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Sample records for grain sorghum wheat

  1. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was deter......The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients...... was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn...... up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis...

  2. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  3. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  4. Glucuronoarabinoxylans from sorghum grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, M.A.

    1996-01-01


    Water-unextractable cell wall materials (WUS) were prepared from raw, polished, and malted sorghum ( Sorghum vulgare cv. Fara Fara). Except for the amounts, hardly any difference could be observed between the WUS of these three raw materials. This means that cell wall

  5. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  6. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sorghum Grains (Sorghum Vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical properties of sorghum grains (sorghum vulgare were studied at varying moisture contents of 13%, 20% and 30% (w.b. The four varieties of sorghum grains studied include; Dura, Guinea, Faterita and Kafir. Results indicate that the size ranges were 3.94mm - 4.83mm for Dura variety; 3.75mm - 4.54mm for Guinea variety; 3.21mm - 4.42mm for Kafir variety and 2.70mm - 4.14mm for Faterita variety. Irregularities in the shapes of the grains were observed but all approximated to a sphere. In the mechanical properties, at major diameter, Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.16kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.955kN. In minor diameter, the Dura variety also recorded highest rupture force of 1.12kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Kafir variety had the lowest value of 0.952kN. Also at 20% moisture content, the Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.025kN while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.965kN. The same trend applies in the varieties at 30% moisture content. This is because, increase in moisture content results to decrease in rupture force. And this implies that force beyond these points at these moisture contents may cause damage to the sorghum varieties.

  7. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-12-01

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  8. Potential of multiseeded mutant (msd) to boost sorghum grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed number per plant is an important determinant of the grain yield in cereal and other crops. We have isolated a class of multiseeded (msd) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) mutants that are capable of producing three times the seed number and twice the seed weight per panicle as compared with t...

  9. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.D.; Farag, M.F. S. El-D.; Afify, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  10. Nutritional, functional and rheological properties of processed sorghum and ragi grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Mahajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different treatments such as roasting, puffing and germination of white sorghum, red sorghum and ragi grains on physicochemical, antioxidant, protein, amylose, bulk density, colour index and rheological properties of respective flour. In case of ragi, after roasting treatment, total phenolic content (TPC content for flour was increased from 0.331 ± 0.001 to 0.373 ± 0.004 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry sample. However, total flavonoids content was also increased slightly after different processing treatments. The rheological properties of respective flour were studied using Chopin Mixolab, where wheat flour dough profile acts as a reference to study the effect of different treatments. Dough elasticity which is expressed by the values of amplitude (Nm was found to be low in case of untreated flour as compared to wheat flour dough. Elasticity values of untreated flour such as white sorghum, red sorghum and ragi were 0.02, 0.00 and 0.06 Nm, respectively. Whereas, after processing treatments, values of elasticity for roasted flour dough of white sorghum, puffed flour dough of red sorghum and roasted flour dough of ragi increased to 0.36, 0.11 and 0.15 Nm, respectively, as compared to wheat flour dough of 0.10 Nm. The results found that roasted ragi flour had higher rate of starch gelatinization, lower starch retrogradation, high antioxidant and amylose contents which were found to be prospective ingredients in whole wheat flour in various baked and fermented food applications.

  11. Use of in vitro gas production technique to evaluate the effects of microwave irradiation on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and wheat (Triticum sp. nutritive values and fermentation characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Parnian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of microwave irradiation (900 W for 3, 5 and 7 min on the nutritive value of sorghum and wheat grains were evaluated by in vitro gas production technique. Gas volume was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and kinetics of gas production were estimated using model: GP = A exp {– exp [1 + (be/A (LAG – t]}. Cumulative gas production at 24 h was used for estimation of metabolizable energy, net energy for lactation, short chain fatty acids, digestible organic matter and microbial protein. For sorghum grain, microwave irradiation increased cumulative gas production for most times of incubation linearly. Microwave treatments for 5 and 7 min increased the A fraction linearly in both cereal grain, whereas the maximum rate of gas production (b decreased linearly only in wheat grain. Microwave treatments for 3, 5 and 7 min increased (P<0.05 metabolizable energy, net energy for lactation and short chain fatty acids content of sorghum grain, but not of wheat grain. It was concluded that microwave irradiation changed the gas production parameters resulting changed ruminal fermentation characteristics that can be considered in ration formulation.

  12. Studies on the use of gamma rays in preservation and storage of african sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    Grains are stored in large quantities all over the world and form the bases of human food supply. The amount of post harvest losses of food especially food grain is considered to be highest on be highest on the african continent,where preservation and storage are poorly managed. As a result, increasing numbers of less developed countries in africa are suffering from problems of hunger and malnutrition (Paster and Berck, 1993). One of the most important world cereal is sorghum, where it represents the fourth world cereal following wheat, rice and maize. It is an essential food in the drier parts of tropical africa, india and china. According to the FAO production yearbook (1992), about 22.25% of the total world production of sorghum grains is produced in africa, whereas, sudan produces 27.5% of the total african production . In the developed countries sorghum is used as a source of feed for birds, cattle, and sheep, but in the poor countries, as in african countries, the above uses are rare because sorghum is mainly used for human consumption.14 tab., 9 figs.,169 ref

  13. Cofermentation of sweet sorghum juice and grain for production of fuel ethanol and distillers' wet grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the costs associated with fuel ethanol production from grain, sweet sorghum juice was used as a partial or complete replacement for tap-water in mash preparation and fermentation. This juice, which was an unutilized by-product of sweet sorghum silage preservation by the Ag-Bag method, contained 6.5-7.6% (wt/wt) reducing sugar and produced up to 3.51% (v/v) ethanol beers after fermentation. Varying amounts of this juice were mixed with water and corn or wheat, either before or after liquefaction (front-end or back-end loading, respectively). When over 60% juice replacement was used in front-end loading trials, salt buildup, due to required pH adjustments during cooking, inhibited yeast metabolism and thereby reduced yields. This inhibition was not observed during back-end loading trials since acid and base usage during cooking were reduced. (author).

  14. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  15. Effect of Fungicide Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan D. Fromme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in the upper Texas Gulf Coast and in central Louisiana during the 2013 through 2015 growing seasons to evaluate the effects of fungicides on grain sorghum growth and development when disease pressure was low or nonexistent. Azoxystrobin and flutriafol at 1.0 L/ha and pyraclostrobin at 0.78 L/ha were applied to the plants of two grain sorghum hybrids (DKS 54-00, DKS 53-67 at 25% bloom and compared with the nontreated check for leaf chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, and plant lodging during the growing season as well as grain mold, test weight, yield, and nitrogen and protein content of the harvested grain. The application of a fungicide had no effect on any of the variables tested with grain sorghum hybrid responses noted. DKS 53-67 produced higher yield, greater test weight, higher percent protein, and N than DKS 54-00. Results of this study indicate that the application of a fungicide when little or no disease is present does not promote overall plant health or increase yield.

  16. Rapid sensory profiling and hedonic rating of whole grain sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits by low income consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovi, Koya Ap; Chiremba, Constance; Taylor, John Rn; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2018-02-01

    The challenges of malnutrition and urbanization in Africa demand the development of acceptable, affordable, nutritious complementary-type foods. Biscuits (i.e. cookies; a popular snack) from whole grain staples are an option. The present study aimed to relate check-all-that-applies (CATA) sensory profiles of sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits compared to economic commercial refined wheat biscuits with hedonic ratings by low income consumers. In addition, the nutritional composition and protein quality, L * a * b * colour and texture of the biscuits were determined. The CATA method is suitable for rapidly determining which attributes consumers perceive in food products and relating these to acceptability. Consumers preferred the lighter, more yellow wheat biscuits with ginger, vanilla, sweet and cinnamon flavours compared to the stronger flavours (sorghum, beany and nutty) and harder but brittle, grittier, dry and rough textured sorghum or sorghum-cowpea biscuits. However, a substantial proportion of consumers also liked the latter biscuits. The composite biscuits had higher dietary fibre content and a similar protein quality to the standards. Whole grain sorghum-cowpea biscuits could serve as acceptable value-added nutritious complementary snacks for consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. The biscuits are simple to produce for the creation of viable small enterprises. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gr. Delchev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides are more effective than when applied alone on sorghum crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. The use of herbicide antidotes for the treatment of seeds in sorghum is a safe way to overcome its high sensitivity to many herbicides. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of annual graminaceous weeds in sorghum crops are quite scarce even worldwide. Problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information on sorghum relates to the conventional technology for weed control. There is no information about the new Concep technology in grain sorghum. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature on control of these volunteers.

  18. Supplemental irrigation for grain sorghum production in the US Eastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum is an important grain crop throughout the world and is generally considered drought tolerant. Recently, in the US eastern Coastal Plain region, there was an emphasis on increasing regional grain production with grain sorghum having an important role. The region soils have low water hol...

  19. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Comparison of sorghum classes for grain and forage yield and forage nutritive value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum represents a broad category of plants that includes those grown primarily for forage (FS) or grain. Sorghum sudan crosses (SS) are also considered sorghum. Each of these groups can be further classified as brown midrib (BMR), nonBMR, photoperiod sensitive (PS), and nonPS. In our study, sor...

  1. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Murata, K.; Hara, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  2. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  3. Rate and Timing Effects of Growth Regulating Herbicides Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry E. Besançon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicamba and 2,4-D are among the most common and inexpensive herbicides used to control broadleaf weeds. However, different studies have pointed the risk of crop injury and grain sorghum yield reduction with postemergence applications of 2,4-D. No research data on grain sorghum response to 2,4-D or dicamba exists in the Southeastern United States. Consequently, a study was conducted to investigate crop growth and yield response to 2,4-D (100, 220, and 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba (280 g acid equivalent ha−1 applied on 20 to 65 cm tall sorghum. Greater stunting resulted from 2,4-D applied at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 or below 45 cm tall sorghum whereas lodging prevailed with 2,4-D at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba applied beyond 35 cm tall crop. Regardless of local environmental conditions, 2,4-D applied up to 35 cm tall did not negatively impact grain yield. There was a trend for yields to be somewhat lower when 2,4-D was applied on 45 or 55 cm tall sorghum whereas application on 65 cm tall sorghum systematically decreased yields. More caution should be taken with dicamba since yield reduction has been reported as early as applications made on 35 cm tall sorghum for a potentially dicamba sensitive cultivar.

  4. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah, A.; Shah, P.; Arif, M.; Khan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and nutritive value of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Sorghum grains were gamma irradiated at 0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. Irradiated and unirradiated sorghum samples were analyzed for crude fiber contents, total nitrogen, fat, ash and tannic acid. Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were also determined. In addition, digestibility coefficient received special attention. The irradiated sorghum grains were incorporated into basal diets and fed to rats during the digestion trials. The results indicated that gamma irradiation had no effects on total nitrogen, fat and ash contents of sorghum grains. Irradiation treatments of sorghum did not cause a pronounced effect on tannic acid content even those received the highest irradiation dose (200 kGy). Moreover, the irradiation treatments decreased the NDF content of sorghum especially those subjected to 100 or 200 kGy. On the other hand, the ADF and ADL values did not show a remarkable change due to irradiation treatments. Hemicellulose content was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose levels. Also, it was noticed that feeding rats on basal diets enriched with irradiated sorghum grains had a beneficial effects on digestibility coefficient. This trend was obvious with animals supplemented with sorghum grains subjected to the relatively high irradiation dose levels. 4 tabs

  6. Performance of elite grain sorghum varieties in the West Nile Agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Ouma, J.P. and Akuja, T.E. 2013. Agronomic and morphological performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) for the dry highlands of. Kenya. www.m.elewa.org. Schatz, B.G., Schneiter, A.A. and Gardner,. J.E. 1987. Effect of plant density on grain sorghum production in North. Dakota. pp. 16-17. Snider, J.L., Randy, L.R. and ...

  7. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including ... of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain fed wheat cultivars using artificial neural network ...

  8. Dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S R; Ikezaki, H; Gao, X P; Rubinstein, I

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch and, if so, whether this response is specific. By using intravital microscopy, we found that an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa) from the in situ hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust extract- and substance P-induced increases in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch in a specific fashion.

  9. Grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the nasal mucosa in vivo and, if so, whether this response is mediated, in part, by substance P. Suffusion of grain sorghum dust extract on the in situ nasal mucosa of anesthetized hamsters elicits a significant increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa; P grain sorghum dust elicits neurogenic plasma exudation from the in situ nasal mucosa.

  10. Evaluation of selected sorghum lines and hybrids for resistance to grain mold and long smut fungi in Senegal, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain mold in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a major worldwide problem; damage caused by this fungal disease complex includes a reduction in yield (loss of seed mass), grain density, and germination. Long smut is another important fungal disease in sorghum and potential threat to food sec...

  11. Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Activities Differ Significantly among Sorghum Grains with Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Shen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum grains with different applications had different phenolic profiles, which were corresponded to various antioxidant capacities. In this study, total phenolic, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents, as well as contents of individual phenolic compounds from sorghum grains with various applications were determined, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated. Total phenolic contents (TPC and total proanthocyanidins contents (TPAC showed strong correlation with antioxidant activities (r > 0.95, p < 0.01. Hongyingzi (S-1, one of the brewing sorghums, showed the highest level of TPC and TPAC, while white grain sorghum (S-8 had the lowest. Except for black grain sorghum (S-7, that contained the highest contents of ferulic acid, brewing sorghum grains contained the higher contents of the most individual phenolic compounds, especially the variety S-1. The correlation among individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities indicated that the free forms of protocatechuic acid (r = 0.982 of FRAPassay, p < 0.01 and taxifolin (r = 0.826 of FRAP assay, p < 0.01 may be the main functional compounds. These results indicate that brewing sorghum grains can also be utilized as effective materials for functional foods.

  12. Production of biodiesel via the in situ transesterification of grain sorghum bran and DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acylglycerides in sorghum bran and distiller’s dried grains and solubles (DDGS) from sorghum post-fermentation stillage have been converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using an in-situ transesterification (IST) method. The reactions were conducted at 25 deg C or 40 deg C in the presence...

  13. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and amylopectin) and starch ...

  14. Simulating the probability of grain sorghum maturity before the first frost in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expanding grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production northward from southeastern Colorado is thought to be limited by shorter growing seasons due to lower temperatures and earlier frost dates. This study used a simulation model for predicting crop phenology (PhenologyMMS) to predict the ...

  15. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of starch and amylase activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci for popping traits and kernel characteristics in sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popped grain sorghum has developed a niche among specialty snack-food consumers. In contrast to popcorn, sorghum has not benefited from persistent selective breeding for popping efficiency and kernel expansion ratio. While recent studies have already demonstrated that popping characteristics are h...

  17. Mineral content in grains of seven food-grade sorghum hybrids grown in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a major crop used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral content in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The ...

  18. Predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the traditional malting of sorghum grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Glover, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    dominated the microbiota from sorghum grains to malted sorghum. These isolates had technological properties comparable to those responsible for the acidification of sorghum beer (dolo, pito) wort produced from sorghum malt (previously studied), suggesting their potential for use as starter cultures....... Suitable isolates of L. fermentum are promising candidates to be used as starter cultures from the initial step of malting, that is, the steeping and are expected to inhibit the growth and survival of pathogens and spoilage microflora, and to control the lactic fermentation of dolo and pito wort or other...

  19. The composition, functional components, and physical characteristics of grain from staygreen and senescent sorghum lines grown under variable water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inclusion of sorghum into human food and feed is limited by its low digestibility compared to corn, which has been linked to the higher total kafirin levels in sorghum grain. Water stress after pollination reduced grain filling, affects the grain composition, functional components and grain phys...

  20. Grain weight improvement in wheat through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasal, P.N.; Gadekar, D.A.; Gavhane, V.N.; Bhoite, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    T. aestivum wheat variety NIAW 34 was developed by Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, and was released by Central Varietal Release Committee, for cultivation under irrigated late sown conditions of Peninsular Zone. The grains of NIAW 34 are medium sized with 40g 1000 grain weight. However, in market the bold sized grains (above 40g 1000 grain weight) are preferred by the traders and consumers. To overcome this lacuna, grains of wheat variety NIAW 34 were irradiated to exploit the possibilities of improvement in test weight. The material was irradiated with 15 and 20 kr dose of gamma rays. In M2 generation, mutants for various morphological characters were observed. The plants showing vigorous growth habit and desirable morphological characters were selected. These selected plants were studied for grain characters after harvest. On the basis of improved test weight as compared to parental line, selections were effected. The material was advanced to M6 generation and found stable for character of interest. The material selected comprised of total 10 lines showing improved test weight having range of 42-46 g i.e. increase of 4-6 g over the parental line NIAW 34. The lines selected are being evaluated in yield evaluation trials during Rabi 2006-07. Amongst the doses used, frequency of desired mutants was higher in treatment, of 15 kr

  1. Post-anthesis nitrate uptake is critical to yield and grain protein content in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, Belinda; Robinson, Nicole; Jordan, David; Schmidt, Susanne; Godwin, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Crops only use ∼50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer creating N losses and pollution. Plants need to efficiently uptake and utilize N to meet growing global food demands. Here we investigate how the supply and timing of nitrate affects N status and yield in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sorghum was grown in pots with either 10mM (High) or 1mM (Low) nitrate supply. Shortly before anthesis the nitrate supply was either maintained, increased 10-fold or eliminated. Leaf sheaths of sorghum grown with High nitrate accumulated nitrate in concentrations >3-times higher than leaves. Removal of nitrate supply pre-anthesis resulted in the rapid reduction of stored nitrate in all organs. Plants receiving a 10-fold increase in nitrate supply pre-anthesis achieved similar grain yield and protein content and 29% larger grains than those maintained on High nitrate, despite receiving 24% less nitrate over the whole growth period. In sorghum, plant available N is important throughout development, particularly anthesis and grain filling, for grain yield and grain protein content. Nitrate accumulation in leaf sheaths presents opportunities for the genetic analysis of mechanisms behind nitrate storage and remobilization in sorghum to improve N use efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochemical and sensory evaluation of wheat bran supplemented sorghum kisra bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallasy, Limya Osman Husain

    1998-05-01

    Studies were carried out on the effects of addition of wheat bran to sorghum flour (Dabar cultivar) at two levels extraction rates (72% and 80%). Samples were fermented for 14hr and the PH, titrable acidity, crude fibre, protein, total solid, total soluble solids and reducing sugars of fermented batter were determined at 2 hrs intervals. Results indicated that addition of wheat bran either before or after fermentation increased the PH there was decrease in titrable acidity. Reducing sugar contents decrease as a result of addition of wheat bran. Addition of wheat bran result in increasing protein content (15.7%m 19.0% and 20.7% for control, 80%S/WB and 72% S/WB. respectively at the end of fermentation) and also increase of crude fibre content. Addition of wheat bran to sorghum batter either before or after fermentation was accompanied by increase in viscosity ( from 145.1 cp for control to 203.1 cp and 209.8 cp fpr 80%S/WB and 72%S/WB blends respectively). Starch content was determined using iodine spectrophotometry, the moisture content of kisra bread containing wheat bran was significant higher compared with control and lower in available calories. Kisra bread containing wheat bran was lower in reducing sugars 7.42% for control to 5.2% and 4.2% and 4.5% for kisra containing wheat bran, a higher reduction in total carbohydrate were observed in samples containing wheat bran added after fermentation.Kisra containing wheat bran before fermentation gave significantly lower in vitro protein digestabilities. Addition of wheat bran after fermentation resulted in still lower decrease in IVPD compared to addition before fermentation. Sensory evaluation of kisra containing wheat bran indicated significant preference for kisra containing wheat bran compared to the control kisra

  3. Biochemical and sensory evaluation of wheat bran supplemented sorghum kisra bread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallasy, Limya Osman Husain [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-05-01

    Studies were carried out on the effects of addition of wheat bran to sorghum flour (Dabar cultivar) at two levels extraction rates (72% and 80%). Samples were fermented for 14hr and the PH, titrable acidity, crude fibre, protein, total solid, total soluble solids and reducing sugars of fermented batter were determined at 2 hrs intervals. Results indicated that addition of wheat bran either before or after fermentation increased the PH there was decrease in titrable acidity. Reducing sugar contents decrease as a result of addition of wheat bran. Addition of wheat bran result in increasing protein content (15.7%m 19.0% and 20.7% for control, 80%S/WB and 72% S/WB. respectively at the end of fermentation) and also increase of crude fibre content. Addition of wheat bran to sorghum batter either before or after fermentation was accompanied by increase in viscosity ( from 145.1 cp for control to 203.1 cp and 209.8 cp fpr 80%S/WB and 72%S/WB blends respectively). Starch content was determined using iodine spectrophotometry, the moisture content of kisra bread containing wheat bran was significant higher compared with control and lower in available calories. Kisra bread containing wheat bran was lower in reducing sugars 7.42% for control to 5.2% and 4.2% and 4.5% for kisra containing wheat bran, a higher reduction in total carbohydrate were observed in samples containing wheat bran added after fermentation.Kisra containing wheat bran before fermentation gave significantly lower in vitro protein digestabilities. Addition of wheat bran after fermentation resulted in still lower decrease in IVPD compared to addition before fermentation. Sensory evaluation of kisra containing wheat bran indicated significant preference for kisra containing wheat bran compared to the control kisra. 132 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Review of genetic basis of protein digestibility in Grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum, an ancient crop of the semiarid tropics, plays a key role in food and nutritional security for over half-a-billion people in Africa and Asia. In industrialized nations, sorghum is cultivated as animal feed and more recently as a feedstock for biofuel production and as health food alternativ...

  5. Registration of six grain sorghum pollinator (R) lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] pollinators [KS142R (Reg. No. PI XXXX), KS143R (Reg. No. PI XXXX), KS144R (Reg.No. PI XXXX), KS145R (Reg. No. PI XXXX), KS146R (Reg. No. PI XXXX) and KS147R (Reg. No. PI XXXX) were developed from random mating using a recurrent selection followed by pedigree...

  6. Effect of FYM, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat in rain fed cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah; Arif, M.; Shah, P.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Little work has been done on potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) in combination with farm yard manure (FYM) under rain fed conditions of NWFP. This study was designed to examine the effects of un-irrigated cropping patterns and organic and in-organic fertilizers on wheat crop. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat under rain fed (barani or un-irrigated) conditions at Agricultural Research Station, Serai Naurang Bannu for two years during 2001-02 and 2002-03. The experiment was designed in RCB design with split arrangements. Two factors were studied in the experiment. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., fallow-wheat, groundnut-wheat, mungbean-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Data revealed that both the cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers had non-significant effect on days to anthesis, seed fill duration and days to maturity of wheat. Highest grain yield (3194 kg ha/sup -1/ wheat following mungbean produced more yield and wheat following groundnut produced less yield under dry land conditions. The present findings revealed that pigeon pea-wheat cropping pattern seems to be more sustainable in terms of yield under rain fed conditions and use of FYM, K and Zn should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable crop production. (Author)

  7. Antioxidant properties of digestive enzyme-treated fibre-rich fractions from wheat, finger millet, pearl millet and sorghum: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Siddiq A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains are rich in antioxidant components (AC, most of which are bound to fibre fraction and released during digestion. The study investigated the effect of digestive enzymes on the antioxidant properties of fibre-rich fractions from wheat (Triticum aestivum, finger millet (Eleusine coracana, pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. Coarse (CF and fine fractions (FF of milled flour were separated using a standard sieve and analysed for nutritional composition, AC extractable in different solvents and antioxidant activity (AA in untreated and enzyme-treated fractions. The CF had a higher range of insoluble dietary fibre (17.26–20.93% than FF (10.65–17.29%. The highest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids was extractable in different solvents from finger millet and pearl millet, respectively. FF of pearl millet showed higher total AA in all solvents. Enzyme-treated samples had a much higher content of AC as well as higher total AA. Free radical scavenging assay revealed that enzyme-treated millet flours had higher activity in comparison to wheat. Between fractions, wheat exhibited variable results. Among millets, CF of finger millet and FF of pearl millet and sorghum had higher AA. In conclusion, digestive enzyme treatment released more AC from grains, and exhibited a higher AA.

  8. The wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene confers resistance to anthracnose and rust in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnippenkoetter, Wendelin; Lo, Clive; Liu, Guoquan; Dibley, Katherine; Chan, Wai Lung; White, Jodie; Milne, Ricky; Zwart, Alexander; Kwong, Eunjung; Keller, Beat; Godwin, Ian; Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans

    2017-11-01

    The ability of the wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene (Lr34res) to function across a wide taxonomic boundary was investigated in transgenic Sorghum bicolor. Increased resistance to sorghum rust and anthracnose disease symptoms following infection with the biotrophic pathogen Puccinia purpurea and the hemibiotroph Colletotrichum sublineolum, respectively, occurred in transgenic plants expressing the Lr34res ABC transporter. Transgenic sorghum lines that highly expressed the wheat Lr34res gene exhibited immunity to sorghum rust compared to the low-expressing single copy Lr34res genotype that conferred partial resistance. Pathogen-induced pigmentation mediated by flavonoid phytoalexins was evident on transgenic sorghum leaves following P. purpurea infection within 24-72 h, which paralleled Lr34res gene expression. Elevated expression of flavone synthase II, flavanone 4-reductase and dihydroflavonol reductase genes which control the biosynthesis of flavonoid phytoalexins characterized the highly expressing Lr34res transgenic lines 24-h post-inoculation with P. purpurea. Metabolite analysis of mesocotyls infected with C. sublineolum showed increased levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin metabolites were associated with Lr34res expression, concomitant with reduced symptoms of anthracnose. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulat...

  10. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  11. Effect of sowing date on grain quality of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IVHAA) while minerals; iron and zinc were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Significant site by variety by sowing date interactions at P < 0.05 level of probability were obtained for protein, iron and zinc content of sorghum ...

  12. tant sorghum grain as energy source in fattening diets for beef steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FORD, J.E., 1977. Availability of methionine and lysine in sorghum grain in relation to the tannin content. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 36, 124A. HALE, W.H. & PROUTY, F.L., 1980.Current status of grain process- ing: Efficiency of processing systems. Proc. 8th Annual Texas Beef. Conj., Amarillo, Texas. HALE, W.H., TAYLOR, B., SABA, ...

  13. Screening of sorghum lines against long smut and grain mold pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long smut infection is severe in the drier regions of Africa and Asia; whereas, grain mold is the most important widespread complex disease where sorghum is grown worldwide. Both fungal diseases cause significant losses in grain yield and quality. Long smut has not yet been observed in the United ...

  14. Grain sorghum is a viable feedstock for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Bean, S; McLaren, J; Seib, P; Madl, R; Tuinstra, M; Shi, Y; Lenz, M; Wu, X; Zhao, R

    2008-05-01

    Sorghum is a major cereal crop in the USA. However, sorghum has been underutilized as a renewable feedstock for bioenergy. The goal of this research was to improve the bioconversion efficiency for biofuels and biobased products from processed sorghum. The main focus was to understand the relationship among "genetics-structure-function-conversion" and the key factors impacting ethanol production, as well as to develop an energy life cycle analysis model (ELCAM) to quantify and prioritize the saving potential from factors identified in this research. Genetic lines with extremely high and low ethanol fermentation efficiency and some specific attributes that may be manipulated to improve the bioconversion rate of sorghum were identified. In general, ethanol yield increased as starch content increased. However, no linear relationship between starch content and fermentation efficiency was found. Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum include protein digestibility, level of extractable proteins, protein and starch interaction, mash viscosity, amount of phenolic compounds, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, and formation of amylose-lipid complexes in the mash. A platform ELCAM with a base case showed a positive net energy value (NEV) = 25,500 Btu/gal EtOH. ELCAM cases were used to identify factors that most impact sorghum use. For example, a yield increase of 40 bu/ac resulted in NEV increasing from 7 million to 12 million Btu/ac. An 8% increase in starch provided an incremental 1.2 million Btu/ac.

  15. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  16. Quality characterization of wheat, maize and sorghum steamed breads from Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhabutlane, Pulane; du Rand, Gerrie E; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-08-01

    In Lesotho, traditional bread covers different types of dumplings prepared with cereal flour, water, salt and sourdough. This study characterized eight steamed breads prepared from wheat, maize and sorghum. Breads were prepared from both commercial and self-milled flours according to the procedures followed in rural and urban areas of Lesotho. Descriptive sensory evaluation was conducted to profile sensory properties of the breads. Flour particle sizes, sourdough properties and bread colour, volume and texture were also characterized. The type of cereal and milling properties of the flour used had substantial effects on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Steamed wheat breads had greater volume, softer crumb and more bland flavour compared with sorghum and maize breads. Both sorghum and maize steamed breads prepared according to traditional Basotho procedures were characterized by low loaf volume, denser crumb, more complex and strong flavours and aroma, notably sour, musty, malty, dairy sour and fermented aroma. The texture of the non-wheat bread types was heavy, chewy, dry, fibrous and more brittle and needed a higher compression force to deform. This study provided insight on the sensory properties of steamed bread as prepared in Lesotho. Further research is needed to optimize sensory properties of the non-wheat steamed breads by controlling the flour particle size, compositing non-wheat flours with different levels of wheat flour, addition of protein sources and gums, altering the amount of water, improving the pre-gelatinization process and optimizing the steaming method of cooking bread. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, distillers dried grains with solubles composition, and lipid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in utilization of feedstocks other than corn for fuel ethanol production has been increasing due to political as well as environmental reasons. Grain sorghum is an identified alternative that has a number of potential benefits relative to corn in both composition and agronomic traits. Compo...

  18. sorghum head bug infestation and mould infection on the grain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-01

    Aug 1, 2017 ... 1Department of Crop Science, P. O. Box LG44, Legon, Ghana ... 3CSIR- Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, Sorghum Improvement Section, P. O. Box TL 52,. Tamale, Ghana ...... Bramel-Cox, P.J. 1999. A pictorial guide.

  19. Normal and hetero-yellow endosperm grain sorghum as substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    housed in flat deck-type cages, 1,6 x 1 m, fitted with a self- feeder and an automatic water nipple. Temperatures in the ... adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Amino acid analyses, following acid hydrolysis in a .... the hetero-yellow endosperm type sorghum had the highest avarage daily gains (ADGs), whereas pigs fed the maize-.

  20. Simulating the Probability of Grain Sorghum Maturity before the First Frost in Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. McMaster

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanding grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] production northward from southeastern Colorado is thought to be limited by shorter growing seasons due to lower temperatures and earlier frost dates. This study used a simulation model for predicting crop phenology (PhenologyMMS to estimate the probability of reaching physiological maturity before the first fall frost for a variety of agronomic practices in northeastern Colorado. Physiological maturity for seven planting dates (1 May to 12 June, four seedbed moisture conditions affecting seedling emergence (from Optimum to Planted in Dust, and three maturity classes (Early, Medium, and Late were simulated using historical weather data from nine locations for both irrigated and dryland phenological parameters. The probability of reaching maturity before the first frost was slightly higher under dryland conditions, decreased as latitude, longitude, and elevation increased, planting date was delayed, and for later maturity classes. The results provide producers with estimates of the reliability of growing grain sorghum in northeastern Colorado.

  1. Maize/Sorghum - Based Dried Brewers' Grains In Broiler Finisher Diets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 40 - day feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal substitution level of maize/sorghum-based dried brewers' grains (MSDBG) for maize in broiler ... At replacement levels or 50% and 75% with or without palm oil, the birds consumed significantly (P< 0.05) more feed than the group on the control diet (140.0, ...

  2. Forage Quality and Grazing Performance of Beef Cattle Grazing Brown Mid-rib Grain Sorghum Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residue from two grain sorghum hybrids, the control AWheatland x RTx430 (CON) and its near-isogenic hybrid containing the brown mid-rib gene bmr12 (BMR), were compared in a 2 year study. Forty-eight steers (236 ± 23 kg) in each year were assigned randomly to 2.12 ha paddocks (6 steers/paddock) cont...

  3. Sorghum grain supplementation affects rumen pH of animals fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martin Aguerre

    Ruminal pH was measured immediately and NH3-N concentration was determined by ... when using sorghum as a supplement of a rye grass hay. The aim of this ... Increasing grain level in a diet often results in higher rumen fermentation (Rymer & .... and in situ degradability and the in vitro gas production profile of the diet.

  4. Grain, silage and forage sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 32 grain and 30 forage type sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect, disease, and bird damage in Tifton, Georgia. These hybrids plus 33 silage type and 5 pearl millet hybrids also were evaluated for sugarcane aphid resistance near Griffin, Georgia. A total of 10 insect pes...

  5. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndimba, R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 363 (2015) 183–187 Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain R. Ndimba a,c,, A.W. Grootboom b, L. Mehlo b, N.L. Mkhonza b, J. Kossmann c, A...

  6. Effect of Sorghum -Barley Brewer's Spent Grain as a Feed Ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine if the inclusion of Sorghum-Barley Brewer's Spent Grain (SBBSG) in broiler diets will affect growth performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 380 Ross broiler chicks were brooded on a common diet without SBBSG for 28 days after which they were randomly assigned to ...

  7. Phytotoxicity of sorgoleone found in grain Sorghum root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhellig, F A; Souza, I F

    1992-01-01

    Root exudates ofSorghum bicolor consist primarily of a dihydroquinone that is quickly oxidized to ap-benzoquinone named sorgoleone. The aim of this investigation was to determine the potential activity of sorgoleone as an inhibitor of weed growth. Bioassays showed 125μM sorgoleone reduced radicle elongation ofEragrostis tef. In liquid culture, 50-μM sorgoleone treatments stunted the growth ofLemna minor. Over a 10-day treatment period, 10μM sorgoleone in the nutrient medium reduced the growth of all weed seedlings tested:Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, andEchinochloa crusgalli. These data show sorgoleone has biological activity at extremely low concentrations, suggesting a strong contribution toSorghum allelopathy.

  8. Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke; Gänzle, Michael

    2010-05-12

    The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS.

  9. Malting Characteristics of Some Sorghum and Millet Grain Varieties Grown in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makokha, A.O; Makwaka, A.M; Oniang'o, R.O; Njoroge, S.M

    1999-01-01

    Industrial malt in Kenya for commercial beer production is made exclusively from barley. This study explored the potential of producing suitable malt from some sorghum and finger millet grain varieties grown in Kenya. Malting characteristics of two sorghum grain varieties, KARI Mtama-1 and local Red variety, and that of finger millet was done and compared to that of barley. Among the grain characteristics determined before malting were water sensitivity, polyphenol (tannin) content and total protein. The grain was malted by striping in water for 48 h, followed by germination for four days at 25 degrees celcious, then kilned at 50 degrees celcious for 24 h. The malting characteristics determined included total soluble N, free amino N, wort pH and fermentable sugars. The local red sorghum and millet had high polyphenol content while KARI Mtama-1 and barley had low levels. KARI Mtama-1 had positive water sensitivity while barley had negative sensitivity. Finger millet and local red sorghum were water insensitive. Free amino N was 113, 125, 144, and 154mg 100g - 1 malt for millet, barley, local Red and KARI Mtama-1, respectively. Total fermentation sugars were 307, 477, 610 and 178 mg 1 - 1 for finger millet, local red, barley and KARI Mtama 1 , respectively. The results showed that that the proteolytic and amyloytic characteristics of the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 has good potential fro conventional lager beer production. Malts of local Red sorghum grain and millet may be more suitable for industrial production of opaque/cloudy beer

  10. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum and other grains by using a fungal amylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaisten, R J

    1961-01-01

    Destilasa is the trade ame of a fungal ..gamma..-amylase obtained from a strain of Aspergillus awamori for use in grain distilleries in Argentina. Using sorghum mash, 57% starch, 2 to 5% Destilasa gave fermentation efficiencies from 76 to 94%, malt 78%, acid conversion 75%. Other starchy materials tested were rye, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. Cooking and saccharification procedures were given in detail for corn, sorghum, and rye. An industrial procedure was outlined in detail and might be applicable to alcohol distilleries using sugar cane.

  11. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Wheat is adapted to diverse environments, between the ... international collaborative studies many new varieties ... Stability of grain yield and quality characteristics over locations ... grain yield capacity and yield components of twelve .... Analysis of variance for grain yield and yield-related traits over two ...

  12. Flag leaf photosynthesis and stomatal function of grain sorghum as influenced by changing photosynthetic photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on physiological parameters of A, gs, Em, Ci, and IWUE in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is limited. Flag leaves from three plants of two hybrids, grown using added N fertilizer rates of 0.0, 112, and 224 kg ha-1 near Elizabeth, MS were field sampled for these parameters at growth s...

  13. Fusarium spp. Associated with Field-Grown Grain of Near-Isogenic Low Lignin and Wild-Type Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium spp. associated with field-grown grain of near-isogenic low lignin and wild-type sorghum. Deanna Funnell-Harris and Jeff Pedersen, USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE Previous studies indicated that low lignin brown midrib (bmr) sorghum may be more resistant to Fusarium spp. than wild-type and that phen...

  14. A comparison of the levels of oil, carotenoids, and lipolytic enzyme activities in modern lines and hybrids of grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen modern commercial grain sorghum hybrids and five sorghum lines were extracted and the levels of oil and carotenoids were analyzed and compared. The same samples were also evaluated for lipolytic enzyme activity. The oil content in all eighteen samples ranged from 3.21 to 4.29 wt%. Beta c...

  15. NEW SOURCES OF GRAIN MOLD RESISTANCE AMONG SORGHUM ACCESSIONS FROM SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Kajac Prom

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available   Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold.  The environmental conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for grain mold development.  Highly significant negative correlations between grain mold severity ratings in the field and on threshed grains with germination rate and seed weight were recorded, indicating that germination and seed weight were adversely affected when challenged with F. thapsinum.  Temperature showed a significant negative correlation with grain mold severity and a significant positive correlation with germination rate.  However, no significant correlation was observed between rainfall and grain mold severity or germination rate.  Accessions PI570011, PI570027, PI569992, PI569882, PI571312, PI570759, and PI267548 exhibited the lowest grain mold severities and among the highest germination rates, indicating that these accessions may possess genetic resistance to grain mold and might be useful in sorghum enhancement programs.  Four of these accessions had significantly higher germination rates than the resistant control genotypes with PI267548 having the highest germination rate.  PI267548 was the only white seeded accessions showing significantly better grain mold resistance than the control genotypes.

  16. Assimilation, partitioning, and nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet compared with grain sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietor, D.M.; Miller, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in stems are greater for sweet than grain sorghums [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Knowledge of plant characteristics associated with high nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet sorghum will air efforts to increase nonstructural carbohydrates in grain sorghum stems. This study tested the hypothesis that variation of CO 2 assimilation rate, leaf area, branching at upper nodes, and partitioning of 14 C-labeled assimilate to main stems are associated with variation of stem nonstructural carbohydrates. A sweet (Atlas X Rio) and a grain (ATx623 X RTx5388) hybrid, stages near and after physiological maturity, and defoliation and gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) treatments provided sources of variation for study. Concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in lower and upper stems of the sweet hybrid were 1.4 and 2.7 times higher, respectively, than for the grain hybrid, after physiological maturity. Variation in branching, including 14 C-assimilate partitioning to branches, was not consistently associated with hybrid differences in stem nonstructural carbohydrates. Increased recovery (twofold) of 14 C-assimilate in roots and labeled leaves corresponded with lower percentages of 14 C-assimilate and lower concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems of the grain hybrid. Leaf areas and leaf CO 2 exchange rate were twice as great for the sweet hybrid. Although defoliation of the sweet hybrid minimized leaf area differences between hybrids, the sweet hybrid accumulated twice as much nonstructural carbohydrates in branches after physiological maturity. Greater potentials for CO 2 assimilation and for 14 C-assimilate accumulation in mature stem tissue were associated with higher levels of stem nonstructural carbohydrates in the sweet compared with the grain hybrid

  17. NASA crop calendars: Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.

  18. What influences the composition of fungi in wheat grains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruta Bankina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grains are inhabited by different fungi, including plant pathogens and fungi – mycotoxin producers. The composition of seed mycobiota can be influenced by different factors, including agronomic practices, but the results are still contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycobiota of wheat grains depending on agroecological conditions. Wheat grains were obtained from a two-factorial field trial: A – tillage system (A1 – ploughing at a depth of 22–24 cm; A2 – harrowing at a depth of up to 10 cm; B – crop rotation (B1 – continuous wheat; B2 – oilseed rape and wheat; B3 – crop rotation. The mycobiota of grain were determined by mycological and molecular methods. The most abundant and widespread of the mycobiota were Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Alternaria spp., Arthrinium spp., and Fusarium avenaceum. Higher amounts of precipitation increased the infection of grains with Fusarium fungi. Seven species of Fusarium were identified in the grain samples: F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. acuminatum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. tricinctum. The soil tillage method and crop rotation did not influence the total incidence of Fusarium spp., but the abundance of a particular species differed depending on agronomic practice. The research suggests that continuous wheat sowing under conditions of reduced soil tillage can increase the level of risk of grain infection with F. graminearum and, consequently, the accumulation of mycotoxins.

  19. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Cui, Zhengyong; Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  20. Preliminary studies on the popping characteristics of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, R.M.E.

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to specify and describe the appropriate stages of pop processing of three sorghum varieties (Safra, Engaz and Edo) then selection suitable variety for pop production and the association between its chemical composition and the ability of popping. The proximate chemical composition of the three tested sorghum varieties during the stages of processing to pop the poly phenols (phytic acid and tannins) beside starch and some minerals (the macro elements potassium, calcium and the microelements, iron and zinc) were determined. The range of chemical composition of raw sorghum varieties were as follows: moisture 8.57-9.13%; ash 1.51-2.16%; crude fat 3.39-3.62%; protein 9.06-18.58%; carbohydrates 67.41-76.58; starch 65.23-74.66; tannins 0.3.3-0.28 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.90-4.93 mg/100 g; iron 3.43-4.58 mg/100 g; calcium 5.17-11.26 mg/100 g; zinc 1.48-2.78 mg/100 g; potassium 198.80-387.78 mg/100 g. The results showed significant difference between the three sorghum varieties. The chemical composition of the boiled stage were: moisture 11.80-13.06%; ash 1.49-2.12 %; crude fat 3.63-3.79%; crude protein 10.32-18.50%; carbohydrate 62.86-71.68; starch 64.14-74.10; tannin 0.12-0.18 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.39-3.69 mg/100 g; iron 4.44-5.45 mg/100g; calcium 9.26-20.19 mg/100g; zinc 1.33-2.43 mg/100g; potassium 184.62-266.08 mg/100g. The chemical composition of pop sorghum products gave: moisture 3.66-4.93%; ash 1.49-2.35%, crude fat 3.61-3.91%; crude protein 9.13-15.82%; carbohydrates 74.56-81.06%; starch 70.14-77.58%; tannins 0.29-0.34 mg/100g; phytic acid 0.93-2.23 mg/100g; iron 3.65-79 mg/100g; calcium 18.72-23.09 mg/100g; zinc 1.45-2.48 mg/100g; potassium 190.53-322.44 mg/100g. The variety Engaz was most acceptable in organoleptic evaluation in all the tested characters: color, flavors (odor and taste) and texture taking pop corn as the control followed by the variety Edo while Safra was least acceptable in popping the ability of the varieties for

  1. Preliminary studies on the popping characteristics of sorghum grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, R M.E. [Agricultural Research Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study was to specify and describe the appropriate stages of pop processing of three sorghum varieties (Safra, Engaz and Edo) then selection suitable variety for pop production and the association between its chemical composition and the ability of popping. The proximate chemical composition of the three tested sorghum varieties during the stages of processing to pop the poly phenols (phytic acid and tannins) beside starch and some minerals (the macro elements potassium, calcium and the microelements, iron and zinc) were determined. The range of chemical composition of raw sorghum varieties were as follows: moisture 8.57-9.13%; ash 1.51-2.16%; crude fat 3.39-3.62%; protein 9.06-18.58%; carbohydrates 67.41-76.58; starch 65.23-74.66; tannins 0.3.3-0.28 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.90-4.93 mg/100 g; iron 3.43-4.58 mg/100 g; calcium 5.17-11.26 mg/100 g; zinc 1.48-2.78 mg/100 g; potassium 198.80-387.78 mg/100 g. The results showed significant difference between the three sorghum varieties. The chemical composition of the boiled stage were: moisture 11.80-13.06%; ash 1.49-2.12 %; crude fat 3.63-3.79%; crude protein 10.32-18.50%; carbohydrate 62.86-71.68; starch 64.14-74.10; tannin 0.12-0.18 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.39-3.69 mg/100 g; iron 4.44-5.45 mg/100g; calcium 9.26-20.19 mg/100g; zinc 1.33-2.43 mg/100g; potassium 184.62-266.08 mg/100g. The chemical composition of pop sorghum products gave: moisture 3.66-4.93%; ash 1.49-2.35%, crude fat 3.61-3.91%; crude protein 9.13-15.82%; carbohydrates 74.56-81.06%; starch 70.14-77.58%; tannins 0.29-0.34 mg/100g; phytic acid 0.93-2.23 mg/100g; iron 3.65-79 mg/100g; calcium 18.72-23.09 mg/100g; zinc 1.45-2.48 mg/100g; potassium 190.53-322.44 mg/100g. The variety Engaz was most acceptable in organoleptic evaluation in all the tested characters: color, flavors (odor and taste) and texture taking pop corn as the control followed by the variety Edo while Safra was least acceptable in popping the ability of the varieties for

  2. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  3. The potential of rapid visco-analysis starch pasting profiles to gauge the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production

    OpenAIRE

    Ha H. Truong; Ali Khoddami; Amy F. Moss; Sonia Y. Liu; Peter H. Selle

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen extensively characterised grain sorghum varieties were evaluated in a series of 7 broiler bioassays. The efficiency of energy utilisation of broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets is problematic and the bulk of dietary energy is derived from sorghum starch. For this reason, rapid visco-analysis (RVA) starch pasting profiles were determined as they may have the potential to assess the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. In review, it was found that co...

  4. Fusariotoxins in Wheat Grain in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stepanić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of wheat grain (41, collected during the 2010 harvest from seven localities inSerbia, were analysed for the presence of zearalenone (ZEA, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DONand fumonisine B1 (FB1. Results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA showedthat all analysed samples were positive for the presence of at least one of four observedfusariotoxins. The most distributed mycotoxins were ZEA (90.2%, with the average concentrationof 442.6μg kg–1 and T-2 (90.2%, with the average concentration of 24.2 μg kg–1.DON (73.2% and FB1 (84.4% were detected in a somewhat smaller number of samples, buttheir average concentrations were higher (1988.1 μg DON kg–1 and 882.7 μg FB1 kg–1. Theestablished correlations between concentrations of DON and FB1 (r = 0.32 or DON and ZEA(r = 0.22 were not statistically significant. A negative correlation was established betweenconcentrations of T-2 and FB1 (r= -0.24, as well as, between T-2 and DON (r = -0.36. Detectedconcentrations of ZEA and T-2 were bellow the level prescribed by the World Health Organisation(WHO, while concentrations of FB1 and DON detected in five that is, 17 samples,respectively, were above the permissible limit for human consumption

  5. Natural Variation in Grain Composition of Wheat and Related Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica AM; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-01-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23−26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. P...

  6. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  7. Economic Evaluation of Cookie made from blend of Brewers′ Spent Grain (BSG, Groundnut cake and Sorghum Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawoye Babatunde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bakery and pastry products such as cookies are usually produced from wheat flour and as such contribute to high foreign exchange for tropical countries where such cereal is not cultivated. In view of this, we evaluated the engineering economics for the utilization of dried brewers′ spent grain, groundnut cake and sorghum flour in the industrial production of cookies. The production was based on the assumption that the cash flow was uniform over the plant life (i.e. 10 years with no salvage value. The equipment required for the production process was identified and estimates obtained from equipment manufactures. The production of the cookies was based on constant mass flow rate of 90 packets/min. The effects of uncertainties on cookie production were evaluated by varying the operation days (330, 300 and 250 days and also by varying the price of some key variables required for the production processes. The results indicate that the capital cost (fixed and working capital and the annual production cost (APC were US$1.39×106 and US$10.08×106/year, respectively. The after tax annual revenue was US$1.63×106/yr. The return on investment (ROI, single payback period (SPBP, discounted payback period, gross margin and internal rate of return (IRR of the plant were 63%, 1.58 years, 2.08 years, 23% and 77.52%, respectively. The result also showed that the production plant is feasible and could be operated for 330, 300 and 250 days. The difference between operation times lies in the profitability, which decreases as the number of days reduces. Based on the result of this analysis, brewers’ spent grain, groundnut cake, and sorghum flour can be utilized in industrial production of cookies with guaranteed profitability.

  8. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  10. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  12. Relationship between color and tannin content in sorghum grain: application of image analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sedghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sorghum grain color and tannin content was reported in several references. In this study, 33 phenotypes of sorghum grain differing in seed characteristics were collected and analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu method. A computer image analysis method was used to determine the color characteristics of all 33 sorghum phenotypes. Two methods of multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN models were developed to describe tannin content in sorghum grain from three input parameters of color characteristics. The goodness of fit of the models was tested using R², MS error, and bias. The computer image analysis technique was a suitable method to estimate tannin through sorghum grain color strength. Therefore, the color quality of the samples was described according three color parameters: L* (lightness, a* (redness - from green to red and b* (blueness - from blue to yellow. The developed regression and ANN models showed a strong relationship between color and tannin content of samples. The goodness of fit (in terms of R², which corresponds to training the ANN model, showed higher accuracy of prediction of ANN compared with the equation established by the regression method (0.96 vs. 0.88. The ANN models in term of MS error showed lower residuals distribution than that of regression model (0.002 vs. 0.006. The platform of computer image analysis technique and ANN-based model may be used to estimate the tannin content of sorghum.

  13. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndimba, R., E-mail: rminnis@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Institute for Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (South Africa); Grootboom, A.W.; Mehlo, L.; Mkhonza, N.L. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biosciences, Pretoria (South Africa); Kossmann, J. [Institute for Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (South Africa); Barnabas, A.D.; Mtshali, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that poor digestibility in sorghum can be addressed by using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress kafirin synthesis. The approach resulted in a twofold improvement in overall protein digestibility levels. In the present study, the effect of this targeted kafirin suppression on other grain quality parameters was investigated. Several significant changes in the proximate composition, amino acid profile and the bulk mineral content were detected. Importantly, the most limiting amino acid, lysine, was significantly increased in the transgenic grains by up to 39%; whilst mineral elements in the bulk, such as sulphur (S) and zinc (Zn) were reduced by up to 15.8% and 21% respectively. Elemental mapping of the grain tissue, using micro-PIXE, demonstrated a significant decrease in Zn (>75%), which was localised to the outer endosperm region, whilst TEM revealed important changes to the protein body morphology of the transgenic grains.

  14. Neutrophilic respiratory tract inflammation and peripheral blood neutrophilia after grain sorghum dust extract challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; O'Neill, D P; McGranaghan, S; Olenchock, S A; Rennard, S I

    1995-11-01

    To determine if inhalation of grain sorghum dust in the laboratory would cause neutrophilic upper and lower respiratory tract inflammation in human volunteers, as well as systemic signs of illness. Prospective. University of Nebraska Medical Center. Thirty normal volunteers. Inhalation challenge with 20 mL of a nebulized solution of filter-sterilized grain sorghum dust extract (GSDE). One group received prednisone, 20 mg for 2 days, prior to the challenge. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after challenge, with samples collected as bronchial and alveolar fractions. Findings included visible signs of airways inflammation, quantified as the bronchitis index. The percentage of bronchial neutrophils was significantly increased in those challenged with GSDE vs the control solution, Hanks' balanced salt solution (40.3 +/- 4.5% vs 14.3 +/- 5.1%, p grain dust extract. To explain the increase in peripheral blood neutrophil counts, the capacity of the peripheral blood neutrophils to migrate in chemotaxis experiments was examined. The results demonstrate an increase in peripheral blood neutrophils and an increase in chemotactic responsiveness. Inhalation challenge with a grain dust extract causes respiratory tract inflammation and a peripheral blood neutrophilia. One reason for this may be an increase in activated peripheral blood neutrophils.

  15. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  16. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  17. Ammonium as sole N source improves grain quality in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; González-Torralba, Jon; Arregui, Luis M; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, M Begoña; Estavillo, José M

    2013-07-01

    The skilful handling of N fertilizer, including N source type and its timing, is necessary to obtain maximum profitability in wheat crops in terms of production and quality. Studies on grain yield and quality with ammonium as sole N source have not yet been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N source management (nitrate vs. ammonium), and splitting it into two or three amendments during the wheat life cycle, on grain yield and quality under irrigated conditions. This experiment demonstrates that Cezanne wheat plants growing with ammonium as exclusive N source are able to achieve the same yield as plants growing with nitrate and that individual wheat plants grown in irrigated pots can efficiently use late N applied in GS37. Ammonium nutrition increased both types of grain reserve proteins (gliadins and glutenins) and also increased the ratio gli/glu with respect to nitrate nutrition. The splitting of the N rate enhanced the ammonium effect on grain protein composition. The application of ammonium N source, especially when split into three amendments, has an analogous effect on grain protein content and composition to applications at a higher N rate, leading to higher N use efficiency. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Comparative characteristics of grain classifications of soft wheat of Kazakhstan and major grain-producing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Shaimerdenova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft wheat is one of the most important crops, grown in more than 130 countries. To date, one-fifth of the world's wheat, or about 150 million tons a year, is sold on international markets. In the world trade traditionally dominated by the US, Australia, Canada and Argentina. Kazakhstan, being on the 15th place in the production of wheat grain, is among the first ten exporters - in 2017 the country exported about 8 million tons to the amount of 1.5 billion dollars. USA, then, as potential export opportunities are much higher, as evidenced by annual carryover stocks at 3 million tons. According to experts, considerable differences in the classification of wheat grain used in Kazakhstan and in other countries participating in the grain market and the methods for assessing the technological dignity indicators (TDs laid down in the classifications are a significant obstacle to increasing the export potential of wheat grains. In view of this, an analysis was made of grain classifications of wheat grains used in the most important grain producing countries, TD indicators were determined, methods for their evaluation, and differences were revealed. It is established that in countries that are stable in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain, an insignificant list of TD indicators is adopted, while they characterize the physical quality and state of the grain, which may indicate a general suitability for grinding. It is determined that in Russia and Kazakhstan, in determining the contamination, such an indicator as dockage is not taken into account. Comparative tests of different methods of sampling and determination of contamination have been carried out, and correlation coefficients have been established between indicators of contamination determined by different methods.

  19. Aminoacid composition of wheat grain gluten under microbe impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova М. G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on characteristics of gluten, protein and aminoacids content in wheat grain under the impact of microbe preparations including bacteria of Azotobacter and Bacillus geni, which inhabit plant rhizosphere. The increase of aminoacids leveland particularly the level of essential aminoacids in wheat grain under bacterization was demonstrated, this fact accounting for the quality of grain as an important protein source. Increase of aminoacids content with the use of biopreparations on low-fertile soil ensures acquisition of biologically valuable grain with the decrease of mineral fertilizers dosage and emphasizes the role of biopreparations in the production of ecologically pure high quality products. The latter is due to introdcution of environmentally safe agricultural methods.

  20. The microwave propagation and backscattering characteristics of vegetation. [wheat, sorghum, soybeans and corn fields in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    A semi-empirical model for microwave backscatter from vegetation was developed and a complete set of canope attenuation measurements as a function of frequency, incidence angle and polarization was acquired. The semi-empirical model was tested on corn and sorghum data over the 8 to 35 GHz range. The model generally provided an excellent fit to the data as measured by the correlation and rms error between observed and predicted data. The model also predicted reasonable values of canopy attenuation. The attenuation data was acquired over the 1.6 to 10.2 GHz range for the linear polarizations at approximately 20 deg and 50 deg incidence angles for wheat and soybeans. An attenuation model is proposed which provides reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  1. Effect of waxy (Low Amylose) on Fungal Infection of Sorghum Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Sattler, Scott E; O'Neill, Patrick M; Eskridge, Kent M; Pedersen, Jeffrey F

    2015-06-01

    Loss of function mutations in waxy, encoding granule bound starch synthase (GBSS) that synthesizes amylose, results in starch granules containing mostly amylopectin. Low amylose grain with altered starch properties has increased usability for feed, food, and grain-based ethanol. In sorghum, two classes of waxy (wx) alleles had been characterized for absence or presence of GBSS: wx(a) (GBSS(-)) and wx(b) (GBSS(+), with reduced activity). Field-grown grain of wild-type; waxy, GBSS(-); and waxy, GBSS(+) plant introduction accessions were screened for fungal infection. Overall, results showed that waxy grains were not more susceptible than wild-type. GBSS(-) and wild-type grain had similar infection levels. However, height was a factor with waxy, GBSS(+) lines: short accessions (wx(b) allele) were more susceptible than tall accessions (undescribed allele). In greenhouse experiments, grain from accessions and near-isogenic wx(a), wx(b), and wild-type lines were inoculated with Alternaria sp., Fusarium thapsinum, and Curvularia sorghina to analyze germination and seedling fitness. As a group, waxy lines were not more susceptible to these pathogens than wild-type, supporting field evaluations. After C. sorghina and F. thapsinum inoculations most waxy and wild-type lines had reduced emergence, survival, and seedling weights. These results are valuable for developing waxy hybrids with resistance to grain-infecting fungi.

  2. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  3. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely ...

  4. Effect of Agromorphological Diversity and Botanical Race on Biochemical Composition in Sweet Grains Sorghum [Sorghum Bicolor (L. Moench] of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbéwendé Sawadogo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is an under-harvested crop in Burkina Faso. It is grown mainly for its sweet grains in the pasty stage. However, the precocity of the cycle and the sweet grains at pasty stage make it an interesting plant with agro-alimentary potential during the lean season. This study was carried out to identify the main sugars responsible for the sweetness of the grains at the pasty stage and their variation according to the agro-morphological group and the botanical race. Thus, the grains harvested at the pasty stage of fifteen (15 accessions selected according to the agro-morphological group and botanical race were lyophilized and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results reveal the presence of four (4 main carbohydrates at pasty stage of grains such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and starch. Analysis of variance revealed that these carbohydrates discriminate significantly the agro-morphological groups and the botanical races. Moreover, with exception of the sucrose, the coefficient of determination (R2 values shows that the agro-morphological group factor has a greater effect on the expression of glucose, fructose and starch than the botanical race. Group III and caudatum race have the highest levels of fructose and would be the sweetest. While group IV and the guinea-bicolor race with the low value of fructose would be the least sweet. Fructose is therefore the main sugar responsible for the sweetness of the pasty grains of sweet grains sorghum.

  5. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Saqib, M.; Rafique, Q.; Rahman, A.U.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.U.

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

  6. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  7. Pre-harvest Sprouting and Grain Dormancy in Sorghum bicolor: What Have We Learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto L. Benech-Arnold

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining sorghum grains with quality to match the standards for a diversity of end-uses is frequently hampered by the susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS displayed by many elite genotypes. For these reasons, obtaining resistance to PHS is considered in sorghum breeding programs, particularly when the crop is expected to approach harvest maturity under rainy or damp conditions prevalence. As in other cereals, the primary cause for sprouting susceptibility is a low dormancy prior to crop harvest; in consequence, most research has focused in understanding the mechanisms through which the duration of dormancy is differentially controlled in genotypes with contrasting sprouting behavior. With this aim two tannin-less, red-grained inbred lines were used as a model system: IS9530 (sprouting resistant and Redland B2 (sprouting susceptible. Redland B2 grains are able to germinate well before reaching physiological maturity (PM while IS9530 ones can start to germinate at 40–45 days after pollination, well after PM. Results show that the anticipated dormancy loss displayed by Redland B2 grains is related reduced embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA and increased levels of GA upon imbibition. In turn, transcriptional data showed that ABA signal transduction is impaired in Redland B2, which appears to have an impact on GA catabolism, thus affecting the overall GA/ABA balance that regulates germination. QTL analyses were conducted to test whether previous candidate genes were located in a dormancy QTL, but also to identify new genes involved in dormancy. These analyses yielded several dormancy QTL and one of them located in chromosome 9 (qGI-9 was consistently detected even across environments. Fine mapping is already in progress to narrow down the number of candidate genes in qGI-9.

  8. Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Five Sorghum Cultivars under Different Irrigation Regimes in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vahidi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Reduction of the forage and grain yield of sorghum genotypes under different levels of deficit irrigation has been reported. The plants that have higher water use efficiency (WUE, have a better chance of survival in arid regions. On average, WUE of sorghum in clay, loamy soil has been reported equal to 1.46 kg m-3. Effects of drought stress and different levels of nitrogen on yield of two cultivars of sorghum were investigated and results showed significant effects on plant height, leaf area index, fresh and dry weight of leaf, dry weight of stem and forage yield. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of deficit irrigation on grain yield and WUE of sorghum cultivars in Kerman. Materials and Methods This study has been conducted in the research station of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with 56o 58' E longitude, 30o 15' N latitude and 1753.8 altitudes. According to the regional information from 1952 to 2005, the average temperature is 17.1 oC, the average rainfall is 154.1 mm, the average annual relative humidity is 32%. The climate of Kerman according to De Martonne method can be classified as semiarid. The experimental design was split-plot based on RCBD with three replications. Three levels of irrigation (after 50, 80 and 110 mm evaporation from class A pan were assigned to the main plots and the five sub-plots of sorghum cultivars (Speedfeed, Pegah, Payam, Sepideh and Kimia. On the 20th of May all sorghum cultivars were planted at the distance of 10 cm from each other on ridges. On the 7th of October, with considering margins, four square meters of the two middle lines were selected to determine the grain and biological yield. The samples were weighed with a digital scale and heated for 48 hours in the degree of 75 oC-and then the dry weight of each samples were measured again. Finally, the data were analyzed by SAS software (v. 9.1. Comparision of the averages attributes was performed using, Duncan

  9. Rheological studies during the storage on irradiated wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbagoury, O.H.; Rizk, T.Y.; Sharabash, M.T.M.; Hammad, A.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Wheat grains T. aestivum cv. Giza 157 were irradiated with different doses starting from O up to 320 krad at room temperature and good ventilation. It was declared that specific density of grains, as well as the contents of flour, pollards and oil were not affected significantly. On the other side. bran was increased by extending the shelf-life of grains, whilst it was decreased as the dosage increased. Meanwhile, the interaction between gamma rays and storage had suppression effects on the total protein in grains. Farinograph test on wheat dough showed that both water absorption and dough weaking were increased, whilst the time needed for dough development, dough stability and Valorimeter number were decreased as affected by the increase in both the magnitude of gamma ray dosage and the time of storage. Also, the extensograph test on wheat dough showed that its resistance tended to be higher, whereas, both dough extensibility and its strength were decreased. Meanwhile, the proportional number was increased as the dosage and the time of storage increased. 2 tabs

  10. Rheological studies during the storage on irradiated wheat grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbagoury, O H; Rizk, T Y [Agron Dept., Fac. of Agric., Ain shams University, Cairo, (Egypt); Sharabash, M T.M.; Hammad, A H.A. [National Center for Research and Radiation Tech. Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Wheat grains T. aestivum cv. Giza 157 were irradiated with different doses starting from O up to 320 krad at room temperature and good ventilation. It was declared that specific density of grains, as well as the contents of flour, pollards and oil were not affected significantly. On the other side. bran was increased by extending the shelf-life of grains, whilst it was decreased as the dosage increased. Meanwhile, the interaction between gamma rays and storage had suppression effects on the total protein in grains. Farinograph test on wheat dough showed that both water absorption and dough weaking were increased, whilst the time needed for dough development, dough stability and Valorimeter number were decreased as affected by the increase in both the magnitude of gamma ray dosage and the time of storage. Also, the extensograph test on wheat dough showed that its resistance tended to be higher, whereas, both dough extensibility and its strength were decreased. Meanwhile, the proportional number was increased as the dosage and the time of storage increased. 2 tabs.

  11. The Effect of Irrigation Intervals and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Chlorophyll Index, Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of irrigation intervals and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chlorophyll index, yield and yield components of grain sorghum. A factorial experiment was done based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at the Agriculture Research Station faculty of Agriculture, Bu- Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days with three levels of seed inoculation (control without inoculation, inoculation with Glomus mossea and inoculation with G. intraradices were the experimental treatments. Results indicated that the effect of irrigation intervals and mycorrhizal fungi were significant for traits of chlorophyll index, percentage of root symbiosis (PRS, number of grain per panicle, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and harvest index (HI. Maximum value for each trait was observed at G. mossea treatment. G. mossea treatment in comparison with G. intraradices and control treatment can increase the grain yield of sorghum up to 6.80 and 23.10%, respectively. Also, with increasing irrigation interval from 7 to 21 days, PRS increased up to 27.9%. Maximum value for grain yield (755 g m-2 was achieved at irrigation every 14 days and application of G. mossea treatment. But, there was no significant difference between irrigation sorghum plants every 14 days and application of G. mossea and irrigation every 7 days and application of either G. mossea or G. intraradices. In general, irrigation of sorghum plants every 14 days and supplying of G. mossea can produce the highest grain yield, while decreasing water consumption for sorghum production.

  12. 77 FR 34915 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Grain Sorghum Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... biodiesel and renewable diesel. Regulated categories include: NAICS \\1\\ Examples of potentially regulated.... If an ethanol facility is interested in transporting DG long distances to sell to distant feedlots... transport includes emissions from transporting bushels of harvested grain sorghum from the farm to ethanol...

  13. The effects of irradiation on grain coat color and grain texture in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Bingliang; Liu Xueyu

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of the variety ''Yangmai 5'' with red grain coat, semihard grain texture, and the variety ''Ningmai 3'' with red grain coat, soft grain texture were irradiated with Y-rays at various doses.The effect on M1 grain coat color was different between two varieties, the higher doses made grain coat color of ''Yangmai 5'' redder, but had hardly effect on ''Ningmai 3''.The effect on M1 grain texture showed that the grain texture became softer with doses increased.It was found that there were 0.6% of positive ( red to white ) grain coat color mutants and 2.0% of negative(hard to soft) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Yangmai 5'', and there were 0.7% of negative ( white to red ) grain coat color mutants and 3.6% of positive ( soft to hard ) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Ningmai 3''. It seemed that the positive mutants selected in M3 were stable in M4. The results showed that γ-rays can be used to improve the grain coat color andgrain texture of wheat varieties

  14. Grain-filling duration and grain yield relationships in wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Nine stable mutants of bread wheat along with their mother cultivars were investigated for grain-filling characteristics in relation to grain yield. Significant differences among mutants for grain-filling duration and grain-filling index were observed. Inspite of the consistent differences in grain-filling duration there was no significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield in C-591 and Nayab mutants. Failure to detect an yield advantage due to differences in grain-filling duration in these genotypes suggests that any advantage derived from alteration of grain-filling period may have been outweighed by the coincident changes in length of the vegetative period. Other factors such as synchrony of anthesis may have limited out ability to find an association between grainfilling duration and grain yield. On the contrary, significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield displayed by indus-66 indus-66 mutants derived from gamma rays, shows the ability of gamma rays to induce functional alternations in the pattern of gene arrangements controlling these traits. Thus, the vaability observed in these physiological traits suggests that selection for these traits could be useful in improving grain yield. (author)

  15. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  16. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen......Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...

  17. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  18. Genetic analysis for grain quality traits in pakistani wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, N.M.; Ajmal, S.U.; Iqbal, Z.; Munir, M.

    2014-01-01

    A set of eight parental diallel involving seven commercial wheat cultivars and one breeding line was made to investigate the nature of gene action determining inheritance pattern of grain quality characters. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for 1000 grain weight, protein content, wet gluten and lysine content. Adequacy tests were employed to estimate the fitness of data sets to additive dominance model. Both the tests i.e. analysis of uniformity of Wr, Vr and joint regression analysis validated the data of these traits for genetic analysis. Gene actions for grain quality traits were ascertained following Hayman's analysis of variance. Results of the genetic analysis revealed that both additive and dominance genetic components were involved in the manifestation of characters under study. However, additive gene effects were more pronounced in the genetic control of these traits. Non significance of b1, b2 and b3 values revealed the absence of directional dominance, symmetrical distribution of genes among the parental lines and absence of specific genes action respectively in all the traits. Maternal effects were also noted in 1000 grain weight, protein content and wet gluten percentage. It is concluded that additive effects are crucial in the expression of grain quality characters of wheat in germplasm under study and single plant selection may be recommended in segregating generations for effective improvement in these characters. (author)

  19. GT Biplot Analysis for Silage Potential, Nutritive Value, Gas and Methane Production of Stay-Green Grain Sorghum Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Mahmut; Arslan, Mustafa; Kale, Hasan; Kara, Kanber; Kokten, Kagan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the possible silage of stay-green sorghum genotypes using GT biplot analysis. Following the grain harvest, 41 sorghum genotypes were chopped to make silage. Biochemical analyses were performed after 60 d of silage. The results revealed that green herbage yields varied between 13.40-65.96 t ha−1, pH between 3.92-4.25, dry matter ratios between 24.26-35.83%, crude protein ratios between 3.44-7.03%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) ratios between 27.46-...

  20. Grain sorghum stillage recycling: Effect on ethanol yield and stillage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg, R P; Sweeten, J M; Coble, C G

    1985-12-01

    Stillage obtained from ethanol production of grain sorghum was separated into two fractions: thin stillage and wet solids. A portion of the thin stillage was recycled as cooking water in subsequent fermentation runs using both bench- and full-scale ethanol production plants. When thin stillage replaced 50-75% of the cooking water, large increases occurred in solids content, COD, and EC of the resulting thin stillage. It was found that while the volume of thin stillage requiring treatment or disposal was reduced, there was little reduction in the total pollutant load. Stillage rcycling had little effect on the quality of the stillage wet solids fraction. At the high levels of stillage recycle used, ethanol yield was reduced after three to five runs of consecutive recycling.

  1. Regression and direct methods do not give different estimates of digestible and metabolizable energy values of barley, sorghum, and wheat for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, O A; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    Direct or indirect methods can be used to determine the DE and ME of feed ingredients for pigs. In situations when only the indirect approach is suitable, the regression method presents a robust indirect approach. Three experiments were conducted to compare the direct and regression methods for determining the DE and ME values of barley, sorghum, and wheat for pigs. In each experiment, 24 barrows with an average initial BW of 31, 32, and 33 kg were assigned to 4 diets in a randomized complete block design. The 4 diets consisted of 969 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg plus minerals and vitamins for the direct method; a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD); the RD + 300 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg; and the RD + 600 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg. The 3 corn-soybean meal diets were used for the regression method. Each diet was fed to 6 barrows in individual metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation followed by a 5-d period of total but separate collection of feces and urine in each experiment. Graded substitution of barley or wheat, but not sorghum, into the RD linearly reduced ( direct method-derived DE and ME for barley were 3,669 and 3,593 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The regressions of barley contribution to DE and ME in kilocalories against the quantity of barley DMI in kilograms generated 3,746 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,647 kcal ME/kg DM. The DE and ME for sorghum by the direct method were 4,097 and 4,042 kcal/kg DM, respectively; the corresponding regression-derived estimates were 4,145 and 4,066 kcal/kg DM. Using the direct method, energy values for wheat were 3,953 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,889 kcal ME/kg DM. The regressions of wheat contribution to DE and ME in kilocalories against the quantity of wheat DMI in kilograms generated 3,960 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,874 kcal ME/kg DM. The DE and ME of barley using the direct method were not different (0.3 direct method-derived DE and ME of sorghum were not different (0.5 direct method- and regression method-derived DE (3,953 and 3

  2. Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyalai-Korpos, Miklós; Mangel, Réka; Alvira, Pablo; Dienes, Dóra; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Réczey, Kati

    2011-07-01

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid, and formic acid). The aim of our study was to utilize the liquid fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw as a carbon source for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30. Results showed that without detoxification, the fungus failed to utilize any dilution of the hydrolyzate; however, after a two-step detoxification process, it was able to grow on a fourfold dilution of the treated liquid fraction. Supplementation of the fourfold-diluted, treated liquid fraction with washed pretreated wheat straw or ground wheat grain led to enhanced cellulase (filter paper) activity. Produced enzymes were tested in hydrolysis of washed pretreated wheat straw. Supplementation with ground wheat grain provided a more efficient enzyme mixture for the hydrolysis by means of the near-doubled β-glucosidase activity obtained.

  3. Transport rates and concentration gradients during grain filling in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term mass transport rates into wheat ears were calculated at mid grain fill from 32 PO 4 translocation velocities and sieve tube sap concentrations in the peduncle. Over a wide range of velocities (8.5 to 170 cm/hr), sieve tube sap concentrations (514 to 1050 milliosmolal) and grains per ear (20 to 54 in intact ears, as few as 7 in partially degrained ears), there were no evident differences in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle. Increased sieve tube sap concentration was accompanied in the endosperm cavity sap by increased sucrose concentration, but amino acid concentration and total osmolality remained essentially constant. Thus the rate of transport into the grains appeared to remain constant in spite of altered concentration gradients across the crease tissues of the grain and changing sucrose concentration in the endosperm cavity. The constancy of endosperm cavity sap osmolality suggests that osmoregulatory processes in the grain may play a role in regulating transport rate into the grain

  4. Genetic controls on starch amylose content in wheat and rice grains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... cuboid in appearance and smaller than wheat or maize. (figure 3; Kaur et al. 2007). ..... gaps in our knowledge. Due to the hexaploid ...... Makino A 2011 Photosynthesis, grain yield, and nitrogen utilization in rice and wheat.

  5. Assessment of sorghum germplasm from Burkina Faso and South Africa to identify new sources of resistance to grain mold and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is an important worldwide crop whose yield can be significantly reduced by anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) and grain mold diseases (multiple fungi). The identification of new genetic sources of resistance to both diseases is imperative for the development of new sorghum varieties. T...

  6. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and H2O fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum and maize in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) fields in the Texas High Plains were quantified using the eddy covariance (EC) technique during 2014-2016 growing seasons and examined in...

  7. Effect of Plant Density and Weed Interference on Yield and Yied Components of Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Weed control is an essential part of all crop production systems. Weeds reduce yields by competing with crops for water, nutrients, and sunlight. Weeds also directly reduce profits by hindering harvest operations, lowering crop quality, and producing chemicals which are harmful to crop plants. Plant density is an efficient management tool for maximizing grain yield by increasing the capture of solar radiation within the canopy, which can significantly affect development of crop-weed association. The response of yield and yield components to weed competition varies by crop and weeds species and weeds interference duration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of weed interference periods and plant density on the yield and yield components of sorghum. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of plant density and weeds interference on weeds traits, yield and yield components of sorghum (Var. Saravan, an experiment was conducted as in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in South Khorasan province during year of 2013. Experimental treatments consisted of three plant density (10, 20 and 30 plants m-2 and four weeds interference (weed free until end of growth season, interference until 6-8 leaf stage, interference until stage of panicle emergence, interference until end of growth season. Measuring traits included the panicle length, number of panicle per plant, number of panicle per m2, number of seed per panicle, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, number and weight of weeds per m2. Weed sampling in each plot have done manually from a square meter and different weed species counted and oven dried at 72 °C for 48 hours. MSTAT-C statistical software used for data analysis and means compared with Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Results and Discussion Results showed that

  8. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  9. Characterization of vegetative and grain filling periods of winter wheat by stepwise regression procedure. II. Grain filling period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, rate and duration of dry matter accumulation and remobilization depend on genotype and growing conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate polynomial regression of stepwise regression procedure for describing grain filling period in three winter wheat cultivars. The stepwise regression procedure showed that grain filling is a complex biological process and that it is difficult to offer a simple and appropriate polynomial equation that fits the pattern of changes in dry matter accumulation during the grain filling period, i.e., from anthesis to maximum grain weight, in winter wheat. If grain filling is to be represented with a high power polynomial, quartic and quintic equations showed to be most appropriate. In spite of certain disadvantages, a cubic equation of stepwise regression could be used for describing the pattern of winter wheat grain filling.

  10. Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinka Zecevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is important factor which influence yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. For this reason, in scientific investigations is constantly investigated optimization of plant number per unit area. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeding rate in grain quality of winter wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted with four winter wheat genotypes ('Ana Morava', 'Vizija', 'L-3027', and 'Perla' at the Small Grains Research Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia, in 3 yr at two seeding rates (SR1 = 500 and SR2 = 650 germinating seeds m-2. The 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, and wet gluten content in divergent wheat genotypes were investigated depending on the seeding rate and ecological factors. Significant differences in quality components were established between investigated seeding rates. The highest values of all investigated quality traits were established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2. Genotypes reacted differently to seeding rate. 'Perla' in average had the highest mean sedimentation value (42.2 mL and wet gluten content (33.76% in SR2 variant and this cultivar responded the best to seeding rate. Significant differences for sedimentation value and wet gluten content were found among cultivars, years, seeding rate, and for all their interactions. Also, ANOVA for 1000-kernel weight showed highly significant differences among investigated varieties, seeding rate and growing seasons, but all their interactions were not significant. In all investigated genotypes, better quality was established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2.

  11. The Effect of Silicon on some Morpho-physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hasibi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, salinity is one of the limiting factors for crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. is a self-pollinated and short-day plant, which partly has been adapted to salinity and water stress conditions; also play an important role in humans, livestock and poultry nourishments. All studies have showed the positive effects of Silicon on growth and yield of plants in both normal and stress conditions. The aim of this experiment was to improve salinity tolerance of Sorghum by application of Silicon. Materials and Methods A split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications in both normal and salt stress conditions was carried out at research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2013. Silicon treatments (0 and 6 mM were considered as main plot and various sorghum genotypes (payam, sepideh, TN-4-70, TN-04-71, TN-04-39, TN-04-107, TN-04-100, TN-04-37, TN-04-68, TN-04-83, TN-04-62 and TN-04-95 were assigned to sub plots. The sodium silicate was used as silica source. The data were analyzed by SAS software using combine analysis. Means comparisons were accomplished by Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Some of the measured traits were as follow: Relative water content (Ritchie and Nguyen, 1990, Relative permeability (33, leaf area index and chlorophyll index (by SPAD. Results and Discussion According to the results, use of silicon led to increase of RWC under salinity stress, while RWC decreased by 13% when no silicon applied. Salinity significantly decreased 1000-grain weight. Maximum grain yield obtained from TN-04-37 (987.6 g m-2 under normal condition with foliar application of silicon. Application of silicon under stress condition led to 38% increase in grain yield of Sepideh compared to control. Under salt stress, silicon also increased shoot dry weight in TN-04-107, TN-04-70, TN-04-37, Payam and Sepideh genotypes

  12. Reducing agent and exogenous protease additions, individually and in combination, to wheat- and sorghum-based diets interactively influence parameters of nutrient utilisation and digestive dynamics in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Selle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility that tandem inclusions of a reducing agent and a protease may advantage chicken-meat production and to ascertain if the established benefits of including sodium metabisulphite in sorghum-based diets extend to wheat-based diets. The study comprised a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of treatments in which either nutritionally iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic wheat- or sorghum-based diets, without and with sodium metabisulphite (2.75 g/kg, without and with protease (1,000 units/kg were offered to broiler chickens from 7 to 28 days post–hatch. The effects of dietary treatments on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, protein (N and starch digestibility coefficients and digestive dynamics were determined. A preliminary investigation into the effects of two treatments on concentrations of free amino acids and glucose in the portal circulation was conducted. There was significant feed grain by sodium metabisulphite interactions (P = 0.03 to 0.005 for parameters of nutrient utilisation (AME, ME:GE ratios, N retention, AMEn. For example, sodium metabisulphite inclusions in sorghum-based diets enhanced AME by 0.18 MJ (12.47 versus 12.29 MJ/kg but depressed AME by 0.43 MJ (11.88 versus 12.31 MJ/kg in wheat-based diets. There was a linear relationship between starch:protein disappearance rate ratios in the distal ileum with weight gain (r = −0.484; P = 0.0012 indicating that condensed ratios (or absorption of more protein relative to starch advantaged growth performance. Concentrations of free amino acids in the portal circulation or the post-enteral availability of certain amino acids, including the branched-chain amino acids, methionine, phenylalanine and threonine, were significantly correlated to FCR. For example, threonine concentrations were negatively correlated to FCR (r = −0.773; P = 0.005. Finally, tandem inclusions of sodium metabisulphite and protease in

  13. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  15. Development of a vegetable spreadable paste made from sorghum and millet whole grain flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Aimaretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: current nutritional guidelines recommend increasing the consumption of products based on whole grain cereals since they are rich in dietary fibers and bioactive components. The technological and sensory properties of these products are still a challenge for the food industry. The aim of the study was increase the availability of whole-grain based products through the development of aspreadable vegetable paste, pâté-type, suitable for the increasing celiac population.Material and Methods: sorghum and millet whole grain flours were obtained. The rest of the ingredients were evaluated and selected according to the characteristics desired for the product. The centesimal composition of the paste as well as its sensory properties and life time were analyzed.Results: the ingredients selected were (in %: margarine (16.7, sugar (1.1, salt (1.1, ascorbic acid (2.0, calcium propionate (0.3, pregelatinized starch (2.7, soy protein (25.1 and xanthan gum (0.5. The life time was followed for 28 days across (i chemical analysis of: humid (55.5-51.3%, p-value = 0.000741, peroxide index (<0.1 meqO2/Kg acid index (4.3-6.2 mgK(OH/g; (ii microbiological counts of: clostridium, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp (absence, aerobic mesophiles, total coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and moulds and yeasts which (<100; (iii sensory evaluation (acceptable.Conclusions: a spreadable paste was obtained which was 100% vegetable with organoleptic properties similar to those of a pâté, which can be stored for a period of 28 days.

  16. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  17. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  18. Relationships between early spring wheat streak mosaic severity levels and grain yield: Implications for management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus, which is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), is a major yield-limiting disease in the Texas High Plains. In addition to its impact on grain production, the disease reduces water-use efficiency by affecting root develo...

  19. The relationship between polyamines and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd, spermine (Spm, and putrescine (Put, were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin (Z + zeatin riboside (ZR, abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs, were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat.

  20. The Relationship between Polyamines and Hormones in the Regulation of Wheat Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Dandan; Wu, Wei; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA) are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and putrescine (Put), were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH) and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs), were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat. PMID:24205154

  1. Distribution of gluten proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Paola; Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis; He, Jibin; Shewry, Peter R

    2011-07-01

    Gluten proteins are the major storage protein fraction in the mature wheat grain. They are restricted to the starchy endosperm, which forms white flour on milling, and interact during grain development to form large polymers which form a continuous proteinaceous network when flour is mixed with water to give dough. This network confers viscosity and elasticity to the dough, enabling the production of leavened products. The starchy endosperm is not a homogeneous tissue and quantitative and qualitative gradients exist for the major components: protein, starch and cell wall polysaccharides. Gradients in protein content and composition are the most evident and are of particular interest because of the major role played by the gluten proteins in determining grain processing quality. Protein gradients in the starchy endosperm were investigated using antibodies for specific gluten protein types for immunolocalization in developing grains and for western blot analysis of protein extracts from flour fractions obtained by sequential abrasion (pearling) to prepare tissue layers. Differential patterns of distribution were found for the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (HMW-GS) and γ-gliadins when compared with the low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (LMW-GS), ω- and α-gliadins. The first two types of gluten protein are more abundant in the inner endosperm layers and the latter more abundant in the subaleurone. Immunolocalization also showed that segregation of gluten proteins occurs both between and within protein bodies during protein deposition and may still be retained in the mature grain. Quantitative and qualitative gradients in gluten protein composition are established during grain development. These gradients may be due to the origin of subaleurone cells, which unlike other starchy endosperm cells derive from the re-differentiation of aleurone cells, but could also result from the action of specific regulatory signals produced by the maternal tissue

  2. The potential of rapid visco-analysis starch pasting profiles to gauge the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha H. Truong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen extensively characterised grain sorghum varieties were evaluated in a series of 7 broiler bioassays. The efficiency of energy utilisation of broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets is problematic and the bulk of dietary energy is derived from sorghum starch. For this reason, rapid visco-analysis (RVA starch pasting profiles were determined as they may have the potential to assess the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. In review, it was found that concentrations of kafirin and total phenolic compounds were negatively correlated with peak and holding RVA viscosities to significant extents across 13 sorghums. In a meta-analysis of 5 broiler bioassays it was found that peak, holding, breakdown and final RVA viscosities were positively correlated with ME:GE ratios and peak and breakdown RVA viscosities with apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn to significant extents. In a sixth study involving 10 sorghum-based diets peak, holding and breakdown RVA viscosities were positively correlated with ME:GE ratios and AMEn. Therefore, it emerged that RVA starch pasting profiles do hold promise as a relatively rapid means to assess sorghum quality as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. This potential appears to be linked to quantities of kafirin and total phenolic compounds present in sorghum and it would seem that both factors depress RVA starch viscosities in vitro and, in turn, also depress energy utilisation in birds offered sorghum-based diets. Given that other feed grains do not contain kafirin and possess considerably lower concentrations of phenolic compounds, their RVA starch pasting profiles may not be equally indicative.

  3. Characterization of novel multi-seeded (msd) mutants of sorghum for increasing grain number

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tribe Andropogoneae of the Poaceae family exhibits highly branched inflorescence known as panicle or tassel. Characteristically, each spikelet in a panicle or tassel comprise of a combination of sessile/fertile and sterile florets. In sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), the existing cultivars ...

  4. Registration of four post-flowering drought tolerant grain sorghum lines with early season cold tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) germplasm lines— PSLS-SGCTB01 (Reg. No.), PSLS-SGCTR02 (Reg. No.), PSLS-SGCTB03 (Reg. No.) and PSLS-SGCTB04 (Reg. No.) — were developed by the USDA-ARS in Lubbock TX, in 2017. The primary purpose for the release of these lines is to provide an alternative germplasm ...

  5. A Comparative Classification of Wheat Grains for Artificial Neural Network and Extreme Learning Machine

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Muhammet Fatih; SABANCI, Kadir; YİĞİT, Enes; KAYABAŞI, Ahmet; TOKTAŞ, Abdurrahim; DUYSAK, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, classification of two types of wheat grainsinto bread and durum was carried out. The species of wheat grains in thisdataset are bread and durum and these species have equal samples in the datasetas 100 instances. Seven features, including width, height, area, perimeter,roundness, width and perimeter/area were extracted from each wheat grains. Classificationwas separately conducted by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM)artificial intelligence techn...

  6. Genetic dissection of grain size and grain number trade-offs in CIMMYT wheat germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability.

  7. Wheat grain mechanical vulnerability to mechanical damage in light of the recent agrophysical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper contains basic information on mechanical damage to wheat grains. The most important causes of mechanical damage and some of its effects in manufacturing are discussed. Grain material included 5 varieties of winter wheat and 2 varieties of spring wheat. Internal mechanical damage was examined by X-ray technique; external damage was examined with the colorimeter method. The results obtained were compared with the estimation results of more important processing features of the grain: gluten quantity and quality and grain hardness. (author)

  8. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grzesiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat caryopses of the cvs. Grana and Jana were tested. Viability was determined on the basis of germination capacity and rate, and vigour on the basis of the over-all activity of hydrogenases in the sprouts, exudate conductometry, analysis of sprout growth, oxygen uptake and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts. What is called energy (or rate of germination and over-all dehydrogenase activity in embryos and sprouts and the electroconductivity of exudates were found to be very good measures of the vigour of ageing caryopses. The latter two indices of vigour should be determined at a strictly defined moment of swelling and germination. Good measures of caryopse vigour are also respiration during swelling and at the beginning of germination and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts or seedlings. There is a high correlation between the vigour of ageing grain and its bioenergetic indices.

  10. Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filev, K.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F 1 and F 2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F 1 and segregation in F 2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F 1 , suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F 1 was observed. In the F 2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F 2 , a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

  11. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less tha...

  12. Assessment of annual effective dose from natural radioactivity intake through wheat grain produced in Faisalabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufail, M.; Sabiha-Javied; Akhtar, N.; Akhter, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat is staple food of the people of Pakistan. Phosphate fertilizers, used to increase the yield of wheat, enhance the natural radioactivity in the agricultural fields from where radionuclides are transferred to wheat grain. A study was, therefore, carried out to investigate the uptake of radioactivity by wheat grain and to determine radiation doses received by human beings from the intake of foodstuffs made of wheat grain. Wheat was grown in a highly fertilized agricultural research farm at the Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan. The activity concentration of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th was measured in soil, single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer, and wheat grain using an HPGe-based gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil to wheat grain transfer factors determined for 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were 0.118 ± 0.021, 0.022 ± 0.004 and 0.036 ± 0.007, respectively, and the annual effective dose received by an adult person from the intake of wheat products was estimated to be 217 μSv. (author)

  13. Drought Stress Effect during Different Growth Stages on Yield, Osmolites and Photosynthetic Pigments Accumulation of Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Azari Nasrabad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Osmotic adjustment in plants can be achieved by the accumulation of compatible solution or metabolites. These compounds are known as compatible metabolites that accumulate naturally in tolerant plants due to non-interference in the normal metabolic response of plants to adapt or supplement. Proline, soluble sugars and other metabolites accumulation that are involved in osmotic adjustment have been reported for various plants. Different studies show that water absorption in sorghum plant, is due to osmotic adjustment and appropriate and fairly extensive root system. Moreover, there are some differences from genotype to genotype regarding the osmolites accumulation under drought stress conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drought in the vegetative and reproductive growth stages on yield, its components and biochemical traits in grain sorghum genotypes. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effect of water stress on grain yield and its components and some biochemical traits in grain sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L., a field experiment as a split plot design was carried out with 3 replications in 2014 at the research farm of the southern Khorasan Agriculture and natural resources research and education center. Water stress treatments including normal irrigation (control, irrigation cut off in vegetative growth stage (emergence of terminal leaf as rolled and irrigation cut off in generative growth stage (50% of plants in start of flowering as the main plot and 10 genotypes of sorghum including KGS29, MGS2, Sepideh, KGFS27, MGS5, KGFS5, KGFS17, KGFS13 and KGFS30 were considered as sub plots. Each plot consists of 4 rows with a length of 6 m and row spacing of 60 cm, between plants on row was 10 cm. In addition, between each plot and the adjacent plot a row was considered to side effect reduction. To determine the yield components of each plot, half a meter in length was harvested and the

  14. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single...

  15. Aflatoxin B1 and total fumonisin contamination and their producing fungi in fresh and stored sorghum grain in East Hararghe, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Wondimeneh; Ayalew, Amare; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla

    2016-12-01

    Natural contamination of sorghum grains by aflatoxin B 1 and total fumonisin and their producing toxigenic fungi has been studied. A total of 90 sorghum grain samples were collected from small-scale farmers' threshing floors and 5-6 months later from underground pits during 2013 harvest from three districts of East Hararghe, Ethiopia. Mycotoxin analysis was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The limits of detection were in the range 0.01-0.03 μg kg -1 . The results revealed that all sorghum grain samples were contaminated with both Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Aflatoxin B 1 was detected at levels ranging from fumonisin levels varied between 907 and 2041 µg kg -1 grain across the samples. Lowest total fumonisin was recorded in freshly harvested sorghum grain samples. Sorghum is a main staple cereal in the studied districts and its consumption per day per person is high. Daily intake of low doses of mycotoxin-contaminated food stuff over a period of time could lead to chronic mycotoxicosis.

  16. Novel Field Data on Phytoextraction: Pre-Cultivation With Salix Reduces Cadmium in Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Maria; Landberg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health hazard, and up to 43% of human Cd intake comes from wheat products, since Cd accumulates in wheat grains. Salix spp. are high-accumulators of Cd and is suggested for Cd phytoextraction from agricultural soils. We demonstrate, in field, that Salix viminalis can remove Cd from agricultural soils and thereby reduce Cd accumulation in grains of wheat subsequently grown in a Salix-treated field. Four years of Salix cultivation reduce Cd concentration in the soil by up to 27% and in grains of the post-cultivated wheat by up to 33%. The higher the plant density of the Salix, the greater the Cd removal from the soil and the lower the Cd concentration in the grains of post-cultivated wheat, the Cd reduction remaining stable several years after Salix cultivation. The effect occurred in both sandy and clayey soil and in winter and spring bread wheat cultivars. Already one year of Salix cultivation significantly decrease Cd in post grown wheat grains. With this field experiment we have demonstrated that phytoextraction can reduce accumulation of a pollutant in post-cultivated wheat and that phytoextraction has no other observed effect on post-cultivated crops than reduced uptake of the removed pollutant.

  17. Sugarcane Aphid Population Growth, Plant Injury, and Natural Enemies on Selected Grain Sorghum Hybrids in Texas and Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Gordy, John W; Kerns, David L; Woolley, James B; Rooney, William L; Bowling, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    In response to the 2013 outbreak of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), in North America, experiments were conducted at three southern U.S. grain sorghum production locations (Corpus Christi, TX; Winnsboro, LA; Rosenberg, TX). The objectives were to authenticate yield decline on susceptible hybrids (2014 and 2015) and to measure aphid population growth and natural enemy prevalence on susceptible and resistant hybrids with similar genetic background (2014). Yield decline on susceptible hybrids (Tx 2752/Tx430 and DKS53-67) was more substantial when aphid population growth accelerated quickly and peaked above 300 aphids per leaf (50 to nearly 100% yield decline). Location and year variation in maximum aphid density and cumulative aphid-days was high, with doubling time values on the susceptible hybrids ranging between 3.9 and 7.9 d. On resistant Tx2752/Tx2783, leaf injury and yield decline were not seen or less severe than on its paired susceptible Tx2752/Tx430. Aphids declined on Tx2752/Tx2783 after initial colony establishment (Corpus Christi) or took about 60% longer to double in population size when compared with Tx2572/Tx430 (Winnsboro). The predominant natural enemy taxa were aphelinid mummies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and sryphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), and they were more prevalent during flowering than prior to flowering. They were generally responsive to changes in aphid density of both susceptible and resistant hybrids, but variability points to need for further study. In future research, full season observations should continue as well as more detailed study of potential compatibility of sorghum resistance and biological control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Relationship between fungal contamination and ergosterol content and control of wheat grain spoilage by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; Aziz, N.H.; El-Zeany, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The fungal flora and the ergosterol content of wheat grains were determined and the effect of gamma-irradiation on some important grain fungi to control mould spoilage of wheat grains was also investigated. At the start of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of wheat grains were 3.3μg/g and 3x10 3 /g, respectively and the technological values as germinative capacity and fat acidity were wholly satisfactory. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of the grains were 45.5 μg/g and 80x10 5 /g, respectively and all the germinative capacity and fat acidity values were not satisfactory. The ergosterol content of wheat grains irradiated at a dose level 3 kGy was 0.5 μg/g and the number of moulds were 8x10 2 /g. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content of the 3 kGy irradiated grains was 0.90 μg/g and the number of moulds were 15x10 2 /g and all the technological values were satisfactory. The fungal biomass and the ergosterol content of some grains fungi were decreased by increasing the irradiation dose levels. At irradiation dose level 4 kGy, there was no ergosterol in wheat grains and the moulds were completely inhibited and the technological values are wholly satisfactory over 50 days of storage

  19. Production of aflatexin B1 in wheat grains under different environmental storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Bothaina, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Fungal flora of stored wheat grains and the production of aflatoxin B 1 by Aflavus in wheat grains under different environmental conditions were examined. Aspergillus, Penicillium,. Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicouccum, Verticilium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Altenaria were the predominant fungi isolated from the collected non-disinfected grains. Aspergillus spp, were only isolated from surface disinfected grains. Of 223 aspergillus spp, isolates only 128 found to aflatoxin producing and all aflatoxin producing-fungi belonged to the Aflavus group. Results demonstrate that Aflavus could produce maximum concentration of aflatoxin B 1 in grains at 20% moisture (163.5 MOU g/kg). The highest concentration of aflatoxin B 1 was produced by Aflavus (10 5 spores/g) in wheat grains with 20% moisture after 20 days at 30 degree and 92.40 % R.H. The aflatoxin production did not increase monotonously as a function of inoculum density

  20. Dhurrin metabolism in the developing grain of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench investigated by metabolite profiling and novel clustering analyses of time-resolved transcriptomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Janniche; Stuart, Peter; Pičmanová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The important cereal crop Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench biosynthesize and accumulate the defensive compound dhurrin during development. Previous work has suggested multiple roles for the compound including a function as nitrogen storage/buffer. Crucial for this function is the endogenous...... turnover of dhurrin for which putative pathways have been suggested but not confirmed. Results: In this study, the biosynthesis and endogenous turnover of dhurrin in the developing sorghum grain was studied by metabolite profiling and time-resolved transcriptome analyses. Dhurrin was found to accumulate...... analyses coupled with metabolite profiling, identified gene candidates involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in sorghum. Conclusions: The results presented in this article reveal the existence of two endogenous dhurrin turnover pathways in sorghum, identify genes putatively involved...

  1. The Mathematical Modeling Effective Viscosity of Whole Minced Wheat Grain Dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the change of rheological properties of whole minced wheat grain dough during fermentation with additives. Retrieving dependencies to predict and manage effective viscosity of dough fermentation.

  2. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  3. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  4. High-throughput micro plate vanillin assay for determination of tannin in sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum tannins are phenolic compounds that offer health promoting antioxidant properties. The conventional HCl-vanillin assay for determining tannin content is a time-consuming method for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeder nursery samples. The objective of ...

  5. Nitrogen levels and yeast viability during ethanol fermentation of grain sorghum containing condensed tannins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, J T; NeSmith, C

    1988-01-01

    Selected varieties of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, give high crop yields and they also return to favorable energy balance in terms of energy calories produced per cultural energy invested. The brown, condensed-tannin, bird- and mold-resistant varieties illustrate these advantages, but their nutritional value and ability to support the expected rate of ethanol fermentation is significantly lower than that of non-brown sorghums. It has been previously shown that the addition of nitrogen to brown sorghum mash supports a high rate of fermentative metabolism without removing the tannins, and suggested that the basis for the inhibition of ethanol fermentation was nitrogen starvation of the yeast cells. In this investigation, it is demonstrated that the addition of protease enzyme to mash results in an increase in amino nitrogen sufficient to support accelerated rates of ethanol fermentation by yeast cells. Thus, the hypothesis commonly cited in the literature that the presumed inhibitor, condensed tannins, function to reduce fermentative metabolism solely via the binding and precipitation of proteins is rejected.

  6. Early prediction of wheat quality: analysis during grain development using mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghirardo, A.; Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Petersen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis have been used for the determination of wheat quality at different stages of grain development. Wheat varieties with one of two different end-use qualities (i.e. suitable or not suitable...... data analysis, offers a method that can replace the traditional rather time-consuming ones such as gel electrophoresis. This study focused on the determination of wheat quality at 15 dpa, when the grain is due for harvest 1 month later....

  7. Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha−1 (0 to 47% higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting.

  8. Analysis of grain filling process to the varied meteorological conditions in winter wheat [Triticum aestivum] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of varied meteorological conditions on the grain filling periods, stabilities of yield and quality of winter wheat cultivars with different maturity characteristics (cv. Ayahikari, Norin61, Bandowase, and Tsurupikari). In the field experiments, the meteorological treatments were made during the first heading time on 17 April 2001 and the middle heading time on 24 April 2000. Air temperature, global solar radiation and soil moisture were controlled using a rain shelter, cheesecloth and irrigation system. The growth speed and growth period of wheat grains varied among four winter wheat cultivars, depending on meteorological conditions. The growth speed increased within 1 8.4 deg C of mean air temperature over the 30 days after the anthesis. On the other hand, it was found that the growth speed of wheat grains and the maximum number of wheat grains (Ymax) decreased greatly with the 44.4% interception of global solar radiation. Logistic functions were fitted to the relationship between the relative thousand-kernel-weight (Y/Ymax) and the total integrated temperature (sigmaTa) after heading for all treatment conditions. The maximum weight of grains (Ymax) achieved at the harvest time varied somewhat clearly among four winter wheat cultivars and meteorological conditions. Multiple regression analysis showed that the grain yield (Ymax) of four wheat cultivars correlated positively with daily mean solar radiation. It was also found that the cultivar Ayahikari had a highly significant negative correlation between its grain weight and soil moisture. Namely, the grain weight of high soil moisture plot with pF=1.5 was lower by about 9% than that of a control plot with pF=3.5. On the other hand, the grain yield of cultivar Norin61 responded inversely to a wet environment, indicating that its grain weight was higher for high soil moisture and high wet-bulb temperature than for a dry environment. The grain yield of early varieties of Bandowase and

  9. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  10. Predictive statistical modelling of cadmium content in durum wheat grain based on soil parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, Yoann; Laurette, Julien; Denaix, Laurence; Gourdain, Emmanuelle; Méléard, Benoit; Nguyen, Christophe; Schneider, André; Sappin-Didier, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Regulatory limits on cadmium (Cd) content in food products are tending to become stricter, especially in cereals, which are a major contributor to dietary intake of Cd by humans. This is of particular importance for durum wheat, which accumulates more Cd than bread wheat. The contamination of durum wheat grain by Cd depends not only on the genotype but also to a large extent on soil Cd availability. Assessing the phytoavailability of Cd for durum wheat is thus crucial, and appropriate methods are required. For this purpose, we propose a statistical model to predict Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain based on soil geochemical properties related to Cd availability in French agricultural soils with low Cd contents and neutral to alkaline pH (soils commonly used to grow durum wheat). The best model is based on the concentration of total Cd in the soil solution, the pH of a soil CaCl 2 extract, the cation exchange capacity (CEC), and the content of manganese oxides (Tamm's extraction) in the soil. The model variables suggest a major influence of cadmium buffering power of the soil and of Cd speciation in solution. The model successfully explains 88% of Cd variability in grains with, generally, below 0.02 mg Cd kg -1 prediction error in wheat grain. Monte Carlo cross-validation indicated that model accuracy will suffice for the European Community project to reduce the regulatory limit from 0.2 to 0.15 mg Cd kg -1 grain, but not for the intermediate step at 0.175 mg Cd kg -1 . The model will help farmers assess the risk that the Cd content of their durum wheat grain will exceed regulatory limits, and help food safety authorities test different regulatory thresholds to find a trade-off between food safety and the negative impact a too strict regulation could have on farmers.

  11. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  12. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  13. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in grain production and nutrition of sorghum genotypes: Enhancing sustainability through plant-microbial partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and fertilization in sorghum grain production and quality was assessed for 3 hybrid genotypes, 2 open-pollinated African genotypes, and 1 open-pollinated Latin American genotype. The open-pollinated genotypes produced an average of 206% more vegetative b...

  14. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Phuke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01 indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc.

  15. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Characterizing bread wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdul; Farooq, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Hashmi, Khalid S; Nadeem, Faisal; Ullah, Aman

    2018-03-15

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency is a major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness. There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, they differed greatly in yield-related traits, grain mineral (Zn, calcium (Ca) and protein) concentrations and Zn bioavailability. Zinc application increased the concentration of Zn in wheat grain (32.1%), embryo (19.8%), aleurone (47%) and endosperm (23.7%), with an increase in bioavailable Zn (22.2%) and a reduction in phytate concentration (6.8%). Application of Zn also enhanced grain protein and Ca concentrations. Among wheat genotypes, Blue Silver had the highest concentration of Zn in grain, embryo, aleurone and endosperm, with high bioavailable Zn, while Kohinoor-83 had low phytate concentration. Wheat genotypes of Pakistan are genetically less diverse owing to continuous focus on the development of high-yielding varieties only. Therefore genetically diverse wheat genotypes with high endospermic Zn concentration and better grain yield should be used in breeding programs approaches, aiming at improving Zn bioavailability. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  18. Studies on the Effects of Climatic Factors on Dryland Wheat Grain Yield in Maragheh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of climate variables on rainfed wheat grain yield, climate data and wheat yield for 10 years (1995-2005 collected from Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI in Maragheh as the main station in cold and semi-cold areas. Collected data were analyzed by correlation coefficient, simple regression, stepwise regression and path analysis. The results showed that relationships between grain yield with average relative humidity and total rainfall of growing season was positive and significant at 5% and 1% probabilities, respectively. However, evaluation between grain yield with sunny hours and class A pan evaporation was negative and significant (p

  19. [Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, E I; Alekhina, N N; Bakaeva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (77.4%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus - 13.0%, zinc - 50.0%.

  20. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-11-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2]. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Tocotrienols and tocopherols in colored-grain wheat, tritordeum and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jaromír; Hejtmánková, Alena; Orsák, Matyáš; Popov, Marek; Martinek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Colored-grain spring and winter wheat, spring tritordeum and barley (blue aleurone, purple pericarp, and yellow endosperm) from the harvests 2014 and 2015 were evaluated for tocol contents by HPLC-FD. Higher content of total tocols was found in spring wheat varieties compared with winter varieties. Four tocols (β-tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, β-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol) were identified in wheat and tritordeum varieties. Dominant tocols in purple- and blue-grained wheat and yellow-grained tritordeum were α-tocopherol and β-tocotrienol, whereas spring barley varieties differed from wheat and tritordeum by high α-tocotrienol content. Tocol content was significantly affected by genotype and in a lesser extent in some varieties and lines also by rainfall and temperatures during crop year. Higher rainfall and lower temperatures caused in most varieties higher tocol contents. Purple- and blue-grained wheat lines with higher tocol, anthocyanin and phenolic acids with health benefits may be useful for breeding new varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships between the climate change and the grain filling of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is based on the material in a grain filling rate experiment of winter wheat and hourly weather data organised by Xinghua city of Jiangsu Province. The aims are to objectively evaluate the possible influences of the temperature, precipitation, sunshine at the different time of the same day on the grain filling rate of winter wheat. The grain filling rate evaluation model of climate change is firstly developed, and then, the model calculation results are compared with the observed data. The along the changes of the microclimate, changes of the grain filling rate of winter wheat, which is not same in the gradual, rapid and slow increase stages. The changes in grain filling rate of winter wheat, which were caused by variations of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration, showed periodic fluctuation. Variation in temperature resulted in 1.36 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; variation in precipitation resulted in -1.35 g d/sup -1/. (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; and variation in sunshine duration resulted in 0.07 g d/sup -1/ (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change. Three samples showed a grain filling rate change of 0.08 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/. These findings indicate that the increase in temperature and sunshine duration caused the elevation of grain filling rate, whereas the increase in precipitation decreased the grain filling rate. Therefore, monitoring and predication capability of Meteorological disasters, such as drought caused by high temperature, should be strengthened to ensure the favourable weather condition and improve the grain filling rate through scientific methods such as artificial precipitation. (author)

  3. Computer vision-based method for classification of wheat grains using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Kadir; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Toktas, Abdurrahim

    2017-06-01

    A simplified computer vision-based application using artificial neural network (ANN) depending on multilayer perceptron (MLP) for accurately classifying wheat grains into bread or durum is presented. The images of 100 bread and 100 durum wheat grains are taken via a high-resolution camera and subjected to pre-processing. The main visual features of four dimensions, three colors and five textures are acquired using image-processing techniques (IPTs). A total of 21 visual features are reproduced from the 12 main features to diversify the input population for training and testing the ANN model. The data sets of visual features are considered as input parameters of the ANN model. The ANN with four different input data subsets is modelled to classify the wheat grains into bread or durum. The ANN model is trained with 180 grains and its accuracy tested with 20 grains from a total of 200 wheat grains. Seven input parameters that are most effective on the classifying results are determined using the correlation-based CfsSubsetEval algorithm to simplify the ANN model. The results of the ANN model are compared in terms of accuracy rate. The best result is achieved with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.8 × 10 -6 by the simplified ANN model. This shows that the proposed classifier based on computer vision can be successfully exploited to automatically classify a variety of grains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Increased pericarp cell length underlies a major quantitative trait locus for grain weight in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Jemima; Simmonds, James; Minter, Francesca; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Snape, John; Uauy, Cristobal

    2017-08-01

    Crop yields must increase to address food insecurity. Grain weight, determined by grain length and width, is an important yield component, but our understanding of the underlying genes and mechanisms is limited. We used genetic mapping and near isogenic lines (NILs) to identify, validate and fine-map a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on wheat chromosome 5A associated with grain weight. Detailed phenotypic characterisation of developing and mature grains from the NILs was performed. We identified a stable and robust QTL associated with a 6.9% increase in grain weight. The positive interval leads to 4.0% longer grains, with differences first visible 12 d after fertilization. This grain length effect was fine-mapped to a 4.3 cM interval. The locus also has a pleiotropic effect on grain width (1.5%) during late grain development that determines the relative magnitude of the grain weight increase. Positive NILs have increased maternal pericarp cell length, an effect which is independent of absolute grain length. These results provide direct genetic evidence that pericarp cell length affects final grain size and weight in polyploid wheat. We propose that combining genes that control distinct biological mechanisms, such as cell expansion and proliferation, will enhance crop yields. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Comparison of Grain Yield and Some Characteristics of Hulled, Durum and Bread Wheat Genotypes Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Atar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the low grain yield they produce, the hulled wheat have become even more important in recent years because of their resistance to negative environmental conditions and healthy nutritional content. The research was carry out in order to comparison the yield and yield characteristics of durum (Kiziltan-91 and C-1252, hulled (Einkorn and Emmer and bread wheat (Tir varieties in Isparta ecological conditions in 2013-14 and 2014-15 vegetation periods. In both years, the highest grain yield was obtained in Kiziltan-91 variety (3992 and 3758 kg ha-1 respectively. The grain yield of hulled wheats in the first year (Einkorn 1269 kg ha-1, Emmer 2125 kg ha-1 was around Turkey averages. However, grain yield decreased of commercial wheat varieties due to the negative effect of high amount of rainfall in June in the second year, but considerably increased in (Einkorn 2150 kg ha-1, Emmer 2533 kg ha-1. N uptake was found to be lower in the than durum wheats. In terms of grain protein content, the highest values were obtained in Emmer variety (16.4%-15.3%.

  6. Proteomic analysis of the impacts of powdery mildew on wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Xinhao; Yang, Xiwen; Li, Yongchun; Wang, Chenyang; He, Dexian

    2018-09-30

    Powdery mildew of wheat is one of the major foliar diseases, causing significant yield loss and flour quality change. In this study, grain protein and starch response to powdery mildew infection were investigated. Total protein, glutenin and gliadin exhibited a greater increase in grains from infected wheat, while the content of total starch and amylopectin was decreased. Comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated that the overabundant protein synthesis-related proteins might facilitate the accumulation of storage proteins in grains from infected plants. The significant increase in triticin, serpin and HMW-GS in grains from infected wheat might relate to the superior gluten quality. In addition, overabundant carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins in grains from infected wheat were conducive to the depletion of starch, whereas the decreased abundance of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase might be related to the deficiency of starch synthesis. These results provide a deeper understanding on the change of wheat quality under powdery mildew infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... High general heritability of tyrosine (36.3%), arginine. (45.8%), lysine ... especially improving the amino acid composition of protein. Contents of wheat ...... or Triticale, low-protein diets for growing-finishing swine. Anim. Sci.

  8. Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) crop yield is significantly compromised by high temperature stress-induced male sterility, and is attributed to reduced cell wall invertase (CWI)-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in microspores and anthers leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch def...

  9. Chilean flour and wheat grain: tracing their origin using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Ma Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; González-Pérez, Claudio; Zapata San Martín, Nelson; López-González, Fernando; Lobos Ortega, Iris; Hernández-Hierro, Jose-Miguel

    2014-02-15

    Instrumental techniques such a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are used in industry to monitor and establish product composition and quality. As occurs with other food industries, the Chilean flour industry needs simple, rapid techniques to objectively assess the origin of different products, which is often related to their quality. In this sense, NIRS has been used in combination with chemometric methods to predict the geographic origin of wheat grain and flour samples produced in different regions of Chile. Here, the spectral data obtained with NIRS were analysed using a supervised pattern recognition method, Discriminat Partial Least Squares (DPLS). The method correctly classified 76% of the wheat grain samples and between 90% and 96% of the flour samples according to their geographic origin. The results show that NIRS, together with chemometric methods, provides a rapid tool for the classification of wheat grain and flour samples according to their geographic origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    the impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22.......0-22.9 % (S1) and 29.5-49.6 % (S2), which was consistent with the reduction in radiation. The reduction in LAI was partially compensated by increases in the fraction of the top and bottom leaf area to the total leaf area, which facilitated to intercept more solar radiation by the canopy. The decrease......Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate...

  11. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in fractions of wheat grains and in selected bakery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Elzbieta; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Smoczyński, S S

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) form a group of synthetic aromatic chemical compounds, commonly occurring in the environment as a result of industrialisation. Despite the ban on PCBs production, their wide application in the past resulted in their common occurrence in all elements of the environment. The lipophilic nature of the compounds resulting in their accumulation in live organisms and in the human body may trigger many harmful effects. The aim of this study was to determine the PCBs content in the selected species of wheat and in bakery products. The studies aiming at confirming possible correlation between the size of the grain of the selected species of wheat and the content of polychlorinated biphenyls were presented in this paper. Moreover, PCBs concentration in cereals' grains and in bread was compared. The PCBs content was defined in different sizes of grains species of wheat i.e. Opatka, Zyta, Elena and Almari. The study included also two kinds of wheat bread. PCBs were determined after the extraction with n-hexane followed by sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Gas chromatography analysis was conducted on a PU 4600 Unicam apparatus with an electron capture detector. The large variations in PCBs content depending on the grain size were confirmed. In the Opatka species the increase in the content of all determined congeners and the size of grain was confirmed. The lowest PCBs concentrations were in smallest grains (0,0090 mg/kg of fat), and the highest in the largest grains (0,0264 mg/kg of fat). In Zyta species PCBs content was also lowest in the smallest grains, however these results were not statistically significant. In the Elena species the increase in the PCBs content together with the increase in the grain size was confirmed. Basing on the determination coefficient it was found that the concentration of PCBs depends on the size of grains in 24%. The highest concentration of PCBs (0,0366 mg/kg of fat) was found in the largest grains, however differences

  12. Free and esterified carotenoids in pigmented wheat, tritordeum and barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paznocht, Luboš; Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Orsák, Matyáš; Eliášová, Marie; Martinek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Carotenoids are important phytonutrients responsible for the yellow endosperm color in cereal grains. Five carotenoids, namely lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, α- and β-carotene, were quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS in fourteen genotypes of wheat, barley and tritordeum harvested in Czechia in 2014 and 2015. The highest carotenoid contents were found in yellow-grained tritordeum HT 439 (12.16μg/gDW), followed by blue-grained wheat V1-131-15 (7.46μg/gDW), and yellow-grained wheat TA 4024 (7.04μg/gDW). Comparing carotenoid contents, blue varieties had lower whereas purple ones had the same or higher levels than conventional bread wheat. Lutein was the main carotenoid found in wheat and tritordeum while zeaxanthin dominated in barley. The majority of cereals contained considerable levels of esterified forms (up to 61%) of which lutein esters prevailed. It was assessed that cereal genotype determines the proportion of free and esterified forms. High temperatures and drought during the growing season promoted carotenoid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  14. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  15. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts and Evaluation of Adaptation Strategies for Grain Sorghum and Cotton Production in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, K.; Ale, S.; Bordovsky, J.; Hoogenboom, G.; Munster, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    The semi-arid Texas High Plains (THP) is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the United States. However, agriculture in the THP is faced with the challenges of rapid groundwater depletion in the underlying Ogallala Aquifer, restrictions on pumping groundwater, recurring droughts, and projected warmer and drier future climatic conditions. Therefore, it is imperative to adopt strategies that enhance climate change resilience of THP agriculture to maintain a sustainable agricultural economy in this region. The overall goal of this study is to assess the impacts of climate change and potential reduction in groundwater availability on production of two major crops in the region, cotton and grain sorghum, and suggest adaptation strategies using the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) Cropping System Model. The DSSAT model was calibrated and evaluated using data from the long-term cotton-sorghum rotation experiments conducted at Helms Farm near Halfway in the THP. After achieving a satisfactory calibration for crop yield (RMSE MACA) projected future climate datasets from nine CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) were used in this study. Preliminary results indicated a reduction in irrigated grain sorghum yield per hectare by 6% and 8%, and a reduction in dryland sorghum yield per hectare by 9% and 17% under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively. Grain sorghum future water use declined by about 2% and 5% under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively. Climate change impacts on cotton production and evaluation of several adaptation strategies such as incorporating heat and drought tolerances in cultivars, early planting, shifting to short season varieties, and deficit irrigation are currently being studied.

  16. Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Rossi Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115 were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and July in two harvesting seasons (2007 and 2008. The study was setup in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The effects of the year and sowing date when combined explained 93% of the grain yield variance. In 2007, the CD 105 and Safira cultivars had the highest grain yield (GY for all sowing dates. Only the BRS Guabiju and Safira cultivars possessed high baking quality for all sowing dates assessed. In 2008, the environmental conditions were favorable for superior GY, but the baking quality was inferior. Considering adapted cultivars and sowing dates, it is possible to maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat.

  17. Maternal effects of the English grain aphids feeding on the wheat varieties with different resistance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhu, Tong-Yi; Song, Yue; Wu, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2018-05-09

    The maternal effects of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae on offspring phenotypes and performance on wheat varieties with different resistance traits were examined. We found that both conditioning wheat varieties(the host plant for over 3 months) and transition wheat varieties affected the biological parameters of aphid offspring after they were transferred between wheat varieties with different resistance traits. The conditioning varieties affected weight gain, development time (DT), and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), whereas transition varieties affected the fecundity, r m , net reproductive rate, and fitness index. The conditioning and transition wheat varieties had significant interaction effects on the aphid offspring's DT, mean relative growth rate, and fecundity. Our results showed that there was obvious maternal effects on offspring when S. avenae transferred bwteen wheat varieties with different resistance level, and the resistance traits of wheat varieties could induce an interaction between the conditioning and transition wheat varieties to influence the growth, development, reproduction, and even population dynamics of S. avenae. The conditioning varieties affected life-history traits related to individual growth and development to a greater extent, whereas transition varieties affected fecundity and population parameters more.

  18. Integrated Process for Extraction of Wax as a Value-Added Co-Product and Improved Ethanol Production by Converting Both Starch and Cellulosic Components in Sorghum Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grain sorghum is a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production due to its high starch content, which is equivalent to that of corn, and has been successfully used in several commercial corn ethanol plants in the United States. Some sorghum grain varieties contain significant levels of surface wax, which may interact with enzymes and make them less efficient toward starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, wax can be recovered as a valuable co-product and as such may help improve the overall process economics. Sorghum grains also contain lignocellulosic materials in the hulls, which can be converted to additional ethanol. An integrated process was developed, consisting of the following steps: 1. Extraction of wax with boiling ethanol, which is the final product of the proposed process; 2. Pretreatment of the dewaxed grains with dilute sulfuric acid; 3. Mashing and fermenting of the pretreated grains to produce ethanol. During the fermentation, commercial cellulase was also added to release fermentable sugars from the hulls, which then were converted to additional ethanol. The advantages of the developed process were illustrated with the following results: (1 Wax extracted (determined by weight loss: ~0.3 wt % of total mass. (2 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using raw grains: 86.1 g/L. (3 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed grains: 106.2 g/L (23.3% improvement. (4 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed and acid-treated grains (1 wt % H2SO4 plus cellulase (CTec2: 117.8 g/L (36.8% improvement.

  19. Evaluation of Grain Quality in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines Under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To study drought stress effect on grain quality properties of wheat, an experiment was conductedusing 169 recombinant inbreed lines (RILS under water stress and non-stress condition and with two separated lattice designs. Grain yield, protein yield, protein content, volume of Zeleny sediment, grain hardness, water absorption, grain moisture content and grain dry matter were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among the lines for all traits. Moreover, comparison between two lines in two environmental conditions showed, the quality in bread wheat under drought stress conditions due to increment of protein yield is improved. Protein yield in both irrigation regimes has a significant and negative correlation with grain moisture and in the other hand, significant and positive correlation with the grain hardiness dry matter, Zeleny sedimentation and water intake in both conditions. The results showed that the identification of favorable quality characteristics in optimum and stressed conditions were possible and the lines with high grain quality can be used in breeding programs for improving of baking quality. Although some drought sensitive genotypes possessed a favorable baking quality but their grain yield was low.

  20. Spatial Variability Analysis of Within-Field Winter Wheat Nitrogen and Grain Quality Using Canopy Fluorescence Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain protein content (GPC is a key component when evaluating wheat nutrition. It is also important to determine wheat GPC before harvest for agricultural and food process enterprises in order to optimize the wheat grading process. Wheat GPC across a field is spatially variable due to the inherent variability of soil properties and position in the landscape. The objectives of this field study were: (i to assess the spatial and temporal variability of wheat nitrogen (N attributes related to the grain quality of winter wheat production through canopy fluorescence sensor measurements; and (ii to examine the influence of spatial variability of soil N and moisture across different growth stages on the wheat grain quality. A geostatistical approach was used to analyze data collected from 110 georeferenced locations. In particular, Ordinary Kriging Analysis (OKA was used to produce maps of wheat GPC, GPC yield, and wheat canopy fluorescence parameters, including simple florescence ratio and Nitrogen Balance Indices (NBI. Soil Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N content and soil Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR value in the study field were also interpolated through the OKA method. The fluorescence parameter maps, soil NO3-N and soil TDR maps obtained from the OKA output were compared with the wheat GPC and GPC yield maps in order to assess their relationships. The results of this study indicate that the NBI spatial variability map in the late stage of wheat growth can be used to distinguish areas that produce higher GPC.

  1. The Effect of Silicon on some Morpho-physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) under Salt Stress

    OpenAIRE

    S Hasibi; H Farahbakhsh; Gh Khajoeinejad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays, salinity is one of the limiting factors for crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a self-pollinated and short-day plant, which partly has been adapted to salinity and water stress conditions; also play an important role in humans, livestock and poultry nourishments. All studies have showed the positive effects of Silicon on growth and yield of plants in both normal and stress conditions. The aim of this exp...

  2. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu

    Full Text Available The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22 were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils.

  3. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...

  4. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  5. A proteomics survey on wheat susceptibility to Fusarium head blight during grain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Bonhomme, Ludovic; Lecomte, Philippe; Cambon, Florence; Merlino, Marielle; Biron, David Georges; Langin, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    The mycotoxigenic fungal species Fusarium graminearum is able to attack several important cereal crops, such as wheat and barley. By causing Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease, F. graminearum induces yield and quality losses and poses a public health concern due to in planta mycotoxin production. The molecular and physiological plant responses to FHB, and the cellular biochemical pathways used by F. graminearum to complete its infectious process remain still unknown. In this study, a proteomics approach, combining 2D-gel approach and mass spectrometry, has been used to determine the specific protein patterns associated with the development of the fungal infection during grain growth on susceptible wheat. Our results reveal that F. graminearum infection does not deeply alter the grain proteome and does not significantly disturb the first steps of grain ontogeny but impacts molecular changes during the grain filling stage (impact on starch synthesis and storage proteins). The differentially regulated proteins identified were mainly involved in stress and defence mechanisms, primary metabolism, and main cellular processes such as signalling and transport. Our survey suggests that F. graminearum could take advantage of putative susceptibility factors closely related to grain development processes and thus provide new insights into key molecular events controlling the susceptible response to FHB in wheat grains.

  6. A comprehensive survey of soft wheat grain quality in United States germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors, which work in combination to produce specific grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Along with these genetic and environmental factors, the adaptation of the genetics to the given growing environment...

  7. In vitro gas production of wheat grain flour coated with different fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gas production (GP) is a rapid method for feedstuffs assessment. A study was done to investigate wheat grain coated with hydrogenated tallow (HT) and hydrogenated palm oil (HP) of different fatty acids types and levels to study total gas production. Approximately, 200 mg (DM basis) of sample was weighed and inserted in ...

  8. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  9. Yield and grain quality of winter wheat under Southern Steppe of Ukraine growing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Корхова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three years study of the effect of sowing time and seed application rates on yield and grain quality of different varieties of winter wheat under the conditions of South Steppe of Ukraine were presented. It was found that winter wheat provides optimal combination of high yield and grain quality in case of sowing in October 10 with seed application rate of 5,0 million seeds/ha. The highest yield – 4,59 t/ha on average in 2011–2013 was obtained for the variety of Natalka when sowing in October 10 with seed application rate  of 5 million germinable seeds. With increasing seed application rate from 3 to 5 million seeds/ha, protein content in winter wheat was decreased by 0,3%, gluten – by 0,6%. The variety Natalka  formed the highest quality grains when sowing in October 20 with seed application rate of 3 million seeds/ha, in this case protein content was 15,8%, gluten – 32,9%. It is proved that early sowing time  – September 10 leads to yields reduction and grain   quality deterioration for all winter wheat varieties.

  10. Modelling fungal sink competitiveness with grains for assimilates in wheat infected by a biotrophic pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Hansart, Amandine; Sache, Ivan; Bancal, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Experiments have shown that biotrophic fungi divert assimilates for their growth. However, no attempt has been made either to account for this additional sink or to predict to what extent it competes with both grain filling and plant reserve metabolism for carbon. Fungal sink competitiveness with grains was quantified by a mixed experimental–modelling approach based on winter wheat infected by Puccinia triticina. Methods One week after anthesis, plants grown under controlled conditions were inoculated with varying loads. Sporulation was recorded while plants underwent varying degrees of shading, ensuring a range of both fungal sink and host source levels. Inoculation load significantly increased both sporulating area and rate. Shading significantly affected net assimilation, reserve mobilization and sporulating area, but not grain filling or sporulation rates. An existing carbon partitioning (source–sink) model for wheat during the grain filling period was then enhanced, in which two parameters characterize every sink: carriage capacity and substrate affinity. Fungal sink competitiveness with host sources and sinks was modelled by representing spore production as another sink in diseased wheat during grain filling. Key Results Data from the experiment were fitted to the model to provide the fungal sink parameters. Fungal carriage capacity was 0·56 ± 0·01 µg dry matter °Cd−1 per lesion, much less than grain filling capacity, even in highly infected plants; however, fungal sporulation had a competitive priority for assimilates over grain filling. Simulation with virtual crops accounted for the importance of the relative contribution of photosynthesis loss, anticipated reserve depletion and spore production when light level and disease severity vary. The grain filling rate was less reduced than photosynthesis; however, over the long term, yield loss could double because the earlier reserve depletion observed here would shorten the

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  12. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  13. Gamma-radiation control of the Sitophilus-orizae insect pest in the wheat grain storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    Insects produce very important grain lost in the cereal storage. This lost is highly variable according to the type of cereal and the stored time. The principal pest among coleopters is Sitophilus orizae which attacks wheat grains. Ionizing radiation allowed us to develope an alternative control method to the chemical insecticides which have serious disadvantages. Our results expressed as the DL 50 , showed a considerable reduction of adult life spanning from 250 Gy. Post-irradiation adquired sterility was observed in the stored grain due to the absence of descendents. (Autor) [es

  14. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

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    Yonglong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20 during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further information about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  15. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum cultivars from Burkina Faso.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Hilhorst, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Laane, N.C.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was

  17. Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na metabolização de acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae Glutathione S-transferase activity in acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen metabolization in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivumL. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa Novelli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade em plantas dos herbicidas acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em relação à atividade da glutationa S-transferase (GST em plantas de milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae. A atividade da GST foi detectada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após as aplicaç��es dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos do experimento consistiram de aplicação com água (controle, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 e oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. As maiores atividades de GST foram observadas na presença de acetochlor, principalmente às 48 horas após o tratamento. Esses aumentos foram 105, 148 e 118% em relação ao controle para milho, sorgo e trigo, respectivamente. É sugerido que a GST pode ter papel na degradação de acetochlor e pode ser uma das razões para a seletividade desse herbicida para essas culturas.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen herbicides plant selectivity, in relation to glutathione S-transferase activity (GST in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L (Poaceae plants. GST activity was detected 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment applications. The experiment's treatments consisted of spraying plants with water (control, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1`, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 and oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. The highest GST activities were observed in presence of acetochlor, mainly at 48 hours after treatment. These increments were 105, 148 and 118% when compared to maize, sorghum and wheat control groups, respectively. It is suggested that the GST may have a role in acetochlor degradation and it may be a reason for this herbicide's selectivity in these crops.

  18. Comparative analysis the selenium concentration in grains of wheat and barley species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, F.; Arif, M.; Munsif, F.; Ali, K.

    2016-01-01

    Macro and micro nutrients are essential for human health and growth development. It is reported that about three million people are suffering from nutrient deficiencies all over the world. Various sources are available like: vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and cereals to overcome these deficiencies. Among cereals, wheat and barley are main source to meet the requirement of this dietary element. Two year studies were conducted to investigate the Se concentration in grains of different wheat (T. aestivum L., T. turgidum L. and T. durum L.) and barley (H. spontaneum L. and H. vulgare L.) species originated from different parts of the world. Results indicated that the durum and emmer wheat grains contain higher Se level in both studied years (70.5 and 72.9 micro g kg-1 in 2012 and 74.1 and 73.2 microg kg-1 in 2013 respectively). Among H. spontaneum L. collected from six populations, Mahola population of barley showed remarkable variations in grain Se concentration ranged from 88.3-437.2 and 90.2-439.5 micro g kg-1 in 2012 and 2013 respectively. The information obtained from the findings helps in identifying the lines of wild barley that have more Se uptake and accumulation capability. According to the conclusion of the study that H. Spontaneum L. had greater genetic variation for Se as compare to other species of wheat and barley. (author)

  19. Comparison of corn, grain sorghum, soybean, and sunflower under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] constitute a large share of the annual total irrigated planted area in the central Great Plains. This study aimed to determine the effect of limited irrigation on grain yield, water use, and profitability of corn and soybean in comparison with ...

  20. Ochratoxin A and citrinin loads in stored wheat grains: impact of grain dust and possible prediction using ergosterol measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L

    2006-02-01

    Crop storage should be carried out under hygienic conditions to ensure safe products, but sometimes grain dust which has settled from previous storage may be left over and incorporated to the following stored grains. This paper describes the results obtained using a lab model developed in order to assess the impact of grain dust incorporation for its direct contribution as a contaminant but also as an inoculum in stored wheat. Settled grain dust (4 samples) released from Belgian grain storages were collected and analysed by HPLC for ergosterol, ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) content. For OTA and for ergosterol, there was a high degree of variability in concentrations found in the dust samples (from 17.3-318 ng g(-1) and from 39-823 microg g(-1), respectively) whilst for CIT, the range was less significant (from 137-344 ng g(-1)). Incorporation of grain dust into wheat storage contributed to an increase in the concentrations of mycotoxins in the stored grain. Dust acts as a contaminant and as an inoculum. According to these two ways, patterns of mycotoxin generation vary with the nature of the mycotoxin, the mycotoxigenic potential of dust and the water activity of the wheat. OTA and CIT showed a very versatile image when considering the amounts of toxins produced under the selected experimental conditions. The development of a robust tool to forecast the mycotoxigenicity of dust was based on the determination of ergosterol content as a general marker of fungal biomass. Present results suggest that this predictive tool would only be valid for predicting the contamination level of CIT and OTA at reasonable moisture content (14-20%). The potential risk of having highly contaminated batches from stock to stock may thus occur and this paper discusses possible pathways leading to OTA and CIT contamination either under wet or dry storage conditions. We therefore, recommend taking precautionary measures not only by controlling and maintaining moisture at a

  1. Relationship between grain colour and preharvest sprouting-resistance in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    BASSOI, M.C.; FLINTHAM, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since red alleles (R) of the genes that control grain colour are important for the improvement of preharvest sprouting resistance in wheat and there are three independently inherited loci, on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D of hexaploid wheat, it is possible to vary the dosage of dominant alleles in a breeding program. The objective of this work was to evaluate the dosage effect of R genes on preharvest sprouting, in a single seed descent population, named TRL, derived from the cross between Timgal...

  2. Variation in the Microbiome, Trichothecenes, and Aflatoxins in Stored Wheat Grains in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Song Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by fungal and bacterial species and their metabolites can affect grain quality and health of wheat consumers. In this study, sequence analyses of conserved DNA regions of fungi and bacteria combined with determination of trichothecenes and aflatoxins revealed the microbiome and mycotoxins of wheat from different silo positions (top, middle, and bottom and storage times (3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The fungal community in wheat on the first day of storage (T0 included 105 classified species (81 genera and 41 unclassified species. Four species had over 10% of the relative abundance: Alternaria alternata (12%, Filobasidium floriforme (27%, Fusarium graminearum (12%, and Wallemia sebi (12%. Fungal diversity and relative abundance of Fusarium in wheat from top silo positions were significantly lower than at other silo positions during storage. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in wheat were 13–34% higher in all positions at 3 months compared to T0, and mycotoxins in wheat from middle and bottom positions at 6 to 12 months were 24–57% higher than at T0. The relative abundance of toxigenic Aspergillus and aflatoxins were low at T0 and during storage. This study provides information on implementation and design of fungus and mycotoxin management strategies as well as prediction models.

  3. Combined Effect of Infrared and Gamma Radiation on Certain Insects in Stored Wheat Grains and Wheat Flour *

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Dosage mortality studies on the infrared radiation and combined effects with 1500 Gy gamma irradiation, which calculated to kill about 50% of adults, were applied to samples of 50 and 100 grams of wheat grains and flour containing newly emerged adults of T. granarium, T. castaneum, S. granarius and R. dominica. The time required to obtain thermal energy from infrared radiation that were lethal to those adults depends not only on the insect species but also on the heat retention characteristics of the grain or flour and the distances from source of radiation to materials. The dose of infrared (180 sec) at which the temperature attained to 64.8 degree C and 54.3 degree C on 50 and 100 g of wheat flour gave about 60.0 and 44.67% adult mortality for T. granarium and 58.67% and 39.33% adult mortality for T. castaneum on distance 4 cm, respectively. The combined gamma radiation (1500 Gy) with the same doses of infrared gave 96.0% and 86.0%, 90.0% and 78.0% adult mortalities for T. granarium and T. castaneum, respectively. At dose 240 sec infrared on 50 and 100 g of wheat grains which received 77 degree C and 69.7 degree C gave about 60.0% and 46.0% adult mortality for S. granarius and 56.67% and 42.67% for R. dominica on distance 4 cm, respectively, but the combination of 1500 Gy with the same dose of infrared gave 98.0% and 90.0% adult mortality for S. granarius and 94.0% and 88.0% adult mortality for R. dominica, respectively. By rising the time of exposure and reducing distance from IR source, the temperatures were gradually increased causing high adult mortalities. Finally, T. granarium, T. castaneum, and S. granarius were more sensitive than R. dominica.

  4. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria de Leonardis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L. subsp. turgidum (L. convar. durum (Desf. is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways.

  5. Agriproteomics of Bread Wheat: Comparative Proteomics and Network Analyses of Grain Size Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-07-01

    Agriproteomics signifies the merging of agriculture research and proteomics systems science and is impacting plant research and societal development. Wheat is a frequently consumed foodstuff, has highly variable grain size that in effect contributes to wheat grain yield and the end-product quality. Very limited information is available on molecular basis of grain size due to complex multifactorial nature of this trait. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteomics profiles from grains of wheat genotypes, Rye selection 111 (RS111) and Chinese spring (CS), which differ in their size. Significant differences in protein expression were found, including 33 proteins uniquely present in RS111 and 32 only in CS, while 54 proteins were expressed from both genotypes. Among differentially expressed proteins, 22 were upregulated, while 21 proteins were downregulated in RS111 compared to CS. Functional classification revealed their role in energy metabolism, seed storage, stress tolerance and transcription. Further, protein interactive network analysis was performed to predict the targets of identified proteins. Significantly different interactions patterns were observed between these genotypes with detection of proteins such as Cyp450, Sus2, and WRKY that could potentially affect seed size. The present study illustrates the potentials of agriproteomics as a veritable new frontier of plant omics research.

  6. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  7. Iron and zinc complexation in wild-type and ferritin-expressing wheat grain: implications for mineral transport into developing grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neal, Andrew L; Geraki, Kalotina; Borg, Søren

    2013-01-01

    of modified complexation of both metals in transgenic grain overexpressing wheat ferritin. For zinc, there is a consistent doubling of the number of complexing phosphorus atoms. Although there is some EXAFS evidence for iron phytate in ferritin-expressing grain, there is also evidence of a structure lacking......We have used synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and absorption techniques to establish both metal distribution and complexation in mature wheat grains. In planta, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals iron phytate and zinc phytate structures in aleurone cells...... of ferritin-expressing grains is quite different from that in wild-type grain. This may explain why the raised levels of minerals transported to the developing grain accumulate within the crease region of the transgenic grain....

  8. THE EFFECT OF ADDING WHOLE WHEAT GRAIN TO FEED MIXTURE ON SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS COMPOSITION IN GAME PHEASANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mean body weight of pheasant cocks (1226 g and hens (946.9 g receiving feed mixtures was lower than that of birds fed diets with wheat (♂ 1421.4 g, ♀ 953.2 g. The dressing percentage of both sexes pheasants fed wheat grain also (69.9% was only 0.3% lower than in birds receiving feed mixtures only (70.2%. The carcasses of birds (♂♀ fed the diet with whole wheat grain contained more breast muscles (251.2 g, leg muscles (198.8 g and other carcass components. The carcass percentage of breast muscles, leg muscles, wings and skin with fat was lower, and that of remainders of carcass higher in pheasants receiving wheat grain. In addition, the carcasses of pheasants (♂♀ fed the wheat diets were characterized by a higher weight of meat and fat and lower carcass meat and fat percentage.

  9. A study on toxic and essential elements in wheat grain from the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattibayeva, Damira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose M; Abuova, Altynai B; Baibatyrov, Torebek A; Kizatova, Maigul Z; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2016-03-01

    Little information is currently available about the content of different elements in wheat samples from the Republic of Kazakhstan. The concentrations of toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and U) and essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) elements in 117 sampled wheat grains from the Republic of Kazakhstan were measured. The results indicated that the mean and maximum concentrations of most investigated elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, Pb, and U) were higher in samples collected from southern Kazakhstan. The mean and maximum concentrations of toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed levels specified by European, FAO, or Kazakh legislation, although the hazard quotient (HQ) values for Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn were higher than 1 and the hazard index (HI) was higher than 1 for samples collected from all areas of Kazakhstan. This indicates that there should be concern about the potential hazards of the combination of toxic elements in Kazakh wheat.

  10. Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

  11. Effect of replacing maize grain and soybean meal with a xylose-treated wheat grain on feed intake and performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Jens; Hamann, Gregor; Steingaß, Herbert; Romberg, Franz-Josef; Landfried, Karl; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated wheat grain which was treated with xylose in aqueous Ca-Mg lignosulphonate solution at elevated temperatures (WeiPass®) in order to reduce ruminal degradation of starch and crude protein. The two tested isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets contained on dry matter (DM) basis either 16% maize grain and 6.4% soybean meal (Diet CON) or 17.8% xylose-treated wheat and 4.6% soybean meal (Diet Wheat). Thirty-six German Holstein dairy cows were assigned to one of the two groups according to parity, body weight after calving, and milk yield during the previous lactation. Data collection started at 21 d before the expected calving date until 120 d in milk. The average of DM intake, energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, and milk fat and protein yields (all given as kg/d) were 18.9, 28.7, 1.25, and 1.02 for Diet CON and 19.3, 32.5, 1.36, and 1.11 for Diet Wheat, respectively. Only ECM and milk protein yields were greater (p < 0.05) for cows receiving Diet Wheat. In conclusion, the xylose-treated wheat grain can replace maize grain and part of soybean meal in diets for lactating dairy cows and may be an alternative feedstuff depending on overall ration composition and availability and costs of grain sources.

  12. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Carvalho Jr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  13. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less than 100 micron of whole dust; bulk density; particle density; and ash content. PMID:3709482

  14. Evaluation of alternative microbial transglutaminase production from sorghum grain and distilled dried grains with solubles using computational simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Concepción Rodríguez-Castillejos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La enzima Transglutaminasa microbiana (MTGasa es ampliamente usada en la industria alimentaria como aditivo para mejorar las propiedades mecánicas y de textura de los alimentos. El proceso de producción de la enzima es caro debido al valor de los componentes del medio de fermentación utilizados, por ello se evaluó la posibilidad de utilizar materias primas baratas, como fuente de nutrientes para el crecimiento de Streptomyces mobaraensis. El estudio económico de la producción de MTGasa con una variedad de materias primas sería un proceso largo. El software de simulación de procesos industriales SuperPro Designer® v7.5 fue utilizado, basándose en datos obtenidos de fermentaciones a escala de banco, para estimar el consumo de servicios, costos de capital, costos de operación e ingreso por el producto. El modelo mostró el estimado de los costos de producción de MTGasa utilizando glucosa obtenida de la hidrólisis enzimática de granos de sorgo y suplementada con granos secos destilados con solubles (DDGS por sus siglas en inglés, Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles. En la planta productora de MTGasa, utilizando hidrolizados enzimáticos, se obtuvo una ganancia bruta anual de 12,326 x 106 US$ y un tiempo de recuperación de la inversión de 4.01 años.

  15. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal strategy for zinc mycoremediation and diminished translocation to shoots and grains in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mycoremediation is an on-site remediation strategy, which employs fungi to degrade or sequester contaminants from the environment. The present work focused on the bioremediation of soils contaminated with zinc by the use of a native mycorrhizal fungi (AM) called Funneliformis geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Schüßler. Experiments were performed using Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gemmeza-10 at different concentrations of Zn (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1) and inoculated with or without F. geosporum. The results showed that the dry weight of mycorrhizal wheat increased at Zn stressed plants as compared to the non-Zn-stressed control plants. The concentrations of Zn also had an inhibitory effect on the yield of dry root and shoot of non-mycorrhizal wheat. The photosynthetic pigment fractions were significantly affected by Zn treatments and mycorrhizal inoculation, where in all treatments, the content of the photosynthetic pigment fractions decreased as the Zn concentration increased in the soil. However, the level of minerals of shoots, roots, and grains was greatly influenced by Zn-treatment and by inoculation with F. geosporum. Treatment with Zn in the soil increased Cu and Zn concentrations in the root, shoot and grains, however, other minerals (P, S, K, Ca and Fe) concentration was decreased. Inoculation of wheat with AM fungi significantly reduced the accumulation of Zn and depressed its translocation in shoots and grains of wheat. In conclusion, inoculation with a native F. geosporum-improves yields of wheat under higher levels of Zn and is possible to be applied for the improvement of zinc contaminated soil. PMID:29145471

  17. Factors limiting the grain protein content of organic winter wheat in south-eastern France: a mixed-model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; David, C.; Valantin-Morison, M.; Makowski, D.; Jeuffroy, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture could achieve the objectives of sustainable agriculture by banning the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. However, organic crops generally show lower performances than conventional ones. In France, organic winter wheat production is characterized by low grain protein

  18. Contamination of wheat grain with microscopic fungi and their metabolites in Poland in 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are microorganisms commonly found in cereal products. Pathogens of cereals colonising kernels are responsible, among other things, for deterioration of the technological value of grain. However, the greatest threat is posed by mycotoxins produced by toxin-forming strains of these microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of contamination with microscopic fungi and mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes in wheat grain from Poland in a 4-year cycle. In the period 2006-2009, studies were conducted on the content of fungal metabolites (ergosterol [ERG] and type A and B trichothecenes) and the content of microscopic fungi expressed in colony-forming units (CFU) in wheat grain. A total of 129 grain samples were examined. Analysed wheat samples had similar contents of both the investigated fungal metabolites and levels of microscopic fungi. Contents of microscopic fungi were low. Concentration of ERG, on average, was 2.64 mg/kg, while in colony forming units this value ranged from 10(1) CFU/g to over 10(3) CFU/g. The total concentration of type A and B trichothecenes was also low and within the 4 years of the investigation did not exceed 0.062 mg/kg. Concentration of DON did not exceed 1,250 µg/kg, established as safe in grain for human consumption, in any of the tested samples. For the results collected in the years 2006-2009 and presented in this paper, correlations were calculated between the amount of mycoflora and analysed metabolites in 3 possible combinations: 0.7096 for ERG/total toxin concentration, 0.6086 for ERG/log CFU/g, and 0.4016 for the concentration of total toxins/log CFU/g. Highly significant correlations between the content of trichothecenes and the concentration of ERG indicate that the level of this metabolite is closely related to the content of mycotoxins in grain.

  19. Canopy temperature depression at grain filling correlates to winter wheat yield in the U.S. southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat breeding has improved drought tolerance over the years. However, our knowledge on drought tolerance in relation to the canopy temperature (CT) and grain yield is limited. A three-season wheat field study ending 2012, 2015, and 2016 was conducted at Bushland, Texas to investigate the relationsh...

  20. Effects of Organic and Conventional Crop Nutrition on Profiles of Polar Metabolites in Grain of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter; Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Amos, Dominic; Corol, Delia-Irina; Tawfike, Ahmed; Mikó, Péter; Ward, Jane L

    2018-05-16

    The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low-input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate, and choline and decreased fructose and succinate with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96 kg of N/ha but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. A comparison of the profiles of grain from organic and low-input systems showed only partial separation, with clear effects of climate and agronomy. However, supervised multivariate analysis showed that the low-input samples had higher contents of many amino acids, raffinose, glucose, organic acids, and choline and lower sucrose, fructose, and glycine. Consequently, although differences between organic and conventional grain occur, these cannot be used to confirm sample identity.

  1. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  2. Residual efficacy of cypermethrin and pirimiphos-methyl against Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier in wheat grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pražić-Golić Marijana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual efficacy of EC formulations of two insecticides: cypermethrin supplemented with the synergist piperonyl butoxide, and pirimiphos-methyl, against adults of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, was investigated in the laboratory (at 25±1°C and 55-60% r.h. by applying water solutions of products based either on cypermethrin (1.6 mg a.i./kg of wheat grain or pirimiphos-methyl (4 mg a.i./kg of wheat grain to wheat grain. Insect mortality on deposits of different age: 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days was estimated after 2, 7 and 14 days of insect exposure to treated wheat. After 2 day exposure, cypermethrin caused mortality of up to 46% on all deposits (age 0-180 days. After 7 days of exposure, high efficacy (94-100% was found only on deposits that were up to 90 days old, while the mortality of S. cerealella adults on all deposits following 14 days of exposure was 98-100%, and it was probably additionally enhanced by natural mortality. Pirimiphos-methyl was 98-100% effective after 2 days of exposure to deposits that were up to 30 days old, while it achieved maximum efficacy (100% after 7 days of insect exposure to deposits aging for up to 150 days, and 94% efficacy on 180 days old deposits. After 14 days of adult exposure to all deposit ages, there were no surviving insects (efficacy 100%. The results show that pirimiphos-methyl was more effective against S. cerealella adults and had a longer residual activity than cypermethrin.

  3. Iron transport, deposition and bioavailability in the wheat and barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    will briefly review existing knowledge on the distribution and transport pathways of iron in the two small grained cereals, barley and wheat, and focus on the efforts made to increase the iron content in cereals in general. However, mineral content is not the only factor of relevance for improving......). The nutritional impact of increasing mineral content accordingly has to be seen in the context of mineral bioavailability. Finally, we will briefly report on recent data from barley, where laser capture microdissection of the different grain tissues combined with gene expression profiling has provided some...

  4. An assay of the utilization of the residual use of a N fertilizer [(15NH4)2SO4] made by a wheat crop, using an isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujan, A.; Quitegui, M.I.; Quitegui, M.C.; Ghelfi, L.E.P. de; Deybe, D.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to determine the residual use of a N fertilizer made by wheat during a year. Wheat was seeded in plots which had been cropped the year before with inoculated soybean (glycine max), non-inoculated soybean and sorghum (sorghum caffrorum) fertilized with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at two different levels: 20 and 100kg N/ha tagged with 5% excess 15 N and 1% respectively. It was concluded that:1) the % excess 15 N used in the previous crops were sufficient to determine residuality from the N fertilizer. 2)when the previous crop was non-inoculated soybean, the total nitrogen content of the wheat grains was significantly higher than when the previous crop was either inoculated soybean or sorghum. The total N content was significantly higher on the plots fertilized with 100KgN/ha than on those with 20kgN/ha.3) non-inoculated - and inoculated soybeans determined higher wheat grain yields than sorghum as previous crops. Higher wheat grain yields ocurred on the 100kgN/ha fertilized plots. Higher residual N content ocurred on the 100KgN/ha fertilized plots. Non-inoculated soybean determined higher residual N content in grain than inoculated soybean and sorghum; inoculated soybean determined higher content than sorghum. There were no significant differences in residual N content in the plants depending on the previous crop. (Author) [pt

  5. Plant Extract Control of the Fungi Associated with Different Egyptian Wheat Cultivars Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Baka Zakaria Awad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10% enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi

  6. Fungal volatiles associated with moldy grain in ventilated and non-ventilated bin-stored wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R N; Tuma, D; Abramson, D; Muir, W E

    1988-01-01

    The fungal odor compounds 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone were monitored in nine experimental bins in Winnipeg, Manitoba containing a hard red spring wheat during the autumn, winter and summer seasons of 1984-85. Quality changes were associated with seed-borne microflora and moisture content in both ventilated and non-ventilated bins containing wheat of 15.6 and 18.2% initial moisture content. All three odor compounds occurred in considerably greater amounts in bulk wheat in non-ventilated than in ventilated bins, particularly in those with wheat having 18.2% moisture content. The presence of these compounds usually coincided with infection of the seeds by the fungi Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Aspergillus repens DeBarry, A. versicolor (Vuill.) Tiraboschi, Penicillium crustosum Thom, P. oxalicum Currie and Thom, P. aurantiogriesum Dierckx, and P. citrinum Thom. High production of all three odor compounds in damp wheat stored in non-ventilated bins was associated with heavy fungal infection of the seeds and reduction in seed germinability. High initial moisture content of the harvested grain accelerated the production of all three fungal volatiles in non-ventilated bins.

  7. Characterization of the Wheat Leaf Metabolome during Grain Filling and under Varied N-Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien Heyneke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving crop growth is an absolute goal despite the influence multifactorial components have on crop yield and quality. An Avalon × Cadenza doubled-haploid wheat mapping population was used to study the leaf metabolome of field grown wheat at weekly intervals during the time in which the canopy contributes to grain filling, i.e., from anthesis to 5 weeks post-anthesis. Wheat was grown under four different nitrogen supplies reaching from residual soil N to a luxury over-fertilization (0, 100, 200, and 350 kg N ha−1. Four lines from a segregating doubled haploid population derived of a cross of the wheat elite cvs. Avalon and Cadenza were chosen as they showed pairwise differences in either N utilization efficiency (NUtE or senescence timing. 108 annotated metabolites of primary metabolism and ions were determined. The analysis did not provide genotype specific markers because of a remarkable stability of the metabolome between lines. We speculate that the reason for failing to identify genotypic markers might be due to insufficient genetic diversity of the wheat parents and/or the known tendency of plants to keep metabolome homeostasis even under adverse conditions through multiple adaptations and rescue mechanism. The data, however, provided a consistent catalogue of metabolites and their respective responses to environmental and developmental factors and may bode well for future systems biology approaches, and support plant breeding and crop improvement.

  8. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Alvarez, David; Davanture, Marlène; Boudet, Julie; Pailloux, Marie; Zivy, Michel; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling. Large-scale analysis of the nuclear and albumin-globulin subproteomes during this key developmental phase revealed that the abundance of 203 proteins was significantly modified by the nutrition treatments. Our results showed that the grain proteome was highly affected by perturbation in the N:S balance. S supply strongly increased the rate of accumulation of S-rich α/β-gliadin and γ-gliadin, and the abundance of several other proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. Post-anthesis N supply resulted in the activation of amino acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of transport processes including nucleocytoplasmic transit. Protein accumulation networks were analyzed. Several central actors in the response were identified whose variation in abundance was related to variation in the amounts of many other proteins and are thus potentially important for GSP accumulation. This detailed analysis of grain subproteomes provides information on how wheat GSP composition can possibly be controlled in low-level fertilization condition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cryopreservation at -75 °C of Agaricus subrufescens on wheat grains with sucrose

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    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Agaricus subrufescens is a basidiomycete which is studied because of its medicinal and gastronomic importance; however, less attention has been paid to its preservation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sucrose addition to substrate and cryotube on the viability of Agaricus subrufescens cryopreserved at -20 °C and at -75 °C for one and two years. Zero, 10% or 20% sucrose was added to potato dextrose agar or wheat grain. The mycelia were cryopreserved in the absence of cryoprotectant or with sucrose solutions at 15%, 30% or 45%. After one or two years at -75 °C or at -20 °C, mycelia were thawed and evaluated about viability, initial time of growth, colony diameter and genomic stability. Cryopreservation at -20 °C is not effective to keep mycelial viability of this fungus. Cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective when sucrose is used in substrates and/or cryotubes. Without sucrose, cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective only when wheat grains are used. Physiological characteristic as mycelial colony diameter is negatively affected when potato dextrose agar is used and unaffected when wheat grain is used after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C. The fungus genome does not show alteration after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C.

  10. Natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains from Italy and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C

    2014-08-15

    This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CO2-Induced Changes in Wheat Grain Composition: Meta-Analysis and Response Functions

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    Malin C. Broberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 stimulates wheat grain yield, but simultaneously reduces protein/nitrogen (N concentration. Also, other essential nutrients are subject to change. This study is a synthesis of wheat experiments with eCO2, estimating the effects on N, minerals (B, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Zn, and starch. The analysis was performed by (i deriving response functions to assess the gradual change in element concentration with increasing CO2 concentration, (ii meta-analysis to test the average magnitude and significance of observed effects, and (iii relating CO2 effects on minerals to effects on N and grain yield. Responses ranged from zero to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration, with the largest reductions for the nutritionally important elements of N, Fe, S, Zn, and Mg. Together with the positive but small and non-significant effect on starch concentration, the large variation in effects suggests that CO2-induced responses cannot be explained only by a simple dilution model. To explain the observed pattern, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered, along with the link of different elements to N uptake. Our study shows that eCO2 has a significant effect on wheat grain stoichiometry, with implications for human nutrition in a world of rising CO2.

  12. Identifying loci influencing grain number by microsatellite screening in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongling; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2012-11-01

    Grain number (GN) is one of three major yield-related components in wheat. We used the Chinese wheat mini core collection to undertake a genome-wide association analysis of grain number using 531 SSR markers randomly located on all 21 chromosomes. Grain numbers of all accessions were measured in four trials, i.e. two environments in four growing seasons. Association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM) revealed that 27 SSR loci were significantly associated with mean GN (MGN) estimated by the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) method. These included numerous breeder favorable alleles with strong positive effects at 23 loci. Significant or extremely significant differences were detected on MGN between varieties conveying favored allele and varieties with other alleles. Moreover, statistical simulation showed that the favored alleles have additive genetic effects. Although modern varieties combined larger numbers of favored alleles, the numbers of favored alleles were not significantly different from those in landraces, especially those alleles contributing mostly to the phenotypic variation. These results indicate that there is still considerable genetic potential for use of markers for genome selection of GN for high yield in wheat.

  13. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan or without (Yangling employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan and K (at Yangling, but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1 due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3, Zn+P (18.7, and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1 treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three

  14. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Meng; Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  15. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROSPECTS OF SORGHUM CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to analyze the sorghum statement at world, EU and Romania level in order to establish the main trends in the future of this crop. Sorghum is an important cereal coming on the 5th position after maize, rice, wheat and barley at world level due to its importance in human nutrition, animal feed, in producing bioethanol and green energy, and due to its good impact on environment. It is cultivated on all the continents, in the tropical, subtropical and temperate areas due to its resistance to drought, production potential, low inputs and production cost. It is an alternative to maize crop being more utilized as substituent in animal diets. The world sorghum production reached 63,811 thousand metric tons in 2014, the main producers being the USA, Mexico, Nigeria, India, Argentina, Ethiopia, Sudan and China. The world consumption of sorghum reached 63,148 thousand metric tons and it is continuously increasing. The sorghum exports accounted for 7,690 thousand metric tons in 2014, of which the USA export represents 4,600 thousand metric tons. Besides the USA, other exporting countries are Argentina, Australia, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Uruguay, while the main importing countries are China, Japan, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the EU, Sudan. In 2014, the EU produced 576 thousand metric tons sorghum, imported 200 thousand metric tons, and consumed 770 thousand metric tons. The main EU producers of sorghum are France, Italy, Romania, Spain and Hungary. In 2012, Romania cultivated 20,000 ha with sorghum crop, 18 times more than in 2077. Also, in 2012, Romania produced 37.5 thousand tons of sorghum grains, by 31 times more than in 2007. The sorghum yield was 1,875 kg/ha by 66% higher in 2012 compared to 2007. Therefore, these figures show the increasing importance of sorghum crop at world level. Because Romania is situated in suitable geographical area for producing sorghum, it could increase production and become a more important supplier

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study of Calcium Accumulation in Grains of European Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Z. Alomari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for people who depend mainly on consuming cereal diet. In this study, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS of calcium concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains using a European wheat diversity panel of 353 varieties [339 winter wheat (WW plus 14 of spring wheat (SW] and phenotypic data based on two field seasons. High genotyping densities of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were obtained from the application of the 90k iSELECT ILLUMINA chip and a 35k Affymetrix chip. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used to measure the calcium concentrations of the wheat grains. Best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs for calcium were calculated across the seasons and ranged from 288.20 to 647.50 among the varieties (μg g-1 DW with a mean equaling 438.102 (μg g-1 DW, and the heritability was 0.73. A total of 485 SNP marker–trait associations (MTAs were detected in data obtained from grains cultivated in both of the two seasons and BLUE values by considering associations with a -log10 (P-value ≥3.0. Among these SNP markers, we detected 276 markers with a positive allele effect and 209 markers with a negative allele effect. These MTAs were found on all chromosomes except chromosomes 3D, 4B, and 4D. The most significant association was located on chromosome 5A (114.5 cM and was linked to a gene encoding cation/sugar symporter activity as a potential candidate gene. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of calcium were located near significantly associated SNPs. This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally variable traits in genetically highly diverse variety panels. The research demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for illuminating the genetic architecture of

  17. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Berraies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm. Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot., is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum [Desf.] Husn. particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  18. The impacts of hammer-mill screen size and grain particle size on the performance of broiler chickens offered diets based on two red sorghum varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, P H; Truong, H H; Khoddami, A; Moss, A F; Roberts, T H; Liu, S Y

    2016-12-12

    1. The two red grain sorghums were extensively characterised. Kafirin, polyphenolic compounds, free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids, phytate concentrations and starch pasting profiles were determined. 2. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 4 factorial array of dietary treatments comprising two red sorghum varieties (Tiger and Block I) ground through 4 hammer-mill screen sizes (2.0, 3.2, 4.8 6.0 mm) prior to incorporation into nutritionally equivalent diets. Eight steam-pelleted dietary treatments were each offered to 7 replicates (6 male Ross 308 birds per cage) from 7 to 28 d post-hatch. 3. Effects of dietary treatments on growth performance, relative gizzard and pancreas weights, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from 4 small intestinal segments were determined. 4. The 2.0-mm hammer-mill screen generated an average geometric mean particle size of 794 μm and the 6.0-mm screen a mean particle size of 1405 μm. However, hammer-mill screen size did not influence weight gain or FCR. The 6.0-mm screen size generated significantly higher starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients in the distal jejunum and distal ileum than the 2.0-mm hammer-mill screen. 5. Tiger sorghum was superior to Block I sorghum, as significant advantages were observed for feed conversion ratios (3.25%), AME (0.37 MJ), ME:GE ratios (4.15%), AMEn (0.53 MJ), distal ileal starch digestibility coefficients (2.46%) and protein (N) digestibility coefficients in the distal jejunum (4.66%), proximal ileum (1.96%) and distal ileum (2.16%). The inferior Block I sorghum contained more kafirin (67.1 versus 51.3 g/kg), phytate (9.79 versus 8.40 g/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.68 versus 4.12 mg GAE/g), flavan-4-ols (7.98 versus 5.04 ABS/ml/g), total phenolic acids (554 versus 402 μg/g) and total ferulic acid (375 versus 281 μg/g) in comparison to Tiger sorghum.

  19. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.T.; Cogger, C.G.; Bary, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha -1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  20. The evaluation of wheat grain odor and color after gamma and microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warchalewski, J.R.; Gralik, J.; Kusnierz, R.; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R.; Zabielski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat grain was exposed to gamma ionising irradiation at selected doses between 0.05-10 kGy and microwave radiation from 45 to 180 sec. The sensory evaluation of a grain odor proved that both applied treatments, gamma and microwave irradiation, did not cause significant changes in the grain odor in comparison to control samples of grain with the exclusion of maximum irradiation dose 10 kGy, and maximum microwave heating time 180 sec. The results obtained after measurement of the grain reflected-light showed that gamma 60 Co irradiation did not cause any changes in grain color. The grain after microwave heating at 90, 120, 180 sec was characterised by significantly higher lightness (L*) value. The total colour difference (δE) between microwave irradiated samples and the control ones was increasing gradually, with the increase in temperature. The yellowness (b*) and the redness (a*) values were statistically significantly higher in the case of 120 and 180 sec of irradiation time comparing to the control sample. (author)

  1. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.

  2. Investigation of The Relationship Between Grain Yield with Physiological Parameters in Some Bread Wheat Varieties

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    Mehmet KARAMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the relationships between grain yield with physiological parameters in some bread wheat varieties. For this purpose, ten bread wheat genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with 3 replications under rainfall conditions in the experimental field of GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center during the 2012-2013 growing season. The most high yielding varieties in this study, Pehlivan, Kate A-1, Cemre and Anapo, were observed as standing out in terms of flag leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value, flag leaf ash ratio, leaf area index and grain filling period . The correlation analyses of the study showed positive and significant correlations between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at heading stage with chlorophyll content at flowering stage, between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at flowering and heading stages with chlorophyll content of flag leaf at milk stage and between grain filling rate with leaf area index, In addition, positive and significant correlations were identified between flag leaf ash ratio and NDVI reading prior to heading time with grain yield

  3. The role of whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients on the digestion and fermentation processes in the gut - a model experiment with pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legall, Maud; Serena, Anja; Jørgensen, Henry

    2009-01-01

    The effect of wheat and rye breads made from white wheat flour with added refined fibre (WFL), whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on digestion and fermentation processes in the gut was studied in a model experiment with pigs. The diets were similar in dietary...... of the wheat-based diets primarily due to the higher intestinal viscosity. The DF composition had an impact on (P,0001) the site for fibre degradation in the large intestine. Thus, AX of the WAF bread, with the lowest degree of substitution, were fermented as much in the caecum as in the colon, whereas AX...... of the RAF bread, with an intermediary degree of substitution, were mainly fermented in the caecum. The WFL bread, rich in cellulose, was fermented more distally. Fermentation of experimental breads in the large intestine had no effect (P.005) on the production of metabolites, except for butyrate which...

  4. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-10-18

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.

  5. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  6. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen (N is one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for dryland wheat. Mineral nitrogen or ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− are two common forms of inorganic nitrogen that can serve as limiting factors for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilization in dryland area can increase the use of soil moisture, and improve wheat yields to some extent. Many researchers have been confirmed interactions between water stress and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat, especially under field conditions. Because of water stress affects forms of nitrogen uptake that leads to disorder in plant metabolism, reduction in grain yield and crop quality in dryland condition. On the other hand, use of suitable methods for determining nitrogen requirement can increase dryland wheat production. However, nitrogen recommendations should be based on soil profile content or precipitation. An efficient method for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation involves choosing an effective soil extractant and calibrating soil nitrogen (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ tests against yield responses to applied nitrogen in field experiments. Soil testing enables initial N supply to be measured and N supply throughout the season due to mineralization to be estimated. This study was carried out to establish relationship between nitrogen forms (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ in soil and soil profile water content with plant response for recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in split-split plot in a RCBD in Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI, Maragheh, Iranwhere N application times (fall, 2/3 in fall and 1/3 in spring were assigned to the main plots, N rates to sub plot (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha, and 7 dryland wheat genotypes to sub-sub plots (Azar2, Ohadi, Rasad and 1-4 other genotypes in three replications in 2010-2011. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm in sub-sub plots in shooting stage (ZGS32. Ammonium

  8. Effects of high NH4+ on K+ uptake, culm mechanical strength and grain filling in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingan eKong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that a high external NH4+ concentration depresses many processes in plant development, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. To determine whether the negative effects of high levels of NH4+ are related to competitive cation uptake, wheat was grown in a field with moderate (18 g N m-2 and high (30 g N m-2 supplies of NH4+ in the presence or absence of additional K+ (6 g K2O m-2 to examine culm mechanical strength, the main components of the vascular bundle, nitrogen (N remobilization and the grain-filling rate. The results indicated that an excessive supply of NH4+ significantly decreased culm mechanical strength, the cellulose and lignin contents of vascular bundles, the N remobilization efficiency (NRE and the grain-filling rate compared with a moderate level of NH4+. The additional provision of K+ considerably alleviated these negative effects of high NH4+, resulting in a 19.41%-26.95% increase in culm mechanical strength during grain filling and a 34.59% increase in the NRE. An assay using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET showed that the net rate of transmembrane K+ influx decreased by 84.62%, and measurements using flame photometry demonstrated that the K+ content decreased by 36.13% in wheat plants subjected to high NH4+. This study indicates that the effects of high NH4+ on culm mechanical strength, cellulose and lignin contents, the NRE and the grain-filling rate are probably associated with inhibition of K+ uptake in wheat.

  9. Effect of Sulphur Fertilization on Grain Quality and Protein Composition of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Pompa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of atmosphere emission of SO2 and the massive use of fertilizers high in nitrogen and phosphorus resulted in a decrease of the sulphur content in the soil. In durum wheat cultivation, sulphur supply plays a key role not only for plant growth, but also for grain quality. Sulphur is an essential macronutrient primarily used to synthesize methionine and cysteine and it is also involved in establishing protein structures by disulphide bonds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sulphur nutrition on grain quality and protein composition of durum wheat cultivars grown under water deficit conditions, typical of Mediterranean areas. To this purpose, in the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 crop seasons a field trial was carried out by comparing two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed, two sulphur fertilizer levels and two durum wheat cultivars. Under our experimental conditions, an increase in protein and gluten content in the rainfed treatment and a positive effect of sulphur fertilization on quality parameters were observed. Few changes were observed in protein composition in response to sulphur fertilization.

  10. Implicitly defined criteria for vector optimization in technological process of hydroponic germination of wheat grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, M. S.; Rudenko, O. V.; Usatikov, S. V.; Bugaets, N. A.; Tereshchenko, I. V.

    2018-05-01

    To reduce the duration of the process and to ensure the microbiological purity of the germinated material, an improved method of germination has been developed based on the complex use of physical factors: electrochemically activated water (ECHA-water), electromagnetic field of extremely low frequencies (EMF ELF) with round-the-clock artificial illumination by LED lamps. The increase in the efficiency of the "numerical" technology for solving computational problems of parametric optimization of the technological process of hydroponic germination of wheat grains is considered. In this situation, the quality criteria are contradictory and part of them is given by implicit functions of many variables. A solution algorithm is offered without the construction of a Pareto set in which a relatively small number of elements of a set of alternatives is used to obtain a linear convolution of the criteria with given weights, normalized to their "ideal" values from the solution of the problems of single-criterion private optimizations. The use of the proposed mathematical models describing the processes of hydroponic germination of wheat grains made it possible to intensify the germination process and to shorten the time of obtaining wheat sprouts "Altayskaya 105" for 27 hours.

  11. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin Salleh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1 could be detected in 56 (68.2% samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2 in 35 (42.6% samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3 in 26 (31.7% samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg.

  12. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R. N.; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg). PMID:22069576

  13. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in stored wheat grains marketed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R N; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-12-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F.verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15-155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12-86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13-64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg).

  14. Interpreting genotype × environment interactions for grain yield of rainfed durum wheat in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clustering genotype × environment (GE interactions and understanding the causes of GE interactions are among the most important tasks in crop breeding programs. Pattern analysis (cluster and ordination techniques was applied to analyze GE interactions for grain yield of 24 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum genotypes (breeding lines and old and new cultivars along with a popular bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar grown in 21 different rainfed environments during the 2010–2013 cropping seasons. To investigate the causes of GE interaction, several genotypic and environmental covariables were used. In a combined ANOVA, environment was the predominant source of variation, accounting for 81.2% of the total sum of squares (TSS, and the remaining TSS due to the GE interaction effect was almost seven times that of the genetic effect. Cluster analysis separated the environments into four groups with similar discriminating ability among genotypes, and genotypes into five groups with similar patterns in yield performance. Pattern analysis confirmed two major environmental clusters (cold and warm, and allowed the discrimination and characterization of genotype adaptation. Within the cold-environment cluster, several subclusters were identified. The breeding lines were most adapted to moderate and warm environments, whereas the old varieties were adapted to cold environments. The results indicated that winter rainfall and plant height were among the environmental and genotypic covariables, respectively, that contributed most to GE interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat.

  15. Transgenic expression of phytase in wheat endosperm increases bioavailability of iron and zinc in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Nabeela; Khatoon, Asia; Maqbool, Asma; Irfan, Muhammad; Bashir, Aftab; Asif, Irsa; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, Asma; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Malik, Kauser A

    2017-02-01

    Phytate is a major constituent of wheat seeds and chelates metal ions, thus reducing their bioavailability and so the nutritional value of grains. Transgenic plants expressing heterologous phytase are expected to enhance degradation of phytic acid stored in seeds and are proposed to increase the in vitro bioavailability of mineral nutrients. Wheat transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus japonicus phytase gene (phyA) in wheat endosperm were developed till T 3 generation. The transgenic lines exhibited 18-99 % increase in phytase activity and 12-76 % reduction of phytic acid content in seeds. The minimum phytic acid content was observed in chapatti (Asian bread) as compared to flour and dough. The transcript profiling of phyA mRNA indicated twofold to ninefold higher expression as compared to non transgenic controls. There was no significant difference in grain nutrient composition of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. In vitro bioavailability assay for iron and zinc in dough and chapatti of transgenic lines revealed a significant increase in iron and zinc contents. The development of nutritionally enhanced cereals is a step forward to combat nutrition deficiency for iron and zinc in malnourished human population, especially women and children.

  16. Engineering high α-amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Leyne, Emmett; Pritchard, Jeni; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Late maturity α-amylase (LMA) and preharvest sprouting (PHS) are genetic defects in wheat. They are both characterized by the expression of specific isoforms of α-amylase in particular genotypes in the grain prior to harvest. The enhanced expression of α-amylase in both LMA and PHS results in a reduction in Falling Number (FN), a test of gel viscosity, and subsequent downgrading of the grain, along with a reduced price for growers. The FN test is unable to distinguish between LMA and PHS; thus, both defects are treated similarly when grain is traded. However, in PHS-affected grains, proteases and other degradative process are activated, and this has been shown to have a negative impact on end product quality. No studies have been conducted to determine whether LMA is detrimental to end product quality. This work demonstrated that wheat in which an isoform α-amylase (TaAmy3) was overexpressed in the endosperm of developing grain to levels of up to 100-fold higher than the wild-type resulted in low FN similar to those seen in LMA- or PHS-affected grains. This increase had no detrimental effect on starch structure, flour composition and enhanced baking quality, in small-scale 10-g baking tests. In these small-scale tests, overexpression of TaAmy3 led to increased loaf volume and Maillard-related browning to levels higher than those in control flours when baking improver was added. These findings raise questions as to the validity of the assumption that (i) LMA is detrimental to end product quality and (ii) a low FN is always indicative of a reduction in quality. This work suggests the need for a better understanding of the impact of elevated expression of specific α-amylase on end product quality. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively used to replace both barley grain and silage at a moderate amount to meet energy and fiber requirements of finishing cattle. However, when silage content of the diet is low (ruminal pH status even though the rapidly fermentable starch content of the diet is considerably reduced. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  18. A kinetic and microautoradiographic study of 14C-sucrose translocation into developing wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Wang; Fisher, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of 14 C-photosynthate import by developing wheat grains was followed after pulse-labeling the flag leaf with 14 CO 2 . Samples were collected from four successive points along the transport pathway to and within the grain: exuding aphid stylets on the peduncle, exuding grain pedicels, the grain crease tissues, and the liquid contents of the endosperm cavity. In addition, microautoradiographs were prepared of the grain crease tissues during movement of the 14 C pulse into the grain. At all times, sucrose accounted for 93 to 97% of the total 14 C present at all four sampling sites. The main features of the 14 C kinetics could be accounted for by a simple compartmental model consisting of sucrose pools in series. Microautoradiographs of the crease tissues showed fairly uniform labeling of vascular parenchyma at all times, with a sharp gradient in labeling across the chalaza to the nucellus. Thus the principal resistance to post-phloem solute transport through the maternal tissues appears to be in the symplastic pathway across the chalaza

  19. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  20. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared......Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage...... of abscisic acid in primed plants under drought stress could contribute to higher grain yield compared to the non-primed plants. Taken together, the results indicate that drought priming during vegetative stages improved tolerance to both drought and heat stress events occurring during grain filling in wheat....

  1. Seed priming with iron and zinc in bread wheat: effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sara; Pavia, Ivo; Carvalho, Ana; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Correia, Carlos; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-07-01

    Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed priming with different dosages (1 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 ) of Fe and/or Zn in germination, mitosis and yield of bread wheat cv. 'Jordão' when compared with control. Overall, our results showed that: micronutrient dosages higher than 4 mg L -1 negatively affect the germination; Fe and/or Zn concentrations higher than 2 mg L -1 significantly decrease the mitotic index and increase the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies; treatments performed with 8 mg L -1 of Fe and/or 8 mg L -1 Zn caused negative effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield. Moreover, seed priming with 2 mg L -1 Fe + 2 mg L -1 Zn has been shown to be non-cytotoxic, ensuring a high rate of germination (80%) and normal dividing cells (90%) as well as improving tillering and grain yield. This work revealed that seed priming with Fe and Zn micronutrients constitutes a useful and alternative approach for the agronomic biofortification of bread wheat.

  2. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa eBorrill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat.

  3. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  4. Divergence in homoeolog expression of the grain length-associated gene GASR7 during wheat allohexaploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has triplicated homoeologs for most of the genes that are located in subgenomes A, B, and D. GASR7, a member of the Snakin/GASA gene family, has been associated with grain length development in wheat. However, little is known about divergence of its homoeolog expression in wheat polyploids. We studied the expression patterns of the GASR7 homoeologs in immature seeds in a synthetic hexaploid wheat line whose kernels are slender like those of its maternal parent (Triticum turgidum, AABB, PI 94655 in contrast to the round seed shape of its paternal progenitor (Aegilops tauschii, DD, AS2404. We found that the B homoeolog of GASR7 was the main contributor to the total expression level of this gene in both the maternal tetraploid progenitor and the hexaploid progeny, whereas the expression levels of the A and D homoeologs were much lower. To understand possible mechanisms regulating different GASR7 homoeologs, we firstly analyzed the promoter sequences of three homoeologous genes and found that all of them contained gibberellic acid (GA response elements, with the TaGASR7B promoter (pTaGASR7B uniquely characterized by an additional predicted transcriptional enhancer. This was confirmed by the GA treatment of spikes where all three homoeologs were induced, with a much stronger response for TaGASR7B. McrBC enzyme assays showed that the methylation status at pTaGASR7D was increased during allohexaploidization, consistent with the repressed expression of TaGASR7D. For pTaGASR7A, the distribution of repetitive sequence-derived 24-nucleotide (nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were found which suggests possible epigenetic regulation because 24-nt siRNAs are known to mediate RNA-dependent DNA methylation. Our results thus indicate that both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the divergence of GASR7 homoeolog expression in polyploid wheat.

  5. Application of calibrations to hyperspectral images of food grains: example for wheat falling number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Caporaso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a few kernels with sprouting problems in a batch of wheat can result in enzymatic activity sufficient to compromise flour functionality and bread quality. This is commonly assessed using the Hagberg Falling Number (HFN method, which is a batch analysis. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI can provide analysis at the single grain level with potential for improved performance. The present paper deals with the development and application of calibrations obtained using an HSI system working in the near infrared (NIR region (~900–2500 nm and reference measurements of HFN. A partial least squares regression calibration has been built using 425 wheat samples with a HFN range of 62–318 s, including field and laboratory pre-germinated samples placed under wet conditions. Two different approaches were tested to apply calibrations: i application of the calibration to each pixel, followed by calculation of the average of the resulting values for each object (kernel; ii calculation of the average spectrum for each object, followed by application of the calibration to the mean spectrum. The calibration performance achieved for HFN (R2 = 0.6; RMSEC ~ 50 s; RMSEP ~ 63 s compares favourably with other studies using NIR spectroscopy. Linear spectral pre-treatments lead to similar results when applying the two methods, while non-linear treatments such as standard normal variate showed obvious differences between these approaches. A classification model based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA was also applied to segregate wheat kernels into low (250 s HFN groups. LDA correctly classified 86.4% of the samples, with a classification accuracy of 97.9% when using an HFN threshold of 150 s. These results are promising in terms of wheat quality assessment using a rapid and non-destructive technique which is able to analyse wheat properties on a single-kernel basis, and to classify samples as acceptable or unacceptable for flour production.

  6. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  7. High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

  8. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Bryce, J H; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Harrison, B

    2012-04-11

    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and

  9. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Chuan

    Full Text Available In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000-2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (PFP-N, P (PFP-P and K (PFP-K were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (AEN, P (AEP and K (AEK were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R's nutrient management (right time, right rate, right

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Ponomareva; N. N. Alekhinа; I. A. Bakayeva

    2014-01-01

    Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour), which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objective...

  11. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  12. Physiology and biochemistry of source-regulated protein accumulation in the wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneix, Atilio J

    2007-05-01

    Wheat is unique among cereals for the baking qualities of its flour, which are dependent upon the type and concentration of its proteins. As a consequence, the grain protein concentration (GPC) is one of the main determinants of wheat international market price. More than 50-70% of the final grain N is accumulated before flowering and later remobilized to the grain, N fertilization being the common practice used to produce high GPC. However, after incremental additions of N fertilizer, GPC reaches a maximum and then remains constant, without any increase in N uptake or remobilization by the crop, thus decreasing the efficiency of N fertilizer. Although, the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate N uptake by the roots are being clarified quickly, the regulation and physiology of N transport from the leaves to the grain remains less clear. In this review, the possible regulatory points involved in N transport to the grain and the difficulties for increasing GPC are discussed. It has been demonstrated that protein synthesis in the grain is source-limited, and that the grain can accumulate protein limited only by the amino acids provided by the phloem. It has also been shown that there is no limitation in the amino acid/sugar ratios that can be exported to the phloem. On the other hand, NO(3)(-) uptake transporters are depressed when the plant concentration of some amino acids, such as glutamine, is high. It has also been shown that a high N supply increases cytokinins concentration, preventing leaf senescence and proteolysis. Based on this information, it is postulated that there are two main regulatory points during grain filling when plant N status is ample. On the one hand, the N uptake transporters in the roots are depressed due to the high amino acids concentration in the tissues, and N uptake is low. On the other, a high amino acids concentration keeps the cytokinins level high, repressing leaf protein degradation and decreasing amino acid export to the

  13. Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

  14. The influence of irradiated wheat on longevity and reproduction of the grain weevil sitophilus granarius LINNE 1758

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M.; Franco, S.S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of the present research was to determine the influence of gamma irradiations on wheat, the diet of the grain weevil, using as parameters of the longevity and reproduction of this insect. The doses of 60 Co γ-rays applied to wheat grains were 0(control), 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Gy, at a dose rate of 3000 Gy per hour. The longevity, expressed as life-expectancy in days, and the reproduction expressed as the number of F 1 adults, showed no differences up to the dose of 2000 Gy. The wheat irradiated with the dose of 4000 Gy induced a lower life-expectancy of the insects fed with irradiated wheat and a smaller number of insects of the F 1 generation

  15. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes. PMID:23555754

  16. Using ICP and micro-PIXE to investigate possible differences in the mineral composition of genetically modified versus wild-type sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, R.; Cloete, K.; Mehlo, L.; Kossmann, J.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, possible differences in the mineral composition of transgenic versus non-transgenic sorghum grains were investigated using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES); and, in-tissue elemental mapping by micro Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analysis. ICP AES was used to analyse the bulk mineral content of the wholegrain flour derived from each genotype; whilst micro-PIXE was used to interrogate localised differences in mineral composition specific to certain areas of the grain, such as the bran layer and the central endosperm tissue. According to the results obtained, no significant difference in the average Fe, Zn or Ca content was found to differentiate the transgenic from the wild-type grain using ICP-AES. However, using micro-PIXE, a significant reduction in zinc could be detected in the bran layer of the transgenic grains relative to wild-type. Although it is difficult to draw firm conclusions, as a result of the small sample size used in this study, micro-PIXE has nonetheless proven itself as a useful technique for highlighting the possibility that there may be reduced levels of zinc accumulation in the bran layer of the transgenic grains. Given that the genetic modification targets proteins that are highly concentrated in certain parts of the bran tissue, it seems plausible that the reduced levels of zinc may be an unintended consequence of the silencing of kafirin proteins. Although no immediate health or nutritional concerns emerge from this preliminary finding, it is noted that zinc plays an important biological role within this part of the grain as a structural stabiliser and antioxidant factor. Further study is therefore needed to assess more definitively the extent of the apparent localised reduction in zinc in the transgenic grains and how this may affect other important grain quality characteristics.

  17. Biomass and nitrogen-use efficiency of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) with nitrogen and supplemental irrigation in Coastal Plain Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor rainfall distribution and soil conditions such as high soil strength, low water holding capacity of soils and poor soil fertility in the humid Coastal Plain region may affect production of grain crops. Nitrogen insufficiency and water stress can both reduce crop yield, but little information is...

  18. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  19. Identification and Validation of a New Source of Low Grain Cadmium Accumulation in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Oladzad-Abbasabadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has no known biological function and is toxic for many living organisms. The maximum level of Cd concentration allowed in the international market for wheat grain is 0.2 mg kg−1. Because phenotyping for Cd uptake is expensive and time consuming, molecular markers associated with genes conferring low Cd uptake would expedite selection and lead to the development of durum cultivars with reduced Cd concentrations. Here, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with a novel low Cd uptake locus in the durum experimental line D041735, which has hexaploid common wheat in its pedigree. Genetic analysis revealed a single major QTL for Cd uptake on chromosome arm 5BL within a 0.3 cM interval flanked by SNP markers. Analysis of the intervening sequence revealed a gene with homology to an aluminum-induced protein as a candidate gene. Validation and allelism tests revealed that the low Cd uptake gene identified in this study is different from the closely linked Cdu1-B gene, which also resides on 5BL. This study therefore showed that the durum experimental line D041735 contains a novel low Cd uptake gene that was likely acquired from hexaploid wheat.

  20. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  1. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sail, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Mangrio, S.M.; Memon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  2. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  3. Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Tančić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

  4. Aleurone Cell Walls of Wheat Grain: High Spatial Resolution Investigation Using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamme, F.; Robert, R.; Bouchet, B.; Saulnier, L.; Dumas, P.; Guillon, F.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling techniques were employed in order to obtain deeper insight into the biochemical nature of aleurone cell walls of wheat grain. The use of a synchrotron source, thanks to its intrinsic brightness, has provided unprecedented information at the level of a few micrometers and has allowed the discrimination of various polysaccharides in cell walls. The high spectral quality obtained in the small analyzed domain has been beneficial in estimating the relative proportions of Β-glucan and arabinoxylan, through the use of principal component analysis (PCA). The highest amount of Β-glucan is found in periclinal cell walls close to the starchy endosperm. The junction regions between aleurone cells are enriched in arabinoxylan. At the early stage of wheat grain development (271 degrees D), the chemical composition along the cell walls is more heterogeneous than at the mature stage. Both synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling experiments made it possible to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of the various chemical compositions of aleurone cell walls.

  5. A Proteomics Approach to Discover Drought Tolerance Proteins in Wheat Pollen Grain at Meiosis Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotovat, Reza; Alikhani, Mehdi; Valizadeh, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Salekdeh, Ghasem H

    2017-01-01

    Plants reproductive phase, when grain yield and consequently farmers' investment is most in jeopardy, is considered as the most sensitive stage to drought stress. In this study, we aimed to explore the proteomic response of wheat anther at meiosis stage in a drought tolerant, Darab, and susceptible, Shiraz, wheat genotypes. Wheat plants were exposed to drought stress at meiosis stage for four days under controlled environmental conditions. Then, anthers from both genotypes were sampled, and their proteomes were examined via quantitative proteomics analysis. Our results demonstrated that short-term stress at meiosis stage reduced plant seed-setting compared to well-watered plants. This reduction was more pronounced in the susceptible genotype, Shiraz, by 51%, compared to the drought tolerant Darab by 14.3%. Proteome analysis revealed that 60 protein spots were drought responsive, out of which 44 were identified using a mass spectrometer. We observed a dramatic up-regulation of several heat shock proteins, as well as induction of Bet v I allergen family proteins, peroxiredoxin-5, and glutathione transferase with similar abundance in both genotypes. However, the abundance of proteins such as several stress response related proteins, including glutaredoxin, proteasome subunit alpha type 5, and ribosomal proteins showed a different response to drought stress in two genotypes. The differential abundance of proteins in two genotypes may suggest mechanisms by which tolerant genotype cope with drought stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteome analysis of plant reproductive tissue response to drought stress in wheat and could broaden our insight into plant adaptation to drought stress. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Effects of Cd2+ on chlorophyll content in flag and grain yield of wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyong; Li Youjun; Liu Yingjie; Duan Youqiang; Li Qiang; Hao Yufen; Guo Jia

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with wheat cultivars Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 to investigate the effects of Cd 2+ stress on chlorophyll contents in flag leaves, flag leave area, thousand kernel weight, kernel filling velocity and yield of wheat. Results indicated that, under low Cd 2+ stress (10 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b of Luohan 6 reduced by 1.6%, however, its average area of flag leave and yield increased by 3.8% and 1.6%, respectively. At the same time, the average content of chlorophyll a + b, area of flag leave yield of Yumai 18 reduced 8.0%, 9.6% and 5.4%. Under high Cd 2+ stress (100 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b, areas of flag leaves and yields of Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 reduced by 29.2% and 30.5%, 6.3% and 17.4%, 16.7% and 36.7%, respectively. The results demonstrated that Cd 2+ restrained synthesis and accumulation of chlorophyll and its components. This study even showed that within a range of Cd 2+ concentration could promote the growth of flag leaves, and it also had an equal positive effect on yield of wheat if the Cd 2+ concentration in grains were not out of limit. The growth of flag leave and yield of wheat would be limited when Cd 2+ concentration exceed that range. Overall, Yumai 18 bore more poison from Cd 2+ than Luohan 6. (authors)

  7. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO 2 (750 μmol mol -1 ) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO 2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO 2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO 2 . The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO 2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  8. Processing cereal grains, thin stillage, and cheese whey to fuel ethanol in a farm-scale plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W R; Westby, C A

    1988-01-01

    Hydrous fuel ethanol (95%) and distiller's wet grain (DWG) were produced in a farm-scale plant from corn, wheat, and grain sorghum particles of various sizes, from corn combined with thin stillage-whey, and from various other cereal grains. These variations were made in a search to find the best set of conditions for maximizing the energy balance and minimizing the cost of ethanol production. We found that the optimum hammermill screen size for corn, wheat, and grain sorghum was 1.59 - 2.38 mm. In tests with thin stillage and whey a higher energy balance (2.91) occurred when one part whey was mixed with three parts stillage, rather than the reverse (2.69). However, the reverse (three parts whey and one part stillage) gave a lower ethanol cost ($0.45 liter/sup -1/) than the original ($0.47 liter/sup -1/). Tests with various cereal grains (corn, oats, wheat, barley, rye, and grain sorghum) gave identical energy balance values (2.26) when 10% (v/v) ethanol beers were produced. However, rye ($0.50 liter/sup -1/), grain sorghum ($0.46 liter/sup -1/), and corn ($0.51 liter/sup -1/) yielded ethanol at the lowest net cost. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are also provided.

  9. Effect of spray volume on the moisture of stored corn and wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alberto Vásquez-Castro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray volume on the moisture of the stored grains of the corn and wheat. Two kg of each type of the grain were placed into the plastic bags and sprayed with the theoretical doses of 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 liters of water / ton of the grain. The grain moisture content was evaluated 24 h after the spray operation by the oven method. The increase in the grain moisture was quadratic and showed the same trend in both the corn and wheat. The grain moisture after spraying 10 L.t-1 showed little increase (0.8 % as compared to the initial moisture content. Thus, the application of any spray volume as used in this study made no difference for a possible better uniformity in the distribution of insecticide throughout the sprayed material.A pulverização de inseticidas é o principal método de controle preventivo das pragas dos grãos armazenados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do volume de pulverização na umidade de grãos de milho e trigo armazenados. Foram acondicionados 2 kg de grãos em sacos plásticos e pulverizados com doses teóricas de zero, 1, 3, 5, 8 e 10 litros de água / tonelada de grão. A avaliação do teor de umidade dos grãos foi feita 24 horas após a pulverização mediante o método da estufa. O acréscimo na umidade dos grãos em função do volume de água pulverizado, foi quadrático e teve a mesma tendência tanto para o milho como para o trigo. A umidade dos grãos após a pulverização de 10 L.t-1 teve pequeno acréscimo (0,8 % quando comparado com o teor inicial. Desse modo, é indiferente o uso de qualquer volume estudado, visando a maior uniformidade de distribuição do inseticida na massa de grãos.

  10. The prevalence of deoxynivalenol and its derivatives in the spring wheat grain from different agricultural production systems in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaviciene, Sigita; Mankeviciene, Audrone; Suproniene, Skaidre; Kochiieru, Yuliia; Keriene, Ilona

    2018-02-22

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) together with two acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) occurs in cereal grains and their products. Co-occurrence of DON and acetylated derivatives in cereal grain is detected worldwide. Until now, DON and its derivatives have been considered equally toxic by health authorities. In this study, we analysed 103 samples of spring wheat grain, originating from the fields of different production systems in Lithuania, for the co-occurrence of type-B trichothecenes (DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON). The samples were classified according to the production system-organic, sustainable and intensive. Mycotoxin levels in the spring wheat grain samples were determined by the HPLC method with UV detection. The type-B trichothecenes were found to be present at higher concentrations in the grain from the intensive production system. Eighty-one percent of the spring wheat grain samples from the intensive production system were co-contaminated with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON, 1% with DON+3-ADON. Additionally, DON+15-ADON and DON were found in 5% and 10% of the tested samples, respectively. Two percent of the samples were free from mycotoxins. In the grain samples from the sustainable production system, DON and a combination of DON+3-ADON showed a higher incidence - 47% and 23%, respectively. The samples with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON accounted for 18%. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of organic grain samples. A large number of the organic spring wheat grain samples were contaminated with DON+3-ADON (55%) or DON (36%). The combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON was not present, while DON+15-ADON was present in 9% of the samples tested. The production systems did not lead to significant differences in mycotoxin levels, although a trend toward higher incidence and higher contamination was observed for the samples from the intensive and sustainable production systems.

  11. Effects of different depth of grain colour on antioxidant capacity during water imbibition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Oon Ha; Kim, Dae Yeon; Seo, Yong Weon

    2017-07-01

    The importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesised that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration. The results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat. Total phenol content was slightly increased in all groups compared to their initial state, but the levels of other phytochemicals varied among groups. It is revealed that anthocyanin was significantly degraded during the water imbibition stage. Also, the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in each grain colour group did not correlated with germination speed. Overall antioxidant activity was reduced as imbibition progressed in each group. Generally, darker grain groups showed higher total antioxidant activities than did lighter grain groups. These findings suggested that the reduced activity of reactive oxygen species, as controlled by internal antioxidant enzymes and phytochemicals, related with germination speed during the water imbibition stage in grains with greater depth of purple colouring. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  13. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  14. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and 32 P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar

  15. Changes in Nutrient Content of Root and Grain of Wheat Cultivars Inoculated by Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Providing the nutritional requirements of agricultural crops by non-chemical resources is a new approach in the organic farming that has attracted the attention of both the researchers and the consumers in recent years. Therefore, it is highly important to find new fertilizer resources that are both economically able to provide the nutritional needs of the crop plants and have no adverse effects on the consumers and the environment. Materials and Methods: With this approach, an experiment was conducted in the research station of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The treatments including Mycorrhizal fungi in three levels (i.e. no use of strain; use of Glomus intraradices strain; and use of Glomus mosseae strain, bacteria Azospirillum lipoferum in two-levels (i.e. non-inoculated and inoculated and wheat cultivars in three levels (i.e. Chamran; Dena; and Behrang. The measured parameters include the concentration of macronutrients (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and some micronutrients (i.e. zinc, iron and manganese in two part seed and the root of wheat. Results and Discussion: Surveying the elements content in the root and the grain indicated a significant and positive effect of the use the Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza to improve the concentration of the elements in wheat cultivars. However, the simultaneous use of these microorganisms led to an increase of the effects of their application on their assessed traits.Finally the highest concentration of N (2.21 present, P (0.50 present and Fe (33.88 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain; the highest concentration of K (0.93 present and 0.54 present and Mn (43.11 and 23.63 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain and root, respectively. Moreover, the highest concentration of Zn in the root (19.70 mg.kg-1 was obtained from inoculation of C.V Dena seeds with

  16. Non-destructive, high-content analysis of wheat grain traits using X-ray micro computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Hughes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is one of the most widely grown crop in temperate climates for food and animal feed. In order to meet the demands of the predicted population increase in an ever-changing climate, wheat production needs to dramatically increase. Spike and grain traits are critical determinants of final yield and grain uniformity a commercially desired trait, but their analysis is laborious and often requires destructive harvest. One of the current challenges is to develop an accurate, non-destructive method for spike and grain trait analysis capable of handling large populations. Results In this study we describe the development of a robust method for the accurate extraction and measurement of spike and grain morphometric parameters from images acquired by X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT. The image analysis pipeline developed automatically identifies plant material of interest in μCT images, performs image analysis, and extracts morphometric data. As a proof of principle, this integrated methodology was used to analyse the spikes from a population of wheat plants subjected to high temperatures under two different water regimes. Temperature has a negative effect on spike height and grain number with the middle of the spike being the most affected region. The data also confirmed that increased grain volume was correlated with the decrease in grain number under mild stress. Conclusions Being able to quickly measure plant phenotypes in a non-destructive manner is crucial to advance our understanding of gene function and the effects of the environment. We report on the development of an image analysis pipeline capable of accurately and reliably extracting spike and grain traits from crops without the loss of positional information. This methodology was applied to the analysis of wheat spikes can be readily applied to other economically important crop species.

  17. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfang; Pu, Feiyu; Li, Yunpeng; Xu, Jingwen; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Jianping; Pan, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major meteorological

  18. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major

  19. Sugarcane Aphid in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Logan

    2018-01-01

    This article is intended for readers in the production agriculture industry who deal with grain sorghum throughout the growing season. This publication will discuss the impacts of the sugarcane aphid in various crops and the ways to manage and identify them as they continue to advance north.

  20. Atividade residual de (imazethapyr+imazapic para sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor semeado em rotação com o arroz irrigado Field persistence of (imazethapyr+imazapic to grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor planted in rotation after irrigated rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.O Pinto

    2009-12-01

    áveis ao sorgo cultivado em safra subsequente ao arroz.The objective of this research was to evaluate the field persistence of the herbicide Only (imazethapyr+imazapic, to grain sorghum, planted in rotation after one, two or three years of Clearfield® (CL rice. The field study was carried out at Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Clearfield rice was established as the main crop, Italian ryegrass as a succession crop and grain sorghum, as a rotation crop after CL rice. Except for the first rice crop, all the other cultures were planted as no-till rice. Ryegrass plants were burned down in every experiment using glyphosate (760 g a.e. ha-1. The experimental design was a factorial with treatments arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replications, where factor A was the number of CL rice seasons and B was the herbicide rate. The rice cultivar was IRGA 422 CL, and the herbicide treatments were Only (imazethapyr+imazapic at 0; (75+25; (112.5+37.5 and (150+50 g ha-1. Adjuvant Dash was added to the herbicide at 0.5% v/v. The experiments were labeled as A1, A2 or A3, respectively, for one, two or three years of CL rice. Grain sorghum, cv. BR 304, was planted as a bioindicator of herbicide residue. The following parameters were evaluated: plant population, plant height; above ground biomass, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. As for grain sorghum plant height and 1000-seed weight, an interaction was observed between the different environments (years of CL rice and herbicide rate (imazethapyr+imazapic. For the other parameters, only effect for herbicide rat was detected. The results suggested that all grain sorghum parameters were affected by the herbicides (imazethapyr+ imazapic in the soil. Grain sorghum injury increased with herbicide rate. In conclusion, grain sorghum, planted in rotation with rice is affected by the residue of the herbicide Only (imazethapyr+imazapic applied to Clearfield® rice.

  1. Wheat grain mechanical vulnerability to mechanical damage in light of the recent agrophysical research[X-radiation]; Podatnosc ziarna pszenicy na uszkodzenia mechaniczne w swietle dotychczasowych badan agrofizycznych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundas, S [Instytut Agrofizyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Lublin (Poland)

    1995-07-01

    The paper contains basic information on mechanical damage to wheat grains. The most important causes of mechanical damage and some of its effects in manufacturing are discussed. Grain material included 5 varieties of winter wheat and 2 varieties of spring wheat. Internal mechanical damage was examined by X-ray technique; external damage was examined with the colorimeter method. The results obtained were compared with the estimation results of more important processing features of the grain: gluten quantity and quality and grain hardness. (author)

  2. Mineral composition of durum wheat grain and pasta under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Miglietta, Franco; Cattivelli, Luigi; Menga, Valeria; Nigro, Franca; Pecchioni, Nicola; Fares, Clara

    2018-03-01

    The concentrations of 10 minerals were investigated in the grain of 12 durum wheat genotypes grown under free air CO 2 enrichment conditions, and in four of their derived pasta samples, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to ambient CO 2 (400ppm; AMB), under elevated CO 2 (570ppm; ELE), the micro-element and macro-element contents showed strong and significant decreases in the grain: Mn, -28.3%; Fe, -26.7%; Zn, -21.9%; Mg, -22.7%; Mo, -40.4%; K, -22.4%; and Ca, -19.5%. These variations defined the 12 genotypes as sensitive or non-sensitive to ELE. The pasta samples under AMB and ELE showed decreased mineral contents compared to the grain. Nevertheless, the contributions of the pasta to the recommended daily allowances remained relevant, also for the micro-elements under ELE conditions (range, from 18% of the recommended daily allowance for Zn, to 70% for Mn and Mo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study on the effect of levels of tannins on in vitro digestibility of different Sudanese varieties of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.A.

    2008-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the tannin content and its effect on ruminant's digestibility in 26 Sudanese sorghum varieties. Samples were brought from Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani (ARC), hand cleaned and preserved in dark in plastic containers. Tannins content was measured by using vanillin-HCl method (Price et al, 1979) and in vitro digestibility was conducted to evaluate the dry meter digestibility and organic matter digestibility according to (Tilley and Terry, 1963). Results have shown that condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) ranged between 0.39 g/kg and 23.08 g/kg, Tabat recorded the lowest value when Wad akar red recorded the highest value. An in vitro dry matter digestibility (INVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) trial were performed. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05) between organic matter and condensed tannins especially those contained high level of condensed tannins. The organic matter digestibility ranged between 680.11 g/kg in arfa gadamak commercial to 828.85 g/kg in dar baladi. The results have shown that the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to in vitro incubated samples increased the gas produced in wad akar red in 24 hours by 29% compared to the control sample without (PEG). Higher significant correlation (P<0.001) between the clorox bleaching test and condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) in samples was found. It is concluded that condensed tannins in sorghum are beneficial to ruminant when they are introduced in complete diets to avoid the inhibitory effects of condensed tannins in sorghum. Adding (PEG) to the ruminant diets which contain high levels of condensed tannins improved digestibility subsequently animal performance.(Author)

  4. A study on the effect of levels of tannins on in vitro digestibility of different Sudanese varieties of sorghum grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M A [Animal Resources Research Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-06-15

    This work was conducted to evaluate the tannin content and its effect on ruminant's digestibility in 26 Sudanese sorghum varieties. Samples were brought from Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani (ARC), hand cleaned and preserved in dark in plastic containers. Tannins content was measured by using vanillin-HCl method (Price et al, 1979) and in vitro digestibility was conducted to evaluate the dry meter digestibility and organic matter digestibility according to (Tilley and Terry, 1963). Results have shown that condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) ranged between 0.39 g/kg and 23.08 g/kg, Tabat recorded the lowest value when Wad akar red recorded the highest value. An in vitro dry matter digestibility (INVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) trial were performed. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05) between organic matter and condensed tannins especially those contained high level of condensed tannins. The organic matter digestibility ranged between 680.11 g/kg in arfa gadamak commercial to 828.85 g/kg in dar baladi. The results have shown that the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to in vitro incubated samples increased the gas produced in wad akar red in 24 hours by 29% compared to the control sample without (PEG). Higher significant correlation (P<0.001) between the clorox bleaching test and condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) in samples was found. It is concluded that condensed tannins in sorghum are beneficial to ruminant when they are introduced in complete diets to avoid the inhibitory effects of condensed tannins in sorghum. Adding (PEG) to the ruminant diets which contain high levels of condensed tannins improved digestibility subsequently animal performance.(Author)

  5. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum strains on irradiated wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendoya, Eugenia; Monge, María Del Pilar; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris; Farnochi, María Cecilia; Ramirez, María Laura

    2018-02-02

    Wheat is the most important cereal consumed by the Argentine population. In previous studies performed in durum and common wheat grains in this country it has been observed fumonisin contamination as well as high incidence of Fusarium proliferatum. Fumonisins are toxic fungal metabolites, and consumption of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been epidemiologically associated with oesophageal cancer and neural tube defects in some human populations. Using irradiated wheat-grains, the effects of abiotic factors, temperature (15, 25, and 30°C) and water activity (a W ; 0.995, 0.98, 0.96, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.88), on mycelial growth and fumonisin biosynthesis were compared for three F. proliferatum strains isolated from wheat grains in Argentina. Although all isolates showed similar profiles of growth, the fumonisin production profiles were slightly different. Maximum growth rates were obtained at the highest a W (0.995) and 25°C, with growth decreasing as the a W of the medium was reduced. Maximum amounts of total fumonisins (FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 ) were produced at 0.995 a W and 15°C for 2 strains, and at 25°C and 0.995 a W for the third one. Fumonisins concentrations varied considerably depending on the a W and temperature interactions assayed. Studied strains showed different fumonisin production profiles. Two-dimensional profiles of a W by temperature interactions were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk of fumonisins accumulation on wheat. As a result, temperature and a W conditions that resulted in fumonisins production are those found during wheat grain development (especially milk and dough stages) in the field. This is the first study made using irradiated wheat grains and provides useful baseline data on conditions representing a low or a high risk for fumonisins contamination of wheat grains which is of concern because this cereal is destined mainly for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Sociocultural Differences in Translating Euphemistic Expressions from English into Arabic in "A Grain of Wheat"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anber, Sameerah Jabbar; Swear, Muna Abdual Hussein

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the sociocultural differences in translating Euphemistic expressions from English into Arabic. Particularly, the study took the novel "A Grain of Wheat" to show the differences of these expressions usage by two translators from different cultures. The study adapts a qualitative approach applied in Leppihalme's…

  8. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  9. The freezing of water bonded in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain studied by means protons magnetic relaxation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranczyk, H.; Jasinski, G.; Strzalka, K.

    1994-01-01

    Some biological aspects of water freezing in the wheat grain have been studied using NMR methods. Measuring of the relaxation times for freezing and liquid water shown absence of T 2 ∼100 μs and T 2 ∼1 ms separated components what pointed for some different way of water bonding

  10. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Key words: Sweet sorghum, grain sorghum, salinity, stem yield, ... The effect of salinity on the stem yield and sucrose was .... growth and polyamine metabolism in two citrus rootstocks with ... Growth and osmoregulation in two.

  11. Comparison of wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility by feedlot heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, L J; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; He, M; McKinnon, J J

    2012-04-01

    A 5 × 5 Latin square design trial was conducted to evaluate rumen fermentation and apparent nutrient digestibility in 5 rumen-cannulated heifers (420 ± 6 kg) fed a barley-based finishing diet supplemented with 20 or 40% wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The composition of the control diet was 88.7% rolled barley grain, 5.5% supplement, and 5.8% barley silage (DM basis). Increasing the quantity of corn DDGS in the ration resulted in a quadratic decrease in DMI (P = 0.04) and OM intake (P = 0.05). Rumen pH, pH duration, and area under rumen pH thresholds of 5.8 or 5.5 were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. Inclusion of wheat DDGS resulted in a quadratic increase (P = 0.05) in pH area below the cutoff value of 5.2, with the most pronounced effect at 20% inclusion. Wheat DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) rumen NH(3)-N concentrations. Increasing the inclusion rate of wheat and corn DDGS resulted in quadratic (P = 0.05) and linear (P = 0.04) decreases in rumen propionate, whereas butyrate increased quadratically (P content of the diet. Feeding both wheat and corn DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) the excretion of N and P. In summary, replacement of barley grain with up to 40% wheat or corn DDGS did not mitigate rumen pH conditions associated with mild to moderate acidosis in heifers fed a barley-based finishing diet. Supplementing corn DDGS increased nutrient digestibility of all nutrients and, as a result, led to greater DE content. Supplementation of wheat DDGS reduced DM and OM digestibility values, with no effect on DE content. Increased N and P excretion by heifers fed DDGS at 20 or 40% of dietary DM presents a challenge for cattle feeders with respect to nutrient management.

  12. Self-Organized Crystallization Patterns from Evaporating Droplets of Common Wheat Grain Leakages as a Potential Tool for Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olga Kokornaczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the evaporation-induced pattern formation in droplets of common wheat kernel leakages prepared out of ancient and modern wheat cultivars as a possible tool for wheat quality analysis. The experiments showed that the substances which passed into the water during the soaking of the kernels created crystalline structures with different degrees of complexity while the droplets were evaporating. The forms ranged from spots and simple structures with single ramifications, through dendrites, up to highly organized hexagonal shapes and fractal-like structures. The patterns were observed and photographed using dark field microscopy in small magnifications. The evaluation of the patterns was performed both visually and by means of the fractal dimension analysis. From the results, it can be inferred that the wheat cultivars differed in their pattern-forming capacities. Two of the analyzed wheat cultivars showed poor pattern formation, whereas another two created well-formed and complex patterns. Additionally, the wheat cultivars were analyzed for their vigor by means of the germination test and measurement of the electrical conductivity of the grain leakages. The results showed that the more vigorous cultivars also created more complex patterns, whereas the weaker cultivars created predominantly poor forms. This observation suggests a correlation between the wheat seed quality and droplet evaporation patterns.

  13. Effects of shading on morphology, physiology and grain yield of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huawei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In a field experiment, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 158 (YM 158, shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (YM 11, shading-sensitive) were subjected to shading between jointing and maturity. Three shading treatments were applied, i.e. 92% (S1), 85% (S2) and 77% (S3) of full...... the shading treatments applied, leaf area index, length of the peduncle internode, area of the upper leaves and content of pigments increased, which favoured efficient light capture. Shading modified light quality in the canopy as indicated by increases of diffuse- and blue light fractions and a reduction...... the flag leaf, as in most cases Pn of the third and the penultimate leaves were found to increase under shading treatments. Shading increased the redistribution of dry matter from vegetative organs into grains. The responses of the morphological and physiological traits to shading are discussed in relation...

  14. Quality and nutritional properties of pasta products enriched with immature wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Erba, Daniela; Marti, Alessandra; Cecchini, Cristina; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, nutritional and sensory properties of pasta enriched with 30% immature wheat grain (IWG), a natural source of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), are evaluated. Colour and cooking quality, nutritional value and glycaemic index (GI) of pasta were assessed in comparison with commercially enriched inulin and 100% wholewheat pastas. IWG integration induced deep changes in colour, without negatively affecting the cooking quality of pasta, and promoted nutritional quality by increasing the fibre content; IWG pasta presented a remarkable leaching of FOS in cooking water, thus providing only 1 g of FOS per serving. IWG pastas showed a GI of 67 (dried) and 79 (fresh), not significantly different from commercial pasta products. IWG can be considered an interesting ingredient to obtain functional products 'naturally enriched' in FOS and fibre. Results about FOS leaching suggest that, in dealing with functional effects, the actual prebiotic content should be carefully considered on food 'as eaten'.

  15. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat......Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...

  16. Simultaneous improvement of grain yield and protein content in durum wheat by different phenotypic indices and genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, M; Lein, V; Lacoudre, F; Lafferty, J; Müller, E; Vida, G; Bozhanova, V; Ibraliu, A; Thorwarth, P; Piepho, H P; Leiser, W L; Würschum, T; Longin, C F H

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous improvement of protein content and grain yield by index selection is possible but its efficiency largely depends on the weighting of the single traits. The genetic architecture of these indices is similar to that of the primary traits. Grain yield and protein content are of major importance in durum wheat breeding, but their negative correlation has hampered their simultaneous improvement. To account for this in wheat breeding, the grain protein deviation (GPD) and the protein yield were proposed as targets for selection. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of different indices to simultaneously improve grain yield and protein content in durum wheat and to evaluate their genetic architecture towards genomics-assisted breeding. To this end, we investigated two different durum wheat panels comprising 159 and 189 genotypes, which were tested in multiple field locations across Europe and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. The phenotypic analyses revealed significant genetic variances for all traits and heritabilities of the phenotypic indices that were in a similar range as those of grain yield and protein content. The GPD showed a high and positive correlation with protein content, whereas protein yield was highly and positively correlated with grain yield. Thus, selecting for a high GPD would mainly increase the protein content whereas a selection based on protein yield would mainly improve grain yield, but a combination of both indices allows to balance this selection. The genome-wide association mapping revealed a complex genetic architecture for all traits with most QTL having small effects and being detected only in one germplasm set, thus limiting the potential of marker-assisted selection for trait improvement. By contrast, genome-wide prediction appeared promising but its performance strongly depends on the relatedness between training and prediction sets.

  17. Root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield response of winter wheat to supplemental irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Man

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. Thus, we investigated the effect of supplemental irrigation (SI on the root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield of winter wheat in this region by measuring the moisture content in different soil layers. Prior to SI, the soil water content (SWC at given soil depths was monitored to calculate amount of irritation water that can rehydrate the soil to target SWC. The SWC before SI was monitored to depths of 20, 40, and 60 cm in treatments of W20, W40, and W60, respectively. Rainfed treatment with no irrigation as the control (W0. The mean root weight density (RWD, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction activity (TTC reduction activity, soluble protein (SP concentrations as well as catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in W40 and W60 treatments were significantly higher than those in W20. The RWD in 60–100 cm soil layers and the root activity, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities in 40–60 cm soil layers in W40 treatment were significantly higher than those in W20 and W60. W40 treatment is characterized by higher SWC in the upper soil layers but lower SWC in the 60–100-cm soil layers during grain filling. The soil water consumption (SWU in the 60–100 cm soil layers from anthesis after SI to maturity was the highest in W40. The grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE, and irrigation water productivity were the highest in W40, with corresponding mean values of 9169 kg ha−1, 20.8 kg ha−1 mm−1, and 35.5 kg ha−1 mm−1. The RWD, root activities, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities, and SWU were strongly positively correlated with grain yield and WUE. Therefore, the optimum soil layer for SI of winter wheat after jointing is 0–40 cm.

  18. Differential representation of albumins and globulins during grain development in durum wheat and its possible functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Simona; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Vitale, Monica; Mazzeo, Fiorella; Mamone, Gianfranco; Di Stasio, Luigia; Maccaferri, Marco; Curci, Pasquale Luca; Sonnante, Gabriella; Zambrano, Nicola; Scaloni, Andrea

    2017-06-06

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) is an economically important crop used for the production of semolina, which is the basis of pasta and other food products. Its grains provide proteins and starch for human consumption. Grain development is a key process in wheat physiology; it is highly affected by a number of enzymes that control the metabolic processes governing accumulation of starch and storage proteins and ultimately grain weight. Most of these enzymes are present in the albumin/globulin grain fraction, which represents about a quarter of total seed proteins. With the aim to describe the dynamic profile of the albumin/globulin fraction during durum wheat grain development, we performed a proteomic analysis of this subproteome using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based approach and compared six developmental stages. A total of 285 differentially (237 over- and 48 under-) represented spots was identified by nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS, which were associated with 217 non-redundant Triticum sequence entries. Quantitative protein dynamics demonstrated that carbon metabolism, energy, protein destination/storage, disease/defense and cell growth/division functional categories were highly affected during grain development, concomitantly with progressive grain size increase and starch/protein reserve accumulation. Bioinformatic interaction prediction revealed a complex network of differentially represented proteins mainly centered at enzymes involved in carbon and protein metabolism. A description of 18 proteins associated with wheat flour human allergies was also obtained; these components showed augmented levels at the last developmental stages. By providing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of durum wheat grain development, yield and quality formation, this study provides the foundation and reveals potential biomarkers for further investigations of durum wheat breeding and semolina quality. A 2D

  19. Degradation of bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Bortolotto, Tiago; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-07-15

    Pesticide insecticides are used on wheat grains in storage units but their efficiency is hindered by persistent residues in the grains. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone (O3) gas treatment on the degradation of residual bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides commonly used in storage wheat grains, as well as to evaluate degradation of their by-products. The residues of bifenthrin decreased after 180 min of exposure in a concentration of 60 μmol/mol (a 37.5 ± 7.4% reduction) with 20% moisture content and 0.9 water activity. On the other hand, under the same experimental conditions, the pirimiphos-methyl residues significantly decreased in the wheat grains (71.1 ± 8.6%) after 30 min of exposure. After O3 gas treatment, three by-products of pirimiphos-methyl (m/z=306.1) containing different molecular mass to charge ratios (m/z=278.1, 301.1 and 319.2) were identified by LC-MS. O3 is a strong oxidizer that has shown the potential to reduce pesticide residues in stored grain in order to ensure food quality and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply on the relative contributions of pre- and post-anthesis net above-ground biomass accumulation and N uptake to grain-yield and grain N concentration was examined in four contrasting environments in semi-arid tropical Australia. The four environments had different radiation and temperature regimes, and varying levels of water deficit. The grain-yield achieved under high N supply ranged from 156 to 621 g m −2 (on an oven-dry basis). In all but the lowest-yielding environment, there was substantial biomass accumulation during grain-filling and it increased with N application. Only in the lowest-yielding environment was there substantial mobilization of pre-anthesis biomass to grain. Biomass mobilization was not affected by N application. Nitrogen uptake during grain-filling was unresponsive to N application, and was small relative to total N uptake during the life-cycle. Mobilization of pre-anthesis N to the grain was much more significant. In all but the lowest-yielding environment, N mobilization increased with N application. Grain-yield under variable N supply and differing environmental conditions was not dependent on the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis growth. However, grain-yield was proportional to biomass at maturity over the entire yield range in this study and variability in biomass accounted for 95% of the variance in grain-yield. Similarly, grain N concentration was not related to the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis N uptake, but variability in total N uptake accounted for 92% of the variance in grain N accumulation. Consequently, there was no differential effect of N supply or environmental factors on yield physiology that could not be explained by their effect on biomass and N uptake. (author)

  1. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  2. Mining centuries old in-situ conserved Turkish wheat landraces for grain yield and stripe rust resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat landraces in Turkey are an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. An exhaustive five-year (2009-2014 effort made by the International Winter Wheat Improvement Programme (IWWIP a cooperative program between the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock of Turkey, the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA, led to the collection and documentation of around 2,000 landrace populations from 55 provinces throughout Turkey. This study reports the genetic characterization of a subset of bread wheat landraces collected in 2010 from 11 diverse provinces using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS technology. The potential of this collection to identify loci determining grain yield and stripe rust resistance via genome-wide association (GWA analysis was explored. A high genetic diversity (diversity index = 0.260 and a moderate population structure based on highly inherited spike traits was revealed in the panel. The linkage disequilibrium decayed at 10 cM across the whole genome and was slower as compared to other landrace collections. In addition to previously reported QTL, GWA analysis also identified new candidate genomic regions for stripe rust resistance, grain yield and spike productivity components. New candidate genomic regions reflect the potential of this landrace collection to further increase genetic diversity in elite germplasm.

  3. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  5. Effects of Whole Grain Wheat Bread on Visceral Fat Obesity in Japanese Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Nozaki, Satomi; Makita, Miki; Yokozuka, Shoji; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Aoe, Seiichiro

    2018-04-18

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . Subjects were randomly assigned WW (WW group) or RW diets (RW group) for 12 weeks. Blood samples and computed tomography scans were obtained every 6th week. The WW group showed decrease (-4 cm 2 ) in visceral fat area (VFA) (p < 0.05), whereas the RW group showed no significant changes. These time-dependent changes were significantly different between the groups. WW diet led to significant and safe reductions in VFA in subjects with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . WW diet may contribute to preventing visceral fat obesity.

  6. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünhage, Ludger; Pleijel, Håkan; Mills, Gina; Bender, Jürgen; Danielsson, Helena; Lehmann, Yvonne; Castell, Jean-Francois; Bethenod, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O(3) and H(2)O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Post-Anthesis Drought and Waterlogging on Accumulation of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits and Glutenin Macropolymers Content in Wheat Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, D; Yue, H; Wollenweber, B

    2009-01-01

    Drought and flooding during grain filling have become major constraints to wheat quality and yield. The impacts of water deficits and waterlogging during the grain filling on contents of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) in grains of the winter w...

  8. Effectiveness of an improved form of insecticide-based diatomaceous earth against four stored grain pests on different grain commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Nadia; Farooq, Muhammad; Shakeel, Muhammad; Ashraf, Misbah

    2018-04-07

    The effectiveness of Grain-Guard, an improved form of diatomaceous earth (DE), with low risk to the environment, was evaluated against the storage pests Liposcelis paeta, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Tribolium castaneum on four grain commodities, wheat, rice, maize and sorghum. The overall mortality of stored grain pests increased with the rise of application rate and exposure intervals of diatomaceous earth and decreased over 120 days of post-treatment period. Our results revealed that mortality of adults 14 days post-disclosure was > 80% on wheat at the start of post-treatment than rice, maize, and sorghum, respectively. During the first 60 days of post-treatment, adult mortality increased, whereas later on, a steady decrease in adult mortality was observed. Considerable differences in dose rates were observed on mortality levels along with grain commodities. Following 14 days of exposure, all adults of four species were dead on wheat at 100 ppm and on rice at 150 ppm except maize and sorghum. The suppression of progeny was noticeably higher at the beginning of post-treatment duration while after 60-days of post-treatment, progeny numbers started to increase with the rise in post-treatment durations. This new improved DE formulation was found to be effective at dose rates that are extensively lower than required with previous DE formulations and will contribute to lower the risk of health and environment.

  9. Sorghums: viable biomass candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, T A; Arthur, M F; Kresovich, S; Scantland, D A

    1980-01-01

    Agronomic studies conducted at Battelle's Columbus Division to evaluate biomass and sugar yields of sweet sorghum are described and the major findings are summarized. Development opportunities for using sorghum cultivars as a large-scale energy crop are discussed. With presently available cultivars, sweet sorghum should produce 3500 to 4000 liters ethanol per hectare from the fermentable sugars alone. Conversion of the stalk fibers into alcohol could increase production by another 1600 to 1900 liters per hectare with existing cultivars. These yields are approximately 30 to 40% greater per hectare than would be obtained from above average yields of grain and stalk fiber with corn. There is reason to believe, that with hybrid sweet sorghum, these yields could be further increased by as much as 30%. Diminishing land availability for agricultural crops necessitates that maximum yields be obtained. Over the next decade, imaginative technological innovations in sorghum harvesting, processing, and crop preservation, coupled with plant breeding research should help this crop realize its full potential as a renewable resource for energy production.

  10. Evaluation of the use of organic acids in the conservation of sorghum grains (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench during storage/ Avaliação do uso de ácidos orgânicos na conservação de grãos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench durante o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zafalon Peter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the use of organic acids in storage of sorghum grains, as an efficient alternative for small and medium producers, that lack structures for artificial drying and technical storage. The grains were stored in bulk in wood boxes, for six months, consisting of five treatments: I dried grains (13.15% of moisture, without incorporation of acids; II humid grains (21,54% of moisture without incorporation of acids; II-A; II-P and II-M, the latter three, with incorporation of acetic acid, propionic and the mixture of both, in the proportion of 1:1, respectively, in the dosis of 2 kg of acid per 100 kg of grains. Evaluation of grains was made at 1, 60, 120 and 180 days of storage, analysing humidity, carboydrate, crude protein, ether extract, ash, volumetric weight and incidence of insects. For the storage of 180 days, under the same environment conditions, it is concluded that: 1 the incorporation of acids at the moment of storage of humid sorghum grains allows superior preservative effects when compared to dry grains; 2 the mixture of acids, showed superior quantitative and qualitative preservative effects of the grains, followed by propionic acid, and acetic, respectively; 3 the storage of humid grains, without addition of acids, does not allow adequate grain conservation, not even for a period lesser than 60 days.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a utilização de ácidos orgânicos no armazenamento de grãos de sorgo, como alternativa eficiente para pequenos e médios produtores, que não dispõem de estruturas de secagem artificial e armazenamento tecnificado. Os grãos foram armazenados a granel, em caixas de madeira, por seis meses, consistindo de cinco tratamentos: I grãos secos (13,15% de umidade, sem incorporação de ácidos; II grãos úmidos (21,54% de umidade, sem incorporação de ácidos; II-A; II-P e II-M, sendo os três últimos grãos úmidos (21,54% de umidade, com incorporação de

  11. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  13. Effect of Drought Stress at Pre and Post-anthesis on Dry Matter Accumulation of Grains in Irrigated Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Elyasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating assimilate contribution and grain filling pattern in winter wheat is importance under drought stress condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between drought stress on grain filling and yield of 4 cultivars including MV17 (dwarf, Alvand, Shahryar (semi-dwarf and Toos (tall. Experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. Drought stress assigned to main plots and cultivars to sub plots. Growth curve sampling started at 7 days after anthesis with 4 days interval. In pre-anthesis drought stress Alvand produced highest yield, while it was 29.14% less than control treatment. The yield of Toos cultivar was lowest at pre-anthesis drought stress. Rate of grain filling of Toos cultivar did not change at pre-anthesis drought stress. Drought stress treatment at post-anthesis decreased rate of grain filling in all cultivars as compared to control, but it was significant only Toos c.v. In pre-anthesis drought stress grain filling duration increased in Alvand but decreased in Toos. Alvand with higher rate of grain filling produced highest grain yield (3850 kg/ha. It can be concluded that, drought stress decreases grain filling duration and rate of grain filling.

  14. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  15. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Vergara-Diaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition, against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2 = 0.581 and R2 = 0.536, respectively, far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2 = 0.118 and R2 = 0.128, respectively. In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  16. An Optimized Protocol for DNA Extraction from Wheat Seeds and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP to Detect Fusarium graminearum Contamination of Wheat Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moslem

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and efficient method for isolating genomic DNA from germinated seeds of wheat that is free from polysaccharides and polyphenols is reported. DNA was extracted, treated with RNase, measured and tested for completeness using agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA purification from wheat grains yielded abundant, amplifiable DNA with yields typically between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg. The effectiveness and reliability of the method was tested by assessing quantity and quality of the isolated DNA using three PCR-based markers. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs were used to assess the genetic diversity between different wheat varieties. Specific PCR primer pair Tox5-1/Tox5-2 and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP procedure were used to detect genomic DNA of Fusarium graminearum in contaminated wheat seeds. In this method there is no need to use liquid nitrogen for crushing germinated seedlings. The protocol takes approximately one hour to prepare high quality DNA. In combination with the LAMP assay it is a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of toxigenic fusaria in cereals.

  17. An optimized protocol for DNA extraction from wheat seeds and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) to detect Fusarium graminearum contamination of wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsalam, Kamel; Bahkali, Ali; Moslem, Mohamed; Amin, Osama E; Niessen, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient method for isolating genomic DNA from germinated seeds of wheat that is free from polysaccharides and polyphenols is reported. DNA was extracted, treated with RNase, measured and tested for completeness using agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA purification from wheat grains yielded abundant, amplifiable DNA with yields typically between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg. The effectiveness and reliability of the method was tested by assessing quantity and quality of the isolated DNA using three PCR-based markers. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) were used to assess the genetic diversity between different wheat varieties. Specific PCR primer pair Tox5-1/Tox5-2 and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) procedure were used to detect genomic DNA of Fusarium graminearum in contaminated wheat seeds. In this method there is no need to use liquid nitrogen for crushing germinated seedlings. The protocol takes approximately one hour to prepare high quality DNA. In combination with the LAMP assay it is a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of toxigenic fusaria in cereals.

  18. Silencing of ABCC13 transporter in wheat reveals its involvement in grain development, phytic acid accumulation and lateral root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Anil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Low phytic acid is a trait desired in cereal crops and can be achieved by manipulating the genes involved either in its biosynthesis or its transport in the vacuoles. Previously, we have demonstrated that the wheat TaABCC13 protein is a functional transporter, primarily involved in heavy metal tolerance, and a probable candidate gene to achieve low phytate wheat. In the current study, RNA silencing was used to knockdown the expression of TaABCC13 in order to evaluate its functional importance in wheat. Transgenic plants with significantly reduced TaABCC13 transcripts in either seeds or roots were selected for further studies. Homozygous RNAi lines K1B4 and K4G7 exhibited 34-22% reduction of the phytic acid content in the mature grains (T4 seeds). These transgenic lines were defective for spike development, as characterized by reduced grain filling and numbers of spikelets. The seeds of transgenic wheat had delayed germination, but the viability of the seedlings was unaffected. Interestingly, early emergence of lateral roots was observed in TaABCC13-silenced lines as compared to non-transgenic lines. In addition, these lines also had defects in metal uptake and development of lateral roots in the presence of cadmium stress. Our results suggest roles of TaABCC13 in lateral root initiation and enhanced sensitivity towards heavy metals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that wheat ABCC13 is functionally important for grain development and plays an important role during detoxification of heavy metals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  20. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  1. Registration of 'Bolles' hard red spring wheat with high grain protein concentration and superior baking quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hard red spring wheat market class in the U.S. commands the highest prices on the worldwide wheat markets because of its high protein content, strong gluten, and good baking properties. ‘Bolles’ (PI 678430), a hard red spring wheat cultivar, was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultu...

  2. Analysis of sorghum wax and carnauba wax by reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a genus in the grass family, which is used for both grain and forage production throughout the world. In the United States, sorghum grain is predominantly used as livestock feed, and in ethanol production. In recent years however, sorghum grain has been investigated for other industrial a...

  3. Microbiological Characterization of Wet Wheat Distillers' Grain, with Focus on Isolation of Lactobacilli with Potential as Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, C.; Jonsson, H.; Lindberg, J. E.; Roos, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wet wheat distillers' grain (WWDG), a residue from ethanol fermentation, was examined from a microbiological perspective. After storage, WWDG was characterized by a high content of lactobacilli, nondetectable levels of other bacteria, occasional occurrence of yeasts, and a pH of about 3.6 and contained a mixture of lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. The composition of lactobacilli in WWDG was simple, including primarily the species Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus panis, and Lact...

  4. Assessment of adaptability and stability of grain yield in bread wheat genotypes under different sowing times in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, M.; Ali, M.A.; Subhani, G.M.; Munir, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty advanced lines/genotypes of wheat including two check varieties were sown under two different sowing times through out the Punjab province at 18 different locations with diverse environments to study their stability and adaptability. Normal sowing was done in second week of November 2007 while the delayed sowing was completed during second week of December 2007 during crop season 2007-08. The pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences among environments and genotypes for grain yield demonstrating the presence of considerable variations (p<0.01) among genotypes as well as diversity of growing environments at various locations for both normal and late sown wheat crops. The highest average grain yield was obtained at Jalandar Seed Farm, Arifwala and Pak. German Farm, Multan for normal and delayed sown crops, respectively. Most of the locations emerged as high yielding in normal sowing compared to late sown crop. Dendrograms of 18 locations based on the average yield of 20 wheat genotypes grown under normal and late sown crop revealed two main clusters. Under both normal and late sowing, none of the varieties exceeded the check Seher-2006, however, the check was followed by the advanced lines V-04022 and V-05066 for normal sown crop and Shafaq-2006, V-05066 and V-04022 under delayed sowing. All the genotypes revealed decline in grain yield for late sown wheat crop. The analysis of stability based on mean grain yield, regression coefficient and deviation from regression advocated that the cultivars V-05066 and V-03BT007 were most stable and adapted to diverse environmental conditions of Punjab. These cultivars revealed unit regression and non-significant deviations from regression. The check variety Seher-2006 produced maximum yield for both sowing times that suggested its consistent and stable performance across the environments. (author)

  5. The effect of the Tom Thumb dwarfing gene on grain size and grain number of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, M.D.; Flintham, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Tom Thumb dwarfing gene, Rht3, like the related genes Rht1 and Rht2 from Norin 10, has pleiotropic effects on individual ear yields, and grain protein concentrations. An experiment was conducted in which tiller number per plant and grain number per spike were restricted to ascertain whether reduced grain size and protein content are primary or secondary competitive effects in near-isogenic lines. The potential for grain growth was shown to be identical in Rht3 and rht genotypes when grain set was restricted, indicating that the primary effect of the gene is to increase spikelet fertility. Nitrogen accumulation within the grain was also affected by inter-grain competition but decreased nitrogen yields per plant indicated that reduced protein levels are, in part, a primary effect of the gene. Analysis of individual grain yields within Rht3 and rht spikes showed that the gene affected developmental 'dominance' relationships within the spike. (author)

  6. Multitrait, Random Regression, or Simple Repeatability Model in High-Throughput Phenotyping Data Improve Genomic Prediction for Wheat Grain Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Rutkoski, Jessica E; Poland, Jesse A; Crossa, José; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E

    2017-07-01

    High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms can be used to measure traits that are genetically correlated with wheat ( L.) grain yield across time. Incorporating such secondary traits in the multivariate pedigree and genomic prediction models would be desirable to improve indirect selection for grain yield. In this study, we evaluated three statistical models, simple repeatability (SR), multitrait (MT), and random regression (RR), for the longitudinal data of secondary traits and compared the impact of the proposed models for secondary traits on their predictive abilities for grain yield. Grain yield and secondary traits, canopy temperature (CT) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were collected in five diverse environments for 557 wheat lines with available pedigree and genomic information. A two-stage analysis was applied for pedigree and genomic selection (GS). First, secondary traits were fitted by SR, MT, or RR models, separately, within each environment. Then, best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs) of secondary traits from the above models were used in the multivariate prediction models to compare predictive abilities for grain yield. Predictive ability was substantially improved by 70%, on average, from multivariate pedigree and genomic models when including secondary traits in both training and test populations. Additionally, (i) predictive abilities slightly varied for MT, RR, or SR models in this data set, (ii) results indicated that including BLUPs of secondary traits from the MT model was the best in severe drought, and (iii) the RR model was slightly better than SR and MT models under drought environment. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  7. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    Full Text Available Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar, were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA. The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P < 0.05. Heat stress also decreased the zeatin riboside (ZR content, but increased the gibberellin (GA3, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and abscisic acid (ABA contents at 3 to 15 DAA. Application of 6-BA significantly (P < 0.05 increased the grain-filling rate, endosperm cell division rate, endosperm cell number, and 1,000-grain weight under heated condition. 6-BA application increased ZR and IAA contents at 3 to 28 DAA, but decreased GA3 and ABA contents. The contents of ZR, ABA, and IAA in kernels were positively and significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate (P < 0.05, whereas GA3 was counter-productive at 3 to 15 DAA. These results suggest that the decrease in grain yield under heat stress was due to a lower ZR content and a higher GA3 content compared to that at elevated temperature during the early development of the kernels, which resulted in less kernel number and lower grain-filling rate. The results also provide essential information for further utilization of the cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat.

  8. Influence of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and some baking quality characteristics of spring wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavo Elonen

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1967—70 twelve irrigation experiments of spring wheat were carried out in southern Finland (60-62° N, 22-26° E. Sprinkler irrigation (2 X 30 mm increased the grain yields on an average by 1240±470kg/ha (from 2740 to 3980 kg or 45±17 %. The increases in yield were significant on clay soils (9 trials and loam (1 trial but insignificant on fines and (1 trial and mould (1 trial. Additional nitrogen fertilization (from 76 to 143kg/ha N increased the grain yields on an average by 350± 200 kg/ha or 11±6 %. The ripening of wheat was significantly promoted by irrigation in one year but slightly retarded in three years. Nitrogen fertilization slightly retarded ripening every year The falling number of grains tended to be slightly improved by irrigation (from 285 to 321, on an average, but in most trials irrigation and nitrogen fertilization had no significant influence on the falling number. Irrigation decreased the crude protein content of grains in all trials, on an average by 2.2 ± 0.7 %-units (from 16.3 to 14.1%. This unfavourable effect was, however, avoided with additional nitrogen which increased the protein content by 1.9±0.4%-units (from 14,3 to 16.2 %. The effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on those characteristics of wheat that are correlated with protein, were similar to the effects on the protein content. Thus, irrigation decreased the zeleny value (from 64 to 53 ml, cold viscosity (from 214 to 114 seconds, water absorption (from 66.5 to 64.9 % and the valorimeter value (from 68 to 60, while these characteristics were improved by nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation did not decrease the Pelshenke value but increased significantly the ratio of the Pelshenke value/protein content (from 5,1 to 6.1. This indicates that the quality of protein was improved by irrigation, while the effect of nitrogen fertilization was the reverse. In fact, irrigation and additional nitrogen fertilization affected the quantity and

  9. Iron biofortification of wheat grains through integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers in pH affected calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic diversity of wheat grain quality and determination the best clustering technique and data type for diversity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important staple in human nutrition and improvement of its grain quality characters will have high impact on population's health. The objectives of this study were assessing variation of some grain quality characteristics in the Iranian wheat genotypes and identify the best type of data and clustering method for grouping genotypes. In this study 30 spring wheat genotypes were cultivated through randomized complete block design with three replications in 2009 and 2010 years. High significant difference among genotypes for all traits except for Sulfate, K, Br and Cl content, also deference among two years mean for all traits were no significant. Meanwhile there were significant interaction between year and genotype for all traits except Sulfate and F content. Mean values for crude protein, Zn, Fe and Ca in Mahdavi, Falat, Star, Sistan genotypes were the highest. The Ca and Br content showed the highest and the lowest broadcast heritability respectively. In this study indicated that the Root Mean Square Standard Deviation is efficient than R Squared and R Squared efficient than Semi Partial R Squared criteria for determining the best clustering technique. Also Ward method and canonical scores identified as the best clustering method and data type for grouping genotypes, respectively. Genotypes were grouped into six completely separate clusters and Roshan, Niknejad and Star genotypes from the fourth, fifth and sixth clusters had high grain quality characters in overall.

  11. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy ... government that only ''non-grain” materials can be used ... In this work, ... inoculated (10%, v/v) into fermentation medium prepared with the.

  12. Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are...

  13. Unravelling mycorrhiza-induced wheat susceptibility to the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amma L.; Wellham, Peter A. D.; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I.; Gange, Alan C.

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can increase or decrease aphid growth rates and reproduction, but the reason by which this happens is unknown. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction, we examined the effect of AM fungi on the English Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) development, reproduction, attraction, settlement and feeding behaviour on two naturally susceptible varieties Triticum aestivum (L.) variety Solstice and T. monococcum MDR037, and two naturally resistant lines, T. monococcum MDR045 and MDR049. Mycorrhizal colonisation increased the attractiveness of T. aestivum var. Solstice to aphids, but there was no effect on aphid development on this variety. Using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique, we found that mycorrhizal colonisation increased aphid phloem feeding on T. monococcum MDR037 and MDR045, colonisation also increased growth rate and reproductive success of S. avenae on these varieties. Mycorrhizas increased vascular bundle size, demonstrating that these fungi can influence plant anatomy. We discuss if and how this could be related to an enhanced success rate in phloem feeding in two varieties. Overall, we present and discuss how mycorrhizal fungi can affect the feeding behaviour of S. avenae in wheat, inducing susceptibility in a resistant variety.

  14. Use of electrophoretic analysis of grain proteins in the identification of wheat radiomutant ST 7750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasek, A.; Kubanek, J.; Hanis, M.; Cerny, J.

    1977-01-01

    For a more precise comparison of the protein complexes of the grain of the 'Jubilar' cv. and of its radiomutant ST 7750, the methods of the electrophoresis in starch gel in various buffer systems and of disc electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel were used for the study of anodal isoperoxidases. A determination was made of the total protein content, of the basic protein fractions, and of the quantitative proportion of amino acids. Basic qualitative correspondence of the albumin-globulin and gliadin spectrum of the examined variants was found and only in some zones of both spectra certain differences were observed in the quantitative content which may of course, indicate genotypic differentiation of the mutant SF 7750 and of the starting 'Jubilar' cv. Analogous findings were confirmed also by the results of isoperoxidases. Complementary analyses of the protein fractions confirmed the correspondence of the content of albumins, globulins, and gliadins of the investigated variants. Differences were found in the content of glutelin fractions and of insoluble residue. The ascertained changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis where higher methionine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine levels were found in the ST 7750 mutant. The results obtained have shown that especially the analysis of gliadin spectra by electrophoresis in starch gel is a suitable method of differentiating and unifying wheat genotypes as it reveals the differences between the initial and the mutated genotype. (author)

  15. Efficient conversion of pretreated brewer's spent grain and wheat bran by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Niklas; Schabronath, Christoph; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2016-12-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) and wheat bran (WB) are industrial byproducts that accumulate in millions of tons per year and are typically applied as animal feed. Since both byproducts show a great potential as substrates for fermentation, the approach developed in this study consists of utilizing these lignocellulosic byproducts for biomass production of the medicinal fungus Hericium erinaceus through submerged cultivation. To increase the biological efficiency of the bioconversion, acidic pretreatment was applied yielding a bioconversion of 38.6% for pretreated BSG and 34.8% for pretreated WB. This study shows that the complete degradation of (hemi)cellulose into monosaccharides was not required for an efficient bioconversion. The produced fungal biomass was applied in a second fermentation step to induce the secondary metabolite erinacine C production. Thus, biomass was produced as a functional food ingredient with erinacine C contents of 174.8mg/g for BSG and 99.3mg/g for WB based bioconversions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of elevated O3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain in Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feixiang; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Weiwei; Hou, Peiqiang; Lu, Fei; Du, Keming; Sun, Zhongfu

    2013-01-01

    With the open-top chambers (OTCs) in situ in Yangtze River Delta, China in 2007 and 2008, the effects of elevated O 3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were investigated. Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice declined in both years. The N and S concentrations increased under elevated O 3 exposure in both years and C–N ratios decreased significantly. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Cu and Zn in winter wheat and the concentrations of Mg, K, Mn and Cu in rice increased. The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine in winter wheat and rice increased and the concentration of amylose decreased. The increase in the nutrient concentration was less than the reduction of grain yield in both winter wheat and rice, and, hence, the absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- Highlights: •The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain response to ozone had been investigated for two years in China. •Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice were reduced in both years. •The extent of ozone impact on the nutrient elements concentrations of winter wheat and rice were different. •The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine increased but the concentrations of amylose decreased. •The absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were seriously affected under the elevated O 3 exposure

  17. Genetic diversity in sorghum transpiration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is the fifth most important grain crop and is becoming increasingly important as a biofuel feedstock due to its superior tolerance to water deficit stress. Sorghum is commonly grown under rain-fed conditions in the Southern Plains and other semi-arid regions in the world. Thus, its product...

  18. Effects of wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles and cinnamaldehyde on in vitro fermentation and protein degradation using the Rusitec technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia, Yangling; He, Maolong; Li, Chun; Forster, Robert; Beauchemin, Karen Anne; Yang, Wenzhu

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) on in vitro fermentation and microbial profiles using the rumen simulation technique. The control substrate (10% barley silage, 85% barley grain and 5% supplement, on dry matter basis) and the wheat DDGS substrate (30% wheat DDGS replaced an equal portion of barley grain) were combined with 0 and 300 mg CIN/l of culture fluid. The inclusion of DDGS increased (p fermentation pattern changed to greater acetate and less propionate proportions (p fermentability and potentially increase protein flows to the intestine. Supplementation of high-grain substrates with CIN reduced methane production and potentially increased the true protein reaching the small intestine; however, overall reduction of feed fermentation may lower the feeding value of a high-grain diet.

  19. Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhiqing; Zhu, Qingsen; Liu, Lijun

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated if a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) could accelerate grain filling by facilitating the remobilization of carbon reserves in the stem through regulating the enzymes involved in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were grown in pots and treated with either a normal (NN) or high amount of nitrogen (HN) at heading time. Plants were either well-watered (WW) or water-stressed (WS) from 9 days post anthesis until maturity. Leaf water potentials markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning. Photosynthetic rate and zeatin + zeatin riboside concentrations in the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants, and they decreased more slowly with HN than with NN when soil water potential was the same, indicating that the water deficit enhanced, whereas HN delayed, senescence. Water stress, both at NN and HN, facilitated the reduction in concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and fructans in the stems but increased the sucrose level there, promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed (14)C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain-filling period, and accelerated the grain-filling rate. Grain weight and grain yield were increased under the controlled water deficit when HN was applied. Fructan exohydrolase (FEH; EC 3.2.1.80) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) activities were substantially enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with the total NSC and fructan remobilization from the stems. Acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) activity was also enhanced by the water stress and associated with the change in fructan concentration, but not correlated with the total NSC remobilization and (14)C increase in the grains. Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) activity was inhibited by the water stress and negatively correlated with the remobilization of carbon reserves

  20. Evaluation of the multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a cost effective crop in semiarid regions, is an underestimated supplement to corn in starch based ethanol production. Twenty three multi-seeded (msd) mutant sorghums and one wild type sorghum BTx623 were evaluated for ethanol production and effect of che...

  1. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Yield under Different Levels of Cadmium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma spp. on yield and yield components of wheat (cv. N81 under different levels of cadmium nitrate. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design with three replicates. Trichoderma harzianum at two levels (with and without inoculation and four levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 50, 100, 150 mg l-1 were the treatment. Results of ANOVA and mean comparisons showed that inoculation of Trichoderma increased biological yield (46% and straw yield (30% as compared to control. Cadmium pollution has led to significant decrease in harvest index, grain number per spike and partitioning coefficient up to 5, 20, 24 and 38 percent compared to control, respectively. Furthermore, cadmium and fungus interaction were significant in terms of spike number, grain weight per spike, grain yield and tolerance index. Maximum grain yield and tolerance index were recorded in Trichoderma inoculation under cadmium-free plots which nearly increased 65 and 53 percent, respectively. In conclusion, using Trichoderma under cadmium pollution could improve wheat growth, yield and tolerance index

  2. Effect of the New Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Amino Acids on Yield and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, Małgorzata; Michalak, Izabela; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Górecki, Henryk

    2018-02-21

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out in 2012-2013, aimed at evaluating the influence of new products stimulating plant growth based on amino acids on crop yield, characteristics of grain and content of macro- and micronutrients in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The tests included two formulations produced in cooperation with INTERMAG Co. (Olkusz, Poland)-AminoPrim and AminoHort, containing 15% and 20% amino acids, respectively, and 0.27% and 2.1% microelements, respectively. Field experiments showed that the application of products based on amino acids influenced the increase of grain yield of winter wheat (5.4% and 11%, respectively, for the application of AminoPrim at a dose 1.0 L/ha and AminoHort at dose 1.25 L/ha) when compared to the control group without biostimulant. Laboratory tests showed an increase of technological characteristics of grain such as ash content, Zeleny sedimentation index and content of protein. The use of the tested preparations at different doses also contributed to the increase of the nutrients content in grains, in particular copper (ranging 31-50%), as well as sodium (35-43%), calcium (4.3-7.9%) and molybdenum (3.9-16%). Biostimulants based on amino acids, tested in the present study, can be recommended for an efficient agricultural production.

  3. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barunawati, Nunun; Giehl, Ricardo F Hettwer; Bauer, Bernhard; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-01-01

    The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA) in green leaves, while 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approximately one third of the total Fe, Zn, or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  4. Advances in sorghum genetic mapping with implications for sorghum improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.

    1998-01-01

    Despite the importance of the sorghum crop, comprehensive genetic characterization has been limited. Therefore, the primary goal of this research program was to develop basic genetic tools to facilitate research in the genetics and breeding of sorghum. The first phase of this project consisted of constructing a genetic map based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The ISU sorghum map was created through linkage analysis of 78 F2 plants of an intraspecific cross between inbred CK60 and accession PI229828. Subsequent mapping, efforts in several labs have enriched the sorghum map to the point where it now contains over 1,500 loci defined by RFLPs and many others defined by mutant phenotypes and QTLs. The ISU map consists of 201 loci distributed among 10 linkage groups covering 1299 cM. Comparison of sorghum and maize RFLP maps on the basis of common sets of DNA probes revealed a high degree of conservation as reflected by homology, copy number, and colinearity. Examples of conserved and rearranged locus orders were observed. The same sorghum population was used to map genetic factors (mutants and QTLS) for several traits including vegetative and reproductive morphology, maturity, insect, and disease resistance. Four QTLs for plant height, an important character for sorghum adaptation in temperate latitudes for grain production, were identified in a sample of 152 F2 plants whereas 6 QTLs were detected among their F3 progeny. These observations and assessments of other traits at 4 QTLs common to F2 plants and their F3 progeny indicate some of these regions correspond to loci (dw) previously identified on the basis of alleles with highly qualitative effects. Four of the six sorghum plant height QTLs seem to be orthologous to plant height QTLs in maize. Other possible instances of orthologous QTLs included regions for maturity and tillering. These observations suggest that the conservation of the maize and sorghum genomes encompasses sequence homology

  5. WHEAT CHARACTERISTIC DEMAND AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED GRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Mattson, Jeremy W.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is advancing rapidly and is embracing all major crops. The adoption of genetically modified corn, soybeans, and cotton have reached high levels in the United States. Wheat is the next major crop confronting the biotechnology issue, but no commercial varieties of genetically modified (GM) wheat have been released yet. Primary opportunities for GM developments in wheat center around improvements that meet consumer and end-user needs/issues in addition to meeting produ...

  6. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Paul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI and performance (PI indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves

  7. Rational Application of Fertilizer Nitrogen to Soil in Combination With Foliar Zn Spraying Improved Zn Nutritional Quality of Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate human zinc (Zn deficiency, it is worthy to develop rational agronomic managements to achieve high yielding and high resource-use efficiency wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains biofortified with Zn. Effects of application of three rates of nitrogen (N fertilizer (75,200 and 275 kg·ha−1 to soil in combination with three foliar applications (deionized water, Zn alone, and a combination of Zn and sucrose on grain yield, yield components, grain Zn concentration, protein, phytic acid (PA, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, and carbon (C, as well as on Zn bioavailability, were investigated in four wheat cultivars (“Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” under field conditions. Enhanced N increased Zn and protein concentrations as well as bioavailability; excessive N input did not result in further improvements. Zinc spraying was more effective than soil fertilizer N application, the spray of Zn (with or without sucrose increased grain Zn concentrations by 11.1–15.6 mg·kg−1 (27.1–38.1%, and increased grain Zn bioavailability, estimated using total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ and molar ratios of PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn, by 0.4–0.6 mg d−1 (28.6–42.9%, 23.1–27.4% and 24.0–28.0%, respectively. Remarkably, increases caused by ‘Zn + sucrose’ were higher than spraying Zn alone. Grain Zn bioavailability was more sensitive to the selection of cultivar than Zn concentrations. Among cultivars, the higher the grain yields and concentrations of antinutritional compounds, the lower the grain Zn nutritional quality would be. 200 kg N ha−1 application rate in combination with foliar spraying of “Zn + sucrose” maximized grain Zn concentrations of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” to be 59.4, 56.9, 55.8, and 60.9 mg kg−1, respectively, achieving the target value for biofortification. Additionally, PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” and “Luyuan 502” were

  8. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  9. Limitation of multi-elemental fingerprinting of wheat grains: Effect of cultivar, sowing date, and nutrient management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez-Tapia, Alfonso; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2017-01-01

    Multi-element fingerprinting demonstrates some potential for tracing the origin of agricultural products but not for discriminating among crop cultivars and nutrient management (source, rate). With principal component analysis (PCA) and univariate statistics, we examined 19 elements in grains from...... two winter wheat cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) grown with different rates of animal manure (AM) or mineral fertilisers (NPK) in a long-term field experiment and two sowing dates (early, timely). Nitrogen, Cd and Mn related to NPK, and Mo and Na to AM. Barium, Fe, and P reflected nutrient rate......; these elements increased with nutrient rate regardless of source. Unmanured grains were enriched in Cu. Mariboss was characterized by higher concentrations of Sr, Ba and Sc compared to Hereford with Sr in grain as the main separator. Univariate statistics showed higher concentrations of N, P, Mg, Ba, Cu, Mo...

  10. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Lv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP. In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., grain yield (GY, yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, in four growing seasons (2005 to 2009. Results showed that maximum GY was achieved with three irrigation treatments in the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 dry seasons and two irrigation treatments in the 2006-2007 normal season. However, in the 2007-2008 wet season, the four irrigation treatments, especially the additional irrigation event at the reviving stage (28, produced maximum GY. Grain yield was significantly related to seasonal full evapotranspiration (ET and 410 to 530 mm of seasonal full ET, including 143 mm rainfall and 214 mm irrigation water, which led to maximum GY. The two types of cultivars responded differently to irrigation management in different rainfall years. The yield of the water-saving cv. 'Shimai 15' was much higher in the dry seasons than in the other seasons. Variations of yield components were mainly caused by irrigation time and meteorological factors. The higher accumulated temperature during the sowing and tillering stages (24 and irrigation or precipitation at the reviving stage (28 significantly improved tiller growth. The lower average temperature in March and April greatly increased grain number per spike. Sunshine duration played a decisive role in improving grain weight. Our results provide very useful information about irrigation time and frequency of winter wheat in the NCP in order to obtain high yield but reduce the use of underground water.

  11. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  12. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  13. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations for agronomic and grain traits in wild diploid wheat Triticum urartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Yiwen; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    Wild diploid wheat, Triticum urartu (T. urartu) is the progenitor of bread wheat, and understanding its genetic diversity and genome function will provide considerable reference for dissecting genomic information of common wheat. In this study, we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity and population structure of 238 T. urartu accessions collected from different geographic regions. This collection had 19.37 alleles per SSR locus and its polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.76, and the PIC and Nei's gene diversity (GD) of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. UPGMA clustering analysis indicated that the 238 T. urartu accessions could be classified into two subpopulations, of which Cluster I contained accessions from Eastern Mediterranean coast and those from Mesopotamia and Transcaucasia belonged to Cluster II. The wide range of genetic diversity along with the manageable number of accessions makes it one of the best collections for mining valuable genes based on marker-trait association. Significant associations were observed between simple sequence repeats (SSR) or HMW-GSs and six morphological traits: heading date (HD), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), spikelet number per spike (SPLN), tiller angle (TA) and grain length (GL). Our data demonstrated that SSRs and HMW-GSs were useful markers for identification of beneficial genes controlling important traits in T. urartu, and subsequently for their conservation and future utilization, which may be useful for genetic improvement of the cultivated hexaploid wheat.

  14. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Caroline; Murat, Florent; Confolent, Carole; Balzergue, Sandrine; Salse, Jérôme

    2011-12-02

    Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat genome unigene repertoire. Using the Brachypodium distachyon genome as a reference for the Triticeae, we classified gene clusters into orthologous, paralogous, and homoeologous relationships. Based on this wheat gene evolutionary classification, older duplicated copies (dating back 50 to 70 million years) exhibit more than 80% gene loss and expression divergence while recent duplicates (dating back 1.5 to 3 million years) show only 54% gene loss and 36 to 49% expression divergence. We suggest that structural shuffling due to duplicated gene loss is a rapid process, whereas functional shuffling due to neo- and/or subfunctionalization of duplicates is a longer process, and that both shuffling mechanisms drive functional redundancy erosion. We conclude that, as a result of these mechanisms, half the gene duplicates in plants are structurally and functionally altered within 10 million years of evolution, and the diploidization process is completed after 45 to 50 million years following polyploidization.

  15. Effects of allelopathic chemicals extracted from various plant leaves on weed control and wheat crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, E.A.; Khakwani, A.A.; Ghazanfarullah, A.

    2015-01-01

    A study on allelopathic effect of leaf water extracts of Eucalyptus, Acacia, Sorghum, Shishum, Sunflower, Poplar, Tobacco and Congress grass on weeds control and growth of wheat cv. Hashim-8 was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan during 2012-2013. The findings of this study revealed that allelopathic chemicals in leaf water extracts of these plants significantly suppressed weeds growth by reducing weed density, fresh and dry weed biomass, and encouraged wheat yield and yield components such as days to 50% heading, plant height, tillers m-2, grain spike-1, 1000-gain weight, biological and grain yield. Even though minimum fresh and dry weed biomass and highest wheat grain yield and yield related components were observed in twice hand weeding treatment which is economically less feasible on large scale. However, our findings showed an alternative allelopathic technique to minimize weed infestation and boost wheat growth and yield using natural plant material. On the basis of present results, it is recommended that leaf water extracts of Sorghum, Sunflower and Congress grass can be applied twice (30 and 60 DAS) during the growing season to control weeds and to enhance wheat grain yield. (author)

  16. Impact of phenolic compounds and related enzymes in Sorghum varieties for resistance and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Barro, C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds and related enzymes before and after sorghum grain germination were compared between varieties either resistant or susceptible to biotic (sooty stripe, sorghum midge, leaf anthracnose, striga, and grain molds) and abiotic (lodging, drought resistance, and photoperiod

  17. Exogenous abscisic acid application during grain filling in winter wheat improves cold tolerance of offspring's seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature seriously depresses seed germination and seedling growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wheat plants were sprayed with abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) at 19 days after anthesis (DAA) and repeated at 26 DAA. The seeds of those...

  18. Fermentation characteristics of different purpose sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum stands out among other plants recommended for ensiling due to its forage composition, its resistance to drought, and its planting range. New cultivars of grain and sweet sorghum that can be used for silage production are available, but there is little information regarding their ensiling characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics at the ensiling of different purpose sorghum cultivars, at two crop periods. The trial was carried out at the Plant Production Department of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, Rondônia, Brazil, and chemical analyses were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experimental design used was a randomized block, in split-plot design, with four replicates. The plot treatments consisted of six sorghum cultivars grown for different purposes (grain sorghum: BRS 308 and BRS 310; forage sorghum: BR 655 and BRS 610; sweet sorghum: BRS 506 and CMSXS 647. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping seasons (first crop and second crop. The grain sorghum cultivar BRS 310 was the only one that had suitable dry matter content for ensiling; however, it was also the only one that did not show ideal water soluble carbohydrate content for ensiling. Nevertheless, all treatments presented pH below than 4.2 and ammonia nitrogen lower than 12% of total N, which indicates that the fermentation inside the silo had proceeded well. For sweet sorghum cultivars, higher ethanol and butyric acid content were observed for the first crop than for the second crop. All evaluated sorghum cultivars can be used for silage production, but the use of sweet sorghum is recommended at the second crop.

  19. Relationship between QTL for grain shape, grain weight, test weight, milling yield, and plant height in the spring wheat cross RL4452/'AC Domain'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Adrian L; Jordan, Mark C; Larson, Gary; Somers, Daryl J; Humphreys, D Gavin; McCartney, Curt A

    2018-01-01

    Kernel morphology characteristics of wheat are complex and quantitatively inherited. A doubled haploid (DH) population of the cross RL4452/'AC Domain' was used to study the genetic basis of seed shape. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses were conducted on a total of 18 traits: 14 grain shape traits, flour yield (Fyd), and three agronomic traits (Plant height [Plht], 1000 Grain weight [Gwt], Test weight [Twt]), using data from trial locations at Glenlea, Brandon, and Morden in Manitoba, Canada, between 1999 and 2004. Kernel shape was studied through digital image analysis with an Acurum® grain analyzer. Plht, Gwt, Twt, Fyd, and grain shape QTL were correlated with each other and QTL analysis revealed that QTL for these traits often mapped to the same genetic locations. The most significant QTL for the grain shape traits were located on chromosomes 4B and 4D, each accounting for up to 24.4% and 53.3% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. In addition, the most significant QTL for Plht, Gwt, and Twt were all detected on chromosome 4D at the Rht-D1 locus. Rht-D1b decreased Plht, Gwt, Twt, and kernel width relative to the Rht-D1a allele. A narrow genetic interval on chromosome 4B contained significant QTL for grain shape, Gwt, and Plht. The 'AC Domain' allele reduced Plht, Gwt, kernel length and width traits, but had no detectable effect on Twt. The data indicated that this variation was inconsistent with segregation at Rht-B1. Numerous QTL were identified that control these traits in this population.

  20. Relationship between QTL for grain shape, grain weight, test weight, milling yield, and plant height in the spring wheat cross RL4452/‘AC Domain’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Adrian L.; Jordan, Mark C.; Larson, Gary; Somers, Daryl J.; Humphreys, D. Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Kernel morphology characteristics of wheat are complex and quantitatively inherited. A doubled haploid (DH) population of the cross RL4452/‘AC Domain’ was used to study the genetic basis of seed shape. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses were conducted on a total of 18 traits: 14 grain shape traits, flour yield (Fyd), and three agronomic traits (Plant height [Plht], 1000 Grain weight [Gwt], Test weight [Twt]), using data from trial locations at Glenlea, Brandon, and Morden in Manitoba, Canada, between 1999 and 2004. Kernel shape was studied through digital image analysis with an Acurum® grain analyzer. Plht, Gwt, Twt, Fyd, and grain shape QTL were correlated with each other and QTL analysis revealed that QTL for these traits often mapped to the same genetic locations. The most significant QTL for the grain shape traits were located on chromosomes 4B and 4D, each accounting for up to 24.4% and 53.3% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. In addition, the most significant QTL for Plht, Gwt, and Twt were all detected on chromosome 4D at the Rht-D1 locus. Rht-D1b decreased Plht, Gwt, Twt, and kernel width relative to the Rht-D1a allele. A narrow genetic interval on chromosome 4B contained significant QTL for grain shape, Gwt, and Plht. The ‘AC Domain’ allele reduced Plht, Gwt, kernel length and width traits, but had no detectable effect on Twt. The data indicated that this variation was inconsistent with segregation at Rht-B1. Numerous QTL were identified that control these traits in this population. PMID:29357369

  1. Exogenous lactobacilli mitigate microbial changes associated with grain fermentation (corn, oats, and wheat) by equine fecal microflora ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Brittany E; Lawrence, Laurie M; Harris, Patricia A; Aiken, Glen E; Flythe, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Cereal grains are often included in equine diets. When starch intake exceeds foregut digestion starch will reach the hindgut, impacting microbial ecology. Probiotics (e.g., lactobacilli) are reported to mitigate GI dysbioses in other species. This study was conducted to determine the effect of exogenous lactobacilli on pH and the growth of amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria. Feces were collected from 3 mature geldings fed grass hay with access to pasture. Fecal microbes were harvested by differential centrifugation, washed, and re-suspended in anaerobic media containing ground corn, wheat, or oats at 1.6% (w/v) starch and one of five treatments: Control (substrate only), L. acidophilus, L. buchneri, L. reuteri, or an equal mixture of all three (107 cells/mL, final concentration). After 24 h of incubation (37°C, 160 rpm), samples were collected for pH and enumerations of total amylolytics, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC; Enterococci, Streptococci), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria. Enumeration data were log transformed prior to ANOVA (SAS, v. 9.3). Lactobacilli inhibited pH decline in corn and wheat fermentations (P Exogenous lactobacilli decreased amylolytics, while increasing lactate-utilizers in corn and wheat fermentations (P Exogenous lactobacilli decreased the initial (first 8 h) rate of starch catalysis when wheat was the substrate, but did not decrease total (24 h) starch utilization in any case. These results indicate that exogenous lactobacilli can impact the microbial community and pH of cereal grain fermentations by equine fecal microflora ex vivo. Additionally, dead (autoclaved) exogenous lactobacilli had similar effects as live lactobacilli on fermentation. This latter result indicates that the mechanism by which lactobacilli impact other amylolytic bacteria is not simple resource competition.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  3. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwei Liu

    Full Text Available The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  5. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.

  6. Interaction Effect Of Irradiation And Fertilization On Grain Yield, Kernel Weight And Severity Of Wheat To Septoria Tritici Blotch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M. A.; Jawhar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Field research was undertaken, for two growing seasons, to investigate the effects of soil fertilization with potassium (K 2 SO 4 , 36% K) and nitrogen (urea, 46% N), seed irradiation with gamma rays (0, 5, 10 and 15 Gy) and their combinations on the grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and severity of Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat. Two Syrian wheat cultivars; Bohuth 6 (Triticum aestivum L.) and Bohuth 5 (T. turgidum var durum Desf.) were used in this study. Plants were inoculated with a mixture of 15 virulent isolates of the pathogen at the growth stage (GS) 33-34. Results indicated that the average response to fertilizer application and irradiation treatments was dependent on the susceptibility level of cultivars compared with the control. The level of infection of the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment was reduced by 9 and 46 % in 1998 and by 6 and 42 % in 1999 for Bohuth 5 and Bohuth 6, respectively. This was associated with increased grain yield by 68 and 59% in 1998 and 59 and 33% in 1999, respectively. Highest yield losses from M. graminicola occurred in the treatment of nil fertilization and irradiation. Grain weight was increased by various treatments applied, but such an increase was highest in the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment. This combined treatment appeared to be more effective on calcareous soils, which are typical of Mediterranean environments. (Authors)

  7. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON GRAIN MOISTURE, GERMINATION AND VIGOUR OF THREE WHEAT CULTIVARS DURING ONE YEAR STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grain moisture, germination and vigour of three wheat cultivars packed in paper bags and stored for one year under four different conditions of environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH were investigated. During the first ninety days of storage significant reduction in grain moisture content of 4, 2.5 and 0.9 %, respectively, under 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C and RH of 45 % occurred. Subsequently grain moisture remained constant until the end of storage. Seeds of examined cultivars lost their germination ability and vigour only under elevated storage temperatures. Germination and vigour loss after one year of storage differed between cultivars being higher for seeds kept under 40°C, RH = 45% (35-85 % and 55-94 %, respectively, than under 25°C, RH = 45 % (10-20 % and 15-22 %, respectively. Obtained data indicate significant influence of storage conditions on moisture content, germination and vigour changes during storage of wheat seeds, as well as varietal dependence of seed viability.

  8. Mycotoxin production in wheat grains by different Aspergilli in relation to different relative humidities and storage periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalla, Mohamed Mabrouk; Hassanein, Naziha Mohamed; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; Youssef, Youssef Abdel-ghany

    2003-02-01

    Four different Aspergilli (Aspergillus oryzae, A. parasiticus, A. terreus and A. versicolor) were grown on wheat grains underdifferent degrees of relative humidity 14, 50, 74, 80 and 90%. Samples of wheat grains were taken monthly for a period of six months and examined for mycotoxin production. A. oryzae was found to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, zearalenone, DON and T-2 toxins under elevated degrees of humidity and prolonged periods of storage. A. parasiticus produced aflatoxins B1, G1, NIV, DON and T-2 toxins in high concentrations during a period of not more than three months storage at 14% relative humidity; at an increased level of relative humidity of 74% ochratoxin A, zearalenone and sterigmatocystin were also produced at high levels. The isolate was drastic in toxin production. A. terrus produced toxins at 14% relative humidity (aflatoxin G2 and DON) at levels much higher than any other prevalent degrees of humidity. A. versicolor is highly sensitive to relative humidity and grain moisture content It produced aflatoxins B1, G1, NIV and DON at a relative humidity of 50% and another toxins (aflatoxin G2, ochratoxins A, B and zearalenone) at 74%. The microorganism can be considered a trichothecene producer under suitable relative humidity.

  9. Parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca e da proteína bruta das silagens de seis genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, com e sem tanino no grão, avaliados pela técnica in situ Potential degradability parameters of the dry matter and crude protein of six sorghum silage genotypes (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, with or without tannin on grain, evaluated by in situ technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio Ribeiro Molina

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para testar o efeito da presença de tanino no grão sobre os parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca e da proteína bruta de seis genótipos de sorgo para silagem, foi conduzido um experimento utilizando a técnica da degradabilidade in situ. Quatro novilhos canulados no rúmen, alimentados individualmente, duas vezes ao dia ad libitum com feno de Tifton 85, foram utilizados para a incubação de silagens de sorgo no estádio de grão leitoso, pertencentes a seis genótipos: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601e AG 2006 (sem tanino no grão; BR 700 e BR 701 (com tanino. Foram incubadas 5 g de amostra nos tempos de incubação: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. O tempo zero (t0 foi utilizado para cálculo da fração solúvel. A presença do tanino reduziu a extensão de degradação da matéria seca e da proteína bruta nas silagens de sorgo BR 700 e BR 701. As degradabilidades potenciais destes nutrientes foram influenciada pelo tanino. Não foi observado efeito depressivo do tanino sobre as taxas de degradação para nenhum nutriente, em nenhuma silagem testada.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of tannin on grain over potential degradability parameters of the dry matter and crude protein of six sorghum silage genotypes by in situ technique. It was used four crossbred steers, canulated in rumen, fed ad libitum twice at day with a diet comprised by Cynodon dactylon hay. Six sorghum silage genotypes, harvested at milk stage, were incubated in the rumen: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601, and AG 2006 (without tannin on grain; BR 700, and BR 701 (with tannin on grain. Five grams of samples were incubated at times: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The time zero (t0 was used to calculate the soluble fraction. Tannin decrease the extent of degradation of dry matter and crude protein of BR 700 and BR 701 sorghum silages. The potential degradabilities of these nutrients were reduced by tannin presence on grain. There was not effect of tannin

  10. Accumulation of Cs, Sr into leaves and grain of winter wheat under act of N, Zn, Li, Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.; Tkatchuk, K.; Zhmurko, N.; Bogdan, T.; Guralchuk, Zh.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on cv Lutencens 7 winter wheat grown on grey forest soil. In order to study the influence of nitrogen on Cs and Sr accumulation, a background of P60 K60 added in autumn different doses of nitrogen (30, 60, 120 kg/ha) were applied in spring. The influence of micronutrients on Cs and Sr accumulation was studied by adding 3 kg/ha Zn and 2 kg/ha Li to the soil under ploughing on background of N60 P60 K60. Besides the foliar application with 0.05% Na 2 SO 4 was carried out. Cation content (Cs, Sn, Zn, Li, Na) in soil and plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Cs, Sr content in control plant leaves made up 15.0 and 21.0 mg per g of dry matter at the early stages of plant development. As the plants aged, the content of those elements in the leaves decreased strongly (3-4 times). At early stages of plant development, nitrogen caused an 8.9-11% increase in the Cs content of the leaves. At the stages of heading to grain filling, the Cs content increase was only observed at a high nitrogen dose, whereas low nitrogen doses had no effected on Cs accumulation in leaves. In should be noted that nitrogen (N60 and N120) decreased the Cs content in grain by 32-33%. As for the Sr content of grain, this was 3 to 4-fold less than that of Cs. Nitrogen had no effected on the Sr content of grain. Zn and Li addition to soil as well as foliar nutrition with Na had a different effect on the Cs and Sr content of winter wheat leaves and grain. Addition of Li decreased the Cs and Sr content of old leaves by 13% and 25% respectively. Addition of Zn and Na decreased the Sr content of old leaves but had no effect on the Cs content. Zn, Na and Li reduced the Sr content in grain also, viz. by 16,11 and 7% respectively. Thus the research has demonstrated the possibility of regulating Cs and Sr accumulation in the above-ground organs of winter wheat plants

  11. Effect of Plant Essential Oils and Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Flavus Isolated from Wheat Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Shalaby, Kh.

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oils of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and camphor ( Eucalyptus rostrata L.) was determined on Aspergillus flavus link isolated from wheat grains on Potato dextrose agar (PDA). They inhibited completely mycelia growth of the fungus at 1000 and 2000 ppm, and prevented aflatoxin production at sub lethal dose 500 and 1000 ppm respectively. Gamma radiation was used to control mycelia growth of Aspergillus flavus Link and inhibiting aflatoxin production. A dose level of 3.5 KGy gamma radiation prevented the fungal growth and aflatoxin production by A. flavus link, where a dose of 2.5 K Gy ( the sub lethal dose) prevented about 85% of aflatoxin production

  12. Increased SBPase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driever, Steven M; Simkin, Andrew J; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J; Madgwick, Pippa J; Sparks, Caroline A; Jones, Huw D; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A J; Raines, Christine A

    2017-09-26

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf photosynthesis in wheat, the level of the Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphatase (SBPase) has been increased through transformation and expression of a Brachypodium distachyon SBPase gene construct. Transgenic lines with increased SBPase protein levels and activity were grown under greenhouse conditions and showed enhanced leaf photosynthesis and increased total biomass and dry seed yield. This showed the potential of improving yield potential by increasing leaf photosynthesis in a crop species such as wheat. The results are discussed with regard to future strategies for further improvement of photosynthesis in wheat.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Beltranena, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0?21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ? 0.8 g were a...

  14. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunun eBarunawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA in green leaves, while 2’-deoxymugineic acid (DMA remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approx. one third of the total Fe, Zn or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  15. Computer vision system: a tool for evaluating the quality of wheat in a grain tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, Uryi Igorevish; Panchenko, Aleksei Vladimirovich; Shkanaev, Aleksandr Yurievich; Konovalenko, Ivan Andreevich; Putintsev, Dmitry Nikolaevich; Sadekov, Rinat Nailevish

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes a technology that allows for automatizing the process of evaluating the grain quality in a grain tank of a combine harvester. Special recognition algorithm analyzes photographic images taken by the camera, and that provides automatic estimates of the total mass fraction of broken grains and the presence of non-grains. The paper also presents the operating details of the tank prototype as well as it defines the accuracy of the algorithms designed.

  16. Sina and Sinb genes in triticale do not determine grain hardness contrary to their orthologs Pina and Pinb in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Orczyk, Waclaw; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2013-11-26

    Secaloindoline a (Sina) and secaloindoline b (Sinb) genes of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) are orthologs of puroindoline a (Pina) and puroindoline b (Pinb) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of Pina and Pinb genes significantly decreased the puroindoline a and puroindoline b proteins in wheat and essentially increased grain hardness (J Exp Bot 62:4025-4036, 2011). The function of Sina and Sinb in triticale was tested by means of RNAi silencing and compared to wheat. Novel Sina and Sinb alleles in wild-type plants of cv. Wanad were identified and their expression profiles characterized. Alignment with wheat Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a alleles showed 95% and 93.3% homology with Sina and Sinb coding sequences. Twenty transgenic lines transformed with two hpRNA silencing cassettes directed to silence Sina or Sinb were obtained by the Agrobacterium-mediated method. A significant decrease of expression of both Sin genes in segregating progeny of tested T1 lines was observed independent of the silencing cassette used. The silencing was transmitted to the T4 kernel generation. The relative transcript level was reduced by up to 99% in T3 progeny with the mean for the sublines being around 90%. Silencing of the Sin genes resulted in a substantial decrease of secaloindoline a and secaloindoline b content. The identity of SIN peptides was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The hardness index, measured by the SKCS (Single Kernel Characterization System) method, ranged from 22 to 56 in silent lines and from 37 to 49 in the control, and the mean values were insignificantly lower in the silent ones, proving increased softness. Additionally, the mean total seed protein content of silenced lines was about 6% lower compared with control lines. Correlation coefficients between hardness and transcript level were weakly positive. We documented that RNAi-based silencing of Sin genes resulted in

  17. Particle models for discrete element modeling of bulk grain properties of wheat kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown the potential of discrete element method (DEM) in simulating grain flow in bulk handling systems. Research has also revealed that simulation of grain flow with DEM requires establishment of appropriate particle models for each grain type. This research completes the three-p...

  18. CO2 dose–response functions for wheat grain, protein and mineral yield based on FACE and open-top chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleijel, Håkan; Högy, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Data from three Swedish open-top chamber and four German FACE experiments were combined to derive response functions for elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) effects on Cd, Zn, Mn, protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number of wheat. Grain yield and grain number were increased by ∼6% and ∼7%, respectively, per 100 ppm CO 2 ; the former effect was linked to plant nitrogen status. Grain mass was not influenced by eCO 2 , whereas Cd concentration was reduced. Unlike Zn, Mn and protein, effects on Cd yield were not related to effects on grain yield. Yields of Mn, Zn and (weakly) protein were positively affected by eCO 2 . For protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number, the results were consistent among the FACE and OTC experiments. A key conclusion was that yields of essential nutrients were enhanced (Mn > Zn > protein), although less than grain yield, which would not be expected from a simple dilution model. - Highlights: • Grain yield and grain number were positively affected by 6–7% per 100 ppm CO 2 . • Yield stimulation by CO 2 was influenced by plant nitrogen status. • Cd concentration was reduced by elevated CO 2 . • Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated by CO 2 , but less than grain yield. • A simple dilution model did not explain effects on Zn, Mn and protein. - Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated less by elevated CO 2 than grain yield, while Cd yield and grain mass were unaffected, in wheat exposed in FACE and open-top chambers

  19. Effect of simplified feeding based only on wheat bran and brewer’s grain on rabbit performance and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Cherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simplified diets are based on maximum incorporation of fodder and/or by-products into animal feed, thus minimizing the formulation and the costs. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of feeding fattening rabbits with a simplified diet composed of only two agro-industrial by-products inexpensive and locally available: brewer’s grain and wheat bran. At weaning (35 days, 68 rabbits were divided into two identical groups (mean weight = 833 g and housed in individual cages until slaughter (77 days. Each of the two groups (B0 and SF was fed ad libitum either a commercial pelleted feed (control, or a simplified pelleted  experimental diet "SF" containing 72% wheat bran and 27% brewer’s grain. The feed conversion was within the standards and similar in the two groups (3.55 on average. The growth rate and feed intake of B0 group were 12% higher (P <0.001 than that of the SF group (35.2g vs 31.2 and 128.3 vs 113 g/d. The cold carcass yield and the carcass weight were respectively higher (P <0.001 by 4 units and by 9% in the control group. The carcass of SF group was less fatty (perirenal fat: -23%, inguinal fat: -41% and scapular fat:-14%. The economic efficiency was 40% better for SF diet with almost 50 Algerian Dinar more benefit (/kg of meat.

  20. The transcriptome of the developing grain: a resource for understanding seed development and the molecular control of the functional and nutritional properties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2017-10-11

    Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85). At 14dpa, most of the transcripts were associated with the synthesis of the major seed components including storage proteins and starch. At 30dpa, a diverse range of genes were expressed at low levels with a predominance of genes associated with seed defence and stress tolerance. RNA-Seq analysis of changes in expression between 14dpa and 30dpa stages revealed 26,477 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed at a FDR corrected p-value cut-off at ≤0.01. Functional annotation and gene ontology mapping was performed and KEGG pathway mapping allowed grouping based upon biochemical linkages. This analysis demonstrated that photosynthesis associated with the pericarp was very active at 14dpa but had ceased by 30dpa. Recently reported genes for flour yield in milling and bread quality were found to influence wheat quality largely due to expression patterns at the earlier seed development stage. This study serves as a resource providing an overview of gene expression during wheat grain development at the early (14dpa) and late (30dpa) grain filling stages for use in studies of grain quality and nutritional value and in understanding seed biology.

  1. Transcriptome dynamics of a susceptible wheat upon Fusarium head blight reveals that molecular responses to Fusarium graminearum infection fit over the grain development processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Bonhomme, Ludovic; Lasserre-Zuber, Pauline; Cambon, Florence; Pelletier, Sandra; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Langin, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    In many plant/pathogen interactions, host susceptibility factors are key determinants of disease development promoting pathogen growth and spreading in plant tissues. In the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, the molecular basis of wheat susceptibility is still poorly understood while it could provide new insights into the understanding of the wheat/Fusarium graminearum (Fg) interaction and guide future breeding programs to produce cultivars with sustainable resistance. To identify the wheat grain candidate genes, a genome-wide gene expression profiling was performed in the French susceptible wheat cultivar, Recital. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA of about 40 K transcripts at five grain developmental stages identified 1309 differentially expressed genes. Out of these, 536 were impacted by the Fg effect alone. Most of these Fg-responsive genes belonged to biological and molecular functions related to biotic and abiotic stresses indicating the activation of common stress pathways during susceptibility response of wheat grain to FHB. This analysis revealed also 773 other genes displaying either specific Fg-responsive profiles along with grain development stages or synergistic adjustments with the grain development effect. These genes were involved in various molecular pathways including primary metabolism, cell death, and gene expression reprogramming. An increasingly complex host response was revealed, as was the impact of both Fg infection and grain ontogeny on the transcription of wheat genes. This analysis provides a wealth of candidate genes and pathways involved in susceptibility responses to FHB and depicts new clues to the understanding of the susceptibility determinism in plant/pathogen interactions.

  2. The effect of feeding wheat varieties with different grain pigmentation on growth performance, texture, colour and meat sensory traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šťastník

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding effect of of three spring wheat genotypes (Vánek, Konini and UC66049 with different grain colour on growth performance, body composition and meat quality parameters of broiler chickens was tested. Ninety chickens were divided into three groups (control, Konini and UC with 30 chickens in each. The tested genotypes were compares with standard variety Vánek (control with common (red grain colour. The two experimental groups received feed mixtures containing 38.2% of wheats with different grain colour: groups Konini (n = 30 and UC (n = 30 with. The third group (n = 30 had 38.2% of common wheat Vánek cultivar (Control group. The live weight of chickens between the experimental groups and control group was not significant different, as well as body composition and chemical analysis of breast and thigh meat of chickens. The feeding of wheat with different grain colour had no effect on performance parameters of broiler chickens. Breast meat tenderness according to the Razor Blade Shear Force was higher in control group against experimental groups. The colour change was not significantly different in all coordinates. pH values (measured after 1-hour post mortem were found significantly higher in the group fattening with Konini wheat than control and UC groups. Chickens meat from the experimental group was characterised by steady overall quality. The effect of various feeding had no effect on meat quality in terms of relevance to consumers.

  3. Solid-substrate fermentation of wheat grains by mycelia of indigenous species of the genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) to enhance the antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sarasvathy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee Shin

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp.

  4. Comparative proteome analysis of glutenin synthesis and accumulation in developing grains between superior and poor quality bread wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan; Zhang, Yanzhen; Gao, Xuan; Wang, Ke; Wang, Shunli; Zhang, Yong; He, Zhonghu; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming

    2012-01-15

    Wheat glutenins are the major determinants of wheat quality. In this study, grains at the development stage from three wheat cultivars (Jimai 20, Jin 411 and Zhoumai 16) with different bread-making quality were harvested based on thermal times from 150 °C(d) to 750 °C(d) , and were used to investigate glutenin accumulation patterns and their relationships with wheat quality. High and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs) were synthesised concurrently. No obvious correlations between HMW/LMW glutenin ratios and dough property were observed. Accumulation levels of HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs as well as 1Bx13 + 1By16 and 1Dx4 + 1Dy12 subunits were higher in superior gluten quality cultivar Jimain 20 than in poor quality cultivar Jing 411 and Zhoumai 16. According to the results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, six types of accumulation patterns in LMW-GSs were identified and classified. The possible relationships between individual LMW-GSs and gluten quality were established. The high accumulation level of HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs as well as 1Bx13 + 1By16 and 1Dx4 + 1Dy12 subunits contributed to the superior gluten quality of Jimai 20. Two highly expressed and 16 specifically expressed LMW glutenin subunits in Jimain 20 had positive effects on dough quality, while 17 specifically expressed subunits in Zhoumai 16 and Jing 411 appeared to have negative effects on gluten quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Application of the EPR technique to examine free radical qualities reducing infection of spring wheat grain with pathogenic fungi by He-Ne laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagoś, M.; Koper, R.; Sujak, A.; Misiak, L.E.; Kowalczuk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of spring wheat grain, Jasna cv., infected with pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Fusarium, Mucor) were examined using an EPR technique. Considering the quantity of generated free radicals the fungi belonged to most toxine generating. Their toxicity was connected with the number of free radicals generated in examined grain. Grain was irradiated with He-Ne laser at known wavelength, power density and time of exposure what gave the mycostatic effect appearing in decrease of free radicals in grain samples. However, this process was not stable as the increase of free radicals was observed again with the regrowth of fungi after some days

  6. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  7. Capability of crop water content for revealing variability of winter wheat grain yield and soil moisture under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jiangui; Shang, Jiali; Cai, Huanjie

    2018-08-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Guanzhong Plain, China. Understanding its water status is important for irrigation planning. A few crop water indicators, such as the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT: g cm -2 ), leaf water content (LWC: %) and canopy water content (CWC: kg m -2 ), have been estimated using remote sensing techniques for a wide range of crops, yet their suitability and utility for revealing winter wheat growth and soil moisture status have not been well studied. To bridge this knowledge gap, field-scale irrigation experiments were conducted over two consecutive years (2014 and 2015) to investigate relationships of crop water content with soil moisture and grain yield, and to assess the performance of four spectral process methods for retrieving these three crop water indicators. The result revealed that the water indicators were more sensitive to soil moisture variation before the jointing stage. All three water indicators were significantly correlated with soil moisture during the reviving stage, and the correlations were stronger for leaf water indicators than that of the canopy water indicator at the jointing stage. No correlation was observed after the heading stage. All three water indicators showed good capabilities of revealing grain yield variability in jointing stage, with R 2 up to 0.89. CWC had a consistent relationship with grain yield over different growing seasons, but the performances of EWT and LWC were growing-season specific. The partial least squares regression was the most accurate method for estimating LWC (R 2 =0.72; RMSE=3.6%) and comparable capability for EWT and CWC. Finally, the work highlights the usefulness of crop water indicators to assess crop growth, productivity, and soil water status and demonstrates the potential of various spectral processing methods for retrieving crop water contents from canopy reflectance spectrums. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Consortium Application of Endophytic Bacteria and Fungi Improves Grain Yield and Physiological Attributes in Advanced Lines of Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhae-Ud-Din

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human population places pressure on agriculture. To feed this population, two time increase in the current wheat production is needed. Today agriculture is becoming input intensive with more reliance on synthetic fertilizers and agrochemicals to fulfil the feed demand of the growing numbers. Use of synthetic fertilizer since last few years is impacting the soil quality. In this scenario, the use of beneficial endophytic microbes is an attractive strategy to overcome the use of synthetic products. To investigate the effect of consortium application of endophytic bacteria and fungus on plant growth, grain yield moisture status, a pot experiment was conducted in different wheat lines. It comprised four treatments like control, application of bacterial strain Bacillus sp. MN54, fungal strain Trichoderma sp. MN6, and their consortium (Bacillus sp. MN54 + Trichoderma sp. MN6. The effect of consortium application was more prominent and significantly different from the sole application of bacteria and fungus. The results showed that with a consortium application of endophytic bacteria and fungus, there was 28.6, 4.3, -6.3 and -3.7% increases in flag leaf area, chlorophyll content, relative membrane permeability and water content respectively. Consortia of endophytic microbes also resulted in the yield enhancement through the betterment of various yield attributes like number of spikelet’s, grains per spike and grain yield per plant (32.2, 25.8 and 30.8%, respectively. So, consortia of endophytic microbes can greatly promote the progress of plants in dry land agriculture and increase the yield in an environmentally sustainable way.

  9. Grain yield and competitive ability against weeds in modern and heritage common wheat cultivars are differently influenced by sowing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Lazzaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing density can have a strong impact on crop stand development during wheat growing cycle. In organic and low-input agriculture, and therefore with minimum or nil use of chemical herbicides, increased sowing density is expected to affect not only grain yield but also weed suppression. In this study we tested, under Mediterranean conditions, six common wheat cultivars (three modern and three heritage and two three-component mixtures (arranged by combining the three modern or the three heritage cultivars. The different crop stands were tested at sowing densities of 250 (low and 400 (high, similar to standard sowing density used by local farmers viable seeds m–2 for two growing seasons. We did not detect a significant effect of crop stand diversity (single cultivars vs mixtures on grain yield and weed suppression. Differences were ascribed to type of cultivars used (heritage vs modern. Compared to high sowing density, in modern cultivars grain yield did not decrease significantly with low sowing density, whereas in heritage cultivars it increased by 15.6%, possibly also because of 21.5% lower plant lodging. Weed biomass increased with low sowing density both in heritage and modern cultivar crop stand types. However, heritage crop stands had, on average, a lower weed biomass (56% than modern crop stands. Moreover, weed biomass in heritage crop stands at low density (6.82±1.50 g m–2 was lower than that of modern cultivars at the same sowing density (15.54±3.35 g m–2, confirming the higher suppressive potential of the former. We can conclude that lower sowing density can be advisable when using heritage crop stands as it keeps productivity while decreasing plant lodging and maintaining weeds under control.

  10. Increased sbpase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, Steven M.; Simkin, Andrew J.; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J.; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A.J.; Raines, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf

  11. Effects of kernel weight and source-limitation on wheat grain yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRmohammadi

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... Many regions need wheat cultivars that are capable of high yields when the weather is beneficial but produce stable yields when conditions are adverse. These geno- types should have high yield potential in both favorable and high temperature environments (Yang et al., 2002a;. Ahmed et al., 2011a, b).

  12. grain and biomass yield reduction due to russian wheat aphid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... farmers' management is far lower than under on- station and on-farm ... of seeds for improved varieties and insect pests and diseases. .... the control of D. noxia infestation by. Fenitrothion 50 ... International Education (SRF) and Rutgers. Foundation. ... wheat, related cereals and a Bromus grass species. pp.

  13. Effects of treating sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles with fibrolytic enzymes on nutrient digestibility and performance in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of treating sorghum WDG with solubles (SWDG) with an enzyme, or enzyme-buffer combination on diet digestibility and feedlot performance. Experimental treatments are; 1) untreated SWDG (control), 2) addition of an enzyme complex to SWDG (enzyme...

  14. In vitro and in situ degradation of alkali treated sorghum wet distillers grains alone or in combination with corn stalks to increase their nutritive value

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alkali treatment on in vitro and in situ digestibility of fiber sources. An in vitro and in situ experiment were conducted to determine the effects of treating sorghum WDG with solubles (SWDG) and corn stalks (CS) with calcium hydroxide on in ...

  15. BIOSECURITY FOR REDUCING OCHRATOXIN A PRODUCTIVITY AND THEIR IMPACT ON GERMINATION AND ULTRASTRUCTURES OF GERMINATED WHEAT GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a secondary metabolite of some fungi that causes very serious problems for plants, animals and humans. Various microorganisms such as bacteria and microscopic fungi have been tested for their abilities to prevent ochratoxin A contamination or detoxify foods. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus reduced OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus to 40.88 µg/ml ( productivity 60.69% and 13.80 µg/ml (productivity 20.48% respectively compared with the control (67.35 µg/ml (productivity 100%. The results clearly indicated that the seed germinibility in the presence of OTA was decreased with increasing concentration, whereas the germinibility was uncompletely ceased at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml of OTA. The maximum amount of germination was observed in control (without OTA treatment and at low concentration (13.80 µg/ml within 4 days. Antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase decreased in germinated grains treated with OTA. Catalase was 18.12 U/ml in grains treated with low concentration (13.80 µg/ml of OTA while at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml, it was 12.23 U/ml compared with the control (20.33 U/ml. On the other hand, peroxidase decreased only in germinated grains treated with high concentration of OTA. The ultrastructural studies indicate that there were dramatic differences between the cells of root system of wheat seedlings of grains treated and untreated with the OTA. Cell ultrastructures of treated grains with OTA showed that the cytoplasmic membrane collapses away from the cell wall. Plasmodesmata threads were appeared in untreated cells but not formed in treated cells.

  16. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de sorgo através o teste de estresse hídrico Physiological quality of grain sorghum seeds by the hidric stress test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barros Torres

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a eficiência do teste de estresse hídrico na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, seis lotes de sementes básicas da cultivar IPA-1011, safra 1995, foram analisados pêlos testes de germinação, primeira contagem, de frio sem solo, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, emergência em campo e comprimento das plântulas sob estresse hídrico nos potenciais de 0, -0,3. -0,6 e -0,9 MPa. Os trabalhos foram realizados no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes e no campo experimental da EMBRAPA-CPATSA, em Petrolina, PE. As determinações foram conduzidas com quatro repetições em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os resultados indicaram que o teste de germinação sob estresse hídrico de -0,6MPa, pode ser usado para estimar o desempenho das sementes de sorgo em situações desfavoráveis de disponibilidade hídrica no solo.This work was carried out with the objective of testing the efficiency of the water stress test of the evaluation of physiological quality of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench seeds. Six lots of basic seeds of the cultivar IPA-1011 were analyzed by the following tests: germination, first count, cold without soil test, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, field emergency, and seedling length under hydric stress at 0, - 0.3, - 0.6 and -0.9MPa matric potentials. The trials were carried out at the Seed Laboratory at the experimental field of EMBRAPA-CPATSA, Petrolina - PE, in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results indicated that the germination test under water stress of -0,6MPa can be used to estimate the performance of grain sorghum seeds under unfavorable soil water conditions.

  18. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at ∼1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure α-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure β-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH 3 anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH 2 anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH 3 symmetric) and 2848 cm -1 (CH 2 asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH 3 to CH 2 ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed

  19. Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Landberg, Rikard; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Åman, Per; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K.; Siersema, Peter D.; Pischon, Tobias; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cottet, Vanessa; Kühn, Tilman; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bakken, Toril; Åsli, Lene Angell; Argüelles, Marcial; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Eilo; Tjønneland, Anne; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundFew studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations.MethodsThe association

  20. Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Berg, R. van den; Havenaar, R.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Grain is an important source of phytochemicals, which have potent antioxidant capacity. They have been implicated in the beneficial health effect of whole grains in reducing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important antioxidant

  1. Effects of location and year on grain yield and its components in wheat genotypes developed from seed irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.; El-Rassas, H.N.; Abdel-Aleem, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Eight mutant lines derived from gamma ray treatments and their parental cultivar sokha 69 of bread wheat were evaluated for grain yield per feddan, straw yield per feddan, harvest index, spike length, spike yield and weight of 1000-kernels at two locations (El-Fayoum and Inshas) in two seasons, 1991/92 and 1992/93. Significant effects of location on yield and yield components were found and the year significantly affects all the studied traits except grain yield per feddan. A significant location genotype interaction was detected for spike length, 1000-kernel weight and straw yield per feddan. In addition, year genotype interaction was significant in weight of 1000-kernels, straw yield per feddan and harvest index. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference among genotypes over all environments for spike length, 1000-kernel weight, straw yield per feddan and harvest index. However, these did not reflect significant effect on grain yield per feddan over all environments because it has a highly compensation ability. Meanwhile, mutant L 1 2 -1 exhibited significantly higher straw yield than sokha 69, when averaged over two seasons at El-Fayoum. Mutant L 1 9 -1 gave higher weight of 1000-kernels, spike length and harvest index than the other genotypes at low-yielding location (Inshas). It seems to be stable over a wide range of environments. 3 tabs

  2. Favorable Alleles for Stem Water-Soluble Carbohydrates Identified by Association Analysis Contribute to Grain Weight under Drought Stress Conditions in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  3. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  4. Radiation and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level by wheat and oilseed rape during the critical period for grain number definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreccer, M.F.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Oijen, van M.; Pot, C.S.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the critical period for grain number definition, the amount of biomass produced per unit absorbed radiation is more sensitive to nitrogen (N) supply in oilseed rape than in wheat, and reaches a higher value at high N. This response was investigated by combining experimental and modelling

  5. Whole Grain Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases the Percentage of Body Fat Following a 12-Week, Energy-Restricted Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2012-01-01

    ) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of approximately 1250 k...

  6. In vitro competition between Fusarium graminearum and Epicoccum nigrum on media and wheat grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Knorr, Kamilla; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    showed hyphae of F. graminearum and E. nigrum with many side branches when in close proximity, in contrast to pronounced apical hyphal growth when growing alone. Combinations of F. graminearum and E. nigrum on sterilised wheat grains were studied over time by qPCR. F. graminearum biomass...

  7. Implications of high-temperature events and water deficits on protein profiles in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jørgensen, Anders Dysted; Li, Huawei

    2011-01-01

    of interaction of water deficits and/or a high-temperature event (32 degrees C) during vegetative growth (terminal spikelet) with either of these stress events applied during generative growth (anthesis) in wheat. Influence of combinations of stress on protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins...... and glutenins) in grains and stress-induced changes on the albumin and gliadin proteomes were investigated by 2-DE and MS. The synthesis of individual protein fractions was shown to be affected by both the type and time of the applied stresses. Identified drought or high-temperature-responsive proteins included...... proteins involved in primary metabolism, storage and stress response such as late embryogenesis abundant proteins, peroxiredoxins and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Several proteins, e.g. heat shock protein and 14-3-3 protein changed in abundance only under multiple high temperatures....

  8. The application of carbon isotope discrimination of charred wheat grains to reconstruct Late Holocene climate change and identify water management strategy in northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; An, C.; Duan, F.; Zhao, Y.; Cao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The AMS 14C dating and corresponding carbon stable isotope datum of charred wheat grains from archaeological sites in northwest China especially Hexi Corridor and Xinjiang have been collected widely to study its potential roles in reconstructing past climate change and identifying water management strategies through comparison with integrated regional humidity index, carbon isotope data of wheat grown under modern irrigation environment from study area and Mediterranean charred wheat carbon isotope data. The results suggest (1) carbon isotope discrimination values of charred wheat both in Hexi corridor and Xinjiang could respond well to regional moisture change, and there are also good positive correlation relationship between them (2) in contrast to consistent relationship between decreased carbon isotope discrimination values of charred wheat and dry climate condition, increased carbon isotope discrimination values does not represent wetter regional climate completely and may also reveal effects of human irrigation activities. The higher carbon isotope discrimination value of charred wheat which occurred in the Hexi Corridor from 4000 to 3850 a BP, 2100 a BP and 550 a BP and in Tianshan area of Xinjiang from 3730 a BP could be likely to be related with human activities (3) the carbon isotope discrimination value of charred wheat may have a certain limit which is generally not beyond 19‰. And this upper limit could influence its availability in reflecting abrupt change of precipitation/humidity especially rapid wetter trend. We conclude that carbon isotope analysis of charred wheat grains could be a good tool for reconstructing past climate change and identifying ancient irrigation practices.

  9. Transgenic Expression of a Functional Fragment of Harpin Protein Hpa1 in Wheat Represses English Grain Aphid Infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Man-yu; ZHOU Ting; ZHAO Yan-ying; LI Jia-bao; XU Heng; DONG Han-song; ZHANG Chun-ling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the rice bacterial blight pathogen promotes plant growth and induces plant resistance to pathogens and insect pests. The region of 10-42 residues (Hpa110-42) in the Hpa1 sequence is critical as the isolated Hpa110-42 fragment is 1.3-7.5-fold more effective than the full length in inducing plant growth and resistance. Here we report that transgenic expression of Hpa110-42 in wheat induces resistance to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. Hpa110-42-induced resistance is effective to inhibit the aphid behavior in plant preference at the initial colonization stage and repress aphid performances in the reproduction, nymph growth, and instar development on transgenic plants. The resistance characters are correlated with enhanced expression of defense-regulatory genes (EIN2, PP2-A, and GSL10) and consistent with induced expression of defense response genes (Hel, PDF1.2, PR-1b, and PR-2b). As a result, aphid infestations are alleviated in transgenic plants. The level of Hpa110-42-induced resistance in regard to repression of aphid infestations is equivalent to the effect of chemical control provided by an insecticide. These results suggested that the defensive role of Hpa110-42 can be integrated into breeding germplasm of the agriculturally signiifcant crop with a great potential of the agricultural application.

  10. Effect of temperature stress on polyphenol oxidase activity in grains of some wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayani, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    Color is a key quality trait of wheat-based products and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is implicated to play a significant role in their undesirable darkening. Polyphenol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinines, which auto oxidize and polymerize with amino acid of cellular proteins resulting brown and black pigmentation propounding reduced nutritional values. In present study, the PPO activity in 50 different Pakistani wheat cultivars was investigated and grouped into three categories viz; low, medium and high PPO activity cultivars. PPO is a heat labile enzyme. To investigate effect of heat stress, nine cultivars from each category were chosen for treatment at 30, 40 and 50 deg. C for 30, 60, and 120 minutes each. A substantial change was experienced in PPO activity as compared to room temperature. Two wheat cultivar Wafaq-2001 and AS-2002 showed a compromising attitude of minimum PPO activity at 30 deg. C for a period of 30 and 60 minutes of incubation. In general, an incubation of 30 deg. C or 60 deg. C (low or high) for a period of 30 minutes can be recommended for suppressing PPO activity. (author)

  11. The concentration ratio of alkaline earth elements calcium, barium and strontium in grains of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Ivana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though calcium (Ca, strontium (Sr and barium (Ba belong to the same group of the periodic table of elements, and thus have similar chemical features, their importance for plants differs greatly. Since plants do not have the ability to completely dis­criminate between essential (e.g. Ca and non-essential elements (e.g. Sr and Ba, they read­ily take all of them up from soil solution, which is reflected in the ratios of concentrations of those elements in plant tissues, and it influences their nutritive characteristics. The ability of plant species and genotypes to take up and accumulate chemical elements in their different tissues is related to their genetic background. However, differences in chemical composition are the least reflected in their reproductive parts. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate ratios of concentrations of Ca, Sr and Ba in the whole grain of diploid and tetraploid wheat - ancestors of common wheat, as well as in hexaploid commercial cultivars, grown in the field, at the same location, over a period of three years. The investigated genotypes accumulated Ca, Sr and Ba at different levels, which is reflected in the ratio of their concentrations in the grain. The lowest ratio was established between Ba and Sr, followed by Ca and Ba, while the highest ratio was between Ca and Sr. Moreover, the results have shown that the year of study, genotype and the combination highly significantly affected the ratio of the concentration Ca:Sr, Ca:Ba, and Ba:Sr.

  12. Impact of humic acid and chemical fertilizer application on growth and grain yield of rainfed wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.U.; Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of inorganic fertilizer, use of natural fertilizer resources for increasing crop production on sustainable basis has become imperative. Two field experiments were conducted to study the potential of humic acid (HA) as a low-cost natural fertilizer and to determine its effect on the yield of rainfed wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Naseer) at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan during two successive winter seasons, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The treatments consisted of HA alone (3 kg ha/sup -1/ or 1.5 kg ha/sup -1/) and in combination with full (60:40 kg ha/sup -1/) and half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) the recommended rates of NP fertilizers. Results showed that in the first growing season (2007-08), the combination of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA with half (30:20 kg ha-1) rate of NP produced the highest grain yield (1314 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 46.9% over the control. In the second growing season (2008-09), application of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA alone produced significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield (2999.9 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 24% over the control and saved 100% cost of the chemical fertilizer. Results suggested that HA applied alone at 3 kg ha/sup -1/ or in combination with half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) rate of NP fertilizers appeared to be the most economical rate to obtain the maximum yield of wheat under the rainfed conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. HA has great potential as a low cost natural fertilizer to improve soil fertility on sustainable basis. (author)

  13. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application timing on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efretuei A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of initiating application of fertilizer nitrogen (N to winter wheat at different growth stages (GSs on grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE. A factorial experiment was carried out in two growing seasons (2011 and 2012 with five timings of first N application (GS 24/26 [tillering], GS 30, GS 31, GS 32 or GS 37 and an unfertilized control, two sowing densities (100 and 400 seeds/m2 and a cattle slurry treatment (with or without slurry. The latter was included to simulate variation in soil N supply (SNS. Delaying the first application of N from the tillering stage until GS 30 had no significant effect on grain yield in either year. Further delaying the initial N application until GS 31 caused a significant yield reduction in 2011, in comparison to GS 30 application, but not in 2012. Differences in efficiency of recovery and use of fertilizer N by the crop among the first three application timings were small. There was no evidence to support alteration in the timing of the first application of N in response to low plant density. Slurry application did not influence SNS, so the interaction between SNS and fertilizer N application timing could not be determined. It is concluded that in order to maximise yield and NUE, the first N application should be applied to winter wheat between late tillering and GS 30 and that delaying the first N until GS 31 can lead to yield reductions compared to the yield obtained with earlier application.

  14. Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Jagdeep; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a carcinogenic metalloid that enters food chain through food and water and poses health risk to living beings. It is important to assess the As status in the environment and risks associated with it. Hence, a risk assessment study was conducted across Ropar wetland, Punjab, India and its environs in pre-monsoon season of 2013, to estimate the risk posed to adults and children via daily consumption of As contaminated groundwater and wheat grains. Arsenic concentrations determined in groundwater, soil and wheat grain samples using atomic absorption spectrometer ranged from 2.90 to 10.56 μg L(-1), 0.06 to 0.12 mg kg(-1) and 0.03 to 0.21 mg kg(-1), respectively. Arsenic in wheat grains showed significant negative correlation with phosphate content in soil indicating a competitive uptake of arsenate and phosphate ions by plants. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggested that both natural and anthropogenic factors contribute to variation in As content and other variables studied in soil and groundwater samples. Total cancer risk and hazard index were higher than the USEPA safety limits of 1.00 × 10(-6) and 1, respectively, for both adults and children indicating a high risk of cancer and other health disorders. Consumption of As contaminated wheat grains was found to pose higher risk of cancer and non-cancer health disorders as compared to intake of As contaminated groundwater by both adults and children. Moreover, children were found to be more prone to cancer and other heath disorders due to As exposure via wheat grains and groundwater as compared to adults.

  15. Penicillium verrucosum occurrence and Ochratoxin A contents in organically cultivated grain with special reference to ancient wheat types and drying practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholt, S.; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between the ochratoxigenic strains of Penicillium verrucosum and ochratoxin A (OTA) contents in organically cultivated grain. It included 37 combined, non-dried grain samples from farmers with no drying facilities as well as 19 non-dried and 22 dried samples...... samples of spelt, which was significantly more contaminated by P. verrucosum than oats, wheat and barley. Though not statistically significant, the results also indicated that spelt was more contaminated than rye, which is usually regarded the most sensitive small grain cereal. No correlation was found...

  16. TaGW2-6A allelic variation contributes to grain size possibly by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Juan; Li, Liqun; Lv, Qian; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Li; Li, Xuejun

    2017-12-01

    Functional allelic variants of TaGW2 - 6A produce large grains, possibly via changes in endosperm cells and dry matter by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In wheat, TaGW2-6A coding region allelic variants are closely related to the grain width and weight, but how this region affects grain development has not been fully elucidated; thus, we explored its influence on grain development based mainly on histological and grain filling analyses. We found that the insertion type (NIL31) TaGW2-6A allelic variants exhibited increases in cell numbers and cell size, thereby resulting in a larger (wider) grain size with an accelerated grain milk filling rate, and increases in grain width and weight. We also found that cytokinin (CK) synthesis genes and key starch biosynthesis enzyme AGPase genes were significantly upregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, while CK degradation genes and starch biosynthesis-negative regulators were downregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, which was consistent with the changes in cells and grain filling. Thus, we speculate that TaGW2-6A allelic variants are linked with CK signaling, but they also influence the accumulation of starch by regulating the expression of related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system to control the grain size and grain weight.

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  18. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g significantly (p < 0.05 increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%. Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05 decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9% compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05 during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%. Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109% but decreased bound (2% to 3% phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC significantly (p < 0.05 decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05 decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05 increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  19. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.

    2014-01-01

    identified as ‘core’ OTUs as they were found in all or almost all samples and accounted for almost 99 % of all sequences. The remaining OTUs were only sporadically found and only in small amounts. Cluster and factor analyses showed patterns of co-existence among the core species. Cluster analysis grouped...... the 21 core OTUs into three clusters: cluster 1 consisting of saprotrophs, cluster 2 consisting mainly of yeasts and saprotrophs and cluster 3 consisting of wheat pathogens. Principal component extraction showed that the Fusarium graminearum group was inversely related to OTUs of clusters 1 and 2....

  20. Studies on translocation of tritiated assimilates into potatoes and wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Diabate, S.; Strack, S.; Raskob, W.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released in the enviroment may be converted to organically bound tritium (OBT), mainly by photosynthesis in green leaves. Tritiated assimilates can be translocated from leaves to storage organs of crop plants. This should be considered in models calculating the dose due to the ingestion pathway. This paper describes experiments with wheat and potatoes, which have been designed to study the translocation of tritiated assimilates. Additionally, gas exchange measurements have been performed with the leaves of those plants. A model has been developed to estimate the generation of OBT and the translocation of tritiated assimilates into edible plant parts. (orig.) [de

  1. To evaluate the efficacy of zinc sulphate mixed with phosphate and potash fertilizer on the grain yield of wheat (tritium aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Abbas, Z.; Ali, M.A.; Hussain, I.

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate yield response of wheat cv, BK-2002 at various fertilizer levels, at farmer, fields of District Mianwali during consecutive years 2006-07 and 2007-08. Six levels of ZnSo/sub 4/ mixed with NPK were evaluated in farmer's fields in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. All doses of znSo/sub 4/ along with Departmental recommended dose of NPK (114-84- 62 kg ha/sup-l/) revealed a linear increase in, plant height, number of tillers/m/sup 2/, number of spikelets /spike. number of grains/spike, 1000 grains weight (g) and yield (kg ha/sup-1/) of wheat variety BK-2002 were recorded. Maximum yield of wheat was recorded when it was subjected to 22.5 kg ho/sub -1/ 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ Departmental recommended dose of NPK fertilizer. The study indicated the potential role of ZnSo/sub 4/ in enhancing the growth and yield of wheat in arid climate and that 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ (22.5 kg ha/sub -1/) + Departmental recommended dose of NPK, (fertilizer might be the optimum level (T5) for the production of wheat in arid climate. (author)

  2. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.

    2009-01-01

    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  3. Lactic acid fermentation of two sorghum varieties is not affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate sorghum grain variety differences in lactic acid fermentation based on their differences in phenolic contents. The study wa s conductedas a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial design with three factors: Factor 1: Sorghum variety (white and red sorghum); Factor 2: Control treatment without lactic acid ...

  4. Association analysis of genomic loci important for grain weight control in elite common wheat varieties cultivated with variable water and fertiliser supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunpu Zhang

    Full Text Available Grain weight, an essential yield component, is under strong genetic control and markedly influenced by the environment. Here, by genome-wide association analysis with a panel of 94 elite common wheat varieties, 37 loci were found significantly associated with thousand-grain weight (TGW in one or more environments differing in water and fertiliser levels. Five loci were stably associated with TGW under all 12 environments examined. Their elite alleles had positive effects on TGW. Four, two, three, and two loci were consistently associated with TGW in the irrigated and fertilised (IF, rainfed (RF, reduced nitrogen (RN, and reduced phosphorus (RP environments. The elite alleles of the IF-specific loci enhanced TGW under well-resourced conditions, whereas those of the RF-, RN-, or RP-specific loci conferred tolerance to the TGW decrease when irrigation, nitrogen, or phosphorus were reduced. Moreover, the elite alleles of the environment-independent and -specific loci often acted additively to enhance TGW. Four additional loci were found associated with TGW in specific locations, one of which was shown to contribute to the TGW difference between two experimental sites. Further analysis of 14 associated loci revealed that nine affected both grain length and width, whereas the remaining loci influenced either grain length or width, indicating that these loci control grain weight by regulating kernel size. Finally, the elite allele of Xpsp3152 frequently co-segregated with the larger grain haplotype of TaGW2-6A, suggesting probable genetic and functional linkages between Xpsp3152 and GW2 that are important for grain weight control in cereal plants. Our study provides new knowledge on TGW control in elite common wheat lines, which may aid the improvement of wheat grain weight trait in further research.

  5. development of dual purpose sorghum: correlation and path

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (Table 3). Grain yield and stem sugar traits. The correlation coefficients between grain yield and. T. ABLE 2. Correlation coefficients between grain yield and stem sugar content with selected agronomic traits in sorghum. SBX. GY. SBW. DT50F. HDL. SJS. NLP. PHT. Stem brix (SBX). 1.000. Grain yield (GY). 0.071**. 1.000.

  6. EVALUATION OF GRAIN SORGHUM CULTIVARS FOR DOUBLE CROPPING IN THE SOUTHWEST OF GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL AVALIAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DE SORGO GRANÍFERO NA SAFRINHA NO SUDOESTE DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bezerra de Morães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Sorghum is a crop of great importance for double cropping, in the Brazilian Central-West region. Within this region, in the Southwestern Goiás State, a research was conducted to select sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cultivars, in the municipalities of Montividiu, Rio Verde, and Santa Helena de Goiás. A randomized blocks design, with four replications, was used. The grain sorghum cultivars tested were: BR 304, 741, 822, Catuy, and the experimental hybrid V 00069. The cultivars were sown on March 5, 2005. The evaluated characteristics were: yield, weight of thousand grains, plant height, and flowering and maturation dates. The results showed the interaction genotype x environment for all evaluated characteristics. The region of Montividiu presented better potential for sorghum grain production. Early flowering and harvest allowed higher grain yields.

     

  7. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  8. RNAi-Mediated Downregulation of Inositol Pentakisphosphate Kinase (IPK1 in Wheat Grains Decreases Phytic Acid Levels and Increases Fe and Zn Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipla Aggarwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of micronutrient bioavailability is crucial to address the malnutrition in the developing countries. Various approaches employed to address the micronutrient bioavailability are showing promising signs, especially in cereal crops. Phytic acid (PA is considered as a major antinutrient due to its ability to chelate important micronutrients and thereby restricting their bioavailability. Therefore, manipulating PA biosynthesis pathway has largely been explored to overcome the pleiotropic effect in different crop species. Recently, we reported that functional wheat inositol pentakisphosphate kinase (TaIPK1 is involved in PA biosynthesis, however, the functional roles of the IPK1 gene in wheat remains elusive. In this study, RNAi-mediated gene silencing was performed for IPK1 transcripts in hexaploid wheat. Four non-segregating RNAi lines of wheat were selected for detailed study (S3-D-6-1; S6-K-3-3; S6-K-6-10 and S16-D-9-5. Homozygous transgenic RNAi lines at T4 seeds with a decreased transcript of TaIPK1 showed 28–56% reduction of the PA. Silencing of IPK1 also resulted in increased free phosphate in mature grains. Although, no phenotypic changes in the spike was observed but, lowering of grain PA resulted in the reduced number of seeds per spikelet. The lowering of grain PA was also accompanied by a significant increase in iron (Fe and zinc (Zn content, thereby enhancing their molar ratios (Zn:PA and Fe:PA. Overall, this work suggests that IPK1 is a promising candidate for employing genome editing tools to address the mineral accumulation in wheat grains.

  9. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... The aim of this study was to select the most suitable cultivar for salty land in this geographical area. Two sweet sorghum cultivars (Keller and Sofra) and one grain sorghum cultivar (Kimia) were grown in greenhouse benches under four salinity levels of 2, 4, 8 and 12 dSm-1 to evaluate the effects of salinity.

  10. A quantitative approach to characterize sink-source relationships during grain filling in contrasting wheat genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Guo, W.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple generic framework to quantify source–sink relationships during grain filling, by using a determinate growth function which has a unique property, namely being able of explicitly describing the time for the end of a growth process. This model framework was applied to analyze these

  11. Tamanho de parcela para produtividade de grãos de sorgo granífero em diferentes densidades de plantas Experimental plot size in grain sorghum in different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do arranjo de plantas na estimativa do tamanho ótimo de parcela da cultura de sorgo granífero, para a variável produtividade de grãos. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial com dois espaçamentos entre linhas (0,50 m e 0,80 m, três densidades de semeadura (100 mil, 160 mil e 220 mil plantas ha-1 e quatro repetições. Cada repetição foi composta, na área útil, por 12 unidades básicas de 0,50 m da linha de cultivo. Foram ajustados modelos, na estimativa do tamanho ótimo de parcela, que relacionam a variância ou o coeficiente de variação com quatro tamanhos simulados das parcelas. O tamanho estimado de parcelas, na cultura de sorgo granífero, é de 3,2 m² para a variável produtividade de grãos. O aumento do número de plantas, na linha, não proporciona incrementos na produtividade de grãos, porém resulta em melhorias da qualidade de experimentos com sorgo. A estimativa do tamanho ótimo de parcela depende do número de plantas utilizadas na unidade básica. O espaçamento entre linhas não influencia na estimativa do tamanho ótimo de parcela.The objective of this work was to establish plant arrangement effect on the optimal plot size estimates of grain sorghum yield experiments. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with factorial combination of two row spacings (0.50 m and 0.80 m, and three plant densities (100 thousand, 160 thousand and 220 thousand plants ha-1, and four replications. The area of each replication was composed by 12 basic units measuring 0.50 m in row length. Models were adjusted in optimum plot size estimates that correlate variance or variation coefficient with four simulated plot sizes. Plot size was 3.2 m² for grain sorghum yield experiments. Increasing number of plants in row did not result in higher seed yields, however it improved sorghum quality experiment. Estimation of the ideal

  12. Modified Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 For High Fiber Muffin Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, D. D. S; Human, S

    2009-01-01

    Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induce sorghum genetic variation. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher grain yield than the original variety. Research on modified starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in food industry. Functionality of pregelatinized, hydroxypropyl and crosslinked starch of this mutant line (Mutant TexInstant 30) has been studied for its use in high fiber muffin products. Characteristics of high fiber muffins containing 1.50; 3.50 and 5.50% of Mutant Tex-Instant 30 replacement levels to wheat flour were evaluated using both sensory panel and physical test methods. With regard to the sensory parameters, the high fiber muffins containing 1.50 - 5.50 % Mutant Tex-Instant 30 in general were not significantly different compared to the standard reference muffin. Results of physical evaluations showed that all Mutant Tex-Instant 30 containing products retained more moisture during baking than the standard reference. Tenderness of all products decreased at similar rate following 24 and 48 hr of room temperature storage and seven days at freezer temperature. These results suggested that sorghum mutant line Zh-30 starch could be modified and potentially used in food industry as a subtitute of wheat flour (author)

  13. Modified Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 for High Fiber Muffin Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D.S. Santosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induce sorghum genetic variation. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher grain yield than the original variety. Research on modified starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in food industry. Functionality of pregelatinized, hydroxypropyl and crosslinked starch of this mutant line (Mutant TexInstant 30 has been studied for its use in high fiber muffin products. Characteristics of high fiber muffins containing 1.50; 3.50 and 5.50% of Mutant Tex-Instant 30 replacement levels to wheat flour were evaluated using both sensory panel and physical test methods. With regard to the sensory parameters, the high fiber muffins containing 1.50 - 5.50 % Mutant Tex-Instant 30 in general were not significantly different compared to the standard reference muffin. Results of physical evaluations showed that all Mutant Tex-Instant 30 containing products retained more moisture during baking than the standard reference. Tenderness of all products decreased at similar rate following 24 and 48 hr of room temperature storage and seven days at freezer temperature. These results suggested that sorghum mutant line Zh-30 starch could be modified and potentially used in food industry as a subtitute of wheat flour.

  14. Next-generation sequencing technology for genetics and genomics of sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Hong; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2014-01-01

    and grain sorghum. NGS has also been used to examine the transcriptomes of sorghum under various stress conditions. Besides identifying interesting transcriptonal adpatation to stress conditions, these study show that sugar could potentially act as an osmitic adjusting factor via transcriptional regulation....... Furthermore, miRNAs are found to be important adaptation to both biotic and abiotic stresses in sorghum. We discuss the use of NGS for further genetic improvement and breeding in sorghum....

  15. The influence of α-amylase supplementation, γ-irradiation (60Co) as well as long time of storage of wheat grain on flour technological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warchalewski, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The varieties of winter wheat, Aria and Beta, were studied. The Aria variety was stored for the period of four years. The part of wheat grain from Beta variety was irradiated with γ rays ( 60 Co). In extracts from wheat kernels and flour protein content, total α- and β-amylolytic activity as well as α-amylolytic activity were determined, α-amylases of native and fungal origin were added to the flour obtained from samples of stored wheat kernels (Aria), irradiated and non-irradiated (Beta). Consequently native α-amylase activity of flour increased by 25% and 50%, respectively. Extensive technological estimation of grain and flour with amylase supplements was carried out. The study included: sedimentation analysis, falling number test, milling experiment, farinogram and extensogram analyses, measurement of the degree of damaged starch and flour colour, as well as baking experiment. The obtained experimental loaves of bread were tested for their ability to remain fresh. It was found out that the stored grain flour was characterized by the highest α-amylolytic activity and the lowest falling number value, whereas the irradiated grain flour showed the highest degree of starch damage and water absorption. When α-amylase supplementation to doughs was not accompanied by either irradiation or storage of grain, it definitely changed their physical properties for the worse. The negative influence of native α-amylases appeared to be less significant than that of fungal α-amylases. The positive influence of α-amylase supplementations, especially of those increasing by 25% the native α-amylolytic activity of flour on volume, and freshness of loaves of bread was observed. (author)

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN THE OBTAINING OF ETHANOL FROM Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Pedroso Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Replacing the use of gasoline with ethanol in vehicles reduces by 90% CO2 emissions, this justifies the interest in the use of bioethanol as renewable energy. Besides sugar cane, cassava, maize and sugar beet special emphasis is being given to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench to produce ethanol for its productivity and resistance. The sorghum is grown in Rio Grande do Sul with a production of about 70,000 tons / year. Embrapa has a program to develop cultivars of sorghum from the time the Pro-Alcohol and currently 25 new varieties of sorghum are being evaluated. Several factors are relevant in the optimization of production such as increased productivity and reduced costs in the production of ethanol. This study aimed to survey recent data that will assess production parameters of ethanol from sorghum. Factors such as reducing the risk of bacterial contamination, the means conducive to fermentation processes or grain sorghum stalk through the use of pretreatment of the sample, have been of great importance because it is basically turning cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Superior genotypes of sweet sorghum for ethanol production are of utmost importance, as well as better ways to convert sugars into ethanol. Lignin, toxic against microorganisms, prevents the conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. The conversion of lignocellulosic ethanol compounds based on the hydrolysis of cellulose producing simple sugars and fermenting those sugars into ethanol through microbiology.

  17. Evaluation of different food grains as baits for management of Hystrix indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, A.; Ahmed, S. M.; Ahmad, A.; Ali, Q. M.

    2015-01-01

    Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica is widely distributed and serious rodent pest of orchards, field crops and vegetables in Pakistan. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine highly effective cereal used as bait base for its management. Six locally available food grains viz. wheat, rice, maize, black gram, sorghum and millet were offered in whole/crack form. Under no choice and choice tests, rice was the most preferred food, followed by wheat, maize and others. The present study suggested that rice in whole or cracked form alone or in combination with wheat can be applied as very palatable (32 percentage and 27 percentage, respectively) and cost effective grain as bait base for effective management of Indian porcupine, Hystrix indica, being an economically important rodent pest of agriculture, forestry and irrigation network in Pakistan. (author)

  18. Tempeh: a mold-modified indigenous fermented food made from soybeans and/or cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmeister, K A; Fung, D Y

    1993-01-01

    A variety of indigenous fermented foods exist today; however, tempeh has been one of the most widely accepted and researched mold-modified fermented products. Tempeh is a traditional fermented food made from soaked and cooked soybeans inoculated with a mold, usually of the genus Rhizopus. After fermentation has occurred, the soybeans are bound together into a compact cake by dense cottony mycelium. An important function of the mold in the fermentation process is the synthesis of enzymes, which hydrolyze soybean constituents and contribute to the development of a desirable texture, flavor, and aroma of the product. Enzymatic hydrolysis also may decrease or eliminate antinutritional constituents; consequently, the nutritional quality of the fermented product may be improved. Current technology and new scientific advancements have enabled researchers to examine specific strains of Rhizopus and new substrates such as cereal grains. Because Kansas produces numerous cereal grains, production of a fermented tempeh-like product using wheat, sorghum (milo), oats, rye, barley, corn, and triticale is a definite possibility for generating a Kansas Value-Added Product. In this study, several different tempeh-like products were produced using various cereal grains inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2549 or R. oligosporus NRRL 2710. Grains used included hard red winter wheat, triticale, yellow sorghum (milo), and red sorghum (milo). The grain source as well as the strain of R. oligosporus used influenced the product's appearance, flavor, and patty integrity. Results showed that R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 produced more mycelium at a more rapid rate than did the R. oligosporus NRRL 2710 strain. The combination of red sorghum and R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 yielded a product with good patty texture, aroma, and appearance. Furthermore, the red sorghum fermented product was well suited for slicing. On the other hand, yellow sorghum inoculated with either R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 or

  19. TaFlo2-A1, an ortholog of rice Flo2, is associated with thousand grain weight in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Ma, Xiaoling; Habibullah Khan, Sultan; Shoaib, Muhammad; Song, Yanhong; Yang, Wenlong; Zhang, Aimin; Liu, Dongcheng

    2017-10-16

    The Flo2 gene is a member of a conserved gene family in plants. This gene has been found to be related to thousand grain weight (TGW) in rice. Its orthologs in hexaploid wheat were cloned, and the haplotype variation in TaFlo2-A1 was tested for association with TGW. The cloned sequences of TaFlo2-A1, TaFlo2-B1 and TaFlo2-D1 contained 23, 23 and 24 exons, respectively. The deduced proteins of TaFlo2-A1 (1734 aa), TaFlo2-B1 (1698 aa) and TaFlo2-D1 (1682 aa) were highly similar (>94%) and exhibited >77% similarity with the rice FLO2 protein. Like the rice FLO2 protein, four tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs were observed in the deduced TaFLO2 protein. An 8-bp InDel (-10 to -17 bp) in the promoter region and five SNPs in first intron of TaFlo2-A1 together formed two haplotypes, TaFlo2-A1a and TaFlo2-A1b, in bread wheat. TaFlo2 was located on homeologous group 2 chromosomes. TaFlo2-A1 was inferred to be located on deletion bin '2AL1-0.85-1.00'. The TaFlo2-A1 haplotypes were characterized in the Chinese Micro Core Collection (MCC) and Pakistani wheat collection using the molecular marker TaFlo2-Indel8. TaFlo2-A1 was found to be associated with TGW but not with grain number per spike (GpS) in both the MCC and Pakistani wheat collections. The frequency of TaFlo2-A1b (positive haplotype) was low in commercial wheat cultivars; thus this haplotype can be selected to improve grain weight without negatively affecting GpS. The expression level of TaFlo2-A1 in developing grains at 5 DAF (days after flowering) was positively correlated with TGW in cultivars carrying the positive haplotype. This study will likely lead to additional investigations to understand the regulatory mechanism of the Flo2 gene in hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, the newly developed molecular marker 'TaFlo2-InDel8' could be incorporated into the kit of wheat breeders for use in marker-assisted selection.

  20. A QTL on the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B affects the stability of grain weight in plants exposed to a brief heat shock early in grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdelmoghanloo, Hamid; Taylor, Julian D; Lohraseb, Iman; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Timmins, Andy; Martin, Peter; Mather, Diane E; Emebiri, Livinus; Collins, Nicholas C

    2016-04-22

    Molecular markers and knowledge of traits associated with heat tolerance are likely to provide breeders with a more efficient means of selecting wheat varieties able to maintain grain size after heat waves during early grain filling. A population of 144 doubled haploids derived from a cross between the Australian wheat varieties Drysdale and Waagan was mapped using the wheat Illumina iSelect 9,000 feature single nucleotide polymorphism marker array and used to detect quantitative trait loci for heat tolerance of final single grain weight and related traits. Plants were subjected to a 3 d heat treatment (37 °C/27 °C day/night) in a growth chamber at 10 d after anthesis and trait responses calculated by comparison to untreated control plants. A locus for single grain weight stability was detected on the short arm of chromosome 3B in both winter- and autumn-sown experiments, determining up to 2.5 mg difference in heat-induced single grain weight loss. In one of the experiments, a locus with a weaker effect on grain weight stability was detected on chromosome 6B. Among the traits measured, the rate of flag leaf chlorophyll loss over the course of the heat treatment and reduction in shoot weight due to heat were indicators of loci with significant grain weight tolerance effects, with alleles for grain weight stability also conferring stability of chlorophyll ('stay-green') and shoot weight. Chlorophyll loss during the treatment, requiring only two non-destructive readings to be taken, directly before and after a heat event, may prove convenient for identifying heat tolerant germplasm. These results were consistent with grain filling being limited by assimilate supply from the heat-damaged photosynthetic apparatus, or alternatively, accelerated maturation in the grains that was correlated with leaf senescence responses merely due to common genetic control of senescence responses in the two organs. There was no evidence for a role of mobilized stem reserves (water

  1. Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri

    2017-06-17

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer's rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and