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Sample records for grain supplies projected

  1. Establishment of Grain Farmers' Supply Response Model and Empirical Analysis under Minimum Grain Purchase Price Policy

    Zhang, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    Based on farmers' supply behavior theory and price expectations theory, this paper establishes grain farmers' supply response model of two major grain varieties (early indica rice and mixed wheat) in the major producing areas, to test whether the minimum grain purchase price policy can have price-oriented effect on grain production and supply in the major producing areas. Empirical analysis shows that the minimum purchase price published annually by the government has significant positive imp...

  2. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  3. Finance and supply management project execution plan

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

  4. Governance In Project Configured Supply Chains

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2006-01-01

    are integrated knowledge, material, workforce and management subsystem deliveries (the building core produced of pre-cast concrete, the elevator supply and the kitchen supply). Further 17 deliveries draws on more than 50 materials and component suppliers. The case project generated 160 failures over three months......This case study covers a Danish architectural, engineering and construction supply network for a specific building project. Failures in supply are used as indicators of the governance forms employed. The following governance forms are present; internal integration and hierarchy, SCM......-efforts, subsystem deliveries and contracting per project. The case exhibits a very uneven integration upstream: Three engineering design areas are integrated with production and the client function. Amongst supplies, the architectural design is the most 'clean-cut' knowledge supply, whereas the supplies...

  5. Qualtiy Issues in Project configured Supply Chains

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz

    by configuration by project. In such a setting creating value for the customers and the enterprises becomes dependent of the ability to organise and coordinate in the supply chains. That the configuration is not always successful can be demonstrated by studying the emergence of failures occurring in the supply...... observation period. These were compiled and analysed. The economic consequences are calculated to be 8% of the production costs. The analysis of relations in the supply chain both show relations to materials and knowledge chains and their interaction. Most of the failures were generated in the knowledge...... stream and then occasionally transform into the material stream. The paper proposes initiatives to strengthen partnerships in supply chains and especially at engineer to order production. The contradiction between the permanent enterprise organisation potentially capable of handling purchasing...

  6. Quality in Supply in Project Configured Networks

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz

    2006-01-01

    The paper argues that in the AEC-industry the material and knowledge supply chains are increasingly intertwined and moreover characterised by configuration by project. In such a setting creating value for the customers and the enterprises becomes dependent of the ability to organise and coordinate...

  7. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  8. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  9. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  10. Pu-238 Supply Program Project Execution Plan

    Wham, Robert M.; Martin, Sherman

    2012-01-01

    This Pu-238 Supply Program Project Execution Plan (PEP) summarizes critical information and processes necessary to manage the program. The PEP is the primary agreement regarding planning and objectives between The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE-75), Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Office (OSO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The acquisition executive (AE) will approve the PEP. The PEP is a living document that will be reviewed and revised periodically until the project is complete. The purpose of the project is to reestablish the capability to produce plutonium-238 (Pu-238) domestically. This capability consists primarily of procedures, processes, and design information, not capital assets. As such, the project is not subject to the requirements of DOE O 413.3B, but it will be managed using the project management principles and best practices defined there. It is likely that some capital asset will need to be acquired to complete tasks within the project. As these are identified, project controls and related processes will be updated as necessary. Because the project at its initiation was envisioned to require significant capital assets, Critical Decision 0 (CD-0) was conducted in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, and the mission need was approved on December 9, 2003, by William Magwood IV, director of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Science and Technology, DOE. No date was provided for project start-up at that time. This PEP is consistent with the strategy described in the June 2010 report to Congress, Start-up Plan for Plutonium-238 Production for Radioisotope Power Systems.

  11. Projecting surgeon supply using a dynamic model.

    Fraher, Erin P; Knapton, Andy; Sheldon, George F; Meyer, Anthony; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2013-05-01

    To develop a projection model to forecast the head count and full-time equivalent supply of surgeons by age, sex, and specialty in the United States from 2009 to 2028. The search for the optimal number and specialty mix of surgeons to care for the United States population has taken on increased urgency under health care reform. Expanded insurance coverage and an aging population will increase demand for surgical and other medical services. Accurate forecasts of surgical service capacity are crucial to inform the federal government, training institutions, professional associations, and others charged with improving access to health care. The study uses a dynamic stock and flow model that simulates future changes in numbers and specialty type by factoring in changes in surgeon demographics and policy factors. : Forecasts show that overall surgeon supply will decrease 18% during the period form 2009 to 2028 with declines in all specialties except colorectal, pediatric, neurological surgery, and vascular surgery. Model simulations suggest that none of the proposed changes to increase graduate medical education currently under consideration will be sufficient to offset declines. The length of time it takes to train surgeons, the anticipated decrease in hours worked by surgeons in younger generations, and the potential decreases in graduate medical education funding suggest that there may be an insufficient surgeon workforce to meet population needs. Existing maldistribution patterns are likely to be exacerbated, leading to delayed or lost access to time-sensitive surgical procedures, particularly in rural areas.

  12. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Alvarez, David; Davanture, Marlène; Boudet, Julie; Pailloux, Marie; Zivy, Michel; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling. Large-scale analysis of the nuclear and albumin-globulin subproteomes during this key developmental phase revealed that the abundance of 203 proteins was significantly modified by the nutrition treatments. Our results showed that the grain proteome was highly affected by perturbation in the N:S balance. S supply strongly increased the rate of accumulation of S-rich α/β-gliadin and γ-gliadin, and the abundance of several other proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. Post-anthesis N supply resulted in the activation of amino acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of transport processes including nucleocytoplasmic transit. Protein accumulation networks were analyzed. Several central actors in the response were identified whose variation in abundance was related to variation in the amounts of many other proteins and are thus potentially important for GSP accumulation. This detailed analysis of grain subproteomes provides information on how wheat GSP composition can possibly be controlled in low-level fertilization condition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Finance and supply management project execution plan; TOPICAL

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes

  14. Place oriented ecological footprint analysis. The case of Israel's grain supply

    Kissinger, Meidad; Gottlieb, Dan

    2010-01-01

    In today's world, any nation's ecological footprint is spread all over the globe. Still, most footprint studies are not yet sensitive to the specific locations on which the footprint falls and to the unique production characteristics of each supporting region. In recent years some studies have acknowledged the need to quantify the 'real land' footprints and particularly the share of the footprint embodied in trade. Our goal is to analyse the ecological footprint of grain-based consumption in the state of Israel during the last two decades. We present a detailed, place oriented calculation procedure of Israel's grain footprint on specific locations around the world. We document modes of production, major energy inputs in specific sources of supply, the energy required for shipping from each source, and the CO 2 emissions from those operations. Our research reveals that most of Israel's grain footprint falls on North America followed by the Black Sea region. It also shows that while the overall consumption of grain products has increased throughout the research period, the size of the footprint has been dropping in recent years as a consequence of changing sources of supply and grain composition. Finally, we discuss some of the implications of the method presented here for future footprint calculations and environmental resource management. (author)

  15. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  16. Regional demand and supply projections for outdoor recreation

    Donald B. K. English; Carter J. Betz; J. Mark Young; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops regional recreation supply and demand projections, by combining coefficients from the national 1989 RPA Assessment models with regional regressor values. Regional recreation opportunity estimates also are developed, based on regional travel behavior. Results show important regional variations in projections of recreation opportunities, trip supply,...

  17. Beyond the threshold for motion: river channel geometry and grain size reflect sediment supply

    Pfeiffer, A.; Finnegan, N. J.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    In many gravel-bedded rivers, floods that fill the ch­­annel banks create just enough shear stress to move the median-sized gravel particles on the bed surface (D50). Because this observation is common and is supported by theory, the coincidence of bankfull flow and the incipient motion of D50 has become a­­ commonly employed assumption. However, not all natural gravel channels actually conform to this simple relationship; some channels maintain bankfull stresses far in excess of the critical stress required to initiate sediment transport. We use a database of >300 gravel-bedded rivers and >600 10Be-derived erosion rates from across North America to explore the hypothesis that sediment supply drives the magnitude of bankfull shear stress relative to the critical stress required to mobilize the median bed surface grain size. We find that the ratio of bankfull to critical stress is significantly higher in West Coast river reaches (2.47, n= 84) than in river reaches in the rest of the continent (1.03, n = 245). This pattern parallels trends in erosion rates (and hence sediment supplies). Supporting our hypothesis, we find a significant correlation between upstream erosion rate and local τ*bf/τ*c at sites where this comparison is possible. Our analysis reveals a decrease in bed surface armoring with increasing τ*bf/τ*c, suggesting that channels accommodate changes in sediment supply through adjustments in bed surface grain size, as predicted through numerical modeling. Our findings demonstrate that sediment supply is encoded in the bankfull hydraulic geometry of gravel-bedded channels through its control on bed surface grain size.

  18. EPRtm project experience: selection of partners and supply chain

    Lorenzo, D. de

    2012-01-01

    With 4 EPR T M units under construction, the new plants to be built in the following years will benefit from the return on experience of the work already performed. The knowledge about licensing processes, detail engineering, supply chain, logistics and on-site work gathered from the Olkiluoto 3 and Flamanville 3 projects has already been used in the Taishan 1 and 2 project, resulting in a project that is on schedule and on budget. This article will show how the advantage of such broad experience gained will be used to benefit future projects to ensure certainty of completion, leaving few and limited unresolved issues even before the beginning of the project. Several areas that are not usually tackled when speaking of a New Build project will be covered by this text from the point of view of a nuclear vendor: Project Partnership Selection and the Gate Review Process applied by AREVA in the supply chain of the main components. (Author)

  19. Massachusetts Study of Teacher Supply and Demand: Trends and Projections

    Levin, Jesse; Berg-Jacobson, Alex; Atchison, Drew; Lee, Katelyn; Vontsolos, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In April 2015, the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE) commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to develop a comprehensive set of 10-year projections of teacher supply and demand in order to inform planning for future workforce needs. This included state-level projections both in the aggregate, as well…

  20. Project financing knits parts of costly LNG supply chain

    Minyard, R.J.; Strode, M.O.

    1997-01-01

    The supply and distribution infrastructure of an LNG project requires project sponsors and LNG buyers to make large, interdependent capital investments. For a grassroots project, substantial investments may be necessary for each link in the supply chain: field development; liquefaction plant and storage; ports and utilities; ships; receiving terminal and related facilities; and end-user facilities such as power stations or a gas distribution network. The huge sums required for these projects make their finance ability critical to implementation. Lenders have become increasingly comfortable with LNG as a business and now have achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with it. Raising debt financing for many future LNG projects, however, will present new and increasingly difficult challenges. The challenge of financing these projects will be formidable: political instability, economic uncertainty, and local currency volatility will have to be recognized and mitigated. Described here is the evolution of financing LNG projects, including the Rasgas LNG project financing which broke new ground in this area. The challenges that lie ahead for sponsors seeking to finance future projects selling LNG to emerging markets are also discussed. And the views of leading experts from the field of project finance, specifically solicited for this article, address major issues that must be resolved for successful financing of these projects

  1. Quality assurance program plan fuel supply shutdown project

    Metcalf, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program plan (QAPP) describes how the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) project organization implements the quality assurance requirements of HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the B and W Hanford Company Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP), FSP-MP-004. The QAPP applies to facility structures, systems, and components and to activities (e.g., design, procurement, testing, operations, maintenance, etc.) that could affect structures, systems, and components. This QAPP also provides a roadmap of applicable Project Hanford Policies and Procedures (PHPP) which may be utilized by the FSS project organization to implement the requirements of this QAPP

  2. Collaborative Learning in Advanced Supply Systems: The KLASS Pilot Project.

    Rhodes, Ed; Carter, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Knowledge and Learning in Advanced Supply Systems (KLASS) project developed collaborative learning networks of suppliers in the British automotive and aerospace industries. Methods included face-to-face and distance learning, work toward National Vocational Qualifications, and diagnostic workshops for senior managers on improving quality,…

  3. Supply Chain Management in Flyover Projects in India

    Sudhir Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of supply chain management (SCM in the Indian construction industry. The authors studied the SCM practices followed in flyover projects and compared them with the seamless SCM model for construction proposed by a previous study. A case study approach was followed for the research work. Structured interviews were conducted to understand the SCM practices in flyover projects in India. The developed model advocates leading roles for client and strategic needs analysis and value management study that are missing in the studied projects. All of the projects studied faced cost and time overruns. The seamless SCM model may be extended to developing countries by incorporating requirements related to the long-term relationship between project agents and, if possible, by suggesting that clients should not select agents using only the minimal cost criteria. The extended model also proposes SCM training for all project agents before the start of the project. Strategic needs analysis and value management study should be an integral part of the construction project to improve project efficiency. Implementing the seamless SCM model calls for the early involvement (i.e., at the project design stage of all project agents. Project sponsors can apply the findings of this study to manage time and cost overruns.

  4. Zinc, iron, manganese and copper uptake requirement in response to nitrogen supply and the increased grain yield of summer maize.

    Yanfang Xue

    Full Text Available The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu in maize (Zea mays L. were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain. Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1 and 5.3 g, respectively were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60% and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg-1 rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively. The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield.

  5. Grain size controls on sediment supply from debris-mantled dryland hillslopes

    Michaelides, K.

    2011-12-01

    characteristics, determine sediment transport dynamics and net flux, GSD supplied to the slope base and the changes in GSD on the hillslope. The results show a strong control of initial hillslope GSD on flux characteristics: (1) GSD controls the degree of non-linearity in the relationship between sediment flux and hillslope gradient. (2) Grain size uniformity controls the degree and form of non-linearity in the relationship between sediment flux and gradient. (3) Over multiple runoff events, slopes coarsen - steeper slopes become coarser than shallow slopes. For individual events, changes in GSD on the slope depend on the magnitude and duration of the runoff event and can result in variable coarsening and fining on different parts of the slope. (4) The GSD of sediment delivered to the slope base is dependent on the hillslope GSD and the hillslope attributes and runoff characteristics. For most runoff events, the GSD of fluxed sediment is finer than the hillslope GSD except for extreme runoff events on very steep slopes with intermediate GSD (not extremely coarse). These findings provide insights into hillslope responses to climatic forcing and have theoretical implications for modeling hillslope evolution in drylands.

  6. Construction Project Performance Improvement through Radio Frequency Identification Technology Application on a Project Supply Chain

    Wang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Construction project productivity typically lags other industries and it has been the focus of numerous studies in order to improve the project performance. This research investigated the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology on construction projects' supply chain and determined that RFID technology can improve the…

  7. Teaching supply chain management through global projects with global project teams

    Kopczak, L.R.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    In this article, we describe the Global Project Coordination Course, a course in which project teams composed of three students from each of two overseas universities execute company-sponsored projects dealing with global supply chain management issues. The $75,000 to $100,00 contributed in total by

  8. New nuclear projects: structure, supply chain and financing

    Keppler, J.H.; Cometto, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015 there were 68 reactors being constructed throughout the world and 159 projects were planned. The projects for the construction of nuclear reactors face challenging issues like financing and management. The NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency) has analysed the feedback experience on a sample of reactor projects and of reactors recently commissioned in order to draw lessons on 3 issues: financing, long-term electricity price, and project management including the supply chain. It is already known that technologies requiring high initial capital like nuclear power or renewable energies, are very sensitive to the long-term price of electricity. The study shows that for a debt ratio below 60%, the risk for the investor is low even if the long-term electricity price drops by 30 %. Because of the complexity of the construction of a nuclear power plant there are mainly 3 types of project management: the turnkey project, the split package approach (a relatively low number of suppliers) and the multi-contract approach. The turnkey approach is favoured by the new entrants in the nuclear world. The harmonization of regulations and the convergence of the safety requirements are necessary to build an efficient and competitive supply chain. (A.C.)

  9. Different Phosphorus Supplies Altered the Accumulations and Quantitative Distributions of Phytic Acid, Zinc, and Iron in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grains.

    Su, Da; Zhou, Lujian; Zhao, Qian; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-02-21

    Development of rice cultivars with low phytic acid (lpa) is considered as a primary strategy for biofortification of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Here, two rice genotypes (XS110 and its lpa mutant) were used to investigate the effect of P supplies on accumulations and distributions of PA, Zn, and Fe in rice grains by using hydroponics and detached panicle culture system. Results showed that higher P level increased grain PA concentration on dry matter basis (g/kg), but it markedly decreased PA accumulation on per grain basis (mg/grain). Meanwhile, more P supply reduced the amounts and bioavailabilities of Zn and Fe both in milled grains and in brown grains. Comparatively, lpa mutant was more susceptive to exogenous P supply than its wild type. Hence, the appropriate P fertilizer application should be highlighted in order to increase grain microelement (Zn and Fe) contents and improve nutritional quality in rice grains.

  10. Power supply projects a collection of innovative and practical design projects

    Maplin

    1996-01-01

    Using circuit diagrams, PCB layouts, parts lists and clear construction and installation details, this book provides everything someone with a basic knowledge of electronics needs to know in order to put that knowledge into practice.This latest collection of Maplin projects are a variety of power supply projects, the necessary components for which are readily available from the Maplin catalogue or any of their high street shops. Projects include, laboratory power supply projects for which there are a wide range of applications for the hobbyist, from servicing portable audio and video equipment

  11. Frictions in Project-Based Supply of Permits

    Liski, M.; Virrankoski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Emissions trading in climate change can entail large overall cost savings and transfers between developed and developing countries. However, the search for acceptable JI or CDM projects implies a deviation from the perfect market framework used in previous estimations. Our model combines the search market for projects with a frictionless permit market to quantify the supply-side frictions in the CO2 market. We also decompose the effects of frictions into the effects of search friction, bargaining, and bilateralism. A calibration using previous cost estimates of CO2 reductions illustrate changes in cost savings and allocative implications

  12. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management.

  13. Characterization of the Wheat Leaf Metabolome during Grain Filling and under Varied N-Supply

    Elmien Heyneke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving crop growth is an absolute goal despite the influence multifactorial components have on crop yield and quality. An Avalon × Cadenza doubled-haploid wheat mapping population was used to study the leaf metabolome of field grown wheat at weekly intervals during the time in which the canopy contributes to grain filling, i.e., from anthesis to 5 weeks post-anthesis. Wheat was grown under four different nitrogen supplies reaching from residual soil N to a luxury over-fertilization (0, 100, 200, and 350 kg N ha−1. Four lines from a segregating doubled haploid population derived of a cross of the wheat elite cvs. Avalon and Cadenza were chosen as they showed pairwise differences in either N utilization efficiency (NUtE or senescence timing. 108 annotated metabolites of primary metabolism and ions were determined. The analysis did not provide genotype specific markers because of a remarkable stability of the metabolome between lines. We speculate that the reason for failing to identify genotypic markers might be due to insufficient genetic diversity of the wheat parents and/or the known tendency of plants to keep metabolome homeostasis even under adverse conditions through multiple adaptations and rescue mechanism. The data, however, provided a consistent catalogue of metabolites and their respective responses to environmental and developmental factors and may bode well for future systems biology approaches, and support plant breeding and crop improvement.

  14. Geolocation Support for Water Supply and Sewerage Projects in Azerbaijan

    Qocamanov, M. H.; Gurbanov, Ch. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Drinking water supply and sewerage system designing and reconstruction projects are being extensively conducted in Azerbaijan Republic. During implementation of such projects, collecting large amount of information about the area and detailed investigations are crucial. Joint use of the aerospace monitoring and GIS play an essential role for the studies of the impact of environmental factors, development of the analytical information systems and others, while achieving the reliable performance of the existing and designed major water supply pipelines, as well as construction and exploitation of the technical installations. With our participation the GIS has been created in "Azersu" OJSC that includes systematic database of the drinking water supply and sewerage system, and rain water networks to carry out necessary geo information analysis. GIScreated based on "Microstation" platform and aerospace data. Should be mentioned that, in the country, specifically in large cities (i.e. Baku, Ganja, Sumqait, etc.,) drinking water supply pipelines cross regions with different physico-geographical conditions, geo-morphological compositions and seismotectonics.Mains water supply lines in many accidents occur during the operation, it also creates problems with drinking water consumers. In some cases the damage is caused by large-scale accidents. Long-term experience gives reason to say that the elimination of the consequences of accidents is a major cost. Therefore, to avoid such events and to prevent their exploitation and geodetic monitoring system to improve the rules on key issues. Therefore, constant control of the plan-height positioning, geodetic measurements for the detailed examination of the dynamics, repetition of the geodetic measurements for certain time intervals, or in other words regular monitoring is very important. During geodetic monitoring using the GIS has special significance. Given that, collecting geodetic monitoring measurements of the main pipelines

  15. Fuel supply strategy for power projects in Asia

    Boyd, D.

    1997-01-01

    Electricity generation is forecast to grow in Asia over the next twenty years. This will bring with it a significant growth in demand for energy resources. Major Asian utility coal procurement strategy to date has aimed at securing a balance between two conflicting needs - security of supply and low cost of supply. Despite the oversupply of coal in the eighties, the two countries experiencing significant growth in demand, Japan and Korea, planned their fuel strategies to ensure security of supply. The supply shortage over the past two years has justified their forward thinking in keeping long term coal contracts in place. Changes are already happening. Recent developments are seeing a move towards the positive attributes of low ash/low sulphur coals appropriately focusing suppliers thoughts on the need in the future to develop and concentrate on environmentally attractive coals to achieve greater returns. Indeed, generally there is a trend in North Asia to demand coal with lower sulphur, and lower ash. The aim now should be to persuade consumers to amend the narrow benchmark view in favour of one that considers the value in use of a particular coal to the customer. The method of pricing thermal coals is also likely to be influenced by the liberalization of the electricity market itself. The introduction of competition amongst generators and the appearance and growth of the Independent Power Producers could well see further pressure on the current simplistic benchmark system. Those financing such projects will seek to reduce risk by every means possible and, in particular, will want to be confident of the long term security of coal supplies

  16. The Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply project: An introduction.

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Karcher, D

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, empirical information on the sustainability of commercial-scale egg production is lacking. The passage of state regulations specific to hen housing created urgency to better understand the effects of different housing systems on the sustainability of the egg supply, and stimulated the formation of a coalition, the Coalition for a Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES), to conduct research on this topic. The CSES is a multi-stakeholder group with 27 members, including food manufacturers, research institutions, scientists, restaurants, food service, retail food companies, egg suppliers, and nongovernmental organizations. A commercial-scale study was developed to better understand the effect of 3 housing systems (conventional cage, enriched colony, and cage-free aviary) on 5 areas related to a sustainable egg supply. These 5 sustainability areas represent effects on people, animals, and the environment: animal health and well-being, environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and food affordability. Five teams of scientists, each associated with a sustainability area, conducted an integrated field study at a commercial site in the upper Midwest through 2 flock cycles in 3 housing systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the CSES project to serve as an introduction for the papers that follow in this volume of Poultry Science. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  17. Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) Project Overview

    Hintze, Paul; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Kulis, Michael J.; Lytle, John K.; Fisher, John W.; Vaccaro, Helen; Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical needs are a key to long term space missions. Currently, trash and waste generated during a mission is carried during the entire roundtrip mission or stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The goal of the Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) project is to develop space technology alternatives for converting trash and other waste materials from human spaceflight into high-value products that might include propellants or power system fuels in addition to life support oxygen and water. In addition to producing a useful product from waste, TtSG will decrease the volume needed to store waste on long term space missions. This paper presents an overview of the TtSG technologies and future plans for the project.

  18. Projections of Demand for Cardiovascular Surgery and Supply of Surgeons.

    Lee, Jung Jeung; Park, Nam Hee; Lee, Kun Sei; Chee, Hyun Keun; Sim, Sung Bo; Kim, Myo Jeong; Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Myunghwa; Park, Choon Seon

    2016-12-01

    While demand for cardiovascular surgery is expected to increase gradually along with the rapid increase in cardiovascular diseases with respect to the aging population, the supply of thoracic and cardiovascular surgeons has been continuously decreasing over the past 10 years. Consequently, this study aims to achieve guidance in establishing health care policy by analyzing the supply and demand for cardiovascular surgeries in the medical service area of Korea. After investigating the actual number of cardiovascular surgeries performed using the National Health Insurance claim data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, as well as drawing from national statistics concerning the elderly population aged 65 and over, this study estimated the number of future cardiovascular surgeries by using a cell-based model. To be able to analyze the supply and demand of surgeons, the recent status of new surgeons specializing in thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries and the ratio of their subspecialties in cardiovascular surgeries were investigated. Then, while taking three different scenarios into account, the number of cardiovascular surgeons expected be working in 5-year periods was projected. The number of cardiovascular surgeries, which was recorded at 10,581 cases in 2014, is predicted to increase consistently to reach a demand of 15,501 cases in 2040-an increase of 46.5%. There was a total of 245 cardiovascular surgeons at work in 2014. Looking at 5 year spans in the future, the number of surgeons expected to be supplied in 2040 is 184, to retire is 249, and expected to be working is 309-an increase of -24.9%, 1.6%, and 26.1%, respectively compared to those in 2014. This forecasts a demand-supply imbalance in every scenario. Cardiovascular surgeons are the most central resource in the medical service of highly specialized cardiovascular surgeries, and fostering the surgeons requires much time, effort, and resources; therefore, by analyzing the various factors

  19. Projections of Demand for Cardiovascular Surgery and Supply of Surgeons

    Jung Jeung Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: While demand for cardiovascular surgery is expected to increase gradually along with the rapid increase in cardiovascular diseases with respect to the aging population, the supply of thoracic and cardiovascular surgeons has been continuously decreasing over the past 10 years. Consequently, this study aims to achieve guidance in establishing health care policy by analyzing the supply and demand for cardiovascular surgeries in the medical service area of Korea. Methods: After investigating the actual number of cardiovascular surgeries performed using the National Health Insurance claim data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, as well as drawing from national statistics concerning the elderly population aged 65 and over, this study estimated the number of future cardiovascular surgeries by using a cell-based model. To be able to analyze the supply and demand of surgeons, the recent status of new surgeons specializing in thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries and the ratio of their subspecialties in cardiovascular surgeries were investigated. Then, while taking three different scenarios into account, the number of cardiovascular surgeons expected be working in 5-year periods was projected. Results: The number of cardiovascular surgeries, which was recorded at 10,581 cases in 2014, is predicted to increase consistently to reach a demand of 15,501 cases in 2040—an increase of 46.5%. There was a total of 245 cardiovascular surgeons at work in 2014. Looking at 5 year spans in the future, the number of surgeons expected to be supplied in 2040 is 184, to retire is 249, and expected to be working is 309—an increase of -24.9%, 1.6%, and 26.1%, respectively compared to those in 2014. This forecasts a demand-supply imbalance in every scenario. Conclusion: Cardiovascular surgeons are the most central resource in the medical service of highly specialized cardiovascular surgeries, and fostering the surgeons requires much time

  20. Mackenzie Gas Project : gas resource and supply study

    Harris, D.G.; Braaten, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the future gas supply for the Mackenzie Gas Project. The economically recoverable gas resources and deliverability in the region were assessed in order to support construction of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline and the associated gathering system. This supply study was based on a 25 year timeframe for resource development. Production forecasts were also prepared for 50 years following the date of the study. Natural gas forecasts for the general area to be served by the proposed pipeline were also presented. This report includes an introduction to the final gas resource and supply study as well as the regional geology relating to discovered and undiscovered resources. The following regions were included in the study area: onshore Mackenzie Delta including the Niglintgak, Parsons Lake and Taglu anchor fields; central Mackenzie Valley region extending from the Mackenzie Delta south to 63 degrees latitude; northern portion of the Yukon Territory; and, portions of the offshore Mackenzie Delta region limited to a water depth of 30 metres. Forecasts and economic analyses were prepared for the following 3 scenarios: contingent onshore resources only; contingent and prospective onshore resources; and, contingent and prospective onshore and offshore resources. Sensitivity forecasts were prepared for a fully expanded pipeline capacity of 1.8 bcf/day with an equal capacity gathering system. In addition, the National Energy Board estimates of resources for the 3 anchor field were used in place of the operator's estimates. A geological review was included for the plays in the study area. 15 refs., 43 tabs., 38 figs

  1. Fuel price and supply projections, 1980 to 2000

    1980-06-01

    In 1978, over 95% of California's energy was derived from conventional fuels - oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Approximately one-third of these conventional fuels was produced within the state, the remaining two-thirds coming from other states and foreign countries. Dependence on these fuels is not likely to diminish rapidly in the near future, therefore the factors that contribute to the future supplies and prices of these fuels will have a major influence on the state's energy future. This report serves as a basis for Commission analysis and is also intended as a tool to be used by others who must make decisions involving the future cost and availability of fuels. This report documents the staff's projections on future supply, price, and availability of these fuels and presents information on historical fuel use and price for background and perspective. Analyses of commercially developable derived fuels and of recent Federal statutory restrictions on the use of oil and gas are also presented. These analyses include economic, logistic, environmental, geologic, and social and institutional considerations. This report does not focus on the costs included in fuel production and preparation; nor does the report go into detail on the transportation, disposal, and downstream costs of the various fuels

  2. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  3. Analysis of supply chain management of N1-EAM project

    Wu Jize; Liu Xujia; Liu Huanhuan

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain management directly affect the safe and stable operation of nuclear power plants. China's nuclear power production management information system N1-EAM covers supply chain management business. This paper firstly N1-EAM supply chain management functions, advanced analysis of business processes, Qinshan area combined with supply chain management situation, the initial application of the proposed solutions. (authors)

  4. Heating and dehydration of grain and cereals at a combined energy supply

    Sergey Zverev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on the development of experimental dependencies of heating and dehydration of grain and cereals when varying the irradiance, ambient temperature in the heat treatment zone and the initial moisture content of product, and the development of the mathematical models for heating and dehydration of some grains and cereals. The grain was heated on the laboratory equipment with quartz halogen linear infrared emitters. The irradiance on the working surface in the treatment zone was determined by calculation using a specially developed program. The ambient temperature was determined by a thermocouple thermometer placed in a ceramic tube. The grain temperature was estimated as average by weight by a thermocouple thermometer after its transfer into a thermally insulated container. The following dependencies have been obtained: 1 - Temperature dependence of the heating time for different heating modes and initial moisture content. 2 - Dependence of moisture content on the heating time under different conditions and initial moisture content. 3 - Dependence of moisture content on a temperature under different conditions and constant initial humidity. The models of the heat-moisture exchange and dehydration processes have been created, and the model parameters K0 and KT of the temperature dependence of some grains have been identified, as well as their dependence on moisture content and treatment modes has been evaluated. It has been established that this model describes adequately the process of dehydration to an extent limited by the upper temperature value of grain not much more than 100 ºС. Within not limited to the upper temperature value of grain not much more than 100 ºС. From the presented graphs and earlier obtained results for barley and millet, it can be assumed that the model describes adequately experimental data on the small-sized (3 - 5 mm objects.

  5. Series Supply of Cryogenic Venturi Flowmeters for the ITER Project

    André, J; Poncet, J M; Ercolani, E; Clayton, N; Journeaux, J Y

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the ITER project, the CEA-SBT has been contracted to supply 277 venturi tube flowmeters to measure the distribution of helium in the superconducting magnets of the ITER tokamak. Six sizes of venturi tube have been designed so as to span a measurable helium flowrate range from 0.1 g/s to 400g/s. They operate, in nominal conditions, either at 4K or at 300K, and in a nuclear and magnetic environment. Due to the cryogenic conditions and the large number of venturi tubes to be supplied, an individual calibration of each venturi tube would be too expensive and time consuming. Studies have been performed to produce a design which will offer high repeatability in manufacture, reduce the geometrical uncertainties and improve the final helium flowrate measurement accuracy. On the instrumentation side, technologies for differential and absolute pressure transducers able to operate in applied magnetic fields need to be identified and validated. The complete helium mass flow measurement chain will be qualified in four test benches: - A helium loop at room temperature to insure the qualification of a statistically relevant number of venturi tubes operating at 300K.- A supercritical helium loop for the qualification of venturi tubes operating at cryogenic temperature (a modification to the HELIOS test bench). - A dedicated vacuum vessel to check the helium leak tightness of all the venturi tubes. - A magnetic test bench to qualify different technologies of pressure transducer in applied magnetic fields up to 100mT. (paper)

  6. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Kalumiana, O.S.; Hibajene, S.H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase 'excess' charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka's different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  7. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  8. Projecting southern timber supply for multiple products by subregion

    Robert C. Abt; Frederick W. Cubbage; Karen L. Abt

    2009-01-01

    While timber supply modeling has been of importance in the wood-producing regions of the United States for decades, it is only more recently that the technology and data have allowed disaggregation of supply and demand to substate regions, including product specific breakdowns and endogenous land use and plantation changes. Using southwide data and an economic supply...

  9. Projecting female labor supply: The relevance of social norm change

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The relevance of labor supply research for long-term labor market policy is rather low. This article is an attempt to improve on this situation in the case of female labor force participation. It focuses on labor supply decisions under fundamental uncertainty, that is, imperfect ability to cope with

  10. Application of Supply Chain Performance Measurement in Scor Model at Building Project

    Wibowo, Mochamad Agung; Sholeh, Moh Nur

    2016-01-01

    The supply chain has become a priority subject of management research and manufacturing theory in recent years. It has also become an interesting topic in the construction industry. Construction supply chain management is more concerned with the coordination of discrete quantities of materials delivered to a specific construction project. Currently, in some building project, there has been no standard indicators in measuring the performance of the supply chain. Therefore, further research is ...

  11. Ecological Footprint of Biological Resource Consumption in a Typical Area of the Green for Grain Project in Northwestern China

    Jie Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the implementation of the Green for Grain Project in 2000 in Guyuan, China, the decrease in cultivated land and subsequent increase in forest and grassland pose substantial challenges for the supply of biological products. Whether the current biologically productive land-use patterns in Guyuan satisfy the biological product requirements for local people is an urgent problem. In this study, the ecological footprints of biological resource consumption in Guyuan were calculated and analyzed based on the ‘City Hectare’ Ecological Footprint (EF Method. The EFs of different types of biological resource products consumed from different types of biologically productive land were then analyzed. In addition, the EFs of various biological resource products before and after the implementation of the Green for Grain Project (1998 and 2012 were assessed. The actual EF and bio-capacity (BC were compared, and differences in the EF and BC for different types of biologically productive lands before and after the project were analyzed. The results showed that the EF of Guyuan’s biological resource products was 0.65866 ha/cap, with an EF outflow and EF inflow of 0.2280 ha/cap and 0.0951 ha/cap, respectively. The per capita EF of Guyuan significantly decreased after the project, as did the ecological deficit. Whereas the cultivated land showed a deficit, grasslands were characterized by ecological surplus. The total EF of living resource consumption in Guyuan was 810,941 ha, and the total BC was 768,065 ha. In additional to current biological production areas, approximately 42,876 ha will be needed to satisfy the demands of Guyuan’s people. Cultivated land is the main type of biologically productive land that is needed.

  12. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  13. Oklahoma Study of Educator Supply and Demand: Trends and Projections

    Berg-Jacobson, Alex; Levin, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, the Oklahoma State Regents of Higher Education (OSRHE) commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to conduct a study to better understand both historical and future predicted trends of educator supply and demand across Oklahoma. OSRHE commissioned the study in partnership with the Oklahoma Commission for Teacher Preparation…

  14. GRI baseline projection of U.S. Energy supply and demand to 2010. 1991 edition

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the 1991 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand and presents a series of summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1991 projection, a brief discussion of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration, a description of the independent power producer (IPP) methodology and projection, a comparison of the 1991 edition with previous projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  15. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  16. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the use...

  17. Policy implications of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the 1993 edition of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, and presents the implications of the projection that are important for GRI research and development planning and the gas industry. The survey of supply and demand considerations is followed by a breakdown of energy demand by type of fuel, by consumption sector, and by service application. Gas supply and prices are analyzed in terms of two scenarios: a constrained energy demand scenario, and an optimistic scenario. Tables and charts accompany the summary

  18. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, hydro electrical potential

    1992-12-01

    This project describes the Brazilian hydroelectric park citing the historical aspects, methodology of potential evaluation, forecasts of costs for hydroelectric use and the utilization of hydroelectric potential in small and reversible hydroelectric plants situated in all Brazilian regions. The utilization of hydroelectric potential in Amazon region is put in relief. 8 figs, 17 tabs

  19. On adaptive modified projective synchronization of a supply chain ...

    Hamed Tirandaz

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... A novel adaptive modified projective synchronization method is ... bances, and so these methods are usually of no use. To ...... [53] S E Fawcett and M A Waller, J. Business Logistics 32(1), ... Research Appl. 12(5), 347 (2009).

  20. Technology and commercial supply of components for the LHC project

    Faugeras, Paul E

    1998-01-01

    After a brief reminder of the motives and the outline of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, one will review the technology and the hardware to be built up. The LHC calls for High Tech innovation s in superconductivity, cryogenics with superfluid helium, ultra high vacuum, surface treatments, etc. which have to be transferred to Industry and produced on a large scale. It will also make extensi ve use of more conventional technology, but because of the intrinsic complexity of the machine and of the international nature of its funding and procurement sources, it will require sophisticated man agement and logistics tools to minimize costs and installation time. The planning for the whole project will be given with an indication of the nature and time schedule of the major contracts.

  1. Gas supply for independent power projects: Drilling programs and reserve acquisitions

    Lambert, J.D.; Walker, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Developers of gas-fired independent power projects, although drawn to gas as the fuel of choice for economic and environmental reasons, are finding the problem of cost-effective gas supply to be intractable. By one estimate, there are $6 billion worth of gas-fired projects languishing in the planning stage for want of long-term gas supply that is acceptable to project lenders. Worse still, as the authors are aware, some currently operating gas-fired projects lack such a supply, thus forcing the developer to rely on the spot market for gas as an interim (and unsatisfactory) solution. Although spot market prices in the deregulated natural gas industry have remained relatively low over several years, long-term gas supply has become problematic, particularly for power projects whose economics typically require an assured supply at a determined price over a multiyear period. In short, while there is an increasing demand for gas as a preferred source of fuel supply for power projects, there are discontinuities in the approaches taken to contracting for that supply by producers and developers. These concern primarily allocation of the risk of commodity-driven price increases during the term of the fuel supply contract. Without a means of accommodating price-related risk, the parties will inevitably find themselves at an impasse in contract negotiations. If there is a barrier to the independent power generation industry's vertical integration into gas production, it is the fundamental insularity of the two industries. As they have discovered, it may be indispensable for gas producers and power developers to employ intermediaries familiar with both industries in order to consummate appropriate joint-venture drilling programs and reserve acquisitions. Given the economic consequences of doing so successfully, however, they believe such programs and acquisitions may become an integral part of independent power developers' business strategy in the 1990s and beyond

  2. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "grain for green" project in Loess Plateau, China

    Chang, R.; Fu, B.; Liu, Gaisheng; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The “Grain for Green” project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this “Grain for Green” project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the “Grain for Green” project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau

  3. Knowledge collaborative incentive based on inter-organizational cooperative innovation of project-based supply chain

    Guangdong Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Within project-based supply chain inter-organizational cooperative innovation, the achievement of project value-adding reflects by factors such as project-based organizational effect level, the relationship between project cooperative innovation objectives etc. The purpose is to provide a reliable reference for the contractor reasonably allocate the effect level and resources between the knowledge input and innovation stage and realize the knowledge collaboration for project-based supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the assumption of equal cooperation between project-based organizations, from the view of maximizing project value-adding and the relationship of effect cost between knowledge input and innovation stage in consideration, the knowledge collaborative incentive model for project-based supply chain inter-organizational cooperative innovation was established, and solved through the first-order and second-order approach, then the digital simulation and example analysis were presented. Findings: The results show that, the project management enterprise resorted to adjust project knowledge collaboration incentive intensity and implemented knowledge input-innovation coordinative incentive strategy, not only could achieve project value-adding maximization, but also could realize net earnings Pareto improvement between project management enterprise and contractor. Research limitations/implications: To simplify the knowledge flow among project-based organizations, the knowledge flow in the model hypothesis is presented as knowledge input and knowledge innovation stage, thus it may affect the final analysis results. Originality/value: In construction project practice, knowledge is become more and more important to achieve project value-adding. The research can provide a theoretical guideline for the project-based organizations, such as the contractor, the owner, especially how to utilize their core knowledge.

  4. Project Galaxy - Sustianable Resource Supply and Environmental Implications

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Wimmer, Robert [Toyota Motor Corp.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding what it takes to move from a corn-based liquid fuels industry to one that is cellulosic-based requires a complex transition over time. This transition implies, among other things, a shift from annual cropping systems considered under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) policy as commodity crops, to perennial lignocellulosic crops that are herbaceous and wood-based. Because of changes in land use as well as biomass and other crop supplies, land-based environmental amenities such as water quality, soil health and tilth, air quality, and animal and avian species populations and their diversity change also. Environmental effects are measured as magnitudes (how much they are impacted), and direction of the impact (either positive or negative). By developing a series of quantitative and qualitative metrics, the larger issue of defining relative sustainability may be addressed, and this can be done at a finer detail of regional (scale) and environmental amenity-specific impacts. Although much literature exists about research relevant to specific environmental variables, there is no published, documented, nor research literature on direct application of environmental over-compliance with regards a 'biorefinery.' Our three goals were to (1) understand and quantify bioenergy sustainability and some key environmental effects in a generic set of examples; (2) explain the effort and means to define and quantify specific qualitative environmental measures, and to determine a way to understand changes in these measures over time and what their implications might be; and (3) use these outcomes to evaluate potential sites in any geographic area. This would permit assessment of candidate locations, combined with an understanding of co-production of fuels, chemicals, and electric power, to interpret sustainability measures and the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The process of determining environmental

  5. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  6. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    2010-10-01

    ... entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one Indian tribe, is the approval of... Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.56 If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

  7. 43 CFR 404.12 - Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under...

    2010-10-01

    ... the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? 404.12 Section 404.12 Public... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.12 Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? Reclamation may provide assistance with the...

  8. Grain Drier Project Report for task 2 dated July 1990 edited 1991, 1992. Follow up report

    Frye, S.; Hall, R.; Lee, Myoung; Ouyang, Chieh [and others

    1990-07-01

    One of the original projects undertaken under the cooperative agreement No. DE-FC04-87AL42558 between the Massachusetts Photovoltaic Program and the United States Department of Energy was to design, build, and test a grain drier which utilized solar energy effectively. Different grains have different drying requirements, and the grain drier team chose to design the drier for rice because of the worldwide economic importance of this staple food and also because of the challenges that drying rice presents. Rice loses much of its market value if it is exposed to large temperature changes while drying; therefore, a solar rice drier must be designed so as to try to level the temperature variations which naturally arise from the intermittency of the solar source. The design team committed itself early in the project to a hybrid concept, where solar energy is utilized in two ways: it is captured {open_quote}thermally{close_quote} in a rock-bed which acts at the same time as thermal storage and buffer, and it is converted {open_quote}directly{close_quote} in a small photovoltaic panel which generates electricity to power a small fan to circulate air through the rock-bed and the grain during daylight hours. At night, natural convection drives the air flow. The design of most of the system is flexible, in that the drier can be built with materials available at the intended site, with non-specialized labor. The team has purposely avoided any {open_quote}high tech{close_quote} solution which would increase the drier cost for third-world users. Therefore, the drier design does not incorporate selective surfaces or a vacuum, two common methods of enhancing solar thermal performance. The design does incorporate a small but relatively high value element, the PV panel and fan package. A major part of the group effort was devoted to data acquisition, to analyze the effects of different modifications on the drier performance. The results of the effort are summarized in this report.

  9. On adaptive modified projective synchronization of a supply chain management system

    Tirandaz, Hamed

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the synchronization problem of a chaotic supply chain management system is studied. A novel adaptive modified projective synchronization method is introduced to control the behaviour of the leader supply chain system by a follower chaotic system and to adjust the leader system parameters until the measurable errors of the system parameters converge to zero. The stability evaluation and convergence analysis are carried out by the Lyapanov stability theorem. The proposed synchronization and antisynchronization techniques are studied for identical supply chain chaotic systems. Finally, some numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical discussions.

  10. Settling characteristics of fine-grained sediments used in Louisiana coastal land building and restoration projects

    Ghose Hajra, M.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal property development, sea level rise, geologic subsidence, loss of barrier islands, increasing number and intensity of coastal storms and other factors have resulted in water quality degradation, wetlands loss, reduced storm and surge protection, ground settlement, and other challenges in coastal areas throughout the world. One of the goals towards reestablishing a healthy coastal ecosystem is to rebuild wetlands with river diversion or sediment conveyance projects that optimally manage and allocate sediments, minimally impact native flora and fauna, and positively affect the water quality. Engineering properties and material characteristics of the dredged material and foundation soils are input parameters in several mathematical models used to predict the long term behavior of the dredged material and foundation soil. Therefore, proper characterization of the dredged material and foundation soils is of utmost importance in the correct design of a coastal restoration and land reclamation project. The sedimentation and consolidation characteristics of the dredged material as well as their effects on the time rate of settlement of the suspended solid particles and underlying foundation soil depend, among other factors, on the (a) grain size distribution of the dredged material, (b) salinity (fresh, brackish, or saltwater environment) of the composite slurry, and (c) concentration of the solid particles in the slurry. This paper will present the results from column settling tests and self-weight consolidation tests performed on dredged samples obtained from actual restoration projects in Louisiana. The effects of salinity, grain size distribution, and initial particle concentration on the sedimentation and consolidation parameters of the dredged material will also be discussed.

  11. FOLA - the district heat supply project for the Olten-Aarau region

    Utzinger, E.

    1986-01-01

    The FOLA project envisages supply of nuclear power station heat via pipe lines to communities in the Olten-Aarau region. The project is introduced with reference to environmental and oil saving advantages. Heat from the nuclear power station steam circuit converted via heat exchangers would be transmitted through pressurised hot water pipe line networks to user communities for extraction by heat exchangers at consumer installations. Some network details are discussed. The exact supply area is not yet finalised, but estimated heat loading is about 150 MW. Following further studies a construction and operating company could be formed, and heat delivery could commence in 1989. (H.V.H.)

  12. Supply and Demand for Radiation Oncology in the United States: Updated Projections for 2015 to 2025

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Falit, Benjamin P.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prior studies have forecasted demand for radiation therapy to grow 10 times faster than the supply between 2010 and 2020. We updated these projections for 2015 to 2025 to determine whether this imbalance persists and to assess the accuracy of prior projections. Methods and Materials: The demand for radiation therapy between 2015 and 2025 was estimated by combining current radiation utilization rates determined by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data with population projections provided by the US Census Bureau. The supply of radiation oncologists was forecast by using workforce demographics and full-time equivalent (FTE) status provided by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), current resident class sizes, and expected survival per life tables from the US Centers for Disease Control. Results: Between 2015 and 2025, the annual total number of patients receiving radiation therapy during their initial treatment course is expected to increase by 19%, from 490,000 to 580,000. Assuming a graduating resident class size of 200, the number of FTE physicians is expected to increase by 27%, from 3903 to 4965. In comparison with prior projections, the new projected demand for radiation therapy in 2020 dropped by 24,000 cases (a 4% relative decline). This decrease is attributable to an overall reduction in the use of radiation to treat cancer, from 28% of all newly diagnosed cancers in the prior projections down to 26% for the new projections. By contrast, the new projected supply of radiation oncologists in 2020 increased by 275 FTEs in comparison with the prior projection for 2020 (a 7% relative increase), attributable to rising residency class sizes. Conclusion: The supply of radiation oncologists is expected to grow more quickly than the demand for radiation therapy from 2015 to 2025. Further research is needed to determine whether this is an appropriate correction or will result in excess capacity.

  13. Supply and Demand for Radiation Oncology in the United States: Updated Projections for 2015 to 2025

    Pan, Hubert Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School – University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Falit, Benjamin P. [Radiation Oncology Associates, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Prior studies have forecasted demand for radiation therapy to grow 10 times faster than the supply between 2010 and 2020. We updated these projections for 2015 to 2025 to determine whether this imbalance persists and to assess the accuracy of prior projections. Methods and Materials: The demand for radiation therapy between 2015 and 2025 was estimated by combining current radiation utilization rates determined by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data with population projections provided by the US Census Bureau. The supply of radiation oncologists was forecast by using workforce demographics and full-time equivalent (FTE) status provided by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), current resident class sizes, and expected survival per life tables from the US Centers for Disease Control. Results: Between 2015 and 2025, the annual total number of patients receiving radiation therapy during their initial treatment course is expected to increase by 19%, from 490,000 to 580,000. Assuming a graduating resident class size of 200, the number of FTE physicians is expected to increase by 27%, from 3903 to 4965. In comparison with prior projections, the new projected demand for radiation therapy in 2020 dropped by 24,000 cases (a 4% relative decline). This decrease is attributable to an overall reduction in the use of radiation to treat cancer, from 28% of all newly diagnosed cancers in the prior projections down to 26% for the new projections. By contrast, the new projected supply of radiation oncologists in 2020 increased by 275 FTEs in comparison with the prior projection for 2020 (a 7% relative increase), attributable to rising residency class sizes. Conclusion: The supply of radiation oncologists is expected to grow more quickly than the demand for radiation therapy from 2015 to 2025. Further research is needed to determine whether this is an appropriate correction or will result in excess capacity.

  14. The Independence Pipeline project : ANR's supply link - Independence Pipeline, Transco's market link

    Persells, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Independence Pipeline project was presented. The project offers access from Chicago to the U.S. Midwest market, as well as to Ontario via MichCon, Consumers Power, Great Lakes and Panhandle. The project has three components: ANR's Supply Link, the Independence Pipeline and Transco's MarketLink. The three components are budgeted at $ 1.332 billion dollars and projected for completion between Nov 1999 and Nov 2000. Each component (services, access advantages, market links, rates, storage services, etc ) are described separately. figs

  15. The clinical endocrinology workforce: current status and future projections of supply and demand.

    Vigersky, Robert A; Fish, Lisa; Hogan, Paul; Stewart, Andrew; Kutler, Stephanie; Ladenson, Paul W; McDermott, Michael; Hupart, Kenneth H

    2014-09-01

    Many changes in health care delivery, health legislation, and the physician workforce that affect the supply and demand for endocrinology services have occurred since the first published workforce study of adult endocrinologists in 2003. The objective of the study was to assess the current adult endocrinology workforce data and provide the first analysis of the pediatric endocrinology workforce and to project the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025. A workforce model was developed from an analysis of proprietary and publicly available databases, consultation with a technical expert panel, and the results of an online survey of board-certified endocrinologists. The Endocrine Society commissioned The Lewin Group to estimate current supply and to project gaps between supply and demand for endocrinologists. A technical expert panel of senior endocrinologists provided context, clinical information, and direction. The following were measured: 1) the current adult and pediatric endocrinology workforce and the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025 and 2) the number of additional entrants into the endocrinology work pool that would be required to close the gap between supply and demand. Currently there is a shortage of approximately 1500 adult and 100 pediatric full-time equivalent endocrinologists. The gap for adult endocrinologists will expand to 2700 without an increase in the number of fellows trained. An increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus further expands the demand for adult endocrinologists. The gap can be closed in 5 and 10 years by increasing the number of fellowship positions by 14.4% and 5.5% per year, respectively. The gap between supply and demand for pediatric endocrinologists will close by 2016, and thereafter an excess supply over demand will develop at the current rate of new entrants into the work force. There are insufficient adult endocrinologists to satisfy current and future demand. A number of proactive

  16. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    2010-05-12

    ... Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to... Conservationist for Planning, 210 Walnut Street, Room 693, Des Moines, IA 50309-2180, telephone: 515-284- 4769... available at the Iowa NRCS Web site at http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov . A map of the Clarke County Water Supply...

  17. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  18. The paradigm of consumer-driven and responsive supply chains: An integrated project approach

    Zimmermann, K.L.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated project approach that forms the basis of the studies on consumer-driven innovative and responsive supply chains in ISAFRUIT Pillar 1. This integrated approach leads to a wide range of indepth results on trends, preferences, and innovativeness of the European

  19. Rural water-supply and sanitation planning: The use of socioeconomic preconditions in project identification

    Warner, Dennis B.

    1984-02-01

    Recognition of the socioeconomic preconditions for successful rural water-supply and sanitation projects in developing countries is the key to identifying a new project. Preconditions are the social, economic and technical characteristics defining the project environment. There are two basic types of preconditions: those existing at the time of the initial investigation and those induced by subsequent project activities. Successful project identification is dependent upon an accurate recognition of existing constraints and a carefully tailored package of complementary investments intended to overcome the constraints. This paper discusses the socioeconomic aspects of preconditions in the context of a five-step procedure for project identification. The procedure includes: (1) problem identification; (2) determination of socioeconomic status; (3) technology selection; (4) utilization of support conditions; and (5) benefit estimation. Although the establishment of specific preconditions should be based upon the types of projects likely to be implemented, the paper outlines a number of general relationships regarding favourable preconditions in water and sanitation planning. These relationships are used within the above five-step procedure to develop a set of general guidelines for the application of preconditions in the identification of rural water-supply and sanitation projects.

  20. An investigation of Chinese attitudes toward the environment: case study using the Grain for Green Project.

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Liu, Zhande

    2009-02-01

    China is the world's most populous country and has one of the largest territories. As such, Chinese attitudes and behavior with regard to environmental issues are key factors in protecting the world's natural resources and environment. In this study, we surveyed a random sample of 5000 citizens from six Chinese provinces (Beijing, Shanghai, Hubei, Hunan, Henan, and Shaanxi) to understand their environmental attitudes, contrasts between the attitudes of citizens in different demographic groups, and their willingness to invest in environmental conservation. The results indicated that policymakers and the public increasingly recognize the key role that environmental restoration plays in protecting the overall health of the environment. In total, 91% of the interviewees believed that the environment had deteriorated severely during the past decade, compared with 44% in a 1999 survey. In addition, 78% of the interviewees supported their government's investment of more than 300 billion RMB (approximately 10% of total government revenues in 2004) in the "Grain for Green Project", which discouraged unsustainable land use by compensating farmers and herders for abandoning farming and grazing on marginal land. There was a strong correlation between environmental attitudes and net income and education levels, and other differences were based on the respondents' age, gender, job, and location. Net income and education level were the key factors that affected environmental attitudes. Based on these results, we propose that successful environmental restoration projects must include both an education component and an economic development component.

  1. Project configured supply networks: Governance of delivery and failures in operations

    Koch, Christian

    2008-01-01

    of delivery types; parts, components and subsystems. The project configuration and orchestrated governance forms are not always successful, and failures emerge. The paper aims at studying governance forms in delivery networks using operational failures as litmus. Operation management approaches is used...... failures occurred during three month observation. The costs were 8 pct. of the production budget. None of the mobilised governance forms fully prevented failures, especially subsystem delivery and internal integration was underperforming.......  Supply networks in complex B2B- construction deliver knowledge, materials, components, subsystems, competences, workforce and management. The delivery network and its governance forms are partly permanent, partly project specific. Integration upstream varies by project, constituting a range...

  2. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly...... as regards their inadequacy for assessing energy projects in rural areas.An alternative practical and PC-based approach will be presented in which emphasis is placed on the problem formulation phase, including the socio-economic, cultural and political aspects of the problem. This approach has been prepared...

  3. Delineating Supply Chain Management (SCM Features in Construction Project Delivery: The Nigerian Case

    Benedict Amade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to delineate SCM features using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP with a view to incorporating it into the delivery of construction projects in Nigeria. The study adopted an exploratory research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. A purposive and convenient sampling technique was deployed with the aid of semi-structured interview, case study; questionnaire survey in a construction firm in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data after being pre-tested via a pilot study for validity and reliability. The data collected were analysed using the AHP. Findings from the study shows that the following features are key; Instituting trust and long term relationships amongst supply chain partners (ITP, supply chain finance (SCF, supply chain and continuous performance measurement (SCCPM, information technology (IT, quality management (QM, supply base management (SBM, senior management’s commitment (SMC and supply chain orientation (SCO. In delivering construction projects to success using the SCM approach, adequate attention and emphasis should be accorded to the aforementioned important features in the order they appear as they would aid in effecting the much needed success. It is also expected that the features would further be beneficial to construction firms as it would enable the firms to manage, measure and evaluate the gains ensuing from the deployment of SCM techniques.

  4. Toward a methodology for substate projections of registered nurse supply and demand in New York.

    McGinnis, Sandra; Martiniano, Robert; Moore, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Even as concerns about nursing shortages continue nationwide and for individual states in the United States, there is little information on the impact of nursing shortages at substate levels, such as counties or groups of small counties. National and state level assessments can mask wide geographic variation in the distribution of registered nurses (RNs). The Center for Health Workforce Studies at the School of Public Health, University at Albany, developed a practical approach to projecting RN supply and demand at substate levels. The experimental model used in this research was adapted from a methodology utilized for the RN National Supply Model and National Demand Model developed by the Health Resources and Services Administration in the department of Health and Human Services to make RN supply and demand projections at the broader national and state levels. The Center's research highlighted the value of substate analyses in the identification of RN supply and demand gaps and found that supply and demand gaps vary greatly by region and within regions. This study also provided an in-depth understanding of the dynamics that drive substate labor markets for RNs as well as the need for substate analyses to help policymakers better allocate scarce resources to address nursing shortages.

  5. The COMURHEX 2 project. Investing in UF6 long-term security of supply

    Bouzon, Pierre; Lacombe, Philippe; Durante, Pierre; Teyssier, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The front-end nuclear fuel supply chain for LWRs encompasses four major industrial stages that are mining and concentration, conversion, enrichment, and eventually fuel fabrication. The different stages involve uranium in different chemical and physical forms. Enrichment of the 235-U fissile isotope requires gaseous UF6. As the standard output of mine is U3O8, referred to as ''yellow cake'', a purely chemical stage is therefore needed to fluorinate U3O8 and turn it into UFe: this is the conversion stage. U3O8 inventories management is thus performed at the conversion sites.Purification of the mining concentrates is also needed prior to actual conversion into UFe. This step is important because the front-end supply chain facilities have strict specifications concerning impurities. The conversion stage may involve intermediary products, namely UO3 and/or UF4, depending on the industrial scheme implemented. With the Comurhex 2 project, AREVA is not only shaping the future of conversion market and contributing to the security of supply of its customers, but it is also developing innovative techniques and reorganizing the conversion process steps. Providing such guaranteed and valuable conversion supply with a brand new plant is our strong commitment to a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. And AREVA is the first that has launched such a project, looking further ahead. The three main axes of sustainable development, economical, social, and environmental, are truly taken into account in the development of the new project.

  6. GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010. 1992 edition

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1992-04-01

    The annual GRI baseline projection is the result of a complex modeling effort that seeks to achieve an internally consistent energy supply and demand outlook across all energy sources and end-use demand sectors. The year's projection includes the adoption of a new petroleum refinery methodology, the incorporation of a new approach to determining electric utility generating capacity heat rates, the extensive update of both the residential and commercial databases and methodologies, and the continued update of the GRI Hydrocarbon Model. The report presents a series of summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1992 edition of the projection, an analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration, a description of the independent power producer projection, a comparison of the 1992 edition of the projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  7. Long-term trends in US gas supply and prices: 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010

    Woods, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    A Summary of the gas supply outlook in the 1993 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, adopted as a major input to the planning cycle of the 1994 research and development program, is presented. Significant changes were made in developing the gas supply and price trends for the 1993 edition of the projection. The GRI Hydrocarbon Model was expanded to include the Canadian hydrocarbon resource base. Thus, Canadian and lower-48 gas production and prices were developed on a fully integrated basis in the 1993 projection. The lower-48 hydrocarbon resource estimate was increased, reflecting the results of the recent National Petroleum Council gas study and ongoing GRI resource work. The effects of new technology and practice on drilling costs and exploration efficiency were included for the first time. Appendices include comparisons of supply and price trends

  8. Photovoltaic projects for decentralized power supply in India: A financial evaluation

    Nouni, M.R.; Mullick, S.C.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study concentrates on photovoltaic (PV) projects for providing decentralized power supply in remote locations in India. Results of a techno-economic evaluation are presented. Some PV projects in the capacity range 1-110 kW p , that have either been implemented or are under implementation, have been considered. An analysis of the capital cost of the PV projects and sub-systems has been undertaken. Levelized unit cost of electricity (LUCE) has been estimated for eighteen select locations situated in different geographical regions of the country. The LUCE is found to vary in the range of Rs. 28.31-59.16/kW h (US$ 0.65-1.35/k Wh) for PV projects in the capacity range 1-25 kW p . In view of high unit cost of electricity from PV projects, need for financial incentives has been examined from the perspective of users. A sensitivity analysis has also been undertaken

  9. Marrying project deliverability models and labour supply for the oil sands

    Albright, R.; Whitaker, C.A. [Fluor Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Alberta is predicting a labour shortage to support the construction and operation of planned oil sands projects in the region. This paper provided a framework of options available to stakeholders in addressing resource constraints from the viewpoint of Fluor Canada Ltd. A background of previous projects was presented, which highlighted various strategies used in the management of human resources issues. Strategies included local hiring through the Alberta-based trade unions; recruitment from other Canadian provinces; a higher ratio of apprentices; extremely high utilization crew schedules; and extended use of overtime. It was noted that these strategies resulted in some cost overruns and lower productivity levels. A productivity analysis was used to determine and resolve productivity issues. Various regulations in Alberta were discussed in relation to training programs and skilled immigrants. Various international training facilities operated by Fluor were reviewed. A factor model of human resources issues was presented. Summaries of supply chain management, systems, and technologies were presented. Issues concerning prefabrication, pre-assembly, modularization and offsite fabrication were discussed. It was concluded that by taking advantage of lessons learned in previous projects a solid foundation is set from which to plan for future requirements. Successful project execution is achieved by taking advantage of current technology; enhancing modular construction standards; and using supply chain management techniques and enhanced labour supply solutions. tabs., figs.

  10. Long term Gas Supply Security in an Enlarged Europe. Final Report ENGAGED Project

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Likachev, V.; Morgan, T.

    2004-12-01

    The title project concerned a study on the long-term gas supply security in Europe with a focus on the developments, risks and policies in the candidate countries in Eastern Europe. For that reason the report not only includes a European and EU-30 wide scenario analysis but also chapters on specific topics. One study (a chapter in this report) concerns the gas market and regulation developments in a number of relevant candidate countries. Another chapter presents a Russian vision on gas demand, production and supplies from Russia and also includes a paragraph on the supplies from other neighbours and the transit issues in the Ukraine. Finally, the report contains a chapter discussing the required network infrastructure for bringing the gas from external gas suppliers to the EU-30 markets. Hereby it analysis and tests the network flexibility to cope with some unlikely and unexpected supply interruptions in main pipelines to EU markets. The background information of the studies underlying the chapters can be partly found in the annexes and in the individual task reports. During the project the results of the study were discussed at several seminars in candidate countries and particularly on the final seminar in Prague, in June 2003, with different and important stakeholders and market actors

  11. Wind Power Project Repowering: Financial Feasibility, Decision Drivers, and Supply Chain Effects

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leventhal, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    As wind power facilities age, project owners are faced with plant end of life decisions. This report is intended to inform policymakers and the business community regarding the history, opportunities, and challenges associated with plant end of life actions, in particular repowering. Specifically, the report details the history of repowering, examines the plant age at which repowering becomes financially attractive, and estimates the incremental market investment and supply chain demand that might result from future U.S. repowering activities.

  12. Sustainability of donor-funded rural water supply and sanitation projects in Mbire district, Zimbabwe

    Kwangware, Johnson; Mayo, Aloyce; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    The sustainability of donor-funded rural water supply and sanitation projects was assessed in Mbire district, Zimbabwe in terms of level of community participation, quality of implementation and reliability of the systems. The study was carried out through questionnaires, focus group discussions, interviews and field observations. The results show that the quality of implementation of the projects was deemed to be good and participation of the communities in project ideas initiation and choice of technology was found to be very low. Reliability of the systems was found to be very high with 97% of the boreholes in all the three wards studied being functional. Financial management mechanisms were very poor because water consumers were not willing to pay for operation and maintenance. The projects were classified as potentially sustainable with sustainability index between 5.00 and 6.67. Poor financial management mechanisms for effective borehole maintenance, poor quality of construction and lack of community participation in project planning were found to be potential threats to the sustainability of the projects. Future projects should establish the need for the service and should thus be demand driven to ensure effective participation of the water consumers and enhance project's potential for sustainability.

  13. Examination of oil sands projects : gasification, CO{sub 2} emissions and supply costs

    Elliott, K. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Non-conventional resources such as Alberta's oil sands are experiencing increased global interest because of the decline in global conventional oil and natural gas reserves. Bitumen extraction and upgrading is an energy intensive process. This paper provided a general discussion of Alberta's oil sands reserves, production and energy requirements. The paper discussed the application of different technologies to the oil sands, and in particular, the use of gasification as a method to produce bitumen-derived synthesis gas. Two oil sands projects currently under construction and implementing gasification technology were briefly described. The paper also provided a comparison of emission intensities from projects that employ gasification leading to a forecast of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from the oil sands. The impact of Alberta's legislation and the federal framework on greenhouse gas emissions were also examined. Last, the paper discussed a supply cost methodology to compare an integrated extraction and upgrading project using gasification versus a similar project using a conventional steam methane reforming process (SMR). It was concluded that after comparing carbon dioxide emission intensities across different types of projects, the type of project that would be most heavily impacted by greenhouse gas emissions penalties was an in-situ extraction with an upgrading project that employed gasification technology. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  14. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  15. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Do Guen Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6. The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  16. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-01-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of municipal solid waste (MSW) feed material was procured. During this quarter (first quarter of 2001), shredding of the feed material was completed and final feed conditioning was completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Pilot facility modifications continued to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. Samples of the co-fire fuel material were sent to the co-fire facility for evaluation. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system is being developed

  17. New Zealand's neurologist workforce: a pragmatic analysis of demand, supply and future projections.

    Ranta, Annemarei Anna; Tiwari, Priyesh; Mottershead, John; Abernethy, David; Simpson, Mark; Brickell, Kiri; Lynch, Christopher; Walker, Elizabeth; Frith, Richard

    2015-08-07

    To estimate current and future specialist neurologist demand and supply to assist with health sector planning. Current demand for the neurology workforce in New Zealand was assessed using neuroepidemiological data. To assess current supply, all New Zealand neurology departments were surveyed to determine current workforce and estimate average neurologist productivity. Projections were made based on current neurologists anticipated retirement rates and addition of new neurologists based on current training positions. We explored several models to address the supply-demand gap. The current supply of neurologists in New Zealand is 36 full-time equivalents (FTE), insufficient to meet current demand of 74 FTE. Demand will grow over time and if status quo is maintained the gap will widen. Pressures on healthcare dollars are ever increasing and we cannot expect to address the identified service gap by immediately doubling the number of neurologists. Instead we propose a 12-year strategic approach with investments to enhance service productivity, strengthen collaborative efforts between specialists and general service providers, moderately increase the number of neurologists and neurology training positions, and develop highly skilled non-specialists including trained.

  18. Simulating security of supply effects of the Nabucco and South Stream projects for the European natural gas market

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2010-12-15

    Due to the increasing European import dependency, significant additional natural gas volumes will be required. In addition to the Nord Stream pipeline, the Nabucco and South Stream pipeline are projects planned for the next decade to provide further gas supplies to the European market. As one of the European Union's energy policies' foci is security of supply, the question can be raised if and how these projects contribute to this objective not only in terms of diversification but also in case of supply disruptions such as occurred in 2009 during the Russia-Ukraine gas crisis. This paper discusses the impact of these two major gas import pipeline projects on the South-Eastern Europe gas supply and analyzes their effects on gas flows and marginal cost prices in general and in case of gas supply disruptions via Ukraine in a model-based analysis with the European natural gas infrastructure and dispatch model TIGER. (orig.)

  19. Development of microcontroller based remote control system for HV power supply of ECR ion source for ADSS project

    Srivastava, S.; Misra, A.; Thakur, S.K.; Pandey, H.K.; Pandit, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the design and development of the microcontroller based interface card used to control and monitor the operation of High Voltage Power supply 120kV/50mA (HVPS). This power supply is deployed for the extraction of proton beam from the microwave ion source in the ADSS project. (author)

  20. Photovoltaic projects for decentralized power supply in India: A financial evaluation

    Nouni, M.R.; Mullick, S.C.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study concentrates on photovoltaic (PV) projects for providing decentralized power supply in remote locations in India. Results of a techno-economic evaluation are presented. Some PV projects in the capacity range 1-110 kW p , that have either been implemented or are under implementation, have been considered. An analysis of the capital cost of the PV projects and sub-systems has been undertaken. Levelized unit cost of electricity (LUCE) has been estimated for eighteen select locations situated in different geographical regions of the country. The LUCE is found to vary in the range of Rs. 28.31-59.16/kW h (US$ 0.65-1.35/k Wh) for PV projects in the capacity range 1-25 kW p . In view of high unit cost of electricity from PV projects, need for financial incentives has been examined from the perspective of users. A sensitivity analysis has also been undertaken. (Author)

  1. NATURAL GAS SUPPLY PROJECTS FOR EUROPE – SOUTH STREAM AND NABUCCO

    Domagoj Sučić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available South Stream and Nabucco are planned southern corridor projects for natural gas supply to Europe. South Stream is a Russian construction project of the gas pipeline with the capacity of 63 bcm of natural gas per year. It will connect Russia with Austria through Black Sea, Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary, and with southern Italy through Greece and Ionian Sea, respectively. Nabucco is a European Union planned gas pipeline with the capacity of 31 bcm per year. If built, it will connect Caspian Region and Middle East with Austria through Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. Gas sources for South Stream pipeline are known and available, however it’s construction will be expensive. Nabucco gas pipeline construction costs will be two times less, but the unresolved political relations and non-existent infrastructure have caused it to have no available gas sources at the moment. Countries like Bulgaria and Hungary are involved with both projects, indicating the importance of both projects. In this paper SWOT analysis of the proposed projects was done and it has shown that there is a great chance Nabucco won’t be built if South Stream materializes first (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Quality assurance plan for the Objective Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) project

    Stewart, K.A.; Rasch, K.A.; Reid, R.W.

    1996-11-01

    This document establishes the Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) for the National Guard Bureau Objective Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) project activities under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) management. It defines the requirements and assigns responsibilities for ensuring, with a high degree of confidence, that project objectives will be achieved as planned. The QAP outlined herein is responsive to and meets the Quality Assurance Program standards for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation and ORNL and the ORNL Computing, Robotics, and Education Directorate (CRE). This document is intended to be in compliance with DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance Program, and the ORNL Standard Practice Procedure, SPP X-QA-8, Quality Assurance for ORNL Computing Software. This standard allows individual organizations to apply the stated requirements in a flexible manner suitable to the type of activity involved. Section I of this document provides an introduction to the OSCAR project QAP; Sections 2 and 3 describe the specific aspects of quality assurance as applicable to the OSCAR project. Section 4 describes the project approach to risk management. The Risk Management Matrix given in Appendix A is a tool to assess, prioritize, and prevent problems before they occur. Therefore, the matrix will be reviewed and revised on a periodic basis.

  3. Review of nuclear new build in relation to project structure, supply chain and financing - 15106

    Keppler, J.H.; Cometto, M.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a new nuclear power plant is a major industrial project involving a number of complex economic, technical and regulatory challenges. This article focuses on 2 of the most important among them: first, sustainable financing which is primarily a function of interest rates and the stability of electricity prices and secondly, the management of a complex construction process and its supply chain. The analysis shows the much stronger dependence of nuclear energy on the stability of electricity prices when compared with a gas plant of the same size. Nevertheless the study underlines that at debt ratios below 60%, the risk for a debt-investor in a nuclear project is rather limited even for large electricity and permanent price fall. There exist a wide spectrum of different options for sharing the responsibilities between the ultimate operators of a nuclear power plant and the principal supplier. 3 main categories of contract are used for the construction of NPPs: the turnkey approach, the split-package approach and the multi-contract approach.In construction, where the emergence of a competitive, global supply chain is not yet ensured, the convergence of nuclear engineering codes and quality standards, as well as regulatory harmonisation remain a key step to promote both competition and public confidence

  4. Lime Stabilization of Fine-Grained Greenlandic Sediments in Relation to Construction Projects

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Hans Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    to the cold climate, and it is therefore of great interest to study possible methods to improve the stability of the fine-grained sediments. This presentation will include results of laboratory studies of lime stabilization on a clay soil from Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland. The result includes tests...... of the optimum lime mixture in relation to both reaction time and temperature influence....

  5. Industrial sterilization of medical supplies. Turkey. Terminal report. Project findings and recommendations. Report prepared for the Government of Turkey

    1995-08-01

    The document contains the terminal report on the implementation of the project IAEA/UNDP-TUR/88/040 'Industrial Sterilization of Medical Supplies' (1988-1995). The objective of the project was to set up a Radiation Sterilization Centre in Ankara for health care products indigenously manufactured

  6. Workforce Projections 2010-2020: Annual Supply and Demand Forecasting Models for Physical Therapists Across the United States.

    Landry, Michel D; Hack, Laurita M; Coulson, Elizabeth; Freburger, Janet; Johnson, Michael P; Katz, Richard; Kerwin, Joanne; Smith, Megan H; Wessman, Henry C Bud; Venskus, Diana G; Sinnott, Patricia L; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Health human resources continue to emerge as a critical health policy issue across the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for modeling future workforce projections to serve as a basis for analyzing annual supply of and demand for physical therapists across the United States into 2020. A traditional stock-and-flow methodology or model was developed and populated with publicly available data to produce estimates of supply and demand for physical therapists by 2020. Supply was determined by adding the estimated number of physical therapists and the approximation of new graduates to the number of physical therapists who immigrated, minus US graduates who never passed the licensure examination, and an estimated attrition rate in any given year. Demand was determined by using projected US population with health care insurance multiplied by a demand ratio in any given year. The difference between projected supply and demand represented a shortage or surplus of physical therapists. Three separate projection models were developed based on best available data in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Based on these projections, demand for physical therapists in the United States outstrips supply under most assumptions. Workforce projection methodology research is based on assumptions using imperfect data; therefore, the results must be interpreted in terms of overall trends rather than as precise actuarial data-generated absolute numbers from specified forecasting. Outcomes of this projection study provide a foundation for discussion and debate regarding the most effective and efficient ways to influence supply-side variables so as to position physical therapists to meet current and future population demand. Attrition rates or permanent exits out of the profession can have important supply-side effects and appear to have an effect on predicting future shortage or surplus of physical therapists. © 2016 American Physical Therapy

  7. Long-term trends in U.S. gas supply and prices: 1991 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, April 1991. Gas research insights

    Woods, T.J.

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the gas supply and price outlook in the 1991 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. Projected U.S. gas production, gas imports, and other sources of gas supply are discussed along with the sensitivity of the outlook to changes in price expectations. The critical uncertainties and issues affecting the gas supply and price outlook are discussed. Appendixes include a comparison of the 1991 and the 1989 projections of gas supply and price trends; and a description of the GRI Hydrocarbon Model

  8. Projecting Thailand physician supplies between 2012 and 2030: application of cohort approaches

    Suphanchaimat Rapeepong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study forecasts physician supply between 2012 and 2030 using cohort analysis, based on future production capacity and losses from the profession, and assesses if, and by when, the projected numbers of physicians would meet the targets of one doctor per 1,500 population, as proposed by the 7th National Conference on Medical Education in 2001, and one per 1,800, proposed by the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH in 2004. Methods We estimated the annual loss rate that best reflected the dynamics of existing practising doctors, then applied this rate to the existing physicians, plus the newly licensed physicians flowing into the pool over the next two decades (from 2012 to 2030. Finally, the remaining practising physicians, after adjustment for losses, were verified against demand projections in order to identify supply gaps. Results Thailand has been experiencing an expansion in the total number of physicians, with an annual loss rate of 1%. Considering future plans for admission of medical students, the number of licensed physicians flowing into the pool should reach 2,592 per annum, and 2,661 per annum, by 2019 and 2030 respectively. By applying the 1% loss rate to the existing, and future newly licensed, physicians, there are forecast to be around 40,000 physicians in active clinical service by 2016, and in excess of 60,000 by 2028. Conclusion This supply forecast, given various assumptions, would meet the targets outlined above, of one doctor per 1,800 population, and one per 1,500 population, by 2016 and 2020 respectively. However, rapid changes in the contextual environment, e.g. economic demand, physician demographics, and disease burden, may mean that the annual loss rate of 1% used in this projection is not accurate in the future. To ensure population health needs are met, parallel policies on physician production encompassing both qualitative and quantitative aspects should be in place. Improved, up

  9. Baseline Projection Data Book: GRI baseline projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010. 1992 Edition. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; Koklauner, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Baseline Projection Data Book provides backup data in tabular form for the 1992 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010. Summary tables and data for the residential, commercial, industrial, electric utility, and transportation sectors are presented in the volume

  10. Exploring current and projected tradeoffs between hydropower profitability and reliability of supply in the Alps

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    The recent spreading of renewable energy across Europe and the associated production variability and uncertainty are emerging challenges for hydropower system operation. Widely distributed and highly intermittent solar and wind power generation systems, along with feed-in-tariffs, at which they are remunerated, are threating the operation of traditional hydropower systems. For instance, in countries where the transition to a larger production by means of renewable power systems is a novel process, e.g. Switzerland, many hydropower companies are operating their reservoirs with low or no profits, claiming for a revision of the entire energy market system. This situation goes along with the problem of ensuring energy supply both nowadays and in the future, with changing energy demand and available water resources. In this work, we focus on a hydropower system in the Swiss Alps to explore how different operating policies can cope with both adequate energy supply and profitable operation under current and future climate and socio-economic conditions. We investigate the operation of the Mattmark reservoir in South-West Switzerland. Mattmark is a pumped reservoir of 98 106 m3 fed by a natural catchment of 37 km2 and contributing catchments, summing up to 51 km2, connected by several diversion channels. The hydrological regime, snow- and ice-melt dominated, has already experienced changes in the last decades due to glacier retreat and is expected to be strongly impacted by climate change in the future. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to explore current tradeoffs between profitability and secure supply. We then investigate how tradeoffs may evolve in time under different climate change projections and energy market scenarios. Results inform on the co-evolution of climate- and socio-economic induced variations, thus unveiling potential co-benefit situations to hydropower generation and providing insights to future energy market design.

  11. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2016 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2016-2021

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2016-03-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99 mTc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a 99 Mo supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. That report was updated in 2015 with a report, '2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020' (NEA, 2015), which focused on the same period. This report updates the 2015 report, and focuses on the important 2016-2021 period. At the end of 2015, the OSIRIS reactor

  12. Decision-making for supplying energy projects: A four-dimensional model

    Smith Stegen, Karen; Palovic, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extant pipeline evaluation models offer insufficient supplier analysis tools. • We offer a four-dimensional decision-making tool to augment extant models. • Model employs four filters to help decision makers eliminate unsuitable suppliers. • Aids in prioritization of best courses of action for overcoming obstacles. • Case study of Nabucco pipeline shows Azerbaijan would have been best supply option. - Abstract: Importing states and regions employ myriad strategies to enhance energy security, from stockpiling to diversification to efficiency programs. As has occurred in recent years, importers can seek diversification by initiating pipeline and liquefied natural gas projects, meaning they may also have to select suppliers. However, most extant pipeline evaluation models erroneously assume suppliers are known and thus neglect supplier selection. We propose a decision-making tool to augment these older models: a systematic and replicable four-dimensional model to help policymakers and managers identify suitable suppliers and prioritize the best courses of action for overcoming obstacles. The first three dimensions—timeframe, supply availability and infrastructure constraints—filter out unsuitable suppliers. The fourth dimension then assesses the political, geopolitical and commercial stability of the remaining candidates. To demonstrate the model in practice, we assess the original Nabucco pipeline proposal, which was designed to transport gas from the Caspian and Middle East regions to Europe

  13. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2015-08-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the mostly ageing, 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data available from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a M o supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report 'Medical Isotope Supply in the Future: Production Capacity and Demand Forecast for the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market 2015-2020' (NEA, 2014) in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. This report updates the 2014 report, and continues to focus on the potentially critical 2015

  14. Design and manufacture of the RF power supply and RF transmission line for SANAEM project Prometheus

    Turemen, G.; Ogur, S.; Ahiska, F.; Yasatekin, B.; Cicek, E.; Ozbey, A.; Kilic, I.; Unel, G.; Alacakir, A.

    2017-08-01

    A 1-5 MeV proton beamline is being built by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority in collaboration with a number of graduate students from different universities. The primary goal of the project, is to acquire the design ability and manufacturing capability of all the components locally. SPP will be an accelerator and beam diagnostics test facility and it will also serve the detector development community with its low beam current. This paper discusses the design and construction of the RF power supply and the RF transmission line components such as its waveguide converters and its circulator. Additionally low and high power RF test results are presented to compare the performances of the locally produced components to the commercially available ones.

  15. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN MANUFACTURING: A STUDY IN AUTOMOTIVE SUPPLY CHAIN

    Marodin, G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that lean production (LP is widely used by companies from a broad number of countries and sectors, to achieve a mature LP project implementation is still considered hard to accomplish and sustain. The fact that LP is highly context dependent is one of the major difficulties that hinder its implementation. The extant knowledge about LP implementation from emerging markets is still murky and substantially lower than from developed countries This paper emphasizes LP in Brazil, one of the emerging economies where there is relatively little knowledge about how companies are implementing LP. The existing literature of LP in this country is rare and focused mainly on case studies with a few selected companies. For that, a survey with 49 firms of the automotive supply chain of Brazil was carried out and data collected was analyzed by means of multivariate techniques.

  16. Description of the global petroleum supply and demand outlook updated for the 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand, December 1992

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1992-12-01

    Strategic planning of the research and development program carried out by Gas Research Institute (GRI) is supported by an annual GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand. Because petroleum products compete in a wide variety of energy uses, oil prices serve as a market clearing force for the entire energy system. A significant portion of the U.S. petroleum supply is imported, and the price of crude oil to U.S. refiners is determined by the international oil trade. Any projection of the U.S. energy situation, therefore, requires the evaluation of the global oil market and the impact of oil price changes on the supply/demand balances of market participants. The 1992 edition of the projection completed in August 1991 assumed that in the aftermath of the war in the Middle East the fundamentals of oil trade would reassert their influence. This did indeed occur and with astonishing speed. In the face of this outlook, GRI has revised its 1993 oil price track downward

  17. THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-01-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. During this quarter, TVA completed the washing and dewatering of the lignin material produced from the MSW hydrolysis. Seven drums of lignin material were washed to recover the acid and sugar from the lignin and provide an improved fuel for steam generation. Samples of both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation. After sample evaluation, EERC approved sending the material and all of the necessary fuel for testing was shipped to EERC. EERC has requested and will receive coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio based fuels is scheduled to begin in August of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed

  18. Policy implications of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand is summarized. Three broad implications concerning the future of the natural gas industry are highlighted: the residual impact of the August 1990 Gulf War on crude oil prices and the factors influencing the long-term price path, the impact of the growing number of environmental constraints on future energy use, and the effect of recent developments in gas production on future gas supply and price

  19. 2015 American College of Rheumatology Workforce Study: Supply and Demand Projections of Adult Rheumatology Workforce, 2015-2030.

    Battafarano, Daniel F; Ditmyer, Marcia; Bolster, Marcy B; Fitzgerald, John D; Deal, Chad; Bass, Ann R; Molina, Rodolfo; Erickson, Alan R; Hausmann, Jonathan S; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Imundo, Lisa F; Smith, Benjamin J; Jones, Karla; Greene, Kamilah; Monrad, Seetha U

    2018-04-01

    To describe the character and composition of the 2015 US adult rheumatology workforce, evaluate workforce trends, and project supply and demand for clinical rheumatology care for 2015-2030. The 2015 Workforce Study of Rheumatology Specialists in the US used primary and secondary data sources to estimate the baseline adult rheumatology workforce and determine demographic and geographic factors relevant to workforce modeling. Supply and demand was projected through 2030, utilizing data-driven estimations regarding the proportion and clinical full-time equivalent (FTE) of academic versus nonacademic practitioners. The 2015 adult workforce (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) was estimated to be 6,013 providers (5,415 clinical FTE). At baseline, the estimated demand exceeded the supply of clinical FTE by 700 (12.9%). By 2030, the supply of rheumatology clinical providers is projected to fall to 4,882 providers, or 4,051 clinical FTE (a 25.2% decrease in supply from 2015 baseline levels). Demand in 2030 is projected to exceed supply by 4,133 clinical FTE (102%). The adult rheumatology workforce projections reflect a major demographic and geographic shift that will significantly impact the supply of the future workforce by 2030. These shifts include baby-boomer retirements, a millennial predominance, and an increase of female and part-time providers, in parallel with an increased demand for adult rheumatology care due to the growing and aging US population. Regional and innovative strategies will be necessary to manage access to care and reduce barriers to care for rheumatology patients. © 2018, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Turning Farmers into Business Partners through Value Co-Creation Projects. Insights from the Coffee Supply Chain

    Elena Candelo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the empowerment of low-power, vulnerable stakeholders of global, complex supply chains as one effective strategy to increase value co-creation and to moderate the vulnerabilities that threaten supply chain resilience. Previous scholars have indicated the necessity of investigating the concept of value co-creation further by including various stakeholder perspectives and suggesting systems of evaluation. This research thus focuses on low-power smallholder farmers within the coffee supply chain by qualitatively evaluating the effectiveness of value co-creation projects. The study also analyzes the extent of development and the nature of empowerment initiatives designed conjointly by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs and coffee roasters that are addressed to farmers. The mixed qualitative methodology includes a literature review, interviews, focus groups, and content analysis of 20 value co-creation projects conducted in various developing and emerging coffee-producing countries. The research proposes a theoretical framework employed to conduct focus groups with Brazilian coffee farmers. This framework empirically demonstrates that these farmers are in the process of becoming business partners of the coffee supply chain thanks to various empowerment initiatives, common to most of the analyzed projects, that appear to moderate specific vulnerabilities of the coffee supply chain and therefore benefit supply chain resilience.

  1. 'I think other parents might. …': Using a projective technique to explore parental supply of alcohol.

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher; Andrews, Kelly

    2015-03-06

    A growing body of research indicates parental supply of alcohol to children and adolescents is common. The present study aimed to examine parents' reasons for supplying alcohol to adolescents that they may find hard to articulate or not be consciously aware of. A projective methodology was used, whereby respondents were asked to explain the thoughts and motivations of a gender-matched parent in a scenario in which the parent did or did not provide alcohol to their teenage child. Respondents were 97 mothers and 83 fathers of teenagers who completed an anonymous online survey. Open-ended responses were coded thematically; t-tests were used to compare quantitative responses between the scenarios. The quantitative analysis found the parent who provided alcohol was less likely to be seen as making sure their child was safe and educating them about boundaries, but more likely to be seen as being a friend as well as a parent and (for females only) making sure their child fits in with others. The open-ended responses showed explanations for not providing alcohol most commonly focused on ensuring the child's safety, obeying the law, and setting rules and boundaries, and for providing alcohol focused on ensuring the child fit in with peers and beliefs about harm minimisation. The findings suggest that these respondents (parents) harboured a number of misperceptions about underage drinking and experienced conflicts in weighing up the perceived benefits of providing alcohol to their children against the risks of adolescent drinking. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2002-01-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility hydrolysis production has been completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing and the lignin fuel was washed and dewatered. Both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation and co-firing. EERC has received coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material was used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. All the combustion and fuel handling tests at EERC have been completed. During fuel preparation EERC reported no difficulties in fuel blending and handling. Preliminary co-fire test results indicate that the blending of lignin and bio-solids with the Colbert coal blend generally reduces NO(sub x) emissions, increases the reactivity of the coal, and increases the ash deposition rate on superheater surfaces. Deposits produced from the fuel blends, however, are more friable and hence easier to remove from tube surfaces relative to those produced from the baseline Colbert coal blend. The final co-fire testing report is being prepared at EERC and will be completed by the end of the second quarter of 2002. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been

  3. Renewable energy supply systems in Indonesia. The Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) project of the E7 initiative. A case study

    Betz, R.

    1999-02-01

    The Renewable Energy Supply System Project, short RESS project, is an Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) project carried out by the E7-Initiative combining eight of the world's largest electric utilities of G7 countries (RWE AG Germany is the main coordinator of this project). The first part of the chapter gives a description of the project's background, organisation and different components including the financial aspects and the present state of implementation of the RESS project. The second part presents the evaluation of the project: on the one hand primary objectives will be analysed from the investor's view, on the other hand secondary objectives from a more development co-operation and political point of view. In the final part general problems and especially problems relevant to the further development of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) will be summed up. (orig.)

  4. MEDEA+ project 2T302 MUSCLE: masks through user's supply chain: leadership by excellence

    Torsy, Andreas

    2008-04-01

    The rapid evolution of our information society depends on the continuous developments and innovations of semiconductor products. The cost per chip functionality keeps reducing by a factor of 2 every 18 month. However, this performance and success of the semiconductor industry critically depends on the quality of the lithographic photomasks. The need for the high quality of photomask drives lithography costs sensitively, which is a key factor in the manufacture of microelectronics devices. Therefore, the aim is to reduce production costs while overcoming challenges in terms of feature sizes, complexity and cycle times. Consequently, lithography processes must provide highest possible quality at reasonable prices. This way, the leadership in the lithographic area can be maintained and European chipmakers can stay competitive with manufacturers in the Far East and the USA. Under the umbrella of MEDEA+, a project called MUSCLE (>) has been started among leading semiconductor companies in Europe: ALTIS Semiconductor (Project Leader), ALCATEL Vacuum, ATMEL, CEA/LETI, Entegris, NXP Semiconductors, TOPPAN Photomasks, AMTC, Carl ZEISS SMS, DMS, Infineon Technologies, VISTEC Semiconductor, NIKON Precision, SCHOTT Lithotec, ASML, PHOTRONICS, IMEC, DCE, DNP Photomask, STMicroelectronics, XYALIS and iCADA. MUSCLE focuses particularly on mask data flow, photomask carrier, photomask defect characterization and photomask data handling. In this paper, we will discuss potential solutions like standardization and automation of the photomask data flow based on SEMI P10, the performance and the impact of the supply chain parameter within the photomask process, the standardization of photomask defect characterization and a discussion of the impact of new Reticle Enhancement Technologies (RET) such as mask process correction and finally a generic model to describe the photomasks key performance indicators for prototype photomasks.

  5. Biomass gasifier projects for decentralized power supply in India: A financial evaluation

    Nouni, M.R.; Mullick, S.C.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a techno-economic evaluation of biomass gasifier based projects for decentralized power supply for remote locations in India are presented. Contributions of different components of diesel engine generator (DG) sets, dual fuel (DF) engine generator sets and 100% producer gas (HPG) engine generator sets to their capital costs as well as to the levelized unit cost of electricity (LUCE) delivered by the same have been analyzed. LUCE delivered to the consumers has been estimated to be varying in the range of Rs. 13.14-24.49/kWh (US$ 0.30-0.55/kWh) for DF BGPP. LUCE increases significantly if BGPP is operated at part loads. Presently available 40kW capacity HPG systems in India are expected to be financially competitive with a DG set of equivalent capacity beyond a break-even diesel price of Rs. 34.70/l. It is expected to be financially more attractive than an equivalent capacity DF BGPP for diesel prices of more than Rs. 44.29/l. In certain specific conditions operating two smaller capacity systems has been found to be attractive as against a single larger capacity system

  6. Feasibility improvement project of a district heat supply system in Dalian, China

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on energy saving possibilities at two medium-sized heat and power supplying plants in the city of Dalian in China. The project will improve the operation methods of the heat and power plants so that the energy cost can be minimized, and attempt to improve the boiler heat efficiency and save the energy by means of heat recovery and utilization. The draft modification plan for energy conservation has planned operation optimization for energy conservation, control of boiler operation under variable pressure, modification of the external boiler heat converter, use of inverters for the large capacity motors for boilers, and recovery of heat from the boiler blow-down water. In the analysis, models were structured from the operation data, and the effects of applying the energy saving measures were derived from simulation. As a result, the energy saving effect was found to be about 13,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 7,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually (converted to oil). The reduction in greenhouse gas emission was found to be about 40,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 20,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually. The number of years for investment payback is about 4.1 years at the Chunhai plant, and about 4.9 years at the Pulandian plant, wherein good profitability can be estimated. (NEDO)

  7. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Turkey in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1966-07-20

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Turkey and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 8 February 1966.

  8. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Turkey in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    1966-01-01

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Turkey and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 8 February 1966

  9. The Text of the Agreement connected with the Agency's Assistance to Bulgaria in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    1971-01-01

    The text of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Bulgaria for assistance by the Agency in furthering projects by the supply of materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 15 July 1970.

  10. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Greece in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    1971-01-01

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Greece, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. These Agreements entered into force on 2 June 1970 and 20 July 1970 respectively.

  11. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to India in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    1967-01-01

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of India, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 9 December 1966

  12. The Text of the Agreement connected with the Agency's assistance to Pakistan in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    1971-01-01

    The text of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Pakistan for assistance by the Agency in furthering projects by the supply of materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 27 February 1970.

  13. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Iraq in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    1973-01-01

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Iraq, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  14. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Brazil in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Material

    1971-01-01

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Brazil, and of Supplementary Agreement No.1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. These Agreements entered into force on 20 November 1970 and 12 January 1971 respectively.

  15. The Text of the Agreement connected with the Agency's Assistance to Bulgaria in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1971-05-20

    The text of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Bulgaria for assistance by the Agency in furthering projects by the supply of materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 15 July 1970.

  16. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Mexico in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1973-11-28

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Mexico, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  17. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Greece in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1971-05-27

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Greece, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. These Agreements entered into force on 2 June 1970 and 20 July 1970 respectively.

  18. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to India in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1967-06-09

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of India, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 9 December 1966.

  19. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Brazil in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Material

    NONE

    1971-05-20

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Brazil, and of Supplementary Agreement No.1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. These Agreements entered into force on 20 November 1970 and 12 January 1971 respectively.

  20. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Iraq in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1973-11-28

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Iraq, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  1. The Text of the Agreement connected with the Agency's assistance to Pakistan in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1971-05-20

    The text of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Pakistan for assistance by the Agency in furthering projects by the supply of materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 27 February 1970.

  2. 43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...

    2010-10-01

    ... the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the requirements in this rule... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.58 Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with...

  3. GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010. An occasional publication of Gas Research Institute on topics of current interest. December 1989

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.

    1989-12-01

    The report summarizes the 1989 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which was adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of GRI's 1991 R and D program. Summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends are presented. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1989 projection, and analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration energy supply and demand, a comparison of the 1989 projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  4. Cereal grains for nutrition and health benefits: Overview of results from in vitro, animal and human studies in the HEALTHGRAIN project

    Björck, I.; Östman, E.; Kristensen, M.; Mateo Anson, N.; Price, R.K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Havenaar, R.; Bach Knudsen, K.E.; Frid, A.; Mykkänen, H.; Welch, R.W.; Riccardi, G.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole grain intake to the prevention of the metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated chronic diseases such as CVD and T2D. The Nutrition module within the HEALTHGRAIN project, included 10 partners and undertook in vitro, animal and human in vivo studies with the

  5. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Yugoslavia in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1971-05-27

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Yugoslavia, and of Supplementary Agreements No. 1 and No. 2 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. These Agreements entered into force on 29 May 1970, 8 September 1970 and 2 February 1971 respectively.

  6. The Texts of the Instruments Connected with the Agency's Assistance to Chile in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    1973-01-01

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Chile, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Master Agreement entered into force on 16 March 1973, pursuant to its Article XIV, and the Supplementary Agreement on 14 June 1973, pursuant to its Article IV.

  7. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Romania in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1967-06-09

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Romania, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The former Agreement entered into force on 22 April 1966, and the latter on 1 August 1966.

  8. The Texts of the Instruments Connected with the Agency's Assistance to Chile in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    NONE

    1973-11-29

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Chile, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Master Agreement entered into force on 16 March 1973, pursuant to its Article XIV, and the Supplementary Agreement on 14 June 1973, pursuant to its Article IV.

  9. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Yugoslavia in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    1971-01-01

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Yugoslavia, and of Supplementary Agreements No. 1 and No. 2 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. These Agreements entered into force on 29 May 1970, 8 September 1970 and 2 February 1971 respectively.

  10. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Romania in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials

    1967-01-01

    The texts of the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Romania, and of Supplementary Agreement No. 1 thereto, in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in furthering projects by the supply of materials, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The former Agreement entered into force on 22 April 1966, and the latter on 1 August 1966

  11. Simulating The Impact Of The Material Flow In The Jordanian Construction Supply Chain And Its Impact On Project Performance

    Dr. Ghaith Al-Werikat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the new developments and challenges within the construction industry improving the construction supply chain is becoming a major concern to both governments and industries. Improving the construction supply chain helps in improving the quality of construction projects reducing cost wastes delays and other disruptions. This paper discusses the analysis of material flow in the construction supply chain. The methodology consisted of preliminary investigations survey and simulation development to analyse the extent of impact that material flow has on construction projects in Jordan. Both the main survey and the investigations revealed that material flow delays are caused mainly by 3 types of delays late delivery wrong specification and material damaged on site. The highest impact regarding late deliveries was scaffolding with a 16 probability of occurrence a 2-day delay on the activitys duration. Concrete ranked highest regarding wrong specification with a 19 probability of occurrence an 8-day delay the activitys duration. Regarding materials damaged on site bricks ranked highest with a 9 probability of occurrence a 3-day delay on the duration. The simulation results exhibited a delay of 50 on the projects duration and a probability of a delay occurring is 9.2.

  12. Impacts of Mackenzie gas project on water supply systems of northern communities : Fort Simpson as a case study

    Mathrani, M.; Johnson, K.

    2007-01-01

    The proposed Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) is a 1220-kilometre natural gas pipeline system along the Mackenzie Valley of Canada's Northwest Territories. The line will connect northern onshore gas fields with North American markets. Four major Canadian oil and gas companies and a group representing the Aboriginal peoples of Canada's Northwest Territories are partners in the proposed MGP. The MGP is currently in the project definition stage that involves examining the effect of the project on northern communities. Fort Simpson is located on an island, on the forks of the Mackenzie and Liard Rivers and is proposed as the major route for the MGP with the construction of barge handling areas, storage areas, camps/housing units and use of air and highway facilities. These activities are expected to result in burden on local civil infrastructure systems including water supply systems. Although the environmental impacts of the project on the community's infrastructure systems are projected by the MGP proponents, the local authority wanted to conduct its own assessment of the impacts on local water supply system. This paper presented the results of a study that examined the amount of water used by the community based upon available water use records and the current operational and maintenance costs based upon available financial documents. The study also estimated future water requirements based upon MGP activities and associated population growth. Current and future economic rates were also determined. 13 refs., 6 tabs

  13. Association analysis of genomic loci important for grain weight control in elite common wheat varieties cultivated with variable water and fertiliser supply.

    Kunpu Zhang

    Full Text Available Grain weight, an essential yield component, is under strong genetic control and markedly influenced by the environment. Here, by genome-wide association analysis with a panel of 94 elite common wheat varieties, 37 loci were found significantly associated with thousand-grain weight (TGW in one or more environments differing in water and fertiliser levels. Five loci were stably associated with TGW under all 12 environments examined. Their elite alleles had positive effects on TGW. Four, two, three, and two loci were consistently associated with TGW in the irrigated and fertilised (IF, rainfed (RF, reduced nitrogen (RN, and reduced phosphorus (RP environments. The elite alleles of the IF-specific loci enhanced TGW under well-resourced conditions, whereas those of the RF-, RN-, or RP-specific loci conferred tolerance to the TGW decrease when irrigation, nitrogen, or phosphorus were reduced. Moreover, the elite alleles of the environment-independent and -specific loci often acted additively to enhance TGW. Four additional loci were found associated with TGW in specific locations, one of which was shown to contribute to the TGW difference between two experimental sites. Further analysis of 14 associated loci revealed that nine affected both grain length and width, whereas the remaining loci influenced either grain length or width, indicating that these loci control grain weight by regulating kernel size. Finally, the elite allele of Xpsp3152 frequently co-segregated with the larger grain haplotype of TaGW2-6A, suggesting probable genetic and functional linkages between Xpsp3152 and GW2 that are important for grain weight control in cereal plants. Our study provides new knowledge on TGW control in elite common wheat lines, which may aid the improvement of wheat grain weight trait in further research.

  14. Projecting demand and supply of forest biomass for heating in Norway

    Tromborg, Erik; Havskjold, Monica; Lislebo, Ole; Rorstad, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the increase in demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. By then there is a political aim to double the national production of bioenergy from the level in 2008. The competitiveness of woody biomass in central and district heating is analyzed in a model selecting the least-cost heating technology and scale in municipalities given a set of constraints and under different fuels price scenarios. The supply of forest biomass from roundwood is estimated based on data of forest inventories combined with elasticities regarding price and standing volumes. The supply of biomass from harvesting residues is estimated in an engineering approach based on data from the national forest inventories and roundwood harvest. The results show how the production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes for bioenergy. One conclusion from the analyses is that the government target of 14 TWh more bioenergy by 2020 is not likely to be met by current technologies and policy incentives. The contribution of the analysis is the detailed presentation of the heat market potentials and technology choices combined with supply functions for both roundwood and harvesting residues. - Highlights: → This paper accesses the demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. → Market share for wood in central and new district heating is analyzed in a cost-minimizing model. → The supply of forest biomass includes wood chips from import, roundwood and harvesting residues. → The production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes. → The government target for bioenergy is not met by current technologies and policy incentives.

  15. Supply chain partnership in construction a field study on project team level factors

    Koolwijk, J.S.J.; Van Oel, C.J.; Wamelink, J.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    People and their relationship are at the heart of supply chain partnerships, however there is a lack of qualitative studies focusing on how integrated relationships may be developed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct field research to deepen our understanding of team level

  16. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  17. Long-term trends in U.S. gas supply and prices: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010

    Woods, T.J.

    1991-12-01

    The paper summarizes the gas supply outlook in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents the GRI planning outlook for the economic and the energy supply and demand situation to the year 2010. It was prepared independently by GRI using publicly available data and a framework of commercially available models that GRI has developed over several years. It is not derived from the views of GRI member companies. The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices. The gas prices in the 1992 projection support growth in all major U.S. gas supply sources: lower-48, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, and LNG. By about 2005, U.S. gas supply is at its highest level ever. By 2010, U.S. gas supply has grown to almost 25 quads. U.S. gas production increases 2.6 quads between 1990 and 2010; imports increase 2.2 quads. Although imports do not increase as much as U.S. gas production, they account for an increased share of U.S. gas supply. The import share grows from 7 percent to 12 percent over the projection period. Supplemental gas sources provide about 1 percent of U.S. gas supply

  18. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  19. The project finance model in the supply of residential and commercial premises

    Damir Juričić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A supply of dwellings greater than the demand, a reduction in the availability of housing loans and increased credit risk, caused, inter alia, by the financial crisis: these are the basic features of today’s residential property and commercial premises markets in Croatia today. Built but unsold housing units have exposed private investors, who have organised the supply of units within the balance sheet of their firms, to significant risk of underinvestment. The materialisation of this risk is most manifested in the impossibility of funding the core business because of loans that they have agreed on for the construction of dwelling units meant for sale on the market. The paper then proposes a model that, if it were applied, could insure investors to a greater extent against the risk of underinvestment. The supply of dwelling units with protected rentals by the local public sector organised in the traditional manner, i.e. according to a model in which the local public sector figures in the role of investor, distributes the burden of development costs onto the future generations as well. However, practice has shown that traditional models inequitably expose future generations to the risk of a reduction in the quality of this kind of public service. From this point of view the proposed model transfers to the future generation not only the costs but also the obligations to secure equal qualities of public service in such a way that the private investor long-term assumes the risk of the availability of public building.The problem in this kind of organisation of the supply of a public service is double taxation via VAT, changes in the law concerning which are accordingly proposed.

  20. Projecting supply and demand of hydrologic ecosystem services under future climate conditions

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Huang, Tao; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Ecosystems provide essential goods and services, such as food, clean water, water purification, soil conservation and cultural services for human being. In a watershed, these water-related ecosystem goods and services can directly or indirectly benefit both local people and downstream beneficiaries through a reservoir. Water quality and quantity in a reservoir are of importance for agricultural, industrial and domestic uses. Under the impacts of climate and land use changes, both ecosystem service supply and demand will be affected by changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, urbanization and agricultural activities. However, the linkage between ecosystem service provisioning (ESP) and ecosystem service beneficiary (ESB), and scales of supply and demand of ecosystem services are not clear yet. Therefore, to investigate water-related ecosystem service supply under climate and land use change, we took the Xindian river watershed (303 km2) as a case study, where the Feitsui Reservoir provides hydro-power and daily domestic water use of 3,450,000 m3 for 3.46 million people in Taipei, Taiwan. We integrated a hydrological model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) and a land use change model (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects, CLUE-s) with future climate change scenarios derived from General Circulation Models (GCMs), to assess the changes in ecosystem service supply and demand at different hydrologic scales. The results will provide useful information for decision-making on future land use management and climate change adaptation strategies in the watersheds. Keywords: climate change, land use change, ecosystem service, watershed, scale

  1. Current status and future projections of LNG demand and supplies: A global prospective

    Kumar, Satish; Kwon, Hyouk-Tae; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Hyun Cho, Jae; Lim, Wonsub; Moon, Il

    2011-01-01

    An unceasing growth of gas consumption in domestic households, industry, and power plants has gradually turned natural gas into a major source of energy. Main drivers in this development are the technical and economic advantages of natural gas. It is a clean, versatile, and easily controllable fuel. On this basis, natural gas is often considered the form of energy that will be the 'bridging fuel' to a sustainable energy system, sometime after 2050. Unlike other main sources of energy, such as oil and coal, gas is not traded on an actual world market. This paper provides an overview on demand and supplies of natural gas (LNG) in the past as a function of gas prices, gas technology (gas sweetening, liquefaction, shipping and re-gasification), and gas market and how they have changed recently. It also discusses the likely developments in global LNG demand for the period to the year 2030. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview on demand and supplies of LNG in the past and future. → Outlook for LNG demand in Asia pacific region is very robust. → In past decade the shale gas production in USA has increased fivefold. → The future of European gas supply depends largely on the geopolitical environments. → Within the gas sector LNG is playing an ever increasing role in gas transportation.

  2. California demand and supply of crude oil: An econometric analysis with projections to 2000

    Ibegbulam, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Forecast of California domestic crude oil supply requires the forecasts of California crude oil production and supply from Alaska. Future California crude oil production is forecast with an econometric model that postulates production as a function of reserves and reserves as a function of crude oil prices and exploration and development costs. Future supplies from Alaska are obtained by subtracting forecasts of Alaskan crude oil demand and shipments to the States of Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington from Alaskan North Slope crude oil production forecasts. A two-stage process was used to forecast future California crude oil demand. In the first stage, the demand for refined crude oil products was predicted with a single-equation double logarithmic rational-expectations dynamic model. In the second stage, the total demands obtained in the first stage were converted into a crude oil equivalent. It was found that the current surplus of domestic crude oil in California will end in 1994. Thereafter, California crude oil imports will sharply increase

  3. Natural gas supply and demand projections for the Asia-Pacific region

    Khin, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of rapid economic growth in the Asia Pacific has inevitably led the countries of this region to expand and diversify their energy sources in order to satisfy their burgeoning energy demands. Natural gas has become an increasingly marketable energy source in this region benefitting from vast reserves and its advantages as an environmentally clean fuel. As a result of the impact of the two oil shocks of the 1970's on the Asia Pacific economy, the governments in the region set about the development of energy strategies which would make their national economies more resilient to the instabilities of world energy price and supply. The Japanese Gas Industry has estimated that the overall rise in demand for energy in Asia, set at an average rate of 3.7% per annum, will see a corresponding growth in demand for natural gas at 5%. Experts from a number of major oil companies, such as Exxon, expect an annual growth in the Asian natural gas market of 6.0 to 6.3%. These figures are over shadowed by the worldwide demand for natural gas which is expected to gain an 8% increase within the next two decades. Approximately 8.75% of the world's proven natural gas reserves are held in Asia-Pacific region (Table I). Most of the region's natural gas production will provide over 100 years of supply. A review of natural gas supply/demand in the Asia-Pacific region is presented in sub-regions, namely ASIAN, Northeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Oceania

  4. Environmental isotope study of a groundwater supply project in the Kalahari of Gordonia

    Verhagen, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    A feasibility study for a central fresh groundwater supply scheme in the Kalahari of the Gordonia district, South Africa, provided the opportunity to study fresh and saline water occurrences in detail with environmental isotopes. The isotopic and chemical signals show a clear contrast among groundwaters below a river bed, an extended fresh groundwater body and saline groundwaters in close proximity to the river. Carbon-14, tritium and stable-isotope data lead to a vertical rain recharge model rather than a regional flow mechanism for an understanding of the various water occurrences, their interrelationships and varied hydrochemistry. (author)

  5. Uranium supply and demand projections in the pacific basin Australia's role

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    By the year 2000 O.E.C.D. estimates indicate that somewhere between 22% to 33% of the world's base load electrical energy will originate from nuclear power plants. In all major pacific basin countries, Australia has the world's largest known uranium reserves and is currently supplying around 12% of world uranium production. She should be preparing to compete on the world markets for uranium sales and should anticipate increased uranium fuel demands despite the possibility the Canada and China might further penerate this market. (Liu Wencai)

  6. Environmental Capabilities of Suppliers for Green Supply Chain Management in Construction Projects: A Case Study in Korea

    Moon Gyu Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green supply chain management (GSCM enhances a firm’s competitiveness for sustainable growth. GSCM is especially important in the construction industry, a project-based business that often results in heavy environmental pollution. For the successful implementation of GSCM in the construction industry to occur, contractors should make the best use of suppliers’ environmental capabilities based on shared understanding of the capabilities. This paper examines the shared understanding of suppliers’ environmental management capabilities between the contractor and suppliers by assessing the consistency between the contractor’s and suppliers’ evaluations of the capabilities. This explorative case study investigates a supply chain comprised of a major construction firm and 106 suppliers in Korea. The results of the case analysis show that the suppliers’ self-evaluation scores of environmental capability are higher than the contractor’s evaluation scores. Furthermore, from both evaluators, suppliers received the lowest scores in the evaluation item rating the relationship with second-tier suppliers and the highest in the evaluation item rating the relationship with the contractor. The consistency between the suppliers’ and contractor’s evaluation is related to several characteristics of suppliers, such as industry type, firm size and partnership duration with the contractor. This study contributes to the literature of GSCM and strategic alignment amongst supply chain partners for the construction industry.

  7. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of moulded assemblies of tape-wound cut cores of grain-oriented silicon-steel for the LHC beam dumping system

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of moulded assemblies of tape-wound cut cores of grain-oriented silicon-steel for the three different types of fast pulsed magnets for the beam dumping system of the LHC. Following a market survey carried out among 14 firms in four Member States and six firms in two non-Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2674/SL/LHC) was sent on 26 January 2001 to one firm in one Member State. By the closing date, CERN had received a tender from the firm. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with TELMAG MAGNETIC COMPONENTS (UK), the only bidder, for the supply of 2885 moulded assemblies of tape-wound cut cores of grain-oriented silicon-steel, of three different types, for a total amount of 2 414 664 euros (3 692 147 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with options for 560 additional moulded core assemblies of three different types, for an additional amount of 468 496 euros (716 355 Swiss francs), not subject to revision,...

  8. The Imo State (Nigeria) Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project, 2. Impact on dracunculiasis, diarrhoea and nutritional status.

    Huttly, S R; Blum, D; Kirkwood, B R; Emeh, R N; Okeke, N; Ajala, M; Smith, G S; Carson, D C; Dosunmu-Ogunbi, O; Feachem, R G

    1990-01-01

    Morbidity due to dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) and diarrhoea in persons of all ages, and nutritional status of young children, were used as health impact indicators in the evaluation of the Imo State Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project in south-eastern Nigeria. Data were collected using repeated cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal follow-up. The study area was found to have a low level of endemicity of dracunculiasis. While no impact could be demonstrated on overall period or point prevalence rates in the cross-sectional surveys, a prospective longitudinal survey showed a significant reduction in the percentage of person-fortnights positive for dracunculiasis in areas served by the project, while the control areas showed no such change. In the cross-sectional surveys it was found that, in the project villages, those persons drinking only borehole water had significantly lower period prevalence rates one year later than others. Moreover, those living further from the nearest borehole had higher rates of dracunculiasis. An impact of the project on diarrhoea morbidity was found only in limited sub-groups of the population. A greater association with water availability rather than quality was suggested for rates in young children. The prevalence of wasting (less than 80% weight-for-height) among children aged less than 3 years decreased significantly over time in all 3 intervention villages; there was no such decline in the control villages.

  9. Factors that affect public-supply water use in Florida, with a section on projected water use to the year 2020

    Marella, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Public-supply water use in Florida increased 242 percent between 1960 and 1987 from 530 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) to 1,811 Mgal/d. This change is primarily a result of increases in population and tourism since 1960. Public-supply utilities provide water to a variety of users. In 1985, 71 percent of the water used for public supply was delivered for residential uses, 15 percent for commercial uses, 9 percent for industrial uses, and the remaining 5 percent for public use or other uses. Residential use of public-supply water in Florida has increased nearly 280 Mgal/d, but has decreased in the proportion of total deliveries from 80 to 71 percent between 1975 and 1985. This trend resulted from increased tourism and related commercial services associated with population and visitors. One of several factors that influences public-supply water use in Florida is the increase in resident population, which increased from 4.95 million in 1960 to more than 12.0 million in 1987. Additionally, Florida's nonresident population increased from 18.8 million visitors in 1977, to 34.1 million visitors in 1987, and the part of Florida?s population that relies on public-supply water increased from 68 percent in 1960, to 86 percent in 1987. The public supply per capita use was multiplied by the projected populations for each county for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020 to forecast public-supply water use. Using medium projections, Florida?s population is expected to increase to nearly 16 million in the year 2000, to 18 million in the year 2010, and to almost 20 million in the year 2020, of which an estimated 13.5 million people will be supplied water from public-supply water systems in the year 2000, 15 million in 2010, and nearly 17 million by the year 2020. Public-supply water use is expected to increase to a projected (medium) 2,310 Mgal/d in the year 2000, 2,610 Mgal/d in the year 2010, and 2,890 Mgal/d in the year 2020. If the population exceeds the medium projections for the

  10. EPRTM project experience: selection of partners and supply chain; Experiencia en Proyectos de EPTTM: seleccion de socios y cadena de suministros

    Lorenzo, D. de

    2012-07-01

    With 4 EPRTM units under construction, the new plants to be built in the following years will benefit from the return on experience of the work already performed. The knowledge about licensing processes, detail engineering, supply chain, logistics and on-site work gathered from the Olkiluoto 3 and Flamanville 3 projects has already been used in the Taishan 1 and 2 project, resulting in a project that is on schedule and on budget. This article will show how the advantage of such broad experience gained will be used to benefit future projects to ensure certainty of completion, leaving few and limited unresolved issues even before the beginning of the project. Several areas that are not usually tackled when speaking of a New Build project will be covered by this text from the point of view of a nuclear vendor: Project Partnership Selection and the Gate Review Process applied by AREVA in the supply chain of the main components. (Author)

  11. Haughton-Mars Project Expedition 2005: Interplanetary Supply Chain Management & Logistics Architectures

    deWeck, Olivier; Simchi-Levi, David

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 expedition to the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) research station on Devon Island was part of a NASA-funded project on Space Logistics. A team of nine researchers from MIT went to the Canadian Arctic to participate in the annual HMP field campaign from July 8 to August 12, 2005. We investigated the applicability of the HMP research station as an analogue for planetary macro- and micro-logistics to the Moon and Mars, and began collecting data for modeling purposes. We also tested new technologies and procedures to enhance the ability of humans and robots to jointly explore remote environments. The expedition had four main objectives. We briefly summarize our key findings in each of these areas.

  12. Dynamics of participation and supply of services in the Hood River Conservation Project

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

    1986-07-01

    The Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP) is a major residential retrofit demonstration project. HRCP is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and run by Pacific Power and Light Company. The project was conducted in the community of Hood River, Oregon, will cost $21 million, and will last for three years (mid-1983 through 1986). Installation of applicable retrofit measures was completed by the end of 1985; data collection, analysis, and report writing will continue through 1986. This report documents the extent to which households participated in HRCP. Differences between participants and eligible nonparticipants are examined. Similarly, differences among participants as a function of when they signed up for HRCP are analyzed. The report also examines the dynamics of program services (i.e., times between audit requests and audit, and between audit and installation of measures). These analyses are based on data from the roughly 3500 Hood River homes eligible for HRCP, 3189 of which received free home energy audits and 2988 of which received HRCP-financed retrofit measures.

  13. Aberrant Meiotic Modulation Partially Contributes to the Lower Germination Rate of Pollen Grains in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Low Nitrogen Supply.

    Zheng, Hongyan; Wu, Huamao; Pan, Xiaoying; Jin, Weiwei; Li, Xuexian

    2017-02-01

    Pollen germination is an essential step towards successful pollination during maize reproduction. How low niutrogen (N) affects pollen germination remains an interesting biological question to be addressed. We found that only low N resulted in a significantly lower germination rate of pollen grains after 4 weeks of low N, phosphorus or potassium treatment in maize production. Importantly, cytological analysis showed 7-fold more micronuclei in male meiocytes under the low N treatment than in the control, indicating that the lower germination rate of pollen grains was partially due to numerous chromosome loss events resulting from preceding meiosis. The appearance of 10 bivalents in the control and low N cells at diakinesis suggested that chromosome pairing and recombination in meiosis I was not affected by low N. Further gene expression analysis revealed dramatic down-regulation of Nuclear Division Cycle 80 (Ndc80) and Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (Rcc1-1) expression and up-regulation of Cell Division Cycle 20 (Cdc20-1) expression, although no significant difference in the expression level of kinetochore foundation proteins Centromeric Histone H3 (Cenh3) and Centromere Protein C (Cenpc) and cohesion regulators Recombination 8 (Rec8) and Shugoshin (Sgo1) was observed. Aberrant modulation of three key meiotic regulators presumably resulted in a high likelihood of erroneous chromosome segregation, as testified by pronounced lagging chromosomes at anaphase I or cell cycle disruption at meiosis II. Thus, we proposed a cytogenetic mechanism whereby low N affects male meiosis and causes a higher chromosome loss frequency and eventually a lower germination rate of pollen grains in a staple crop plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Study thermal characteristics of millet grain, dried in the machine with the swirling flow of the coolant and the microwave energy supply

    S. T. Antipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of determining the thermal characteristics of millet. The choice of the research object. The paper presents the principle of operation of the plant and the parameters of the standard, organic glass for measurements. Method was to study millet grains and organic glass, which are brought into contact on a common plane. The heater is brought into contact with the product and passed the constant heat flow, which passed through a layer of millet grain at different speeds. As a result, the temperature in the contact plane of the changed and recorded on the chart of the potentiometer in the form of the curve, by which you can determine the time and temperature change. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity determined by empirical formulas obtained by solving a system of differential equations, made up for the system of two bodies, one of which includes the unknown thermal characteristics. Test two bodies in contact on a common plane, resulting in mathematical physics principles constitute two differential equations with uniform initial and boundary conditions of the first kind, due to the parameters of ongoing experience. It is a plot of thermal performance of the temperature and humidity. Revealed linear dependence of the physical thermal characteristics, showing that with increasing temperature the thermal diffusivity value decreases, and the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are increasing character. Revealed the equations describing the thermal characteristics of millet grain with a humidity in the range of 13.6–35.1% and the temperature range 293–373 K.

  15. Projections of the U.S. timber supply and demand situation to 2050 : draft findings from the USDA Forest Service 2000 RPA Timber Assessment.

    Richard Haynes; Darius Adams; Ralph Alig; David Brooks; Irene Durbak; James Howard; Peter Ince; David McKeever; John Mills; Ken Skog; Xiaoping. Zhou

    2001-01-01

    The Draft RPA Timber Assessment projects, over the next 50 years, the likelihood of increasing abundance of softwoods in the South and decreasing abundance of hardwoods in the South. These trends in supply, along with projected contributions from the North and West, imply U.S. consumption needs could be met without increasing net product imports and would not increase...

  16. Blue-green fluorescence and visible-infrared reflectance of corn (Zea mays L.) grain for in situ field detection of nitrogen supply

    McMurtrey, J.E. III; Chappelle, E.W.; Kim, M.S.; Corp, L.A.; Daughtry, C.S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The sensing of spectral attributes of corn (Zea mays L.) grain from site specific areas of the field during the harvest process may be useful in managing agronomic inputs and production practices on those areas of the field in subsequent growing seasons. Eight levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn at Beltsville, Maryland. These N treatments produced a range of chlorophyll levels, biomass and physiological condition in the live plant canopies. After harvest, spectra were obtained in the laboratory on whole grain samples. Fluorescence emissions were acquired from 400 to 600 nm and percent reflectance were measured in the visible (VIS) near infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) regions from 400 nm to 2400 nm. A ultraviolet (UV) excitation band centered at 385 nm was the most effective in producing fluorescence emission differences in the blue-green region of the fluorescence spectrum with maxima centered from 430-470nm in the blue and with an intense shoulder centered at around 530-560 nm in the green region. Reflectance showed the most spectral differences in the NIR and MIR (970-2330 nm) regions

  17. Giant grains

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  18. Registered nurse supply grows faster than projected amid surge in new entrants ages 23-26.

    Auerbach, David I; Buerhaus, Peter I; Staiger, Douglas O

    2011-12-01

    The vast preponderance of the nation's registered nurses are women. In the 1980s and 1990 s, a decline in the number of women ages 23-26 who were choosing nursing as a career led to concerns that there would be future nurse shortages unless the trend was reversed. Between 2002 and 2009, however, the number of full-time-equivalent registered nurses ages 23-26 increased by 62 percent. If these young nurses follow the same life-cycle employment patterns as those who preceded them--as they appear to be thus far--then they will be the largest cohort of registered nurses ever observed. Because of this surge in the number of young people entering nursing during the past decade, the nurse workforce is projected to grow faster during the next two decades than previously anticipated. However, it is uncertain whether interest in nursing will continue to grow in the future.

  19. New era / new solutions: The role of alternative tariff structures in water supply projects.

    Pinto, F Silva; Marques, R Cunha

    2017-12-01

    Water utilities face different challenges that may force them to seek prioritized objectives. When doing so, particular projects may have to be developed, being important to understand their impact on water tariffs, and thus, on customers. Such consequences may bear an increased relevance in cases stressed with, e.g., resource scarcity, poverty, and the need for infrastructure investments. The resulting cost and revenue variability demand a comprehensive study. If the first may require a stochastic modeling (in major cost components) in order to consider its inherent uncertainty, the second needs to be modeled following context-specific objectives set by the relevant stakeholders. The solutions achieved will likely promote distinct revenue sources, as well as diversified water tariff structures. A multi-objective optimization model (i.e., a Framework for Suitable Prices) is built to deal with those diversified requirements (e.g., stochastic energy costs, affordability, cost recovery, or administrative simplicity). The model is solved through achievement scalarizing functions with several weighting coefficients for a reference point, so as to provide a significant perception of possible revenue options (and their impact) to the decision makers. The proposed method is applied to a case study, Boa Vista Island in Cabo Verde, in which the background characteristics, namely water sources availability (e.g., the adoption of desalination technologies), economic development and other contextual factors were considered. The key role of tariff structure selection is displayed, instead of assuming it a priori, giving important insights regarding project feasibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uranium supply/demand projections to 2030 in the OECD/NEA-IAEA ''Red Book''. Nuclear growth projections, global uranium exploration, uranium resources, uranium production and production capacity

    Vance, Robert

    2009-01-01

    World demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow rapidly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by many governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, combined with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supplies, has increased the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity. Since the mid-1960s, with the co-operation of their member countries and states, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly prepared periodic updates (currently every 2 years) on world uranium resources, production and demand. These updates have been published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the ''Red Book''. The 2007 edition replaces the 2005 edition and reflects information current as of 1 st January 2007. Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand presents, in addition to updated resource figures, the results of a recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry. It contains official data provided by 40 countries (and one Country Report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat) on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements to 2030 as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues are also presented. (orig.)

  1. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  2. BPA review of Washington Public Power Supply System, Projects 1 and 3 (WNP 1 and 3), construction schedule and financing assumptions

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the following appendices: Data provided By Supply System Regarding Costs and Schedules; Basic Supply System Data and Assumptions; Detailed Modeling of Net Present Values; Origin and Detailed Description of the System Analysis Mode; Decision Analysis Model; Pro Forma Budget Expenditure Levels for Fiscal years 1984 through 1990; Financial Flexibility Analysis - Discretionary/Nondiscretionary Expenditure Levels; Detailed Analysis of BPA's Debt Structure Under the 13 Pro Forma Budget Scenarios for Fiscal Years 1984 through 1990; Wertheim and Co., Inc., August 30, 1984 Letter; Project Considerations and Licensing/Regulatory Issues, Supply System September 15, 1984 Letter; and Summary of Litigation Affecting WNP 1 and 3, and WNP 4 and 5

  3. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on supply chain management in the oil and gas industry : major capital construction projects, maintenance, repair and operations

    2005-01-01

    Many companies are now being forced to focus on careful budgeting to ensure that the capital costs of large-scale construction projects do not exceed their budgets. Operators are now investigating the role of supply chain management in reducing project costs. This conference provided a forum for the discussion of issues related to large construction projects for supply chain management in the oil and gas industry. Participants at the conference discussed methods of negotiating with contractors in order to manage higher prices for steel and other commodities. Best practices for maintaining effective purchaser-contractor relations were discussed along with cost benchmarks in contracts and management planning techniques for supply chain processes. The benefits of adopting vendor-managed inventory systems were also examined. Sourcing strategies were presented and issues related to transportation were reviewed along with various planning models. The conference featured 16 presentations. tabs., figs

  4. A Fuzzy Linear Programming Model for Improving Productivity of Electrical Energy in Potable Water Supply Facilities (Case study: Sistan Water Supply Project

    Vahid Baradaran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important operational issues in urban drinking water production and distribution systems is to assign a plan for running hours of water supplying electric pumps. The cost of consuming electricity in these pumps allocates most of water and wastewater companies operational costs to itself which is dependent to their running hours. In this paper, meanwhile having a field study in Sistan rural water and wastewater company, the constraints for specifying electric pumps operational time in water supplying resources such as restrictions in fulfilling demand, supply potable water with suitable quality and uselessness of electric pumps have been identified. Due to uncertainty and fuzziness of the constraints, a linear programming model with fuzzy restrictions for determining electric pumps running hours per day is submitted with the aim to minimize electricity consumption and cost. After collecting and using required data for model, it proved that using the proposed model could reduce the costs of electrical energy and increase productivity up to 23 percent per month. The proposed mathematical fuzzy programming is able to specify electric pumps scheduling plan for water supply resources with the aim to reduce the costs of consuming energy.

  5. Implications of bulk water transfer on local water management institutions: A case study of the Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Pant, Dhruba; Bhattarai, Madhusudan; Basnet, Govinda

    2008-01-01

    "To mitigate a drinking water crisis in Kathmandu valley, the Government of Nepal initiated the Melamchi Water Supply Project in 1997, which will divert water from the Melamchi River to Kathmandu city's water supply network. In the first phase, the Project will divert 170,000 cubic meters of water per day (at the rate of 1.97M3/sec), which will be tripled using the same infrastructure as city water demand increases in the future. The large scale transfer of water would have farreaching implic...

  6. The Texts of the Instruments concerning the Agency's Assistance to Indonesia for the Continuation of a Research Reactor Project. A Third Supply Agreement and an Amendment to the Project Agreement

    1981-02-01

    As a sequel to the assistance with the Agency has provided to the Government of Indonesia for the continuation of a research reactor project, a Third Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Indonesia and the United States of America. In this connection, an Amendment to the Project Agreement of 19 December 1969 has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of Indonesia. Both the Third Supply Agreement and the Amendment to the Project Agreement entered into force on 7 December 1979, pursuant to Article VI and IV respectively. The texts of both instruments are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  7. Projectables

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  8. Northern Integrated Supply Project

    2008-04-01

    1970 to 1994 in the spring, summer, and fall (Bestgen and Fausch 1993; Nesler et al . 1997; CDOW 2006). Over the three study periods, 32 fish species...Yellow perch -- X X X X 1Native species in bold. Source: Propst 1982; Bestgen and Fausch 1992; Nesler et al . 1997; USGS 2003; CDOW 2006; GEI 2006d...procedures (Moulton et al . 2002 ). A total of 11,392 organisms were collected, belonging to 54 different taxa. Seventeen of those taxa (31 percent) were

  9. The Domus Tiberiana Project (Rome. The supply of bricks for the Hadrianic construction works along the Nova Via

    Mirella Serlorenzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Domus Tiberiana Project started in 2013 and is coordinated by the Soprintendenza Speciale per il Colosseo e l’area archeologica centrale di Roma. It aims at a new and comprehensive study of the first imperial palace on the Palatine. Several aspects are considered, integrating the results of preceding research into new analyses archived inside the GIS SITAR of the Soprintendenza: the study of wall stratigraphy, building techniques, decoration systems, archaeological finds, and architectural restorations. This paper shows the first results of the survey of building techniques and materials used in the Hadrianic block along the western section of the Nova Via, built at the same time as the enlargement of the north-western corner of the Domus Tiberiana. In particular, metrological analysis of bricks has proved how the different supplies of bipedales, sesquipedales, bessales, broken roof tiles and reused bricks were arranged inside the building. In fact it seems that the distribution of building techniques in the different portions of the construction was planned according to an economic and structural rationale.

  10. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Pakistan in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1968-01-12

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Pakistan in establishing a research reactor project, a second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Pakistan and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 19 October 1967, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  11. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in relation to a Research Reactor Project. A Fourth Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1970-02-05

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Finland in connection with a research reactor project, a fourth Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Finland and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 27 November 1969, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  12. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Yugoslavia in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. Second Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1968-08-28

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Yugoslavia in establishing a research reactor project, a second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the United States of America and Yugoslavia. The Agreement entered into force on 20 February 1968, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  13. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in relation to a Research Reactor Project. A Third Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1968-01-12

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Finland in connection with a research reactor project), a third Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Finland and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 5 November 1967, and the text) is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  14. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Yugoslavia in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. Third Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1971-03-11

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Yugoslavia in connection with a research reactor project, a third Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the United States of America and Yugoslavia. This Agreement entered into force on 30 December 1970, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  15. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in relation to a Research Reactor Project. Second Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1966-07-25

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Finland in establishing a research reactor project, a second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of Finland and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 8 July 1966, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  16. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in relation to a Research Reactor Project. A Third Supply Agreement

    1968-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Finland in connection with a research reactor project), a third Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Finland and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 5 November 1967, and the text) is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  17. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Yugoslavia in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. Third Supply Agreement

    1971-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Yugoslavia in connection with a research reactor project, a third Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the United States of America and Yugoslavia. This Agreement entered into force on 30 December 1970, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  18. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Pakistan in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    1968-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Pakistan in establishing a research reactor project, a second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Pakistan and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 19 October 1967, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  19. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in relation to a Research Reactor Project. A Fourth Supply Agreement

    1970-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Finland in connection with a research reactor project, a fourth Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Finland and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 27 November 1969, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  20. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Yugoslavia in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. Second Supply Agreement

    1968-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Yugoslavia in establishing a research reactor project, a second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the United States of America and Yugoslavia. The Agreement entered into force on 20 February 1968, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  1. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in relation to a Research Reactor Project. Second Supply Agreement

    1966-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Finland in establishing a research reactor project, a second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of Finland and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 8 July 1966, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  2. The Text of the Agreement connected with the Agency's Assistance to Pakistan in furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials. Supplementary Agreement No. 1

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Supplementary Agreement No. 1 to the Master Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Pakistan for assistance by the Agency in furthering projects by the supply of materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Supplementary Agreement entered into force on 16 November 1971.

  3. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    Ghose-Hajra, M.; McCorquodale, A.; Mattson, G.; Jerolleman, D.; Filostrat, J.

    2015-03-01

    Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana's coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana's disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  4. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    M. Ghose-Hajra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana’s coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana’s disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  5. An update of shrimp and prawn supply chain initiatives in Bangladesh : recommendations for inclusive shrimp supply chain development for the STDF project

    Pijl, van der W.

    2014-01-01

    The Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) project implemented by FAO in cooperation with the Department of Fisheries and WorldFish is funded by WTO. It will target 1,000 shrimp and prawn farmers in Southwest Bangladesh and focuses on improving their livelihoods and securing their market

  6. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interstellar grains

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  8. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  9. Description of the global petroleum supply and demand outlook. Updated for the 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1991-11-01

    The global oil trade is still in surplus production with downward pressure on prices just as in early 1990. The current oil price situation includes three major new factors which need to be taken into account: the outlook for the restoration of production capacity lost from the war; the impact of events in the Soviet Union and former Eastern block; and, the effect changed financial circumstances of the major Middle Eastern producers will have on pricing in the future. The net effect appears to be adequate or excess production capability for the next several years, volatile prices in the near term, with general downward pressures resulting in relative lower average prices. In the longer term there will be an increasing demand requirement for aggressive investment in new capacity resulting in relatively steep escalation in prices. The oil price track used for this projection is essentially the same as in the last two GRI Baseline Projections. The U.S. refiners acquisition cost (RAC) of crude oil is expected to increase at an overall real average rate of 2.3 percent, reaching $36.84 per barrel in 1991 dollars and $83.30 in nominal dollars in the year 2010

  10. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket purchase contract for the supply of Burndy connectors for the LHC project and LHC experiments

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket purchase contract for the supply of Burndy connectors for the LHC project and LHC experiments. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an amendment to the blanket purchase contract for the supply of Burndy connectors for the LHC project and LHC experiments with the company SOURIAU (CH), for the next three years for up to 600 000 euros (954 600 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from January 2007, bringing the total amount of the blanket purchase contract to a maximum amount of 1 200 000 euros (1 909 200 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from January 2007. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange. 2006/60/5/e

  11. The Texts of the Instruments Concerning the Agency's Assistance to Indonesia for the Continuation of a Research Reactor Project. The Second Supply Agreement. An Amendment

    1975-01-01

    On 7 April 1975 the Agency and the Governments of Indonesia and the United States of America amended by letter of agreement Article I of the Second Supply Agreement, concluded in connection with the Agency's assistance to Indonesia for the continuation of a research reactor project and reproduced in document INFCIRC/136/Add. 1, to provide for Indonesia to purchase the enriched uranium which is the subject thereof direct from the manufacturer.

  12. The Texts of the Instruments Concerning the Agency's Assistance to Indonesia for the Continuation of a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    1972-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of Indonesia in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Indonesia and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 14 September 1972, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  13. The Texts of the Instruments concerning the Agency's Assistance to Pakistan in connection with the Establishment of a Nuclear Power Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    1971-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Pakistan in connection with a nuclear power reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Pakistan and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 22 June 1971, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  14. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to India in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials. Supplementary Agreements Nos 4, 5 and 6

    NONE

    1972-04-14

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of India in furthering projects by the supply of materials, three additional Supplementary Agreements to the Master Agreement concerning the provision of that assistance have been concluded between the Agency and the Government. These Supplementary Agreements entered into force on 1 July 1971, 20 August 1971 and 1 October 1971 respectively, and the texts are reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  15. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to India in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials. Supplementary Agreements Nos 4, 5 and 6

    1972-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of India in furthering projects by the supply of materials, three additional Supplementary Agreements to the Master Agreement concerning the provision of that assistance have been concluded between the Agency and the Government. These Supplementary Agreements entered into force on 1 July 1971, 20 August 1971 and 1 October 1971 respectively, and the texts are reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  16. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to India in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials. Second and Third Supplementary Agreements

    1971-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of India in furthering projects by the supply of materials, two additional Supplementary Agreements to the Master Agreement concerning the provision of that assistance have been concluded between the Agency and the Government. These Supplementary Agreements entered into force on 2 July 1970 and 16 November 1970 respectively, and the texts are reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  17. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Continuing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1971-10-04

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the Congo and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 15 April 1971, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  18. The Texts of the Instruments Concerning the Agency's Assistance to Indonesia for the Continuation of a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1972-11-17

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of Indonesia in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Indonesia and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 14 September 1972, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  19. The Texts of the Instruments concerning the Agency's Assistance to Pakistan in connection with the Establishment of a Nuclear Power Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1971-10-08

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of Pakistan in connection with a nuclear power reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Pakistan and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 22 June 1971, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  20. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Continuing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    1971-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the Congo and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 15 April 1971, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  1. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Mexico in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    1972-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of Mexico in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Mexico and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 4 October 1972, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  2. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Romania in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials. Second and Third Supplementary Agreements

    NONE

    1970-02-06

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of Romania in furthering projects by the supply of materials, two additional Supplementary Agreements to the Master Agreement concerning the provision of that assistance have been concluded between the Agency and the Government. These Agreements entered into force on 4 June 1968 and 21 August 1968 respectively, and the texts are reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  3. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Romania in Furthering Projects by the Supply of Materials. Second and Third Supplementary Agreements

    1970-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of Romania in furthering projects by the supply of materials, two additional Supplementary Agreements to the Master Agreement concerning the provision of that assistance have been concluded between the Agency and the Government. These Agreements entered into force on 4 June 1968 and 21 August 1968 respectively, and the texts are reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  4. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Mexico in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    NONE

    1972-11-17

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of Mexico in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Mexico and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 4 October 1972, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  5. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Pakistan in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. A Third Supply Agreement

    1974-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency has provided to the Government of Pakistan in connection with a research reactor project, a Third Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of Pakistan and the United States of America. The Agreement entered into force on 14 June 1974 pursuant to Article V, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  6. Gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system complying with multiple fuels (eco-energy city project)

    Yagyu, Sumio; Maekawa, Koich; Sugawara, Koich; Hayashida, Masaru; Fujishima, Ichiro; Fukuyama, Yuji; Morikawa, Tomoyuki; Yamato, Tadao; Obata, Norio [Advanced Technology Lab., Kubota Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes recent results at Kubota to develop a gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system. Utilizing a gas mixture which consists of CO and H{sub 2} supplied from a broad area energy utilization network, the system produces four heat sources (263 K, 280 K, 318 K, and 353 K) for air-conditioning, hot water supply, and refrigeration in a single system. It also conforms to fuel systems that utilize methane and hydrogen. This multi-functional heat supply system is composed of an efficient gas engine (methanol gas engine) and a freon-free heat pump (heat-assisted Stirling heat pump). The heat-assisted Stirling heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power provided by engine exhaust heat. By proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the heat pump is supplied with the maximum share of the original energy fueling the engine. Developing the system will establish freon-free thermal utilization system technology that satisfies both wide heat demands and various fuel systems. (orig.)

  7. Farmers' Willingness to Participate in the Next-Stage Grain-for-Green Project in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    Feng, Lin; Xu, Jianying

    2015-08-01

    The policy implications for success in the next-stage Grain-for-Green Project (GFGP) in China are analyzed from the perspectives of farmers' willingness. The ecological protection belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area was chosen as the case study area, where 1207 valid questionnaire surveys based on participatory rural appraisal were collected in 2012. Our study found that farmers with lower levels of education, older age, and higher livelihood dependency on farmland were more prone to reclamation if the compensation ended. Females and non-migrants were more reluctant to participate in the next GFGP than others. Nevertheless, traditional farming was no longer a preferred livelihood by all respondents. The majority of respondents (74.4%) wished to be liberated from the low-income farmland work through the next GFGP, and half of them (50.6%) hoped to get non-cash compensation. The Willingness to Accept (WTA) values of the next GFGP showed significant social heterogeneity and regional difference, with an average of annual RMB¥16,665 ha(-1), about 4.5 times the local compensation standard in 2000. By revealing some limitations of the uniform nationwide compensation standard system and the single payment form in adapting to evolving socioeconomic conditions, our study highlighted the importance of developing a region-based compensation standard system, integrating the next GFGP into regional sustainable development organically by more comprehensive alternative policy, and bonding a vertical partnership between the local community and the nation. Our study revealed some key elements for success in the future design of restoration projects in China.

  8. THE PROACTIVE MANAGEMENT MODEL OF STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ON THE ENERGY SUPPLY COMPANIES IN A TURBULENT ENVIRONMENT

    Михайло Збишекович ДОМБРОВСЬКИЙ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A methodical approach of proactive project management model with the estimate (prediction deviation of actual results from planned at each control step is proposed. Deviation of actual results from the project planned, which takes place in the management of the energy company transformation project, as a result of action under uncertainty, determines the acceleration of work over the project plan. Implementation the scope of work, which exceeds the plan, as result of overspending of resources and budget, disrupting the stability of the project as a system. The graphic model helps to form the "corridor" tolerance based resource reserve, and the implementation of the project work is carried out according to the extension concept. Clarification allowable deviation area allows improving the model of project proactive management for each of the next execution step. Project management quality is improved by reducing the time of decision-making and increase the sustainability and efficiency by substantially reducing deviations. The conclusions about the benefits of the assessment of works and project resources balance, by using the proactive management model, which allows comparing variants of works dynamics, to implement the search for the best solution to a predetermined set of admissible, have been made.

  9. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    Li, D D; Jiang, J; Zhao, Z; Yi, W S; Lan, G

    2013-01-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system

  10. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  11. Energy supply and urban planning projects: Analysing tensions around district heating provision in a French eco-district

    Gabillet, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of energy supply choices, this article explores the way in which energy priorities and their climate-related features are incorporated into urban public policy. These choices must take account of different factors, as is the case with district heating, which is justified as a vehicle of renewable energy while subject to pressure in eco-districts because its techno-economic balances are destabilised by falls in demand. Our study focuses particularly on the city of Metz (France), which has chosen district heating as the primary source for provision for the municipal area and for its first eco-district. We analyse the tensions within these choices, with particular attention to the way in which they are negotiated inside municipal departments and with the local energy operator. This enables us to explore the tensions in defining the scale that governs decisions and the linkages between energy-related and urban priorities. - Highlights: • Analyses of tensions in the choice of energy supplies for eco-districts. •District heating networks can be vehicles of renewable energy. • District heating networks are threatened by drops in energy consumption. • Energy supply issues oppose urban planning and energy policy in municipal departments. • Technical and financial adjustments can be made by the municipality to justify its energy choices

  12. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  13. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    1962-01-01

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  14. Long-term trends in U.S. gas transportation: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, June 1992. Gas Research Insights

    Lihn, M.L.; Woods, T.J.

    1992-06-01

    The paper summarizes the trends in lower-48 gas transportation in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices

  15. The Flanitzhuette project - solar island electricity supply combined with comprehensive electricity saving measures; Projekt Flanitzhuette - solare Inselstromversorgung in Kombination mit umfassenden Stromsparmassnahmen

    Eingartner, M. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Knapp, R. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Kranz, U. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-10-02

    Since 1992, Bayernwerk AG has been operating a solar island network at Flanitzhuette in the Bavarian Forest, to supply a remote hamlet. The plant is based on a photo-electric system together with a battery and a gas unit. The plant was designed by the least cost planning (LCP) process, ie: The electricity demand was first reduced by economy measures on the customers` side (demand side management, DSM) and then largely coverd by photo-electric supply. In the case of the `Flanitzhuette solar island`, the application of LCP was able to contribute to minimising the supply costs. The authors report on the project and the results in the electricity generation and saving areas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Bayernwerk AG betreibt seit 1992 in Flanitzhuette im Bayerischen Wald ein solares Inselstromnetz zur Versorgung eines abgelegenen Weilers. Die Anlage basiert auf einem Photovoltaik-System in Verbindung mit einer Batterieanlage und einem Gasaggregat. Bei der Konzeption der Anlage wurde nach dem Verfahren des Least-Cost Planning (LCP) vorgegangen, d.h. der Strombedarf wurde zunaechst durch wirtschaftliche Massnahmen auf der Kundenseite (Demand-Side Management, DSM) reduziert und erst anschliessend weitgehend photovoltaisch gedeckt. Im Falle der `Solarinsel Flanitzhuette` konnte die Anwendung von LCP zu einer Minimierung der Versorgungskosten beitragen. Die Verfasser berichten ueber das Projekt und die Ergebnisse im Stromerzeugungs- und Stromsparbereich. (orig.)

  16. Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, North Carolina—Summary of monitoring activities, quality assurance, and data, October 2013–September 2015

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2017-09-27

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2013 through September 2014 (water year 2014) and October 2014 through September 2015 (water year 2015). Major findings for this period include:More than 5,500 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 15 sites—4 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Thirty water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality thresholds exist for 11 of these.All observations met State water-quality thresholds for temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate plus nitrite.North Carolina water-quality thresholds were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, pH, turbidity, and chlorophyll a.

  17. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Jadoon, Khan; Missimer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size

  18. Grain alcohol study: summary

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  19. Grain alcohol study: summary

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  20. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system; 1974 nendo taiyonetsu reidanbo kyuto system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system. This 3- year project from fiscal 1974 to 1976 aims to predict the share of solar energy in future cooling/heating and hot water supply energy demand, and develop simulation technology. The project surveys and analyzes current domestic and overseas development states, and studies various systems to obtain characteristics of every system, pursuit an optimum implementation, and establish a diffusion plan. Future energy consumptions and prices are predicted in relation to energy saving, and the utilization impact of solar energy is analyzed. Study is also made on diffusion plan, profitability and performance evaluation method. Among these schedules, in fiscal 1974 based on the survey and analysis on previous domestic and overseas development states, features and problems were arranged every system and application. The basic study on system simulation, and rough feasibility study on solar heat systems by conventional technique were carried out. The basic data on performance evaluation standards were also prepared. (NEDO)

  1. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  2. Setting up fuel supply strategies for large-scale bio-energy projects using agricultural and forest residues. A methodology for developing countries

    Junginger, M.

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a coherent methodology to set up fuel supply strategies for large-scale biomass-conversion units. This method will explicitly take risks and uncertainties regarding availability and costs in relation to time into account. This paper aims at providing general guidelines, which are not country-specific. These guidelines cannot provide 'perfect fit'-solutions, but aim to give general help to overcome barriers and to set up supply strategies. It will mainly focus on residues from the agricultural and forestry sector. This study focuses on electricity or both electricity and heat production (CHP) with plant scales between 1040 MWe. This range is chosen due to rules of economies of scale. In large-scale plants the benefits of increased efficiency outweigh increased transportation costs, allowing a lower price per kWh which in turn may allow higher biomass costs. However, fuel-supply risks tend to get higher with increasing plant size, which makes it more important to assess them for large(r) conversion plants. Although the methodology does not focus on a specific conversion technology, it should be stressed that the technology must be able to handle a wide variety of biomass fuels with different characteristics because many biomass residues are not available the year round and various fuels are needed for a constant supply. The methodology allows for comparing different technologies (with known investment and operational and maintenance costs from literature) and evaluation for different fuel supply scenarios. In order to demonstrate the methodology, a case study was carried out for the north-eastern part of Thailand (Isaan), an agricultural region. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia (RWEDP), a project of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in Bangkok, Thailand. In Section 2 of this paper the methodology will be presented. In Section 3 the economic

  3. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Yugoslavia in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. The Third Supply Agreement. Amendments

    1975-01-01

    On 29 December 1972 the Agency and the Governments of the United States of America and Yugoslavia amended by letter of agreement Sections l(i), 4 and 5 of the Third Supply Agreement, concluded in connection with the Agency's assistance to Yugoslavia for the continuation of a research reactor project and reproduced in document INFCIRC/32/Add. 3, to provide for the transfer to Yugoslavia of up to a total net amount of 4800 grams of uranium-23 5 contained in uranium enriched up to approximately 70 per cent in the isotope uranium-235, and for payment by Yugoslavia within 20 days from the date of the invoice received from the Agency and by the Agency within 30 days from the date of the invoice received from the United States Atomic Energy Commission

  4. Aerial radiological survey of the Washington. Date of survey: July 1982 Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) Nuclear Project and surrounding area, Richland, Washington

    1983-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 14 to 20 July 1982 over a 270-square-kilometer area centered on the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) Nuclear Project located near Richland, Washington. All gamma ray data were collected by flying parallel lines spaed 152 meters (500 feet) apart at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to total external exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates ranged from 5 to 15 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) with the average background ranging from 9 to 12μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. The exposure rates obtained from ground-based measurements taken in background locations within the survey area displayed positive agreement the aerial data

  5. SMS for Life: a pilot project to improve anti-malarial drug supply management in rural Tanzania using standard technology

    Mwafongo Winfred

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining adequate supplies of anti-malarial medicines at the health facility level in rural sub-Saharan Africa is a major barrier to effective management of the disease. Lack of visibility of anti-malarial stock levels at the health facility level is an important contributor to this problem. Methods A 21-week pilot study, 'SMS for Life', was undertaken during 2009-2010 in three districts of rural Tanzania, involving 129 health facilities. Undertaken through a collaborative partnership of public and private institutions, SMS for Life used mobile telephones, SMS messages and electronic mapping technology to facilitate provision of comprehensive and accurate stock counts from all health facilities to each district management team on a weekly basis. The system covered stocks of the four different dosage packs of artemether-lumefantrine (AL and quinine injectable. Results Stock count data was provided in 95% of cases, on average. A high response rate (≥ 93% was maintained throughout the pilot. The error rate for composition of SMS responses averaged 7.5% throughout the study; almost all errors were corrected and messages re-sent. Data accuracy, based on surveillance visits to health facilities, was 94%. District stock reports were accessed on average once a day. The proportion of health facilities with no stock of one or more anti-malarial medicine (i.e. any of the four dosages of AL or quinine injectable fell from 78% at week 1 to 26% at week 21. In Lindi Rural district, stock-outs were eliminated by week 8 with virtually no stock-outs thereafter. During the study, AL stocks increased by 64% and quinine stock increased 36% across the three districts. Conclusions The SMS for Life pilot provided visibility of anti-malarial stock levels to support more efficient stock management using simple and widely available SMS technology, via a public-private partnership model that worked highly effectively. The SMS for Life system has

  6. SMS for Life: a pilot project to improve anti-malarial drug supply management in rural Tanzania using standard technology

    2010-01-01

    Background Maintaining adequate supplies of anti-malarial medicines at the health facility level in rural sub-Saharan Africa is a major barrier to effective management of the disease. Lack of visibility of anti-malarial stock levels at the health facility level is an important contributor to this problem. Methods A 21-week pilot study, 'SMS for Life', was undertaken during 2009-2010 in three districts of rural Tanzania, involving 129 health facilities. Undertaken through a collaborative partnership of public and private institutions, SMS for Life used mobile telephones, SMS messages and electronic mapping technology to facilitate provision of comprehensive and accurate stock counts from all health facilities to each district management team on a weekly basis. The system covered stocks of the four different dosage packs of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and quinine injectable. Results Stock count data was provided in 95% of cases, on average. A high response rate (≥ 93%) was maintained throughout the pilot. The error rate for composition of SMS responses averaged 7.5% throughout the study; almost all errors were corrected and messages re-sent. Data accuracy, based on surveillance visits to health facilities, was 94%. District stock reports were accessed on average once a day. The proportion of health facilities with no stock of one or more anti-malarial medicine (i.e. any of the four dosages of AL or quinine injectable) fell from 78% at week 1 to 26% at week 21. In Lindi Rural district, stock-outs were eliminated by week 8 with virtually no stock-outs thereafter. During the study, AL stocks increased by 64% and quinine stock increased 36% across the three districts. Conclusions The SMS for Life pilot provided visibility of anti-malarial stock levels to support more efficient stock management using simple and widely available SMS technology, via a public-private partnership model that worked highly effectively. The SMS for Life system has the potential to alleviate

  7. Propane supply picture: North American perspective

    Horner, N.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the North American propane supply and demand situation. Propane has a distribution network in place and a well established market. North America is virtually self-sufficient in propane with a market of over 1,000,000 bbl/d. Approximately 80% of Canada's propane supply is produced at gas plants in western Canada as a byproduct of natural gas production. The expansion in natural gas markets will mean that propane supply will rise further, unlike crude oil. Canada's daily supply of nearly 160,000 bbl is used for heating (30%), transport (12%), petrochemicals (7.8%), and enhanced oil recovery (4.7%), with the remainder being exported. Propane surpluses are expected to grow, between 70,000 and 100,000 bbl/d in the next 5 years. Nearly 30% of North America's demand for propane is in the petrochemical industry, for which various other feedstocks can be substituted. An availability of over 400,000 bbl/d could fuel ca 5 million vehicles. Only natural gas has a comparable infrastructure and this suffers from high utilization pressure and poor energy density. Wholesale propane is now available at under 9 cents/liter, significantly below the projected ethanol price of 18 cents/liter, which excludes grain feedstock or capital cost. 8 refs., 6 figs

  8. E-Energy: The future of energy supply. Model project for an 'Internet of Energy'; E-Energy: Die Zukunft der Energieversorgung. Modellprojekte fuer das 'Internet der Energie'

    Wedler, Michael [Baum Consult GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-13

    Through 2012, the Federal Ministry of Economics will provide funds for six model projects aimed at the development of an ''Internet of Energy'': Power supply is to be reliable, economically efficient, and environment-friendly. The current problems of global climate change, increasing energy demand and depletion of fossil fuels present great challenges which in the long run can be met only by a massive increase in renewables-based energy supply. This is a problem as the current supply structure was not designed for this. (orig.)

  9. Case studies to assess and compare different energy sources in sustainable energy and electricity supply strategies. Final report of a co-ordinated project 1997-2000

    2003-08-01

    The IAEA offers its Member States a comprehensive programme of technical assistance and co-operation, which covers many diverse areas related to peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In the area of comparative assessment, the objective of assistance is to strengthen national capabilities for informed decision making, and for elaborating sustainable choices among alternative options for energy supply and use. In the past, the planning process was designed to meet the future demand for energy at the least engineering cost. However, the pursuit of increasingly sustainable energy options over time has required a broader comparative assessment that addresses economic, social, health and environmental factors. To support this need, in 1992 the IAEA initiated an inter-agency project on databases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation (DECADES). Under the project, nine international organizations, European Commission (EC), the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (OECD/NEA), the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), agreed to pool their efforts to achieve the common objective of enhancing capabilities for comparative assessment of different energy chains in the process of planning and decision making for the electricity sector. DECADES was initially conceived as a set of generic and national databases detailing the environmental impacts, costs and characteristics of various generating and fuel chain technologies which could be used for comparative assessment by investors and policy makers. These databases were linked to software permitting their

  10. NGLs supply

    Richardson, I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  11. A new treatment of transient grain growth

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fratzl, P.; Zickler, G. A.; Fischer, F. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, AUG (2016), s. 442-447 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Grain size distribution * Grain growth * Growth kinetics * Thermodynamic modelling * Numerical solution of integro-differential equations Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamic s Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  12. Grain refinement control in TIG arc welding

    Iceland, W. F.; Whiffen, E. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A method for controlling grain size and weld puddle agitation in a tungsten electrode inert gas welding system to produce fine, even grain size and distribution is disclosed. In the method the frequency of dc welding voltage pulses supplied to the welding electrode is varied over a preselected frequency range and the arc gas voltage is monitored. At some frequency in the preselected range the arc gas voltage will pass through a maximum. By maintaining the operating frequency of the system at this value, maximum weld puddle agitation and fine grain structure are produced.

  13. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  14. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  15. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    Oliver M. Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness. The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  16. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2015-11-12

    Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness). The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  17. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    This report is part of the research project “The competitive challenges and strategic development possibilities for The Blue Denmark”, which was launched in 2014. The project is funded by the Danish Maritime Fund and carried out by researchers at CBS Maritime which is a Business in Society Platform...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...

  18. Washington Public Power Supply System Nuclear Projects 3 and 5 (Docket Nos. STN 50-508 and 50-509): Final environmental statement

    1975-06-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Washington Public Power Supply System for the construction of the Washington Nuclear Projects 3 and 5 (WNP 3 and 5). The 2170-acre site is predominately forest. Construction-related activities on the site would disturb about 300 acres. The portion of this land not to be used for the plant facilities, parking lots, roads, etc., will be restored by seeding and landscaping. The temporary removal of vegetation will tend to promote erosion. Increased siltation and turbidity can be expected in local rivers and streams during construction, but stringent measures will be undertaken to minimize these effects. A maximum of 72.5 cfs of cooling water will be withdrawn from the Chehalis River of which 12.5 cfs will be returned to the river via pipeline with the dissolved solids concentration increased by a factor of about 6. About 60 cfs will be evaporated to the atmosphere by the cooling towers. Minor and temporary impacts to the biota of the river and its south bank will result from construction activities. The volume of thermal discharge (12.5 cfs) is small compared with the river flow (annual mean is about 6600 cfs) and the effect on the river ecosystem is not expected to be significant. Chemical discharges from the plant, including chlorine, will be diluted to concentrations below those which might adversely affect aquatic biota. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure will be very low. 37 figs., 58 tabs

  19. Food Prices and Climate Extremes: A Model of Global Grain Price Variability with Storage

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Frieler, K.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events such as droughts, floods, or heat waves affect agricultural production in major cropping regions and therefore impact the world market prices of staple crops. In the last decade, crop prices exhibited two very prominent price peaks in 2007-2008 and 2010-2011, threatening food security especially for poorer countries that are net importers of grain. There is evidence that these spikes in grain prices were at least partly triggered by actual supply shortages and the expectation of bad harvests. However, the response of the market to supply shocks is nonlinear and depends on complex and interlinked processes such as warehousing, speculation, and trade policies. Quantifying the contributions of such different factors to short-term price variability remains difficult, not least because many existing models ignore the role of storage which becomes important on short timescales. This in turn impedes the assessment of future climate change impacts on food prices. Here, we present a simple model of annual world grain prices that integrates grain stocks into the supply and demand functions. This firstly allows us to model explicitly the effect of storage strategies on world market price, and thus, for the first time, to quantify the potential contribution of trade policies to price variability in a simple global framework. Driven only by reported production and by long--term demand trends of the past ca. 40 years, the model reproduces observed variations in both the global storage volume and price of wheat. We demonstrate how recent price peaks can be reproduced by accounting for documented changes in storage strategies and trade policies, contrasting and complementing previous explanations based on different mechanisms such as speculation. Secondly, we show how the integration of storage allows long-term projections of grain price variability under climate change, based on existing crop yield scenarios.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF GRAIN MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Aleksandr Maslak

    2015-11-01

    possible through the implementation of state and regional programs, implementation of joint projects with partner companies and the purchase of equipment and facilities through leasing programs. As a result of the development of logistics infrastructure of grain market provides employment generation, value-added products that will increase revenues to the state and local budgets. Besides Ukraine reach the strategic goal of producing 80 mln. tons of grain and strengthen positions in the global agricultural market.

  1. 32 CFR 32.35 - Supplies.

    2010-07-01

    ... in total aggregate value upon termination or completion of the project or program and the supplies... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplies. 32.35 Section 32.35 National Defense... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.35 Supplies. (a) Title to supplies shall vest in...

  2. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  3. Strategic Supply

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  4. Strategic Supply

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  5. Ethics and quality assessment of cowpea grains sold in southern ...

    The study examined the supply side of cowpea markets in two states of Nigeria. Specifically, quality status; grades of cowpea grains sold and effect of ethics on sales, quality and price were determined. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select four hundred cowpea grain sellers in the study areas. Questionnaire ...

  6. Distribuição hídrica no período crítico do milho e produção de grãos Water supply in the critical period of maize and the grain production

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do milho pode sofrer reduções na produção de grãos quando há déficit hídrico no período crítico do ciclo da cultura, que ocorre desde o pendoamento até o início de enchimento de grãos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer relações entre o suprimento de água durante o período crítico do milho e a produção de grãos. Experimentos foram conduzidos em Eldorado do Sul, RS (30º5'S; 51º40'W; 40 m altitude, nas safras 1998/1999 e 2002/2003, anos em que ocorreram os fenômenos La Niña e El Niño, respectivamente. Os dados de rendimento de grãos e seus componentes foram obtidos em experimentos de campo, sob diferentes volumes de aplicação de água via irrigação. A produtividade de grãos foi inversa à média geral do Estado, nos dois anos analisados. Em 1998/1999, durante uma estiagem longa, 46,8 mm de chuva no período crítico garantiram rendimento próximo de 8.000 kg ha-1 sem irrigação. Em 2002/2003 uma curta estiagem no período crítico reduziu a produtividade para menos de 2.000 kg ha-1 no mesmo tratamento, afetando o número de espigas por planta e o número de grãos por espiga. Portanto, em anos de El Niño, mesmo que as previsões climáticas apontem para uma distribuição favorável de chuvas, há risco na produção esperada de milho, se o suprimento de água no período crítico da cultura não for adequado.Maize crops may experience reductions of grain yields when submitted to water deficit during the critical period of crop cycle, from tasseling stage to beginning of grain filling. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the importance of the water supply during the critical period on the grain production of maize. Experiments were conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil (30º5'S; 51º40'W; 40 m altitude, during the crop seasons of 1998/1999 and 2002/2003, characterized by La Niña and El Niño phenomenon, respectively. Data of grain yield and its components were obtained in field

  7. Water supply

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  8. Applied energy solutions to grain elevator units; Cogeracao em unidades armazenadoras de graos

    Teixeira, Carlos Alberto [Universidadfe Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UAST/UFRPE), Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia], E-mail: carlos.teixeira@uast.ufrpe.br; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio Flauzino de; Martins, Jose Helvecio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2009-07-01

    Solutions of energy can be adopted, to help the demand side management. The distributed generation and the cogeneration are management at the supply side, that should be adopted in grain elevator units. Aiming to point energy solutions to grain elevator units to become more energetically independent from the utilities and oscillations of the market. This study was done in a grain elevator units from Sao Paulo State. They were considered: (I) the patterns of electric power consumption in this crop periods; (II) different types of cogeneration systems; and (III) connection costs. The main conclusions of this work were: cogeneration is possible and viable in grain elevator units; the price of sale of the surplus energy in the cogeneration system influences, directly, decision to implement a cogeneration system; the electric power generation with the own production of firewood was decisive in the profitability of the cogeneration project; the option of connection of the electric power net favors the implantation of a cogeneration system; and the possibility of rejection steam use for drying grains (author)

  9. Applied thermodynamics: Grain boundary segregation

    Lejček, Pavel; Zheng, L.; Hofmann, S.; Šob, Mojmír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 1462-1484 ISSN 1099-4300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA ČR GAP108/12/0144; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : interfacial segregation * Gibbs energy of segregation * enthalpy * entropy * volume * grain boundaries * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2014

  10. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  11. A new power supply regulated PWM-ZCS supplied in current: analysis, project and experiments; Uma nova fonte chaveada PWM-ZCS alimentada em corrente: analise, projeto e experimentacao

    Barbosa, Peter Mantovanelli

    1993-10-01

    This work introduces a new power supply by PWM, operating at constant frequency, with soft communication. The new topology uses only two active switches and absorbs the transformer leakage inductance. Besides, the soft communication takes place with no conduction loss penalty, in comparison with conventional hard switch PWM converters. Principle of operation, analysis, design and experimentation results taken from laboratory prototype rated at 400 W/48 v, 40 Khz, using IGBT are presented. (author) 10 refs., 71 figs.

  12. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 9A. Subcontract information. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; water supply and civil engineering subcontracts

    1982-06-01

    Volume 9A considers subcontract work done at the site involving hydrogeological studies with respect to water supply and geotechnical work with respect to the building foundations necessary based on boreholes drilled and the lithology of the area. (LTN)

  13. Direct imaging of grain boundaries

    Gronsky, R.

    1979-09-01

    There are currently two types of microscopes which, in principle, are capable of imaging atom positions at grain boundaries. One, the field ion microscope (FIM), yields a projection of the specimen surface (approximately stereographic) by field ionization of an imaging gas at protruding atom sites, and provides topographic information in high-index pole regions which may be interpreted atom-by-atom. The other, a transmission electron microscope (TEM), yields a projection (approximately linear) of the entire specimen thickness by electron optical imaging, and provides atomic resolution detail throughout the illuminated area. In this paper, both methods are described and compared, using examples from practical materials systems

  14. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 17 June 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governments of Colombia and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    1994-12-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 and 2 December 1993, between the Agency and the Governments of Colombia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 17 June 1994, pursuant to Article XII

  15. Oil sands supply outlook

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  16. Electric power supply and demand 1978--1987 for the continuous United States as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1978 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    1978-06-15

    The Regional Reliability Council projections of peak demand, generating capability, and electric energy requirements for the contiguous U.S. have declined for the fourth consecutive year. On the basis of these projections, it appears that the electric utility industry believes the U.S. will experience smaller annual increases in power use than have occurred in the past. The summer peak demand growth rates of the Councils range from 3.52 percent annually, as projected by the Northeast Power Coordinating Council, to the 6.21 percent projected by the Southwest Power Pool. Subregional growth covers a wider range, from the 2.77 percent of the New York Power Pool to the 6.51 percent of the Southern Company area. Total reserve margins at the time of summer peak demands are projected to decline from an estimated 30.16 percent in 1978 to about 23.81 percent in 1987. If projected loads are not exceeded, if projected capability levels are actually attained, if fuel requirements are satisfied, and if no contingencies worse than those normally met with are experienced, electric power supply should be adequate for the next decade. However, it is possible that the projected reserve margins will not be attained, and that adequate primary energy supply (fuel and hydro) will not be available when needed. Completion of generating units and transmission facilities on schedule is made uncertain by difficulties related to financing, environmental pressures, procedural delays and some inadequacies with respect to quality control of manufactured and field-assembled components.

  17. Supply Chain Management In Construction Revealed

    Dr. Ghaith Al-Werikat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction supply chain plays a major role in the construction market competition. Construction supply chain management assists enterprises by helping to improve competitiveness increase profits and have more control over the different factors and variables within the project. This paper discusses the construction supply chain characteristics challenges and problems supply chains encounter and the benefits of an integrated supply chain in the construction sector.

  18. Supply Chain Management In Construction Revealed

    Dr. Ghaith Al-Werikat

    2017-01-01

    The construction supply chain plays a major role in the construction market competition. Construction supply chain management assists enterprises by helping to improve competitiveness increase profits and have more control over the different factors and variables within the project. This paper discusses the construction supply chain characteristics challenges and problems supply chains encounter and the benefits of an integrated supply chain in the construction sector.

  19. Compaction of cereal grain

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  20. Evolution of interstellar grains

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aim of this chapter is to derive the properties of interstellar grains as a probe of local physical conditions and as a basis for predicting such properties as related to infrared emissivity and radiative transfer which can affect the evolution of dense clouds. The first sections will develop the criteria for grain models based directly on observations of gas and dust. A summary of the chemical evolution of grains and gas in diffuse and dense clouds follows. (author)

  1. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  2. Grain boundary migration

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  3. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Pakistan in Establishing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement. An Amendment

    NONE

    1971-10-04

    The text of an Amendment to the Contract for the Transfer of Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor (the Second Supply Agreement) between the Agency and the Governments of Pakistan and the United States of America is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Amendment entered into force on 16 June 1971.

  4. Gas in Europe: supply

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  5. Strategic Supply

    2006-01-01

    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  6. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  7. Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - the case study of the hybrid system - microgrid in Egypt

    Papadakis, G.; Mohamed, E.S.; Kyriakarakos, G. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kassem, A.W.S. [Alexandria Univ., El Chatbi (Egypt). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid renewable energy systems is one of the most promising application of renewable energy technologies in remote areas, where the cost of grid extension is prohibitive and the price of fossil fuels increase drastically with the remoteness of the location. Applications of hybrid systems range from small power supplies for remote households providing electricity for lighting or water pumping and water supply to village electrification for remote communities. The strategic objective of the HYRESS project is to remove the knowledge barriers against the installation of Renewable Energy Systems and creation of micro grids. In order to fulfill this objective, three different modular hybrid systems with the generating technologies connected to the AC side were designet, installed and evaluated in three selected remote sites far away from the grid in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. This paper describes the hybrid system installed in Egypt as a case study and presents first operation results. (orig.)

  8. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research on solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply; 1977 nendo taiyo netsu reidanbo kyuto system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at research and development of utilization of solar energy for air conditioning and hot water supply, as part of the researches on systems under Sunshine Project for utilization of solar energy. This project is focused on the research items, selected from those pursued by the 3-year project beginning in FY1974 as the ones considered to be important for the future diffusion and promotion of the systems for utilization of solar energy. The 3-year project has produced the software and hardware results, based on development of the devices and construction of a solar house. At this stage of time, it is pointed out that studies on economic viability of the system, development of the software for diffusion of the solar systems, and development of new, more suitable systems and methods for utilization of solar energy are important. In this fiscal year, the four themes (studies on economic viability of the conceptual solar system designs, simplified methods for designing the systems, evaluation of system performance, and studies on energy-saving effects and economic viability) are taken up, viewed from development of the software for diffusion and promotion of the systems for utilizing solar energy, based on the results obtained by the previous 3-year project. (NEDO)

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of WPPSS Nuclear Project No. 2, Docket No. 50-397, Washington Public Power Supply System

    1982-12-01

    Supplement 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report for Washington Public Power Supply System's application for a license to operate WNP-2 (Docket No. 50-397), located in Benton County, Washington, approximately 12 miles north of Richland, Washington, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplement 1

  10. Grain size dependence of wear in ceramics

    Wu, C.C.; Rice, R.W.; Johnson, D.; Platt, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Pin-On-Disk (POD), microwear tests of Al 2 O 3 , MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 , and ZrO 2 , most being dense and essentially single phase, showed the reciprocal of wear following a hall-petch type relationship. However, extrapolation to infinite grain size always gave a lower intercept than most or all single-crystal values; in particular, Al 2 O 3 data projects to a negative intercept. Initial macro wear tests of some of the same Al 2 O 3 materials also indicate a hall-petch type grain-size dependence, but with a greatly reduced grain-size dependence, giving a positive hall-petch intercept. Further, the macrowear grain-size dependence appears to decrease with increased wear. It is argued that thermal expansion anisotropy (of Al 2 O 3 ) significantly affects the grain size dependence of POD wear, in particular, giving a negative intercept, while elastic anisotropy is suggested as a factor in the grain-size dependence of the cubic (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 , and ZrO 2 ) materials. The reduced grain-size dependence in the macrowear tests is attributed to overlapping wear tracks reducing the effects of enhanced wear damage, e.g., from elastic and thermal expansion anisotropies

  11. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over a...

  12. Nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock. Proceedings of the second research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project (phase 1)

    1999-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through its Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs), has been assisting national agricultural research systems in Member States to develop and apply nuclear and related techniques for improving livestock productivity. The programmes have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The measurement of microbial protein supply to ruminant livestock has been an important area of research in ruminant nutrition. An estimate of microbial protein contribution to the intestinal protein flow is important for estimating the protein requirement of ruminant animals. Understanding the process of microbial protein synthesis has been difficult however, and due to the lack of simple and accurate methods for measuring microbial protein production in vivo, the methods used are based on complex microbial markers which require surgically prepared animals. As a result of a consultants meeting held in May 1995 to advise the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on the feasibility of using nuclear and related techniques for the development and validation of techniques for measuring microbial protein supply in ruminant animals, an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Development, Standardization and Validation of Nuclear Based Technologies for Measuring Microbial Protein Supply in Ruminant Livestock for Improving Productivity was initiated in 1996, with a view to validating and adapting this technology for use in developing countries. To assist scientists participating in the CRP, a laboratory manual containing experimental protocols and methodologies for standardization and validation of the urine purine derivative technique and the development of models to suit local conditions, was published as IAEA-TECDOC-945. The present publication contains the final reports from participants in Phase 1 of the project

  13. Nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock. Proceedings of the second research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project (phase 1)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through its Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs), has been assisting national agricultural research systems in Member States to develop and apply nuclear and related techniques for improving livestock productivity. The programmes have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The measurement of microbial protein supply to ruminant livestock has been an important area of research in ruminant nutrition. An estimate of microbial protein contribution to the intestinal protein flow is important for estimating the protein requirement of ruminant animals. Understanding the process of microbial protein synthesis has been difficult however, and due to the lack of simple and accurate methods for measuring microbial protein production in vivo, the methods used are based on complex microbial markers which require surgically prepared animals. As a result of a consultants meeting held in May 1995 to advise the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on the feasibility of using nuclear and related techniques for the development and validation of techniques for measuring microbial protein supply in ruminant animals, an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Development, Standardization and Validation of Nuclear Based Technologies for Measuring Microbial Protein Supply in Ruminant Livestock for Improving Productivity was initiated in 1996, with a view to validating and adapting this technology for use in developing countries. To assist scientists participating in the CRP, a laboratory manual containing experimental protocols and methodologies for standardization and validation of the urine purine derivative technique and the development of models to suit local conditions, was published as IAEA-TECDOC-945. The present publication contains the final reports from participants in Phase 1 of the project

  14. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  15. The project for the study of Wurno irrigation scheme area in the Rima hydrological basin, Sokoto State, Nigeria for Fadama irrigation and water supply, using isotope techniques

    Maduabuchi, C.

    2000-07-01

    This publication summarizes the result of the project on the use of isotope techniques for the study of recharge and discharge of the Sokoto-Rima hydrological basin in the semi-arid and northwestern part of Nigeria

  16. Supply chain integration in the building industry : The emergence of integrated and repetitive strategies in a fragmented and project-driven industry

    Vrijhoef, R.

    2011-01-01

    The building industry is a fragmented and project-driven industry with specific characteristics, which can sometimes result in negative effects. Reference has often been made to other industries, particularly manufacturing, that would function more effectively and efficiently. Major differences

  17. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  18. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  19. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  20. The Influence of Abrasion on Martian Dust Grains: Evidence from a Study of Antigorite Grains

    Bishop, Janice L.; Drief, Ahmed; Dyar, M. Darby

    2003-01-01

    Grinding was shown to greatly affect the structure and a number of properties of antigorite grains in a study by Drief and Nieto. Grinding is likely to influence the structure of most clay mineral grains and has been shown recently to influence the structure of kaolinite. The antigorite structure includes curved waves of layered silicate as shown by D dony et al.. Our study was performed in order to characterize in detail changes in the mineral grains resulting from grinding and to assess the influence of physical processes on clay minerals on the surface of Mars. This project includes a combination of SEM, reflectance spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  1. Whole Grains and Fiber

    ... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... grains. When grocery shopping, an easy way to identify healthy food choices is to look for the ...

  2. 6 Grain Yield

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  3. Culture impact in construction supply chain management

    Tzortzatou, E. P.

    2008-01-01

    Awareness of cultural differences in construction supply chains is of fundamental importance because only through a thorough understanding of the manifestations of culture can fragmented supply chains be appropriately integrated into cohesive and collaborating teams which enhance project performance Hence the concept of cultural alignment with the project supply chain is introduced in order for long-term collaborative relationships based on trust, co ordination and mutual benefit to be establ...

  4. GRAINE balloon experiment in 2015

    Rokujo Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of cosmic gamma rays are important for studying high energy phenomena in the universe. Since 2008, the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi satellite has surveyed the whole gamma-ray sky in the sub-GeV/GeV energy region, and accumurated a large amount of data. However, observations at the low galactic latitude remains difficult because of a lack of angular resolution, increase of background flux originating from galactic diffuse gamma rays, etc. The Gamma-Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion (GRAINE is a gamma-ray observation project with a new balloon-borne emulsion gamma-ray telescope. Nuclear emulsion is a high-resolution 3D tracking device. It determines the incident angle with 0.1∘ resolution for 1 GeV gamma rays (1.0∘ for 100 MeV, and has linear polarization sensitivity. GRAINE aims at precise observation of gamma-ray sources, especially in the galactic plane, by repeating long-duration balloon flights with large-aperture-area (10 m2 high-resolution emulsion telescopes. In May 2015, we performed a balloon-borne experiment in Alice Springs, Australia, in order to demonstrate the imaging performance of our telescope. The emulsion telescope that has an aperture area of 0.4 m2 was employed in this experiment. It observed the Vela pulsar (the brightest gamma-ray source in the GeV sky at an altitude of 37 km for 6 hours out of the flight duration of 14 hours. In this presentation, we will report the latest results and the status of the GRAINE project.

  5. Slim 198gold-grain implanter loaded with standard royal marsden 14-grain magazines

    Delclos, L.; Moore, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    We designed a slim gold-grain implanter with adaptable lengths to implant areas accessible only through long, narrow, examining instruments, such as a suspension laryngoscope. The implanter is loaded with the same 14-grain magazine designed for and supplied with the Royal Marsden gun. The simplicity of the loading mechanism with a minimum of moving parts makes the instrument practically trouble free. Although it is designed to be used along narrow examining instruments, it can also be used in any situation in which a permanent implant is required, for instance, prostatic cancer and pelvic recurrences in cancer of the uterine cervix previously treated by external and intracavitary irradiation

  6. Supply strategy for SMR deployment

    Coccagna, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides a description of Babcock and Wilcox's deployment strategy for the mPower™ Small Modular Reactor from the perspective of Supply Chain and Manufacturing. A desirable future state of readiness is described as one which leverages and revitalizes an existing supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure, as well as leveraging an existing workforce of engineering, construction, and project management employees. B and W's mPower™ SMR value proposition offers many desired design and operating advantages to the SMR market. (author)

  7. Fatigue mechanisms in ultrafine-grained copper

    Lukáš, Petr; Kunz, Ludvík; Svoboda, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-9 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ultrafine-grained copper * effect of purity * effect of temperature Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2007

  8. Grain boundary effects in nanocrystalline diamond

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef; Nesládek, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 9 (2008), 2163-2168 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond film * grain boundary * superconductivity * noise * ballistic transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2008

  9. Magnetically modified spent grain for dye removal

    Šafařík, Ivo; Horská, Kateřina; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2011), s. 78-80 ISSN 0733-5210 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09052; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Spent grain * Magnetic fluid * Adsorption * Dyes Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.073, year: 2011

  10. Cereal grains for nutrition and health benefits

    Björck, Inger; Östman, Elin; Kristensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole grain intake to the prevention of the metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated chronic diseases such as CVD and T2D. The Nutrition module within the HEALTHGRAIN project, included 10 partners and undertook in vitro, animal and human in vivo studies...

  11. Projecting phase terminated, implementation coming soon. Environment-friendly heat supply at Ruhpolding sports center; Projekt ausgereift - Betreiber gesucht.. Oekologische Waermeversorgung des Ruhpoldinger Sport- und Freizeitzentrums

    Anon.

    2000-02-01

    When the public indoor swimming pool at Ruhpolding was modernized, the community took the chance to convert the whole sports and recreation center (indoor and outdoor swimming pools, skating rink and multi-purpose hall) as well as the school buildings to district heat supply from a biomass-fuelled heating power station. Apart from the financial savings, this solution also reduces exhaust emissions and makes this recreation area mor attractive. [German] Mit der Sanierung und Erweiterung des Wellenhallenbades bietet sich der Gemeinde Ruhpolding die Gelegenheit, die Waermeversorgung des Sport- und Freizeitzentrums (Wellenhallenbad, Freibad, Eissporthalle und Mehrzweckhalle) und der Schulgebaeude von der Einzelversorgung mit Oelkesseln auf die Nahwaermeversorgung mittels Biomasse-Heizwerk umzustellen. Das bringt der Gemeinde nicht nur finanzielle Vorteile, sondern entlastet das Kurgebiet erheblich von schaedlichen Abgasen und erhoeht damit die Attraktivitaet des Erholungsortes. (orig.)

  12. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    A major constraint to animal production in developing countries is poor nutrition due to inadequate or fluctuating nutrient supply. This results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Microbial cells formed as a result of rumen degradation of carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions are a major source of protein for ruminants. They provide the majority of the amino acids that the host animal requires for tissue maintenance, growth and production. In roughage-fed ruminants, micro-organisms are virtually the only source of protein. Therefore, a knowledge of the microbial contribution to the nutrition of the host animal is essential to developing feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant production. While this factor has been recognized for many years, it has been extremely difficult to determine the microbial protein contribution to ruminant nutrition. The methods generally used for determining microbial protein production depend on the use of natural microbial markers such as RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DAPA (diamino-pimelic acid) or of isotopes 35 S, 15 N or 32 P. However, these methods involve surgical intervention such as post-rumen cannulation and complex procedures that require accurate and quantitative information on both digesta and microbial marker flow. A calorimetric technique using enzymatic procedures was developed for measuring purine derivatives (PD) in urine under a Technical Contract. With knowledge of the amount of PD excreted in the urine, the microbial protein supply to the host animal can be estimated. The principle of the method is that nucleic acids leaving the rumen are essentially of microbial origin. The nucleic acids are extensively digested in the small intestine and the resulting purines are absorbed

  13. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  14. Quality and clinical supply considerations of Paediatric Investigation Plans for IV preparations-A case study with the FP7 CloSed project.

    Hanning, Sara M; Orlu Gul, Mine; Winslade, Jackie; Baarslag, Manuel A; Neubert, Antje; Tuleu, Catherine

    2016-09-25

    A Paediatric Investigation Plan (PIP) is a development plan that aims to ensure that sufficient data are obtained through studies in paediatrics to support the generation of marketing authorisation of medicines for children. This paper highlights some practical considerations and challenges with respect to PIP submissions and paediatric clinical trials during the pharmaceutical development phase, using the FP7-funded Clonidine for Sedation of Paediatric Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (CloSed) project as a case study. Examples discussed include challenges and considerations regarding formulation development, blinding and randomisation, product labelling and shipment and clinical trial requirements versus requirements for marketing authorisation. A significant quantity of information is required for PIP submissions and it is hoped that future applicants may benefit from an insight into some critical considerations and challenges faced in the CloSed project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Grain boundary structure and properties

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  16. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  17. Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

  18. Power supply controlled for plasma torch generation

    Diaz Z, S.

    1996-01-01

    The high density of energy furnished by thermal plasma is profited in a wide range of applications, such as those related with welding fusion, spray coating and at the present in waste destruction. The waste destruction by plasma is a very attractive process because the remaining products are formed by inert glassy grains and non-toxic gases. The main characteristics of thermal plasmas are presented in this work. Techniques based on power electronics are utilized to achieve a good performance in thermal plasma generation. This work shown the design and construction of three phase control system for electric supply of thermal plasma torch, with 250 kw of capacity, as a part of the project named 'Destruction of hazard wastes by thermal plasma' actually working in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The characteristics of thermal plasma and its generation are treated in the first chapter. The A C controllers by thyristors applied in three phase arrays are described in the chapter II, talking into account the power transformer, rectifiers bank and aliasing coil. The chapter III is dedicated in the design of the trigger module which controls the plasma current by varying the trigger angle of the SCR's; the protection and isolating unit are also presented in this chapter. The results and conclusions are discussed in chapter IV. (Author)

  19. From Adopt-a-Project to Permanent Services: The Evolution of Water For People’s Approach to Rural Water Supply in Bolivia

    Kate Fogelberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dominant paradigm in rural water provision in Bolivia has focused on the provision of infrastructure, whether by government agencies or international cooperation groups. However, the investment in infrastructure has led neither to universal access for all Bolivians nor to consistently high levels of services for those who do have access to a water system. This paper will describe the transition of one international non-profit organisation, Water For People, from supporting dispersed water projects throughout the country towards targeted support of water services at the municipal level, aiming to support permanent universal services. The institutional evolution – including changes in governance, implementation strategy, donor base, and indicators of success – that allowed field programmes to shift from projects to services provides the context for the change of approach in Bolivia. A discussion of the various aspects that have changed in the organisation’s operations in seven municipalities in Bolivia, from the scale of intervention, to municipal-wide planning information and tools, to support to service providers and service authorities, and an increased focus on post-construction monitoring, demonstrates how the Everyone, Forever approach is resulting in a more service- delivery-oriented approach in Bolivia.

  20. [Surveillance of drinking water supply with a geographic information system: a pilot project of the of the Iogd NRM and the Hoxter district].

    Hellmeier, W; Queste, A; Woltering, R

    2001-03-01

    Drinking water surveillance includes the use of spatial data. A geographic information system (GIS) is a practicable tool for work with spatial data in the health sector as well. Co-operation between the Institute of Public Health for North Rhine Westphalia, the local health authority of the Hoexter district and the Institute for Geoinformatics of the University of Muenster started a project testing the use of GIS for drinking water surveillance. A special application was programmed. It includes functions of retrieval and classification of the measured values of drinking water wells, in order to show time trends in a diagram and to visualise the location of the wells and the analysis data in a map. The members of the Public Health Office accepted the method and started using it regularly. In addition, the collaboration between the health authority and other local authorities was strengthened. Several data sets were included in the GIS, such as wells and results of water analysis, water protection areas, land use data, and topographical maps. Basing on to the experiences with this project, the development of a standard application is planned that is supposed to be communicated to all local health authorities in North Rhine Westphalia.

  1. U.S. uranium supply outlook

    Hogerton, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is analysed in the light of figures and forecasts contained in the following diagrams: forecasts of U.S. uranium production, 1977 to 1990; indicated relationship between annual U.S. uranium supply and demand, 1977 to 1986; presently indicated cumulative U.S. uranium supply/demand balance, 1977 to 1990; indicated cumulative U.S. supply/demand balance (shortage or surpluses) 1976 to 1990; presently indicated balance between outstanding U.S. utility procurement needs and uncommitted domestic supply capability 1977 to 1986; projected U.S. uranium requirements in relation to existing supply base and presently indicated additional domestic resource potential, 1977 to 2000. (U.K.)

  2. OBSERVATIONS OF ENHANCED RADIATIVE GRAIN ALIGNMENT NEAR HD 97300

    Andersson, B-G; Potter, S. B.

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained optical multi-band polarimetry toward sightlines through the Chamaeleon I cloud, particularly in the vicinity of the young B9/A0 star HD 97300. We show, in agreement with earlier studies, that the radiation field impinging on the cloud in the projected vicinity of the star is dominated by the flux from the star, as evidenced by a local enhancement in the grain heating. By comparing the differential grain heating with the differential change in the location of the peak of the polarization curve, we show that the grain alignment is enhanced by the increase in the radiation field. We also find a weak, but measurable, variation in the grain alignment with the relative angle between the radiation field anisotropy and the magnetic field direction. Such an anisotropy in the grain alignment is consistent with a unique prediction of modern radiative alignment torque theory and provides direct support for radiatively driven grain alignment.

  3. Supply chain finance

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  4. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  5. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Laboratory; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Laboratory; Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Laboratory; Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Laboratory; Roni, MD S [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  6. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Hansen, Jason K.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.

    2015-07-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  7. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  8. 29 CFR 95.35 - Supplies and other expendable property.

    2010-07-01

    ... supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate value upon termination or completion of the project or program... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplies and other expendable property. 95.35 Section 95.35... Requirements Property Standards § 95.35 Supplies and other expendable property. (a) Title to supplies and other...

  9. 34 CFR 74.35 - Supplies and other expendable property.

    2010-07-01

    ... supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate value upon termination or completion of the project or program... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplies and other expendable property. 74.35 Section... Requirements Property Standards § 74.35 Supplies and other expendable property. (a) Title to supplies and other...

  10. 2 CFR 215.35 - Supplies and other expendable property.

    2010-01-01

    ... supplies exceeding $5000 in total aggregate value upon termination or completion of the project or program... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplies and other expendable property. 215... Property Standards § 215.35 Supplies and other expendable property. (a) Title to supplies and other...

  11. Why do interstellar grains exist

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  12. Lime stabilization of fine-grained sediments in western Greenland

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Skels, Peteris

    2011-01-01

    Thick deposits of fine-grained marine sediments exist in large areas of western Greenland. Many places these sediments are located above sea-level, and now complicate construction projects in urban areas. The mineralogy of the fine-grained sediments is very different from European sediments, mainly...... due to the cold climate, and it is therefore of great interest to study possible methods to improve the stability and strength properties. This project includes laboratory studies of lime stabilization on fine-grained marine sediments from Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland. The results have included...

  13. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  14. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  15. Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains

    Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

    2012-01-01

    The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

  16. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 20 September 1990 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Zaire and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    1991-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 15 June 1990, and concluded on 20 September 1990, among the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Zaire and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor in Zaire. The supplied material will be an instrumented fuel element containing uranium enriched to 19.98 percent in the isotope uranium-235. 1 tab

  17. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    Underhill, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is expected to be an important part of the world-wide energy mix at least through the next 50 years and by most projections well beyond. That is, of course, provided an adequate supply of uranium is available to sustain the nominal growth rate for nuclear power of 1 to 3% per year that is projected by many analysts. The importance that a reliable supply will have on the future of nuclear power led the IAEA to undertake a study of uranium supply-demand relationships through 2050. The ultimate goal of the study is to evaluate the adequacy of supply to meet demand, and to characterize the level of confidence that can be placed in the projected supply. This report describes key conclusions of the study. A detailed report describing the results of the study is available as an IAEA Special Publication

  18. Water rights of the head reach farmers in view of a water supply scenario at the extension area of the Babai Irrigation Project, Nepal

    Adhikari, B.; Verhoeven, R.; Troch, P.

    The farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS) represent those systems which are constructed and operated solely by the farmers applying their indigenous technology. The FMIS generally outperform the modern irrigation systems constructed and operated by the government agencies with regard to the water delivery effectiveness, agricultural productivity etc., and the presence of a sound organization responsible to run the FMIS, often referred to as the ‘social capital’, is the key to this success. This paper studies another important aspect residing in the FMIS: potentials to expand the irrigation area by means of their proper rehabilitation and modernization. Taking the case study of the Babai Irrigation Project in Nepal, it is demonstrated that the flow, which in the past was used to irrigate the 5400 ha area covered by three FMIS, can provide irrigation to an additional 8100 ha in the summer, 4180 ha vegetables in the winter and 1100 ha maize in the spring season after the FMIS rehabilitation. The “priority water rights” of the FMIS part have been evaluated based on relevant crop water requirement calculations and is found to be equal to 85.4 million m 3 per year. Consequently, the dry season irrigation strategy at the extension area could be worked out based on the remaining flow. By storing the surplus discharge of the monsoon and autumn in local ponds, and by consuming them in dry period combined with nominal partial irrigation practice, wheat and mustard can be cultivated over about 4000 ha of the extension area. Furthermore, storage and surface irrigation both contribute to the groundwater recharge. The conjunctive use of ground, surface and harvested water might be the mainstream in the future for a sustainable irrigation water management in the region.

  19. Integrated Modeling of Crop Growth and Water Resource Management to Project Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Irrigation Water Supply and Demand in African Nations

    Dale, A. L.; Boehlert, B.; Reisenauer, M.; Strzepek, K. M.; Solomon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change poses substantial risks to African agriculture. These risks are exacerbated by concurrent risks to water resources, with water demand for irrigation comprising 80 to 90% of water withdrawals across the continent. Process-based crop growth models are able to estimate both crop demand for irrigation water and crop yields, and are therefore well-suited to analyses of climate change impacts at the food-water nexus. Unfortunately, impact assessments based on these models generally focus on either yields or water demand, rarely both. For this work, we coupled a crop model to a water resource management model in order to predict national trends in the impact of climate change on crop production, irrigation water demand, and the availability of water for irrigation across Africa. The crop model FAO AquaCrop-OS was run at 2ox2o resolution for 17 different climate futures from the CMIP5 archive, nine for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and eight for RCP8.5. Percent changes in annual rainfed and irrigated crop production and temporal shifts in monthly irrigation water demand were estimated for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2090 for maize, sorghum, rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, fruits & vegetables, roots & tubers, and legumes & soybeans. AquaCrop was then coupled to a water management model (WEAP) in order to project changes in the ability of seven major river basins (the Congo, Niger, Nile, Senegal, Upper Orange, Volta, and Zambezi) to meet irrigation water demand out to 2050 in both average and dry years in the face of both climate change and irrigation expansion. Spatial and temporal trends were identified and interpreted through the lens of potential risk management strategies. Uncertainty in model estimates is reported and discussed.

  20. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  1. Grain Boundary Complexions

    2014-05-01

    Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

  2. Predictive coarse-graining

    Schöberl, Markus, E-mail: m.schoeberl@tum.de [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zabaras, Nicholas [Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstraße 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 365 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo – Expectation–Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  3. Japan prime s LNG utilization expansion and supply power analysis. ; Structuring mutual reliance relationship with project partners is urged. Nippon no LNG riyo kakudai to kyokyuryoku bunseki. ; Projectter dot partner kan no shinrai kankei no kochiku wo

    Sato, M [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-01

    The Brunei Project is a joint venture among the Brunei Government, Shell and Mitsubishi Shoji, but when its supply began in 1972, the share ownership has consisted of Mitsubishi Shoji and Shell at 45% respectively and the Brunei Government at 10%. The mutual reliance relationship among the project partners has been built gradually in such ways as Shell has built an agricultural vocational school inviting professors specialized in agriculture from England. Mitsubishi has created a large-scale cattle breeding business and produced beef cattles under the severe tropical environment, with an unfortunate result that the production cost did not balance with the market price. Recently, three Japanese agricultural engineers have succeeded at last producing tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuces through endeavors of vegetable production by means of hydroponic processes. The Brunei Goverment is also planning to cultivate fish and shells. Meanwhile the voices from the working site stress strongly that the operation has been continued with the safety-first concept at all times.

  4. Grain preservation in SSSR

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  5. Low carbon logistics through supply chain design and coordination.

    2010-02-01

    "In this project, we propose to address carbon emissions in logistics through supply chain design, planning and : coordination. We argue that (1) supply chain design, planning, and coordination can help reduce carbon emissions : significantly, (2) su...

  6. Origins of amorphous interstellar grains

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of amorphous interstellar grains has been suggested from infrared observations. Some carbon stars show the far infrared emission with a lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Far infrared emission supposed to be due to silicate grains often show the lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Mid infrared spectra around 10 μm have broad structure. These may be due to the amorphous silicate grains. The condition that the condensed grains from the cosmic gas are amorphous is discussed. (author)

  7. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  8. A concept for collaborative supply chain planning

    Alfnes, E.; Dreyer, H.C.; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge for many manufacturers is the increased complexity of the supply chain, and as supply chains get more complicated enterprises require better tools for supply chain planning and execution. Many vendors offer systems to plan and control in-house operations, whereas mainly large...... vendors such as Oracle, SAP and I2 offer supply chain planning systems. This limits the ability for SMEs to exploit the supply chain planning options. This paper is part of a research project carried out to develop a new supply chain add-on for Microsoft AX, a very common system for SMEs. The paper...... discusses current supply chain planning solutions and presents a more simple and adaptive concept to be used in both SMEs and larger enterprises....

  9. Getting added value from the supply contract

    Heslop, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The linking of energy saving measures with the competitive supply of energy is examined, and the impact of digital metering on the electricity market, the roles of energy surveys and monitoring and targeting, and the unwillingness to invest in energy efficiency are discussed. Combined heat and power projects, and energy supply contracts are considered. (uk)

  10. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  11. Quality in Construction- A Supply Chain Perspective

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz

    2006-01-01

    be demonstrated by studying the emergence of failures occurring in the supply chain. The paper conceptualises the construction supply as a delivery network being partially stable, partially project specific and configured. It moreover develops a frame of understanding of the handling of quality issues...... in the delivery network, using operation management approaches. The paper presents case study work done in Danish construction. The method was observation of work at the construction site followed by interviews with actors backwards upstream the supply chain to the origin of the failure. The building project...... into the material stream. The paper proposes initiatives to strengthen partnerships in supply chains, especially at mixed stable and project configured types. The contradiction between permanent enterprise organisations potentially capable of handling purchasing and the role of the project manager is discussed...

  12. Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis

    Cotrell, Jason R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis presentation from the WPTO FY14-FY16 Peer Review. The project objective is to provide data and insights to inform investment strategies, policy, and other decisions to promote economic growth and manufacturing.

  13. Subsidy project in fiscal 1999 to accelerate forming an environment harmonizing energy community. Report on the survey on energy supply investigation project by using a wastes electric power generation system in wide city and village area in the Joso area; Joso chiho koiki shichosonken ni okeru haikibutsu hatsuden ni yoru energy kyokyu chosa jigyo hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Discussions were given on the feasibility of a project to be performed jointly by the Business Bureau of the Ibaraki Prefectural Government who takes charge of the wastes electric power generation project, and the Joso Area Wide City and Village Area Affair Association who performs refuse disposal project. The basic plan for the system may be summarized as follows: the gasification melting furnace shall have a capacity of 420 tons per day, discharge concentrations of dioxins shall be 0.01 ng-TEQ/m{sup 3} or less, the power generation system shall be the steam high-temperature high-pressure system, the power generation efficiency shall be 25%, and the electric power generation takes priority, with the steam after power generation use utilized for heat supply. The evaluation on the effect of introducing the project can be summarized as follows: in the social aspect, the execution of the joint project is safe and effective for the residents and society; it contributes to activation of the areas and assistance to the regional activities; correspondence will be possible to the tighter enforcement of the laws and regulations in the future; in the environmental aspect, discharge of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and dioxins can be suppressed; and in the economic aspect, the ultimate disposal quantity in refuse treatment will be reduced greatly, serving for saving the treatment expense, and the refuse treatment cost may be reduced by assuring the earning from selling the electric power. (NEDO)

  14. The relevance of grain dissection for grain size reduction in polar ice: insights from numerical models and ice core microstructure analysis

    Steinbach, Florian; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan N.; Eichler, Jan; Bons, Paul D.; Drury, Martyn R.; Griera, Albert; Pennock, Gill M.; Weikusat, Ilka

    2017-09-01

    The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modelling and analysed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser). Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighbouring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modelling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be used to

  15. The Relevance of Grain Dissection for Grain Size Reduction in Polar Ice: Insights from Numerical Models and Ice Core Microstructure Analysis

    Florian Steinbach

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modeling and analyzed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser. Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighboring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modeling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be

  16. Quantum theory of multiscale coarse-graining.

    Han, Yining; Jin, Jaehyeok; Wagner, Jacob W; Voth, Gregory A

    2018-03-14

    Coarse-grained (CG) models serve as a powerful tool to simulate molecular systems at much longer temporal and spatial scales. Previously, CG models and methods have been built upon classical statistical mechanics. The present paper develops a theory and numerical methodology for coarse-graining in quantum statistical mechanics, by generalizing the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method to quantum Boltzmann statistics. A rigorous derivation of the sufficient thermodynamic consistency condition is first presented via imaginary time Feynman path integrals. It identifies the optimal choice of CG action functional and effective quantum CG (qCG) force field to generate a quantum MS-CG (qMS-CG) description of the equilibrium system that is consistent with the quantum fine-grained model projected onto the CG variables. A variational principle then provides a class of algorithms for optimally approximating the qMS-CG force fields. Specifically, a variational method based on force matching, which was also adopted in the classical MS-CG theory, is generalized to quantum Boltzmann statistics. The qMS-CG numerical algorithms and practical issues in implementing this variational minimization procedure are also discussed. Then, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the method. Finally, as an alternative strategy, a quasi-classical approximation for the thermal density matrix expressed in the CG variables is derived. This approach provides an interesting physical picture for coarse-graining in quantum Boltzmann statistical mechanics in which the consistency with the quantum particle delocalization is obviously manifest, and it opens up an avenue for using path integral centroid-based effective classical force fields in a coarse-graining methodology.

  17. Quantum theory of multiscale coarse-graining

    Han, Yining; Jin, Jaehyeok; Wagner, Jacob W.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2018-03-01

    Coarse-grained (CG) models serve as a powerful tool to simulate molecular systems at much longer temporal and spatial scales. Previously, CG models and methods have been built upon classical statistical mechanics. The present paper develops a theory and numerical methodology for coarse-graining in quantum statistical mechanics, by generalizing the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method to quantum Boltzmann statistics. A rigorous derivation of the sufficient thermodynamic consistency condition is first presented via imaginary time Feynman path integrals. It identifies the optimal choice of CG action functional and effective quantum CG (qCG) force field to generate a quantum MS-CG (qMS-CG) description of the equilibrium system that is consistent with the quantum fine-grained model projected onto the CG variables. A variational principle then provides a class of algorithms for optimally approximating the qMS-CG force fields. Specifically, a variational method based on force matching, which was also adopted in the classical MS-CG theory, is generalized to quantum Boltzmann statistics. The qMS-CG numerical algorithms and practical issues in implementing this variational minimization procedure are also discussed. Then, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the method. Finally, as an alternative strategy, a quasi-classical approximation for the thermal density matrix expressed in the CG variables is derived. This approach provides an interesting physical picture for coarse-graining in quantum Boltzmann statistical mechanics in which the consistency with the quantum particle delocalization is obviously manifest, and it opens up an avenue for using path integral centroid-based effective classical force fields in a coarse-graining methodology.

  18. Grain Interactions in Crystal Plasticity

    Boyle, K.P.; Curtin, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The plastic response of a sheet metal is governed by the collective response of the underlying grains. Intragranular plasticity depends on intrinsic variables such as crystallographic orientation and on extrinsic variables such as grain interactions; however, the role of the latter is not well understood. A finite element crystal plasticity formulation is used to investigate the importance of grain interactions on intragranular plastic deformation in initially untextured polycrystalline aggregates. A statistical analysis reveals that grain interactions are of equal (or more) importance for determining the average intragranular deviations from the applied strain as compared to the orientation of the grain itself. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding grains is found to extend past nearest neighbor interactions. It is concluded that the stochastic nature of the mesoscale environment must be considered for a proper understanding of the plastic response of sheet metals at the grain-scale

  19. Proteomics analysis of maize (Zea mays L.) grain based on iTRAQ reveals molecular mechanisms of poor grain filling in inferior grains.

    Yu, Tao; Li, Geng; Liu, Peng; Dong, Shuting; Zhang, Jiwang; Zhao, Bin

    2017-06-01

    In maize, inferior grains (IG) located on the upper part of the ear have poor grain filling process compared to superior grains (SG) located on the middle and lower parts of the ear. This difference limits satisfactory yield and quality; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, using the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology, the proteomes of IG and SG during early and middle grain filling stages were investigated. In total, 4720 proteins were identified in maize grain and 305 differentially accumulated proteins (DiAPs) were detected between IG and SG. These DiAPs were involved in diverse cellular and metabolic processes with preferred distribution in protein synthesis/destination and metabolism. Compared to SG, DiAPs related to cell growth/division and starch synthesis were lag-accumulated and down-regulated in IG, respectively, resulting in smaller sink sizes and lower sink activities in IG. Meanwhile, impediment of the glycolysis pathway in IG may lead to reduce energy supply and building materials for substance synthesis. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and the defense system were disturbed in IG, which might lead to reduce protection against various environmental stresses. The present study provides new information on the proteomic differences between IG and SG, and explains possible molecular mechanisms for poor grain filling in IG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. LPG world supply and demand

    Holmes, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of this decade, the global LPG market has moved from being tight, where supply barely exceeded non-price sensitive demand, to the current market situation where supply growth has outstripped demand growth to such an extent that current fundamentals suggest that considerable length will prevail in the market over the near term. As is the case for many other energy commodity markets, the LPG industry has experienced a considerable transformation over the last five years with many new LPG supply projects coming on-stream and demand growth in many developing markets slowing in response to higher energy prices. The near term challenge for LPG producers will be securing outlets for output as the market becomes increasingly oversupplied. With expanding LPG supply and a worldwide tightness in the naphtha market, it is expected that petrochemical consumers will favor relatively low priced LPG over naphtha and the resulting increase in LPG cracking rates will go some way to reducing the expected supply surplus. However, the timing of several new LPG supply projects and the start-up of LPG-based petrochemical plants in the Middle-East are expected to impact global LPG trade and pricing over the next few years. Thus, at this point in time, the global LPG market has a high degree of uncertainty with questions remaining over the impact of high energy (and LPG) prices on traditional and developing market demand, the timing of new supply projects and the combined effect of these two factors on international LPG prices. World LPG production has been rising in nearly every region of the world over the last few years and totaled about 229 million tons in 2007, which is some 30 million tons per year higher than in 2000. The exception is North America which accounts for the largest share of global LPG supply at about 24% but production there has remained relatively flat in recent years. Strong LPG production growth in the Middle-East which contributed to about 19% of

  1. Nuclear power: energy security and supply assurances

    Rogner, H.H.; McDonald, A.

    2008-01-01

    Expectations are high for nuclear power. This paper first summarizes recent global and regional projections for the medium-term, including the 2007 updates of IAEA projections plus International Energy Agency and World Energy Technology Outlook projections to 2030 and 2050. One driving force for nuclear power is concern about energy supply security. Two potential obstacles are concerns about increased nuclear weapon proliferation risks, and concerns by some countries about potential politically motivated nuclear fuel supply interruptions. Concerning supply security, the paper reviews different definitions, strategies and costs. Supply security is not free; nor does nuclear power categorically increase energy supply security in all situations. Concerning proliferation and nuclear fuel cut-off risks, the IAEA and others are exploring possible 'assurance of supply' mechanisms with 2 motivations. First, the possibility of a political fuel supply interruption is a non-market disincentive discouraging investment in nuclear power. Fuel supply assurance mechanisms could reduce this disincentive. Second, the risk of interruption creates an incentive for a country to insure against that risk by developing a national enrichment capability. Assurance mechanisms could reduce this incentive, thereby reducing the possible spread of new national enrichment capabilities and any associated weapon proliferation risks. (orig.)

  2. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come.

  3. Selecting rice mutants with good agronomic performance under conditions of low water supplies

    González Cepero, María C.; Martínez Romero, Anirebis

    2016-01-01

    The present work is part of the researches that are carried out in the Regional Project of the International Organization of Atomic Energy (IAEA) Mutation Breeding of Alimentary Cultivations in Latin America where Cuba participates. The aim of this project is to obtain new rice varieties tolerant to drought using nuclear techniques, for that which is necessary to determine indicators for early selection of tolerant genotypes and to identify somaclones and/or mutants of good behavior under low water supply. For this study were used, 13 mutants obtained in the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (INCA) as well as the rice varieties Amistad-82 and J-104. The response to the hydric stress under field conditions was determined, using irrigation during the first 45 days, interrupting later for the plant cycle, were determined: I) the height of the plant, II) weigh of 1000 grains, III) length of panicle, IV) number of full grains, V) vain grains, VI) number of panicle for lineal meter and VII) yield for square meter. Likewise in vitro the answers to the drought with a concentration of 5 g L-1 of PEG-6000 to simulate the hydric stress and the Relative Tolerance Index of root and of height were evaluated. Some indicators for early selection of tolerant genotypes starting from the existent correlation among the characters evaluated in the field in vivo and in vitro were also determined. The INCA genotypes LP-10 and 8552 showed a better behavior under conditions of low supplies of water and INCA LP 16 genotypes and mutant 8553 were the most susceptible because they could not panicular under the same conditions. (author)

  4. Transformation of slip dislocation in ä3 grain boundary

    Gemperlová, Juliana; Jacques, A.; Gemperle, Antonín; Zárubová, Niva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2002), s. 51-57 ISSN 0927-7056 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/98/1281; GA ČR GA202/01/0670 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : in situ TEM * slip dislocations * grain boundary * grain boundary dislocations * plasticity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.767, year: 2002

  5. Optics Supply Planning System

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  6. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  7. Grain dust and the lungs.

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  8. KDHE Project Code: C6-074-00002: Progress and Monitoring Report for the LDB/SVE/AS System at the Former CCC/USDA Grain Storage Facility, Agra, Kansas, in July-December 2015

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Agra, Kansas, from the 1950s to the early 1970s. No structures remain on the property, and the land is used for agricultural purposes, specifically wheat production. The property is currently owned by the Kyle Railroad Co. and is leased to Mr. Herb VanEaton. The Pro-Ag Marketing grain storage facility is directly south of the former CCC/USDA facility. Quarterly progress reports for October-December 2008, January-March 2009, and April- June 2009 (Argonne 2009a,b,c) provided detailed information regarding construction and startup of the cleanup. Previous periodic monitoring reports (Argonne 2010a,b,c,d, 2011a,b,c, 2012, 2013a,b,c, 2014a,b) have tracked the subsequent progress of the cleanup effort. Data for evaluation of system performance are collected primarily by sampling SVE effluents, soil gas monitoring points, and groundwater wells for analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Table 1.1 provides a detailed chronological summary of activities during implementation of the cleanup.

  9. Laser power supply

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  10. Supply Cain Risk Management

    Goodwin, Les

    2011-01-01

    “The management of supply chain risk is crucial to any business, more so to Rolls Royce who face an almost doubling of load within the next 10 years. So what is supply chain risk management and how well is it deployed within an operational business of Rolls Royce? What are the tools and techniques available and what are the key issues around implementing world class supply chain risk management with a Supply Chain Unit within Rolls Royce?”

  11. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products

    Tilton, E.W.; Brower, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A technical review summarizes and discusses information on various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for the control of insect infestation in grains and grain products. Topics include: the effects of ionizing radiation on insects infesting stored-grain products; the 2 main types of irradiators (electron accelerators; radioisotopes (e.g.: Co-60; Cs-137); dosimetry systems and methodology; variations in radiation resistance by stored-product pests; the proper selection of radiation dose; the effects of combining various treatments (temperature, infrared/microwave radiation, hypoxia, chemicals) with ionizing radiation; sublethal radiation for controlling bulk grain insects; the feeding capacity of irradiated insects; the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant insects to ionizing radiation; and the possible resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. Practical aspects of removing insects from irradiated grain also are discussed

  12. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Hamilton, Bruce [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-02-22

    This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current suppliers of the nation’s landbased wind market.

  13. 28 CFR 70.35 - Supplies and other expendable property.

    2010-07-01

    ... aggregate value upon termination or completion of the project or program and the supplies are not needed for... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplies and other expendable property... AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.35 Supplies and...

  14. 20 CFR 435.35 - Supplies and other expendable property.

    2010-04-01

    ... aggregate value upon termination or completion of the project or program and the supplies are not needed for... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplies and other expendable property. 435... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.35 Supplies and...

  15. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Eickhof, N.

    1983-01-01

    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  16. Trim coil power supplies

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  17. Measurements, characterizing and reduction of dust during combustion of energy grain; Maetning, karaktaerisering och reduktion av stoft vid eldning av spannmaal

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Johansson, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Johansson, Mathias

    2008-07-01

    There is a potential for cereal grain for combustion use in Sweden, as well as for other agricultural fuels with similar qualities. Today, grain is combusted mainly in small-scale appliances. As all fast growing crops, the ash content is higher compared to wood fuels, resulting in a higher emission of particles. There are no limits for particle emission from appliances smaller than 500 kW in Sweden today. Nevertheless, it is important to consider these emissions because dust from small scale combustion of biofuels is one of the larger sources of particles to air in Sweden and in Europe today. Lately, is has been observed that the ultra fine particles (< 0.1 mum) is a cause of increased mortality. During large-scale combustion, the flue gas is cleaned from particles by electrostatic or fabric filters. During small-scale combustion primary measures is preferred by economical reasons. Particles can be reduced by design of the appliances or control of the combustion process. It might also be possible to reduce particles by use of additives that ties the volatile matters to the bottom ash and/or causes them leave as gas instead of particles. The aim of this project is to characterize and reduce particle emissions from combustion of cereal grain by use of additives. Limestone and kaolin were tested in a burner for oat grain. Particle emission was measured as total dust, as mass size distributed and as number size distributed. Fuel, bottom ash and dust were characterized chemically. In the flue gas carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride was measured. Equilibrium calculations were performed for combustion with and without additives. The combustion was not negatively influenced by the additives. The results confirm that lime stone reduces emissions of acidifying and corrosive gases such as sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Both lime stone and kaolin increase the ash fusion temperature. Results from

  18. Mediating Dynamic Supply Chain Formation by Collaborative Single Machine Earliness/Tardiness Agents in Supply Mesh

    Hang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a trend of forming dynamic supply chains with different trading partners over different e-marketplaces has emerged. These supply chains, which are called “supply mesh,” generally refer to heterogeneous electronic marketplaces in which dynamic supply chains, as per project (often make-to-order, are formed across different parties. Conceptually, in a supply mesh a dynamic supply chain is formed vertically, mediating several companies for a project. Companies that are on the same level horizontally are either competitors or cohorts. A complex scenario such as this makes it challenging to find the right group of members for a dynamic supply chain. Earlier on, a multiagent model called the collaborative single machine earliness/tardiness (CSET model was proposed for the optimal formation of make-to-order supply chains. This paper contributes the particular agent designs, for enabling the mediation of CSET in a supply mesh, and the possibilities are discussed. It is demonstrated via a computer simulation, based on samples from the U.S. textile industry, that by using intelligent agents under the CSET model it is possible to automatically find an ideal group of trading partners from a supply mesh.

  19. The global food crisis : supply and demand revisited

    Sammut, Vince

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to show that the volatility in food prices between 2008 and 2011 cannot be explained merely by the market fundamentals of demand and supply. While global changes in demand and supply are bringing about radical changes to the food equation, evidence shows that market failure in the world grain market aggravated the problem. Excess liquidity, brought about by monetary growth policies after the subprime crises and financial meltdown in 2008, has stimulated speculation and hoar...

  20. Influence of grain morphology on ultrasonic wave attenuation in polycrystalline media with statistically equiaxed grains

    Ryzy, M.; Grabec, Tomáš; Sedlák, Petr; Veres, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 1 (2018), s. 229 ISSN 0001-4966 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk EF16_013/0001794 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : scattering * finite element method * polycrystals' grain Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.547, year: 2016

  1. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not...

  2. Stochastic theory of grain growth

    Hu Haiyun; Xing Xiusan.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this note is to set up a stochastic theory of grain growth and to derive the statistical distribution function and the average value of the grain radius so as to match them with the experiment further. 8 refs, 1 fig

  3. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH ...

    IBUKUN

    children; increased body mass index of people formerly wasted by HIV/AIDS; ... and market acceptability of Amaranth cruentus based products in order to ... Peru, grain amaranth also used the grains as food; preparation of local beverage; added ... initiated to know the proximate composition, mineral and vitamin contents of ...

  4. Stress-driven grain growth

    Nabarro, FRN

    1998-11-13

    Full Text Available of length b (1+ epsilon) is parallel to sigma, embedded in a grain in which the lattice vector b (1+ epsilon) is transverse to sigma. If the embedded grain grows at the expense of its matrix, the source of the stress will do work, and therefore the presence...

  5. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  6. The challenge of integration in the implementation of Zimbabwe’s new water policy: case study of the catchment level institutions surrounding the Pungwe-Mutare water supply project

    Tapela, Barbara Nompumelelo

    Integrated water resources management (IWRM) is viewed by policy makers and practitioners as facilitating the achievement of a balance between water resource use and resource protection, and the resolution of water-related conflicts. The IWRM approach has found particular use in the new water policies of Southern African countries such as Zimbabwe, where water scarcity, after the land question, is perceived to be a major threat to political, economic, social, military and environmental security. Ultimately, IWRM is seen as providing a framework towards ensuring broader security at the local, national, regional and global levels. However, the pilot phase implementation of the new water policy in the various regional countries has revealed that although the legal and institutional frameworks have been put in place, the implementation of the IWRM approach has tended to be problematic (J. Latham, 2001; GTZ, 2000; Leestemaker, 2000; Savenige and van der Zaag, 2000; Sithole, 2000). This paper adopts a case study approach and empirically examines the institutional challenges of implementing the IWRM approach in the post-pilot phase of Zimbabwe's new water policy. The focus is mainly on the institutional arrangements surrounding the Pungwe-Mutare Water Supply Project located within the Save Catchment Area in Eastern Zimbabwe. The major findings of the study are that, while there persist some problems associated with the traditional management approach, there have also emerged new challenges to IWRM. These mainly relate to the transaction costs of the water sector reforms, institutional resilience, stakeholder participation, and the achievement of the desired outcomes. There have also been problems emanating from unexpected political developments at the local and national levels, particularly with regard to the government's ;fast track; land resettlement programme. The paper concludes that there is a need for a more rigorous effort towards integrating the management of

  7. Project and supply agreement: Agreement of 28 February 1992 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron source reactor and enriched uranium

    1992-07-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China for the transfer of a 30 KW miniature neutron source reactor for radioisotope production, research and tracing and of approximately 980.40 grams of uranium enriched to approximately 90.2 percent by weight in the isotope uranium-235 contained in fuel elements for the supplied reactor. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1992, signed in Vienna on 28 February 1992, and entered into force on 18 May 1992. 1 tab

  8. Supply regimes in fisheries

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  9. The natural resources supply indexes study of the pig breeding scale in China

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Zhang, Qi-Zhen; Ji, Xue-Qiang; Xu, Yue-Feng

    2017-08-01

    For the pollution problem of the pig breeding scale, we took three indexes as evaluation criterion, including arable land per capita, the water resource per capita and per capita share of grain. Then SPSS was used to synthesized the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale. The results show that with the fast development of technology and the steadily rising of grain production, the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale are raising constantly.

  10. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2014-01-01

    characteristics of each grain (such as their centre-of-mass positions, volumes, phases, orientations and/or elastic strain tensor components), while the exact locations of the grain boundaries are unknown. In the present chapter a detailed description of the setup and software for both grain centre mapping...... and the closely related boxscan method is given. Both validation experiments and applications for in situ studies of microstructural changes during plastic deformation and crack growth are given. Finally an outlook with special emphasis on coupling the measured results with modelling is given....

  11. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  12. Comparing recent uranium supply scenarios

    Arnold, N.; Gufler, K.

    2014-01-01

    For more than one decade – even after the Fukushima accidents - an increase in global nuclear energy generation capacity is widely expected. At the same time a variety of uranium supply scenarios were published by industry, academics or international organizations, drawing different pictures of future uranium supply. They were created with the background of a uranium market facing several challenges. First an excursion in the uranium market price, in 2007, then reduced nuclear growth expectations after 2011, at least in non-Asian countries, also implying considerable changes to the supply side. For this publication a meta-study was carried out identifying, evaluating and comparing different recent scenarios on the availability of uranium. While there are some differences in the frame conditions (e.g. the expected uranium demand, the time fame, the considered mining projects,..), there are also notable similarities in these scenarios. This concerns long lead times for mine openings as well as the dependence on large mining projects (e.g. Olympic Dam, Cigar Lake). Generally, a decline in production in about 10 years is assumed, and thus the necessity of the timely development of mining projects is pointed out. In addition the omission of uranium from Russian nuclear weapons and the chances of keeping the changes in secondary supplies in balance with primary production have been widely discussed. Here, the production growth in Kazakhstan but also the role of the current market situation are central aspects. As another aspect the possible contribution from unconventional resources is of interest, particularly against the background of rising production costs for conventional resources. Finally, it shall be reflected how well older scenarios were able to map the reality and which trends could or could not be anticipated. It is relevant to identify which aspects in the development of mining capacities are essential for security of supply, and can therefore be regarded

  13. Being successful as a Supply Chain Manager in fashion

    Rita van der Veen; Stef Weijers; Henny Jordaan; Hans-Heinrich Glöckner

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project on the competencies which supply chain managers in the fashion industry need to rely on, in order to perform successfully in their job. In this research project 21 supply chain managers in the fashion industry in the Netherlands have been

  14. Being succesful as a Supply Chain Manager in Fashion

    Stef Weijers; Henny Jordaan; Rita van der Veen; Hans-Heinrich Glöckner

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project on the competencies which supply chain managers in the fashion industry need to rely on, in order to perform successfully in their job. In this research project 21 supply chain managers in the fashion industry in the Netherlands have been

  15. CREATION OF EXPORT-ORIENTED NETWORK OF GRAIN ELEVATORS IN UKRAINE

    D. M. Kozachenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific paper highlights improving the efficiency of export rail transportation of grain cargoes in Ukraine by introducing shipper routing and concentration of loading at the terminal grain elevators. Methodology. According to the experience of the USA and Canada, one of the most effective ways to reduce costs in the grain to-port supply chain is a shipper routing of the rail traffic. Shipper routing for transportation of grain cargoes involves the concentration of their loading on the multiple junctions. The junctions are proposed to be selected with the use of cluster analysis methods. For the formation of the grain loading concentration areas the authors used methods of set theory and multi-criteria optimization. Findings. Based on agglomerative cluster analysis algorithm, the junctions on a network of Ukrainian railways are selected and the areas of possible concentration of grain loading are formed. DSU-algorithm allowed distinguishing the overlapping and non-overlapping areas of concentration. The problem of selecting non-overlapping areas of the grain loading concentration is formalized as the problem of multiobjective integer programming with boolean variables. The solution of this problem by a modified simplex algorithm allows selecting on the railway network of Ukraine 24 districts of possible grain loading concentration, which cover 70 stations and at minimal additional cost provide routing of about 7.5 million tons of grain per year. Originality. The originality of the work lies in the fact that the authors developed the mathematical procedure for selection of junctions and concentration areas of grain loading at the Ukrainian railway network, taking into account the economic efficiency of the process. Practicalvalue. Application of the developed method of grain loading concentration for the formation of unit trains will significantly reduce the logistics costs in the supply chain of grain to Ukrainian ports for

  16. Post-anthesis nitrate uptake is critical to yield and grain protein content in Sorghum bicolor.

    Worland, Belinda; Robinson, Nicole; Jordan, David; Schmidt, Susanne; Godwin, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Crops only use ∼50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer creating N losses and pollution. Plants need to efficiently uptake and utilize N to meet growing global food demands. Here we investigate how the supply and timing of nitrate affects N status and yield in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sorghum was grown in pots with either 10mM (High) or 1mM (Low) nitrate supply. Shortly before anthesis the nitrate supply was either maintained, increased 10-fold or eliminated. Leaf sheaths of sorghum grown with High nitrate accumulated nitrate in concentrations >3-times higher than leaves. Removal of nitrate supply pre-anthesis resulted in the rapid reduction of stored nitrate in all organs. Plants receiving a 10-fold increase in nitrate supply pre-anthesis achieved similar grain yield and protein content and 29% larger grains than those maintained on High nitrate, despite receiving 24% less nitrate over the whole growth period. In sorghum, plant available N is important throughout development, particularly anthesis and grain filling, for grain yield and grain protein content. Nitrate accumulation in leaf sheaths presents opportunities for the genetic analysis of mechanisms behind nitrate storage and remobilization in sorghum to improve N use efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat

    Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

  18. Comment on "Mitigating grain growth in binary nanocrystalline alloys through solute selection based on thermodynamic stability maps"

    Lejček, Pavel; Hofmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 107, Sep (2015), s. 235-237 ISSN 0927-0256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline materials * grain size * grain boundary energy * grain boundary segregation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2015

  19. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  20. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers.

    Lewis, D M; Romeo, P A; Olenchock, S A

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies. PMID:3709478

  1. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  2. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  3. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  4. Projetos locais de desenvolvimento no contexto das cadeias de suprimentos de montadoras de motores veteranas e entrantes Local development projects in the supply chains of newcomers and mature engine manufacturers

    Aline Lamon Cerra

    2007-12-01

    ônicos, os fornecedores dominam a tecnologia e desenvolvem componentes que as montadoras apenas "aplicam" em seus produtos. Já os fornecedores de componentes poliméricos parecem ocupar nível intermediário de domínio tecnológico de produtos entre os segmentos de componentes metálicos e eletrônicos.This paper aims at identifying and comparing projects of product and process development accomplished by two mature and a newcomer automaker considering the context of the supply chains to which they belong. For that, case studies were carried out in three automakers and eight suppliers. Most of the companies studied are responsible for production process projects. In the mature companies, such projects take place almost without any external support (only with a sporadic support of their international headquarters, possibly because the production technology is already consolidated and susceptible only to incremental changes, and because the competences needed for such improvements have already been locally developed. In the newcomer companies, once the production processes have just been set up, the Brazilian branch has been responsible for a few changes implemented since then. Concerning the suppliers, changes in the production process tend to be less complex and, in most cases, these companies can count on the automakers’ support. Automakers pay especial attention to product design. The mature companies have already accomplished important local developments, and the newcomers have planned to improve their product development department to start local developments and, mainly, to nationalize their suppliers. Regarding the auto-suppliers, the results indicate that the required levels of technological capability for product development tend to vary according to the technological segments of the automotive supply chains. In the metalworking segment, the suppliers can either receive the product design already specified from the automakers or design projects according to the

  5. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GRAIN MICRONIZATION

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  6. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  7. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    pose the greatest threat to increased food production, storage and handling ... are to: assess pest control practices of grain merchants in Mubi markets with a .... This further cements the fact that multiple routes of contaminations are possible.

  8. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    ... Style What Is a Healthy Eating Style? Choosing Foods and Beverages Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fats Sodium Added Sugars ... may reduce the risk of heart disease. Consuming foods containing fiber, ... weight management. Eating grain products fortified with folate before and ...

  9. North American supply/demand

    Pocino, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The projected supply and demand for natural gas in five major regions of North America for the year 2000 was presented. In most regions, supply is expected to be greater than demand. A summary of how California dealt with an increase in natural gas demand in 1990 was presented. The California strategy included a readjustment of pipeline capacity, storage capacity and transportation. Whereas in the 1980s, when capacity was inadequate, the focus was on competition with alternate fuels, maximized capacity use, primary concern about reliability and only secondary concern about price, in the the 1990s, with excess capacity, the emphasis is on 'gas on gas' competition, efforts to satisfy the customer, primary concern about price, and only marginal concern about reliability. tabs., figs

  10. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics

    Muchow, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply on the relative contributions of pre- and post-anthesis net above-ground biomass accumulation and N uptake to grain-yield and grain N concentration was examined in four contrasting environments in semi-arid tropical Australia. The four environments had different radiation and temperature regimes, and varying levels of water deficit. The grain-yield achieved under high N supply ranged from 156 to 621 g m −2 (on an oven-dry basis). In all but the lowest-yielding environment, there was substantial biomass accumulation during grain-filling and it increased with N application. Only in the lowest-yielding environment was there substantial mobilization of pre-anthesis biomass to grain. Biomass mobilization was not affected by N application. Nitrogen uptake during grain-filling was unresponsive to N application, and was small relative to total N uptake during the life-cycle. Mobilization of pre-anthesis N to the grain was much more significant. In all but the lowest-yielding environment, N mobilization increased with N application. Grain-yield under variable N supply and differing environmental conditions was not dependent on the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis growth. However, grain-yield was proportional to biomass at maturity over the entire yield range in this study and variability in biomass accounted for 95% of the variance in grain-yield. Similarly, grain N concentration was not related to the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis N uptake, but variability in total N uptake accounted for 92% of the variance in grain N accumulation. Consequently, there was no differential effect of N supply or environmental factors on yield physiology that could not be explained by their effect on biomass and N uptake. (author)

  11. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Investigations on modification and improvement project for Potoshani district heating and heat supplying facilities in Romania; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Romania koku Potoshani chiiki danbo netsukyokyu setsubi no kaishu oyobi kaizen keikaku chosa

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Discussions have been given on the improvement and modification project intended of saving energies and reducing greenhouse gas emission in the Potoshani district heating and heat supplying facilities in Romania. Thirty years have elapsed since the building of the Potoshani district heating and heat supplying facilities, whereas noticeable energy loss has occurred due to aged deterioration, such as thermal efficiency decrease, performance decrease, and hot water leakage due to piping corrosion. The present project is intended to improve the heat production and power generation facility efficiencies, and reduce the heat loss in heat transportation and distribution to less than 5%. The improvements will be implemented by replacing and rehabilitating the existing boilers, replacing the turbine generators, and replacing the transportation and distribution pipelines and heat exchangers. As a result of the discussions, the present project is estimated to result in annual fuel conservation of 35,820 tons of crude oil equivalent, and annual reduction of the greenhouse gas emission of 110,835 t-CO2. The total amount of the initial investment for the project would be 11.369 billion yen, and the payback period would be 12 years. The project will produce profit of 31.358 billion yen in 20 years, thus the project is financially feasible. (NEDO)

  12. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    2001-05-01

    The central theme of this report is to assess the adequacy of uranium resources to meet future requirements based on a range of opinions as to the future of nuclear power. The report discusses three demand cases that project uranium requirements from 2000 to 2050. The report also reviews the supply sources that are expected to be available to meet reactor uranium demand through to 2050. Supply is divided into two broad categories: secondary and primary supply. The report also assesses the adequacy of uranium resources to satisfy market based production requirements

  13. Energy costs and Portland water supply system

    Elliott, W.M.; Hawley, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The changing role of electrical energy on the Portland, Oregon, municipal-water-supply system is presented. Portland's actions in energy conservation include improved operating procedures, pump modifications, and modifications to the water system to eliminate pumping. Portland is implementing a small hydroelectric project at existing water-supply dams to produce an additional source of power for the area. Special precautions in construction and operation are necessary to protect the high quality of the water supply. 2 references, 7 figures.

  14. Chemisputtering of interstellar graphite grains

    Draine, B.T.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of erosion of interstellar graphite grains as a result of chemical reaction with H, N, and O is estimated using the available experiment evidence. It is argued that ''chemical sputtering'' yields for interstellar graphite grains will be much less than unity, contrary to earlier estimates by Barlow and Silk. Chemical sputtering of graphite grains in evolving H II regions is found to be unimportant, except in extremely compact (n/sub H/> or approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) H II regions. Alternative explanations are considered for the apparent weakness of the lambda=2175 A extinction ''bump'' in the direction of several early type stars

  15. Simulating Sediment Sorting of Streambed Surfaces - It's the Supply, Stupid

    Wilcock, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The grain size of the streambed surface is an integral part of the transport system because it represents the grains immediately available for transport. If the rate and size of grains entrained from the bed surface differ from that delivered to the bed surface, the bed surface grain size will change. Although this balance is intuitively clear, its implications can surprise. The relative mobility of different sizes in a mixture change as transport rates increase. At small transport rates, smaller sizes are more mobile. As transport rate increases, the transport grain size approaches that of the bed. This presents a dilemma when using flumes to simulate surface sorting and transport. When sediment is fed into a flume, the same sediment is typically used regardless of feed rate. The transport grain size remains constant at all rates, which does not match the pattern observed in the field. This operational constraint means that sediment supply is coarser than transport capacity in feed flumes, increasingly so as transport rates diminish. This imbalance drives a coarsening of the stream bed as less mobile coarse grains concentrate on the surface as the system approaches steady-state. If sediment is recirculated in a flume, sediment supply and entrainment are perfectly matched. Surface coarsening is not imposed, but does occur via kinematic sieving. The coarsening of the transport (and supply) accommodates the rate-dependent change in mobility such that the bed surface grain size does not change with transport rate. Streambed armoring depends on both the rate and grain size of sediment supply - their implications do not seem to be fully appreciated. A coarsened bed surface does not indicate sorting of the bed surface during waning flows - it can persist with active sediment supply and transport. Neither sediment feed nor sediment recirculating flumes accurately mimic natural conditions but instead represent end members that bracket the dynamics of natural streams

  16. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  17. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  18. AC power supply systems

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  19. A Mathematical Approach to Supply Complexity Management Efficiency Evaluation for Supply Chain

    Changhee Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the factors of complexity due to the globalization of supply chain and to measure the management efficiency of the factors which cause the supply complexity within supply chain. This study conducts an analysis to utilize linear programming and bootstrapping, targeting 12 Korean companies among the selected companies in Fortune Global 500. According to the results from the analysis, 4 companies with relatively high management efficiency of the factors which cause the supply complexity and 8 companies with relatively low management efficiency are found. The research findings reveal that public companies with the small number of products, factories, and providers relatively manage the supply complexity compared to private companies. Moreover, this study suggests projection point as a direction for relatively less efficient companies and excess quantity of input which should reduce for its achievement. This study also has an implication to establish a further standard of efficiency to manage the supply complexity for companies.

  20. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  1. Perspectives of electricity supply

    1988-01-01

    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  2. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  3. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  4. D. C. power supply

    Ohashi, N. Watanabe, Y.; Kitani, M

    1978-04-01

    DC power supplies are for ordinary and emergency use as power sources for various structures such as office buildings, department stores, hotels, and for facilities such as roads, tunnels, dams, power stations, etc. There is strong demand for these dc power supplies to be safe, automated, and maintenance free, and to have high reliability. A dc power supply which meets these demands is described; electric circuit construction is emphasized. (10 figures, 4 tables)

  5. The valuation of commercial grain silos

    The valuation of grain silos is a complex exercise when one considers all the variables that affect their ... their grains, larger grain-processing companies, traders, importers or exporters that have ..... 2015: personal interview). The percentages ...

  6. North American natural gas supply and demand

    Goobie, G.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation was given by leading energy analysts Pervin and Gertz, and provided their outlook on the North American natural gas supply and demand as well as transportation and processing options for the Mackenzie Valley project and the Alaska natural gas project. Arctic gas development was discussed in relation to larger North American and world energy markets. The impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure development were compared with the potential impacts of the Alaska and Mackenzie Valley pipelines. A review of North American gas supplies was presented. LNG imports to the United States are expected to exceed 8 BCF/D by 2010. In addition, huge growth in the LNG markets is expected in middle eastern countries as well as in Africa. There is currently strong growth in liquefaction capacity in most regions. However, many proposed LNG terminals will not proceed due to opposition on the west coast of North America. It is also expected that natural gas liquids (NGL) delivered to Alberta from the Mackenzie Valley Gas project are expected to be used by the heavy oil industry. Canadian crude supplies are expected to grow to nearly 4 million barrels per day by 2015. The impacts of Alaska and Mackenzie Valley gas projects on western NGL markets and the petrochemicals industry were reviewed. It was concluded that major investments in supply and infrastructure are need in order to develop Arctic gas, as LNG is likely to be the largest source of incremental supply. tabs., figs

  7. Achieving Supply Chain Integration within Construction Industry

    Peter McDermotti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main driver behind the adoption of supply chain management (SCM philosophy into the construction industry was the successes within other industry sectors. SCM can be defined as network of different organisations, linked upstream and downstream in a chain, aiming to produce quality and value in the services and products for the end consumers through integrated processes and activities. In order to achieve the optimised level of integration of the whole supply chain, the industry has responded in various forms. This paper will discuss different initiatives by the researchers,construction industry,and the UK government in order to achieve optimal level of supply chain integration. This paper will discuss the concept of aggregation,and also look at other supply chain integration related concepts including client-led supply chain, knowledge about the whole supply chain, effects of procurement on integration of supply chain, etc. The paper will give a brief overview and initial findings of a project undertaken by the authors, and also include examples from the UK construction industry on bundling of the supply and demand.

  8. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  9. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work tha...

  10. Grain boundary structure and properties

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-05-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of knowledge of these fundamentals is given

  11. Comprehensive surface geophysical investigation of karst caves ahead of the tunnel face: A case study in the Xiaoheyan section of the water supply project from Songhua River, Jilin, China

    Bin, Liu; Zhengyu, Liu; Shucai, Li; Lichao, Nie; Maoxin, Su; Huaifeng, Sun; Kerui, Fan; Xinxin, Zhang; Yonghao, Pang

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the application of a comprehensive surface geophysical investigation of underground karst systems ahead of the tunnel face in the Xiaoheyan section in the main line of the water supply project from Songhua River, located in Jilin, China. To make an accurate investigation, Surface Electrical Resistivity Tomography (S-ERT), Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM), Geological Drilling (Geo-D) and Three-dimensional Cross-hole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (3D cross-hole ERT) were applied to gain a comprehensive interpretation. To begin with, S-ERT and TEM are adopted to detect and delineate the underground karst zone. Based on the detection results, surface and in-tunnel Geo-D are placed in major areas with more specific and accurate information gained. After that, survey lines of 3D cross-hole ERT are used to conduct detailed exploration towards underground karst system. In the comprehensive investigation, it is the major question to make the best of prior information so as to promote the quality of detection. The paper has put forward strategies to make the full use of effective information in data processing and the main ideas of those strategies include: (1) Take the resistivity distribution of the subsurface stratum gained by S-ERT inversion as the initial model of TEM inversion; (2) Arrange borehole positions with the results of S-ERT and TEM. After that, gain more accurate information about resistivity of subsurface stratum using those boreholes located; (3) Through the comprehensive analysis of the information about S-ERT, TEM and Geo-D, set the initial model of 3D cross-hole resistivity inversion and meanwhile, gain the variation range of stratum resistivity. At last, a 3D cross-hole resistivity inversion based on the incorporated initial model and inequality constraint is conducted. Constrained inversion and joint interpretation are realized by the effective use of prior information in comprehensive investigation, helping to suppress

  12. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 14 October 1994 among the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Ghana and the People`s Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron research reactor and enriched uranium

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 5 December 1991, among the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Ghana and the People`s Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron research reactor and enriched uranium is reproduced for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 14 October 1994, pursuant to Article XIII.

  13. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 29 August 1996 among the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governments of the Republic of Nigeria and the People`s Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron research reactor and enriched uranium

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Board of Governors on 19 March 1996, among the IAEA and the Governments of the Republic of Nigeria and the People`s Republic of China concerning the transfer of a 30 kw miniature neutron research reactor and approximately 1000 grams of uranium enriched to approximately 90% by weight in the isotope uranium-235.

  14. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 14 October 1994 among the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Ghana and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron research reactor and enriched uranium

    1995-04-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 5 December 1991, among the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Ghana and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron research reactor and enriched uranium is reproduced for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 14 October 1994, pursuant to Article XIII

  15. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for materials test reactor fuel development

    1994-08-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for materials test reactor fuel development is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  16. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 29 August 1996 among the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governments of the Republic of Nigeria and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron research reactor and enriched uranium

    1996-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Board of Governors on 19 March 1996, among the IAEA and the Governments of the Republic of Nigeria and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a 30 kw miniature neutron research reactor and approximately 1000 grams of uranium enriched to approximately 90% by weight in the isotope uranium-235

  17. Uranium supply analysis: Evolution of concepts

    Williams, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended during the last 15 years to develop improved methods of analysing current and future mineral supply, with the objectives of providing illustrations of mineral supply possibilities that are more meaningful and easily understood. Significant contributions toward these objectives have been made in the course of studies on world uranium supply, which took place in the 1970s prompted by concern about the future availability of mineral fuels. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have played a key role in these efforts, through their biennial assessments of world uranium supply. There has been a pronounced shift in emphasis in the NEA/IAEA assessments away from resource estimates by themselves as a measure of supply, because of a growing awareness that, in isolation, resource estimates cannot provide a truly meaningful illustration of uranium availability. Indeed, resource estimates taken out of context can lead to false conclusions about resource adequacy. Successive NEA/IAEA studies have made increasing use of projections of production capability that show the possible availability of uranium from different categories of resources and production centres over specified time-frames. It is believed that such supply scenarios provide a much more meaningful illustration of uranium availability for both short and long-term planning purposes. As part of the effort to introduce such an approach to NEA/IAEA uranium supply analyses, the IAEA has prepared a manual which provides general guidelines for preparing projections of production capability. It is hoped that these efforts will contribute to a better understanding of the constraints on uranium supply and to the wider acceptance of projections of production capability as measures of resource adequacy. (author)

  18. Slip transfer across grain boundaries in Fe-Si bicrystals

    Gemperlová, Juliana; Polcarová, Milena; Gemperle, Antonín; Zárubová, Niva

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 378, - (2004), s. 97-101 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0670 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : metals * dislocations and disclinations * bicrystals * grain boundaries * transmission electron microscopy * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2004

  19. Enthalpy - entropy compensation effect in grain boundary phenomena

    Lejček, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 10 (2005), s. 1129-1133 ISSN 0044-3093 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FF-P2/053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : compensation effect * enthalpy * entropy * thermodynamics * grain boundary Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2005

  20. Kinetics of interstitial segregation in Cottrell atmospheres and grain boundaries

    Svoboda, Jiří; Zickler, G. A.; Kozeschnik, E.; Fischer, F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 9 (2015), s. 458-465 ISSN 0950-0839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : segregation * grain boundaries * dislocations * simulation * thermodynamic extremal principle Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2015

  1. Assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of grain for ...

    In order to noticeably and systematically assess ecological, economic and social effects of the grain for green project on county level, this study investigated the benefits of carbon sequestration to the soil of farmland-converted forestland (in 0 to 20 cm soil depth), the change in household income structure and social ...

  2. Supply Chain Management

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  3. Uranium supply and demand

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  4. Wood supply and demand

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  5. Forecasting Ontario's blood supply and demand.

    Drackley, Adam; Newbold, K Bruce; Paez, Antonio; Heddle, Nancy

    2012-02-01

    Given an aging population that requires increased medical care, an increasing number of deferrals from the donor pool, and a growing immigrant population that typically has lower donation rates, the purpose of this article is to forecast Ontario's blood supply and demand. We calculate age- and sex-specific donation and demand rates for blood supply based on 2008 data and project demand between 2008 and 2036 based on these rates and using population data from the Ontario Ministry of Finance. Results indicate that blood demand will outpace supply as early as 2012. For instance, while the total number of donations made by older cohorts is expected to increase in the coming years, the number of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in the 70+ age group is forecasted grow from approximately 53% of all RBC transfusions in 2008 (209,515) in 2008 to 68% (546,996) by 2036. A series of alternate scenarios, including projections based on a 2% increase in supply per year and increased use of apheresis technology, delays supply shortfalls, but does not eliminate them without active management and/or multiple methods to increase supply and decrease demand. Predictions show that demand for blood products will outpace supply in the near future given current age- and sex-specific supply and demand rates. However, we note that the careful management of the blood supply by Canadian Blood Services, along with new medical techniques and the recruitment of new donors to the system, will remove future concerns. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Investigating selective transport and abrasion on an alluvial fan using quantitative grain size and shape analysis

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Selective sorting and abrasion are the two major fluvial processes that are attributed to the downstream fining of sediments in rivers and alluvial fans. Selective transport is the process by which smaller grains are preferentially transported downstream while larger grains are deposited closer to the source. Abrasion is defined by the production of fine sediments and sand that occurs by saltation of gravel, where particle-to-particle collisions supply the energy required to break apart grains. We hypothesize that abrasion results in the gradual fining of large grains and the production of fine sands and silts, while sorting accounts for the differences in transport of these two grain-size fractions produced from abrasion, thereby creating the abrupt gravel-sand transition observed in many channel systems. In this research, we explore both selective transport and abrasion processes on the Dog Canyon alluvial fan near Alamogordo, New Mexico. We complete an extensive grain size analysis down the main channel of the fan employing an image-based technique that utilizes an autocorrelation process. We also characterize changes in grain shape using standard shape parameters, as well as Fourier analysis, which allows the study of contributions of grain roughness on a variety of length scales. Sorting appears to dominate the upper portion of the fan; the grain-size distribution narrows moving downstream until reaching a point of equal mobility, at which point sorting ceases. Abrasion exerts a subtle but persistent effect on grains during transport down the fan. Shape analysis reveals that particles become more rounded by the removal of small-scale textural features, a process that is expected to only modestly influence grain size of gravel, but should produce significant quantities of sand. This study provides a better understanding of the importance of grain abrasion and sorting on the downstream fining of channel grains in an alluvial fan, as well as an improved knowledge

  7. DART: a robust algorithm for fast reconstruction of three-dimensional grain maps

    Batenburg, K.J.; Sijbers, J.; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    and moderate noise levels, DART is shown to generate essentially perfect two-dimensional grain maps for as few as three projections per grain with running times on a PC in the range of less than a second. This is seen as opening up the possibility for fast reconstructions in connection with in situ studies....

  8. Study of thermal stability of ultrafine-grained copper by means of electron back scattering diffraction

    Man, O.; Pantělejev, L.; Kunz, Ludvík

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2010), s. 209-213 ISSN 1345-9678 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ultra-fine grained copper * thermal stability of microstructure * electron back scattering diffraction * grain size * texture Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.779, year: 2010

  9. Whole-Grain Continuing Education for School Foodservice Personnel: Keeping Kids from Falling Short

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Barno, Trina; Caskey, Mary; Asche, Kimberly; Reicks, Marla

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this project was to develop and test whole-grain continuing education for school foodservice personnel. Methods: A continuing education program was developed to address planning, purchasing, preparing, and serving whole-grain food in schools. Participants completed a pre-post questionnaire to assess changes in knowledge,…

  10. Effects of Grain Refinement by ECAP on the Deformation Resistance of\

    Blum, W.; Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Eisenlohr, P.; Sklenička, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 12 (2016), s. 1309-1320 ISSN 1005-0302 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Deformation * Grain boundaries * Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) * Creep * Dynamic recovery * Fine grained microstructure Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.764, year: 2016

  11. Grain size and boundary-related effects on the properties of nanocrystalline barium titanate ceramics

    Buscaglia, V.; Buscaglia, M. T.; Viviani, M.; Mitoseriu, L.; Nanni, P.; Trefiletti, V.; Piaggio, P.; Gregora, Ivan; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Pokorný, Jan; Petzelt, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2006), s. 2889-2898 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 525.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : grain size * grain boundaries * spectroscopy * dielectric properties * BaTiO 3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.576, year: 2006

  12. Yield and grain quality of spring barley as affected by biomass formation at early growth stages

    Křen, J.; Klem, Karel; Svobodová, I.; Míša, P.; Neudert, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2014), s. 221-227 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI111A133 Keywords : Hordeum vulgare L * above-ground biomass * tillering * grain yield formation * grain protein content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2014

  13. Indices to screen for grain yield and grain-zinc mass concentrations in aerobic rice at different soil-Zn levels

    Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.; Zhao, M.; Keulen, van H.; Fan, T.Q.; Stomph, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Zinc is an important micronutrient for both crop growth and human nutrition. In rice production, yields are often reduced and Zn mass concentrations in the grains are often low when Zn is in short supply to the crop. This may result in malnutrition of people dependent on a rice-based diet. Plant

  14. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  15. Supply chain planning classification

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  16. Control of supply temperature

    Madsen, H; Nielsen, T S; Soegaard, H T

    1996-09-01

    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  17. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulat...

  18. Experimental Study of Paddy Grain Drying in Continuous Recirculation System Pneumatic Conveyor

    Prasetyo Totok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, paddy drying using conventional method is irrelevant to used. The increasing need of grain each year is one of the main factor that pushes scientist to invent new methods of drying paddy grain. The old method is unusefull since it takes up space, needed the sun as the drying media which causes a long drying time. One of the alternative of drying paddy grain is by using mechanic dryer. By using this dryer type, the process of drying takes faster comparing to the old method and the distribution of grain is supplied continuously. The dryer which uses pneumatic conveyor can be one of the solution due to its less energy consumption, a better drying result, and high drying capacity. The variable used to identify drying performance is temperature and loading weight. From the experiment, it is resulted that the best temperature for drying paddy grain is 60°C with the weight loading of 150 gram.

  19. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  20. Dynamics of interplanetary dust grains

    Lamy, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of spherical grains of various materials-three silicates (quartz, obsidian and andesite), water-ice and iron - whose radii lie in the micronic and submicronic range with the interplanetary medium is solved. This includes: the interaction with the solar radiation field which is solved using Mie scattering theory and taking into account the precise dependence of the optical properties of the five materials upon wavelength; the interaction with the solar wind: corpuscular tangential drag is found to be always important and may even be larger than the Poynting-Robertson drag; the interaction with the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated in terms of a diffusion or random walk through a series of electromagnetic scatterings, leading to a Chapman-Komolgorov equation (i.e., a generalized Liouville equation). Numerical results are presented for these interactions spanning the entire solar system with circularity of elliptical orbits, direct or retrograde, with grains of various materials and sizes and giving -probably for the first time - a clear global picture of the interaction of dust grains with the interplanetary medium. The dynamics of the grains is then investigated using the theory of general perturbations and the numerical integration of trajectories of circum-solar grains

  1. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  2. Grain growth in UO2

    Hastings, I.J.; Scoberg, J.A.; Walden, W.

    1979-06-01

    Grain growth studies have been carried out on UO 2 to provide data for the fuel modelling program and to evaluate fuel fabricated in commissioning the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Fuel examined includes natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from ADU powder for CANDU reactors; natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from AU powder; natural UO 2 from ADU and AU powder, fabricated in the MOFFL; and commercially fabricated UO 2 enriched 1.7, 4.5, and 9.6 wt. percent U-235 in U. Samples were step-annealed in vacuo at 1870-2070 K for up to 32.5 h. All data fit a (grain size)sup(2.5) versus annealing time relationship. Apparent activation energy for grain growth, Q, depends on fuel type and varies from 150+-10 kJ/mol for early AU powder to 360+-10 kJ/mol for pellets from ADU fabricated in the MOFFL. Grain sizes calculated using the laboratory equation in a fuel performance code tend to be greater than those measured in irradiated natural fuel, suggesting irradiation-induced inhibition of grain growth. However, any inhibition is equivalent to that expected for a systematic 5 percent underpredicition in reactor power. (author)

  3. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    Underhill, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    The 1999 uranium mine production was about 55% of the 61 500 tonnes uranium (t U) used by the nuclear industry, with the balance met by secondary supply. Based on a recent WEC-IIASA study which defines a wide range of possible future levels of nuclear electricity generation, it is estimated that by 2050 annual uranium requirements could increase to 177 000 and 283 000 t U respectively, in the mid and high cases, or fall to 52 000 t U in the low case. Cumulative requirements to 2050 for the low, mid and high cases are, respectively 3.39, 5.35 and 7.58 million t U. A new IAEA analysis describes how known uranium resources (RAR and EAR-1) plus undiscovered resources (EAR-II and SR), supplemented by secondary supplies, could be utilized to supply reactors to 2050. Secondary supplies include: existing inventories, blended down warhead material (LEU blended from HEU), MOX, Repu, and re-enrichment of tails. The methodology of this analysis estimates the amounts and annual deliveries of the secondary supply, plus non-market supply. The balance of demand is met from Market Based Production (MBP) or: 'Uranium produced at or below market price to satisfy requirements not met by other supply sources'. The analysis then evaluates the production role for 125 uranium deposits, which supply MBP considering individual deposit resources, production cost and capability, and timing. Production costs are classified from low ( $130/kgU). Annual supply and demand balancing is used to allocate the resources on an individual deposit basis, assuming use of the next lowest available cost production. Secondary supplies will continue to supplement mine production to about 2025, but their relative importance will decrease over the period. An analysis of the benefit of lowering the enrichment tails assay from 0.30% 235 U to 0.15% 235 U, when economically justified is also discussed. The report also discusses projected production cost trends to 2025 under the mid and high cases. The final

  4. Electric power supply and demand 1979 to 1988 for the contiguous United States as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1979 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    Savage, N.; Graban, W.

    1979-12-01

    Information concerning bulk electric power supply and demand is summarized and reviewed. Electric-utility power-supply systems are composed of power sources, transmission and distribution facilities, and users of electricity. In the United States there are three such systems of large geographic extent that together cover the entire country. Subjects covered are: energy forecasts, peak demand forecasts, generating-capacity forecasts, purchases and sales of capacity, and transmission. Extensive data are compiled in 17 tables. Information in two appendices includes a general description of the Regional Electric Reliability Councils and US generating capacity as of June 30, 1979. 3 figures, 17 tables.

  5. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  6. World uranium supply and demand

    Patterson, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The role of nuclear energy is under increasing scrutiny and uncertainty. None the less, there will be an increasing need for expansion of uranium supply to fuel committed reactors. Longer-term demand projections are very uncertain. Improved knowledge of the extent of world resources and their availability and economics is needed to support planning for reactor development, especially for breeder reactors, and for fuel-cycle development, especially enrichment, and reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium. Efforts to date to estimate world uranium resources have been very useful but have largely reflected the state of available knowledge for the lower cost resources in regions that have received considerable exploration efforts. The IUREP evaluation of world resources provides an initial speculative estimate of world resources, including areas not previously appraised. Projections of long-range supply from the estimated resources suggest that the high-growth nuclear cases using once-through cycle may not be supportable for very long. However, additional effort is needed to appraise and report more completely and consistently on world resources, the production levels attainable from these resources, and the economic and price characteristics of such production. (author)

  7. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement project for district heat supplying plants in Dailian City in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku/Dailian shi chiiki netsu kyokyu plant kokoritsu kaizen project

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on energy saving possibilities at two medium-sized heat and power supplying plants in the city of Dailian in China. The project will improve the operation methods of the heat and power plants so that the energy cost can be minimized, and attempt to improve the boiler heat efficiency and save the energy by means of heat recovery and utilization. The draft modification plan for energy conservation has planned operation optimization for energy conservation, control of boiler operation under variable pressure, modification of the external boiler heat converter, use of inverters for the large capacity motors for boilers, and recovery of heat from the boiler blow-down water. In the analysis, models were structured from the operation data, and the effects of applying the energy saving measures were derived from simulation. As a result, the energy saving effect was found to be about 13,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 7,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually (converted to oil). The reduction in greenhouse gas emission was found to be about 40,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 20,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually. The number of years for investment payback is about 4.1 years at the Chunhai plant, and about 4.9 years at the Pulandian plant, wherein good profitability can be estimated. (NEDO)

  8. Sediment supply to beaches

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  9. Ethane supply and demand

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  10. Uranium supply and demand

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  11. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  12. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    Peykov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99 Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  13. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    Svoboda, J; Fischer, F D

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal grain growth as the abrupt growth of a group of the largest grains in a multi-grain system is treated within the context of unequal retardation of grain growth due to the segregation of solute atoms from the bulk of the grains into the grain boundaries. During grain boundary migration, the segregated solute atoms are dragged under a small driving force or left behind the migrating grain boundary under a large driving force. Thus, the solute atoms in the grain boundaries of large grains, exhibiting a large driving force, can be released from the grain boundary. The mobility of these grain boundaries becomes significantly higher and abnormal grain growth is spontaneously provoked. The mean-field model presented here assumes that each grain is described by its grain radius and by its individual segregation parameter. The thermodynamic extremal principle is engaged to obtain explicit evolution equations for the radius and segregation parameter of each grain. Simulations of grain growth kinetics for various conditions of segregation with the same initial setting (100 000 grains with a given radius distribution) are presented. Depending on the diffusion coefficients of the solute in the grain boundaries, abnormal grain growth may be strongly or marginally pronounced. Solute segregation and drag can also significantly contribute to the stabilization of the grain structure. Qualitative agreement with several experimental results is reported. (paper)

  14. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  15. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  16. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Jongmanns, M.; Kumm, M.; Wurm, G.; Wolf, D. E.; Teiser, J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced) particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  17. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years on

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance -- a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  18. Instructional Aids, Materials, and Supplies--Guidelines.

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This resource guide produced for the Follow Through Program, primarily lists instructional aids and supplies; it also suggests practical implications for provisioning the classroom environment, gives specific suggestions for Project Follow Through directors, and lists addresses of suppliers. The materials are divided into nine categories, which…

  19. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains for Biofuels

    Driven by the Energy and Independence Act of 2007 mandate to increase production of alternative fuels and to ensure that this increase causes minimal environmental impact, a project to design sustainable biofuel supply chains has been developed. This effort uses life cycle asses...

  20. Energy supply and demand in California

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  1. The Chameleon project in retrospective

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Heysters, P.M.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe in retrospective the main results of a four year project, called Chameleon. As part of this project we developed a coarse-grained reconfigurable core for DSP algorithms in wireless devices denoted MONTIUM. After presenting the main achievements within this project we

  2. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-07-09

    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  3. National Marine Fisheries Service Grain Size Data from the Baltimore Canyon Trough

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Grain size analyses produced by Robert Reid of the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service for the NOAA/BLM Outer Continental Shelf Mid-Atlantic Project, Baltimore...

  4. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less tha...

  5. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    Wolf, S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially ...

  6. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  8. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  9. Baby supplies you need

    Newborn care - baby supplies ... wintertime. Mobile. This can entertain and distract a baby who is fussy or is having a hard ... rainfall). These sounds can be soothing for the baby and can help him sleep.

  10. Tuning magnet power supply

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs

  11. Tracer concentration contours in grain lattice and grain boundary diffusion

    Kim, Y. S.; Olander, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Grain boundary diffusion plays a significant role in fission gas release, which is one of the crucial processes dominating nuclear fuel performance. Gaseous fission products such as Xe and Kr generated during nuclear fission have to diffuse in the grain lattice and the boundary inside fuel pellets before they reach the open spaces in a fuel rod. These processes can be studied by 'tracer diffusion' techniques, by which grain boundary diffusivity can be estimated and directly used for low burn-up fission gas release analysis. However, only a few models accounting for the both processes are available and mostly handle them numerically due to mathematical complexity. Also the numerical solution has limitations in a practical use. In this paper, an approximate analytical solution in case of stationary grain boundary in a polycrystalline solid is developed for the tracer diffusion techniques. This closed-form solution is compared to available exact and numerical solutions and it turns out that it makes computation not only greatly easier but also more accurate than previous models. It can be applied to theoretical modelings for low burn-up fission gas release phenomena and experimental analyses as well, especially for PIE (post irradiation examination). (author)

  12. [Asthma due to grain dust].

    Baur, X; Preisser, A; Wegner, R

    2003-06-01

    The actual literature as well as two case reports described in detail show that grain dust induces asthmatic reactions and ODTS which are obviously not of allergic origin. For diagnosis occupational-type exposure tests are decisive whereas allergological testing usually is not. Endotoxins which are present in the grain dust samples in high concentrations have to be regarded as the major causative components. To avoid irreversible lung function impairment a comprehensive early diagnosis is necessary. Generally, a remarkable reduction of exposure to dust with high levels of airborne endotoxin in agriculture has to be achieved since in many workplaces corresponding exposures are still rather high.

  13. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    Pavel Lejček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary segregation, their dependence on volume solid solubility, mutual solute–solute interaction and pressure effect in ferrous alloys is demonstrated.

  14. Supply chain risk management

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  15. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  16. Understanding the supply chain

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  17. Lessons Learned from Designing the Montium a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Processing Tile

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Heysters, P.M.; Rosien, M.A.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe in retrospective the main results of a four year project, called Chameleon. As part of this project we developed a coarse-grained reconfigurable core for DSP algorithms in wirelessdevices denoted MONTIUM. After presenting the main achievements within this project we present

  18. Interpreting Hydraulic Conditions from Morphology, Sedimentology, and Grain Size of Sand Bars in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    Rubin, D. M.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.; Grams, P. E.; Buscombe, D.; East, A. E.; Wright, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    During three decades of research on sand bars and sediment transport in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, we have collected unprecedented quantities of data on bar morphology, sedimentary structures, grain size of sand on the riverbed (~40,000 measurements), grain size of sand in flood deposits (dozens of vertical grain-size profiles), and time series of suspended sediment concentration and grain size (more than 3 million measurements using acoustic and laser-diffraction instruments sampling every 15 minutes at several locations). These data, which include measurements of flow and suspended sediment as well as sediment within the deposits, show that grain size within flood deposits generally coarsens or fines proportionally to the grain size of sediment that was in suspension when the beds were deposited. The inverse problem of calculating changing flow conditions from a vertical profile of grain size within a deposit is difficult because at least two processes can cause similar changes. For example, upward coarsening in a deposit can result from either an increase in discharge of the flow (causing coarser sand to be transported to the depositional site), or from winnowing of the upstream supply of sand (causing suspended sand to coarsen because a greater proportion of the bed that is supplying sediment is covered with coarse grains). These two processes can be easy to distinguish where suspended-sediment observations are available: flow-regulated changes cause concentration and grain size of sand in suspension to be positively correlated, whereas changes in supply can cause concentration and grain size of sand in suspension to be negatively correlated. The latter case (supply regulation) is more typical of flood deposits in Grand Canyon.

  19. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 1. Supply chain options for biomass fuels

    Allen, J; Browne, M; Palmer, H; Hunter, A; Boyd, J

    1996-10-01

    The study which forms part of a wider project funded by the Department of Trade and Industry, looks at the feasibility of generating electricity from biomass-fuelled power stations. Emphasis is placed on supply availabilty and transport consideration for biomass fuels such as wood wastes from forestry, short rotation coppice products, straw, miscanthus (an energy crop) and farm animal slurries. The study details the elements of the supply chain for each fuel from harvesting to delivery at the power station. The delivered cost of each fuel, the environmental impact of the biomass fuel supply and other relevant non-technical issues are addressed. (UK)

  20. Heavy oil supply economics and supply response to low oil prices

    Fisher, L.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of the heavy oil industry are examined, including prices, market demand, supply and supply costs. Price assumptions are provided for the reference case oil price (west Texas intermediate at Cushing). Supply cost methodology is explained. Capital and operating costs for various heavy oil and synthetic sources are derived from modeling results. The range of supply costs for heavy oil and bitumen from various sources, supply costs in terms of reference case market values and in terms of 1995-1996 average market values for Bow River crude, are derived. The CERI long term supply forecast model is explained. Western Canada upstream oil and gas cash flow and capital expenditures, eastern Canada exploration and expenditures by hydrocarbon type, and Canadian heavy oil and bitumen production based on reference case prices are estimated. Based on these projections the outlook for heavy oil at reference case prices for better than average quality resources is judged to be economic. Lower quality resources will require technology gains for successful commercialization. SAGD is a likely candidate in this respect. Again based on reference prices, production is forecast to decline by 100 Kb/d over the next five years. Diluent supply is considered to be adequate throughout the forecast period. As far as thermal bitumen is concerned, the growth could, in fact, exceed the projection, but if so, more upgrading will be required. 11 figs