, S.

    1999-01-01

    The technologies of natural gas and renewable energies develop the most quickly among the different energy sources. The French and european companies win new parts of market: combined cycle in Asia and Mediterranean, small-scale hydroelectric power plants in China, decentralized rural electrification by photovoltaic systems in Africa. But the conquest of foreign market goes through the development of a solid interior market. This confirms the interest of a diversification of the national power generation park. (N.C.)

  20. Market transformation in the 'New World': what's worked, what hasn't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, Jennifer; Nadel, Steven; Sachs, Harvey; Prindle, Bill; Elliott, Neal

    2003-01-01

    The term 'market transformation' was first coined in 1992 and, in the subsequent decade, dozens of market transformation initiatives have been operated in the U.S., including national, regional and local initiatives. This paper looks at 28 of the major initiatives, how they have fared in the market, and the lessons each initiative teaches. We examine a range of initiatives, including ones that have prospered, ones that have had difficulties, and ones that have had mixed success. The paper concludes with a summary of lessons learned that should be kept in mind when developing and refining market transformation initiatives in the future

  1. Digital marketing budgets for independent hotels Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, Leora Halpern; Carmichael, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. Though only a small amount of a hotel’s revenue is traditionally allocated for the marketing budget, the hotel’s success is directly reliant on how effectively that budget is utilized. Thus far in 2015, over 55% percent of hotel bookings are happening onl...

  2. SWITCHING FROM THE GLOBALIZATION OF MARKETS TO THE GLOBALIZATION OF PRODUCTION AND SERVICES IN A SEMIGLOBALIZED WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Serghei M RGULESCU; Elena M RGULESCU

    2009-01-01

    The retrospective of the theoretical approaches of the phenomenon of economic globalization in the last three decades emphasizes the movement of attention from the globalization of markets, from the\\'80s, to the globalization of production and services in the current decade. This trend is essentially the result of implementing new strategies by multinational companies. It also requires accepting the idea that the current status of the world economy is in reality one of semiglobalization and n...

  3. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the World Market: An Analysis of Brazilian and African WTO Petitions

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Mohanty, Samarendu; Ethridge, Don E.; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil, supported by Australia challenged U.S. cotton programs at the September 2003 meeting of the WTO settlement Body. Brazil complained that U.S. cotton subsidies such as marketing loans, export credits, commodity certificates, direct payments and counter cyclical payments are depressing world prices and are injurious to Brazilian farmers. In addition, the West and Central African Countries (WCA) countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad have filed a petition with the WTO claiming th...

  4. A History of Market Performance from Ancient Babylonia to the Modern World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, R.J.; van Leeuwen, B.; van Zanden, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This exciting new volume examines the development of market performance from Antiquity until the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. Efficient market structures are agreed by most economists to serve as evidence of economic prosperity, and to be prerequisites for further economic growth. However,

  5. Comparative characteristics of grain classifications of soft wheat of Kazakhstan and major grain-producing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Shaimerdenova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft wheat is one of the most important crops, grown in more than 130 countries. To date, one-fifth of the world's wheat, or about 150 million tons a year, is sold on international markets. In the world trade traditionally dominated by the US, Australia, Canada and Argentina. Kazakhstan, being on the 15th place in the production of wheat grain, is among the first ten exporters - in 2017 the country exported about 8 million tons to the amount of 1.5 billion dollars. USA, then, as potential export opportunities are much higher, as evidenced by annual carryover stocks at 3 million tons. According to experts, considerable differences in the classification of wheat grain used in Kazakhstan and in other countries participating in the grain market and the methods for assessing the technological dignity indicators (TDs laid down in the classifications are a significant obstacle to increasing the export potential of wheat grains. In view of this, an analysis was made of grain classifications of wheat grains used in the most important grain producing countries, TD indicators were determined, methods for their evaluation, and differences were revealed. It is established that in countries that are stable in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain, an insignificant list of TD indicators is adopted, while they characterize the physical quality and state of the grain, which may indicate a general suitability for grinding. It is determined that in Russia and Kazakhstan, in determining the contamination, such an indicator as dockage is not taken into account. Comparative tests of different methods of sampling and determination of contamination have been carried out, and correlation coefficients have been established between indicators of contamination determined by different methods.

  6. Young adult non-smokers' exposure to real-world tobacco marketing: results of an ecological momentary assessment pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Niaura, Ray

    2017-08-31

    The aims of this pilot study were to assess and characterize non-current smoking young adults' exposure to tobacco marketing through an ecological momentary assessment protocol. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) consists of repeated measurement of momentary phenomena and is well-suited to capture sporadic experiences in the real-world, such as exposure to tobacco marketing. EMA has the potential to capture detailed information about real-world marketing exposures in ways that reduce recall bias and increase ecological validity. In this study, young adults (n = 31; ages 18-25) responded to random prompts regarding their momentary exposure to tobacco marketing via text messages on their smartphones for 14 days (n = 1798 observations). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression to assess the odds of exposure accounting for correlation of multiple repeated measures within individuals while controlling for variability between individuals. Respondents reported, on average, two momentary exposures to tobacco advertising in the 14-day study period. In adjusted analyses, African-American (aOR 3.36; 95% CI 1.07, 10.54) and Hispanic respondents (aOR 5.08; 95% CI 1.28, 20.13) were more likely to report exposure to tobacco advertising. Respondents were also more likely to report exposure when also exposed to others using tobacco products and when they were at stores compared with at home (aOR 14.82; 95% CI 3.61, 60.88). Non-smoking young adults report exposure to tobacco marketing particularly at the point-of-sale, with the highest likelihood of exposure among African-American and Hispanic young people. EMA protocols can be effective in assessing the potential impact of point-of-sale tobacco marketing on young adults.

  7. The world nuclear market and its prospects; Le marche mondial du nucleaire et ses perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    This market study of the nuclear industry presents: 1 - the dynamics of nuclear markets: organisation of the nuclear industry (fuel cycle, reactors), market analysis and key figures (uranium production, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor manufacturing, spent fuel reprocessing), strengths in presence and competition structure (companies ranking, market shares, positioning); 2 - nuclear renaissance and its basis: a suitable answer to the present day energy and environmental challenges (carbon-free energy and low volatility of fuel price), conjunction of favourable conditions (security of fuel supplies, political support, necessity of plants renewal), three main uncertainties (waste management, safety aspect, public opinion weight); 3 - perspectives of development at the 2030 prospects: data (scope of renaissance, market size), sector reconfiguration scenarios (evolution of competition, reconfiguration paths, concentration trend); 4 - analysis of the strategy of 13 companies, suppliers of the nuclear industry, with their key figures, positioning and strategy (production capacity, partnerships, external growth investments, new technical developments etc.). (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear Groups - World. Market Analysis - 2016-2019 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Overview, Macroeconomic Environment, Supply, Demand, Industry Structure, Energy costs and prices, Market Prospects, Regional Overview; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Corporate Strategies and Competition, Structure of Competition, Corporate Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Company Profiles: Toshiba, KEPCO, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Areva, GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Cameco, Urenco, Engie, EDF, Rosatom, China National Nuclear Power, KazAtomProm, China General Nuclear Power Corporation; 6. Statistical Appendix; 7. Sources; 8. Annexes

  9. Can You Hear Me Now? Marketing Essentials for Audiologists in a Noisy Health Care World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudden, DAnne

    2016-01-01

    Audiologists, even those with a strong acumen for business, are not traditionally taught the basics of creating a robust practice identity and dynamic marketing plan. This activity will teach learners how to create a distinct brand that separates them from others in a competitive and distracted marketplace. Additionally, learners will gain an understanding for how to blend traditional marketing tools with more modern online options and social media. Upon completion, learners will be familiar with the skills necessary to actively create, implement, and track the effectiveness of their marketing strategy using proven methodologies. PMID:28028325

  10. Can You Hear Me Now? Marketing Essentials for Audiologists in a Noisy Health Care World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudden, DAnne

    2016-11-01

    Audiologists, even those with a strong acumen for business, are not traditionally taught the basics of creating a robust practice identity and dynamic marketing plan. This activity will teach learners how to create a distinct brand that separates them from others in a competitive and distracted marketplace. Additionally, learners will gain an understanding for how to blend traditional marketing tools with more modern online options and social media. Upon completion, learners will be familiar with the skills necessary to actively create, implement, and track the effectiveness of their marketing strategy using proven methodologies.

  11. The long-run impact of energy prices on world agricultural markets: The role of macro-economic linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohin, A.; Chantret, F.

    2010-01-01

    The world prices of some food and energy products have followed similar large swings in recent years. We investigate the long-run relationship between these prices using a world Computable General Equilibrium model with detailed representations of food and energy markets. Particular attention is paid to specifying macro-economic linkages which have often been overlooked in recent analysis and debate. We find that the omission of these macro-economic linkages has a substantial bearing on this relationship. A positive relationship due to the cost push effect has been identified in most analysis, but we find that the introduction of the real income effect may indeed imply a negative relationship between world food and energy prices.

  12. MARKETING STRATEGY OF RUP «BMZ» IN THE PERIOD OF WORLD FINANCIAL-ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zaitsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The marketing strategy of RUP «BMZ» in the period of worldwide financial-economic crisis is disclosed. It is shown that it is aimed at the maximum increase of export in all directions.

  13. Can You Hear Me Now? Marketing Essentials for Audiologists in a Noisy Health Care World

    OpenAIRE

    Rudden, DAnne

    2016-01-01

    Audiologists, even those with a strong acumen for business, are not traditionally taught the basics of creating a robust practice identity and dynamic marketing plan. This activity will teach learners how to create a distinct brand that separates them from others in a competitive and distracted marketplace. Additionally, learners will gain an understanding for how to blend traditional marketing tools with more modern online options and social media. Upon completion, learners will be familiar ...

  14. Selling photovoltaics at the top of the world. Marketing strategy for Solar Home Systems in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieke, O.; Parodi, O.; Schweizer, P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper a marketing strategy for Solar home systems (SHS) in the Solu Khumbu region of Nepal is presented. Four scenarios for distribution and service were developed and analysed using a break even analysis. The outcome of the study is that the most promising way for a successful market entry is provided by a not too dense sales network in the region itself, a three year warranty and a annual maintenance service. (orig.)

  15. Responsibility for the future of the world-paradigm shift in the theory and practice of marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Rekettye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas cuatro décadas muchos estudios científicos fueron publicados sobre los impactos medioambientales que amenazan el futuro de nuestro planeta. Estas manifestaciones apenas han afectado el área de marketing, no ha habido ningún cambio paradigmático. La primera parte del artículo trata de los procesos climáticos que amenazan el medio ambiente y la vida cotidiana de la población, y que pueden ser importantes para la formación del futuro del marketing. Hay una relación estrecha entre el cambio climático y el consumismo que estimula la investigación sobre la responsabilidad y la sostenibilidad del consumo. La segunda parte del artículo trata de esbozar las nuevas tendencias posibles en la teoría y en la práctica del marketing que son necesarias para enfrentar las cambiantes necesidades medioambientales.In the last four decades quite a lot of scientific studies have been published about those dangerous signs which threaten the future of our world. These manifests have only slightly affected the field of marketing; no paradigm shift has taken place. The first part of the paper deals with climate processes threatening the environment and the everyday life of the population, and which may be important in shaping the future of marketing. There is a strong relation between climate change and consumerism enforcing the research about the responsibility and sustainability of consumption. The second part of the study tries to outline those possible new trends in the theory and practice of marketing which are necessary to meet the changing environmental needs.

  16. The world oil market after the Iraq-Kuwait crisis: Economic and politicoeconomic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The recent crisis in the Gulf (Iraq's temporary annexation of Kuwait) will presumably inflict enormous damage on future oil markets on both sides, consumers and producers. Consumers will be aware of the potential insecurity of the oil supply from the Arab-Persian Gulf, ironically, at a time when OPEC members (others than Iraq and Kuwait) stood up to their commitment. The reason for this lack of confidence is that political objectives may dominate conventional economic goals so that the future oil market becomes unpredictable and potentially insecure. As a consequence, consumers may conserve even in period of low oil prices so that billions and billions of (opportunity) dollars might be wasted. Vertical integration may be a way to mitigate this insecurity and to increase the credibility of a reliable supply. Presumably the easiest way to regain some of the consumers' confidence seems to be to again offer the international oil companies larger responsibility for the oil market

  17. 84 The Third World Option in a Globalized Building Materials Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Globalization has been described as a world phenomenon that provides a level ground for competitive ..... and the political class are held socially and .... enhance levels of occupants' comfort, safety ... well advanced in manufacturing industry.

  18. Trends in the energy market after World War II (WW II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, K.

    1992-01-01

    After WW II, trends developed in the energy markets that continued virtually unbroken till 1972. The main trend was the strong growth of oil as a percentage of total energy consumed. Not only did oil monopolise the rapidly growing transportation market but it also penetrated rapidly into the stationary energy market. In the second half of the sixties, after the discovery of the Groningen Gas field, pipeline natural gas took a sizable share of the domestic and commercial energy market in Western Europe. This market was mainly fed by gas from Groningen, the North Sea and Russia. Another trend was the steady growth of electricity as a percentage of the stationary market partly based on nuclear energy. Coal was the loser. This rather steady development was upset by the first oil crisis in 1972. This crisis was a political crisis which had little to do with the physical availability of crude oil. Between 1972 and the present, periods of reasonable price stability were interrupted by violent swings in the price of oil and gas. Moreover, during this period the environmental movement became a major influence in the energy field. Notwithstanding the generally unstable market, some new trends developed after 1972 and some old ones continued. Will these trends continue long enough to be useful for making a scenario for the future? The forecaster should not assume that the development of energy consumption in the USA, Western Europe and Japan will continue to be of overwhelming importance. Developments in South East Asia and Eastern Europe should be watched very carefully. There are reasons to believe that at a certain stage in economic development, transportation demand shoots up much faster than economic growth, leading to a rapid demand growth for distillate oil. Of importance is also how will the rapidly developing countries generate their increasing demand for electricity and how will they fuel their industry? There can be little doubt that in the rich countries

  19. U.S. and South Korean Cooperation in the World Nuclear Energy Market: Major Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    system and other major components. • Samsung C&T Corporation. Plant construction. • Hyundai Engineering and Construction. Plant construction...market. Other countries that have been mentioned in the news media include Vietnam, Malaysia , Thailand, and Middle East neighbors of the UAE.25 A Korean

  20. Acute Myeloid Leukemıa: Current and Emerging Therapies and Market Consideration in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is an aggressive, fast-growing cancer beginning inside bone marrow and spreading into the blood system, most often occurring in immature white blood cells. It has the lowest five-year survival rate among other types of leukemia and if left untreated, it can be fatal. Even though there have been significant improvements in the treatment of other related subtypes, AMLtargeted therapy development have been limited. The current market for AML drugs cannot fill the high unmet needs in terms of drug safety and efficacy, and the growing aging population presents increased opportunities for new drugs. Considering these driving forces, it is believed that promising opportunities exist for new entrants to capture value from underserved segments of the market. It is estimated that the market size for AML drugs in 2020 will reach US$1.67 billion with an average annual growth of nearly 23%. Therefore, it is highly recommended for pharmaceutical companies to invest in this area of drug development as soon as possible in order to maximize gains from their investments as novel therapeutics enter the AML market at a rapid pace.

  1. The world wide web: an emerging technology for marketing special forest products (poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Hammett; Shelby Jones; Philip A. Araman

    1999-01-01

    Interest by forest landowners and agriculturist in Special Forest Products (SFPs) is increasing rapidly. At present there are numerous efforts to increase awareness of these products and the market potential. However, there is a shortage of information available and there are few means effective in disseminating the information necessary for the sustainable management...

  2. Intra-industry momentum and product market competition around the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between product market competition and intra-industry momentum returns. Based on 12,982 firm observations from 19 developed markets for the period of 1990–2010, I find that buying winners and selling losers in competitive industries generates significantly higher momentum profits than that in concentrated industries. The higher the intensity of product market competition, the larger are the intra-industry momentum returns. The results are robust to sub-samples (periods of the U.S., non-U.S. countries, the G7 countries, 1990–2000, and 2001–2010. I further employ the nearness of a stock's price to the 52-week high to determine past winners and losers and find stronger results. I also compare intra-industry momentum returns with Jegadeesh and Titman (1993 individual stock momentum and Moskowitz and Grinblatt (1999 inter-industry momentum strategies. My results suggest that intra-industry momentum strategy outperforms the latter two strategies in most cases. The overall results are consistent with the notion that severe product market competition induces managers to improve financial performance.

  3. Competitive marketing strategies: tools for enhancing value in the dynamic world of business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Kehinde Oladele Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing solid competitive marketing strategies in order to contribute towards long-term sustainable success, has become imperative today for every success driven organization. The paper examines a number of Competitive Strategies, whitch have become string tools for enhancing value in the Nigerian Telecommunication industry.Thr objectives of the paper among others are to (iExamine whether there is any relationship between the use ao competitive marketing strategies and business success and(ii Find out whether the various competitive marketing strategies used by Nigerian telecommunication firms have effects on rival companies, among others.The paper uses survey method with two hypotheses stated in the null form, with structured questionnaire,which were,distributed among the sampled respondents who are secondary school teachers in Lagos, Ogun, and Oyo states of Nigeria.Results were analyzed with the aid of correlation test statistics.Findings show that there is significant positive relationship between the use of competitive Marketing Strategies and Business Success.Finding also reveals that the various Competitive Strategiea used by players have effects on other competitors. The paper makesvarious policy recommendtions,which operators in the Nigerian Telecomunication Industry will find useful, if faithfully implemented. These include the need for firms to constantly engage in research to meet the changing needs of their esteemed Customers. Companies must identify where they could have competitive advantage over their Competitors and that Companies must render quality Service and try to constantly improve their offers in the face of changing market Dynamics, amongst others.

  4. Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

  5. Climate change, future Arctic Sea ice, and the competitiveness of European Arctic offshore oil and gas production on world markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Sebastian; Riemann-Campe, Kathrin; Hoog, Sven; Growitsch, Christian; Schwind, Hannah; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    A significant share of the world's undiscovered oil and natural gas resources are assumed to lie under the seabed of the Arctic Ocean. Up until now, the exploitation of the resources especially under the European Arctic has largely been prevented by the challenges posed by sea ice coverage, harsh weather conditions, darkness, remoteness of the fields, and lack of infrastructure. Gradual warming has, however, improved the accessibility of the Arctic Ocean. We show for the most resource-abundant European Arctic Seas whether and how a climate induced reduction in sea ice might impact future accessibility of offshore natural gas and crude oil resources. Based on this analysis we show for a number of illustrative but representative locations which technology options exist based on a cost-minimization assessment. We find that under current hydrocarbon prices, oil and gas from the European offshore Arctic is not competitive on world markets.

  6. World oil flow steady in 1992; stable market ahead for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    World crude oil production in 1992 was virtually unchanged from 1991. Production last year averaged 59.96 million b/d, up only 17,000 b/d from 1991. Substantial production declines in the C.I.S. and U.S. were offset by increases among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and a number of other countries outside the OPEC sphere. Figures from the International Energy Agency (IEA) show world demand for petroleum products moved up 300,000 b/d to 66.9 million b/d. This included an addition to stocks of an estimated 1000,000 b/d. IEA predicts world demand will continue to rise in 1993 and OPEC output will advance to meet this higher level. Even though OPEC production is expected to be up for the year, seasonal swings in demand can cause price fluctuations. The paper describes OPEC production, non-OPEC production, oil prices, the world oil supply, Russian's decline, world demand, and the outlook for 1993

  7. Is “economic freedom” the same as free market capitalism? A decompositional analysis of the Economic Freedom of the World index.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Joseph N

    2011-01-01

    The Frasier Institute’s Economic Freedom of the World is often taken as a metric of market capitalism, and relationships between the index and macroeconomic outcomes are presented as signaling the consequences of free markets. This paper warns analysts that the index may be conflating three distinct concepts: free markets, good governance and price stability. Analysts should remain cognizant of this conceptual conflation when using the index to develop policy prescriptions.

  8. Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Castronova

    2001-01-01

    In March 1999, a small number of Californians discovered a new world called "Norrath", populated by an exotic but industrious people. Having just returned from a dangerous exploratory journey through this new world, I can report a number of interesting findings about its people and economy. About 12,000 people call it their permanent home, although some 60,000 are present there at any given time. The nominal hourly wage is about $3.42 per hour, and the labors of the people produce a GNP per c...

  9. World oil and gas markets in 2005; Les marches petroliers et gaziers mondiaux en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    In front of insufficient production capacities, the petroleum and gas spot prices have won historical records in 2005. This paper analyzes this situation using the highlights of this exceptional year and concerning the producing countries (political situation), the oil and gas markets (exchange rates, demand, production capacity), the European quotations of petroleum products (automotive and domestic fuels), and the prices of petroleum products in France. (J.S.)

  10. Unintended de-marketing manages visitor demand in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Kotler and Levy (1971, p.76) introduced the term ‘de-marketing’, defined as ‘that aspect of marketing that deals with discouraging customers in general or a certain class of customers in particular on either a temporary or permanent basis’. Subsequently, Groff (1998) interpreted the concept in the context of parks and recreation administration. Recently, Armstrong and Kern (2011) used the concept to underpin their investigation of visitor demand management within the Greater Blue Mountains Wo...

  11. Against the Odds – The Marketing Dilemma of Physical Products in an Increasingly Virtual World.

    OpenAIRE

    Oestreicher, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The overarching battle between the physical place and the virtual space is part of an intensive discussion. Much related literature addresses exemplarily the dilemma of the global Home Entertainment Industry and its struggle to compete with its physical product of optical discs against virtual services of dematerialised downloads. With regard to effects on an increasing number of further industries in the near future an additional question is, how marketing strategies and tactics in a declini...

  12. The end of surplus and a growing role in world markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklof, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid economic growth in Asia in recent years has rekindled the region's appetite for energy. This surge in energy consumption since the oil price collapse in 1986 has brought into sharp focus critical challenges facing Asian governments and commercial organizations in the 1990's--challenges that must be met if the economic success of recent years is to continue. Yet supplying energy to fuel economic growth will be more difficult than in the past. Oil reserves in the region are inadequate to support the anticipated growth in demands, and new discoveries may be modest. Gas reserves are plentiful, but not well located to meet the energy needs of major markets. Added to difficulties associated with these resource-based limitations new challenges are emerging: growing consumer demands for transportation fuels and electricity, a growing concern for the environmental impact of energy production and consumption, and the need to rethink long-standing energy policies that were based on expectations of very high future oil prices. These new factors will complicate policy decisions and place new constraints on available energy options. This paper addresses the future development of Asian oil and gas markets in light of these challenges, and provides an assessment of the potential growth of gas markets, the need for growing oil imports into the region, and the need for new refining capacity to meet the growing demand for transportation fuels

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS and Yucca (Yucca schidigera on Broiler Performance, Carcass Traits, Intestinal Viscosity and Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Sariozkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of dried distillers’ grain with soluble (DDGS and yucca (Yucca schidigera on broiler performance, intestinal viscosity, carcass traits, and marketing. A total of 360, 21-d-old male broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups as 1: Control (C, corn based diet, without DDGS and yucca (Y supplementation, 2: DDGS (30%, 3: C + Y (120 mg/kg Yucca and 4: DDGS (30% + Y (120 mg/kg with 6 replicates (15 chicks x 6 replicates. The study was performed between 21 to 42 days of age. As a result, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate (P>0.05. The carcass traits and effects of different marketing type (whole sale or cutting parts on profit were compared. A slight decrease was determined in group 4 in terms of leg quarter ratio to cold carcass weight and carcass yield. Intestinal viscosity, bacterial counts and pH values (in duodenum and ileum were not different among the groups (P>0.05. The lowest production cost was determined in DDGS and DDGS+Y groups (P

  14. ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN PREVENTING THE COUNTERFEIT MEDICINES ENTRY INTO THE WORLD MARKETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukina, Valeryia; Dohnal, Jiri; Saloun, Jan

    2016-09-01

    30 years have passed since Conference of Experts on the Rational Use of Drugs was held in Nairobi, Kenya, from 25 to 29 November 1985, where the problem of counterfeit medicines was mentioned as the international for the first time. The problem of counterfeit medicines is not only a major threat to public health and national and private economy, but also it is of great interest for key decision-making actors at the international level. The authors analyzed what has been done since that time by international organizations. Combating the counterfeiting of medicines cannot be successfully achieved by the health sector alone - World Health Organization (WHO), - so the efforts of the other United Nations (UN) organizations relevant to counterfeiting were in need and were studied in the article: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Trade Organization (WTO), World Customs Organization (WCO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), etc. Today WHO is unable to coordinate all their activities, so the few existing proposals for establishing a new mechanism of international cooperation have been examined. Will the MEDICRIME Convention that will enter into force on January 1, 2016 be the start of the new era in the combating with the counterfeit medicines? - the authors offered their vision on the international developments.

  15. The world market for soybeans: price transmission into Brazil and effects from the timing of crop and trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico A. Turolla

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the price transmission in the world market for soybeans using time series econometrics models. The theoretical model developed by Mundlack and Larson (1992 is based on the Law of the One Price, which assumes price equalization across all local markets in the long run and allows for deviations in the short run. The international market was characterized by three relevant soybean prices: Rotterdam Port, Argentina and the United States. The paper estimates the elasticity of transmission of these prices into soybean prices in Brazil. There were carried causality and cointegration tests in order to identify whether there is significant long-term relationship among these variables. There was also calculated the impulse-response function and forecast error variance decomposition to analyze the transmission of variations in the international prices over Brazilian prices. An exogeneity test was also carried out so as to check whether the variables respond to short term deviations from equilibrium values. Results validated the Law of the One Price in the long run. In line with many studies, this paper showed that Brazil and Argentina can be seen as price takers as long as the speed of their adjustment to shocks is faster than in the United States, the latter being a price maker.

  16. Why the developing world is the perfect market place for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, C. [Light Up the World, Calgary, AB (Canada); Platonova, I. [Light Up the World, Calgary, AB (Canada); Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Design; Doluweera, G.; Irvine-Halliday, D. [Light Up the World, Calgary, AB (Canada); Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Light Up The World (LUTW) is an organization dedicated to bringing renewable energy (RE) based solid state lighting (SSL) to the developing world. A typical SSL system consists of white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), a renewable energy source, and an energy storage device. Sufficient energy to operate a system with 2 1W lamps can be obtained using a 5W photovoltaic (PV) module. Use of the systems will help to eliminate the use of fuel-based lighting sources and their associated environmental impacts and safety and health hazards. This paper included a case study of a rural African community, as well as case studies of refugee camps in Sri Lanka and Nepal. The socio-economic impacts of SSL were evaluated, including potential impacts on taxation, business activities, and economic growth. The paper also demonstrated how the implementation of SSL will achieve all 8 of the United Nations' millennium development goals. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  17. VIRTUAL SOCIAL LIFE AND RELATED MARKETING EFFORTS IN THE WORLD OF ONLINE GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    PANAYIRCI, Cevdet; YILDIRIM, Fazli

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet and the World Wide Web proliferate, a new form of communication and interaction has been made possible. People live increasingly hybrid lives where the physical and the digital, the real and the virtual interact. Massively multiplayer online role - playing games (MMORPGs), i.e. online role playing games, are a special medial and social phenomenon of our time and experienced a massive growth of players. Studies reveal that mmorpg players compose a heterogenic population and spe...

  18. World food markets into the 21st century: commodity risk management policies

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Ronald C.

    1997-01-01

    Recent concerns about future global food production seem poorly based. The rapid phase of growth in food consumption is over for most of the world's population because of increased incomes and, besides, population growth rates continue to slow. Thus, the rate of growth of food production needed in the future is much lower than it has been for the past 40 years. Production and price instability will continue, perhaps with lessened intensity because of reduced government intervention. With priv...

  19. A discussion paper for emerging markets: The role of IMF and the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo R. Lizarzaburu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available While both the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, are two separate entities, often not clear the role of each of them is therefore that this paper seeks to consolidate diverse information reviewed from both entities with the purpose of being able to understand the functioning and scope of each of these important institutions that have had successes and setbacks and ultimately have an active role in global finance and economy, despite the many detractors who are at levels world. There is an anecdote which is worth mentioning. “John Maynard Keynes, recognized at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund was confused by the names he thought the Fund should be called a bank, and the World Bank should be called a bottom. Confusion has reigned ever since. The Bank and the IMF are two intergovernmental pillars supporting the structure of economic and financial world”. The fundamental difference between the two is understood as: the Bank institution primarily for the development, while the IMF is a cooperative institution that seeks to maintain an orderly system of payments and receipts between nations. The manner followed to choose the head of each organization has a different procedure, but the important thing is that in the next few years, several countries such as Brazil, India have more active participation and Latin America as a group may perhaps lead some of them.

  20. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  1. Characterization of 140 Japanese and world rice collections cultivated in Nihonmatsu-city in Fukushima in terms of radiocesium activity concentrations in seed grains and straws to explore rice cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuhiro Kojima; Djedidi Salem

    2017-01-01

    We studied varietal difference in radiocesium accumulation by using Japanese and World rice collection for future development of low accumulation varieties. As a result, the radiocesium activity concentration varied by 12- and 22-fold in seed grains and straws, respectively. When we examined the seed grain to straw ratio of radiocesium activity concentration, paddy rice cultivars of Japonica sub-species showed a lower result than Indica and Javanica paddy rice cultivars. These observations suggest that the Japonica paddy rice cultivars may have the property of repressing radioactive cesium translocation to edible parts. (author)

  2. Geothermal resources in Italy and world-wide: scientific debate and market evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, M.; Rizzi, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the state of the art in development and utilization of geothermal resources in Italy and Tuscany. Departing from the geological peculiarities of this region, which have contributed to Italy's leading role in technological innovation since the beginning of geo thermoelectric power generation (GPG), recent evidences from the market and scientific community are here analyzed in order to answer the question whether the economic downturn will put geothermal energy on the back burner, or if it will function as a catalyst for change. The first section explores the role of geothermal energy within the renewable energy mix. After an introduction on the strengths and weaknesses of the Italian energy system, the evolution of the matches between different types of geothermal resources (high, medium and low enthalpies) and technologies is analyzed from an economic, technical and environmental point of view. Here, the evolution of the regulatory framework emerges as one of the main driving forces behind incremental innovation and the spreading of technologies. The move towards sustainability seems to stimulate the market in spite of the barriers to entry linked to capital intensiveness and the risks related to geothermal investments. Beside the growth of relationships between industrial actors, public administration and scientific community, the analysis identifies the down scale of plants, the integration with other renewable and the industrial integration as the main next challenges in the field of geothermal competitiveness. To this end, the implementation of such new tools for territorial management as the ones based on LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) and SMCE (Social Multi Criteria Evaluation) is expected to stimulate further improvements and innovations. The second section analyzes the present regulatory framework at the communitarian, national and local level and the allocation of economical resources to research and development in particular in relation

  3. The future world oil market: state of nature or social contract?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    1999-10-01

    Mary Ann Tetreault develops a very interesting interpretation of the emerging new relationship between international oil companies and Middle East producing countries. The original intellectual tools she handles-concepts drawn from the European political philosophy tradition-allow her to argue as follows: (1) the oil market left to itself- whether participants are states or firms-behaves like a Hobbesian ''state of nature'' often resulting in a situation damaging to each participant; (2) to deal with it, the international oil community has historically relied on different types of organisations, but these social contracts or ''republics'' were inherently unstable since they rested on too narrowly defined interests; (3) the rationale behind the possible return of oil companies to the richest Middle East countries is the search for new ''international oil republics'' able to ''offer greater security and higher profits for all the good republicans among them''. (author)

  4. Examining the Effect of World Price Transfer to Domestic Markets for Sensitive and Certain Agricultural Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. shabanzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Agriculture as one of old sectors of economy has been important role in the supply food for peoples and raw materials. Globalization causes rapid growth of world trade and reduces information and communications costs. Globalization and rapid growth of trade increases the potential benefits of trade for agriculture from various aspects. The potential benefits of trade for agriculture increases from three aspects. Direct increase in the domain of agricultural sector activities for competition in the global market results in the benefits of access to global markets. This is especially true in cases where there is comparative advantage and the indirect effects of increased global trade on non-agricultural sectors that cause the domestic demand for food change from qualitative and quantitative aspects, are the benefits of this event. However, during the process of globalization, how to influence prices in different markets, including the impact of world prices on domestic prices is an important issue in trade policy analysis. During this process domestic prices are directly related to world prices. With this approach, the main objective of this study is to examine the effect of world price transfers to domestic markets for sensitive and certain agricultural products in Iran during 1360-91. Materials and Methods: To achieve this goal in this study, the Armington and the foreign currency elasticity of ten selected agricultural products in Iran including wheat, barley, rice, corn, soybean meal, vegetable oil (soybean and sunflower, sugar, eggs, poultry and beef, have been estimated and examined using Autoregressive Distribution lag Model (ARDL. In order to investigate speed of adjustment or in other words the speed of movement towards equilibrium, typically the error correction model (ECM is used. Existence of cointegration or in other words, long term relationship between a set of economic variables provide the basis for the use of error

  5. Democratizing Energy Access in a Marketized World: The Cases of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, M'Lisa Lee

    This thesis explores the experiences, motivations and the imaginary of people who seek to democratize access to energy. Through a survey of the energy democracy movement in Europe and North America and a case study of two participatory and democratically oriented electricity providers in Central America, this thesis examines the differences and similarities between democratizing energy in the Global North and Global South in the context of marketization and the global push to transition to renewable energy. The forces of an expanding global energy economy are increasingly influencing the way that we can access and consume energy in our lives. Local interactions cannot be understood by an isolated analysis without considering the larger structural conditions that implicate them. Today, we are witnessing a global push to transition our energy resources from fossil fuels to renewables due to the emergency of climate change. For the most part, this transition preoccupies itself with changing the technological instruments that source us the energy. Yet few changes are targeting transition from growth focused market-based economic models. Energy Democracy is one new imaginary that people are rallying around to help realize alternatives to drive more equitable and sustainable post-carbon futures. This thesis finds that there are unfounded normative assumptions being made about groups organizing around energy democracy that is causing scatter in the movement. There is an aggressive strand of energy democracy that readily accepts for-profit schemes and risks turning energy democracy into just another space for capital accumulation in the energy sector. This thesis presents two important suggestions for reconciling these problems. Firstly, to look beyond moving the term itself and prioritize connecting on the basis of the underlying principles that define the term. This will ultimately create more meaningful solidarity in the future, and a more grounded and unified movement

  6. The future world oil market: state of nature or social contract?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1999-10-01

    Mary Ann Tetreault develops a very interesting interpretation of the emerging new relationship between international oil companies and Middle East producing countries. The original intellectual tools she handles-concepts drawn from the European political philosophy tradition-allow her to argue as follows: (1) the oil market left to itself- whether participants are states or firms-behaves like a Hobbesian ''state of nature'' often resulting in a situation damaging to each participant; (2) to deal with it, the international oil community has historically relied on different types of organisations, but these social contracts or ''republics'' were inherently unstable since they rested on too narrowly defined interests; (3) the rationale behind the possible return of oil companies to the richest Middle East countries is the search for new ''international oil republics'' able to ''offer greater security and higher profits for all the good republicans among them''. (author)

  7. State and group dynamics of world stock market by principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2016-05-01

    We study the dynamic interactions and structural changes by a principal component analysis (PCA) to cross-correlation coefficients of global financial indices in the years 1998-2012. The variances explained by the first PC increase with time and show a drastic change during the crisis. A sharp change in PC coefficient implies a transition of market state, a situation which occurs frequently in the American and Asian indices. However, the European indices remain stable over time. Using the first two PC coefficients, we identify indices that are similar and more strongly correlated than the others. We observe that the European indices form a robust group over the observation period. The dynamics of the individual indices within the group increase in similarity with time, and the dynamics of indices are more similar during the crises. Furthermore, the group formation of indices changes position in two-dimensional spaces due to crises. Finally, after a financial crisis, the difference of PCs between the European and American indices narrows.

  8. Clinical outcomes with daptomycin: a post-marketing, real-world evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoulas, G

    2009-12-01

    The Cubicin Outcomes Registry and Experience (CORE) is an ongoing, retrospective, post-marketing database of daptomycin use in the USA. Although non-comparative, CORE offers insight into real-life clinical experience with daptomycin in various Gram-positive infections and specific patient types. Analyses of daptomycin treatment outcomes using the CORE database revealed that treatment with daptomycin has resulted in high rates of clinical success for a variety of Gram-positive infections, including indicated infections such as complicated skin and soft tissue infections, Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and right-sided infective endocarditis, and non-indicated infections such as osteomyelitis. Treatment outcomes did not differ significantly according to the causative pathogen for any of the analyses performed and were not influenced by the vancomycin MIC. Patients frequently received therapy with alternative antibiotics prior to treatment with daptomycin, particularly those patients with more serious infections. However, similar treatment outcomes were observed when daptomycin was used as first-line therapy or as salvage therapy, demonstrating the effectiveness of daptomycin in the treatment of these patients.

  9. Research document no. 20. The constitutionalizing of the international legal regime of the petroleum investments and the world market reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2000-09-01

    We analyse the new international legal regime for upstream petroleum investments and ''state contracts'' in general. In striking contrast to the ''New international economic order'' and ''Permanent sovereignty over natural resources'' ideologies of the 1960 and 1970, the emerging regime promotes the sanctification of contractual economic rights; the strict definition of State sovereign prerogatives, and the severe limitation of their conditions of exercise; the internationalization of the settlement of disputes through direct firm-State arbitration; the integration of national territories in a competitive, transparent, non-discriminative global market for investment. We demonstrate that it is rooted in the principles of liberal constitutionalism, hence promoting the internationalization of the Rule of Law. Such a legal regime is conducive to the expansion of the market for petroleum rights, as it restores the institutional conditions for credible commitment by the State. It will also accelerate the trend toward the ''commoditization'' of hydrocarbon resources. Bilateral investments treaties (especially the United States BIT program) as well as multilateral/regional instruments both general (draft MAI, MIGA, MERCOSUR, ALENA) and energy-specific (Energy Charter Treaty) are analysed as the main pillars and diffusion mechanisms of the new regime. A final paragraph indicates the way forward: the evaluation of the impact of this new legal regime on the world oil supply curve, especially as it eventually reaches - or not - some of the lowest-cost, biggest-resources countries. (author)

  10. The Occurrence of the Day-of-the-Week Effects on Polish and Major World Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamróz Paweł

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the occurrence of the so called day of the week effects in market return time series from the period of January 2003 to September 2013 (and additionally January 1999 to December 2002. The study focuses on four indices of the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WIG, WIG20, mWIG40 and sWIG80 and additionally five indices of major world stock exchanges (NIKKEI 225, DAX, CAC40, S&P 500, and IBEX. The main data sample was divided into three subperiods in order to determine whether or not the intensity of day of the week anomalies is constant in time. The study revealed a substantial number of the day of the week anomalies in earliest subperiods and very limited evidence of those effects in later ones, giving rise to the conclusion that the intensity of the day of the week anomalies is diminishing with time. The most common effect identified on the WSE was a positive Friday effect. The Monday effect often described in early literature on the subject matter seems to currently occur very rarely. The study also indicates that the day of the week effects were more persistent among stocks with smaller market capitalization on the WSE.

  11. Marketing to the world : Alberta company's extensive reach provides recession protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2009-12-15

    Top-Co LP specializes in float equipment and centralization equipment used in the primary cementing of oil and gas well casings. The centralizer products are used to centre casing in the wellbore. The float equipment is a check valve that, when cement is being pumped, opens and enables the cement to pass through the casing. The company also supplies other products to producers according to their needs in terms of the heat and depth they encounter when drilling in a formation. Top-Co is active in 62 countries worldwide, with growth primarily in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, as well as the North African countries of Libya, Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt. Russia is also becoming an important market. Currently, the company's revenue is split 25 per cent Canada and 75 per cent exports. Top-Co was nominated for the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters award. The company was established in 1963 and has 275 employees working from large facility in Edmonton and a smaller facility in Weatherford, Texas. In 2010, it will open a third facility in the Persian Gulf. A $3-million computerized flow-loop test facility enables the company to test new products and conduct failure analysis before they go to the field, or to conduct failure analysis on problematic equipment. A test stand circulates drilling mud through float valves and digitally monitors and records flow volumes, temperature and the valve's ability to handle back pressure. A unique cementing plug designed for a project offshore Newfoundland was recently tested to ensure that it could perform satisfactorily before taking the risk of encountering a problem in the well. The item was built in five days. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  12. Benzidine-based dyes: effects of industrial practices, regulations, and world trade on the biological stains market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapson, R W

    2009-06-01

    One of the most sweeping changes in the dye industry since the advent of synthetic dyes grew out of the health risks associated with benzidine. Dyes made from benzidine and its derivatives were used around the world until adverse health effects become incontrovertible. Workers and family members of workers involved in production and use of benzidine-based dyes had a high incidence of bladder cancer. Following publication of several reports documenting this health hazard, dye makers in the USA, Europe, and Japan phased these dyes out of production in the 1970s. Government regulations lent legal support for these voluntary initiatives. Two strategies subsequently evolved to compensate: developed nations brought alternative substances to market while emerging countries increased production of carcinogenic dyes and sold them at discount prices around the world. Nearly all dye manufacturing now has moved away from nations whose costs of production and compliance rendered them unable to compete. The purpose of this brief review is to publicize the health risks associated with dyes made from benzidine and its congeners, and to alert all companies and end users handling these dyes for biomedical applications that composition of the product and lot-to-lot variability may be problematic because of the manufacturing and distribution practices of the countries where they are produced.

  13. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF E-COMMERCE IN WORLD AND TURKEY AND THE IMPACTS OF MARKETING STRATEGIES IN E-COMMERCE ON TURKEY’S ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi, Nuray; Gokce, Cemre

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate thedevelopment of e-commerce and the impact of marketing strategies in e-commerceon economy. Economic indicators is used and and questionnaire method is appliedto analyze the development of e-commerce and the impact of marketing strategiesin e-commerce on economy. Results show that e-commerce is gaining a momentum inthe world and Turkey as well, and e-marketing strategies are positively relatedon economy, both macroeconomic and microeconomic. E-commerce...

  15. Endogenous versus Exogenous Crashes in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    A. Johansen; D. Sornette

    2002-01-01

    We perform an extended analysis of the distribution of drawdowns in the two leading exchange markets (US dollar against the Deutsmark and against the Yen), in the major world stock markets, in the U.S. and Japanese bond market and in the gold market, by introducing the concept of ``coarse-grained drawdowns,'' which allows for a certain degree of fuzziness in the definition of cumulative losses and improves on the statistics of our previous results on the existence of ``outliers'' or ``kings.'...

  16. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    pose the greatest threat to increased food production, storage and handling ... are to: assess pest control practices of grain merchants in Mubi markets with a .... This further cements the fact that multiple routes of contaminations are possible.

  17. Analysis of World Nuclear Market and Strategy of Korean NPP's Competitiveness Improvement for Exportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Seungkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    China, India and USA (nuclear adopted countries) are planning tremendous number of NPPs to meet their increasing electricity demand and Saudi Arabia, Vietnam (nuclear adopting countries) are also planning to include nuclear power in their energy mix as a long-term plan. Korea has exported 4 units of APR1400 to the UAE in December, 2009. Korea became sixth NPP supplier country and our economic feasibility and safety features were started to evaluate worldwide. Nuclear industries became a new driver of Korea’s export and nuclear industries in Korea are now expecting another NPP export to Middle-eastern countries, including UAE and Saudi Arabia, based on the first-mover’s advantage at the UAE. In 2000s, five countries (Japan, USA, France, Russia and Korea), which are able to build NPP, focused on NPP export more than domestic construction. Global trend of world nuclear market changed rapidly, especially after NPP export to the UAE. By the global trend, hegemony of nuclear market migrated from supplier country to buyer country. Nuclear companies started cooperating rather than competing. Financing to developing countries become more important. In general, one of the considerable combinations is Korea-Japan-USA alliance. Korea is in charge of EPC, Japan supports financing and deficient technology (with USA partner), and Japan-USA handles fuel supply and back-end fuel cycle based on new agreed terms of ROK-US Nuclear Cooperation Agreement. This combination was judged to best way to collaborate with global companies. Paying attention to many delayed (or potentially delayed) constructions from Russia, intercepting the construction work will be available in case of contracted countries. Korea can emphasize the short construction time, high responsiveness and mild/equal diplomatic position to the target countries.

  18. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  19. Reevaluation of the post-marketing safety of Shuxuening injection based on real-world and evidence-based evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Can Wang,1,2 Qing-ping Shi,1,2 Feng Ding,2 Xiao-dong Jiang,1,2 Wei Tang,3 Mei-Ling Yu,1,2 Jian-Hua Zhu2 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Huaiyuan County Hospital of TCM in Anhui, Bengbu, People’s Republic of China Aim: To evaluate the factors influencing suspected hypersensitivity and adverse systemic reactions after Shuxuening injection and to provide innovative ideas and methods for the reevaluation of post-marketing safety of Shuxuening.Methods: This study used a prospective, nested case–control study design, combined with a prescription sequence analysis design method. It classified patients who exhibited trigger signals after administration of Shuxuening injection as suspected allergic patients and made comparisons with patients who did not report adverse effects to calculate the correlation between relevant risk factors and suspected allergic reactions. Randomized controlled studies and cohort studies of the adverse drug reaction (ADR of Shuxuening were performed using a computer database. Data retrieval was carried out by the foundation governing the individual database. Meta-analysis was performed by using R3.2.3 software to evaluate the ADRs of Shuxuening.Results: The results of real-world study showed that administration of Shuxuening in combination with potassium aspartate and magnesium, atorvastatin calcium, Shengmai injection, pantoprazole sodium, or high-dose medication was a risk factor for suspected allergic reactions. Meta-analysis showed that the incidence of adverse events was 5.84% (95% CI 0.0499; 0.0674, and serious adverse reaction rate was 4.36% (95% CI 0.0188; 0.0760 when Shuxuening was used in combination with these drugs. The incidence of allergic reaction was also influenced by the vehicle, duration of treatment, single

  20. Estimates of immediate effects on world markets of a hypothetical disruption to Russia’s supply of six mineral commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safirova, Elena; Barry, James J.; Hastorun, Sinan; Matos, Grecia R.; Perez, Alberto Alexander; Bedinger, George M.; Bray, E. Lee; Jasinski, Stephen M.; Kuck, Peter H.; Loferski, Patricia J.

    2017-05-18

    The potential immediate effects of a hypothetical shock to Russia’s supply of selected mineral commodities on the world market and on individual countries were determined and monetized (in 2014 U.S. dollars). The mineral commodities considered were aluminum (refined primary), nickel (refined primary), palladium (refined) and platinum (refined), potash, and titanium (mill products), and the regions and countries of primary interest were the United States, the European Union (EU–28), and China. The shock is assumed to have infinite duration, but only the immediate effects, those limited by a 1-year period, are considered.A methodology for computing and monetizing the potential impacts was developed. Then the data pertaining to all six mineral commodities were collected and the most likely effects were computed. Because of the uncertainties associated with some of the data, sensitivity analyses were conducted to confirm the validity of the results.Results indicate that the impact on the United States arising from a shock to Russia’s supply, in terms of the value of net exports, would range from a gain of \\$336 million for titanium mill products to a loss of \\$237 million for potash; thus, the overall effect of a supply shock is likely to be quite modest. The study also demonstrates that, taken alone, Russia’s share in the world production of a particular commodity is not necessarily indicative of the size of potential impacts resulting from a supply shock; other factors, such as prices, domestic production, and the structure of international commodity flows were found to be important as well.

  1. The impact of the joining of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for World Trade Organization (WTO on local marketing of national products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah Hassan Salamah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is one of the wealthiest nations per capita in the world, as well as an economic power through possession of a large share of global oil resources. This study has been carried out to identify the benefits, which are likely to be enjoyed by Saudi Arabia after its accession into World Trade Organization. A total of 15 entrepreneurs filled out the questionnaires, which were designed on the basis of Likert scale. In order to analyze the outcomes, descriptive statistics technique has been applied after data collection from the respondents. Most of the participants consider the joining of Saudi Arabia into World Trade Organization as a beneficial decision for the Saudi market. This accession is advantageous as it helps to enhance the marketing and investment opportunities, as a consequence of which the economy of Saudi Arabia flourishes and the population rises. The marketing techniques are required to be established and adopted to manufacture high-quality products. The study outcomes are helpful for the policymakers and Saudi companies to emphasize on the production of high-quality products, as well as to implement the strategies for better marketing of their products in local market.

  2. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    children; increased body mass index of people formerly wasted by HIV/AIDS; ... and market acceptability of Amaranth cruentus based products in order to ... Peru, grain amaranth also used the grains as food; preparation of local beverage; added ... initiated to know the proximate composition, mineral and vitamin contents of ...

  3. 7 CFR 800.61 - Prohibited grain handling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such blending will result in grain being designated as Mixed grain in accordance with subpart E of the... processed into a product(s) by the purchaser and not resold into the grain market. (3) Products or... include additional requirements for grain that is officially inspected and weighed. (3) Marketing dockage...

  4. The world petroleum market in 2007. DIREM analysis; Le marche petrolier mondial en 2007. Analyse de la DIREM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    2007: the world is becoming used to a high oil price. With an average price of 72.6 US$ per barrel for the ICE Brent, the crude rates show a 9.8% rise with respect to the 2006 ones (66.11 US$/b) following the 20% rise observed in 2006. Price rates show a sawtooth evolution but with a general rise over the full year. Thanks to a US$ change rate favorable to the euro, the 2007 average is of 52.76 euro/b with respect to 52.65 euro/b in 2006. At the end of the year 2007 the barrel price reached 93.85 US$/b with respect to 60.86 US$/b at the end of 2006. The document analyses the impact of these high prices on the economies of oil-consuming and oil-producing countries. It presents the 2007 highlights of the main OPEC countries (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Venezuela, Iraq, Nigeria, Angola), and then analyses the international quotations of petroleum products on the Rotterdam market and the prices of petroleum products in France. (J.S.)

  5. World corporate loan markets for raising new capital - does distance still matter: Are financial assets priced locally or globally?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinovič Borut

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Though the paper focuses on pricing, as the background I provide some evidence about loan flows across markets in the form of borrowers’ and lenders’ propensity to issue outside their natural home market. The data show that borrowers stay home when they can and that they tend to issue in Europe when they must issue abroad. That is, borrowers domiciled in one of the major markets (Europe, U.S., and Asia almost always issue in that market, whereas borrowers in more remote locations usually issue in the European market. For example, borrowers from Latin America are overwhelmingly issuing in Europe rather than in the U.S. market.

  6. Reevaluation of the post-marketing safety of Shuxuening injection based on real-world and evidence-based evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Shi, Qing-Ping; Ding, Feng; Jiang, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Wei; Yu, Mei-Ling; Zhu, Jian-Hua

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the factors influencing suspected hypersensitivity and adverse systemic reactions after Shuxuening injection and to provide innovative ideas and methods for the reevaluation of post-marketing safety of Shuxuening. This study used a prospective, nested case-control study design, combined with a prescription sequence analysis design method. It classified patients who exhibited trigger signals after administration of Shuxuening injection as suspected allergic patients and made comparisons with patients who did not report adverse effects to calculate the correlation between relevant risk factors and suspected allergic reactions. Randomized controlled studies and cohort studies of the adverse drug reaction (ADR) of Shuxuening were performed using a computer database. Data retrieval was carried out by the foundation governing the individual database. Meta-analysis was performed by using R3.2.3 software to evaluate the ADRs of Shuxuening. The results of real-world study showed that administration of Shuxuening in combination with potassium aspartate and magnesium, atorvastatin calcium, Shengmai injection, pantoprazole sodium, or high-dose medication was a risk factor for suspected allergic reactions. Meta-analysis showed that the incidence of adverse events was 5.84% (95% CI 0.0499; 0.0674), and serious adverse reaction rate was 4.36% (95% CI 0.0188; 0.0760) when Shuxuening was used in combination with these drugs. The incidence of allergic reaction was also influenced by the vehicle, duration of treatment, single dose, and indicated vs off-label use. Risk factors for adverse reaction following the use of Shuxuening injection in patients are associated with a single dose, vehicle, type of disease, and combination with potassium aspartate, atorvastatin calcium, Shengmai injection, injection with pantoprazole sodium, and other drugs. Physicians should be careful to follow guidelines when administering this drug. We further propose that the unique methodology

  7. Interstellar grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  8. Marketing Learning Communities to Generation Z: The Importance of Face-to-Face Interaction in a Digitally Driven World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Julia; Zobac, Stephanie R.; Spillane, Allison; Thomas, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to identify the marketing strategies utilized by Learning Community (LC) administrators at two large, public, four-year research universities in the Midwest. The use of digital media coupled with face-to-face interaction is identified as an effective method of marketing LCs to the newest population of incoming college students,…

  9. The fluctuations in oil prices in the OPEC countries and the impact on the world oil market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryanova N.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available the article examines the issues of influence of OPEC countries on the international oil market. Also, the author analyzes the state of the oil market and fluctuations in oil prices at the macroeconomic level for 2011–2016.

  10. Scenarios of the development of the world market for environmental and climate protection goods and services; Szenarien zur Entwicklung des Weltmarktes fuer Umwelt- und Klimaschutzgueter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazejczak, Juergen [Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany); Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Edler, Dietmar [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Supply potentials of German and European producers of goods and services for the protection of environment and climate have been accessed in a study by DIW, FhG-ISI and Roland Berger (2007). The present study explores a simple methodology to supplement such supply oriented assessments by a projection of world wide demand for environmental and climate protection goods and services (ECPGS) and to determine the share directed at German and European producers. The analysis starts from assumptions about world economic growth disaggregated by 175 countries. For each country the presumed importance of environmental protection - disaggregated by 4 areas - is described by its expected GDP share of environmental protection expenditures; rich countries devote more of their GDP than poor countries to environmental and climate protection. Environmental protection expenditure is delimited in this study in accordance with the rather traditional classification of Eurostat which only includes measures directly aimed at the reduction of pollution or other environmental pressures but excludes measures to allow for a more rational use of natural ressources. Combining this information yields an estimate of the world market of ECPGS. By adjusting statistical information on overall import shares of the 175 countries to account for the particularities of ECPGS, world imports (i.e. world trade) of ECPGS can be estimated. World market shares of German and EU suppliers of ECPGS have been derived from OECD trade statistics. Applying these to the estimates of world trade of ECPGS yields German an EU exports of ECPGS. Together with domestic demand less imports, total domestically effective demand in Germany and the EU results. To account for uncertainties, a number sensitivity analyses have been performed. They assume e.g. a less pronounced shift of growth centres to Asia, differently focussed expenditure, and reduced world market shares of Germany and Europe. Even under the assumption of a

  11. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  12. The smart energy world from a competition point of view. An interaction between smart customers, smart market and smart grids; Die Smarte Energiewelt aus wettbewerblicher Sicht. Ein Zusammenspiel aus Smarten Kunden, Smart Market und Smarten Netzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechmann, Holger [EnBW Vertrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Everybody is talking about the ''Energiewende, the Smart Energy World and about ''Smart Market / Smart Grids'', but almost no one knows, what it exactly means. But the ''Energiewende'' is already coming. The entire energy sector and particularly the elctricity industry are evolving towards decentralized structures mainly based on renewable energies. Not only the growth in fluctuating power generation from renewable energy sources like wind and photovoltaic but also their consumption on a local basis are calling for new ways of decentralized managing energy and for further developed market rules. The interaction of all stakeholders (customer, market players, grid operators, authorities) in a Smart Market/Smart Grid environment is required to successfully implement an efficient ''Energiewende''. Derived from the different interests of these stakeholders, the paper describes a system and roles within this system. It shows how Smart Market and Smart Grid can interact corresponding to the guidelines of German Regulator recently published. (orig.)

  13. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  14. Tendencies in the application of the concept of catalogue marketing in Republic of Serbia and the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelić Darko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue marketing is one of the direct marketing channels. This concept implies making a lot of strategic and tactical decisions that determine catalogue's market success. Catalogue sales is most developed in USA (where it originated and in Western Europe. In Serbia, catalogue marketing is applied just in last few years, since big foreign catalog companies started their business in this region. Here, catalogue marketing is at a lower level of development than in the developed countries, and it comprises a minor part of total trade turnover. The positive thing is that now there are laws that regulates this area, which is encouraging for its development. More and more companies in Serbia are presenting and selling its product range through Internet catalogs. The survey, whose results are briefly presented in this article, showed that consumers in Serbia shop less by print catalogues than consumers in developed countries, and that the partition of those who buy through e-catalogues is increasing. With the increase in standard of living, and overcoming the crisis, there is a chance for catalogue marketing to become much more important concept among consumers and companies in Serbia.

  15. The Wearable World in the Palm of our Hand: The Perceived Importance of Augmented Reality in Marketing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bandeira, Ph.D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article refers to an exploratory study of the perceived importance of augmented reality for marketing strategies, namely in what concern: costs, branding, communications and product versus immersion, body, wearable and blended augmented reality. It starts with the theoretical framework for augmented reality, followed by the design and research methodology; it then proceeds with the analyses and comment of data gathered, and at the end, it refers to the research limitations and perspectives. Results point out that augmented reality is not perceived as an outstanding tool for marketing nor as an investment with high benefits, nevertheless it is seen as pertinent for blended marketing and immersive augmented reality gathering some sympathy from respondents.

  16. The influence of regulatory fit and interactivity on brand satisfaction and trust in E-health marketing inside 3D virtual worlds (Second Life).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie; Lee, Kwan Min

    2010-12-01

    Interactive three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments like Second Life have great potential as venues for effective e-health marketing and e-brand management. Drawing from regulatory focus and interactivity literatures, this study examined the effects of the regulatory fit that consumers experience in interactive e-health marketing on their brand satisfaction and brand trust. The results of a two-group comparison experiment conducted within Second Life revealed that consumers in the regulatory fit condition show greater brand satisfaction and brand trust than those in the regulatory misfit condition, thus confirming the persuasive influence of regulatory fit in e-brand management inside 3D virtual worlds. In addition, a structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated the mediating role of consumers' perceived interactivity in explaining the processional link between regulatory fit and brand evaluation. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  18. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  19. The world market of renewable energies. Trends on the long term for the solar, wind and hydraulic sectors - Which growth strategies for equipment manufacturers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This study first proposes an analysis of data related to the renewable energy market context. It aims at identifying the current and future impact of environmental factors on actors. It focuses on structural evolutions as opposed to cyclical factors. It also gives an overview of the evolution of World demand in the fields of conventional and renewable energies, and proposes a detailed analysis of three main segments: solar, wind, and hydraulic energy. The second part reports an analysis of the structure of the sector of electric equipment manufacturing for the production of energy by using clean or renewable sources, with a focus on solar, wind and hydraulic energies. Strategies are discussed, notably for the main operators (First Solar, Goldwind, Q-Cells, Suntech Power, Suzlon, and Vestas). The next part presents financial and economic data (and their evolution) for the world main equipment manufacturers (the above-mentioned ones and Alstom, Dongfang, General Electric, Siemens)

  20. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  1. The Wearable World in the Palm of our Hand: The Perceived Importance of Augmented Reality in Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Bandeira, Ph.D; António Cardoso; Álvaro Cairrão

    2013-01-01

    The present article refers to an exploratory study of the perceived importance of augmented reality for marketing strategies, namely in what concern: costs, branding, communications and product versus immersion, body, wearable and blended augmented reality. It starts with the theoretical framework for augmented reality, followed by the design and research methodology; it then proceeds with the analyses and comment of data gathered, and at the end, it refers to the research limitations and per...

  2. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  3. Geological characteristics of the main deposits in the world. Geological characteristics of French uranium deposits; their consequences on the different stages of valorisation. The uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.; Lenoble, A.; Mabile, J.

    1958-07-01

    This document gathers three contributions. In the first one, after having recalled data regarding uranium ore and metal reserves in Canada, USA, South Africa and France, the author describes and discusses the geological and mineral characteristics of the main deposits in Canada (Great Bear Lake, Ace-Verna and other deposits of the Beaverlodge district, Gunnar, Blind River and Bancroft), in the USA (New Mexico, Colorado and Arizona), and in South Africa (similar structure as observed in Blind River). The second contribution addresses the French uranium deposits by firstly presenting, describing and classifying vein deposits (five types are distinguished) and sedimentary deposits in different geological formations, and by secondly discussing the impacts of these characteristics on exploration, surface exploration works, and mining works. The third contribution proposes an overview of the uranium market: comments of world productions (conventional extraction processes and technical peculiarities, costs and prices, reserves and production in Canada, USA, South Africa, France, Australia and others), presentation of the French program (location and production capacity of uranium production plants, locations of ore extraction), overview of the current situation of the world market (price levels, possible prices after 1962), discussion of the comparison between demands and supplies, overview of the French uranium policy

  4. South Africa's marketing strategies towards major African regional economic players: the case of the 2010 FIFA World Cup –was it truly an African event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PPS Sifolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically examines the effect and the dynamics of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in relation to major African regional economic players. It was conducted with an assumption that the branding of the 2010 FIFA World Cup as „Africa‟s Time‟, „Africa‟s moment‟, and „Africa‟s turn‟ to the benefit of the continent would be viewed with pessimism, at least by the (Egypt, Algeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Ghana and Nigeria major African regional economic players, as an event that did not benefit the continent as a whole but South Africa and the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. This article used phenomenological strategy under qualitative methods whereby face to face interviews were conducted from a sample drawn from the pool of diplomatic community and the staff of relevant Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs and Inter-Governmental Organisations (IGOs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results revealed that an event was a tremendous boost to the pride and confidence of Africa and its people. Credit should be given to South Africa for taking the leading role in marketing an event as African and not as South African. Such marketing strategy did not only ensure African ownership but instilled the sense of African pride.

  5. Competitiveness analysis of Czech agrarian foreign trade in the context of world agrarian market and agrarian trade of EU-27 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svatoš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the commodity structure of Czech (CR agrarian trade in relation to the EU countries. An emphasis is put on comparative advantages of particular aggregations from the view-point of their application on the EU internal market. This analysis is based on an evaluation of comparative advantages by means of a modified Balassa index. It is studied in two stages, for the internal EU market and the world market. The analysis results are then shown in a graph. Subsequently, the authors implement an idea arising from a BCG matrix on the results of the graphic presentation. The aim is to identify those aggregations (SITC, rev. 3 which are or have a potential to be a pillar of agri-business (ie, the “cash cows” and “stars”, and vice versa to show the aggregation which are non-prospective in the long term or problematic (ie, the “dogs” and “problem children”. As start are identified as those aggregations which are characterised by the highest growth rate of comparative advantage value. From the analysis results, changes are apparent if we compare the CR trade commodity structure in relation to the EU countries. Findings also concern the development of comparative advantages and following CR specialisation on trade with certain aggregations.

  6. Fortalecimiento de la Red de Mujeres Rurales mediante la producción, procesamiento y comercialización de granos básicos Strengthening the Network of Rural Women through the production, processing and marketing of basic grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Bonilla Leiva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente proyecto ha logrado incrementar la producción de granos básicos, su industrialización y comercializaciónparateneralternativasalimentarias y nutritivas, de modo que se fortalezca la soberanía alimentaria de las zonas rurales de Costa Rica. El impacto en lo local se expresa en el for talecimiento de los ingresos familiares de las personas involucradas en el proyecto, el incremento de la producción de granos, la industrialización producto de la transferencia de tecnología, el mejoramiento en la dieta y la generación de empleo para las mujeres, tanto en la producción de granos en el campo como en el manejo poscosecha y el procesamiento para la elaboración de productos empacados para el mercado. La generación de capacidades en las asociadas a la Red de Mujeres Rurales y el fortalecimiento de esta son logros del compromiso de las mujeres y el apoyo constante del proyecto. Por otra parte,se generó un producto a base de frijol y arroz con un alto valor nutritivo, que se ha vendido en ferias y algunos pequeños locales comerciales, y que se podrá distribuir en escuelas, centros infantiles y abastecedores locales. El impacto regional se da en la introducción del producto, cuyo principal consumidor meta es la población infantil y juvenil, ya que se busca mejorar sus hábitos alimenticios; posteriormente, se pretende extender al mercado nacional.This project was able to increase grain production, industrialization and marketing, to have food and nutrition alternatives to strengthen the food security of rural areas. The local impact is expressed in strengthening family income of the people involved in the project, the increase in grain production, industrialization technology transfer, diet improvement and employment generation for women, both in grain production in the field and in food processing. Capacity building in women associated to Rural Women’s Network was possible because of women’s commitment and the continued

  7. Post-Marketing Safety Surveillance of the Salvia Miltiorrhiza Depside Salt for Infusion: A Real World Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Yan

    Full Text Available Salvia Miltiorrhiza Depside Salt for Infusion (SMDS is made of a group of highly purified listed drugs. However, its safety data is still reported limitedly. Compared with the clinical trials, its safety in the real world setting is barely assessed.To investigate the safety issues, including adverse events (AEs, adverse events related to SMDS (ADEs, and adverse drug reactions (ADRs of the SMDS in the real world clinical practice.This is a prospective, multicenter, pharmacist-led, cohort study in the real world setting. Consecutive patients prescribed with SMDS were all included in 36 sites. Pharmacists were well trained to standardized collect the patients information, including demographics, medical history, prescribing patterns of SMDS, combined medications, adverse events, laboratory investigations, outcomes of the treatment when discharge, and interventions by pharmacists. Adverse events and adverse drug reactions were collected in details. Multivariate possion regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors associated with ADEs using the significance level (α 0.05. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01872520.Thirty six hospitals were participated in the study and 30180 consecutive inpatients were included. The median age was 62 (interquartile range [IQR], 50-73 years, and male was 17384 (57.60% among the 30180 patients. The incidences of the AEs, ADEs and ADRs were 6.40%, 1.57% and 0.79%, respectively. There were 9 kinds of new ADEs which were not on the approved label found in the present study. According to the multivariate analysis, male (RR = 1.381, P = 0.009, 95%CI [1.085~1.759], more concomitant medications (RR = 1.049, P<0.001, 95%CI [1.041~1.057], longer duration of SMDS therapy (RR = 1.027, P<0.001, 95%CI [1.013~1.041], higher drug concentration (RR = 1.003, P = 0.014, 95%CI [1.001~1.006], and resolvent unapproved (RR = 1.900, P = 0.002, 95%CI [1.260~2.866] were the independent risk factors of the ADEs. Moreover, following

  8. Energy - economy - policy: considerations on the world energy market. Energie - Oekonomie - Politik: wirtschaftstheoretische und wirtschaftspolitische Betrachtungen zum Weltenergiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, H B

    1991-07-11

    Worldwide, there is no technical scarcity of energy resources, there is a scarcity of those which might be recovered cost-effectively. The approach of the traditional resource theory is orientated to the optimum distribution of the finite energy resources between the generations. The present distribution problem is, however, the excessive demand for cost-advantageous energy resources of the Third World by the industrialized countries. The industrialized countries themselves own abundant energy resources (e.g. 'non-conventional' oils) which, however, cannot be cost-effectively recovered unless a substantially higher energy price level assures economic viability. This analysis raises fundamental questions concerning an optimized balance of interests in the field of utilization of resources between the North (rich countries) and the South (poor countries, need for energy; increasing overpopulation). Alternative solutions aiming at better conservation of cost-effectively recoverable resources to the advantage of the Third World countries are discussed as well as viable instruments to be used within the framework of an international energy policy. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Food Prices and Climate Extremes: A Model of Global Grain Price Variability with Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Frieler, K.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events such as droughts, floods, or heat waves affect agricultural production in major cropping regions and therefore impact the world market prices of staple crops. In the last decade, crop prices exhibited two very prominent price peaks in 2007-2008 and 2010-2011, threatening food security especially for poorer countries that are net importers of grain. There is evidence that these spikes in grain prices were at least partly triggered by actual supply shortages and the expectation of bad harvests. However, the response of the market to supply shocks is nonlinear and depends on complex and interlinked processes such as warehousing, speculation, and trade policies. Quantifying the contributions of such different factors to short-term price variability remains difficult, not least because many existing models ignore the role of storage which becomes important on short timescales. This in turn impedes the assessment of future climate change impacts on food prices. Here, we present a simple model of annual world grain prices that integrates grain stocks into the supply and demand functions. This firstly allows us to model explicitly the effect of storage strategies on world market price, and thus, for the first time, to quantify the potential contribution of trade policies to price variability in a simple global framework. Driven only by reported production and by long--term demand trends of the past ca. 40 years, the model reproduces observed variations in both the global storage volume and price of wheat. We demonstrate how recent price peaks can be reproduced by accounting for documented changes in storage strategies and trade policies, contrasting and complementing previous explanations based on different mechanisms such as speculation. Secondly, we show how the integration of storage allows long-term projections of grain price variability under climate change, based on existing crop yield scenarios.

  10. Coal demand and trade - growth and structural change in a competitive world market; Popyt i handel weglem - wzrost i zmiany strukturalne na konkurencyjnym rynku swiatowym

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copley, C. [World Coal Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The article presents an overview of global demand and trade in hard coal (steam and coking). Coal demand has grown steadily over the past thirty years but coal trade has and will continue to grow at a faster rate. Transport contributes a relatively high proportion to the final price. Demand growth is strongest in countries with limited resources while production is declining in some countries with mature mining industries. There is a shift to demand in Asian markets. Spot contracts and tender transactions are replacing long-term contracts and e-commerce is developing. Prices are expected to remain stable, relative to those of oil and gas. China is expected to remain the world's second longest supplier of coal. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gause, Matěj

    2012-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  12. Photovoltaic mini power plants for integration in the third world and Eastern Europe. Market analysis aimed at health and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsgaard, J.S.

    1994-12-01

    Energy is a critical factor which determines the progress of rural development. Energy is therefore an area of concern. The quality, availability and cost of conventional energies, plus the associated environmental effects are a growing problem - not only for the health infrastructure but also for agriculture and domestic life. This is true not only in developing countries where the fast growing industries and urban populations demand a soaring proportion of available energy at the expense of the rural communities, but also in the poorest countries with weak energy infrastructure. Renewable energies, much studied in the last 20 years, can meet the needs of rural health and education services and communities by providing high quality, low cost, non-polluting energy. Solar energy, in particular, has the flexibility to produce electricity, heat and cooling. Solar technologies, furthermore, are backed by an established and experienced industry. This report proposes to meet the energy needs for health and education in rural communities. This report analyses the need and market for photovoltaic Mini Power Plants in the 1-20 kW size. According to WHO and UNESCO such plants will be able to fulfill the requirements in rural community villages, health centres and education centres and be economically feasible. (au)

  13. Industrial application of radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakladnoj, G.A.; Men'shenin, A.I.; Pertsovskij, E.S.; Salimov, R.A.; Cherepkov, V.G.; Krsheminskij, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    One of the main reasons for grain losses during storage is its damage by pest insects. Chemical methods widely used at present for grain decontamination have some shortcomings. In this connection a radiation method for grain disinfestation is developed and introduced in industry. First in the world experimental-industrial disinfestator on the base of electron accelerators is put into operation at Odessa port elevator

  14. Noncommunicable diseases: global health priority or market opportunity? An illustration of the World Health Organization at its worst and at its best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison Rosamund

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as a global health priority started a decade ago and culminated in a 2011 United Nations high-level meeting. The focus is on four diseases (cardiovascular and chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, and diabetes) and four risk factors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and harmful alcohol use). The message is that disease and death are now globalized, risk factors are overwhelmingly behavioral, and premature NCD deaths, especially in low- and middle-income countries, are the concern. The NCD agenda is promoted by United Nations agencies, foundations, institutes, and organizations in a style that suggests a market opportunity. This "hard sell" of NCDs contrasts with the sober style of the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease report, which presents a more nuanced picture of mortality and morbidity and different implications for global health priorities. This report indicates continuing high levels of premature death from infectious disease and from maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions in low-income countries and large health inequalities. Comparison of the reports offers an illustration of the World Health Organization at its worst, operating under the influence of the private sector, and at its best, operating according to its constitutional mandate.

  15. Produtividade de grãos e óleo de genótipos de amendoim para o mercado oleoquímico Grain and oil yield of peanut genotypes for the oil chemistry market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Cavalcanti dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Linhagens de elite e cultivares de amendoim rasteiro foram avaliadas quanto às suas produtividades de grãos e de óleo, visando uma posterior indicação ao mercado de óleo comestível ou combustível. Os genótipos foram cultivados no período das águas, durante dois anos, em Barbalha, CE, sob o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. A colheita foi efetuada entre 110 e 135 dias após o plantio. As variáveis analisadas foram produtividade em vagens, sementes e óleo. O óleo bruto foi extraído aplicando-se a tecnologia convencional de soxhlet, utilizando-se éter de petróleo como solvente. Posteriormente, procedeu-se às análises dos ácidos graxos por meio de cromatografia gasosa. Baseando-se nos ensaios de produção, os materiais de maior produção de grãos foram LViPE-06 e BRS Pérola Branca, com médias de 3,04 t ha-1 de vagens e 2,13 t ha-1 de sementes. Esses materiais também se destacaram para o segmento oleoquímico, baseando-se no teor de óleo e na relação de ácidos graxos O/L, que se situaram em 51% e 1,9, respectivamente.Top lines and cultivars of runner peanut genotypes were analyzed as to grain and oil yield, aiming further recommendation to edible or combustible oil market. The genotypes were cultivated during wet seasons for two years, at the city of Barbalha, state of Ceará, Brazil, by using a complete randomized block design with five replicates. The harvest took place from 110 to 135 days after planting. Pod, grain and oil yields were registered in each plot. Crude oil was extracted by soxhlet protocol, by using petroleum ether as a solvent. Afterwards, fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. Based on yield tests, LViPE-06 and BRS Pérola Branca showed the highest grain yields, with pod and seed yield averages of 3.04 kg ha-1 and 2.13 kg ha-1, respectively. These genotypes also stood out as to oil chemistry industry, based on oil content and ratio of oleic/ linoleic fatty

  16. Uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.; Asem, M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of the uranium market is present in two periods: The initial period 1947-1970 and from 1970 onwards, with the establishment of a commercial market. The world uranium requirements are derived from the corresponding forecast of nuclear generating capacity, with, particular emphasis to the brazilian requirements. The forecast of uranium production until the year 2000 is presented considering existing inventories and the already committed demand. The balance between production and requirements is analysed. Finally the types of contracts currently being used and the development of uranium prices in the world market are considered. (author)

  17. AUTOMATION OF TRACEABILITY PROCESS AT GRAIN TERMINAL LLC “ UKRTRANSAGRO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. TRISHYN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive trend of growth in both grain production and export is indicated. In the current marketing year the export potential of the Ukrainian grain market is close to the record level. However, the high positions in the rating of world exporters are achieved not only due to the high export potential, but also because of higher quality and logistics. These factors depend directly on the quality of enterprise management and all processes occurring at it. One of the perspective ways of enterprise development is the implementation of the traceability system and further automation of the traceability process. European integration laws are obliging Ukrainian enterprises to have a traceability system. Traceability is an ability to follow the movement of a feed or food through specified stages of production, processing and distribution. The process of traceability is managing by people, which implies a human factor. Automation will allow, in a greater extent, to exclude the human factor that will mean decreasing of errors in documentation and will speed up the process of grain transshipment. Research work on the process was carried out on the most modern grain terminal - LLC “UkrTransAgro”. The terminal is located in the Ukrainian water area of the Azov Sea (Mariupol, Ukraine. Characteristics of the terminal: capacity of a simultaneous storage - 48,120 thousand tons, acceptance of crops from transport - 4,500 tons / day; acceptance of crops from railway transport - 3000 tons / day, transshipment capacity - up to 1.2 million tons per year, shipment to the sea vessels - 7000 tons / day. The analysis of the automation level of the grain terminal is carried out. The company uses software from 1C - «1C: Enterprise 8. Accounting for grain elevator, mill, and feed mill for Ukraine». This software is used for quantitative and qualitative registration at the elevator in accordance with industry guidelines and standards. The software product has many

  18. Conceptual Approach to Formation of Competitiveness of the Leading International Airports under Conditions of the World Trajectory of the Airline Market Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydorenko Kateryna V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential of competitiveness of the airport, as any other enterprise of the service sphere, is determined by the corporate power of the producer of these values. The issue of development of the infrastructure development strategy of leading international airports, which sets the goal of solution of the problem of complete, timely, uninterrupted and high quality satisfaction of the fast growing demand of services consumers with minimal costs, becomes extremely urgent under conditions of dynamic development of the world aviation. However, the airport infrastructure is rather wasteful and requires permanent investments into renovation of the infrastructure objects and technological systems. The airport infrastructure is a set of objects, which are divided, by their functional purpose, into objects that directly service the technological process of air conveyance (sphere of aviation activity and objects that create additional services. Increase of competitiveness of the airport in the world economic environment envisages timely modernisation and harmonious development of its objects in accordance with requirements of the airport services market on the basis of rational resource provision and efficient management of the property complex at all stages of functioning and development. The author studies aspects of formation of the competitive strategy of the airport, identifies strategic priorities of development of the airport infrastructure, including through the mechanism of state-private partnership, use of transit potential, strengthening of the logistical component, increase of quality of servicing, and diversification of activity by means of strengthening its non-aviation component with consideration of goals of efficient integration in the national and global environment.

  19. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  20. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  1. The Evolution of the Whole Grain Partnership in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten; Neess, Rikke Iben

    This paper is about the evolution of the Whole Grain Partnership in Denmark. The partnership’s objective is to increase public health by encouraging Danes to eat more whole grain. The partnership also provides a business opportunity for the food industry to expand the market for whole grain...... products. The Whole Grain Partnership is a campaign organization supported by 35 partners from government, health NGOs and the food industry. A public‐private partnership holds much promise and presents an exciting opportunity to increase whole grain intake for the benefit of public health. Before...... the Danish Whole Grain Partnership was established in January 2008, Danes ate on average only 36 grams of whole grain per day per 10MJ (mega joules). Today, Danes eat on average 63 grams of whole grain per day per 10MJ. 30% of the population now eats the recommended intake of 75 grams of whole grain per day...

  2. The economics of energy market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.; Kammen, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates three energy-sector market transformation programs: the US Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program to promote on-grid efficient lighting; the World Bank Group's new Photovoltaic Market Transformation Initiative; and the federal grain ethanol subsidy. The authors develop a benefit-cost model that uses experience curves to estimate unit cost reductions as a function of cumulative production. Accounting for dynamic feedback between the demand response and price reductions from production experience raises the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of the first two programs substantially. The BCR of the ethanol program, however, is approximately zero, illustrating a technology for which subsidization was not justified. Their results support a broader role for market transformation programs to commercialize new environmentally attractive technologies, but the ethanol experience suggests moderately funding a broad portfolio composed of technologies that meet strict selection criteria

  3. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  4. Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

    In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

  5. Digital Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Wind; Vijay Mahajan

    2002-01-01

    The digital revolution has shaken marketing to its core with consumers being offered greater price transparency and often even the chance to dictate the price. What does pricing mean in a world in which customers propose their own prices (as at priceline.com) or buyers and sellers haggle independently in auctions (as at e-Bay)? The most significant changes in the digital marketing show the emergence of 'cyber consumers', the cyber business-to-business world and the changing reality of an incr...

  6. Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    A common approach to regulating electricity is through auction-based competitive wholesale markets. The goal of this approach is to provide a reliable supply of power at the lowest reasonable cost to the consumer. This necessitates market structures and operating rules that ensure revenue sufficiency for all generators needed for resource adequacy purposes. Wholesale electricity markets employ marginal-cost pricing to provide cost-effective dispatch such that resources are compensated for their operational costs. However, marginal-cost pricing alone cannot guarantee cost recovery outside of perfect competition, and electricity markets have at least six attributes that preclude them from functioning as perfectly competitive markets. These attributes include market power, externalities, public good attributes, lack of storage, wholesale price caps, and ineffective demand curve. Until (and unless) these failures are ameliorated, some form of corrective action(s) will be necessary to improve market efficiency so that prices can correctly reflect the needed level of system reliability. Many of these options necessarily involve some form of administrative or out-of-market actions, such as scarcity pricing, capacity payments, bilateral or other out-of-market contracts, or some hybrid combination. A key focus with these options is to create a connection between the electricity market and long-term reliability/loss-of-load expectation targets, which are inherently disconnected in the native markets because of the aforementioned market failures. The addition of variable generation resources can exacerbate revenue sufficiency and resource adequacy concerns caused by these underlying market failures. Because variable generation resources have near-zero marginal costs, they effectively suppress energy prices and reduce the capacity factors of conventional generators through the merit-order effect in the simplest case of a convex market; non-convexities can also suppress prices.

  7. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  8. Genetic Architecture of Grain Chalk in Rice and Interactions with a Low Phytic Acid Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain quality characteristics have a major impact on the value of the harvested rice crop. In addition to grain dimensions which determine rice grain market classes, translucent milled kernels are also important for assuring the highest grain quality and crop value. Over the last several years, ther...

  9. Technological barriers to the growth of the export potential of Russian grain industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Eremchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is the world's largest wheat exporter. The sales volume on foreign markets in 2015 amounted to $3.9 billion, or 10.1% of global exports. By the end of 2015, the volume of exports of agricultural products exceeded revenues from sales of arms in foreign markets. However, in dollar terms, wheat exports correspond to only a fifth place in the world. The article analyzes the reasons for a significant gap in the volume of exports and revenue, barriers to the development of export of agricultural deep processed products. The assumption is made that the development of technologies for deep processing of grain crops will increase the share of exports of Russian products with high added value.

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  11. The evolution of gas price: gas assessment and perspectives; The evolution of gas price on the American, Asian and European markets; Assessment of the organised gas market; Assessment of gas market opening; Gas price: the point of view of consumers and providers; Tariff, the formula which cannot be found: a new stage in an endless history; The diversity of the world gas industry: the Mediterranean situation on prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, Herve; Corbeau, Anne-Sophie; Lu, Long; Maire, Jacques; Verdier, Catherine; Bros, Thierry; Nyouki, Evariste; Astruc, Pierre; Katz, Richard; Jamme, Dominique; Rosier, Philippe; Salanson, Damien; Saniez, Thierry; Moraleda, Pedro; Le Gourrierec, M.

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this document contains the various contributions and interventions during round tables dealing with the evolution of gas price on American, Asian and European markets, an assessment of the organised gas market (model, references, members, and so on), an assessment of market gas opening, the point of view of consumers and providers on gas price. Then three articles address the issue of gas pricing in France, the developments of gas industry in the world (consumptions, production, perspectives for LNG) and the Mediterranean situation with respect to gas prices (trends and challenges)

  12. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  13. Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K, Peng K

    1980-12-01

    The disparity between the consumption patterns of industrialized and Third World countries reflects an increase in the numbers of people living in poverty who have yet to achieve basic needs. Third World planning, encouraged by transnational companies, too often model their development goals on importing artificial life styles. This exploits poor nations by creating unrealistic demands as well as by creating a market for products that are unacceptable elsewhere. The health and environmental effects of these practices prompted the formation of consumers' association of Penang (CAP), which is trying to make people aware of the need to give basic needs the highest priority. The CAP handles complaints, tests products, and studies the socio-economic-environmental implications of development as well as conducting a far-ranging educational program. Its procedures can be adapted by any country to examine consumer awareness and to press for social reform. (DCK)

  14. Agricultural Marketing. Student Reference. Volume 12, Number 10. Agdex 810, Catalog Number AG-81-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Robert

    This student guide in agricultural marketing is designed to accompany the lessons in the curriculum unit, "Instructor's Guide in Agricultural Marketing" (CE 025 683). There are six sections in the student guide: (1) Introduction to Marketing; (2) Marketing Cash Grains; (3) Marketing Grain with a Protected Price; (4) Marketing Cash Livestock; (5)…

  15. On the effects of world stock market and oil price shocks on food prices: An empirical investigation based on TVP-VAR models with stochastic volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebabli, Ikram; Arouri, Mohamed; Teulon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of price shocks from one market to another one has long been investigated in the economic literature. However, studies have namely dealt with the relationship between financial and energy markets. With the recent changes in market conditions, investors, policy-makers and interest groups are giving special attention to food market. This paper aims at analyzing shock transmission between international food, energy and financial markets and to provide some insights into the volatility behavior during the past years and discuss its implications for portfolio management. To do this, we present a new time varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) model with stochastic volatility approach which provides extreme flexibility with a parsimonious specification. We resort also to a generalized vector autoregressive framework in which forecast-error variance decompositions are invariant to the variable ordering for the assessment of total and directional volatility spillovers. Our main findings suggest that volatility spillovers increase considerably during crisis and, namely after mid-2008, when stock markets become net transmitter of volatility shocks while crude oil becomes a net receiver. Shocks to crude oil or MSCI markets have immediate and short-term impacts on food markets which are emphasized during the financial crisis period. Moreover, we show that augmenting a diversified portfolio of food commodities with crude oil or stocks significantly increases its risk-adjusted performance. - Highlights: • We study shock transmission between food, energy and financial markets. • We use a new time-varying parameter VAR model with stochastic volatility. • There is volatility spillover from oil and stock markets to food. • Volatility spillovers increase considerably during crisis, namely after mid-2008. • Augmenting a portfolio of foods with oil or stocks increases its performance

  16. Supplemental irrigation for grain sorghum production in the US Eastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum is an important grain crop throughout the world and is generally considered drought tolerant. Recently, in the US eastern Coastal Plain region, there was an emphasis on increasing regional grain production with grain sorghum having an important role. The region soils have low water hol...

  17. Is a National Pork Marketing Cooperative Viable? A Case Study of Pork America within the Context of Structural Change in the US Pork Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrke, Brad C.; Matson, James

    2000-01-01

    After World War II, livestock slaughter decentralized and livestock producers increased direct sales to packers. As a result, livestock producers have been less likely than other agricultural producers to use cooperatives to market their farm production. Between 1994 and 1998, less than 15 percent of livestock and wool production was marketed through cooperatives compared with 80 percent of milk production and 40 to 50 percent of grains and oilseeds. Recent structural change in the livestock ...

  18. Grain Unloading of Arsenic Species in Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Charnock, John M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Manchester); (Aberdeen); (UC)

    2010-01-11

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). To investigate how As species are unloaded into grain rice, panicles were excised during grain filling and hydroponically pulsed with arsenite, arsenate, glutathione-complexed As, or DMA. Total As concentrations in flag leaf, grain, and husk, were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and As speciation in the fresh grain was determined by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The roles of phloem and xylem transport were investigated by applying a {+-} stem-girdling treatment to a second set of panicles, limiting phloem transport to the grain in panicles pulsed with arsenite or DMA. The results demonstrate that DMA is translocated to the rice grain with over an order magnitude greater efficiency than inorganic species and is more mobile than arsenite in both the phloem and the xylem. Phloem transport accounted for 90% of arsenite, and 55% of DMA, transport to the grain. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping and fluorescence microtomography revealed marked differences in the pattern of As unloading into the grain between DMA and arsenite-challenged grain. Arsenite was retained in the ovular vascular trace and DMA dispersed throughout the external grain parts and into the endosperm. This study also demonstrates that DMA speciation is altered in planta, potentially through complexation with thiols.

  19. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Economic data for July indicated that pillar forces of the economy remained strong in July.Fixed-asset investment and retail sales are still soaring.Exports are also recouping some strength,growing over 38 percent in July.The CPI went up by 3.3 percent,a reflection of simmering inflationary jitters.House prices in 70 large and medium-sized cities rose 10.3 percent,the slowest pace in half a year.International grain prices head north,and threaten to filter through the Chinese market.

  20. 77 FR 76452 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ...; Telephone (202) 205-8281; Fax (202) 690-2173; Email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The... marketing of grain. The Advisory Committee serves an essential function. Information about the Advisory...

  1. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  2. Ethics and quality assessment of cowpea grains sold in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the supply side of cowpea markets in two states of Nigeria. Specifically, quality status; grades of cowpea grains sold and effect of ethics on sales, quality and price were determined. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select four hundred cowpea grain sellers in the study areas. Questionnaire ...

  3. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  4. Market testing of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Ho Minh

    2001-01-01

    Viet Nam has emerged as one of the three top producers and exporters of rice in the world. Tropical climate and poor infrastructure of preservation and storage lead to huge losses of food grains, onions, dried fish and fishery products. Based on demonstration irradiation facility pilot scale studies and marketing of irradiated rice, onions, mushrooms and litchi were successfully undertaken in Viet Nam during 1992-1998. Irradiation technology is being used commercially in Viet Nam since 1991 for insect control of imported tobacco and mould control of national traditional medicinal herbs by both government and private sectors. About 30 tons of tobacco and 25 tons of herbs are irradiated annually. Hanoi Irradiation Centre has been continuing open house practices for visitors from school, universities and various different organizations and thus contributed in improved public education. Consumers were found to prefer irradiated rice, onions, litchi and mushrooms over those nonirradiated. (author)

  5. To what extent is social media marketing localised in an increasingly globalised world? An exploratory study with comparative focus on the creative marketing strategy of Adidas in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Nikisha

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to identify creative and social media marketing strategies that brands can use to effectively engage with users and consumers, in the context of international advertising. A further objective is to discover cross-cultural marketing strategies in relation to interactivity, and determine if standardisation or localisation is suitable. The study draws on existing literature to outline components of creative brand strategies, what prompts brand engagement, key...

  6. World-Class Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…

  7. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  8. Compaction of cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  9. Evolution of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aim of this chapter is to derive the properties of interstellar grains as a probe of local physical conditions and as a basis for predicting such properties as related to infrared emissivity and radiative transfer which can affect the evolution of dense clouds. The first sections will develop the criteria for grain models based directly on observations of gas and dust. A summary of the chemical evolution of grains and gas in diffuse and dense clouds follows. (author)

  10. Microbiota of kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  11. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  12. Showcase your service: social media and marketing basics in a dynamic, over-populated, mixed-message, and highly competitive world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechel, Marie Czenko

    2010-11-01

    This article discusses social media as a means of communication between the aesthetic medical practice and clients. Discussion of the various types of social media and how each can support a physician's practice, brand, market, and tolerances is presented. Blogs, wikis, networks, viral marketing, and electronic communications are presented in terms of what they can provide a practice and their limitations and pitfalls. Emphasis is on finding the combination of methods to showcase the individual style and personality of a practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  14. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  15. Ethics in marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia MUHCINA; Veronica POPOVICI

    2008-01-01

    As well as the entire business world, marketing has its own ethics problems. Numerous marketing specialists or their representatives have consciously declared and adopted different engagements, declarations or codes of rules regarding the necessity that marketing people consider ethics regulations and values, so that they become much more responsible towards the members of society. These declarations or rules concern marketing practices in their ensemble or are guided towards certain specific...

  16. Social media influencer marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Isosuo, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The marketing field is changing simultaneously with the digital world. Social media is getting more and more important to marketers, and there is a need to stand out in the social media noise. Social media influencer marketing could be a good alternative to other types of marketing. A need from the consignor and the interest of the author were the motivations for conducting the study. Sääskilahti Consulting has a social media influencer network Somevaikuttajat, which is offering social media ...

  17. Bo Xilai :China will honor its World Trade Organization(WTO) commitments. Banking and telecommunications market sectors would be opened in time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Minister of Commerce Bo Xilai promised on September 4 that China will honor its WTO commitments. At a ceremony to mark China's five-year WTO partnership, Bo Xilai promised this to commercial leaders of Europe present again. Bo said all market sectors would be opened in time, referring especially to banking and telecommunications.

  18. Relationship Service Marketing and Investment in Financial Market of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Alipour; Reza Ahmadi; Hamed Abasi Nami

    2012-01-01

    In competitive world, having expertise, knowledge and marketing experience for financial market activities, especially brokerage firms has proven inevitable. This should be accompanied by performing marketing operations along with intermediary roles and carrying on the daily transactions of shares in the Tehran stock exchange market. The current study aims investigating the level of marketing knowledge used in stock exchange market, identifying the reasons behind deficient use of the marketin...

  19. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  20. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  1. Risk Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Boutang , Jérôme; De Lara , Michel

    2016-01-01

    In a modern world increasingly perceived as uncertain, the mere purchase of a household cleaning product, or a seemingly harmless bottle of milk, conveys interrogations about potential hazards, from environmental to health impacts. The main purpose of this article is to suggest that risk could be considered as one of the major dimensions of choice for a wide range of concerns and markets, alongside aspiration/satisfaction, and tackled efficiently by mobilizing the recent findings of cognitive...

  2. Marketing Algoritmico Y Marketing Heuristico, Una Cotroversia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Madrid

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to address such as move time, the marketing world is also changing, and how different marketing approaches can be articulated to form a holistic approach in which creativity is the essence of this, taking into account the systemic constraints and generate both social and economic goal, on the other side see individually how each approach captures his position and how the companies specifically in Latin America are sitting on a heuristic algorithmic marketing.

  3. Grain weight improvement in wheat through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasal, P.N.; Gadekar, D.A.; Gavhane, V.N.; Bhoite, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    T. aestivum wheat variety NIAW 34 was developed by Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, and was released by Central Varietal Release Committee, for cultivation under irrigated late sown conditions of Peninsular Zone. The grains of NIAW 34 are medium sized with 40g 1000 grain weight. However, in market the bold sized grains (above 40g 1000 grain weight) are preferred by the traders and consumers. To overcome this lacuna, grains of wheat variety NIAW 34 were irradiated to exploit the possibilities of improvement in test weight. The material was irradiated with 15 and 20 kr dose of gamma rays. In M2 generation, mutants for various morphological characters were observed. The plants showing vigorous growth habit and desirable morphological characters were selected. These selected plants were studied for grain characters after harvest. On the basis of improved test weight as compared to parental line, selections were effected. The material was advanced to M6 generation and found stable for character of interest. The material selected comprised of total 10 lines showing improved test weight having range of 42-46 g i.e. increase of 4-6 g over the parental line NIAW 34. The lines selected are being evaluated in yield evaluation trials during Rabi 2006-07. Amongst the doses used, frequency of desired mutants was higher in treatment, of 15 kr

  4. Wind around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackstraw, K.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of cost reductions and progressive policies in key markets kept the world wind market percolating in 1997 with a record 1510 MW of new wind capacity installed, representing annual sales of more than $1.5 billion. This new record surpasses last year''s total by 24 percent, about the average annual rate of growth for the last three years. Worldwide utility-scale wind installations at the end of 1997 totaled 7763 MW. Most activity occurred in Europe, which accounted for over 75 percent of 1997 installations. Germany was again the world''s leading single market, this time by quite a large margin, accounting for more than one-third of the annual total by itself at 532 MW in 1997. The end of 1997 also marked the time at which Germany officially passed the US as the largest total single market with over 2079 MW in total installations versus about 1805 MW for the US, although the US had actually lost the lead by mid-year. Spain is the new addition to the top echelon of world wind markets, installing 215 MW in 1997 that more than doubles their total installed capacity over the previous year and ranks them number three in the world for the year. Denmark''s 1997 total of 300 MW is also a record, although this estimate could go up as the official count is finalized. India, the second largest wind market in 1995 and 1996, slipped several notches because of a variety of factors, including a change in government and a slowdown in the economy. The US wind market continues to stagnate as it has for the last several years, largely because of the uncertainty surrounding restructuring of US electric utilities. The US market is poised for a big comeback in 1998, however

  5. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym

    2017-01-01

    When prices spike in international grain markets, national governments often reduce the extent to which that spike affects their domestic food markets. Those actions exacerbate the price spike and international welfare transfer associated with that terms of trade change. Several recent analyses...

  6. Of markets and middlemen

    OpenAIRE

    Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Z.

    1999-01-01

    Using survey data on traders and brokers in the Ethiopian foodgrain market, this paper reveals that the brokerage institution is critical to market performance in that it enables traders to circumvent the commitment problem of long-distance trade with unknown partners. In the absence of grain standardization, public information, and legal contract enforcement, brokers act as inspectors and guarantors of each transaction. The paper analyzes the sources of commitment failure, the role and funct...

  7. PharMillenium '99--the second world pharmaceutical congress and exhibition. Accelerating the pipeline: from drug discovery to market. 1-3 February 1999, Washington DC, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M

    1999-04-01

    This highly interactive meeting effectively covered critical issues on every transaction from drug discovery through to development and commercialization. The program included company-specific descriptions of new discovery products, together with seminars by clinical research and site management organizations on the acceleration of development, pharmaco-economics, branding of products, direct-to-consumer advertising, global marketing, management, information technology and business strategy. There were approximately 50 sessions covered by 70 speakers.

  8. Using the market to regulate health care price: why heart hospitals will have a competitive advantage in the world of post-diagnostic related group pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the federal government has reimbursed hospital services by administrating pricing. Simply put, under such a system the government dictated the prices of medical services. Not only has administrative pricing failed to control medical inflation, but such failure could have been predicted from a review of basic economics. Accordingly, to eliminate the deleterious effects of administrative pricing, it is not surprising that the government is gathering information on hospital quality and cost in anticipation of a return to a system in which the price for hospital services is determined by the market. For some hospitals, this will be good news because they will be able to negotiate a more favorable rate of reimbursement. Unfortunately, for some hospitals a market system will be bad news because the government is not going to negotiate a provider contract with every hospital. In short, when the government returns to a market system for pricing of hospital services, competition among hospitals is going to become even more competitive.

  9. Will improved access to capital dampen the need for more agricultural land? A CGE analysis of agricultural capital markets and world-wide biofuel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.; Rothe, A.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the consequences of enhanced biofuel production in regions and countries of the world that have announced plans to implement or expand on biofuel policies. The analysis considers biofuel policies implemented as binding blending targets for transportation fuels. The chosen

  10. A national survey of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) grain quality in Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Sierra Leone approaches self-sufficiency in rice, against a backdrop of agricultural commercialization, the dynamics of the rice grain production and consumption will increasingly be driven by the quality of grains demanded by consumers to be produced by farmers and marketed by traders in the open market.

  11. The emerging petrocoke market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymond, R.

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the growing acceptance of petroleum coke as a fuel, and examines the marketing of the coke, world and US production of petroleum coke, its properties and quality, and its contamination by sulphur and trace metals. Details are given of the use of the coke as a carbon source and also as a solid fuel, export markets, and current market trends . Tables illustrating the world production of petrocoke by region, typical end-uses, and planned/announced capacity additions are provided as well as charts indicating the world profile for petroleum coke

  12. Present market for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present market for nuclear energy is present since nuclear production and electric power generation to the utilization of radioisotopes in medicine and biology. Some data about the main world suppliers to this market are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Modern marketing approach: Concept of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Lidija B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, viral marketing is one of the most effective forms of marketing and it can be used to raise awareness about the product/service of a specific company. This type of marketing thrives in a modern environment, where final users (buyers/clients dominate by spreading messages within themselves. Boosted by the advantages that modern technology brings, viral marketing is booming in the online world. For the first time, small brands have a chance to make their appearance in the global market ad challenge the dominating position of the historically top brands. All they need is content that draws attention and modern, digital culture will help spread their message. Viral marketing is the future. And with the growth of social media and other channels, marketing managers need to be careful, because it is a thin line between a good and a bad (backfired viral campaign.

  14. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... grains. When grocery shopping, an easy way to identify healthy food choices is to look for the ...

  15. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  16. Scope of millet grains as an extender in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Suman; Sharma, B D

    2015-01-01

    India stood first for millet production in the world and plays a significant role in meat production and consumption too. To meet the demand of health conscious consumers for healthy and nutritious meat food item, the incorporation of millet grains and its byproducts to the meat products by the processors can serve the purpose. The multidimensional positive nutritional and functional characteristics millet grain not only improve the acceptability of the meat products but also increase its own demand as a main coarse food grain in competition to the wheat and rice over the world.

  17. Innovation and Technology Dissemination in Clean Technology Markets and The Developing World: The Role of Trade, Intellectual Property Rights, and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Lybecker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is an inherently risky and uncertain process. Many of the broader challenges to innovation in general are both mirrored and exaggerated in clean technology innovation. The development of environmental technologies is further complicated by the public goods nature of knowledge, environmental externalities, and uncertainty. This study on clean technology focuses on recent work on the role of uncertainty, the participation of emerging and developing nations, the controversy surrounding intellectual property rights, and the variety of market actors and strategies in place. The paper also considers the policy instruments that are available, the cost, benefits and consequences of their use. As scholars continue to analyze when, where, why and how clean technology innovations are developed and adopted, it is essential that government policymakers aim to reduce uncertainty and risk, incentivize innovation with effective intellectual property rights, and foster transparency in the market. This continues to be a field of increasing future importance, and a rich area for continued academic study and analysis. Consumers, government policymakers and innovators would all benefit from a greater understanding of the process of technological change in the development, diffusion and financing of clean technologies.

  18. PV market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    The article comments on the massive increase in sales of photovoltaic cells in 2004, largely due to the growth of subsidised grid-connected markets in California, Germany and Japan. Details of the various companies producing photovoltaics, production figures, and world ranking are given together with photovoltaic production in Europe. Even so, the world production of photovoltaics was only the equivalent of two large gas turbines. The various types of photovoltaic cells are discussed and data, according to cell type, are given for world production. Costs, prices and government subsidies are discussed. A forecast of the world photovoltaics market, according to potential application, is given to the year 2010

  19. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Price hikes in cooking oil fuel worries over inflation and the dominance of foreign gurus over the country’s grain markets. With an explosion of box office successes, leading Chinese movie studios gear up for share floats to support expansion. Exports in November showed signs of bottoming out as the sector prepares for a more prosperous year in 2010. Despite its reputation as a nation of savers, China’s online consumption is burning hot as consumers enjoy the comfort of shopping from home. The aviation industry basks in the glow of the strong economic recovery as airlines transport a soaring number of passengers. Chinese companies press ahead with outbound mergers and acquisitions while overseas strategic investors remained relatively inactive in China.

  20. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  1. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  2. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  3. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  4. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  5. Validating agent based models through virtual worlds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakkaraju, Kiran; Whetzel, Jonathan H.; Lee, Jina; Bier, Asmeret Brooke; Cardona-Rivera, Rogelio E.; Bernstein, Jeremy Ray Rhythm

    2014-01-01

    As the US continues its vigilance against distributed, embedded threats, understanding the political and social structure of these groups becomes paramount for predicting and dis- rupting their attacks. Agent-based models (ABMs) serve as a powerful tool to study these groups. While the popularity of social network tools (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) has provided extensive communication data, there is a lack of ne-grained behavioral data with which to inform and validate existing ABMs. Virtual worlds, in particular massively multiplayer online games (MMOG), where large numbers of people interact within a complex environ- ment for long periods of time provide an alternative source of data. These environments provide a rich social environment where players engage in a variety of activities observed between real-world groups: collaborating and/or competing with other groups, conducting battles for scarce resources, and trading in a market economy. Strategies employed by player groups surprisingly re ect those seen in present-day con icts, where players use diplomacy or espionage as their means for accomplishing their goals. In this project, we propose to address the need for ne-grained behavioral data by acquiring and analyzing game data a commercial MMOG, referred to within this report as Game X. The goals of this research were: (1) devising toolsets for analyzing virtual world data to better inform the rules that govern a social ABM and (2) exploring how virtual worlds could serve as a source of data to validate ABMs established for analogous real-world phenomena. During this research, we studied certain patterns of group behavior to compliment social modeling e orts where a signi cant lack of detailed examples of observed phenomena exists. This report outlines our work examining group behaviors that underly what we have termed the Expression-To-Action (E2A) problem: determining the changes in social contact that lead individuals/groups to engage in a particular behavior

  6. The World Bank’s ‘Market-Assisted’ Land Reform as a Political Issue: Evidence from Brazil (1997-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Márcio Mendes Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political struggles that  occurred during the implementation of projects  and programmes in Brazil based on marketassisted land reform (MALR, which was conceived by the World Bank as an alternative to the  redistributive agrarian reform and carried out by  the state through expropriation of land. The article  places the MALR within the process of recycling  the neoliberal agenda – when the so-called ‘second generation’ of structural reforms was given a  boost – and within the extent of the World Bank’s  financial, political and/or intellectual actions  related to property issues, ownership and use of  the rural land. It then shows why, how, what for  and under which political support the MALR was  introduced in Brazil during the Cardoso government. The political struggle involving the implementation of the MALR is also analysed, detailing  the process of articulation and disarticulation of  the peasants’ organizations that opposed to the  World Bank’s proposal. After evaluating the  struggles occurring during the Cardoso government, the article explains how Lula’s first mandate continued to implement MALR, and presents  recent positions of the World Bank on the subject.Resumen: La reforma agraria ‘asistida por el mercado’  del Banco Mundial como cuestión política: evidencias desde Brasil (1997-2006 El artículo analiza las luchas políticas que tuvieron lugar durante la puesta en práctica de proyectos y programas basados en la reforma agraria  asistida por el mercado (MALR en Brasil, concebida por el Banco Mundial como alternativa a la  reforma agraria redistributiva, implementada por  el Estado mediante la expropiación de tierras. El  texto coloca el programa de reforma agraria asistida por el mercado dentro del proceso más amplio de reciclaje de la agenda neoliberal – cuando  estaba ganando impulso la llamada ‘segunda  generación’ de reformas estructurales – y

  7. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  8. The innovation process in a company supplying inputs for steel marketmetallurgical world market: a case study at Alpha S/A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleiciane Ferreira Botta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates and analyzes the innovation process in a mining company supplying inputs for the global steel-metallurgical market. The analysis model was structured into four categories originated in the innovation process as the assumptions by Davila et al. (2007, to know: (i strategic and innovation models, (ii factors that can influence the implementation of the innovation, (iii management systems and/or tools, (iv indicators, metrics and results. A qualitative research strategy was based on a study of a single case and three criteria were used to judge the quality of research: construct validity, external validity and reliability. Multiple sources of evidence were used (interviews, documents and observation and data analysis observed three stages namely: (a data reduction, (b display, or exposition of data, (c checking/ conclusions based on interferences from evidences or premise. The results confirmed the existence of an unstructured and informal innovation process meticulously described from four elements of the analysis model. The findings point to a strategy and innovation model still in early stages of maturity, as well as execution influenced by structural and socio-behavioral issues.

  9. Confronting World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The idea that food should be a universally accepted human right has been the focus of worldwide attention aimed primarily at increasing production at the national level and on reducing price fluctuations in world markets. However, the problem of individual human needs must be simultaneously addressed. The largest number of hungry people live in…

  10. Clashing world views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagassa, G.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines how politics, economics, and an increasing awareness of environmental and societal impacts are affecting the market for new hydroelectric projects. The topics of the article include border conflicts, new opposition, resettlement issues, the problems and benefits of hydroelectric projects, taking action, and a clash of world views

  11. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  12. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym

    When prices spike in international grain markets, national governments often reduce the extent to which that spike affects their domestic food markets. Those actions exacerbate the price spike and international welfare transfer associated with that terms of trade change. Several recent analyses...... have assessed the extent to which those policies contributed to the 2006-08 international price rise, but only by focusing on one commodity or using a back-of-the envelope (BOTE) method. This paper provides a more-comprehensive analysis using a global economy-wide model that is able to take account...... of the interactions between markets for farm products that are closely related in production and/or consumption, and able to estimate the impacts of those insulating policies on grain prices and on the grain trade and economic welfare of the world’s various countries. Our results support the conclusion from earlier...

  13. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  14. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  15. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  16. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  17. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  18. Psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole - an office-based real-world setting. Results from the German post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, F; Zacher, A; Nass, A; Urban, R; Werner, C; Spevakné-Göröcs, T; Kungel, M; Ebrecht, M; Modell, S

    2009-05-01

    Aripiprazole (ABILIFY) is an effective antipsychotic used in a dose range from 10 to 30 mg, administered once daily. Soon after its approval in Germany for treatment of schizophrenia, a 12-month post-marketing surveillance study was initiated that included 1 096 patients cared for by 408 office-based psychiatrists and/or neurologists in private practice. The aim was to gain further insights into safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in an outpatient real-life setting focusing on general health, well-being and psychosocial functioning. Efficacy was rated by using standard CGI, SF-12 and SIWM-PsySo instruments for severity of disease, physical and mental health outcomes and psychosocial state, respectively. Safety was evaluated according to the reports of adverse events. Mean total daily dose of aripiprazole increased from 15.4 mg at the visit after 1 month to 17.6 mg at the visits after 6 to 12 months, the most frequently administered maintenance dose being 15 mg. Within the observation period significant improvements of CGI, SF-12 and SIWM-PsySo scores over time versus baseline values were observed (pmuch" or "very much" improved. Aripiprazole was overall well tolerated; 19.9% of patients discontinued treatment after 12 months. Adverse effects in general were moderate to mild and corresponded to the known tolerability profile of aripiprazole. Psychotic side effects reported were probably due to a recurrence of the underlying schizophrenic disorder. The results indicate that aripiprazole may be an efficacious and safe treatment option for pre-treated patients with schizophrenia also in a naturalistic psychiatrist/neurologist practice setting with effects on health and psychosocial functioning and a comparably low dropout rate.

  19. Analysis of Angola as a new OPEC member (2007) for the world oil market; Analise da entrada de Angola na OPEC (2007) para o mercado mundial do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ana Paula Alves S.L.; Almeida, Gabriela Gomes de [Universidade Vila Velha, ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais; Samarco Mineracao S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: anapaula_aslg@hotmail.com, e-mail: gabiptu@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Angola is in the spot light lately as one of the major oil producers in the world, being the second largest oil producer in Africa. Therefore, in 2007, this country became a member of OPEC which brought to table several speculations concerning Angola's position facing the pressures and demands of an international organization. This article comes to analyse Angola's possible strategies when it comes to defending its economic interests and its participation in the price politics implemented by OPEC. All hypotheses considered in this article are analysed according to the Complex Interdependence Theory (Keohane and Nye). This International Affairs Theory is defined by a mutual and multilateral dependence between the nations. This way, we may conclude that even though Angola has a history of non fulfilling its agreements, the cooperation is made necessary because it is the most benefice alternative. The tendency is that when Angola starts fulfilling its quotas on the oil matter it will receive cooperation from OPEC and other nations in other areas where this country needs assistance. (author)

  20. Geopolitics of petroleum. A new market. New risks. New worlds; Geopolitique du petrole. Un nouveau marche. De nouveaux risques. Des nouveaux mondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestrange, C. de; Paillard, Ch.A.; Zelenko, P

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this book is to shade light on a complex world in complete evolution, the stakes of which for today's societies being proportional to the energy and economical importance of petroleum. The big petroleum fear of consuming countries and the reactions linked with oil shocks are now old stories. The producing countries are today at least as vulnerable to price variations and fluxes restrictions as the consumers of developed countries. Two countries, USA and Saudi Arabia, and one organisation, the OPEC, play a key role in the regulation of this system, the equilibrium of which is now threatened by the reinforcement of preoccupations like environment and human rights protection. New challenges occur: the increase of demand, the concentration of offer, some technological changes that would limit the petroleum needs in the future, and the increasing insecurity of key oil-producing regions. At a shorter term, the geopolitical context of Middle-East is the most worrying. (J.S.)

  1. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  2. Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; de Roon, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value

  3. Commercial-industrial marketing professionals for gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrik, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Today's changing business world exposes two sales/marketing systems. One is indirectly removed from contact with the customers, but still meets their needs. Whereas the sales/marketing system that exercises the skills of Commercial/Industrial Marketing Professionals has direct customer contact that not only meets the customer's needs, but also satisfies them

  4. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amic, E.; Lautard, P.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  5. Safety and Effectiveness of Mirabegron in Patients with Overactive Bladder in a Real-World Clinical Setting: A Japanese Post-Marketing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Yumiko; Kato, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Kuroishi, Kentarou

    2018-05-01

    To provide real-world data on Japanese patients with overactive bladder (OAB) initiating treatment with the β 3 -adrenoceptor agonist, mirabegron. This study examined prescribing patterns, adverse drug reaction (ADR) incidence, and treatment effectiveness. Full medical histories, including prior/concomitant drug use, were collected before initiating mirabegron treatment. After 12 weeks mirabegron, physicians assessed ADR incidence and treatment effectiveness. Residual urine volume was assessed and patients completed the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) and International Prostate Symptom Score-Quality of Life (I-PSS QoL) surveys at Baseline and 12 weeks. Data were collected between April 2012 and July 2014. Of 9795 OAB patients (46.8% male; 80.8% ≥65 years), 71.7% had coexisting disease [notably benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 32.4%), hypertension (31.9%), and diabetes mellitus (9.4%)] and 53.4% reported concomitant drug use (27.8% α 1 -antagonists, 6.3% anticholinergics). The incidence of total ADRs was 6.07% [including constipation (0.97%), thirst (0.47%), and dysuria (0.44%)], of serious ADRs, 0.21%, of cardiovascular ADRs, 0.48% and of urinary retention, 0.31%. Incidence of total ADRs in patients with concomitant cardiovascular disease was 10.09% and of those related to urinary retention in men with untreated BPH, 0.88%. After 12 weeks treatment, physicians judged mirabegron as "effective" in 80.7% of patients, 63.6% of patients achieved the three-point minimal clinically important change from Baseline in the mean OABSS, and the I-PSS QoL decreased significantly from Baseline (-2.1 ± 1.77; P effective treatment for Japanese patients with OAB. © 2016 Astellas Pharma Inc. LUTS: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  7. GLOBALIZATION IMPACT ON UKRAINIAN MARKET OF SHARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zotsenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of globalization on the Ukrainian market of shares. Main trends of globalization of world share market are analyzed. The study highlights key elements of the operating share markets of the world leading countries. The research investigates main factors that affect on the level of national market of shares. The findings trace out a number of problems that hinder and distort the role of the Ukrainian share market in capital allocation.

  8. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  9. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  10. The battery market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide battery market is estimated to be $21 billion annually at present. The geographical distribution of this market is shown in this paper. The American (North and South), Western Europe and Africa, and Asian and Australia represent equal markets of $6 billion each. The communist block countries (including Russia and China) are estimated to represent a $3 billion market. Automotive and consumer batteries constitute more than 80% of the world battery market. Industrial batteries make up the rest. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries (automotive, for example) have only 60% share of the world battery consumption. Primary batteries (most toy batteries that are the throw away type) exceed rechargeables by far in units. However, the larger size of rechargeable batteries makes their total value larger despite the small number of units

  11. Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

    2012-01-01

    The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

  12. Carbon auctions, energy markets and market power: An experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormady, Noah C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental analysis of a simultaneous energy-emissions market under conditions of market power. The experimental design employs real-world institutional features; including stochastic demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. The results suggest that dominant firms can utilize energy-emissions market linkages to simultaneously inflate the price of energy and suppress the price of emissions allowances. Whereas under prior market designs, regulators were concerned with dominant firms exercising their market power over the emissions market to exclude rivals and manipulate the permit market by hoarding permits; the results of this paper suggest that this strategy is less profitable to dominant firms in contemporary auction-based markets than strategic capacity withholding in the energy market and associated demand reduction in the emissions market. - Highlights: • Laboratory simulation of joint energy-emissions market. • Evaluates market power under collusion and real-world institutional features. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to inflate energy prices. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to suppress emissions prices. • Supply withholding is an implicit demand reduction in the emissions market

  13. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  14. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  15. A spectral analysis of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, M.S.; Cua, F.T.; Navarro, E.F.

    1976-06-01

    With the advent of extensive nuclear testing and the development and use of highly potent pesticides and fertilizers, the hazardous threats of radioactive contamination due to fallout and to the absorption of pesticide residues have been given due consideration. Among the many forms of life exposed to these threats are food crops and among these is rice. Several rice grain samples - Japanese rice samples ''A'' and ''B'' submitted by the National Grains Authority (NGA) for analysis, random samples of rice being sold to the public at local markets, and ''black rice'' which were picked from along the shores of a Mindoro town were subjected to spectral analysis. Results revealed the presence of trace elements normally found in plants, such as; K-42, I-124, Cl-38, Na-24, Br-82, and Mn-56. No mercury was detected in the sample specimen analyzed

  16. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  17. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

  18. Predictive coarse-graining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöberl, Markus, E-mail: m.schoeberl@tum.de [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zabaras, Nicholas [Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstraße 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 365 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo – Expectation–Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  19. Social Media Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Raman, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Social media marketing can be understood as a group of Internet-based applications that build on the foundations of Web 2.0 and that then allows the creation and exchange of ‘User Generated Content’. In the ‘Bowling’ marketing world, marketers target certain customer groups and send out...... this is a very direct one-way communication approach. In a social media marketing world, the bowling metaphor does not fit anymore. On this arena marketing can be better described as playing “Pinball”: Companies serve up a “marketing ball” (brands and brand-building messages) into a dynamic and chaotic market...... environment. The “marketing ball” is then diverted and often accelerated by social media “bumpers”, which change the ball’s course in chaotic ways. Occasionally, the marketing ball will come back to the company. At this point, the firm (brand) has to use the flippers to interact and throw it back...

  20. How market environment may constrain global franchising in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2011-01-01

    Although emerging markets are some of the fastest growing economies in the world and represent countries that are experiencing a substantial economic transformation, little is known about the factors influencing country selection for expansion in those markets. In an attempt to enhance the knowledge that managers and scholars have on franchising expansion, the present study examines how market conditions may constrain international diffusion of franchising in emerging markets. They are: i) ge...

  1. Role of market information in the performance and spatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... market associations and mass media, which enables them to forecast likely future market trends, making business decisions and in allocating resources among competing alternatives. Statistical test indicated a significant difference between the marketing efficiency ratios of grain traders with and without access to market ...

  2. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  3. Origins of amorphous interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of amorphous interstellar grains has been suggested from infrared observations. Some carbon stars show the far infrared emission with a lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Far infrared emission supposed to be due to silicate grains often show the lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Mid infrared spectra around 10 μm have broad structure. These may be due to the amorphous silicate grains. The condition that the condensed grains from the cosmic gas are amorphous is discussed. (author)

  4. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  5. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  6. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  7. An Examination of Market Entry Perspectives in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin O. Bates

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe the marketing-oriented market entry approaches that businesses are currently using across the three levels of the world economic pyramid (i.e., WEP. These levels are the Top-tier, the Middle-tier, and the Base of the Pyramid-tier (i.e., BoP-tier. Methodology – The literature of the BoP was reviewed, and market entry approaches were itemized across the three WEP levels. Secondly, BoP strategic theorists including Prahalad identified the need for a BoP marketing focus replacing the traditional 4Ps marketing approach (i.e., Product, Price, Place and Promotion with the BoP-specific 4As marketing approach (i.e., Awareness, Affordability, Access and Availability. This 4As marketing approach is discussed. Findings – New marketing-oriented market-entry approaches are proposed for each of the three WEP levels. These approaches are based on where in the WEP the firm currently exists, and where in the WEP the firm desires to refocus market-entry activities; identified approaches include: inter-country expansion, intra-country entry, adjacent market entry, and extended market entry. Secondly, the absence of a clearly articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets was observed. Practical implications – This article has two specific applications. First, it summarizes the evolving market entry perspectives to provide a context for future market research in both emerging markets and the pre-emerging BoP markets. Second, the future requirement for an articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets is suggested. Originality – This article examined existing market entry approaches across all three levels of the WEP, inclusive of the BoP economic level. The language used to clarify market entry movements was extended, providing a specificity of description not previously found in either the existing market entry or BoP literature.

  8. International Isotopes Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies world markets of stable and radioactive isotopes. Isotopes have found various applications in science, industry, agriculture and other sectors of the economy, but especially - in medicine. Nuclear medicine is developing intensively all over the world thanks to the success in the treatment of various diseases with the help of radioactive pharmaceuticals (radiopharmaceuticals. The article uses empirical data from a forecast study of the global radiopharmaceuticals market made in 2015 by a research company «Markets and Markets» for the European, North American and global markets. The paper also analyzes the statistical data on the global export and import of natural uranium, enriched and depleted uranium, plutonium, thorium and some stable isotopes of non-medical purposes, presented by a company «Trend economy» in 2014. Despite a unique industrial base for the production of isotopes created in the Soviet Union Russia occupies a modest position on the world market of nuclear medicine except for certain areas. More than 80% of isotopes, produced in USSR were consumed domestically, the export of the stable and radioactive isotopes was in equal proportions. Now the country's domestic radiopharmaceuticals market is poorly developed. To radically change the situation, it is necessary to carry out reforms that stimulate the development of nuclear medicine.

  9. Safety and Effectiveness of Once-Daily Tadalafil (5 mg Therapy in Korean Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia/Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in a Real-World Clinical Setting: Results from a Post- Marketing Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eon Won

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of tadalafil 5 mg once daily (quaque die [everyday], QD among Korean men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH/lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in a real-world clinical setting. Materials and Methods: This was a single-country, prospective, observational cohort study in which patients newly prescribed tadalafil 5 mg QD for the treatment of BPH/LUTS were followed-up for 12±2 or 24±2 weeks, or to the last treatment, during post-marketing surveillance. Safety was evaluated in terms of the frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs and serious adverse events (SAEs. Effectiveness was assessed by changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS from baseline to each endpoint. Results: All patients receiving ≥1 dose of tadalafil 5 mg QD (N=637 were included in the safety population. Two percent of patients (n=13 experienced 15 TEAEs of mild (n=10; 66.7% or moderate (n=5; 33.3% severity. No severe TEAEs and no SAEs were reported. Effectiveness evaluations included all patients receiving tadalafil who had both baseline and endpoint observations (12-week, N=265; 24-week, N=44. Compared with baseline, the mean IPSS total score (±standard error significantly improved by 4.7±0.3 and 6.4±0.7 points at the 12- and 24-week endpoints, respectively (p<0.0001, with significant improvements also observed on the storage, voiding, and quality of life subscores. In total, 69.1% of the patients had a clinically meaningful ≥3-point improvement in the IPSS total score. Conclusions: Tadalafil 5 mg QD was well tolerated and effective in Korean men with BPH/LUTS in a real-world clinical setting.

  10. Safety and Effectiveness of Once-Daily Tadalafil (5 mg) Therapy in Korean Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia/Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in a Real-World Clinical Setting: Results from a Post-Marketing Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ji Eon; Chu, Ji Yeon; Choi, Hyunah Caroline; Chen, Yun; Park, Hyun Jun; Dueñas, Héctor José

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of tadalafil 5 mg once daily (quaque die [everyday], QD) among Korean men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in a real-world clinical setting. This was a single-country, prospective, observational cohort study in which patients newly prescribed tadalafil 5 mg QD for the treatment of BPH/LUTS were followed-up for 12±2 or 24±2 weeks, or to the last treatment, during post-marketing surveillance. Safety was evaluated in terms of the frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs). Effectiveness was assessed by changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) from baseline to each endpoint. All patients receiving ≥1 dose of tadalafil 5 mg QD (N=637) were included in the safety population. Two percent of patients (n=13) experienced 15 TEAEs of mild (n=10; 66.7%) or moderate (n=5; 33.3%) severity. No severe TEAEs and no SAEs were reported. Effectiveness evaluations included all patients receiving tadalafil who had both baseline and endpoint observations (12-week, N=265; 24-week, N=44). Compared with baseline, the mean IPSS total score (±standard error) significantly improved by 4.7±0.3 and 6.4±0.7 points at the 12- and 24-week endpoints, respectively (peffective in Korean men with BPH/LUTS in a real-world clinical setting. Copyright © 2018 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  11. Soccer jersey sponsors and the world cup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.; Ferwerda, J.

    2014-01-01

    The market for soccer jerseys is a multibillion market dominated by Adidas, Nike and Puma. This paper investigates whether jersey sponsorship has a non-arbitrary effect on the outcomes of World Cup knockout matches. The results show that in the knockout stages of the last four World Cup tournaments,

  12. The World Food Conference--A Frustrating First Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald W.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the positive results of the World Food Conference and the world awareness (aroused by the conference) which is the first step in the solution of world hunger. Some of the positive results are the establishment of the World Food Council, establishment of grain reserves, and a worldwide system of food information. (BR)

  13. Developing marketing: Case hair salon Lumo

    OpenAIRE

    Carp, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Services marketing is a complex combination of different marketing strategies. Marketing something intangible can be challenging because of that nature. Digital era has brought many possibilities to marketing even for small businesses with less resources such as tight marketing budget. It is a fast-changing world but the current trends in marketing are being researched in this thesis to find ideas for the commissioner. The objective of this thesis is to find development ideas for the commissi...

  14. Digital marketing plan for a news agency

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Thi Minh Chau

    2013-01-01

    In the business world, an effective marketing plan is an important guideline for any company, regardless of how small or big the business scale is, to stay focused to their goals. Moreover, "the written marketing plan gives a common direction to all staff in the company" (McKinlay & O'Connor, 2007). Therefore, formulating a marketing plan prior to utilizing any marketing actions is substantial and necessary. However, producing a marketing plan requires knowledge of marketing. For those re...

  15. ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN A GRAIN HUNGRY WORLD - or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ted plant matter. animal products are not essen- tial in human ... the energy of plant matter is lost in converting it to animal .... to electricity or by harnessing wind and wave power. nu- ..... nomy. will also adapt to the changing cost structure by.

  16. A Scientific World in a Grain of Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Students investigate local sand samples on a shoestring budget. This investigation reveals a fascinating Earth history that can address various interdisciplinary scientific topics, provide rich inquiry experiences, and move beyond the science classroom to integrate history, culture, and art. (Contains 3 figures and 14 online resources.)

  17. Grain Interactions in Crystal Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, K.P.; Curtin, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The plastic response of a sheet metal is governed by the collective response of the underlying grains. Intragranular plasticity depends on intrinsic variables such as crystallographic orientation and on extrinsic variables such as grain interactions; however, the role of the latter is not well understood. A finite element crystal plasticity formulation is used to investigate the importance of grain interactions on intragranular plastic deformation in initially untextured polycrystalline aggregates. A statistical analysis reveals that grain interactions are of equal (or more) importance for determining the average intragranular deviations from the applied strain as compared to the orientation of the grain itself. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding grains is found to extend past nearest neighbor interactions. It is concluded that the stochastic nature of the mesoscale environment must be considered for a proper understanding of the plastic response of sheet metals at the grain-scale

  18. Safety and efficacy of ipragliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes in real-world clinical practice: interim results of the STELLA-LONG TERM post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ichiro; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Uno, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    Data regarding the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the real-world setting in Japan are limited. The STELLA-LONG TERM study is an ongoing 3-year post-marketing surveillance study of ipragliflozin in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Here, we report the interim results (including 3-, 12-, and 24-month data). All Japanese patients with T2D who were first prescribed ipragliflozin between 17 July 2014 and 16 October 2015 at participating centers in Japan were registered in STELLA-LONG TERM. At 3, 12, and 24 months, the safety analysis set comprised 11,053, 5475, and 138 patients, respectively; the efficacy analysis set comprised 8757 patients. Ipragliflozin treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements versus baseline in hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose concentration, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. The adverse drug reaction incidence rate was 10.71%, the most common reactions being renal and urinary disorders (5.06%), infections and infestations (1.24%), and skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (1.14%). Ipragliflozin was well tolerated and effective in Japanese patients with T2D; no new safety issues were identified.

  19. Effective managed care marketing strategies for evolving markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, M K

    1997-11-01

    In a world of increased competition and changing consumer expectations, one of the keys to a fiscally sound health plan is having a dynamic marketing strategy that takes into account the shifting attitudes of consumers as managed care markets mature. The primary goal of any health plan marketing strategy should be the acquisition and retention of members. Providing cost-efficient and convenient service for enrollees, offering low or no deductibles, having convenient office locations, and minimizing paper-work are important elements of such a marketing strategy. Factors such as brand awareness and the perceived image of a health plan also are important considerations in acquiring and retaining market share. The relative importance of these consumer satisfaction criteria change as a managed care market evolves and matures. Financial and marketing managers, thus, should ascertain their market's stage of development and respond with appropriate marketing strategies.

  20. Marketing Expansive Strategies of Scotch Whisky in China Market: A Challenger's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenchuang

    2005-01-01

    "Love makes the world go round? Not at all. Whisky makes it go round twice as fast!" Compton Mackenzie wrote in the book - " Whisky Galore". Being famously called the "water of life", Scotch whisky has been the world's leading spirit drink and outsells every other noble spirit in world markets. Compared with the success in Europe, South Korea and Japan, Scotch whisky in China market is still very much in its infancy. But the world's largest market clearly provides huge potential, especi...

  1. Entertaining the whole world

    OpenAIRE

    Cheok, Adrian David; Nijholt, Anton; Romão, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Entertainment media are entertainment products and services that rely on digital technology. Mostly the digital entertainment industry is focused on the developed world such as USA, Europe, and Japan. However, due to the decreasing cost of computer and programming technologies, developing countries can greatly benefit from entertainment media in two ways: as creators and producers of games and entertainment for the global market and as a way to increase creativity and learning among developin...

  2. Size Distribution and Rate of Dust Generated During Grain Elevator Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust generated during grain handling is an air pollutant that produces safety and health hazards. This study was conducted to characterize the particle size distribution (PSD) of dust generated during handling of wheat and shelled corn in the research elevator of the USDA Grain Marketing and Product...

  3. THE WORLD OIL MARKET – STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru AnaMaria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available For some countries the oil is the main source of income, while for others it represents the main raw material for energetic needs. Thus, the oil price has major influence on their economies and it is important for them that it stabilizes at a level profit

  4. Panorámica mundial del mercado de los medicamentos homeopáticos a partir de las plantas medicinales World panorama of the market of homeopathic drugs starting from medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Miguel Collazo Herrera

    2005-04-01

    the characteristics and peculiarities of these today's products for their commercialisation, as well as the prospects existing for their development in Cuba. Nowadays, there is a marked interest in the reestablishment of the practice of homeopathic medicine. The reasons that justify this rebirth are: the existence of a large potential market in several countries and its effect as a possible alternative medicine on the pharmaceutical market, which is reflected by its increasing use by doctors and consumers in various regions of the world. The homeopathic market has grown in the last years not only because of the rise in the knowledge of the homeopathic products and the possible adverse reactions of the traditional drugs, but also because of the growing number of doctors prescribing homeopathic remedies. With the incorporation of homeopathy to the so-called alternative therapies by the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba and with the . training of hundreds of specialists from different branches of medicine all over the country, the demand of homeopathic drugs has increased due to their proved effectivity and to the absence of the adverse effects most of the drugs of synthetic origin have. To give an answer to this increasing demand, the Centre for the Research and Development of Drugs produces and controls the quality of homeopathic tinctures of plant origin to widen the therapeutical stock of the National Health System and the obtention of incomes as a result of their commercialisation.

  5. Russian oil goes to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandelaki, T.L.; Tankayev, R.U.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Russia retained its place as the world's third largest producer of oil and gas condensate after Saudi Arabia and the USA. Data are provided on Russia's oil sales to its domestic market, to the former Soviet Union and to the rest of the world. These are accompanied by a commentary on Russia's world-wide market, refining in Russia, transportation costs of crude from the generally remote areas where it is produced and price ranges in the various market segments. (7 tables) (UK)

  6. Electricity markets theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Electricity Markets: Theories and Applications offers students and practitioners a clear understanding of the fundamental concepts of the economic theories, particularly microeconomic theories, as well as information on some advanced optimization methods of electricity markets. The authors--noted experts in the field--cover the basic drivers for the transformation of the electricity industry in both the United States and around the world and discuss the fundamentals of power system operation, electricity market design and structures, and electricity market operations. The text also explores advanced topics of power system operations and electricity market design and structure including zonal versus nodal pricing, market performance and market power issues, transmission pricing, and the emerging problems electricity markets face in smart grid and micro-grid environments. The authors also examine system planning under the context of electricity market regime. They explain the new ways to solve problems with t...

  7. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  8. 'Utility marketing' as an oxymoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedge, P.

    1996-01-01

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of 'brand' in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described

  9. `Utility marketing` as an oxymoron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedge, P. [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of `brand` in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described.

  10. 78 FR 32226 - Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Service [Doc. No. AMS-LPS-13-0021] Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved Information Collection and To Merge the Collections of Livestock, Poultry, Meat, Grain... merged its Livestock and Grain Market News Division with the Poultry Market News Division, creating the...

  11. Command World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leah Y; Lange, Douglas S; Sebastyn, Jerome T; Roof, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... The Command World scenario was expressly designed as a crisis action planning exercise in order to replicate the communications, collaboration, and information requirements inherent in a military...

  12. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  13. From subsistence to market economy: Responses of Tibetan pastoralists to new economic realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Manderscheid

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In many regions around the world the pastoral economy shifted from subsistence-oriented to a market-oriented production. Pastoral goods acquired monetary value and became a market commodity that entailed changes in the production system and in the attitude towards livestock. On the Tibetan plateau this shift did not follow a linear way. Until the 1950s, most consumption requirements could be satisfied with animal products. Economic exchange relations were essential to provide grain requirements, at least for those households who relied exclusively on animal husbandry. During the Mao era, animal husbandry was carried out in line with state targets and the produce was delivered according to central planning. In the late 1970s the transition towards a market-oriented production began. This paper discusses the recent reactions of pastoralists to the new realities in one specific area on the eastern Tibetan plateau. This shift from pastoral products to market commodities, the commercial network established as well as the market places for pastoral produce, are examined in this paper. These facts show that the pastoralists in question successfully market their produce. The research area, Dzoge county, is located on the eastern border area of the Tibetan plateau, where different ethnic groups live in proximity to each other. Grassland predominates the landscape, used by nomads as pastures for livestock breeding (yak, sheep and horses. Mobile animal husbandry and the marketing of the livestock products are decisive to guarantee the livelihood of the majority of the population.

  14. Making “World Machines”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Light, Ann; Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2015-01-01

    be combined and turned to crowd-sourcing public engagement with shared world issues - as an alternative to business-as-usual in the context of developing and deploying networked technology. We combine theoretical aspects of world machines, such as what a political entity of this kind might seek to do......The world machine is a new archetype for a socio-technical system drawing together a group of tools that combine computational powers with a social agenda of cross-world collaboration in resistance to dominant market rhetoric. Specifically, we look at how powers to connect, sense and infer can...

  15. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  16. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  17. Essays on Housing Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Claes

    In Denmark and in many countries around the world, housing markets are of considerable importance for households and policy-makers alike. As the boom and bust in the US and Danish housing market so aptly demonstrated, disruptions in the housing market potentially have wide-ranging consequences...... for individual households and for the aggregate economy. Housing is important because we all have to live somewhere, but also because it serves as a considerable source of both wealth and debt. As such, housing market policy can not only create vast benefits for many, but can also have substantial negative...... impacts for all, and should therefore be a topic of major interest for economists and policy makers alike. This Ph.D. thesis, entitled “Essays on Housing Markets”, analyzes the Danish housing market during the 2000s, with a focus on how policy changes affected house prices and how changes in house prices...

  18. Inbound marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Popek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  19. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  20. Grain dust and the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  1. Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, F.C.J.M. de; Roon, F.A. de

    2001-01-01

    We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value of the assets that can be held by domestic investors only versus the market value of the assets that can be traded freely.Our empirical analysis for 30 emerging markets shows that there are strong...

  2. The new world disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Nicolas; Maguire, John; Barney, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    On January 1, 1995, representatives from 76 countries signed the World Trade Organization charter, which for years had been part of a temporary trade agreement. The WTO's emergence as a fully empowered supranational body seemed to reflect the triumph of what the first President Bush had described as the "new world order." That order was based on two assumptions: that a healthy economy and a sound financial system make for political stability, and that countries in business together do not fight each other. The number one priority of U.S. foreign policy was thus to encourage the former Communist countries of Europe and the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to adopt business-friendly policies. Private capital would flow from the developed world into these countries, creating economic growth. It sounded too good to be true, and so it proved. The new world order of Bush père and his successor, Bill Clinton, has been replaced by the new world disorder of Bush fils. Under the second Bush's administration, the economic and political rationale-behind the Washington consensus of the 1990s has unraveled, forcing a radical change in our perceptions of which countries are safe for business. Negotiating this new environment will require companies to more rigorously evaluate political events and more carefully assess the links between political, economic, and financial risk factors. They'll need to be more selective about which markets to enter, and they'll need to think differently about how to position themselves in those markets. The geopolitical events of the past year, the Bush administration's global war on terror, as well as ongoing convulsions in traditional political and economic relationships must be understood and managed by corporate leaders worldwide. With careful analysis, business leaders can increase their companies' visibility and better respond to the uncertainties of the new world disorder.

  3. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  4. The world food problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R A

    1974-07-01

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  5. The world food problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  6. Dissimilarity of E-marketing VS traditional marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Salehi; Hanieh Mirzaei; Mohammadreza Aghaei; Milad Abyari

    2012-01-01

    The revolution of information technology (IT) and communications has changed the way people conduct business today.Nowadays, most of the businesses are related to electronically instruments especially internet. Implementation of E-marketing can change the shape of business all over the world. Because of the rapid proliferation of the Internet, the World Wide Web (WWW) and electronic communication has created fast growing new electronic channels for marketing. If we surf through the internet, ...

  7. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, E.W.; Brower, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A technical review summarizes and discusses information on various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for the control of insect infestation in grains and grain products. Topics include: the effects of ionizing radiation on insects infesting stored-grain products; the 2 main types of irradiators (electron accelerators; radioisotopes (e.g.: Co-60; Cs-137); dosimetry systems and methodology; variations in radiation resistance by stored-product pests; the proper selection of radiation dose; the effects of combining various treatments (temperature, infrared/microwave radiation, hypoxia, chemicals) with ionizing radiation; sublethal radiation for controlling bulk grain insects; the feeding capacity of irradiated insects; the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant insects to ionizing radiation; and the possible resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. Practical aspects of removing insects from irradiated grain also are discussed

  8. Paying your marketers--properly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elizabeth Zink

    2003-09-01

    Home health agencies have more freedom to market their services since the implementation of the prospective payment system. In order to do that, a number of agencies have turned to marketing professionals for help. A common method of compensating marketers in the business world, however, is through payment for referrals--something expressly forbidden by federal statute. Home health agencies need to know what they can and can't do to pay marketers and must train their marketers on the federal anti-kickback regulations to assure their compliance.

  9. Website - Tool of Marketing Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    New marketing as part of a new virtual world is present 24 hours from 24 hours and is veryunique. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the role and importance of the website in aprocess of generating the virtual identity of the company. The advent of online marketing does notsubstantially change the management system of marketing, but marketing experts offer a neweffective tool that can easily reach a large number of new customers. Thus, experts in marketingstrategies must adapt to new technologies and media while marketing essentially unchanged.

  10. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  11. MARKETING AND LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRANSPORT SERVICES MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytko, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Taking into account the modern trends of world economy development, the opportunities of increasing the competitiveness of the Ukrainian transport system on the base of marketing-logistical providing the development of infrastructure of transport services market are presented. The analysis of marketing-logistical approaches of estimation of the efficiency of operation of transport infrastructure objects is performed. The condition of theoretical and practical aspects of the transport services...

  12. Stochastic theory of grain growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiyun; Xing Xiusan.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this note is to set up a stochastic theory of grain growth and to derive the statistical distribution function and the average value of the grain radius so as to match them with the experiment further. 8 refs, 1 fig

  13. Stress-driven grain growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1998-11-13

    Full Text Available of length b (1+ epsilon) is parallel to sigma, embedded in a grain in which the lattice vector b (1+ epsilon) is transverse to sigma. If the embedded grain grows at the expense of its matrix, the source of the stress will do work, and therefore the presence...

  14. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  15. Social Media Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Kotler, Philip; Opresnik, Marc Oliver

    Marketing communication is undergoing a digital revolution. The increasing popularity of blogging, podcasting, and social networks enables world customers to broadcast their views about a product or service to a potential audience of billions. Traditional advertising does not work as well as it h...

  16. Uranium market remains steady

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Little change in the world uranium market is reported in the new edition of the NEA/IAEA Red Book published in March. However, the agencies still expect new production capacity to be required by the mid-1990s. Topics covered include: resources, exploration, production and demand. (author)

  17. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  18. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  19. Corporate targeting: Nike on the Russian market

    OpenAIRE

    Sekulović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Nike Corporation is one of leading global players in sports apparel and footwear market. Strategic development of Nike Co has always been based on superior marketing and engagement of world-class sportspersons in its advertising campaigns. When USSR collapsed, Nike immediately started with penetration on Russian market. By relying on its outstanding innovativeness in product development and marketing, Nike has become one of three biggest players in the market. As its distributor for Russian m...

  20. An Overview and Analysis of Marketing Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Caner Dincer; Banu Dincer

    2014-01-01

    In todays business world, in addition to general decisions, managers must also make judgments concerning what is ethical to do. This is not an easy task especially for marketing professionals as marketing is the visible interface with not only customers, but with all other stakeholders, it is important for marketers to take into consideration the marketing ethics. Marketing ethics should be examined from an individual, organizational, and societal perspective.