WorldWideScience

Sample records for grain sorghum grown

  1. Mineral content in grains of seven food-grade sorghum hybrids grown in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a major crop used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral content in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The ...

  2. Fusarium spp. Associated with Field-Grown Grain of Near-Isogenic Low Lignin and Wild-Type Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium spp. associated with field-grown grain of near-isogenic low lignin and wild-type sorghum. Deanna Funnell-Harris and Jeff Pedersen, USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE Previous studies indicated that low lignin brown midrib (bmr) sorghum may be more resistant to Fusarium spp. than wild-type and that phen...

  3. Malting Characteristics of Some Sorghum and Millet Grain Varieties Grown in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makokha, A.O; Makwaka, A.M; Oniang'o, R.O; Njoroge, S.M

    1999-01-01

    Industrial malt in Kenya for commercial beer production is made exclusively from barley. This study explored the potential of producing suitable malt from some sorghum and finger millet grain varieties grown in Kenya. Malting characteristics of two sorghum grain varieties, KARI Mtama-1 and local Red variety, and that of finger millet was done and compared to that of barley. Among the grain characteristics determined before malting were water sensitivity, polyphenol (tannin) content and total protein. The grain was malted by striping in water for 48 h, followed by germination for four days at 25 degrees celcious, then kilned at 50 degrees celcious for 24 h. The malting characteristics determined included total soluble N, free amino N, wort pH and fermentable sugars. The local red sorghum and millet had high polyphenol content while KARI Mtama-1 and barley had low levels. KARI Mtama-1 had positive water sensitivity while barley had negative sensitivity. Finger millet and local red sorghum were water insensitive. Free amino N was 113, 125, 144, and 154mg 100g - 1 malt for millet, barley, local Red and KARI Mtama-1, respectively. Total fermentation sugars were 307, 477, 610 and 178 mg 1 - 1 for finger millet, local red, barley and KARI Mtama 1 , respectively. The results showed that that the proteolytic and amyloytic characteristics of the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 has good potential fro conventional lager beer production. Malts of local Red sorghum grain and millet may be more suitable for industrial production of opaque/cloudy beer

  4. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  5. The composition, functional components, and physical characteristics of grain from staygreen and senescent sorghum lines grown under variable water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inclusion of sorghum into human food and feed is limited by its low digestibility compared to corn, which has been linked to the higher total kafirin levels in sorghum grain. Water stress after pollination reduced grain filling, affects the grain composition, functional components and grain phys...

  6. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-11-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2]. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  8. Glucuronoarabinoxylans from sorghum grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, M.A.

    1996-01-01


    Water-unextractable cell wall materials (WUS) were prepared from raw, polished, and malted sorghum ( Sorghum vulgare cv. Fara Fara). Except for the amounts, hardly any difference could be observed between the WUS of these three raw materials. This means that cell wall

  9. Comparison of sorghum classes for grain and forage yield and forage nutritive value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum represents a broad category of plants that includes those grown primarily for forage (FS) or grain. Sorghum sudan crosses (SS) are also considered sorghum. Each of these groups can be further classified as brown midrib (BMR), nonBMR, photoperiod sensitive (PS), and nonPS. In our study, sor...

  10. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sorghum Grains (Sorghum Vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical properties of sorghum grains (sorghum vulgare were studied at varying moisture contents of 13%, 20% and 30% (w.b. The four varieties of sorghum grains studied include; Dura, Guinea, Faterita and Kafir. Results indicate that the size ranges were 3.94mm - 4.83mm for Dura variety; 3.75mm - 4.54mm for Guinea variety; 3.21mm - 4.42mm for Kafir variety and 2.70mm - 4.14mm for Faterita variety. Irregularities in the shapes of the grains were observed but all approximated to a sphere. In the mechanical properties, at major diameter, Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.16kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.955kN. In minor diameter, the Dura variety also recorded highest rupture force of 1.12kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Kafir variety had the lowest value of 0.952kN. Also at 20% moisture content, the Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.025kN while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.965kN. The same trend applies in the varieties at 30% moisture content. This is because, increase in moisture content results to decrease in rupture force. And this implies that force beyond these points at these moisture contents may cause damage to the sorghum varieties.

  11. Screening of sorghum lines against long smut and grain mold pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long smut infection is severe in the drier regions of Africa and Asia; whereas, grain mold is the most important widespread complex disease where sorghum is grown worldwide. Both fungal diseases cause significant losses in grain yield and quality. Long smut has not yet been observed in the United ...

  12. Post-anthesis nitrate uptake is critical to yield and grain protein content in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, Belinda; Robinson, Nicole; Jordan, David; Schmidt, Susanne; Godwin, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Crops only use ∼50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer creating N losses and pollution. Plants need to efficiently uptake and utilize N to meet growing global food demands. Here we investigate how the supply and timing of nitrate affects N status and yield in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sorghum was grown in pots with either 10mM (High) or 1mM (Low) nitrate supply. Shortly before anthesis the nitrate supply was either maintained, increased 10-fold or eliminated. Leaf sheaths of sorghum grown with High nitrate accumulated nitrate in concentrations >3-times higher than leaves. Removal of nitrate supply pre-anthesis resulted in the rapid reduction of stored nitrate in all organs. Plants receiving a 10-fold increase in nitrate supply pre-anthesis achieved similar grain yield and protein content and 29% larger grains than those maintained on High nitrate, despite receiving 24% less nitrate over the whole growth period. In sorghum, plant available N is important throughout development, particularly anthesis and grain filling, for grain yield and grain protein content. Nitrate accumulation in leaf sheaths presents opportunities for the genetic analysis of mechanisms behind nitrate storage and remobilization in sorghum to improve N use efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Flag leaf photosynthesis and stomatal function of grain sorghum as influenced by changing photosynthetic photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on physiological parameters of A, gs, Em, Ci, and IWUE in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is limited. Flag leaves from three plants of two hybrids, grown using added N fertilizer rates of 0.0, 112, and 224 kg ha-1 near Elizabeth, MS were field sampled for these parameters at growth s...

  14. Potential of multiseeded mutant (msd) to boost sorghum grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed number per plant is an important determinant of the grain yield in cereal and other crops. We have isolated a class of multiseeded (msd) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) mutants that are capable of producing three times the seed number and twice the seed weight per panicle as compared with t...

  15. Mineral composition and biomass partitioning of sweet sorghum grown for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Erickson, J.E.; Sollenberger, L.E.; Woodard, K.R.; Vendramini, J.M.B.; Fedenko, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Biomass yield and tissue mineral composition can affect total energy yield potential, conversion efficiencies and environmental impacts, but relatively few data are available for sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grown in the southeastern USA. Therefore, a study was conducted at two locations in North and Central Florida on marginal sand soils comparing the effects of planting date (PD) on dry biomass yield and mineral composition of leaf, stem, and grain heads for ‘M-81E’ and ‘Dale’ sweet sorghum cultivars. Overall tissue mineral concentrations were relatively low for sweet sorghum, attributable to low K and Ca concentrations. Ash and mineral concentrations were generally greater for Dale, especially for the early PD. Leaf and grain heads were greater in mineral concentrations compared to stems. Dry biomass yield averaged 19.4 Mg ha −1 and was greater for M-81E and the early PD. Stems accounted for 73% of the total biomass compared to leaves (13%) across all treatments. Total N, P, and K removals averaged 136, 27.6, and 81.4 kg ha −1 , respectively. Overall, leaves removed 30, 23, and 19% of total N, P, and K compared to 34, 34, and 61% by stem, respectively. Considering lower biomass but greater mineral concentrations in leaf and grain heads compared to stems, returning leaf residues and possibly grain heads to the soil have the potential to offset nutrient and energy inputs needed on these marginal soils and enhance the sustainability of sweet sorghum cropping systems.

  16. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.D.; Farag, M.F. S. El-D.; Afify, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  17. Drought-induced changes in nitrogen partitioning between cyanide and nitrate in leaves and stems in sorghum grown at elevated CO2 are age dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] is the world’s fifth most important crop, grown for forage, grain, and as a biofuel. Fast growing and drought tolerant, it is considered a climate-change-ready crop. Two free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at Maricopa, Arizona, USA showed that, like othe...

  18. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  19. Effect of Fungicide Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan D. Fromme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in the upper Texas Gulf Coast and in central Louisiana during the 2013 through 2015 growing seasons to evaluate the effects of fungicides on grain sorghum growth and development when disease pressure was low or nonexistent. Azoxystrobin and flutriafol at 1.0 L/ha and pyraclostrobin at 0.78 L/ha were applied to the plants of two grain sorghum hybrids (DKS 54-00, DKS 53-67 at 25% bloom and compared with the nontreated check for leaf chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, and plant lodging during the growing season as well as grain mold, test weight, yield, and nitrogen and protein content of the harvested grain. The application of a fungicide had no effect on any of the variables tested with grain sorghum hybrid responses noted. DKS 53-67 produced higher yield, greater test weight, higher percent protein, and N than DKS 54-00. Results of this study indicate that the application of a fungicide when little or no disease is present does not promote overall plant health or increase yield.

  20. Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gr. Delchev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides are more effective than when applied alone on sorghum crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. The use of herbicide antidotes for the treatment of seeds in sorghum is a safe way to overcome its high sensitivity to many herbicides. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of annual graminaceous weeds in sorghum crops are quite scarce even worldwide. Problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information on sorghum relates to the conventional technology for weed control. There is no information about the new Concep technology in grain sorghum. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature on control of these volunteers.

  1. Supplemental irrigation for grain sorghum production in the US Eastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum is an important grain crop throughout the world and is generally considered drought tolerant. Recently, in the US eastern Coastal Plain region, there was an emphasis on increasing regional grain production with grain sorghum having an important role. The region soils have low water hol...

  2. Rate and Timing Effects of Growth Regulating Herbicides Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry E. Besançon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicamba and 2,4-D are among the most common and inexpensive herbicides used to control broadleaf weeds. However, different studies have pointed the risk of crop injury and grain sorghum yield reduction with postemergence applications of 2,4-D. No research data on grain sorghum response to 2,4-D or dicamba exists in the Southeastern United States. Consequently, a study was conducted to investigate crop growth and yield response to 2,4-D (100, 220, and 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba (280 g acid equivalent ha−1 applied on 20 to 65 cm tall sorghum. Greater stunting resulted from 2,4-D applied at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 or below 45 cm tall sorghum whereas lodging prevailed with 2,4-D at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba applied beyond 35 cm tall crop. Regardless of local environmental conditions, 2,4-D applied up to 35 cm tall did not negatively impact grain yield. There was a trend for yields to be somewhat lower when 2,4-D was applied on 45 or 55 cm tall sorghum whereas application on 65 cm tall sorghum systematically decreased yields. More caution should be taken with dicamba since yield reduction has been reported as early as applications made on 35 cm tall sorghum for a potentially dicamba sensitive cultivar.

  3. Effect of Agromorphological Diversity and Botanical Race on Biochemical Composition in Sweet Grains Sorghum [Sorghum Bicolor (L. Moench] of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbéwendé Sawadogo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is an under-harvested crop in Burkina Faso. It is grown mainly for its sweet grains in the pasty stage. However, the precocity of the cycle and the sweet grains at pasty stage make it an interesting plant with agro-alimentary potential during the lean season. This study was carried out to identify the main sugars responsible for the sweetness of the grains at the pasty stage and their variation according to the agro-morphological group and the botanical race. Thus, the grains harvested at the pasty stage of fifteen (15 accessions selected according to the agro-morphological group and botanical race were lyophilized and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results reveal the presence of four (4 main carbohydrates at pasty stage of grains such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and starch. Analysis of variance revealed that these carbohydrates discriminate significantly the agro-morphological groups and the botanical races. Moreover, with exception of the sucrose, the coefficient of determination (R2 values shows that the agro-morphological group factor has a greater effect on the expression of glucose, fructose and starch than the botanical race. Group III and caudatum race have the highest levels of fructose and would be the sweetest. While group IV and the guinea-bicolor race with the low value of fructose would be the least sweet. Fructose is therefore the main sugar responsible for the sweetness of the pasty grains of sweet grains sorghum.

  4. Effect of waxy (Low Amylose) on Fungal Infection of Sorghum Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Sattler, Scott E; O'Neill, Patrick M; Eskridge, Kent M; Pedersen, Jeffrey F

    2015-06-01

    Loss of function mutations in waxy, encoding granule bound starch synthase (GBSS) that synthesizes amylose, results in starch granules containing mostly amylopectin. Low amylose grain with altered starch properties has increased usability for feed, food, and grain-based ethanol. In sorghum, two classes of waxy (wx) alleles had been characterized for absence or presence of GBSS: wx(a) (GBSS(-)) and wx(b) (GBSS(+), with reduced activity). Field-grown grain of wild-type; waxy, GBSS(-); and waxy, GBSS(+) plant introduction accessions were screened for fungal infection. Overall, results showed that waxy grains were not more susceptible than wild-type. GBSS(-) and wild-type grain had similar infection levels. However, height was a factor with waxy, GBSS(+) lines: short accessions (wx(b) allele) were more susceptible than tall accessions (undescribed allele). In greenhouse experiments, grain from accessions and near-isogenic wx(a), wx(b), and wild-type lines were inoculated with Alternaria sp., Fusarium thapsinum, and Curvularia sorghina to analyze germination and seedling fitness. As a group, waxy lines were not more susceptible to these pathogens than wild-type, supporting field evaluations. After C. sorghina and F. thapsinum inoculations most waxy and wild-type lines had reduced emergence, survival, and seedling weights. These results are valuable for developing waxy hybrids with resistance to grain-infecting fungi.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and nutritive value of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Sorghum grains were gamma irradiated at 0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. Irradiated and unirradiated sorghum samples were analyzed for crude fiber contents, total nitrogen, fat, ash and tannic acid. Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were also determined. In addition, digestibility coefficient received special attention. The irradiated sorghum grains were incorporated into basal diets and fed to rats during the digestion trials. The results indicated that gamma irradiation had no effects on total nitrogen, fat and ash contents of sorghum grains. Irradiation treatments of sorghum did not cause a pronounced effect on tannic acid content even those received the highest irradiation dose (200 kGy). Moreover, the irradiation treatments decreased the NDF content of sorghum especially those subjected to 100 or 200 kGy. On the other hand, the ADF and ADL values did not show a remarkable change due to irradiation treatments. Hemicellulose content was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose levels. Also, it was noticed that feeding rats on basal diets enriched with irradiated sorghum grains had a beneficial effects on digestibility coefficient. This trend was obvious with animals supplemented with sorghum grains subjected to the relatively high irradiation dose levels. 4 tabs

  6. Performance of elite grain sorghum varieties in the West Nile Agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Ouma, J.P. and Akuja, T.E. 2013. Agronomic and morphological performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) for the dry highlands of. Kenya. www.m.elewa.org. Schatz, B.G., Schneiter, A.A. and Gardner,. J.E. 1987. Effect of plant density on grain sorghum production in North. Dakota. pp. 16-17. Snider, J.L., Randy, L.R. and ...

  7. Dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S R; Ikezaki, H; Gao, X P; Rubinstein, I

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch and, if so, whether this response is specific. By using intravital microscopy, we found that an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa) from the in situ hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust extract- and substance P-induced increases in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch in a specific fashion.

  8. Grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the nasal mucosa in vivo and, if so, whether this response is mediated, in part, by substance P. Suffusion of grain sorghum dust extract on the in situ nasal mucosa of anesthetized hamsters elicits a significant increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa; P grain sorghum dust elicits neurogenic plasma exudation from the in situ nasal mucosa.

  9. Evaluation of selected sorghum lines and hybrids for resistance to grain mold and long smut fungi in Senegal, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain mold in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a major worldwide problem; damage caused by this fungal disease complex includes a reduction in yield (loss of seed mass), grain density, and germination. Long smut is another important fungal disease in sorghum and potential threat to food sec...

  10. Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Activities Differ Significantly among Sorghum Grains with Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Shen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum grains with different applications had different phenolic profiles, which were corresponded to various antioxidant capacities. In this study, total phenolic, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents, as well as contents of individual phenolic compounds from sorghum grains with various applications were determined, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated. Total phenolic contents (TPC and total proanthocyanidins contents (TPAC showed strong correlation with antioxidant activities (r > 0.95, p < 0.01. Hongyingzi (S-1, one of the brewing sorghums, showed the highest level of TPC and TPAC, while white grain sorghum (S-8 had the lowest. Except for black grain sorghum (S-7, that contained the highest contents of ferulic acid, brewing sorghum grains contained the higher contents of the most individual phenolic compounds, especially the variety S-1. The correlation among individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities indicated that the free forms of protocatechuic acid (r = 0.982 of FRAPassay, p < 0.01 and taxifolin (r = 0.826 of FRAP assay, p < 0.01 may be the main functional compounds. These results indicate that brewing sorghum grains can also be utilized as effective materials for functional foods.

  11. Production of biodiesel via the in situ transesterification of grain sorghum bran and DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acylglycerides in sorghum bran and distiller’s dried grains and solubles (DDGS) from sorghum post-fermentation stillage have been converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using an in-situ transesterification (IST) method. The reactions were conducted at 25 deg C or 40 deg C in the presence...

  12. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and amylopectin) and starch ...

  13. Simulating the probability of grain sorghum maturity before the first frost in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expanding grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production northward from southeastern Colorado is thought to be limited by shorter growing seasons due to lower temperatures and earlier frost dates. This study used a simulation model for predicting crop phenology (PhenologyMMS) to predict the ...

  14. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of starch and amylase activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and

  15. Identification of quantitative trait loci for popping traits and kernel characteristics in sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popped grain sorghum has developed a niche among specialty snack-food consumers. In contrast to popcorn, sorghum has not benefited from persistent selective breeding for popping efficiency and kernel expansion ratio. While recent studies have already demonstrated that popping characteristics are h...

  16. Predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the traditional malting of sorghum grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Glover, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    dominated the microbiota from sorghum grains to malted sorghum. These isolates had technological properties comparable to those responsible for the acidification of sorghum beer (dolo, pito) wort produced from sorghum malt (previously studied), suggesting their potential for use as starter cultures....... Suitable isolates of L. fermentum are promising candidates to be used as starter cultures from the initial step of malting, that is, the steeping and are expected to inhibit the growth and survival of pathogens and spoilage microflora, and to control the lactic fermentation of dolo and pito wort or other...

  17. Genetic variation in yield and chemical composition of wide range of sorghum accessions grown in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.S.; Wang, M.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Liu, Z.; Han, L.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum can be grown on marginal and waste lands as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production in the vast areas of north-west China. Fifty-six sorghum accessions were grown in 2009 at the experimental station of Xinjiang Agricultural University, located at Urumchi, Xinjiang, China. A total of 31

  18. Review of genetic basis of protein digestibility in Grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum, an ancient crop of the semiarid tropics, plays a key role in food and nutritional security for over half-a-billion people in Africa and Asia. In industrialized nations, sorghum is cultivated as animal feed and more recently as a feedstock for biofuel production and as health food alternativ...

  19. Registration of six grain sorghum pollinator (R) lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] pollinators [KS142R (Reg. No. PI XXXX), KS143R (Reg. No. PI XXXX), KS144R (Reg.No. PI XXXX), KS145R (Reg. No. PI XXXX), KS146R (Reg. No. PI XXXX) and KS147R (Reg. No. PI XXXX) were developed from random mating using a recurrent selection followed by pedigree...

  20. Effect of sowing date on grain quality of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IVHAA) while minerals; iron and zinc were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Significant site by variety by sowing date interactions at P < 0.05 level of probability were obtained for protein, iron and zinc content of sorghum ...

  1. tant sorghum grain as energy source in fattening diets for beef steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FORD, J.E., 1977. Availability of methionine and lysine in sorghum grain in relation to the tannin content. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 36, 124A. HALE, W.H. & PROUTY, F.L., 1980.Current status of grain process- ing: Efficiency of processing systems. Proc. 8th Annual Texas Beef. Conj., Amarillo, Texas. HALE, W.H., TAYLOR, B., SABA, ...

  2. Grain sorghum is a viable feedstock for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Bean, S; McLaren, J; Seib, P; Madl, R; Tuinstra, M; Shi, Y; Lenz, M; Wu, X; Zhao, R

    2008-05-01

    Sorghum is a major cereal crop in the USA. However, sorghum has been underutilized as a renewable feedstock for bioenergy. The goal of this research was to improve the bioconversion efficiency for biofuels and biobased products from processed sorghum. The main focus was to understand the relationship among "genetics-structure-function-conversion" and the key factors impacting ethanol production, as well as to develop an energy life cycle analysis model (ELCAM) to quantify and prioritize the saving potential from factors identified in this research. Genetic lines with extremely high and low ethanol fermentation efficiency and some specific attributes that may be manipulated to improve the bioconversion rate of sorghum were identified. In general, ethanol yield increased as starch content increased. However, no linear relationship between starch content and fermentation efficiency was found. Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum include protein digestibility, level of extractable proteins, protein and starch interaction, mash viscosity, amount of phenolic compounds, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, and formation of amylose-lipid complexes in the mash. A platform ELCAM with a base case showed a positive net energy value (NEV) = 25,500 Btu/gal EtOH. ELCAM cases were used to identify factors that most impact sorghum use. For example, a yield increase of 40 bu/ac resulted in NEV increasing from 7 million to 12 million Btu/ac. An 8% increase in starch provided an incremental 1.2 million Btu/ac.

  3. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, distillers dried grains with solubles composition, and lipid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in utilization of feedstocks other than corn for fuel ethanol production has been increasing due to political as well as environmental reasons. Grain sorghum is an identified alternative that has a number of potential benefits relative to corn in both composition and agronomic traits. Compo...

  4. sorghum head bug infestation and mould infection on the grain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-01

    Aug 1, 2017 ... 1Department of Crop Science, P. O. Box LG44, Legon, Ghana ... 3CSIR- Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, Sorghum Improvement Section, P. O. Box TL 52,. Tamale, Ghana ...... Bramel-Cox, P.J. 1999. A pictorial guide.

  5. Normal and hetero-yellow endosperm grain sorghum as substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    housed in flat deck-type cages, 1,6 x 1 m, fitted with a self- feeder and an automatic water nipple. Temperatures in the ... adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Amino acid analyses, following acid hydrolysis in a .... the hetero-yellow endosperm type sorghum had the highest avarage daily gains (ADGs), whereas pigs fed the maize-.

  6. Simulating the Probability of Grain Sorghum Maturity before the First Frost in Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. McMaster

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanding grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] production northward from southeastern Colorado is thought to be limited by shorter growing seasons due to lower temperatures and earlier frost dates. This study used a simulation model for predicting crop phenology (PhenologyMMS to estimate the probability of reaching physiological maturity before the first fall frost for a variety of agronomic practices in northeastern Colorado. Physiological maturity for seven planting dates (1 May to 12 June, four seedbed moisture conditions affecting seedling emergence (from Optimum to Planted in Dust, and three maturity classes (Early, Medium, and Late were simulated using historical weather data from nine locations for both irrigated and dryland phenological parameters. The probability of reaching maturity before the first frost was slightly higher under dryland conditions, decreased as latitude, longitude, and elevation increased, planting date was delayed, and for later maturity classes. The results provide producers with estimates of the reliability of growing grain sorghum in northeastern Colorado.

  7. Maize/Sorghum - Based Dried Brewers' Grains In Broiler Finisher Diets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 40 - day feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal substitution level of maize/sorghum-based dried brewers' grains (MSDBG) for maize in broiler ... At replacement levels or 50% and 75% with or without palm oil, the birds consumed significantly (P< 0.05) more feed than the group on the control diet (140.0, ...

  8. Forage Quality and Grazing Performance of Beef Cattle Grazing Brown Mid-rib Grain Sorghum Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residue from two grain sorghum hybrids, the control AWheatland x RTx430 (CON) and its near-isogenic hybrid containing the brown mid-rib gene bmr12 (BMR), were compared in a 2 year study. Forty-eight steers (236 ± 23 kg) in each year were assigned randomly to 2.12 ha paddocks (6 steers/paddock) cont...

  9. Sorghum grain supplementation affects rumen pH of animals fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martin Aguerre

    Ruminal pH was measured immediately and NH3-N concentration was determined by ... when using sorghum as a supplement of a rye grass hay. The aim of this ... Increasing grain level in a diet often results in higher rumen fermentation (Rymer & .... and in situ degradability and the in vitro gas production profile of the diet.

  10. Grain, silage and forage sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 32 grain and 30 forage type sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect, disease, and bird damage in Tifton, Georgia. These hybrids plus 33 silage type and 5 pearl millet hybrids also were evaluated for sugarcane aphid resistance near Griffin, Georgia. A total of 10 insect pes...

  11. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndimba, R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 363 (2015) 183–187 Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain R. Ndimba a,c,, A.W. Grootboom b, L. Mehlo b, N.L. Mkhonza b, J. Kossmann c, A...

  12. Effect of Sorghum -Barley Brewer's Spent Grain as a Feed Ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine if the inclusion of Sorghum-Barley Brewer's Spent Grain (SBBSG) in broiler diets will affect growth performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 380 Ross broiler chicks were brooded on a common diet without SBBSG for 28 days after which they were randomly assigned to ...

  13. Phytotoxicity of sorgoleone found in grain Sorghum root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhellig, F A; Souza, I F

    1992-01-01

    Root exudates ofSorghum bicolor consist primarily of a dihydroquinone that is quickly oxidized to ap-benzoquinone named sorgoleone. The aim of this investigation was to determine the potential activity of sorgoleone as an inhibitor of weed growth. Bioassays showed 125μM sorgoleone reduced radicle elongation ofEragrostis tef. In liquid culture, 50-μM sorgoleone treatments stunted the growth ofLemna minor. Over a 10-day treatment period, 10μM sorgoleone in the nutrient medium reduced the growth of all weed seedlings tested:Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, andEchinochloa crusgalli. These data show sorgoleone has biological activity at extremely low concentrations, suggesting a strong contribution toSorghum allelopathy.

  14. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  15. Effects of the genotype and environment interaction on sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum varieties (Sorghum bicolor -{L.}- Moench grown in the lowland tropics of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Humberto Bernal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar production in sweet sorghums is affected by the environment. Therefore, in this study on the effects of the genotype x environment interaction on sugar accumulation, plant traits associated with the sugar content in the stem were evaluated in ten sorghum genotypes grown in six contrasting environments. The results indicated that the stem dry weight, juice sugar concentration (°Brix, stem sugar content and juice volume were controlled by the genetic constitution of the genotype, with a large environmental contribution to their expression. The results allowed for the identification of the sweet sorghum genotypes that have a high potential for the biofuel agroindustry due to their high sugar contents in the environmental conditions of Palmira, Espinal, Cerete and Codazzi. Humid tropical environments such as Gaitan and Villavicencio were less favorable for the competitive production of sweet sorghums for bioethanol due to their low levels of solar radiation and soil fertility.

  16. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum and other grains by using a fungal amylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaisten, R J

    1961-01-01

    Destilasa is the trade ame of a fungal ..gamma..-amylase obtained from a strain of Aspergillus awamori for use in grain distilleries in Argentina. Using sorghum mash, 57% starch, 2 to 5% Destilasa gave fermentation efficiencies from 76 to 94%, malt 78%, acid conversion 75%. Other starchy materials tested were rye, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. Cooking and saccharification procedures were given in detail for corn, sorghum, and rye. An industrial procedure was outlined in detail and might be applicable to alcohol distilleries using sugar cane.

  17. Studies on the use of gamma rays in preservation and storage of african sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    Grains are stored in large quantities all over the world and form the bases of human food supply. The amount of post harvest losses of food especially food grain is considered to be highest on be highest on the african continent,where preservation and storage are poorly managed. As a result, increasing numbers of less developed countries in africa are suffering from problems of hunger and malnutrition (Paster and Berck, 1993). One of the most important world cereal is sorghum, where it represents the fourth world cereal following wheat, rice and maize. It is an essential food in the drier parts of tropical africa, india and china. According to the FAO production yearbook (1992), about 22.25% of the total world production of sorghum grains is produced in africa, whereas, sudan produces 27.5% of the total african production . In the developed countries sorghum is used as a source of feed for birds, cattle, and sheep, but in the poor countries, as in african countries, the above uses are rare because sorghum is mainly used for human consumption.14 tab., 9 figs.,169 ref

  18. A comparison of the levels of oil, carotenoids, and lipolytic enzyme activities in modern lines and hybrids of grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen modern commercial grain sorghum hybrids and five sorghum lines were extracted and the levels of oil and carotenoids were analyzed and compared. The same samples were also evaluated for lipolytic enzyme activity. The oil content in all eighteen samples ranged from 3.21 to 4.29 wt%. Beta c...

  19. NEW SOURCES OF GRAIN MOLD RESISTANCE AMONG SORGHUM ACCESSIONS FROM SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Kajac Prom

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available   Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold.  The environmental conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for grain mold development.  Highly significant negative correlations between grain mold severity ratings in the field and on threshed grains with germination rate and seed weight were recorded, indicating that germination and seed weight were adversely affected when challenged with F. thapsinum.  Temperature showed a significant negative correlation with grain mold severity and a significant positive correlation with germination rate.  However, no significant correlation was observed between rainfall and grain mold severity or germination rate.  Accessions PI570011, PI570027, PI569992, PI569882, PI571312, PI570759, and PI267548 exhibited the lowest grain mold severities and among the highest germination rates, indicating that these accessions may possess genetic resistance to grain mold and might be useful in sorghum enhancement programs.  Four of these accessions had significantly higher germination rates than the resistant control genotypes with PI267548 having the highest germination rate.  PI267548 was the only white seeded accessions showing significantly better grain mold resistance than the control genotypes.

  20. Assimilation, partitioning, and nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet compared with grain sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietor, D.M.; Miller, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in stems are greater for sweet than grain sorghums [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Knowledge of plant characteristics associated with high nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet sorghum will air efforts to increase nonstructural carbohydrates in grain sorghum stems. This study tested the hypothesis that variation of CO 2 assimilation rate, leaf area, branching at upper nodes, and partitioning of 14 C-labeled assimilate to main stems are associated with variation of stem nonstructural carbohydrates. A sweet (Atlas X Rio) and a grain (ATx623 X RTx5388) hybrid, stages near and after physiological maturity, and defoliation and gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) treatments provided sources of variation for study. Concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in lower and upper stems of the sweet hybrid were 1.4 and 2.7 times higher, respectively, than for the grain hybrid, after physiological maturity. Variation in branching, including 14 C-assimilate partitioning to branches, was not consistently associated with hybrid differences in stem nonstructural carbohydrates. Increased recovery (twofold) of 14 C-assimilate in roots and labeled leaves corresponded with lower percentages of 14 C-assimilate and lower concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems of the grain hybrid. Leaf areas and leaf CO 2 exchange rate were twice as great for the sweet hybrid. Although defoliation of the sweet hybrid minimized leaf area differences between hybrids, the sweet hybrid accumulated twice as much nonstructural carbohydrates in branches after physiological maturity. Greater potentials for CO 2 assimilation and for 14 C-assimilate accumulation in mature stem tissue were associated with higher levels of stem nonstructural carbohydrates in the sweet compared with the grain hybrid

  1. Preliminary studies on the popping characteristics of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, R.M.E.

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to specify and describe the appropriate stages of pop processing of three sorghum varieties (Safra, Engaz and Edo) then selection suitable variety for pop production and the association between its chemical composition and the ability of popping. The proximate chemical composition of the three tested sorghum varieties during the stages of processing to pop the poly phenols (phytic acid and tannins) beside starch and some minerals (the macro elements potassium, calcium and the microelements, iron and zinc) were determined. The range of chemical composition of raw sorghum varieties were as follows: moisture 8.57-9.13%; ash 1.51-2.16%; crude fat 3.39-3.62%; protein 9.06-18.58%; carbohydrates 67.41-76.58; starch 65.23-74.66; tannins 0.3.3-0.28 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.90-4.93 mg/100 g; iron 3.43-4.58 mg/100 g; calcium 5.17-11.26 mg/100 g; zinc 1.48-2.78 mg/100 g; potassium 198.80-387.78 mg/100 g. The results showed significant difference between the three sorghum varieties. The chemical composition of the boiled stage were: moisture 11.80-13.06%; ash 1.49-2.12 %; crude fat 3.63-3.79%; crude protein 10.32-18.50%; carbohydrate 62.86-71.68; starch 64.14-74.10; tannin 0.12-0.18 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.39-3.69 mg/100 g; iron 4.44-5.45 mg/100g; calcium 9.26-20.19 mg/100g; zinc 1.33-2.43 mg/100g; potassium 184.62-266.08 mg/100g. The chemical composition of pop sorghum products gave: moisture 3.66-4.93%; ash 1.49-2.35%, crude fat 3.61-3.91%; crude protein 9.13-15.82%; carbohydrates 74.56-81.06%; starch 70.14-77.58%; tannins 0.29-0.34 mg/100g; phytic acid 0.93-2.23 mg/100g; iron 3.65-79 mg/100g; calcium 18.72-23.09 mg/100g; zinc 1.45-2.48 mg/100g; potassium 190.53-322.44 mg/100g. The variety Engaz was most acceptable in organoleptic evaluation in all the tested characters: color, flavors (odor and taste) and texture taking pop corn as the control followed by the variety Edo while Safra was least acceptable in popping the ability of the varieties for

  2. Preliminary studies on the popping characteristics of sorghum grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, R M.E. [Agricultural Research Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study was to specify and describe the appropriate stages of pop processing of three sorghum varieties (Safra, Engaz and Edo) then selection suitable variety for pop production and the association between its chemical composition and the ability of popping. The proximate chemical composition of the three tested sorghum varieties during the stages of processing to pop the poly phenols (phytic acid and tannins) beside starch and some minerals (the macro elements potassium, calcium and the microelements, iron and zinc) were determined. The range of chemical composition of raw sorghum varieties were as follows: moisture 8.57-9.13%; ash 1.51-2.16%; crude fat 3.39-3.62%; protein 9.06-18.58%; carbohydrates 67.41-76.58; starch 65.23-74.66; tannins 0.3.3-0.28 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.90-4.93 mg/100 g; iron 3.43-4.58 mg/100 g; calcium 5.17-11.26 mg/100 g; zinc 1.48-2.78 mg/100 g; potassium 198.80-387.78 mg/100 g. The results showed significant difference between the three sorghum varieties. The chemical composition of the boiled stage were: moisture 11.80-13.06%; ash 1.49-2.12 %; crude fat 3.63-3.79%; crude protein 10.32-18.50%; carbohydrate 62.86-71.68; starch 64.14-74.10; tannin 0.12-0.18 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.39-3.69 mg/100 g; iron 4.44-5.45 mg/100g; calcium 9.26-20.19 mg/100g; zinc 1.33-2.43 mg/100g; potassium 184.62-266.08 mg/100g. The chemical composition of pop sorghum products gave: moisture 3.66-4.93%; ash 1.49-2.35%, crude fat 3.61-3.91%; crude protein 9.13-15.82%; carbohydrates 74.56-81.06%; starch 70.14-77.58%; tannins 0.29-0.34 mg/100g; phytic acid 0.93-2.23 mg/100g; iron 3.65-79 mg/100g; calcium 18.72-23.09 mg/100g; zinc 1.45-2.48 mg/100g; potassium 190.53-322.44 mg/100g. The variety Engaz was most acceptable in organoleptic evaluation in all the tested characters: color, flavors (odor and taste) and texture taking pop corn as the control followed by the variety Edo while Safra was least acceptable in popping the ability of the varieties for

  3. Genetic diversity in sorghum transpiration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is the fifth most important grain crop and is becoming increasingly important as a biofuel feedstock due to its superior tolerance to water deficit stress. Sorghum is commonly grown under rain-fed conditions in the Southern Plains and other semi-arid regions in the world. Thus, its product...

  4. The potential of rapid visco-analysis starch pasting profiles to gauge the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production

    OpenAIRE

    Ha H. Truong; Ali Khoddami; Amy F. Moss; Sonia Y. Liu; Peter H. Selle

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen extensively characterised grain sorghum varieties were evaluated in a series of 7 broiler bioassays. The efficiency of energy utilisation of broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets is problematic and the bulk of dietary energy is derived from sorghum starch. For this reason, rapid visco-analysis (RVA) starch pasting profiles were determined as they may have the potential to assess the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. In review, it was found that co...

  5. Nutritional, functional and rheological properties of processed sorghum and ragi grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Mahajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different treatments such as roasting, puffing and germination of white sorghum, red sorghum and ragi grains on physicochemical, antioxidant, protein, amylose, bulk density, colour index and rheological properties of respective flour. In case of ragi, after roasting treatment, total phenolic content (TPC content for flour was increased from 0.331 ± 0.001 to 0.373 ± 0.004 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry sample. However, total flavonoids content was also increased slightly after different processing treatments. The rheological properties of respective flour were studied using Chopin Mixolab, where wheat flour dough profile acts as a reference to study the effect of different treatments. Dough elasticity which is expressed by the values of amplitude (Nm was found to be low in case of untreated flour as compared to wheat flour dough. Elasticity values of untreated flour such as white sorghum, red sorghum and ragi were 0.02, 0.00 and 0.06 Nm, respectively. Whereas, after processing treatments, values of elasticity for roasted flour dough of white sorghum, puffed flour dough of red sorghum and roasted flour dough of ragi increased to 0.36, 0.11 and 0.15 Nm, respectively, as compared to wheat flour dough of 0.10 Nm. The results found that roasted ragi flour had higher rate of starch gelatinization, lower starch retrogradation, high antioxidant and amylose contents which were found to be prospective ingredients in whole wheat flour in various baked and fermented food applications.

  6. Cofermentation of sweet sorghum juice and grain for production of fuel ethanol and distillers' wet grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the costs associated with fuel ethanol production from grain, sweet sorghum juice was used as a partial or complete replacement for tap-water in mash preparation and fermentation. This juice, which was an unutilized by-product of sweet sorghum silage preservation by the Ag-Bag method, contained 6.5-7.6% (wt/wt) reducing sugar and produced up to 3.51% (v/v) ethanol beers after fermentation. Varying amounts of this juice were mixed with water and corn or wheat, either before or after liquefaction (front-end or back-end loading, respectively). When over 60% juice replacement was used in front-end loading trials, salt buildup, due to required pH adjustments during cooking, inhibited yeast metabolism and thereby reduced yields. This inhibition was not observed during back-end loading trials since acid and base usage during cooking were reduced. (author).

  7. Relationship between color and tannin content in sorghum grain: application of image analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sedghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sorghum grain color and tannin content was reported in several references. In this study, 33 phenotypes of sorghum grain differing in seed characteristics were collected and analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu method. A computer image analysis method was used to determine the color characteristics of all 33 sorghum phenotypes. Two methods of multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN models were developed to describe tannin content in sorghum grain from three input parameters of color characteristics. The goodness of fit of the models was tested using R², MS error, and bias. The computer image analysis technique was a suitable method to estimate tannin through sorghum grain color strength. Therefore, the color quality of the samples was described according three color parameters: L* (lightness, a* (redness - from green to red and b* (blueness - from blue to yellow. The developed regression and ANN models showed a strong relationship between color and tannin content of samples. The goodness of fit (in terms of R², which corresponds to training the ANN model, showed higher accuracy of prediction of ANN compared with the equation established by the regression method (0.96 vs. 0.88. The ANN models in term of MS error showed lower residuals distribution than that of regression model (0.002 vs. 0.006. The platform of computer image analysis technique and ANN-based model may be used to estimate the tannin content of sorghum.

  8. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndimba, R., E-mail: rminnis@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Institute for Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (South Africa); Grootboom, A.W.; Mehlo, L.; Mkhonza, N.L. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biosciences, Pretoria (South Africa); Kossmann, J. [Institute for Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (South Africa); Barnabas, A.D.; Mtshali, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that poor digestibility in sorghum can be addressed by using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress kafirin synthesis. The approach resulted in a twofold improvement in overall protein digestibility levels. In the present study, the effect of this targeted kafirin suppression on other grain quality parameters was investigated. Several significant changes in the proximate composition, amino acid profile and the bulk mineral content were detected. Importantly, the most limiting amino acid, lysine, was significantly increased in the transgenic grains by up to 39%; whilst mineral elements in the bulk, such as sulphur (S) and zinc (Zn) were reduced by up to 15.8% and 21% respectively. Elemental mapping of the grain tissue, using micro-PIXE, demonstrated a significant decrease in Zn (>75%), which was localised to the outer endosperm region, whilst TEM revealed important changes to the protein body morphology of the transgenic grains.

  9. Neutrophilic respiratory tract inflammation and peripheral blood neutrophilia after grain sorghum dust extract challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; O'Neill, D P; McGranaghan, S; Olenchock, S A; Rennard, S I

    1995-11-01

    To determine if inhalation of grain sorghum dust in the laboratory would cause neutrophilic upper and lower respiratory tract inflammation in human volunteers, as well as systemic signs of illness. Prospective. University of Nebraska Medical Center. Thirty normal volunteers. Inhalation challenge with 20 mL of a nebulized solution of filter-sterilized grain sorghum dust extract (GSDE). One group received prednisone, 20 mg for 2 days, prior to the challenge. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after challenge, with samples collected as bronchial and alveolar fractions. Findings included visible signs of airways inflammation, quantified as the bronchitis index. The percentage of bronchial neutrophils was significantly increased in those challenged with GSDE vs the control solution, Hanks' balanced salt solution (40.3 +/- 4.5% vs 14.3 +/- 5.1%, p grain dust extract. To explain the increase in peripheral blood neutrophil counts, the capacity of the peripheral blood neutrophils to migrate in chemotaxis experiments was examined. The results demonstrate an increase in peripheral blood neutrophils and an increase in chemotactic responsiveness. Inhalation challenge with a grain dust extract causes respiratory tract inflammation and a peripheral blood neutrophilia. One reason for this may be an increase in activated peripheral blood neutrophils.

  10. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  11. Using brown midrib 6 dwarf forage sorghum silage and fall-grown oat silage in lactating dairy cow rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2017-07-01

    Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost. We analyzed the in situ DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance of the alternative forages versus corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Sorghum was grown in the summer and harvested in the milk stage. Oats were grown in the fall and harvested in the boot stage. Compared with corn silage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations were higher in the alternative forages. Lignin content was highest for sorghum silage and similar for corn silage and oat silage. The alternative forages had less than 1% starch compared with the approximately 35% starch in the corn silage. Ruminal in situ DM effective degradability was similar, although statistically different, for corn silage and oat silage, but lower for sorghum silage. Diets with the alternative forages were fed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods and 12 Holstein cows. The control diet contained 44% (DM basis) corn silage. In the other 2 diets, sorghum or oat silages were included at 10% of dietary DM, replacing corn silage. Sorghum silage inclusion decreased DM intake, MY, and milk protein content but increased milk fat and maintained energy-corrected MY similar to the control. Oat silage had no effect on DM intake, MY, or milk components compared to the control. The oat silage diet increased apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, except starch, whereas the sorghum diet slightly

  12. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi-based mechanisms for improved Fe nutrition in sorghum plants grown on calcareous substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raya-Díaz

    Full Text Available Although entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are best known for their ability to protect crops against insect pests, they may have other beneficial effects on their host plants. These effects, which include promoting plant growth and conferring resistance against abiotic stresses, have been examined in recent years to acquire a better understanding of them. The primary purposes of the present study were (i to ascertain in vitro whether three different strains of EPF (viz., Metarhizium, Beauveria and Isaria would increase the Fe bioavailability in calcareous or non-calcareous media containing various Fe sources (ferrihydrite, hematite and goethite and (ii to assess the influence of the EPF inoculation method (seed dressing, soil treatment or leaf spraying on the extent of the endophytic colonization of sorghum and the improvement in the Fe nutrition of pot-grown sorghum plants on an artificial calcareous substrate. All the EPFs studied were found to increase the Fe availability during the in vitro assay. The most efficient EPF was M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su, which lowered the pH of the calcareous medium, suggesting that it used a different strategy (organic acid release than the other two fungi that raised the pH of the non-calcareous medium. The three methods used to inoculate sorghum plants with B. bassiana and M. brunneum in the pot experiment led to differences in re-isolation from plant tissues and in the plant height. These three inoculation methods increased the leaf chlorophyll content of young leaves when the Fe deficiency symptoms were most apparent in the control plants (without fungal inoculation as well as the Fe content of the above-ground biomass in the plants at the end of the experiment. The total root lengths and fine roots were also increased in response to fungal applications with the three inoculation methods. However, the soil treatment was the most efficient method; thus, its effect on the leaf chlorophyll content was the most

  14. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... The aim of this study was to select the most suitable cultivar for salty land in this geographical area. Two sweet sorghum cultivars (Keller and Sofra) and one grain sorghum cultivar (Kimia) were grown in greenhouse benches under four salinity levels of 2, 4, 8 and 12 dSm-1 to evaluate the effects of salinity.

  15. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  16. Yield and forage value of a dual-purpose bmr-12 sorghum hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important crop for rainfed production systems with 2.7 million ha grown in the USA in 2013. The brown-midrib (bmr) mutations, especially bmr-12, have resulted in low stover lignin and high fiber digestibility without reducing grain yield in some sor...

  17. Pre-harvest Sprouting and Grain Dormancy in Sorghum bicolor: What Have We Learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto L. Benech-Arnold

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining sorghum grains with quality to match the standards for a diversity of end-uses is frequently hampered by the susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS displayed by many elite genotypes. For these reasons, obtaining resistance to PHS is considered in sorghum breeding programs, particularly when the crop is expected to approach harvest maturity under rainy or damp conditions prevalence. As in other cereals, the primary cause for sprouting susceptibility is a low dormancy prior to crop harvest; in consequence, most research has focused in understanding the mechanisms through which the duration of dormancy is differentially controlled in genotypes with contrasting sprouting behavior. With this aim two tannin-less, red-grained inbred lines were used as a model system: IS9530 (sprouting resistant and Redland B2 (sprouting susceptible. Redland B2 grains are able to germinate well before reaching physiological maturity (PM while IS9530 ones can start to germinate at 40–45 days after pollination, well after PM. Results show that the anticipated dormancy loss displayed by Redland B2 grains is related reduced embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA and increased levels of GA upon imbibition. In turn, transcriptional data showed that ABA signal transduction is impaired in Redland B2, which appears to have an impact on GA catabolism, thus affecting the overall GA/ABA balance that regulates germination. QTL analyses were conducted to test whether previous candidate genes were located in a dormancy QTL, but also to identify new genes involved in dormancy. These analyses yielded several dormancy QTL and one of them located in chromosome 9 (qGI-9 was consistently detected even across environments. Fine mapping is already in progress to narrow down the number of candidate genes in qGI-9.

  18. Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Five Sorghum Cultivars under Different Irrigation Regimes in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vahidi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Reduction of the forage and grain yield of sorghum genotypes under different levels of deficit irrigation has been reported. The plants that have higher water use efficiency (WUE, have a better chance of survival in arid regions. On average, WUE of sorghum in clay, loamy soil has been reported equal to 1.46 kg m-3. Effects of drought stress and different levels of nitrogen on yield of two cultivars of sorghum were investigated and results showed significant effects on plant height, leaf area index, fresh and dry weight of leaf, dry weight of stem and forage yield. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of deficit irrigation on grain yield and WUE of sorghum cultivars in Kerman. Materials and Methods This study has been conducted in the research station of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with 56o 58' E longitude, 30o 15' N latitude and 1753.8 altitudes. According to the regional information from 1952 to 2005, the average temperature is 17.1 oC, the average rainfall is 154.1 mm, the average annual relative humidity is 32%. The climate of Kerman according to De Martonne method can be classified as semiarid. The experimental design was split-plot based on RCBD with three replications. Three levels of irrigation (after 50, 80 and 110 mm evaporation from class A pan were assigned to the main plots and the five sub-plots of sorghum cultivars (Speedfeed, Pegah, Payam, Sepideh and Kimia. On the 20th of May all sorghum cultivars were planted at the distance of 10 cm from each other on ridges. On the 7th of October, with considering margins, four square meters of the two middle lines were selected to determine the grain and biological yield. The samples were weighed with a digital scale and heated for 48 hours in the degree of 75 oC-and then the dry weight of each samples were measured again. Finally, the data were analyzed by SAS software (v. 9.1. Comparision of the averages attributes was performed using, Duncan

  19. The Effect of Irrigation Intervals and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Chlorophyll Index, Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of irrigation intervals and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chlorophyll index, yield and yield components of grain sorghum. A factorial experiment was done based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at the Agriculture Research Station faculty of Agriculture, Bu- Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days with three levels of seed inoculation (control without inoculation, inoculation with Glomus mossea and inoculation with G. intraradices were the experimental treatments. Results indicated that the effect of irrigation intervals and mycorrhizal fungi were significant for traits of chlorophyll index, percentage of root symbiosis (PRS, number of grain per panicle, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and harvest index (HI. Maximum value for each trait was observed at G. mossea treatment. G. mossea treatment in comparison with G. intraradices and control treatment can increase the grain yield of sorghum up to 6.80 and 23.10%, respectively. Also, with increasing irrigation interval from 7 to 21 days, PRS increased up to 27.9%. Maximum value for grain yield (755 g m-2 was achieved at irrigation every 14 days and application of G. mossea treatment. But, there was no significant difference between irrigation sorghum plants every 14 days and application of G. mossea and irrigation every 7 days and application of either G. mossea or G. intraradices. In general, irrigation of sorghum plants every 14 days and supplying of G. mossea can produce the highest grain yield, while decreasing water consumption for sorghum production.

  20. 77 FR 34915 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Grain Sorghum Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... biodiesel and renewable diesel. Regulated categories include: NAICS \\1\\ Examples of potentially regulated.... If an ethanol facility is interested in transporting DG long distances to sell to distant feedlots... transport includes emissions from transporting bushels of harvested grain sorghum from the farm to ethanol...

  1. Rapid sensory profiling and hedonic rating of whole grain sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits by low income consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovi, Koya Ap; Chiremba, Constance; Taylor, John Rn; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2018-02-01

    The challenges of malnutrition and urbanization in Africa demand the development of acceptable, affordable, nutritious complementary-type foods. Biscuits (i.e. cookies; a popular snack) from whole grain staples are an option. The present study aimed to relate check-all-that-applies (CATA) sensory profiles of sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits compared to economic commercial refined wheat biscuits with hedonic ratings by low income consumers. In addition, the nutritional composition and protein quality, L * a * b * colour and texture of the biscuits were determined. The CATA method is suitable for rapidly determining which attributes consumers perceive in food products and relating these to acceptability. Consumers preferred the lighter, more yellow wheat biscuits with ginger, vanilla, sweet and cinnamon flavours compared to the stronger flavours (sorghum, beany and nutty) and harder but brittle, grittier, dry and rough textured sorghum or sorghum-cowpea biscuits. However, a substantial proportion of consumers also liked the latter biscuits. The composite biscuits had higher dietary fibre content and a similar protein quality to the standards. Whole grain sorghum-cowpea biscuits could serve as acceptable value-added nutritious complementary snacks for consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. The biscuits are simple to produce for the creation of viable small enterprises. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. GT Biplot Analysis for Silage Potential, Nutritive Value, Gas and Methane Production of Stay-Green Grain Sorghum Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Mahmut; Arslan, Mustafa; Kale, Hasan; Kara, Kanber; Kokten, Kagan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the possible silage of stay-green sorghum genotypes using GT biplot analysis. Following the grain harvest, 41 sorghum genotypes were chopped to make silage. Biochemical analyses were performed after 60 d of silage. The results revealed that green herbage yields varied between 13.40-65.96 t ha−1, pH between 3.92-4.25, dry matter ratios between 24.26-35.83%, crude protein ratios between 3.44-7.03%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) ratios between 27.46-...

  3. Grain sorghum stillage recycling: Effect on ethanol yield and stillage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg, R P; Sweeten, J M; Coble, C G

    1985-12-01

    Stillage obtained from ethanol production of grain sorghum was separated into two fractions: thin stillage and wet solids. A portion of the thin stillage was recycled as cooking water in subsequent fermentation runs using both bench- and full-scale ethanol production plants. When thin stillage replaced 50-75% of the cooking water, large increases occurred in solids content, COD, and EC of the resulting thin stillage. It was found that while the volume of thin stillage requiring treatment or disposal was reduced, there was little reduction in the total pollutant load. Stillage rcycling had little effect on the quality of the stillage wet solids fraction. At the high levels of stillage recycle used, ethanol yield was reduced after three to five runs of consecutive recycling.

  4. Assessment of sorghum germplasm from Burkina Faso and South Africa to identify new sources of resistance to grain mold and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is an important worldwide crop whose yield can be significantly reduced by anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) and grain mold diseases (multiple fungi). The identification of new genetic sources of resistance to both diseases is imperative for the development of new sorghum varieties. T...

  5. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and H2O fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum and maize in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) fields in the Texas High Plains were quantified using the eddy covariance (EC) technique during 2014-2016 growing seasons and examined in...

  6. Production of Transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL-3191 Grown on Media Made from Hydrolysates of Sorghum Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón J. Téllez-Luis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to elucidate the suitability of the biotechnological production of transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL-3191 grown on media made from hydrolysates of sorghum straw. Transglutaminase activity was determined in fermentations on sorghum straw hydrolysates and commercial xylose with initial xylose 10, 20 or 30 g/L. Using media containing commercial xylose 20 g/L, transglutaminase activity up to 0.282 U/mL was obtained in 96 h. Using neutralized, charcoal-treated hydrolysates of sorghum straw with xylose 30 g/L sterilized in autoclave at 121 °C, up to 0.155 U/mL was obtained in 96 h. However, when the sterilization was performed by filtration, using the same hydrolysates with xylose 20 g/L, up to 0.348 U/mL was obtained in 72 h. It was demonstrated that hydrolysates of sorghum straw are suitable media for transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium ladakanum.

  7. Effect of Plant Density and Weed Interference on Yield and Yied Components of Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Weed control is an essential part of all crop production systems. Weeds reduce yields by competing with crops for water, nutrients, and sunlight. Weeds also directly reduce profits by hindering harvest operations, lowering crop quality, and producing chemicals which are harmful to crop plants. Plant density is an efficient management tool for maximizing grain yield by increasing the capture of solar radiation within the canopy, which can significantly affect development of crop-weed association. The response of yield and yield components to weed competition varies by crop and weeds species and weeds interference duration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of weed interference periods and plant density on the yield and yield components of sorghum. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of plant density and weeds interference on weeds traits, yield and yield components of sorghum (Var. Saravan, an experiment was conducted as in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in South Khorasan province during year of 2013. Experimental treatments consisted of three plant density (10, 20 and 30 plants m-2 and four weeds interference (weed free until end of growth season, interference until 6-8 leaf stage, interference until stage of panicle emergence, interference until end of growth season. Measuring traits included the panicle length, number of panicle per plant, number of panicle per m2, number of seed per panicle, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, number and weight of weeds per m2. Weed sampling in each plot have done manually from a square meter and different weed species counted and oven dried at 72 °C for 48 hours. MSTAT-C statistical software used for data analysis and means compared with Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Results and Discussion Results showed that

  8. Fermentation characteristics of different purpose sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum stands out among other plants recommended for ensiling due to its forage composition, its resistance to drought, and its planting range. New cultivars of grain and sweet sorghum that can be used for silage production are available, but there is little information regarding their ensiling characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics at the ensiling of different purpose sorghum cultivars, at two crop periods. The trial was carried out at the Plant Production Department of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, Rondônia, Brazil, and chemical analyses were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experimental design used was a randomized block, in split-plot design, with four replicates. The plot treatments consisted of six sorghum cultivars grown for different purposes (grain sorghum: BRS 308 and BRS 310; forage sorghum: BR 655 and BRS 610; sweet sorghum: BRS 506 and CMSXS 647. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping seasons (first crop and second crop. The grain sorghum cultivar BRS 310 was the only one that had suitable dry matter content for ensiling; however, it was also the only one that did not show ideal water soluble carbohydrate content for ensiling. Nevertheless, all treatments presented pH below than 4.2 and ammonia nitrogen lower than 12% of total N, which indicates that the fermentation inside the silo had proceeded well. For sweet sorghum cultivars, higher ethanol and butyric acid content were observed for the first crop than for the second crop. All evaluated sorghum cultivars can be used for silage production, but the use of sweet sorghum is recommended at the second crop.

  9. The Effect of Silicon on some Morpho-physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hasibi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, salinity is one of the limiting factors for crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. is a self-pollinated and short-day plant, which partly has been adapted to salinity and water stress conditions; also play an important role in humans, livestock and poultry nourishments. All studies have showed the positive effects of Silicon on growth and yield of plants in both normal and stress conditions. The aim of this experiment was to improve salinity tolerance of Sorghum by application of Silicon. Materials and Methods A split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications in both normal and salt stress conditions was carried out at research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2013. Silicon treatments (0 and 6 mM were considered as main plot and various sorghum genotypes (payam, sepideh, TN-4-70, TN-04-71, TN-04-39, TN-04-107, TN-04-100, TN-04-37, TN-04-68, TN-04-83, TN-04-62 and TN-04-95 were assigned to sub plots. The sodium silicate was used as silica source. The data were analyzed by SAS software using combine analysis. Means comparisons were accomplished by Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Some of the measured traits were as follow: Relative water content (Ritchie and Nguyen, 1990, Relative permeability (33, leaf area index and chlorophyll index (by SPAD. Results and Discussion According to the results, use of silicon led to increase of RWC under salinity stress, while RWC decreased by 13% when no silicon applied. Salinity significantly decreased 1000-grain weight. Maximum grain yield obtained from TN-04-37 (987.6 g m-2 under normal condition with foliar application of silicon. Application of silicon under stress condition led to 38% increase in grain yield of Sepideh compared to control. Under salt stress, silicon also increased shoot dry weight in TN-04-107, TN-04-70, TN-04-37, Payam and Sepideh genotypes

  10. Development of a vegetable spreadable paste made from sorghum and millet whole grain flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Aimaretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: current nutritional guidelines recommend increasing the consumption of products based on whole grain cereals since they are rich in dietary fibers and bioactive components. The technological and sensory properties of these products are still a challenge for the food industry. The aim of the study was increase the availability of whole-grain based products through the development of aspreadable vegetable paste, pâté-type, suitable for the increasing celiac population.Material and Methods: sorghum and millet whole grain flours were obtained. The rest of the ingredients were evaluated and selected according to the characteristics desired for the product. The centesimal composition of the paste as well as its sensory properties and life time were analyzed.Results: the ingredients selected were (in %: margarine (16.7, sugar (1.1, salt (1.1, ascorbic acid (2.0, calcium propionate (0.3, pregelatinized starch (2.7, soy protein (25.1 and xanthan gum (0.5. The life time was followed for 28 days across (i chemical analysis of: humid (55.5-51.3%, p-value = 0.000741, peroxide index (<0.1 meqO2/Kg acid index (4.3-6.2 mgK(OH/g; (ii microbiological counts of: clostridium, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp (absence, aerobic mesophiles, total coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and moulds and yeasts which (<100; (iii sensory evaluation (acceptable.Conclusions: a spreadable paste was obtained which was 100% vegetable with organoleptic properties similar to those of a pâté, which can be stored for a period of 28 days.

  11. The potential of rapid visco-analysis starch pasting profiles to gauge the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha H. Truong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen extensively characterised grain sorghum varieties were evaluated in a series of 7 broiler bioassays. The efficiency of energy utilisation of broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets is problematic and the bulk of dietary energy is derived from sorghum starch. For this reason, rapid visco-analysis (RVA starch pasting profiles were determined as they may have the potential to assess the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. In review, it was found that concentrations of kafirin and total phenolic compounds were negatively correlated with peak and holding RVA viscosities to significant extents across 13 sorghums. In a meta-analysis of 5 broiler bioassays it was found that peak, holding, breakdown and final RVA viscosities were positively correlated with ME:GE ratios and peak and breakdown RVA viscosities with apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn to significant extents. In a sixth study involving 10 sorghum-based diets peak, holding and breakdown RVA viscosities were positively correlated with ME:GE ratios and AMEn. Therefore, it emerged that RVA starch pasting profiles do hold promise as a relatively rapid means to assess sorghum quality as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. This potential appears to be linked to quantities of kafirin and total phenolic compounds present in sorghum and it would seem that both factors depress RVA starch viscosities in vitro and, in turn, also depress energy utilisation in birds offered sorghum-based diets. Given that other feed grains do not contain kafirin and possess considerably lower concentrations of phenolic compounds, their RVA starch pasting profiles may not be equally indicative.

  12. Characterization of novel multi-seeded (msd) mutants of sorghum for increasing grain number

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tribe Andropogoneae of the Poaceae family exhibits highly branched inflorescence known as panicle or tassel. Characteristically, each spikelet in a panicle or tassel comprise of a combination of sessile/fertile and sterile florets. In sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), the existing cultivars ...

  13. Registration of four post-flowering drought tolerant grain sorghum lines with early season cold tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) germplasm lines— PSLS-SGCTB01 (Reg. No.), PSLS-SGCTR02 (Reg. No.), PSLS-SGCTB03 (Reg. No.) and PSLS-SGCTB04 (Reg. No.) — were developed by the USDA-ARS in Lubbock TX, in 2017. The primary purpose for the release of these lines is to provide an alternative germplasm ...

  14. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was deter......The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients...... was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn...... up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis...

  15. Performance of sorghum cultivars for biomass quality and biomethane yield grown in semi-arid area of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Chattha, Muhammad Umer; Mahmood, Athar; Sahi, Shahbaz Talib

    2018-05-01

    Biomass is a promising renewable energy source and its significance is escalating in the context of climate change and depletion of fossil foils. This study was conducted for two consecutive years 2016 and 2017, using five sorghum cultivars, i.e., JS-263, Jawar-2011, Hagari, JS-2002, and YS-2016, in order to determine the best cultivars in terms of dry matter yield, chemical composition, and biomethane yield grown under semi-arid conditions in Pakistan. The results revealed that sorghum cultivars responded differently in terms of growth, biomass yield, chemical composition, and methane yield. Cultivars Jawar-2011 produced maximum leaf area index, leaf area duration, crop growth rate, plant height, and leaves per plant, however, they were comparable with Sorghum-2016, whereas cultivar JS-2002 performed poorly among the tested cultivars. Similarly, cultivar Jawar-2011 produced maximum dry matter yield (16.37 t ha -1 ) similar to that of YS-2016, further cultivar JS-2002 performed poorly and gave lower dry matter yield (12.87 t ha -1 ). The maximum protein concentration (10.95), neutral detergent fibers (61.20), and lignin contents (5.55) found in Jawar-2011 were comparable with those in YS-2016, while the lowest neutral detergent fiber and lignin contents were found in JS-2002. Although JS-2002 produced the highest specific methane yield per kilogram of volatile solids, it was overcompensated by Jawar-2011 owing to higher dry matter yield per hectare. These results suggested that cultivar Jawar-2011 can be grown successfully in semi-arid conditions of Pakistan in order to get good biomass yield along with higher methane yield.

  16. Genetic and Environmental Impact on Iron, Zinc, and Phytate in Food Sorghum Grown in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-six farmers' varieties of sorghum from Benin were distinguished by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and clustered into 45 distinct genotypes. The genotype clusters were evaluated for their Fe, Zn, and phytate concentrations to assess the impact of genetic and environmental

  17. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  18. Drought Stress Effect during Different Growth Stages on Yield, Osmolites and Photosynthetic Pigments Accumulation of Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Azari Nasrabad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Osmotic adjustment in plants can be achieved by the accumulation of compatible solution or metabolites. These compounds are known as compatible metabolites that accumulate naturally in tolerant plants due to non-interference in the normal metabolic response of plants to adapt or supplement. Proline, soluble sugars and other metabolites accumulation that are involved in osmotic adjustment have been reported for various plants. Different studies show that water absorption in sorghum plant, is due to osmotic adjustment and appropriate and fairly extensive root system. Moreover, there are some differences from genotype to genotype regarding the osmolites accumulation under drought stress conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drought in the vegetative and reproductive growth stages on yield, its components and biochemical traits in grain sorghum genotypes. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effect of water stress on grain yield and its components and some biochemical traits in grain sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L., a field experiment as a split plot design was carried out with 3 replications in 2014 at the research farm of the southern Khorasan Agriculture and natural resources research and education center. Water stress treatments including normal irrigation (control, irrigation cut off in vegetative growth stage (emergence of terminal leaf as rolled and irrigation cut off in generative growth stage (50% of plants in start of flowering as the main plot and 10 genotypes of sorghum including KGS29, MGS2, Sepideh, KGFS27, MGS5, KGFS5, KGFS17, KGFS13 and KGFS30 were considered as sub plots. Each plot consists of 4 rows with a length of 6 m and row spacing of 60 cm, between plants on row was 10 cm. In addition, between each plot and the adjacent plot a row was considered to side effect reduction. To determine the yield components of each plot, half a meter in length was harvested and the

  19. Aflatoxin B1 and total fumonisin contamination and their producing fungi in fresh and stored sorghum grain in East Hararghe, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Wondimeneh; Ayalew, Amare; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla

    2016-12-01

    Natural contamination of sorghum grains by aflatoxin B 1 and total fumonisin and their producing toxigenic fungi has been studied. A total of 90 sorghum grain samples were collected from small-scale farmers' threshing floors and 5-6 months later from underground pits during 2013 harvest from three districts of East Hararghe, Ethiopia. Mycotoxin analysis was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The limits of detection were in the range 0.01-0.03 μg kg -1 . The results revealed that all sorghum grain samples were contaminated with both Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Aflatoxin B 1 was detected at levels ranging from fumonisin levels varied between 907 and 2041 µg kg -1 grain across the samples. Lowest total fumonisin was recorded in freshly harvested sorghum grain samples. Sorghum is a main staple cereal in the studied districts and its consumption per day per person is high. Daily intake of low doses of mycotoxin-contaminated food stuff over a period of time could lead to chronic mycotoxicosis.

  20. Sugarcane Aphid Population Growth, Plant Injury, and Natural Enemies on Selected Grain Sorghum Hybrids in Texas and Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Gordy, John W; Kerns, David L; Woolley, James B; Rooney, William L; Bowling, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    In response to the 2013 outbreak of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), in North America, experiments were conducted at three southern U.S. grain sorghum production locations (Corpus Christi, TX; Winnsboro, LA; Rosenberg, TX). The objectives were to authenticate yield decline on susceptible hybrids (2014 and 2015) and to measure aphid population growth and natural enemy prevalence on susceptible and resistant hybrids with similar genetic background (2014). Yield decline on susceptible hybrids (Tx 2752/Tx430 and DKS53-67) was more substantial when aphid population growth accelerated quickly and peaked above 300 aphids per leaf (50 to nearly 100% yield decline). Location and year variation in maximum aphid density and cumulative aphid-days was high, with doubling time values on the susceptible hybrids ranging between 3.9 and 7.9 d. On resistant Tx2752/Tx2783, leaf injury and yield decline were not seen or less severe than on its paired susceptible Tx2752/Tx430. Aphids declined on Tx2752/Tx2783 after initial colony establishment (Corpus Christi) or took about 60% longer to double in population size when compared with Tx2572/Tx430 (Winnsboro). The predominant natural enemy taxa were aphelinid mummies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and sryphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), and they were more prevalent during flowering than prior to flowering. They were generally responsive to changes in aphid density of both susceptible and resistant hybrids, but variability points to need for further study. In future research, full season observations should continue as well as more detailed study of potential compatibility of sorghum resistance and biological control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Gas exchange and organic solutes in forage sorghum genotypes grown under different salinity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adaptation of plants to saline environments depends on the activation of mechanisms that minimize the effects of excess ions on vital processes, such as photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll, and organic solute in ten genotypes of forage sorghum irrigated with solutions of different salinity levels. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, in a 10 x 6 factorial arrangement, with three replications, using ten genotypes - F305, BRS-655, BRS-610, Volumax, 1.015.045, 1.016.005, 1.016.009, 1.016.013, 1.016.015 and 1.016.031 - and six saline solutions, with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 dS m-1. The photosynthetic activity in forage sorghum plants reduces with increasing salinity, and this response was found in the ten genotypes evaluated. The chlorophyll and protein contents were not affected by salinity, whereas carbohydrates and amino acid contents increased with increasing ECw. Soluble sugars are essential for osmoregulation of forage sorghum due to its high content in leaves.

  2. Efficient Use of Organic Sources by Sorghum Plants Grown on Sand Soil Using "1"5N Stable Isotope Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Hassanin, A.S; Khalifa, A.M; Abdel Aziz, H.A; Galal, Y.G.M; Abdel Salam, M.F

    2015-01-01

    A green house experiment was conducted at Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. Different organic/bio fertilizer and mineral fertilizers were existed for detection and evaluation of sorghum crop response when grown on sand soils. Mineral fertilizer in the form of labeled ammonium sulfate with 2% "1"5N atom excess was applied at two rates of 200 and 400 mg N pot-1 and unfertilized control treatment also included. Different organic fertilizers such as compost, chicken manure and leucaena residues were applied at the same rates per pot according to its content of nitrogen. Sorghum plants treated with organic or mineral fertilizers were inoculated with Azotobacter chrooccocum as a representative of associative nitrogen fixing microorganisms. Un inoculated plants were also included. Completely randomized block design was followed for statistical analysis. Nitrogen use efficiency (%NUE) was estimated using the portion of N derived from mineral fertilizer. Experimental data released from this work could be summarized as following: Dry matter yield of stalks and roots were increased with increasing mineral fertilizer rates where the best increments detected at 100% N rate as compared to the unfertilized control

  3. performance of sorghum grown on a salt affected soil manured with dhaincha plant residues using a 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Razok, A.; Al-Shamma, M.

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a salt-affected soil to determine the effect of application of three types of Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata pers.) residues (R, roots; L, shoots; L+R, shoots plus roots) of on the performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) using the indirect 15 N isotopic dilution technique. Results indicated that Sesbania residues (L and L+R), used as green manures significantly increased grain yield, dry matter production, N uptake, and water use efficiency of sorghum. Percentages of N derived from residues (%Ndfr) in sorghum ranged from 6.4 to 28%. The N recoveries in sorghum were 52, 19. and 19.7% of the total amount contained in Sesbania roots, shoots and roots plus shoots, respectively. The beneficial effects of Sesbania residues are attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plants, but also to effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake, particularly in the L+R treatment. The findings suggest that the use of Sesbania aculeata residues, as a green manure, can provide a substantial portion of total N in sorghum. In addition, the use of Sesbania green manure in salt-affected soils, as a bio-reclaiming material, can be a promising approach for enhancing plant growth on a sustainable basis. (author)

  4. Measurement of N2 fixation in Sesbania aculeata and Sorghum bicolor L. grown in intercropping system using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Khalifa, K.; Janat, M.

    2001-09-01

    A field experiment on Sesbania aculeata and Sorghum bicolor grown in mono cropping and in inter cropping systems was conducted under non-saline conditions (soil EC e 0.16, water EC w 1dS/m) to evaluate dry matter production, total N yield, soil N uptake and N 2 -fixation using 15 N isotope dilution method. Three different row ratios of sesbania (ses) and sorghum (sor) were subjected in the inter cropping system (2ses: 1sot; 1ses: 1sor and 1ses: 2sor row ratio). Dry matter yield of sole sorghum was higher than that of sole sesbania, and it was similar to that produced by the inter cropping treatments. However, total N yield of sole sorghum was significantly the lowest, with no differences being obtained between sole sesbania and inter cropping treatments. The LERs of total N yield were, in all cases, higher than 1, reflecting a greater advantage of inter cropping system in terms of land use efficiency. Percentages of N 2 fixation in the inter cropped sesbania were considerably enhanced compared with the pure stand of sesbania. This was mainly attributed to the depletion of soil N resulting from the greater apparent competitiveness of sorghum for soil N, and consequently, a greater dependence of sesbania on N 2 fixation. However, the degree of the intraspecific competition for soil N uptake was affected by the proportion of crops in the mixture, and it was considerably reduced in the 2ses: 1sor row ratio. This was demonstrated when an equal depletion of soil and fertilizer N uptake occurred for both crops. We excluded in all-inter cropping treatments the possibility of N transfer from sesbania to sorghum. Row inter cropping, with crops grown in alternation of two rows of sesbania with one row of sorghum, seemed to be the most adequate row ratio in terms of total N yield, LER, N 2 -fixation and soil N uptake balance of the component crops. (author)

  5. Measurement of N2 fixation in Sesbania aculeata pers. and Sorghum bicolor L. grown in intercropping system, under saline conditions, using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Khalifa, K.; Janat, M.

    2001-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted under saline conditions (soil EC e 15, water EC w 8 dS/m/m) to evaluate the performance of sole crops and inter crops of Sesbania aculeata and Sorghum bicolor (1:1 row ratio) in terms of dry matter production, total N yield, soil N uptake and N 2 -fixation using 15 N isotope dilution method. Dry matter yield in sole crop of sesbania was significantly higher that that of sole sorghum; whereas, that of the inter cropping was significantly lower than sole sesbania, but was similar to that produced by sole sorghum. Total nitrogen yield in sole sesbania was four-fold than that accumulated in sole sorghum, whereas, that of mixed cropping was 2.6 fold compared to that of sole sorghum. The LER of total N yield was higher than 1 reflecting a greater advantage of inter cropping system in terms of land use efficiency. The proportion of N derived from N 2 fixation (%Ndfa) in the sesbania was increased from 63 to 79%, for sole and inter cropping system, respectively. There was no evidence of a significant transfer of N from the sesbania to the sorghum. Results on the relative growth of plants on saline soil compared with non-saline soil clearly demonstrated that sesbania was more salt tolerant than the sorghum. soil nitrogen uptake by plants, particularly in sorghum, was adversely affected by salinity. However, amounts of N 2 fixed by sole sesbania grown is saline soil was close or even higher than on non-saline soil. The use of inter cropping systems of legumes and non-legumes could be a promising agricultural approach to reutilize wasted lands, after a careful selection of appropriate tolerant genotypes to prevailing saline conditions. (author)

  6. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN THE OBTAINING OF ETHANOL FROM Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Pedroso Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Replacing the use of gasoline with ethanol in vehicles reduces by 90% CO2 emissions, this justifies the interest in the use of bioethanol as renewable energy. Besides sugar cane, cassava, maize and sugar beet special emphasis is being given to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench to produce ethanol for its productivity and resistance. The sorghum is grown in Rio Grande do Sul with a production of about 70,000 tons / year. Embrapa has a program to develop cultivars of sorghum from the time the Pro-Alcohol and currently 25 new varieties of sorghum are being evaluated. Several factors are relevant in the optimization of production such as increased productivity and reduced costs in the production of ethanol. This study aimed to survey recent data that will assess production parameters of ethanol from sorghum. Factors such as reducing the risk of bacterial contamination, the means conducive to fermentation processes or grain sorghum stalk through the use of pretreatment of the sample, have been of great importance because it is basically turning cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Superior genotypes of sweet sorghum for ethanol production are of utmost importance, as well as better ways to convert sugars into ethanol. Lignin, toxic against microorganisms, prevents the conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. The conversion of lignocellulosic ethanol compounds based on the hydrolysis of cellulose producing simple sugars and fermenting those sugars into ethanol through microbiology.

  7. Dhurrin metabolism in the developing grain of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench investigated by metabolite profiling and novel clustering analyses of time-resolved transcriptomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Janniche; Stuart, Peter; Pičmanová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The important cereal crop Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench biosynthesize and accumulate the defensive compound dhurrin during development. Previous work has suggested multiple roles for the compound including a function as nitrogen storage/buffer. Crucial for this function is the endogenous...... turnover of dhurrin for which putative pathways have been suggested but not confirmed. Results: In this study, the biosynthesis and endogenous turnover of dhurrin in the developing sorghum grain was studied by metabolite profiling and time-resolved transcriptome analyses. Dhurrin was found to accumulate...... analyses coupled with metabolite profiling, identified gene candidates involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in sorghum. Conclusions: The results presented in this article reveal the existence of two endogenous dhurrin turnover pathways in sorghum, identify genes putatively involved...

  8. High-throughput micro plate vanillin assay for determination of tannin in sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum tannins are phenolic compounds that offer health promoting antioxidant properties. The conventional HCl-vanillin assay for determining tannin content is a time-consuming method for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeder nursery samples. The objective of ...

  9. Nitrogen levels and yeast viability during ethanol fermentation of grain sorghum containing condensed tannins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, J T; NeSmith, C

    1988-01-01

    Selected varieties of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, give high crop yields and they also return to favorable energy balance in terms of energy calories produced per cultural energy invested. The brown, condensed-tannin, bird- and mold-resistant varieties illustrate these advantages, but their nutritional value and ability to support the expected rate of ethanol fermentation is significantly lower than that of non-brown sorghums. It has been previously shown that the addition of nitrogen to brown sorghum mash supports a high rate of fermentative metabolism without removing the tannins, and suggested that the basis for the inhibition of ethanol fermentation was nitrogen starvation of the yeast cells. In this investigation, it is demonstrated that the addition of protease enzyme to mash results in an increase in amino nitrogen sufficient to support accelerated rates of ethanol fermentation by yeast cells. Thus, the hypothesis commonly cited in the literature that the presumed inhibitor, condensed tannins, function to reduce fermentative metabolism solely via the binding and precipitation of proteins is rejected.

  10. Soil and Rhizosphere Populations of Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Associated with Field-grown Plants are Affected by Sorghum Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is valued for bioenergy, feed and food. Potential of sorghum genotypes to support differing populations of root- and soil-associated fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. or Fusarium spp., in two soils, was assessed. Pseudomonads and Fusarium spp. were assessed from root...

  11. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  12. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in grain production and nutrition of sorghum genotypes: Enhancing sustainability through plant-microbial partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and fertilization in sorghum grain production and quality was assessed for 3 hybrid genotypes, 2 open-pollinated African genotypes, and 1 open-pollinated Latin American genotype. The open-pollinated genotypes produced an average of 206% more vegetative b...

  13. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Phuke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01 indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc.

  14. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  15. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  16. Economic Evaluation of Cookie made from blend of Brewers′ Spent Grain (BSG, Groundnut cake and Sorghum Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawoye Babatunde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bakery and pastry products such as cookies are usually produced from wheat flour and as such contribute to high foreign exchange for tropical countries where such cereal is not cultivated. In view of this, we evaluated the engineering economics for the utilization of dried brewers′ spent grain, groundnut cake and sorghum flour in the industrial production of cookies. The production was based on the assumption that the cash flow was uniform over the plant life (i.e. 10 years with no salvage value. The equipment required for the production process was identified and estimates obtained from equipment manufactures. The production of the cookies was based on constant mass flow rate of 90 packets/min. The effects of uncertainties on cookie production were evaluated by varying the operation days (330, 300 and 250 days and also by varying the price of some key variables required for the production processes. The results indicate that the capital cost (fixed and working capital and the annual production cost (APC were US$1.39×106 and US$10.08×106/year, respectively. The after tax annual revenue was US$1.63×106/yr. The return on investment (ROI, single payback period (SPBP, discounted payback period, gross margin and internal rate of return (IRR of the plant were 63%, 1.58 years, 2.08 years, 23% and 77.52%, respectively. The result also showed that the production plant is feasible and could be operated for 330, 300 and 250 days. The difference between operation times lies in the profitability, which decreases as the number of days reduces. Based on the result of this analysis, brewers’ spent grain, groundnut cake, and sorghum flour can be utilized in industrial production of cookies with guaranteed profitability.

  17. Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) crop yield is significantly compromised by high temperature stress-induced male sterility, and is attributed to reduced cell wall invertase (CWI)-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in microspores and anthers leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch def...

  18. Measurement of N{sub 2} fixation in Sesbania aculeata and Sorghum bicolor L. grown in intercropping system using {sup 15}N isotopic dilution technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdali, F; Khalifa, K; Janat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Agriculture

    2001-09-01

    A field experiment on Sesbania aculeata and Sorghum bicolor grown in mono cropping and in inter cropping systems was conducted under non-saline conditions (soil EC{sub e} 0.16, water EC{sub w}1dS/m) to evaluate dry matter production, total N yield, soil N uptake and N{sub 2}-fixation using {sup 15}N isotope dilution method. Three different row ratios of sesbania (ses) and sorghum (sor) were subjected in the inter cropping system (2ses: 1sot; 1ses: 1sor and 1ses: 2sor row ratio). Dry matter yield of sole sorghum was higher than that of sole sesbania, and it was similar to that produced by the inter cropping treatments. However, total N yield of sole sorghum was significantly the lowest, with no differences being obtained between sole sesbania and inter cropping treatments. The LERs of total N yield were, in all cases, higher than 1, reflecting a greater advantage of inter cropping system in terms of land use efficiency. Percentages of N{sub 2} fixation in the inter cropped sesbania were considerably enhanced compared with the pure stand of sesbania. This was mainly attributed to the depletion of soil N resulting from the greater apparent competitiveness of sorghum for soil N, and consequently, a greater dependence of sesbania on N{sub 2} fixation. However, the degree of the intraspecific competition for soil N uptake was affected by the proportion of crops in the mixture, and it was considerably reduced in the 2ses: 1sor row ratio. This was demonstrated when an equal depletion of soil and fertilizer N uptake occurred for both crops. We excluded in all-inter cropping treatments the possibility of N transfer from sesbania to sorghum. Row inter cropping, with crops grown in alternation of two rows of sesbania with one row of sorghum, seemed to be the most adequate row ratio in terms of total N yield, LER, N{sub 2}-fixation and soil N uptake balance of the component crops. (author)

  19. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts and Evaluation of Adaptation Strategies for Grain Sorghum and Cotton Production in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, K.; Ale, S.; Bordovsky, J.; Hoogenboom, G.; Munster, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    The semi-arid Texas High Plains (THP) is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the United States. However, agriculture in the THP is faced with the challenges of rapid groundwater depletion in the underlying Ogallala Aquifer, restrictions on pumping groundwater, recurring droughts, and projected warmer and drier future climatic conditions. Therefore, it is imperative to adopt strategies that enhance climate change resilience of THP agriculture to maintain a sustainable agricultural economy in this region. The overall goal of this study is to assess the impacts of climate change and potential reduction in groundwater availability on production of two major crops in the region, cotton and grain sorghum, and suggest adaptation strategies using the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) Cropping System Model. The DSSAT model was calibrated and evaluated using data from the long-term cotton-sorghum rotation experiments conducted at Helms Farm near Halfway in the THP. After achieving a satisfactory calibration for crop yield (RMSE MACA) projected future climate datasets from nine CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) were used in this study. Preliminary results indicated a reduction in irrigated grain sorghum yield per hectare by 6% and 8%, and a reduction in dryland sorghum yield per hectare by 9% and 17% under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively. Grain sorghum future water use declined by about 2% and 5% under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively. Climate change impacts on cotton production and evaluation of several adaptation strategies such as incorporating heat and drought tolerances in cultivars, early planting, shifting to short season varieties, and deficit irrigation are currently being studied.

  20. Integrated Process for Extraction of Wax as a Value-Added Co-Product and Improved Ethanol Production by Converting Both Starch and Cellulosic Components in Sorghum Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grain sorghum is a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production due to its high starch content, which is equivalent to that of corn, and has been successfully used in several commercial corn ethanol plants in the United States. Some sorghum grain varieties contain significant levels of surface wax, which may interact with enzymes and make them less efficient toward starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, wax can be recovered as a valuable co-product and as such may help improve the overall process economics. Sorghum grains also contain lignocellulosic materials in the hulls, which can be converted to additional ethanol. An integrated process was developed, consisting of the following steps: 1. Extraction of wax with boiling ethanol, which is the final product of the proposed process; 2. Pretreatment of the dewaxed grains with dilute sulfuric acid; 3. Mashing and fermenting of the pretreated grains to produce ethanol. During the fermentation, commercial cellulase was also added to release fermentable sugars from the hulls, which then were converted to additional ethanol. The advantages of the developed process were illustrated with the following results: (1 Wax extracted (determined by weight loss: ~0.3 wt % of total mass. (2 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using raw grains: 86.1 g/L. (3 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed grains: 106.2 g/L (23.3% improvement. (4 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed and acid-treated grains (1 wt % H2SO4 plus cellulase (CTec2: 117.8 g/L (36.8% improvement.

  1. The Effect of Silicon on some Morpho-physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) under Salt Stress

    OpenAIRE

    S Hasibi; H Farahbakhsh; Gh Khajoeinejad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays, salinity is one of the limiting factors for crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a self-pollinated and short-day plant, which partly has been adapted to salinity and water stress conditions; also play an important role in humans, livestock and poultry nourishments. All studies have showed the positive effects of Silicon on growth and yield of plants in both normal and stress conditions. The aim of this exp...

  2. INFLUENCE OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR AND/OR INOCULATION WITH SULFUR OXIDIZING BACTERIA ON GROWTH, AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SORGHUM PLANTS GROWN ON DIFFERENT SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of elemental sulfur(E.S rates (300 and 600 ppm and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria (S.O.B. ATCC 8158 on growth and nutrients content of sorghum plants grown on different soils (sandy soils(I & II and clay loam soil.The obtained results could be summarized in the followings:Sorghum plants:Significant increases over the control were observed in fresh and dry weights of sorghum plant as well as its content of SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu by using all the sulfur and/or the oxidizing bacteria treatments. Addition of E.S (300 & 600 ppm in combination with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 significantly increased both fresh and dry weights as well as SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents of sorghum plants grown on the used soils as compared with either of them alone.E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm significantly increased the fresh and dry weights as well as all the studied nutrients content (SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu of sorghum plants grown on the different soils as compared with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 treatment alone. The highest rate of E.S (600 ppm significantly increased all the previous parameters under study as compared with the lower rate (300 ppm. The highest values of fresh and dry weights as well as nutrients content (SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu of sorghum plants grown on the used soils were obtained by 600 ppm E.S + S.O.B. ATCC 8158 treatment followed by 600 ppm E.S; 300 ppm E.S + S.O.B. ATCC 8158; 300 ppm E.S; S.O.B. ATCC 8158 and control treatments in decreasing order.The used soils:E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm and/or S.O.B. ATCC 8158 decreased pH values of the used soils after 3, 6 and 9 weeks from sowing as compared with their corresponding control treatments. The values of pH of sand soil (I and clay loam soil slightly decreased by time i.e they decreased from 3 weeks to 9 weeks from plantation. E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm with or without inoculation the used soils with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 significantly

  3. An investigative study of indigenous sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production: the case of Kenya local sorghum varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangai, L.K.; Mbeo, C.O. [Kenya Industrial Research and Development Inst., Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, C.K. [Kenya Agricurtural Research Inst.(s), Machakos (Kenya)

    2012-11-01

    There are over 500 sorghum genotypes grown locally in Kenya. This study was an investigation and selection of suitable sorghum genotypes for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Kenya. For the study, 500 genotypes of sorghum were planted and grown using the recommended agricultural practices. Random sampling of 230 genotypes was done and the samples analysed for juice and sugar content. The 26 best yielding genotypes were selected and grown again in duplicate for further detailed study. Data on date of flowering, pest resistance, {sup 0}brix, wet and dry weight, plant population, ratooning, grain yield and juice yield and juice sugar content were recorded and analyzed using GENstat. Sampling was done for each genotype when about 50% of the crop had flowered and there after, every 2 weeks until the grains dried. Crushing was done with a three roller mill crusher [8]. The sugar content was measured using a digital refractometer. Sugar yield obtained ranged between 10.3{sup 0}Brix and 19.3{sup 0}Brix and juice yield between 268 litres/hectare and 11390 litres/hectare. Five indigenous sorghum varieties, GBK-007130, GBK-007076, GBK-007102, GBK-007296, GBK-007098 were found to have the highest sugar and juice yields and were considered the most suitable sweet sorghum genotypes among those studied, for bio-ethanol production in Kenya.

  4. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  5. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum cultivars from Burkina Faso.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Hilhorst, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Laane, N.C.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was

  6. Comparison of corn, grain sorghum, soybean, and sunflower under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] constitute a large share of the annual total irrigated planted area in the central Great Plains. This study aimed to determine the effect of limited irrigation on grain yield, water use, and profitability of corn and soybean in comparison with ...

  7. Low Lignin (Brown Mid-rib) Sorghum Genotypes Restrict Growth of Fusarium Spp. as Compared with Near-Isogenic Wild-Type Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase usability of sorghum for bioenergy and forages, two different brown midrib (bmr) genes, bmr-6 and bmr-12, were backcrossed into five elite backgrounds, resulting in reduced lignin near-isogenic genotypes. Field-grown grain from bmr-6 and bmr-12 plants had significantly reduced colonizati...

  8. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Carvalho Jr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  9. Evaluation of alternative microbial transglutaminase production from sorghum grain and distilled dried grains with solubles using computational simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Concepción Rodríguez-Castillejos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La enzima Transglutaminasa microbiana (MTGasa es ampliamente usada en la industria alimentaria como aditivo para mejorar las propiedades mecánicas y de textura de los alimentos. El proceso de producción de la enzima es caro debido al valor de los componentes del medio de fermentación utilizados, por ello se evaluó la posibilidad de utilizar materias primas baratas, como fuente de nutrientes para el crecimiento de Streptomyces mobaraensis. El estudio económico de la producción de MTGasa con una variedad de materias primas sería un proceso largo. El software de simulación de procesos industriales SuperPro Designer® v7.5 fue utilizado, basándose en datos obtenidos de fermentaciones a escala de banco, para estimar el consumo de servicios, costos de capital, costos de operación e ingreso por el producto. El modelo mostró el estimado de los costos de producción de MTGasa utilizando glucosa obtenida de la hidrólisis enzimática de granos de sorgo y suplementada con granos secos destilados con solubles (DDGS por sus siglas en inglés, Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles. En la planta productora de MTGasa, utilizando hidrolizados enzimáticos, se obtuvo una ganancia bruta anual de 12,326 x 106 US$ y un tiempo de recuperación de la inversión de 4.01 años.

  10. Brown Midrib (Low Lignin) Sorghum Mutations Result in Restricted Growth of Fusarium and Alternaria spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase usability of sorghum for bioenergy and forages, two different brown midrib (bmr) genes, bmr6 and bmr12, were backcrossed into five elite backgrounds, resulting in reduced lignin near-isogenic genotypes. When compared with wild-type, field-grown grain from bmr6 and bmr12 plants had signif...

  11. Accelerated carrier recombination by grain boundary/edge defects in MBE grown transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Roy, Anupam; Rai, Amritesh; Movva, Hema C. P.; Meng, Xianghai; He, Feng; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Wang, Yaguo

    2018-05-01

    Defect-carrier interaction in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) plays important roles in carrier relaxation dynamics and carrier transport, which determines the performance of electronic devices. With femtosecond laser time-resolved spectroscopy, we investigated the effect of grain boundary/edge defects on the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited carrier in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown MoTe2 and MoSe2. We found that, comparing with exfoliated samples, the carrier recombination rate in MBE-grown samples accelerates by about 50 times. We attribute this striking difference to the existence of abundant grain boundary/edge defects in MBE-grown samples, which can serve as effective recombination centers for the photoexcited carriers. We also observed coherent acoustic phonons in both exfoliated and MBE-grown MoTe2, indicating strong electron-phonon coupling in this materials. Our measured sound velocity agrees well with the previously reported result of theoretical calculation. Our findings provide a useful reference for the fundamental parameters: carrier lifetime and sound velocity and reveal the undiscovered carrier recombination effect of grain boundary/edge defects, both of which will facilitate the defect engineering in TMD materials for high speed opto-electronics.

  12. Accelerated carrier recombination by grain boundary/edge defects in MBE grown transition metal dichalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Defect-carrier interaction in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs plays important roles in carrier relaxation dynamics and carrier transport, which determines the performance of electronic devices. With femtosecond laser time-resolved spectroscopy, we investigated the effect of grain boundary/edge defects on the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited carrier in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE-grown MoTe2 and MoSe2. We found that, comparing with exfoliated samples, the carrier recombination rate in MBE-grown samples accelerates by about 50 times. We attribute this striking difference to the existence of abundant grain boundary/edge defects in MBE-grown samples, which can serve as effective recombination centers for the photoexcited carriers. We also observed coherent acoustic phonons in both exfoliated and MBE-grown MoTe2, indicating strong electron-phonon coupling in this materials. Our measured sound velocity agrees well with the previously reported result of theoretical calculation. Our findings provide a useful reference for the fundamental parameters: carrier lifetime and sound velocity and reveal the undiscovered carrier recombination effect of grain boundary/edge defects, both of which will facilitate the defect engineering in TMD materials for high speed opto-electronics.

  13. The impacts of hammer-mill screen size and grain particle size on the performance of broiler chickens offered diets based on two red sorghum varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, P H; Truong, H H; Khoddami, A; Moss, A F; Roberts, T H; Liu, S Y

    2016-12-12

    1. The two red grain sorghums were extensively characterised. Kafirin, polyphenolic compounds, free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids, phytate concentrations and starch pasting profiles were determined. 2. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 4 factorial array of dietary treatments comprising two red sorghum varieties (Tiger and Block I) ground through 4 hammer-mill screen sizes (2.0, 3.2, 4.8 6.0 mm) prior to incorporation into nutritionally equivalent diets. Eight steam-pelleted dietary treatments were each offered to 7 replicates (6 male Ross 308 birds per cage) from 7 to 28 d post-hatch. 3. Effects of dietary treatments on growth performance, relative gizzard and pancreas weights, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from 4 small intestinal segments were determined. 4. The 2.0-mm hammer-mill screen generated an average geometric mean particle size of 794 μm and the 6.0-mm screen a mean particle size of 1405 μm. However, hammer-mill screen size did not influence weight gain or FCR. The 6.0-mm screen size generated significantly higher starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients in the distal jejunum and distal ileum than the 2.0-mm hammer-mill screen. 5. Tiger sorghum was superior to Block I sorghum, as significant advantages were observed for feed conversion ratios (3.25%), AME (0.37 MJ), ME:GE ratios (4.15%), AMEn (0.53 MJ), distal ileal starch digestibility coefficients (2.46%) and protein (N) digestibility coefficients in the distal jejunum (4.66%), proximal ileum (1.96%) and distal ileum (2.16%). The inferior Block I sorghum contained more kafirin (67.1 versus 51.3 g/kg), phytate (9.79 versus 8.40 g/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.68 versus 4.12 mg GAE/g), flavan-4-ols (7.98 versus 5.04 ABS/ml/g), total phenolic acids (554 versus 402 μg/g) and total ferulic acid (375 versus 281 μg/g) in comparison to Tiger sorghum.

  14. Measurement of N{sub 2} fixation in Sesbania aculeata pers. and Sorghum bicolor L. grown in intercropping system, under saline conditions, using {sup 15}N isotopic dilution technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdali, F; Khalifa, K; Janat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Agriculture

    2001-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted under saline conditions (soil EC{sub e} 15, water EC{sub w} 8 dS/m/m) to evaluate the performance of sole crops and inter crops of Sesbania aculeata and Sorghum bicolor (1:1 row ratio) in terms of dry matter production, total N yield, soil N uptake and N{sub 2}-fixation using {sup 15}N isotope dilution method. Dry matter yield in sole crop of sesbania was significantly higher that that of sole sorghum; whereas, that of the inter cropping was significantly lower than sole sesbania, but was similar to that produced by sole sorghum. Total nitrogen yield in sole sesbania was four-fold than that accumulated in sole sorghum, whereas, that of mixed cropping was 2.6 fold compared to that of sole sorghum. The LER of total N yield was higher than 1 reflecting a greater advantage of inter cropping system in terms of land use efficiency. The proportion of N derived from N{sub 2} fixation (%Ndfa) in the sesbania was increased from 63 to 79%, for sole and inter cropping system, respectively. There was no evidence of a significant transfer of N from the sesbania to the sorghum. Results on the relative growth of plants on saline soil compared with non-saline soil clearly demonstrated that sesbania was more salt tolerant than the sorghum. soil nitrogen uptake by plants, particularly in sorghum, was adversely affected by salinity. However, amounts of N{sub 2} fixed by sole sesbania grown is saline soil was close or even higher than on non-saline soil. The use of inter cropping systems of legumes and non-legumes could be a promising agricultural approach to reutilize wasted lands, after a careful selection of appropriate tolerant genotypes to prevailing saline conditions. (author)

  15. High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

  16. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Bryce, J H; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Harrison, B

    2012-04-11

    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and

  17. Using ICP and micro-PIXE to investigate possible differences in the mineral composition of genetically modified versus wild-type sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, R.; Cloete, K.; Mehlo, L.; Kossmann, J.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, possible differences in the mineral composition of transgenic versus non-transgenic sorghum grains were investigated using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES); and, in-tissue elemental mapping by micro Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analysis. ICP AES was used to analyse the bulk mineral content of the wholegrain flour derived from each genotype; whilst micro-PIXE was used to interrogate localised differences in mineral composition specific to certain areas of the grain, such as the bran layer and the central endosperm tissue. According to the results obtained, no significant difference in the average Fe, Zn or Ca content was found to differentiate the transgenic from the wild-type grain using ICP-AES. However, using micro-PIXE, a significant reduction in zinc could be detected in the bran layer of the transgenic grains relative to wild-type. Although it is difficult to draw firm conclusions, as a result of the small sample size used in this study, micro-PIXE has nonetheless proven itself as a useful technique for highlighting the possibility that there may be reduced levels of zinc accumulation in the bran layer of the transgenic grains. Given that the genetic modification targets proteins that are highly concentrated in certain parts of the bran tissue, it seems plausible that the reduced levels of zinc may be an unintended consequence of the silencing of kafirin proteins. Although no immediate health or nutritional concerns emerge from this preliminary finding, it is noted that zinc plays an important biological role within this part of the grain as a structural stabiliser and antioxidant factor. Further study is therefore needed to assess more definitively the extent of the apparent localised reduction in zinc in the transgenic grains and how this may affect other important grain quality characteristics.

  18. Soil and Rhizosphere Populations of Fusarium and Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Associated with Field-Grown Plants are Affected by Sorghum Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is valued for bioenergy, feed and food. Potential of sorghum genotypes to support differing populations of root- and soil-associated fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. or Fusarium spp., in two soils, was assessed. Pseudomonad and Fusarium numbers were assessed from ro...

  19. Soil and Root Populations of Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Associated with Seedlings and Field-grown Plants are Affected by Sorghum Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is valued for bioenergy, feed and food. Aims: Potential of sorghum genotypes to support differing populations of root- and soil-associated fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. or Fusarium spp., in two soils, was assessed. Methods: Culturable pseudomonads were enumerated...

  20. Productivity and residual benefits of grain legumes to sorghum under semi-arid conditions in south-western Zimbabwe: Unravelling the effects of water and nitrogen using a simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.; Dimes, J.P.; Wijk, van M.T.; Twomlow, S.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    The APSIM model was used to assess the impact of legumes on sorghum grown in rotation in a nutrient-limited system under dry conditions in south-western Zimbabwe. An experiment was conducted at Lucydale, Matopos Research Station, between 2002 and 2005. The model was used to simulate soil and plant

  1. Observing grain boundaries in CVD-grown monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Ly, Thuchue

    2014-11-25

    Two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMdCs), driven by graphene science, revisit optical and electronic properties, which are markedly different from bulk characteristics. These properties are easily modified due to accessibility of all the atoms viable to ambient gases, and therefore, there is no guarantee that impurities and defects such as vacancies, grain boundaries, and wrinkles behave as those of ideal bulk. On the other hand, this could be advantageous in engineering such defects. Here, we report a method of observing grain boundary distribution of monolayer TMdCs by a selective oxidation. This was implemented by exposing directly the TMdC layer grown on sapphire without transfer to ultraviolet light irradiation under moisture-rich conditions. The generated oxygen and hydroxyl radicals selectively functionalized defective grain boundaries in TMdCs to provoke morphological changes at the boundary, where the grain boundary distribution was observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This paves the way toward the investigation of transport properties engineered by defects and grain boundaries. (Figure Presented).

  2. Biomass and nitrogen-use efficiency of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) with nitrogen and supplemental irrigation in Coastal Plain Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor rainfall distribution and soil conditions such as high soil strength, low water holding capacity of soils and poor soil fertility in the humid Coastal Plain region may affect production of grain crops. Nitrogen insufficiency and water stress can both reduce crop yield, but little information is...

  3. Gentamicin-Eluting Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Grown on the Ultrafine-Grained Titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Sima Hashemi; Hadjizadeh, Afra

    2017-08-01

    Titanium (Ti)-based materials is the most appropriate choices for the applications as orthopedic and dental implants. In this regard, ultrafine-grained (UFG) titanium with an enhanced mechanical properties and surface energy has attracted more attention. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes grown on the titanium could enhance bone bonding, cellular response and are good reservoirs for loading drugs and antibacterial agents. This article investigates gentamicin loading into and release from the TiO 2 nanotubes, grown on the UFG compared to coarse-grained (CG) titanium substrate surfaces. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) was employed to produce the UFG structure titanium. TiO 2 nanotubes were grown by the anodizing technique on both UFG and CG titanium substrate surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging confirmed TiO 2 nanotube growth on the surface. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis results show that the amount of gentamicin load-release in the anodized UFG titanium sample is higher than that of CG one which can be explained in terms of thicker TiO 2 nanotube arrays layer formed on UFG sample. Moreover, the anodized UFG titanium samples released the drug in a longer time than CG (1 day for the UFG titanium vs. 3 h for the CG one). Regarding wettability analysis, anodized UFG titanium sample showed more enhanced hydrophilicity than CG counterpart. Therefore, the significantly smaller grain size of pure titanium provided by the ECAP technique coupled with appropriate subsequent anodization treatment not only offers a good combination of biocompatibility and adequate mechanical properties but also it provides a delayed release condition for gentamicin.

  4. Aggregation performance of CdO grains grown on surface of N silicon crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jizhong; Zhao Huan

    2010-01-01

    Four kinds of aggregation patterns of CdO grains were formed on the surface of N silicon substrate heated at 580 deg. C for 1 h in an evaporation-deposition device. They were ellipse-shaped or quasi-circular-shaped aggregate, long ribbon-shaped aggregate, long chain-shaped or long double-chain-shaped aggregate, and long ellipse-chain-shaped aggregate. These aggregates consisted of numerous grains or tiny crystals, and deposited on top of the CdO bush-like long crystal clusters grown earlier. They exhibited clearly spontaneous self-organization aggregation performance. Surface defects of the virgin N silicon crystal were analyzed, and mechanism of the self-organization aggregation was discussed with a defect induced aggregation (DIA) model.

  5. Translocation of aluminum to grain crops grown in different agricultural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Kazi, T.G.; Kolachi, N.F.; Afridi, H.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mobility and transport of Aluminum (AI) by shoot and grain crops (wheat and maize) grown on two different agricultural soil irrigated with water have high (lake water) and low levels (canal water) of AI. The total and bio available fractions (deionized water, 0.11 M CH/sub 3/COOH, 0.05 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDT A) and 0.1 M HCl extractable) of Al in both understudied agricultural soils and correlate with respective total Al in the edible parts (grains) and non edible parts (Shoots) of wheat and maize. The All content in lake and canal water samples was found in the range of 750 - 1340 and 90 - 50 micro g/L respectively. The total and extractable Al in both agricultural soil samples, edible and non edible parts of wheat and maize were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion in microwave oven. The edible and non edible part of both crops absorbed significantly high levels of Al grown on agricultural soil irrigated with lake water (SILW) as compared to those grown on soil irrigated with can water (SICW) had low level of A] (p< O.OI). The transfer factor of Al from soils to edible and non edible parts of wheat and maize were also evaluated. It was observed that the bioaccumulation of Al was found to be high in non edible parts of both crops grown in SILW. This study highlights the increased danger of growing food crops in the agricultural land continuously irrigated by A] contaminated lake water. (author)

  6. Sugarcane Aphid in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Logan

    2018-01-01

    This article is intended for readers in the production agriculture industry who deal with grain sorghum throughout the growing season. This publication will discuss the impacts of the sugarcane aphid in various crops and the ways to manage and identify them as they continue to advance north.

  7. Atividade residual de (imazethapyr+imazapic para sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor semeado em rotação com o arroz irrigado Field persistence of (imazethapyr+imazapic to grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor planted in rotation after irrigated rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.O Pinto

    2009-12-01

    áveis ao sorgo cultivado em safra subsequente ao arroz.The objective of this research was to evaluate the field persistence of the herbicide Only (imazethapyr+imazapic, to grain sorghum, planted in rotation after one, two or three years of Clearfield® (CL rice. The field study was carried out at Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Clearfield rice was established as the main crop, Italian ryegrass as a succession crop and grain sorghum, as a rotation crop after CL rice. Except for the first rice crop, all the other cultures were planted as no-till rice. Ryegrass plants were burned down in every experiment using glyphosate (760 g a.e. ha-1. The experimental design was a factorial with treatments arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replications, where factor A was the number of CL rice seasons and B was the herbicide rate. The rice cultivar was IRGA 422 CL, and the herbicide treatments were Only (imazethapyr+imazapic at 0; (75+25; (112.5+37.5 and (150+50 g ha-1. Adjuvant Dash was added to the herbicide at 0.5% v/v. The experiments were labeled as A1, A2 or A3, respectively, for one, two or three years of CL rice. Grain sorghum, cv. BR 304, was planted as a bioindicator of herbicide residue. The following parameters were evaluated: plant population, plant height; above ground biomass, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. As for grain sorghum plant height and 1000-seed weight, an interaction was observed between the different environments (years of CL rice and herbicide rate (imazethapyr+imazapic. For the other parameters, only effect for herbicide rat was detected. The results suggested that all grain sorghum parameters were affected by the herbicides (imazethapyr+ imazapic in the soil. Grain sorghum injury increased with herbicide rate. In conclusion, grain sorghum, planted in rotation with rice is affected by the residue of the herbicide Only (imazethapyr+imazapic applied to Clearfield® rice.

  8. A study on the effect of levels of tannins on in vitro digestibility of different Sudanese varieties of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.A.

    2008-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the tannin content and its effect on ruminant's digestibility in 26 Sudanese sorghum varieties. Samples were brought from Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani (ARC), hand cleaned and preserved in dark in plastic containers. Tannins content was measured by using vanillin-HCl method (Price et al, 1979) and in vitro digestibility was conducted to evaluate the dry meter digestibility and organic matter digestibility according to (Tilley and Terry, 1963). Results have shown that condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) ranged between 0.39 g/kg and 23.08 g/kg, Tabat recorded the lowest value when Wad akar red recorded the highest value. An in vitro dry matter digestibility (INVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) trial were performed. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05) between organic matter and condensed tannins especially those contained high level of condensed tannins. The organic matter digestibility ranged between 680.11 g/kg in arfa gadamak commercial to 828.85 g/kg in dar baladi. The results have shown that the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to in vitro incubated samples increased the gas produced in wad akar red in 24 hours by 29% compared to the control sample without (PEG). Higher significant correlation (P<0.001) between the clorox bleaching test and condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) in samples was found. It is concluded that condensed tannins in sorghum are beneficial to ruminant when they are introduced in complete diets to avoid the inhibitory effects of condensed tannins in sorghum. Adding (PEG) to the ruminant diets which contain high levels of condensed tannins improved digestibility subsequently animal performance.(Author)

  9. A study on the effect of levels of tannins on in vitro digestibility of different Sudanese varieties of sorghum grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M A [Animal Resources Research Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-06-15

    This work was conducted to evaluate the tannin content and its effect on ruminant's digestibility in 26 Sudanese sorghum varieties. Samples were brought from Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani (ARC), hand cleaned and preserved in dark in plastic containers. Tannins content was measured by using vanillin-HCl method (Price et al, 1979) and in vitro digestibility was conducted to evaluate the dry meter digestibility and organic matter digestibility according to (Tilley and Terry, 1963). Results have shown that condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) ranged between 0.39 g/kg and 23.08 g/kg, Tabat recorded the lowest value when Wad akar red recorded the highest value. An in vitro dry matter digestibility (INVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) trial were performed. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05) between organic matter and condensed tannins especially those contained high level of condensed tannins. The organic matter digestibility ranged between 680.11 g/kg in arfa gadamak commercial to 828.85 g/kg in dar baladi. The results have shown that the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to in vitro incubated samples increased the gas produced in wad akar red in 24 hours by 29% compared to the control sample without (PEG). Higher significant correlation (P<0.001) between the clorox bleaching test and condensed tannins (vanillin-HCl) in samples was found. It is concluded that condensed tannins in sorghum are beneficial to ruminant when they are introduced in complete diets to avoid the inhibitory effects of condensed tannins in sorghum. Adding (PEG) to the ruminant diets which contain high levels of condensed tannins improved digestibility subsequently animal performance.(Author)

  10. Productivity of clay tailings from phosphate mining: 3. Grain crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mislevy, P.; Blue, W.G.; Roessler, C.E.; Martin, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    A split-fold field experiment was conducted to study forage and grain yield, forage quality, plant nutrient concentrations, changes in soil nutrients, and 226 Ra contents of four grain crops in various rotations. The crop rotations (1) corn (Zea mays L. Jacques 247)-sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cargil 205), (2) sunflower-grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L, Moench Northrup King Savanna 5), (3) soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Williams 80)-grain sorghum, and (4) grain sorghum-soybean (University of Florida V-1) were grown on a dry phosphatic clay with and without a 50-mm surface layer of quartz-sand tailings. Results show that corn and grain sorghum produced highest forage yields and highest grain yields per harvest, respectively. Soybean harvested for forage (Crop 1) contained the highest crude protein and in vitro organic matter digestibility. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe in most of the forages were adequate for the diets of beef cattle, while those of Mn, Cu and Zn were low. Mehlich I-extractable soil, Ca, and Mg were considered very high and changed little over the 4-yr production period. Application of 50 mm of sand tailings tended to increase Mehlich I-extractable P, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Radium-226 concentration in the forage of all grain crops averaged 8.5 Bq kg -1 , which was about 17 times higher than that in the grain of the same crops. Concentrations of 226 Ra in the forage and grain were 1.1% and 0.09% of the concentration in clay respectively. These data indicate that phosphatic clays can be a valuable resource for the production of corn and sorghum grain that contain low concentrations of 226 Ra

  11. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Key words: Sweet sorghum, grain sorghum, salinity, stem yield, ... The effect of salinity on the stem yield and sucrose was .... growth and polyamine metabolism in two citrus rootstocks with ... Growth and osmoregulation in two.

  12. Participation of Green Organs to Grain Filling in Triticum turgidum var durum Grown under Mediterranean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneveux, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    In wheat, flag leaf, stem, chaff and awns contribute to grain filling through photosynthesis and/or re-mobilization. Environmental and genetic effects on the relative contribution of each organ were examined by analyzing the consequences of sink-source manipulations (shading and excision) and by comparing carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) values in dry matter (at maturity) and sap (two weeks after anthesis) in six durum wheat genotypes grown in two contrasting seasons. The contribution of flag leaf, stem, chaff and awns to grain filling, estimated by sink-source manipulations, highly varied with the season. The contribution of ear photosynthesis and re-mobilization from the stem increased with post-anthesis water stress. They showed a large genetic variation that was, however, not clearly associated to morphological characteristics of ear and stem. Isotopic imprints of chaff on grain Δ were identified as a possible surrogate of the destructive and cumbersome sink-source manipulations to evaluate the contribution of carbon assimilated in ears or re-mobilized from stem. This might facilitate screening of genetic resources and allow the combining of favourable drought tolerance mechanisms in wheat. PMID:29295600

  13. Estimates of matter yield and N-uptake in sorghum grown on saline and non-saline soils manured with dhaincha (sesbania aculeata) plant residues utilizing 15N tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-11-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of manuring with three types of plant residues (roots, shoots or roots plus shoots) of Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata Pers.) on the yield and N-uptake of Sorghum bicolor grown in saline and non-saline soils. For measuring various sources of N-uptake, two isotopic dilution techniques were utilized by adding to these soils either 15 N-labelled inorganic N-fertilizer (indirect method) or 15 N-labelled sesbania leaves (direct method). For the indirect method, both soils manured with each type of sesbania residue, received four split applications of 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate. Results indicated that each type of sesbania residue, applied as a green manure, resulted in significant increases in both dry matter yield and N-uptake of sorghum as compared with the un manured control. Moreover, sesbania residues decreased the harmful effect of salinity on plant growth. Percentages of N derived from residues (%Ndfr) in sorghum grown in non saline soil ranged between 3.9 and 33%; whereas, in saline soil, the observed values ranged between 4.9 and 19.8%. N recoveries in sorghum grown in non saline soil were 61, 45 and 37% of the total amount contained in the sesbania root, shoot and root plus shoot; whereas, values in sorghum grown in saline soils were 48, 14,8 and 15.7%, respectively. The beneficial effects of sesbania residues have been attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plants, but also to its effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake. Percentages and amounts of Ndfr calculated using the indirect method were not significantly different from those obtained by the direct method indicating that the indirect method used herein is feasible and simple for measuring N release from organic residues. It is suggested that the use of Sesbania aculeata residues, particularly the shoots, as a green manure, can provide a substantial portion of total N in sorghum. Moreover, the use of sesbania green manure in

  14. Measurement of N2 fixation in Sesbania aculeata pers. and Sorghum bicolor L. grown in intercropping system, using sup 1 sup 5 N isotopic dilution technique. 1: Field evaluation under non-saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Khalifa, K.; Janat, M.

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment on Sesbania aculeata and Sorghum bicolor grown in mono cropping and in inter cropping systems was conducted under non-saline conditions (soil EC sub e 0.16, water EC sub w 1 ds/m/m) to evaluate dry matter production, total N yield, soil N uptake and N sub 2 -fixation using sup 1 sup 5 N isotope dilution method. Three different row ratios of sesbania (ses) and sorghum (sor) were subjected in the inter cropping system (2 ses: 1 sor; 1 ses: 1 sor and 1 ses: 2 sor row ratio). Dry matter yield of sole sorghum was higher than that of sole sesbania, and it was similar to that produced by the inter cropping treatments. However, total N yield of sole sorghum was significantly the lowest, with no differences being obtained between sole sesbania and inter cropping treatments. The LERs of total N yield were, in all cases, higher than 1, reflecting a greater advantage of inter cropping system in terms of land use efficiency. Percentages of N sub 2 fixation in the inter cropped sesbania were considerably enhanced compared with the pure stand of sesbania. This was mainly attributed to the depletion of soil N resulting from the greater apparent competitiveness of sorghum for soil N, and consequently, a greater dependence of sesbania on N sub 2 fixation. However, the degree of the intraspecific competition for soil N uptake was affected by the proportion of crops in the mixture, and it was considerably reduced in the 2 ses: 1 sor row ratio. This was demonstrated when an equal depletion of soil and fertilizer N uptake occurred for both crops. We excluded in all-inter cropping treatments the possibility of N transfer from sesbania to sorghum. Row inter cropping, with crops grown in alternation of two rows of sesbania with one row of sorghum, seemed to be the most adequate row ratio in terms of total N yield, LER, N sub 2 -fixation and soil N uptake balance of the component crops. (author)

  15. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply on the relative contributions of pre- and post-anthesis net above-ground biomass accumulation and N uptake to grain-yield and grain N concentration was examined in four contrasting environments in semi-arid tropical Australia. The four environments had different radiation and temperature regimes, and varying levels of water deficit. The grain-yield achieved under high N supply ranged from 156 to 621 g m −2 (on an oven-dry basis). In all but the lowest-yielding environment, there was substantial biomass accumulation during grain-filling and it increased with N application. Only in the lowest-yielding environment was there substantial mobilization of pre-anthesis biomass to grain. Biomass mobilization was not affected by N application. Nitrogen uptake during grain-filling was unresponsive to N application, and was small relative to total N uptake during the life-cycle. Mobilization of pre-anthesis N to the grain was much more significant. In all but the lowest-yielding environment, N mobilization increased with N application. Grain-yield under variable N supply and differing environmental conditions was not dependent on the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis growth. However, grain-yield was proportional to biomass at maturity over the entire yield range in this study and variability in biomass accounted for 95% of the variance in grain-yield. Similarly, grain N concentration was not related to the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis N uptake, but variability in total N uptake accounted for 92% of the variance in grain N accumulation. Consequently, there was no differential effect of N supply or environmental factors on yield physiology that could not be explained by their effect on biomass and N uptake. (author)

  16. Sorghums: viable biomass candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, T A; Arthur, M F; Kresovich, S; Scantland, D A

    1980-01-01

    Agronomic studies conducted at Battelle's Columbus Division to evaluate biomass and sugar yields of sweet sorghum are described and the major findings are summarized. Development opportunities for using sorghum cultivars as a large-scale energy crop are discussed. With presently available cultivars, sweet sorghum should produce 3500 to 4000 liters ethanol per hectare from the fermentable sugars alone. Conversion of the stalk fibers into alcohol could increase production by another 1600 to 1900 liters per hectare with existing cultivars. These yields are approximately 30 to 40% greater per hectare than would be obtained from above average yields of grain and stalk fiber with corn. There is reason to believe, that with hybrid sweet sorghum, these yields could be further increased by as much as 30%. Diminishing land availability for agricultural crops necessitates that maximum yields be obtained. Over the next decade, imaginative technological innovations in sorghum harvesting, processing, and crop preservation, coupled with plant breeding research should help this crop realize its full potential as a renewable resource for energy production.

  17. Evaluation of the use of organic acids in the conservation of sorghum grains (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench during storage/ Avaliação do uso de ácidos orgânicos na conservação de grãos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench durante o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zafalon Peter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the use of organic acids in storage of sorghum grains, as an efficient alternative for small and medium producers, that lack structures for artificial drying and technical storage. The grains were stored in bulk in wood boxes, for six months, consisting of five treatments: I dried grains (13.15% of moisture, without incorporation of acids; II humid grains (21,54% of moisture without incorporation of acids; II-A; II-P and II-M, the latter three, with incorporation of acetic acid, propionic and the mixture of both, in the proportion of 1:1, respectively, in the dosis of 2 kg of acid per 100 kg of grains. Evaluation of grains was made at 1, 60, 120 and 180 days of storage, analysing humidity, carboydrate, crude protein, ether extract, ash, volumetric weight and incidence of insects. For the storage of 180 days, under the same environment conditions, it is concluded that: 1 the incorporation of acids at the moment of storage of humid sorghum grains allows superior preservative effects when compared to dry grains; 2 the mixture of acids, showed superior quantitative and qualitative preservative effects of the grains, followed by propionic acid, and acetic, respectively; 3 the storage of humid grains, without addition of acids, does not allow adequate grain conservation, not even for a period lesser than 60 days.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a utilização de ácidos orgânicos no armazenamento de grãos de sorgo, como alternativa eficiente para pequenos e médios produtores, que não dispõem de estruturas de secagem artificial e armazenamento tecnificado. Os grãos foram armazenados a granel, em caixas de madeira, por seis meses, consistindo de cinco tratamentos: I grãos secos (13,15% de umidade, sem incorporação de ácidos; II grãos úmidos (21,54% de umidade, sem incorporação de ácidos; II-A; II-P e II-M, sendo os três últimos grãos úmidos (21,54% de umidade, com incorporação de

  18. Morphological responses of forage sorghums to salinity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties to salinity and irrigation frequency were studied from December 2007 to December 2009. Two forage sorghum varieties (Speedfeed and KFS4) were grown under salinity levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 and irrigated when the leaf water potential ...

  19. Analysis of sorghum wax and carnauba wax by reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a genus in the grass family, which is used for both grain and forage production throughout the world. In the United States, sorghum grain is predominantly used as livestock feed, and in ethanol production. In recent years however, sorghum grain has been investigated for other industrial a...

  20. Field damage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) with reduced lignin levels by naturally occurring insect pests and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutant lines of sorghum with low levels of lignin are potentially useful for bioenergy production, but may have problems with insects or disease. Field grown normal and low lignin bmr6 and bmr12 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were examined for insect and disease damage in the field, and insect damage in ...

  1. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy ... government that only ''non-grain” materials can be used ... In this work, ... inoculated (10%, v/v) into fermentation medium prepared with the.

  2. Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are...

  3. Evaluation of the multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a cost effective crop in semiarid regions, is an underestimated supplement to corn in starch based ethanol production. Twenty three multi-seeded (msd) mutant sorghums and one wild type sorghum BTx623 were evaluated for ethanol production and effect of che...

  4. Advances in sorghum genetic mapping with implications for sorghum improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.

    1998-01-01

    Despite the importance of the sorghum crop, comprehensive genetic characterization has been limited. Therefore, the primary goal of this research program was to develop basic genetic tools to facilitate research in the genetics and breeding of sorghum. The first phase of this project consisted of constructing a genetic map based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The ISU sorghum map was created through linkage analysis of 78 F2 plants of an intraspecific cross between inbred CK60 and accession PI229828. Subsequent mapping, efforts in several labs have enriched the sorghum map to the point where it now contains over 1,500 loci defined by RFLPs and many others defined by mutant phenotypes and QTLs. The ISU map consists of 201 loci distributed among 10 linkage groups covering 1299 cM. Comparison of sorghum and maize RFLP maps on the basis of common sets of DNA probes revealed a high degree of conservation as reflected by homology, copy number, and colinearity. Examples of conserved and rearranged locus orders were observed. The same sorghum population was used to map genetic factors (mutants and QTLS) for several traits including vegetative and reproductive morphology, maturity, insect, and disease resistance. Four QTLs for plant height, an important character for sorghum adaptation in temperate latitudes for grain production, were identified in a sample of 152 F2 plants whereas 6 QTLs were detected among their F3 progeny. These observations and assessments of other traits at 4 QTLs common to F2 plants and their F3 progeny indicate some of these regions correspond to loci (dw) previously identified on the basis of alleles with highly qualitative effects. Four of the six sorghum plant height QTLs seem to be orthologous to plant height QTLs in maize. Other possible instances of orthologous QTLs included regions for maturity and tillering. These observations suggest that the conservation of the maize and sorghum genomes encompasses sequence homology

  5. PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SORGHUM CULTIVARS 285

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    purpose crop providing staple food for human consumption ... Many people in Africa and Asia depend on sorghum as the stuff of life. ... needed for rice and maize and can be grown where ... food energy 394 calories. ... They produce acute and.

  6. Stability Test For Sorghum Mutant Lines Derived From Induced Mutations with Gamma-Ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Human

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum breeding program had been conducted at the Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, BATAN. Plant genetic variability was increased through induced mutations using gamma-ray irradiation. Through selection process in successive generations, some promising mutant lines had been identified to have good agronomic characteristics with high grain yield. These breeding lines were tested in multi location trials and information of the genotypic stability was obtained to meet the requirements for officially varietal release by the Ministry of Agriculture. A total of 11 sorghum lines and varieties consisting of 8 mutant lines derived from induced mutations (B-100, B-95, B-92, B-83, B-76, B-75, B-69 and Zh-30 and 3 control varieties (Durra, UPCA-S1 and Mandau were included in the experiment. All materials were grown in 10 agro-ecologically different locations namely Gunungkidul, Bantul, Citayam, Garut, Lampung, Bogor, Anyer, Karawaci, Cianjur and Subang. In each location, the local adaptability test was conducted by randomized block design with 3 replications. Data of grain yield was used for evaluating genotypic stability using AMMI approach. Results revealed that sorghum mutation breeding had generated 3 mutant lines (B-100, B-76 and Zh-30 exhibiting grain yield significantly higher than the control varieties. These mutant lines were genetically stable in all locations so that they would be recommended for official release as new sorghum varieties to the Ministry of Agriculture

  7. Surface morphology and grain analysis of successively industrially grown amorphous hydrogenated carbon films (a-C:H) on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Alberto; McJunkin, Thomas; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M.; Wehner, Stefan; Fischer, Christian B.

    2015-08-01

    Silicon (1 0 0) has been gradually covered by amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films via an industrial process. Two types of these diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, one more flexible (f-DLC) and one more robust (r-DLC), have been investigated. Both types have been grown by a radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique with acetylene plasma. Surface morphologies have been studied in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate the DLC structure. Both types appeared to have very similar morphology and sp2 carbon arrangement. The average height and area for single grains have been analyzed for all depositions. A random distribution of grain heights was found for both types. The individual grain structures between the f- and r-type revealed differences: the shape for the f-DLC grains is steeper than for the r-DLC grains. By correlating the average grain heights to the average grain areas for all depositions a limited region is identified, suggesting a certain regularity during the DLC deposition mechanisms that confines both values. A growth of the sp2 carbon entities for high r-DLC depositions is revealed and connected to a structural rearrangement of carbon atom hybridizations and hydrogen content in the DLC structure.

  8. Impact of phenolic compounds and related enzymes in Sorghum varieties for resistance and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Barro, C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds and related enzymes before and after sorghum grain germination were compared between varieties either resistant or susceptible to biotic (sooty stripe, sorghum midge, leaf anthracnose, striga, and grain molds) and abiotic (lodging, drought resistance, and photoperiod

  9. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Grain flour starch pasting and malt qualities were analyzed. .... bags and stored in a cool place (ca. ... Pasting properties of four malting barely varieties grain flour starches and the effect of three fungicide (propiconazole) spray.

  10. Analysis of aluminium sensitivity in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, K.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve genotypes of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) differing in Al sensitivity were grown in an acid soil (with additions of lime or MgSO 4 ) and in nutrient solutions (with or without Al at constant pH) for periods between 14 and 35 days.

  11. Parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca e da proteína bruta das silagens de seis genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, com e sem tanino no grão, avaliados pela técnica in situ Potential degradability parameters of the dry matter and crude protein of six sorghum silage genotypes (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, with or without tannin on grain, evaluated by in situ technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio Ribeiro Molina

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para testar o efeito da presença de tanino no grão sobre os parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca e da proteína bruta de seis genótipos de sorgo para silagem, foi conduzido um experimento utilizando a técnica da degradabilidade in situ. Quatro novilhos canulados no rúmen, alimentados individualmente, duas vezes ao dia ad libitum com feno de Tifton 85, foram utilizados para a incubação de silagens de sorgo no estádio de grão leitoso, pertencentes a seis genótipos: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601e AG 2006 (sem tanino no grão; BR 700 e BR 701 (com tanino. Foram incubadas 5 g de amostra nos tempos de incubação: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. O tempo zero (t0 foi utilizado para cálculo da fração solúvel. A presença do tanino reduziu a extensão de degradação da matéria seca e da proteína bruta nas silagens de sorgo BR 700 e BR 701. As degradabilidades potenciais destes nutrientes foram influenciada pelo tanino. Não foi observado efeito depressivo do tanino sobre as taxas de degradação para nenhum nutriente, em nenhuma silagem testada.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of tannin on grain over potential degradability parameters of the dry matter and crude protein of six sorghum silage genotypes by in situ technique. It was used four crossbred steers, canulated in rumen, fed ad libitum twice at day with a diet comprised by Cynodon dactylon hay. Six sorghum silage genotypes, harvested at milk stage, were incubated in the rumen: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601, and AG 2006 (without tannin on grain; BR 700, and BR 701 (with tannin on grain. Five grams of samples were incubated at times: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The time zero (t0 was used to calculate the soluble fraction. Tannin decrease the extent of degradation of dry matter and crude protein of BR 700 and BR 701 sorghum silages. The potential degradabilities of these nutrients were reduced by tannin presence on grain. There was not effect of tannin

  12. The impact of elevated CO2 and temperature on grain quality of rice grown under open-air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liquan; Wang, Juan; Shen, Shibo; Wang, Yunxia; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Yulong; Yang, Lianxin

    2016-08-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is accompanied by global warming. However, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature have not been well studied on grain quality of rice. A japonica cultivar was grown in the field using a free-air CO2 enrichment facility in combination with a canopy air temperature increase system in 2014. The gas fumigation (200 µmol mol(-1) above ambient CO2 ) and temperature increase (1 °C above ambient air temperature) were performed from tillering until maturity. Compared with the control (ambient CO2 and air temperature), elevated CO2 increased grain length and width as well as grain chalkiness but decreased protein concentrations. In contrast, the increase in canopy air temperature had less effect on these parameters except for grain chalkiness. The starch pasting properties of rice flour and taste analysis of cooked rice indicated that the palatability of rice was improved by CO2 and/or temperature elevation, with the combination of the two treatments showing the most significant changes compared with ambient rice. It is concluded that projected CO2 in 2050 may have larger effects on rice grain quality than the projected temperature increase. Although deterioration in milling suitability, grain appearance and nutritional quality can be expected, the taste of cooked rice might be better in the future environment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effects of treating sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles with fibrolytic enzymes on nutrient digestibility and performance in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of treating sorghum WDG with solubles (SWDG) with an enzyme, or enzyme-buffer combination on diet digestibility and feedlot performance. Experimental treatments are; 1) untreated SWDG (control), 2) addition of an enzyme complex to SWDG (enzyme...

  14. In vitro and in situ degradation of alkali treated sorghum wet distillers grains alone or in combination with corn stalks to increase their nutritive value

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alkali treatment on in vitro and in situ digestibility of fiber sources. An in vitro and in situ experiment were conducted to determine the effects of treating sorghum WDG with solubles (SWDG) and corn stalks (CS) with calcium hydroxide on in ...

  15. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de sorgo através o teste de estresse hídrico Physiological quality of grain sorghum seeds by the hidric stress test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barros Torres

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a eficiência do teste de estresse hídrico na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, seis lotes de sementes básicas da cultivar IPA-1011, safra 1995, foram analisados pêlos testes de germinação, primeira contagem, de frio sem solo, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, emergência em campo e comprimento das plântulas sob estresse hídrico nos potenciais de 0, -0,3. -0,6 e -0,9 MPa. Os trabalhos foram realizados no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes e no campo experimental da EMBRAPA-CPATSA, em Petrolina, PE. As determinações foram conduzidas com quatro repetições em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os resultados indicaram que o teste de germinação sob estresse hídrico de -0,6MPa, pode ser usado para estimar o desempenho das sementes de sorgo em situações desfavoráveis de disponibilidade hídrica no solo.This work was carried out with the objective of testing the efficiency of the water stress test of the evaluation of physiological quality of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench seeds. Six lots of basic seeds of the cultivar IPA-1011 were analyzed by the following tests: germination, first count, cold without soil test, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, field emergency, and seedling length under hydric stress at 0, - 0.3, - 0.6 and -0.9MPa matric potentials. The trials were carried out at the Seed Laboratory at the experimental field of EMBRAPA-CPATSA, Petrolina - PE, in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results indicated that the germination test under water stress of -0,6MPa can be used to estimate the performance of grain sorghum seeds under unfavorable soil water conditions.

  16. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propiconazole) spray intervals (7, 14, 21 day) and no spray control were arranged in a RCBD in 4 replications to assess net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) effect on malt quality. The varieties were grown at Holetta agricultural research center in 2005, ...

  17. VERMICOMPOST APPLICATION IMPROVING SEMIARID-GROWN CORN GREEN EAR AND GRAIN YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive corn farming quickly depletes soil organic matter in the nutrient-poor soils of the Brazilian semiarid region. Application of vermicompost, an excellent organic fertilizer, could help solve that problem. This study evaluated the effect of applying Eisenia fetida vermicompost in the seeding furrows, at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 Mg.ha-1 application rates, on the green ear yield and grain yield of two corn cultivars. Treatments were replicated five times with split-plots (vermicompost application rates within plots in a completely randomized block design. The number of mature ears, number of kernels per ear (cultivar BR 106, and 100-kernel weight (cultivar AG 1051 were not affected by vermicompost application rate. However, vermicompost application increased total number and weight of unhusked and husked marketable green ears as well as grain yield. Total number of green ears was higher in cultivar BR 106 than in cultivar AG 1051. Conversely, grain yield and total ear weight and marketable weight of unhusked and husked green ears was higher in cultivar AG 1051, but responses in the latter two traits were dose-dependent.

  18. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.

    2009-01-01

    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  19. Lactic acid fermentation of two sorghum varieties is not affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate sorghum grain variety differences in lactic acid fermentation based on their differences in phenolic contents. The study wa s conductedas a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial design with three factors: Factor 1: Sorghum variety (white and red sorghum); Factor 2: Control treatment without lactic acid ...

  20. development of dual purpose sorghum: correlation and path

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (Table 3). Grain yield and stem sugar traits. The correlation coefficients between grain yield and. T. ABLE 2. Correlation coefficients between grain yield and stem sugar content with selected agronomic traits in sorghum. SBX. GY. SBW. DT50F. HDL. SJS. NLP. PHT. Stem brix (SBX). 1.000. Grain yield (GY). 0.071**. 1.000.

  1. EVALUATION OF GRAIN SORGHUM CULTIVARS FOR DOUBLE CROPPING IN THE SOUTHWEST OF GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL AVALIAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DE SORGO GRANÍFERO NA SAFRINHA NO SUDOESTE DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bezerra de Morães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Sorghum is a crop of great importance for double cropping, in the Brazilian Central-West region. Within this region, in the Southwestern Goiás State, a research was conducted to select sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cultivars, in the municipalities of Montividiu, Rio Verde, and Santa Helena de Goiás. A randomized blocks design, with four replications, was used. The grain sorghum cultivars tested were: BR 304, 741, 822, Catuy, and the experimental hybrid V 00069. The cultivars were sown on March 5, 2005. The evaluated characteristics were: yield, weight of thousand grains, plant height, and flowering and maturation dates. The results showed the interaction genotype x environment for all evaluated characteristics. The region of Montividiu presented better potential for sorghum grain production. Early flowering and harvest allowed higher grain yields.

     

  2. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Czembor

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON, zearalenone (ZON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated. Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures.

  3. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950–2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823

  4. Increased SBPase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driever, Steven M; Simkin, Andrew J; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J; Madgwick, Pippa J; Sparks, Caroline A; Jones, Huw D; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A J; Raines, Christine A

    2017-09-26

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf photosynthesis in wheat, the level of the Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphatase (SBPase) has been increased through transformation and expression of a Brachypodium distachyon SBPase gene construct. Transgenic lines with increased SBPase protein levels and activity were grown under greenhouse conditions and showed enhanced leaf photosynthesis and increased total biomass and dry seed yield. This showed the potential of improving yield potential by increasing leaf photosynthesis in a crop species such as wheat. The results are discussed with regard to future strategies for further improvement of photosynthesis in wheat.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Tamanho de parcela para produtividade de grãos de sorgo granífero em diferentes densidades de plantas Experimental plot size in grain sorghum in different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do arranjo de plantas na estimativa do tamanho ótimo de parcela da cultura de sorgo granífero, para a variável produtividade de grãos. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial com dois espaçamentos entre linhas (0,50 m e 0,80 m, três densidades de semeadura (100 mil, 160 mil e 220 mil plantas ha-1 e quatro repetições. Cada repetição foi composta, na área útil, por 12 unidades básicas de 0,50 m da linha de cultivo. Foram ajustados modelos, na estimativa do tamanho ótimo de parcela, que relacionam a variância ou o coeficiente de variação com quatro tamanhos simulados das parcelas. O tamanho estimado de parcelas, na cultura de sorgo granífero, é de 3,2 m² para a variável produtividade de grãos. O aumento do número de plantas, na linha, não proporciona incrementos na produtividade de grãos, porém resulta em melhorias da qualidade de experimentos com sorgo. A estimativa do tamanho ótimo de parcela depende do número de plantas utilizadas na unidade básica. O espaçamento entre linhas não influencia na estimativa do tamanho ótimo de parcela.The objective of this work was to establish plant arrangement effect on the optimal plot size estimates of grain sorghum yield experiments. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with factorial combination of two row spacings (0.50 m and 0.80 m, and three plant densities (100 thousand, 160 thousand and 220 thousand plants ha-1, and four replications. The area of each replication was composed by 12 basic units measuring 0.50 m in row length. Models were adjusted in optimum plot size estimates that correlate variance or variation coefficient with four simulated plot sizes. Plot size was 3.2 m² for grain sorghum yield experiments. Increasing number of plants in row did not result in higher seed yields, however it improved sorghum quality experiment. Estimation of the ideal

  6. Next-generation sequencing technology for genetics and genomics of sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Hong; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2014-01-01

    and grain sorghum. NGS has also been used to examine the transcriptomes of sorghum under various stress conditions. Besides identifying interesting transcriptonal adpatation to stress conditions, these study show that sugar could potentially act as an osmitic adjusting factor via transcriptional regulation....... Furthermore, miRNAs are found to be important adaptation to both biotic and abiotic stresses in sorghum. We discuss the use of NGS for further genetic improvement and breeding in sorghum....

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation characterisation of water status of developing grains of maize (Zea mays L.) grown at different nitrogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Prameela; Chopra, Usha Kiran; Verma, Ajay Pal Singh; Joshi, Devendra Kumar; Chand, Ishwar

    2014-04-01

    Changes in water status of developing grains of maize (Zea mays L.) grown under different nitrogen levels were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. There were distinct changes in water status of grains due to the application of different levels of nitrogen (0, 120 and 180 kg N ha(-1)). A comparison of the grain developmental characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, not only the developmental characteristics like grain weight, grain number/ear, and rate of grain filling increased, but also bound water characterized by the T2 component of NMR relaxation increased with nitrogen application (50-70%) and developmental stages leading to maturation (10-60%). The consistency in the patterns of responses to free water and intermediate water to increasing levels of nitrogen application and grain maturity suggested that nitrogen application resulted in more proportion of water to both bound- and intermediate states and less in free state. These changes are further corroborated by the concomitant increases in protein and starch contents in grains from higher nitrogen treatments as macromolecules like protein and starch retain more amount of water in the bound state. The results of the changes in T2 showed that water status during grain development was not only affected by developmental processes but also by nitrogen supply to plants. This study strongly indicated a clear nutrient and developmental stage dependence of grain tissue water status in maize. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of grain size and crystallinity of thin layers of pentacene grown under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Kenichi [Division of Materials Science, Faculty of pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yohei, E-mail: yamamoto@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp [Division of Materials Science, Faculty of pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science (TIMS), Faculty of pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Technology (CiRfSE), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-03-31

    Field-effect mobilities (μ) of pentacene films, prepared by a thermal deposition under a magnetic field (H-field), were largely enhanced, in comparison with that prepared without an H-field. Under a perpendicular H-field with respect to the substrate surface, the crystallinity of the edge-on pentacene orientation is enhanced, resulting in the 9-fold enhancement of μ. Furthermore, under parallel H-field with respect to the substrate surface, μ of the pentacene films were 23-fold greater than that prepared without the H-field. The surface morphology studies by atomic force microscopy of the ultra thin films of pentacene clarified that the grain size of the pentacene at the interface with the substrate is larger for films under parallel H-field than that prepared without an H-field. The simple and effective method for enhancing the semiconducting properties of the organic thin films gives high technological impact in its application to organic electronics. - Highlights: • Magnetic-field effect on the crystallinity of pentacene thin films • Magnetic-field effect on the morphology of pentacene thin films • Enhanced field-effect charge carrier mobility of pentacene thin films.

  9. Enhancement of grain size and crystallinity of thin layers of pentacene grown under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Field-effect mobilities (μ) of pentacene films, prepared by a thermal deposition under a magnetic field (H-field), were largely enhanced, in comparison with that prepared without an H-field. Under a perpendicular H-field with respect to the substrate surface, the crystallinity of the edge-on pentacene orientation is enhanced, resulting in the 9-fold enhancement of μ. Furthermore, under parallel H-field with respect to the substrate surface, μ of the pentacene films were 23-fold greater than that prepared without the H-field. The surface morphology studies by atomic force microscopy of the ultra thin films of pentacene clarified that the grain size of the pentacene at the interface with the substrate is larger for films under parallel H-field than that prepared without an H-field. The simple and effective method for enhancing the semiconducting properties of the organic thin films gives high technological impact in its application to organic electronics. - Highlights: • Magnetic-field effect on the crystallinity of pentacene thin films • Magnetic-field effect on the morphology of pentacene thin films • Enhanced field-effect charge carrier mobility of pentacene thin films

  10. Performance of Sorghum Varieties under Variable Rainfall in Central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msongaleli, Barnabas M; Tumbo, S D; Kihupi, N I; Rwehumbiza, Filbert B

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall variability has a significant impact on crop production with manifestations in frequent crop failure in semiarid areas. This study used the parameterized APSIM crop model to investigate how rainfall variability may affect yields of improved sorghum varieties based on long-term historical rainfall and projected climate. Analyses of historical rainfall indicate a mix of nonsignificant and significant trends on the onset, cessation, and length of the growing season. The study confirmed that rainfall variability indeed affects yields of improved sorghum varieties. Further analyses of simulated sorghum yields based on seasonal rainfall distribution indicate the concurrence of lower grain yields with the 10-day dry spells during the cropping season. Simulation results for future sorghum response, however, show that impacts of rainfall variability on sorghum will be overridden by temperature increase. We conclude that, in the event where harms imposed by moisture stress in the study area are not abated, even improved sorghum varieties are likely to perform poorly.

  11. Direct insight into grains formation in Si layers grown on 3C-SiC by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaka, Rami; Portail, Marc; Vennéguès, Philippe; Alquier, Daniel; Michaud, Jean François

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated the influence of the 3C-SiC layer on the subsequent growth of Si epilayers. We were able to give a direct evidence that the rotation in the Si epilayer of 90° around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of an antiphase boundary in the 3C-SiC layer as shown in the figure above. Thus, increasing the layer thickness of the 3C-SiC leads to a direct improvement of the crystalline quality of the subsequent Si epilayer. (a) Cross-section bright-field TEM image of the Si/3C-SiC layer stack along two 3C-SiC zone axes [1 −1 0] and [1 1 0] (equivalent to [1 −1 1] and [1 1 2] in Si, respectively), (b) dark field image selecting a (2 0 −2) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset, (c) dark field image selecting a (−1 1 −1) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset. The dotted white line in the images show the position of the defect in the 3C-SiC layer. - Abstract: This work presents a structural study of silicon (Si) thin films grown on cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) by chemical vapor deposition. The presence of grains rotated by 90° around the growth direction in the Si layer is directly related to the presence of antiphase domains on the 3C-SiC surface. We were able to provide a direct evidence that the 90° rotation of Si grains around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of antiphase boundaries (APBs) in 3C-SiC layer. Increasing the 3C-SiC thickness reduces the APBs density on 3C-SiC surface leading to a clear improvement of the uppermost Si film crystal quality. Furthermore, we observed by high resolution plan-view TEM images the presence of hexagonal Si domains limited to few nm in size. These hexagonal Si domains are inclusions in small Si grains enclosed in larger ones rotated by 90°. Finally, we propose a model of grains formation in the Si layer taking into consideration the effect

  12. A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Friis, Carsten; Bowra, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of stora...

  13. Comportamento do sorgo granífero em função de diferentes frações da água disponível no solo Grain sorghum responses under several fractions of plant available water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Xavier Peiter

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento morfológico e fisiológico das plantas de sorgo em relação à diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico tem sido caracterizado extensivamente. Entretanto, as respostas são dependentes do grau de severidade e duração do déficit. O objetivo desse experimento foi analisar o comportamento da cultura do sorgo quando submetida a diferentes frações da água disponível no solo. O experimento foi desenvolvido no ano agrícola de 1993/94, em lisímetros de drenagem, protegidos das precipitações pluviométricas através de uma cobertura móvel. A cultivar Agroceres 3001 foi submetida a quatro tratamentos de irrigação. Irrigações foram aplicadas quando a fração da água disponível (FAD, medida na profundidade do solo explorado pelo sistema radicular das plantas, atingia valores inferiores a 0,95, 0,85, 0,75, e 0,65 da FAD, com três repetições. A altura de plantas e o índice de área foliar foram semelhantes para os tratamentos de 0,75, 0,85 e 0,95 da FAD. O manejo da irrigação com a manutenção da FAD a 0,75 e 0,85 apresentaram valores semelhantes para todas as variáveis analisadas. A manutenção da FAD a 0,65 resultou em um menor crescimento das plantas de sorgo, indicando a ocorrência de déficit hídrico.The morphological and physiological behaviour of grain sorghum plants submitted to different water deficit levels has been extensively characterized. However, plant responses are extremelly dependents of the severity and duration of lhe stress. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of sorghum crop when submitted to different irrigation management levels. This experiment was conducted during 1993/94 growing season in a set of drainage lysimeters under a rain shelter. The sorghum variety Agroceres 3001 was submitted to four irrigation treatments. Irrigations were aplyied when the fraction of plant available water (PAW were lower than 0.95, 0.85, 0.75 and 0.65, with three replications

  14. Development of a Low Cost Machine for Improved Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dehullers are limited. Key Words: Sorghum, grain tempering, dehuller, dehulling efficiency ... obtained from the local market in Morogoro municipal were used to test the .... The hypothesis was accepted or rejected at 95% confidence level.

  15. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy-Related Traits in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) under Danish Agro-Climatic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), a C4 African originated grass, ranks 5th most important crop worldwide, feeding over 500 million people in tropical regions as it withstands a wide panel of biotic and abiotic stresses. The small and simple diploid genome of sorghum was elected as the third...... plant for sequencing in 2009 promoting it as a C4 model plant. Among the very diverse genetic resources available for sorghum, sweet sorghum plants; amassing large quantities of juice-rich and sugar-rich stem, grain and vegetative biomass; have been enlightened as bioenergy crop as it can produced from...... a single plant food, feed and fuel. Sweet sorghum has gained interest in Europe to replace maize, for biogas and bioenergy productions, but this versatile crop is sensitive to chilling temperatures and little breeding efforts have been done toward its cold acclimation. The state-of-art of using...

  16. (cucurbita pepo) and sorghum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    ... properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour blends fermented with pure strains of Lactobacillus ... good storage characteristics and affordable cost. (Akinrele ... (MRS), Nutrient agar (NA) and Potato dextrose.

  17. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  18. Influences of residual oxygen impurities, cubic indium oxide grains and indium oxy-nitride alloy grains in hexagonal InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodo, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kouyama, T.; Harada, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the influences of residual oxygen (O) impurities, cubic indium oxide (β-In 2 O 3 ) grains and indium oxy-nitride (InON) alloy grains in 200 nm-thick hexagonal (α)-InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Although β-In 2 O 3 grains with wide band-gap energy were formed in In film by N 2 annealing, they were not easily formed in N 2 -annealed InN films. Even if they were not detected in N 2 -annealed InN films, the as-grown films still contained residual O impurities with concentrations of less than 0.5% ([O]≤0.5%). Although [O]∝1% could be estimated by investigating In 2 O 3 grains formed in N 2 -annealed InN films, [O]≤0.5% could not be measured by it. However, we found that they can be qualitatively measured by investigating In 2 O 3 grains formed by H 2 annealing with higher reactivity with InN and O 2 , using X-ray diffraction and PL spectroscopy. In this paper, we discuss the formation mechanism of InON alloy grains in InN films. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Differences in fusarium species in brown midrib sorghum and in air populations in production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several Fusarium spp. cause sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grain mold, resulting in deterioration and mycotoxin production in the field and during storage. Fungal isolates from the air (2005 to 2006) and from leaves and grain from wild-type and brown midrib (bmr)-6 and bmr12 plants (2002 to 2003) were co...

  20. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fernanda Schons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum, phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 10(7 spores/mL; A Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition.

  1. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schons, Patrícia Fernanda; Battestin, Vania; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum), phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum) and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 10(7) spores/mL); A) Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B) An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C) a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition.

  2. High-polyphenol sorghum bran extract inhibits cancer cell growth through DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    As diet is one of the major controllable factors in cancer development, potentially chemopreventive foods are of significant interest to public health. One such food is sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a cereal grain that contains varying concentrations of polyphenols. In a panel of 15 sorghum germplasm...

  3. Nutritional value of sorghum silage of different purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sorghum is a crop that stands out as an alternative to corn due to lower soil fertility demand and increased tolerance to drought. Lack of information about the qualitative behaviour of sorghum hinders the recommendation of different purpose sorghum cultivars. The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of different purpose sorghum cultivar silages, at two cropping seasons. The trial was conducted at the Plant Production Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, and chemical analyses and in vitro incubation were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus. The experimental design was a randomized block with a split-plot arrangement and four replications. Plot treatments consisted of six different purpose sorghum cultivars (BRS 308 and BRS 310, grain sorghum; BR 655 and BRS 610, forage sorghum; and BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, sweet sorghum. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping periods (first crop and second crop. Forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 demonstrated higher non-fiber carbohydrate content and lower potentially digestible fibre content than the other cultivars did. Sweet sorghum cultivars had higher levels of water soluble carbohydrates and non-protein nitrogen based on protein, lower indigestible neutral detergent fibre content at second crop, and higher in vitro dry matter digestibility than the other cultivars. The silages of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, and forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 presented higher nutritional values.

  4. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  5. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y.; Wu, S.C.; Wong, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg -1 . In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: → Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. → Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. → The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  6. SILAGE OF HIGH MOISTURE GRAIN AND DRY GRAIN OF SORGHUM AS ENERGETIC SOURCE FOR FEMALE CALVES FROM TWO GENETIC GROUPS SILAGEM DE GRÃO ÚMIDO OU GRÃO SECO DE SORGO COMO FONTE ENERGÉTICA PARA BEZERRAS DE DOIS GRUPOS GENÉTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance and development of Charolais (CH and 5/8Nellore 3/8Charolais (5/8NC female calves, feedlot fed with silage of high moisture grain or dry grain of sorghum, were evaluated. The roughage (corn silage:concentrate ratio was 60:40, dry matter (DM basis. Calves average initial weight and age was 96.9±8.5kg and five months. The experimental design was complete randomized, with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (types of sorghum grains conservation x genetic groups. No significant interaction was observed between type of sorghum grain conservation and genetic group, for the variables studied. No difference (P>.05 was observed between high moisture and dry grain for daily intake of DM (DMI 3.83 and 3.84 kg DM/day, and digestible energy (DEI 14.59 and 14.92 Mcal/day, respectively. Average daily weight gain (ADW .80 and .83 kg, final weight (FW 165.0 and 166.5 kg, and feed conversion (FC 4.78 and 4.63, were similar for high moisture and dry grain sorghum, respectively. Calves growth parameters according to sorghum grains conservation did not differ (P>.05. The gain of body condition (GBC was higher (P<.05 for the treatment of high moisture grain (.33 points in comparison to dry grain (.22 points. No difference (P>.05 was observed between genetic groups for DMI, DEI, ADW, FC and FW. The 5/8NC compared to the CH calves showed higher (P<.05 final body condition score (3.1 vs 3.0 points, initial (91.12 vs 83.62 cm and final withers height (102.62 vs 94.84 cm and initial (99.37 vs 89.69 cm and final rump height (108.87 vs 101.37 cm. The CH calves had higher (P<.05 thoracic perimeter (24.94 vs 20.56 cm.


    KEY WORDS: Average daily weight gain, crossbreeding, rump height, withers height, thoracic perimeter.

    Avaliaram-se o desempenho e o desenvolvimento corporal de bezerras Charolês (CH e 5/8Nelore 3/8Charolês (5/8NC, alimentadas em confinamento com silagem de grão úmido ou seco de sorgo. A rela

  7. (Arachis hypogaea) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    as enzyme activities of Arachis hypogaea and Sorghum bicolor in crude oil contaminated soil. Crude oil ... Treatments without crude oil were ... replicates were made for each treatment. .... dead sections of leaf margins, burning and stunted or.

  8. The productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Caixia; Xie, Gaodi; Li, Shimei; Ge, Liqiang; He, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    As one of the important non-grain energy crops, sweet sorghum has attracted the attention of scientific community and decision makers of the world since decades. But insufficient study has been done about the spatial suitability distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China. This paper attempts to probe into the spatial distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China by ArcGIS methods. Data used for the analysis include the spatial data of climate, soil, topography and land use, and literatures relevant for sweet sorghum studies. The results show that although sweet sorghum can be planted in the majority of lands in China, the suitable unused lands for large-scale planting (unit area not less than 100 hm 2 ) are only as much as 78.6 x 10 4 hm 2 ; and the productive potentials of ethanol from these lands are 157.1 x 10 4 -294.6 x 10 4 t/year, which can only meet 24.8-46.4% of current demand for E10 (gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol) in China (assumption of the energy efficiency of E10 is equivalent to that of pure petroleum). If all the common grain sorghum at present were replaced by sweet sorghum, the average ethanol yield of 244.0 x 10 4 t/year can be added, and thus the productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol can satisfy 63.2-84.9% of current demand for E10 of China. In general, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning rank the highest in productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol, followed by Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and some other provinces. It is suggested that these regions should be regarded as the priority development zones for sweet sorghum ethanol in China.

  9. Use of hybridization (F1 in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pataki Imre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In plants with bisexual flowers, the development of hybrids and F1 seed production is only possible by using cytoplasmatic male sterility. The discovery of such sterility and the maintainers has made it possible to utilize the phenomenon of heterosis to improve yields and yield components in forage sorghum. It has been shown that the best way to develop forage sorghum hybrids is to cross grain sorghum as the female parent and Sudan grass as the male. The objective of this study was to develop a forage sorghum hybrid for the production of green matter to be used either fresh or for silage. The sorghum hybrid developed in these efforts (Siloking is intended for multiple cutting, as the basal nodes produce buds and regrowth takes place. The performance of the new hybrid with respect to yield and quality was compared to that of the forage sorghum cultivar NS Džin. In a two-year study conducted under different growing conditions in four locations, Siloking produced an average green matter yield of 86.29 t ha-1 (two cuts, a dry matter yield of 25.34 t ha-1, and a crude protein content of 11.85 %. Siloking outperformed NS Džin in terms of yield and quality. .

  10. Effect of Harvesting Stage on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Genotypes in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Owuor Oyier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting stage of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cane is an important aspect in the content of sugar for production of industrial alcohol. Four sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated for harvesting stage in a randomized complete block design. In order to determine sorghum harvest growth stage for bioethanol production, sorghum canes were harvested at intervals of seven days after anthesis. The genotypes were evaluated at different stages of development for maximum production of bioethanol from flowering to physiological maturity. The canes were crushed and juice fermented to produce ethanol. Measurements of chlorophyll were taken at various stages as well as panicles from the harvested canes. Dried kernels at 14% moisture content were also weighed at various stages. Chlorophyll, grain weight, absolute ethanol volume, juice volume, cane yield, and brix showed significant (p=0.05 differences for genotypes as well as the stages of harvesting. Results from this study showed that harvesting sweet sorghum at stages IV and V (104 to 117 days after planting would be appropriate for production of kernels and ethanol. EUSS10 has the highest ethanol potential (1062.78 l ha−1 due to excellent juice volume (22976.9 l ha−1 and EUSS11 (985.26 l ha−1 due to its high brix (16.21.

  11. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  12. Ruminal silage degradability and productivity of forage and grain-type sorghum cultivars Degradabilidade ruminal das silagens e produtividade de cultivares de sorgo de tipo forrageiro e granífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Resende

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Forages for feeding dairy cows should conciliate the potential for high dry matter yield per unit area, maximizing animal stocking rate, with high nutritive value, which enables decreasing the amount of concentrate feedstuffs per milk unit produced. Eighteen sorghum cultivars were cultivated 0.70 m apart and with 12 plants per linear meter. Plants harvested at the milk-to-dough stage were ensiled in the laboratory. Eleven agronomic and chemical traits were evaluated. Silage samples were incubated in situ and the effective ruminal dry matter degradation (DEF was calculated assuming a fractional passage rate of -0.04 h-1. Dry matter yield was 13.0 ± 2.3 (mean ± S.D. t ha-1. The neutral detergent fiber content was 50.3 ± 3.8 and the DEF was 48.8 ± 2.8% (dry matter basis. The average sorghum DEF was 84% of the DEF of a composite sample of 60 corn hybrids simultaneously cultivated, ensiled and ruminally incubated. The 12 forage-type cultivars were taller, more productive, had higher fiber content and lower DEF than the 6 grain and dual purpose-type cultivars. The acid detergent fiber content had the greatest correlation with DEF (r= -0.64. The linear model correlating DEF with productivity was: DEF=54.694 - 0.4449 x t of dry matter ha-1 (r²=0.14. Although there are cultivars that show high productivity and digestibility, it seems to be difficult to conciliate the maximum nutritive value with the maximum productivity of the sorghum crop.Forrageiras para alimentação de vacas leiteiras devem conciliar a alta produção de matéria seca por área, maximizando a taxa de lotação animal, com o alto valor nutritivo, capaz de reduzir a necessidade de alimentos concentrados por litro de leite produzido. Dezoito cultivares de sorgo foram cultivados com espaçamento de 0,70 m e 12 plantas por metro linear. As plantas colhidas ao atingirem o estádio leitoso-pastoso foram ensiladas em laboratório. Onze características agronômicas e químicas foram

  13. Effect of sorghum type and malting on production of free amino nitrogen in conjunction with exogenous protease enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, Bhekisisa C; Buys, Elna M; Taylor, John R N

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum types suitable for brewing and bioethanol production are required. The effect of sorghum type (white non-tannin versus white type II tannin) on free amino nitrogen (FAN) production from sorghum grain and malt using exogenous protease enzymes was investigated over extended incubation at moderate temperature (45 °C). With grain in the absence of exogenous proteases, white non-tannin sorghum produced substantially higher levels of FAN than white type II tannin sorghum, due to the tannins in the latter. Incubating sorghum grain with neutral proteinase and amino-peptidase in combination improved FAN production. The two sorghum types produced similar FAN levels when malted and incubated in the absence of the exogenous proteases. When both sorghums were malted and incubated with neutral proteinase alone substantially more FAN yield (124-126 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred than with grains (61-84 mg 100 g(-1)). The combination of amino-peptidase and proteinase did not improve FAN further. Neither, did malting influence wort free amino acid profile. Group B amino acids constituted the highest percentage (42-47%). With grain, white non-tannin sorghum plus proteinase and amino-peptidase yields the highest FAN, with malt both white non-tannin and white type II tannin sorghums plus proteinase yield the highest FAN. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Yield Stability of Sorghum Hybrids and Parental Lines | Kenga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-five sorghum hybrids and twenty parental lines were evaluated for two consecutive years at two locations. Our objective was to compare relative stability of grain yields among hybrids and parental lines. Mean grain yields and stability analysis of variance, which included linear regression coefficient (bi) and ...

  15. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  16. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  17. Mutation breeding of pearl millet and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, W W [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, University of Georgia, College of Agricultural Experiment Stations, Coastal Plain Station, Agronomy Department, Tifton, GA (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Pearl millet and sorghum are important food and feed crops grown mostly in semi-arid regions of the world. Although there exists a large amount of genetic variability in both species, it does not always satisfy the needs of plant breeders in improving varieties with regard to yield, quality, resistance or environmental adaptation. Plant breeders interested in using induced mutations for variety improvement will find in this review information about the techniques used by others. (author)

  18. Mutation breeding of pearl millet and sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Pearl millet and sorghum are important food and feed crops grown mostly in semi-arid regions of the world. Although there exists a large amount of genetic variability in both species, it does not always satisfy the needs of plant breeders in improving varieties with regard to yield, quality, resistance or environmental adaptation. Plant breeders interested in using induced mutations for variety improvement will find in this review information about the techniques used by others. (author)

  19. Enhancement of coercivity with reduced grain size in CoCrPt film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Q.; Hu, X.F.; Li, H.Q.; He, X.X.; Wang, Xiaoru; Zhang, W.

    2006-01-01

    We report a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) growth of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer with a magnetic coercivity (H c ) of 2.2 kOe and a grain size of 12 nm. The effects of VMn underlayer on magnetic properties of CoCrPt layer were studied. The coercivity, H c , and squareness, S, of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer, is dependent on the thickness of VMn. The grain size of the CoCrPt film can also be modified by laser parameters. High laser fluence used for CoCrPt deposition produces a smaller grain size. Enhanced H c and reduced grain size in VMn/CoCrPt is explained by more pronounced surface phase segregation during deposition at high laser fluence

  20. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  1. Alteration in Lignin Biosynthesis Restricts Growth of Fusarium Species in Brown Midrib Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve sorghum for bioenergy and forage uses, brown midrib6 (bmr6) and bmr12 near-isogenic genotypes were developed in different sorghum backgrounds. bmr6 and bmr12 grain had significantly reduced colonization by members of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, compared with wild-type, as de...

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Ni Spines Grown on the Surface of Cubic Boron Nitride Grains by Electroplating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yanghai; Zhao, Jianbo; Chen, Jingbo; Jiang, Yuanli

    2016-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is widely applied in cutting and grinding tools. cBN grains plated by pure Ni and Ni/SiC composite were produced under the same conditions from an additive-free nickel Watts type bath. The processed electroplating products were characterized by the techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermoanalysis (TG-DTA). Due to the presence of SiC particles, there are some additional nodules on the surface of Ni/SiC plated cBN compared with the pure Ni plated cBN. The unique morphology of Ni/SiC plated cBN should attain greater retention force in resin bond. Moreover, the coating weight of cBN grains could be controlled by regulating the plating time. cBN grains with 60% coating weight possess the optimum grinding performance due to their roughest and spiniest surface. In addition, Ni spines plated cBN grains show good thermal stability when temperature is lower than 464 °C. Therefore, the plated cBN grains are more stable and suitable for making resin bond abrasive tools below 225 °C. Finally, the formation mechanism of electroplating products is also discussed. PMID:28773283

  3. Agronomic and morphological performance of sorghum (sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-03-30

    Mar 30, 2013 ... occasional frost limits growth and seed set of un- adapted cultivars (Arkel, 1979) making seed multiplication of un-adapted varieties unsuccessful. Previous studies have shown that sorghum cultivars adapted to high altitude, low rainfall areas. Journal of Applied Biosciences 63: 4720 – 4726. ISSN 1997– ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum_bicolor_L.png Sorghum_bicolor_NL.png Sorghum_bicolor_S.png Sorg...hum_bicolor_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=L http://b...iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorg...hum+bicolor&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NS ...

  5. Phenotyping of field-grown wheat in the UK highlights contribution of light response of photosynthesis and flag leaf longevity to grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Andralojc, P John; Scales, Joanna C; Driever, Steven M; Mead, Andrew; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A; Parry, Martin A J

    2017-06-15

    Improving photosynthesis is a major target for increasing crop yields and ensuring food security. Phenotyping of photosynthesis in the field is critical to understand the limits to crop performance in agricultural settings. Yet, detailed phenotyping of photosynthetic traits is relatively scarce in field-grown wheat, with previous studies focusing on narrow germplasm selections. Flag leaf photosynthetic traits, crop development, and yield traits were compared in 64 field-grown wheat cultivars in the UK. Pre-anthesis and post-anthesis photosynthetic traits correlated significantly and positively with grain yield and harvest index (HI). These traits included net CO2 assimilation measured at ambient CO2 concentrations and a range of photosynthetic photon flux densities, and traits associated with the light response of photosynthesis. In most cultivars, photosynthesis decreased post-anthesis compared with pre-anthesis, and this was associated with decreased Rubisco activity and abundance. Heritability of photosynthetic traits suggests that phenotypic variation can be used to inform breeding programmes. Specific cultivars were identified with traits relevant to breeding for increased crop yields in the UK: pre-anthesis photosynthesis, post-anthesis photosynthesis, light response of photosynthesis, and Rubisco amounts. The results indicate that flag leaf longevity and operating photosynthetic activity in the canopy can be further exploited to maximize grain filling in UK bread wheat. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. EVALUATION OF TWO VARIETIES OF SORGHUM FOR STARCH EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, the wet milling process for the extraction of starch is made from corn, cereal which is currently imported, that is why it is required to substitute it for another grain of national production as it is the case of sorghum. Given the similarities of the two grains in their starch content and considering the potential of sorghum for the food industry, it is developed in this work an assessment process, taking into account two sorghum varieties: red (CIAPR-132 and white (UDG-110. In this sense, a factorial design of the type 2k-1 is made, where the independent variables of most influence in the laboratory process are considered, such as: (x1 type of sorghum, (x2 soaking time and (x3 solution concentration. It is considered that there is no interaction between them and it is taken as the response variable the starch yield in the extraction process. We conclude that the type of sorghum and soaking time are the most influential variables, obtaining the best results for white sorghum subjected for 48 hours to soak in a solution of SO2 at a concentration of 1800 ppm.

  7. An Assessment of Direct on-Farm Energy Use for High Value Grain Crops Grown under Different Farming Practices in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek Maraseni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have quantified the energy consumption associated with crop production in various countries. However, these studies have not compared the energy consumption from a broad range of farming practices currently in practice, such as zero tillage, conventional tillage and irrigated farming systems. This study examines direct on-farm energy use for high value grain crops grown under different farming practices in Australia. Grain farming processes are identified and “typical” farming operation data are collected from several sources, including published and unpublished literature, as well as expert interviews. The direct on-farm energy uses are assessed for 27 scenarios, including three high value grain crops―wheat, barley and sorghum―for three regions (Northern, Southern and Western Australia under three farming conditions with both dryland (both for conventional and zero-tillage and irrigated conditions. It is found that energy requirement for farming operations is directly related to the intensity and frequency of farming operations, which in turn is related to tillage practices, soil types, irrigation systems, local climate, and crop types. Among the three studied regions, Western Australia requires less direct on-farm energy for each crop, mainly due to the easily workable sandy soils and adoption of zero tillage systems. In irrigated crops, irrigation energy remains a major contributor to the total on-farm energy demand, accounting for up to 85% of total energy use.

  8. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  9. Introduction of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) into China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorghum is a plant, which has been intentionally introduced in China for foods needs. It is a plant of African origin, which is much cultivated in the northern hemisphere. For millions of people in the semiarid tropic temperature of Asia and Africa, sorghum is the most important staple food. Sorghum is becoming one of the ...

  10. Transgenic sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) developed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important food and fodder crop. Fungal diseases such as anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum reduce sorghum yields. Genetic transformation can be used to confer tolerance to plant diseases such as anthracnose. The tolerance can be developed by introducing ...

  11. Factors affecting the porridge-making quality in South African sorghums

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available fermented, sour porridges remain popular, particularly among the Tswana of Botswana and South Africa (Novellie 1982; Sooliman 1993) The production of sorghum porridge involves ?rst producing a meal from sorghum grain. Commercially, this is generally done..., South Africa. the remaining part of the kernel (essentially endosperm) into a coarse meal. Alternatively, endosperm meal can be produced directly from grain by roller milling (Munck 1995). The meal is then cooked with boiling water into a porridge...

  12. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    these lines is in progress. Objective 2 The experiments from this objective have been completed and the data were published in the journal Crop Science by Felderhoff et al. (2012). A second publication by Felderhoff et al. is in progress (see publication list for full details). The experiments were based on a mapping population derived from the sweet sorghum 'Rio' and the dry-stalk grain sorghum BTx3197. The main findings were: 1) The apparent juiciness of the sorghum stalk, based on the appearance of a cut stem surface (moist vs. pithy), is not representative of the moisture content of the stalk. This was surprising, as pithy stalks have been associated with low moisture content. This means that in order to assess 'juiciness', a different evaluation needs to be used, for example by removing juice with a roller press or by measuring the difference in mass between a fresh and dried stalk segment. 2) A total of five QTLs associated with juice volume (corrected for height) or moisture content were identified, but not all QTLs were detected in all environments, providing evidence for genotype x environment interactions. This finding complicates breeding for juice volume using marker-assisted selection. 3) The QTL for sugar concentration identified on chromosome 3, and the subject of Objective 1, was confirmed in this mapping population, but unlike in previous studies (Murray et al., 2008), the presence of this QTL was associated with negative impacts on agronomic performance (fresh and dry biomass yield, juice yield). Consequently, introgression of the Brix QTL from Rio as part of a commercial breeding program will require monitoring of the precise impacts of this QTL on agronomic performance. 4) The absence of dominance effects for the Brix trait (= sugar concentration) indicated that Brix must be high in both parents to produce high Brix in hybrids. This means an extra constraint on the development of hybrid parents. With the results from Objective 1

  13. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROSPECTS OF SORGHUM CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to analyze the sorghum statement at world, EU and Romania level in order to establish the main trends in the future of this crop. Sorghum is an important cereal coming on the 5th position after maize, rice, wheat and barley at world level due to its importance in human nutrition, animal feed, in producing bioethanol and green energy, and due to its good impact on environment. It is cultivated on all the continents, in the tropical, subtropical and temperate areas due to its resistance to drought, production potential, low inputs and production cost. It is an alternative to maize crop being more utilized as substituent in animal diets. The world sorghum production reached 63,811 thousand metric tons in 2014, the main producers being the USA, Mexico, Nigeria, India, Argentina, Ethiopia, Sudan and China. The world consumption of sorghum reached 63,148 thousand metric tons and it is continuously increasing. The sorghum exports accounted for 7,690 thousand metric tons in 2014, of which the USA export represents 4,600 thousand metric tons. Besides the USA, other exporting countries are Argentina, Australia, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Uruguay, while the main importing countries are China, Japan, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the EU, Sudan. In 2014, the EU produced 576 thousand metric tons sorghum, imported 200 thousand metric tons, and consumed 770 thousand metric tons. The main EU producers of sorghum are France, Italy, Romania, Spain and Hungary. In 2012, Romania cultivated 20,000 ha with sorghum crop, 18 times more than in 2077. Also, in 2012, Romania produced 37.5 thousand tons of sorghum grains, by 31 times more than in 2007. The sorghum yield was 1,875 kg/ha by 66% higher in 2012 compared to 2007. Therefore, these figures show the increasing importance of sorghum crop at world level. Because Romania is situated in suitable geographical area for producing sorghum, it could increase production and become a more important supplier

  14. Potensi penggunaan beberapa varietas sorgum manis (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench sebagai tanaman pakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustikoweni Purnomohadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum is a versatile crop that can be used as grain crop, sugar alcohol production and even as forage crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of sweet sorghum either as grain crop or forage crop. The experiment used four varieties of sweet sorghum: Rio, Cawley, Keller and Wray, which were planted in polybag with six replication using Completely Randomized Design. The result of the research showed that Keller and Wray had longer vegetative growth, and good quality of chemical composition for forage than Rio and Cawley.

  15. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  16. Peculiarities in covering the requirements for seed material of sorghum crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the demand for sorghum seed material and sufficiency of domestic seeds. Results. The analysis of the State register for the period of 2002–2012 showed that there was the tendency not only towards increasing quantity of sorghum crops in general but their substitution by hybrids of foreign breeding. During the period from 2002 to 2017, 72 sorghum varieties were entered on the State register in total, among them only 12 varieties were of domestic breeding, the rest 60 was presented by foreign breeding institutions. Investigation results allowed to determine that the production of base and prebase seeds of sorghum in 2010 amounted to 1,3 t, in 2016 was 43 t. During the same period the production of sugar sorghum increased from 0,2 to 12,0 t, grass sorghum – from 4,0 to 83 t. In 2017, requirements of acreage of such crops as grass sorghum and broomcorn were completely satisfied by the amount of grown seeds. At the same time, the need for seeds of sorghum and sugar sorghum can not be covered completely at the expense of domestic varieties reproduction. In 2017, general demand for sorghum seeds was 400,5 t, among which only 42,0 t was of domestic production. The rest demand for seeds will be met at the expense of import of foreign breeding seeds into the country to be grown and prepared for sowing abroad. Conclusions. In the Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine, there are 72 sorghum varieties among them only 12 varieties were of domestic breeding, that is 17%, as compared to 83% of recommended great sorghum varieties of foreign breeding. In Ukraine, the area occupied by sorghum cultivation was 22,8 thou ha in 2005, up to 2017 it increased to 89,0 thou ha, and accordingly the demand for seeds run up from 102,6 to 400,5 t. The area occupied by the sugar sorghum in 2005 amounted to only 2,6 thou ha, in 2017 – 20,0 thou ha, that accordingly determined increase of demand for seed material from 13,0 to 99

  17. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  18. Nitrogen Fertilizer Deep Placement for Increased Grain Yield and Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency in Rice Grown in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field plot experiments were conducted over 3 years (from April 2014 to November 2016 in a double-rice (Oryza sativa L. cropping system in subtropical China to evaluate the effects of N fertilizer placement on grain yield and N recovery efficiency (NRE. Different N application methods included: no N application (CK; N broadcast application (NBP; N and NPK deep placement (NDP and NPKDP, respectively. Results showed that grain yield and apparent NRE significantly increased for NDP and NPKDP as compared to NBP. The main reason was that N deep placement (NDP increased the number of productive panicle per m-2. To further evaluate the increase, a pot experiment was conducted to understand the N supply in different soil layers in NDP during the whole rice growing stage and a 15N tracing technique was used in a field experiment to investigate the fate of urea-15N in the rice–soil system during rice growth and at maturity. The pot experiment indicated that NDP could maintain a higher N supply in deep soil layers than N broadcast for 52 days during rice growth. The 15N tracing study showed that NDP could maintain much higher fertilizer N in the 5–20 cm soil layer during rice growth and could induce plant to absorb more N from fertilizer and soil than NBP, which led to higher NRE. One important finding was that NDP and NPKDP significantly increased fertilizer NRE but did not lead to N declined in soil compared to NBP. Compared to NPK, NPKDP induced rice plants to absorb more fertilizer N rather than soil N.

  19. Genetic variability of tissue cultured Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate their performance for seedling traits at seedling stage (under hydroponics), plant water relations under water stress and ultimately grain yield, and to estimate the genetic variability of the regenerates, the parent plants of local sorghum cultivars in Kenya using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were ...

  20. Performance of broiler chickens offered nutritionally-equivalent diets based on two red grain sorghums with quantified kafirin concentrations as intact pellets or re-ground mash following steam-pelleting at 65 or 97°C conditioning temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha H. Truong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Liverpool Plains is a fertile agricultural region in New South Wales, Australia. Two sorghums from the 2009 Liverpool Plains harvest, sorghums #3 and #5, were extensively characterised which included concentrations of kafirin and phenolic compounds plus rapid visco-analysis (RVA starch pasting profiles. Diets based on these two sorghums were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic and were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chicks from 7 to 28 days post--hatch as either intact pellets or reground mash following steam-pelleting at conditioning temperatures of either 65 or 97°C. Thus the feeding study consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of dietary treatments: two sorghum varieties, two feed forms and two conditioning temperatures. Each of the eight treatments was replicated six times with six birds per replicate cage. Assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from the distal jejunum and distal ileum. Intact pellets supported higher (P < 0.001 feed intakes and weight gains by 9.83 and 9.08%, respectively, than reground mash diets. Feed conversion ratios of broilers offered diets steam-conditioned at 97°C were 2.46% inferior (P < 0.001 in comparison to 65°C diets and both apparent metabolizable energy (AME and N-corrected AME (AMEn were compromised. Broilers offered sorghum #3-based diets significantly (P < 0.001 outperformed their sorghum #5 counterparts in terms of weight gain by 3.75% (1,334 versus 1,223 g/bird, FCR by 4.81% (1.524 versus 1.601, AME by 1.06 MJ (13.61 versus 12.55 MJ/kg, ME:GE ratio (ME:GE by 4.81% (0.806 versus 0.769 and AMEn by 1.03 MJ (12.38 versus 11.35 MJ/kg. The inferiority of sorghum #5 appeared to be associated with higher concentrations of kafirin (61.5 versus 50.7 g/kg and conjugated phenolic acids, including ferulic acid (31.1 versus 25.6 µg/g. There were no significant differences in

  1. In vitro binding of Sorghum bicolor transcription factors ABI4 and ABI5 to a conserved region of a GA 2-OXIDASE promoter: possible role of this interaction in the expression of seed dormancy

    OpenAIRE

    Cantoro, Renata; Crocco, Carlos Daniel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis; Rodr?guez, Mar?a Ver?nica

    2013-01-01

    The precise adjustment of the timing of dormancy release according to final grain usage is still a challenge for many cereal crops. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] shows wide intraspecific variability in dormancy level and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Both embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism play an important role in the expression of dormancy of the developing sorghum grain. In previous works, it was shown that, simultaneous...

  2. Increased growth and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense by endophytic Enterobacter sp. K3-2: Implications for Sorghum sudanense biomass production and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 was isolated from the roots of Sorghum sudanense (an bioenergy plant) grown in a Cu mine wasteland soils and characterized. Strain K3-2 was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain K3-2 exhibited Cu resistance and produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and arginine decarboxylase. Pot experiments showed that strain K3-2 significantly increased the dry weight and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense grown in the Cu mine wasteland soils. Furthermore, increase in total Cu uptake (ranging from 49% to 95%) of the bacterial inoculated-Sorghum sudanense was observed compared to the control. Notably, most of Cu (83-86%) was accumulated in the roots of Sorghum sudanense. Furthermore, inoculation with strain K3-2 was found to significantly increase Cu bioconcentration factors and the proportions of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria in the root interiors and rhizosphere soils of Sorghum sudanense compared with the control. Significant decrease in the available Cu content was also observed in the rhizosphere soils of the bacterial-inoculated Sorghum sudanense. The results suggest that the endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 may be exploited for promoting Sorghum sudanense biomass production and Cu phytostabilization in the Cu mining wasteland soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect Of Bird Manure On Cotton Plants Grown On Soils Sampled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton plant had a better development and growth when bird manure was only applied to soil or combined with mineral fertilizer and when cotton was grown on a soil where the previous crops were cereals (maize or sorghum). Planting cotton on a soil where the previous crop grown was maize or sorghum had no significant ...

  4. Genome-wide association mapping of anthracnose (Collectotrichum sublineolun) resistance in U.S. sorghum association panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The productivity and profitability of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is reduced by susceptibility to fungal diseases such as anthracnose, which causes yield loss of both grain and biomass. A limited number of resistant accessions are present in temperate adapted germplasm, while resistant sou...

  5. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sorghum plants mitigates the negative effect of drought stress, favoring this crop cultivation in areas of low water ... It is a salt and aluminum-tolerant crop, making areas suitable for ... its growth or decrease its metabolic activity and later, when water ..... and osmoregulation, but also in stabilizing the structures and enzyme ...

  6. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  7. Mutation breeding in sorghum (sorghum bicolor L.) for improving plant as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Soeranto

    1998-01-01

    Mutation breeding using gamma irradiation in sorghum was aimed at improving the quality and production of sorghum plant as ruminant feed. Seeds of local sorghum variety Keris with moisture of about 14% were irradiated with gamma rays from Cobalt-60 source using the dose levels up to 0.5 kgy. The MI plant were grown in Pasar Jumat, the M2 and M3 were grown in Citayam experimental station. The M2 plants were harvested 40 days after sowing by cutting plants 20 cm above ground surface. Two weeks later observations for the ability of plants to produce new buds (buds variable). The plants green products in green products in from of their dry weight (product variable) were collected 40 days after harvesting and drying process in oven at 105 0 C for 24 hours. Plant selections with intensity of 20% were done for the bud variable among samples of M2 plants. Selection responses in the M3 were found to vary from the lowest at 0.5 kgy population (R s = 0.8507). The share of genetic factors to selection responses in bud variable varied from 7.25% at 0,5 kgy population to 22.35% at 0.3 kgy population. Selection for bud variable gave directly impact in increasing product variable in the M3. (author)

  8. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less tha...

  9. [Effect of the sorghum extraction process on the color of the flour and tortillas made from mixtures with lime-treated cornmeal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, F; Ciacco, C F; Salinas, Y

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the extrusion process in the color of instant flours and its tortillas prepared with mixtures of commercial instant corn flour. In the extrusion process four flours from two genotypes of sorghum (whole and decorticated sorghum of each genotype) were used. These flours were processed in a single screw Brabender laboratory extruder. In the preparation of sorghum tortillas and sorghum-corn tortillas four flours were selected from the extrusion process. 1) genotype CMSXS 9A: Whole flour extruded with moisture content of 15% and screw rate of 130 rpm, flour from decorticated sorghum with particle size less than 0.420 mm extruded with moisture content of 15% and screw rate of 130 rpm, 2) genotype CMSXS 145: whole flour extruded with moisture content of 18% and screw rate of 170 rpm, decorticated sorghum flour extruded with moisture content of 15% and screw rate of 130 rpm. Also these flours were utilized with mixtures of commercial instant cornflour for the preparation of tortillas. The instant sorghum flours and tortillas from decorticated sorghum (20% = presented whiter color compared to instant whole sorghum flour and its tortillas. The addition of different levels of commercial instant corn flour (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) to the instant sorghum flours improved the color of the mixtures of flour and tortillas. This improvement was more pronounced with instant sorghum flour from whole sorghum grain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Effect of Excessive Soil Moisture Stress on Sweet Sorghum: Physiological Changes and Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Wang, Y.; Yu, H.; Zhu, K.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, F. L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potential bioenergy feedstock. Research explaining the response of sweet sorghum to excessive soil moisture (EM) stress at different growth stage is limited. To investigate the effect of EM stress on sweet sorghum antioxidant enzymes, osmotic regulation, biomass, quality, and ethanol production, an experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at the National Sorghum Improvement Center, Shenyang, China. Sweet sorghum (cv. LiaoTian1) was studied in four irrigation treatments with a randomized block design method. The results showed that the protective enzyme, particularly the SOD, CAT and APX in it, was significantly affected by EM stress. EM stress deleteriously affected sweet sorghum growth, resulting in a remarkable reduction of aboveground biomass, stalk juice quality, stalk juice yield, and thus, decreased ethanol yield. EM stress also caused significant reduction in plant relative water content, which further decreased stalk juice extraction rate. Sweet sorghum grown under light, medium, and heavy EM treatments displayed 5, 19, and 30% fresh stalk yield reduction, which showed a significant difference compared to control. The estimated juice ethanol yield significantly declined from 1407 ha/sup -1/ (under optimum soil moisture) to 1272, 970, and 734 L ha/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

  11. Several varieties of sugar sorghum and their possibilities for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, P W; Fernandez, P W

    1956-01-01

    To study the possibility of using sugar sorghum as a raw material for the production of industrial alcohol, 17 sugar-sorghum varieties from the USA were grown experimentally under field conditions in Uruguay. The best were White African, Honey (Texas) T.S. 21001, and Axtell, which yielded 35,300, 34,200, and 32,450 kg. of stems (1271), 1539, and 14211.100% alcohol)/ha., respectively. The quantity of alcohol/ha obtained from sugar sorghum is almost 3 times that obtained from corn.

  12. Energy sorghum--a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John; Morishige, Daryl; McCormick, Ryan; Truong, Sandra; Hilley, Josie; McKinley, Brian; Anderson, Robert; Olson, Sara N; Rooney, William

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum's flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield, efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy Sorghum's elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum's integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF A TINCTORIAL PLANT OF BENIN TRADITIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA: THE RED SORGHUM (Sorghum caudatum OF BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCAL D. C. AGBANGNAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The full phytochemical screening of red sorghum from Benin (Sorghum caudatum achieved in this work reveals the presence of leucoanthocyanins, flavonoides, free quinones, combined anthracene derivatives, sterols and terpenes in higher concentration in the leaf sheath and marrow of stem than in the seed. Catechin tannin content is 11.4% in the leaf sheath (slightly higher than that of red wine, 5.8% in the marrow and 2.8% in the seed. Gallic tannins, saponins and the mucilage present in the leaf sheath and marrow, are virtually absent in the seed. Marrow and leaf sheath extracts (1 g/50 mL showed a concentration of anthocyanins (147 mg/L and 213.5 mg/L similar to that of rosy wine and red wine with short maceration. The grain of sorghum is four times, respectively two times less rich in phenolic compounds than the leaf sheath and the marrow of stem.

  14. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  15. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the ...

  16. Combining ability and mode of inheritance of stem thickness in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench F1 hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pataki Imre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was determination of mode of inheritance, gene effects components of genetic variance, combining abilities, average contribution of lines and testers and their interactions in expression of stem thickness in forage sorghum F1 generation. Method line x tester was applied. Material comprised of eight genetically divergent A-inbred lines of grain sorghum three R lines-testers of Sudan grass and twenty-four F1 hybrids obtained by crossing lines with testers. Among tested genotypes there were significant differences in mean values of stem thickness. Analysis of variance of combining abilities showed that there were highly significant differences for general combining abilities (GCA and specific combining abilities (SCA non-additive component of genetic variance (dominance and epistasis had greater portion in total genetic variance for stem thickness. During the first research year, interaction between inbred maternal line with testers had the largest contribution in expression of stem thickness of F1 hybrid at both locations, while in the second year at location Rimski Šančevi the largest contribution belongs to lines and at location Mačvanski Prnjavor the largest contribution belongs to testers. Assessment of combining abilities showed that these inbred lines of grain sorghum can be used as mothers: SS-1 646, SS-1 688 and S-8 682 in breeding forage sorghum for thicker stem. According to SCA, promising forage sorghum hybrids are S-8 682 x ST-R lin H and P-21 656 x C-198. This research can be of importance for developing new high-yielding forage sorghum hybrids.

  17. Presence of Fusarium spp. in air and soil associated with sorghum fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum grain, valuable for feed, food and bioenergy, can be colonized by several Fusarium species; therefore, it was of interest to identify possible sources of conidia. Analysis of air and soil samples provided evidence for the presence of propagules from Fusarium genotypes that may cause grain in...

  18. Nutritive value of diferents silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cultivares - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique dos Santos Gomes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition values of silages from different sorghum cultivars are evaluated. Five 26-kg castrated crossbred lambs, housed in pens equipped with feces and urine collectors for the study of their metabolism, were employed in a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. Treatments consisted of silage from five different sorghum cultivars: IPA 1011 and IPA 2564 (grain sorghum, IPA 2502 (dual purpose sorghum, IPA FS-25 and IPA 467 (forage sorghum. Protein level was corrected to 12% by adding a mixture of urea: ammonium sulfate (9:1. Treatments IPA 1011, IPA 2564 and IPA 2502 provided high intake of dry matter, total carbohydrate and total digestible nutrients, and low intake of neutral detergent fiber. Cultivars IPA 1011 and IPA 2564 provided high apparent crude protein digestibility coefficient, whereas cultivars IPA 1011 and IPA 2564 had high total digestible nutrient levels. All cultivars provided positive nitrogen. Owing to nutrient intake and digestibility values, grain sorghum silages evidenced high potential in ruminant nutrition.

  19. Microsatellite markers reveal a predominant sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) clone is found on sorghum in seven states and one territory of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, has become a serious pest causing severe economic losses to sorghum grown in the southern United States (U.S.). Since its original detection in four states in 2013, M. sacchari on sorghum has now, for 2016, spread to 19 states. The presence of one or multip...

  20. Effect of heavy metal and edta application on plant growth and phyto-extraction potential of sorghum (sorghum bicolor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacaha, N.; Shamas, R.; Bakht, J.; Rafi, A.; Farhatullah, M.; Gillani, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the phyto-extraction capacity of heavy metals by Sorghum. Sorghum bicolor was grown in soil artificially contaminated with different concentrations of lead (300, 350 and 400 mg/kg), chromium (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) and cadmium (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg). Five mM EDTA was applied, as chelating agent to the plants after 4 weeks of sowing. Plants were grown for a total of two months and fresh weight and dry weight of shoot and heavy metal accumulation were analyzed at six and eight weeks after sowing. The results revealed that application of cadmium, chromium and lead and EDTA adversely affected shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of S. bicolor at both time intervals. Heavy metals uptake increased with the increment of heavy metal by S. bicolor species. Application of 5mM EDTA enhanced the uptake of heavy metal. (author)

  1. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  2. Lodging markedly reduced the biomass of sweet sorghum via decreasing photosynthesis in saline-alkali field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian Rong; Fan, Hai; Wang, Bao Shan

    2018-06-01

    Lodging is a serious problem in plant growth, especially in crops growth of the natural habitat. In order to determine the influence of lodging on the growth characters of sweet sorghum, plants grown in natural saline-alkali environment were used to investigate the fresh weight, dry weight, sugar content in the stalks and the photosynthesis index of salt tolerant crop sweet sorghum. Results showed that lodging significantly reduced the growth of sweet sorghum, the fresh weight and dry weight was only 28.3% and 22.5% of the normal plants when lodging occurred after 49 days. Lodging also reduced the stalks sugar content of sweet sorghum, the stalk sugar content of lodged plants was only 45.4% of that in the normal plants, when lodging occurred for 49 days. Lodging reduced the growth and sugar content by reducing the photosynthesis parameters of sweet sorghum grown in the saline-alkali field, thus, affected the accumulation of photosynthate. Interestingly, with the extension of the lodging time, lodging led to a decrease in photosynthetic rate of sweet sorghum mainly due to non-stomatal factors.

  3. A novel approach for application of white rot fungi in wastewater treatment under non-sterile conditions : immobilization of fungi on sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahmatkesh, M.; Spanjers, H.L.F.M.; van Lier, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we tested a new approach to facilitate the application of white rot fungi (WRF) under non-sterile conditions, by introducing grain sorghum as carrier and sole carbon and nutrient source for WRF. To this end, Trametes versicolor was immobilized on sorghum, and its ability to remove

  4. Composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros holandeses alimentados após o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Physical and chemical carcasses composition of Holstein calves fed after weaning with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros após desaleitamento até o abate com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo para a produção de vitelos de carne rosa. Trinta bezerros holandeses foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco blocos e seis tratamentos, e alimentados com seis rações com teores similares de proteína (18,5% PB e de energia (3,2 Mcal EM/kg de MS, formuladas com: milho seco moído (MM; silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM; sorgo seco com tanino moído (SCTM; silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo com tanino (SGUISCT; sorgo seco sem tanino moído; e silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo sem tanino (SGUISST. Após o resfriamento, foram tomados nas meias-carcaças esquerdas os cortes da seção H&H para estimativa da composição tecidual da carcaça e os cortes no Longissimus dorsi à altura da 12ª e 13ª costelas para determinação da área de olho-de-lombo (AOL, da espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS, da força de cisalhamento (FC e da composição química. Não houve efeito da composição das rações concentradas sobre a composição física e a relação entre tecidos na seção H&H, bem como para AOL, EGS e FC. A ração concentrada SGUM resultou em maiores teores de EE no Longissimus dorsi, mas não diferiu das rações SCTM e SSTM. A ração concentrada SGUM gerou maior deposição de gordura muscular em comparação à MM, no entanto, as rações SGUISCT e SGUISST não aumentaram essa deposição em comparação ao fornecimento dos grãos secos moídos. Todos os alimentos avaliados podem ser usados em rações concentradas para bezerros após o aleitamento, pois não comprometem a composições física e química da carca��a e conferem resultados similares.The physical and chemical carcasses composition of calves fed after weaning until slaughter with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

  5. Silagem de milho e grão de sorgo como suplementos para vacas de descarte terminadas em pastagem cultivada de estação fria Corn silage and sorghum grain supplementation to cull cows finished on cultivated winter pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.G. Menezes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação com silagem de milho ou grão de sorgo no desempenho e características da carcaça e da carne de vacas de descarte, submetidas ao pastejo restrito em pastagem de aveia (Avena strigosa + azevém (Lolium multiflorum. Foram utilizadas 30 vacas mestiças Charolês-Nelore, com idade média de oito anos, distribuídas em igual número e ao acaso em três tratamentos: silagem de milho (TSI ou grão de sorgo moído (TSO como suplemento, e não suplementação (TPH. A suplementação com silagem de milho proporcionou aos animais maior escore corporal ao final do experimento (4,35 pontos contra 4,15 do TPH e 4,22 pontos para o TSO. Não houve efeito do volumoso ou concentrado suplementar sobre o peso corporal, ganho de peso diário e ganho em escore corporal. Não houve efeito de tratamento (P>0,05 sobre pesos e rendimentos quentes e frios da carcaça, espessura de gordura subcutânea, conformação, espessura de coxão, área de Longissimus dorsi e percentagem de cortes comerciais. A suplementação resultou em maior percentagem de gordura na carcaça e influenciou a cor e o marmoreio da carne. A silagem de milho e o grão de sorgo servem como alternativa para a suplementação de vacas de descarte em pastagem de aveia e azevém, uma vez que melhora as características da carcaça, embora sem efeito sobre o desempenho quando comparado à pastagem exclusiva.The effect of supplementation with corn silage or sorghum grain on the performance and characteristics of carcass and meat of cull cows, under temporary grazing on oats (Avena strigosa + ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum pasture was evaluated. Thirty crossbred Charolais-Nellore cull cows, with averaging eight-yearold,were randomly distributed in three treatments. The animals received corn silage (TSI or sorghum grain (TSO as supplement, while another lot did not receive supplementation (TPH. Animals supplemented with corn silage showed higher final body condition

  6. Effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress on growth and dhurrin levels of forage sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Natalie H.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Neale, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a valuable forage crop in regions with low soil moisture. Sorghum may accumulate high concentrations of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin when drought stressed resulting in possible cyanide (HCN) intoxication of grazing animals. In addition, high concentratio...... of plant growth and root activity, increasing the rate of nitrate uptake. Data presented in this article support a role for cyanogenic glucosides in mitigating oxidative stress....... of nitrate, also potentially toxic to ruminants, may accumulate during or shortly after periods of drought. Little is known about the degree and duration of drought-stress required to induce dhurrin accumulation, or how changes in dhurrin concentration are influenced by plant size or nitrate metabolism....... Given that finely regulating soil moisture under controlled conditions is notoriously difficult, we exposed sorghum plants to varying degrees of osmotic stress by growing them for different lengths of time in hydroponic solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). Plants grown in medium containing 20...

  7. Comparative nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and biomass production potentials of some grain legumes species grown in the field in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Fosu, M.; Tibo, I.; Sumaila, I.

    2007-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted in the experimental field of Savannah Agricultural Research Institute at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana to assess the nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and biomass production potentials of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), devil-bean (Crotalaria retusa), Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white types) and Canavalia ensiformis with maize (Dorke SR) as the reference crop using the total nitrogen difference (TND) method. Plants were fertilized with 40 kg P/ha and 30 kg K/ha at 2 weeks after planting and grown for 55 days after which they were harvested. The harvested biomass (separated into roots, stems and leaves) of each crop was oven-dried at 70 0 C for 48 h to a constant weight. Cowpea and devil-bean produced approximately 5 and 6 t/ha biomass whereas Mucuna and Canavalia yielded about 2 t/ha biomass each. Although cowpea had the least number of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal (AMF) spores in its rhizosphere, its roots were the most heavily colonized (34%) and M. pruriens recording below 5% colonization. Apart from C. ensiformis, the test legumes derived over 50% of their total accumulated N from the atmosphere with cowpea being the most efficient (90% Ndfa). Both N and P accumulations were significantly higher in cowpea than the other legumes due to increased N concentration and dry matter accumulation, respectively. In all the legumes, there was a direct positive correlation between the extent of mycorrhiza formation, biological N fixation and total N uptake. It could, therefore, be concluded that the extensive mycorrhiza formation in cowpea and its high N 2 -fixing potential resulted in a high shoot N and P uptake leading to a comparatively better growth enhancement. Cowpea could, therefore, be the grain legume for consideration in the selection of a suitable legume pre-crop to cereals for the amelioration of the low fertility of the degraded soils of the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana, and also as

  8. Critical periods of sorghum and palisadegrass in intercropped cultivation for climatic risk zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Rodrigo Cabral de Barros Lima

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to define critical periods for sorghum and palisadegrass cultivated on crop-livestock integrated systems under water deficit. An experiment was carried out in a completely random block design with four treatments (control and interruption of water supply in three periods and three replicates. Water supply was interrupted until soil water humidity was close to permanent wilting point at the phases: germination of palisadegrass seeds; start of tillering of palisadegrass and initiation of panicles of shorghum; start of shorghum flowering. Water deficit starting at palisadegrass germination delayed intital development of the plants because of the reduction in tillering. Water restriction at panicle initiation phase and at sorghum flowering determined reduction of grain production. Critical periods for intercrop of sorghum and palisadegrass correspond to palisadegrass germination phase and flowering and panicle inititation phase of sorghum.

  9. Productivity and Nutrient Quality of Some Sorghum Mutant Lines at Different Cutting Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Puteri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to explore the appropriate cutting age to produce optimal biomass and good nutrient quality from sorghum mutant lines BMR i.e., PATIR 3.5 M7, PATIR 3.6 M7, and PATIR 3.7 M7, also SAMURAI I (M17. A completely randomized in Split Plot design with 2 factors and 3 replicates was used. The first factor was the type of sorghum (SAMURAI I M17, PATIR 3.5, PATIR 3.6, PATIR 3.7 as the main plot and the second factor was the cutting age (85, 95, 105 as a subplot. Parameters observed were the production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, NFE, TDN, percentage of DMD, OMD and N-NH3. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that there were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between cutting age and type of sorghum in production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, value of TDN, DMD, OMD, and N-NH3. Increasing cutting age significantly increased the percentage of ash content, crude protein and crude fat. The sorghum type significantly affected crude fat content nonBMR sorghum variety of SAMURAI I (M17 and achieved optimal biomass production and nutrient content at cutting age of 85 d similar to BMR sorghum mutant lines PATIR 3.6 and PATIR 3.5, whereas BMR sorghum mutant lines of PATIR 3.7 achieved optimum production at the age of 95 d of cutting. All types of sorghum varieties was not recommended to be harvested at 105 d. Biomass production increased with the increasing of cutting age, but the nutrient content decreased.

  10. Efficacy of Singular and Stacked Brown Midrib 6 and 12 in Modification of Lignocellulose and Grain Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-isogenic versions of the grain sorghum hybrid AWheatland x RTx430 were developed containing brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12, which impair the last two steps of lignin monomer (monolignol) synthesis, and the bmr6bmr12 double mutant (stacked). The goal of introducing bmr genes into grain sorghum var...

  11. Composição bromatológica de silagens de híbridos de sorgo cultivados em diferentes densidades de plantas Chemical composition of silage sorghum hybrids grown at different densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Mendes Avelino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição bromatológica das silagens de dois híbridos de sorgo, AG-2005 (duplo propósito e VOLUMAX (forrageiro, cultivados nos espaçamentos de 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 m, resultando nas densidades de 140.000; 186.666 e 280.000 plantas por ha, respectivamente. A silagem do híbrido AG-2005 apresentou matéria seca (MS superior no espaçamento de 1,00 m e foi mais elevada ao da silagem de VOLUMAX em todos os espaçamentos. A proteína bruta (PB elevou-se com a redução dos espaçamentos (6,6; 6,8 e 8%, respectivamente, com maior valor médio no AG-2005 (7,7 vs 6,5%. A fibra em detergente neutro (FDN foi menor no AG-2005 (59,25 vs 62,3% e no espaçamento 0,75 m. Para fibra em detergente ácido (FDA ocorreu diferença entre os dois híbridos no espaçamento 0,5 m, sendo de 33,5 e 39,3 %, respectivamente, para o AG-2005 e VOLUMAX. O EE apresentou diferença significativa (P The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the nutritive value of silages from two sorghum hybrids, AG-2005 (double purpose and VOLUMAX (forage cultivated with different row spacings (0.50 m; 0.75 m and 1.00 m, resulting in 140,000; 186,666 e 280,000 plants per ha, respectively. Dry matter content of AG-2005 silage was higher for 1 m row spacing, and was higher than for VOLUMAX silage in all row spacings. Crude protein increased as the row spacing was reduced (6.6; 6.8 and 8%, respectively, with higher average value for AG-2005 (7.7 vs 6.5%. Neutral detergent fiber was lower for AG-2005 (59.25 vs 62.3% and for .75 m spacing. Acid detergent fiber differed between hybrids in .5 m row spacing, being 33.5 and 39.3%, respectively, for AG-2005 and VOLUMAX. Ether extract was significantly different between hybrids in .5 m row spacing, being higher for AG-2005 (2.05 vs 1.61%. The use of AG-2005 is recommended for silage production due to its better qualitative characteristics than the VOLUMAX. The .5 m row spacing is recommended for both hybrids, since it improves the

  12. Granivorous birds and sorghum crop in the province of Villa Clara,Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Miguel Saucedo Castillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the damages granivorous birds cause to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench in the province of Villa Clara, Cuba, research based on the determination of the major endemic, migratory birds and their relationship with the distribution were made space of historical meteorological variables in the province in the seasonal behavior of birds in different climatic regions. Population to sorghum producers grouped in different forms surveys were conducted, which yielded a large database, such as the determination of the main grain-eating birds percentage damage incurred, varieties, grain color, growth stage and other indicators. Nine main species affecting sorghum grain-eating birds in our province were recorded; Passer domesticus, Lonchura malacca, Lonchura punctulata, Dives atroviolaceus, Passerina cyanea, Zonotrichia leucophrys, Columbina passerine, Zenaida macroura y Zenaida asiatica. The spatial distribution of meteorological variables and their relation to the seasonal behavior of birds in different climatic regions of the province was determined, based on record four preferential habitat areas. The results allowed us to provide companies and different forms of production in Villa Clara, the possibility of a varietal structure planting of sorghum on the basis of different preferential areas granivorous birds, together with the morphological and physiological characteristics of different genotypes introduced in agricultural production of the province and nationally.

  13. Lipids characterization of ultrasound and microwave processed germinated sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sadia; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nazir; Khan, Muhammad Kamran

    2017-06-27

    Cereal crops and oilseeds provide diverse pool of fatty acids with characteristic properties. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) provides the staple food with serving as main source of energy and protein. Germination of sorghum generally increases the nutritive value of seeds and the effects of germination on lipids composition of seeds vary greatly with processing conditions. Therefore, the current study was conducted to compare the effect of emerging processing techniques such as ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) on fatty acids composition and oil yield of sorghum seeds before and after germination. Initially sorghum grains were soaked with 5% NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) for surface sterilization. Afterwards, grains were soaked in excess water for 22 h at room temperature and were divided into four portions. The first portion (100 g grains) was subjected to germination without applying any microwave and ultrasonic treatment (T 0 ). Second portion was further divided into four groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) (100 g of each group) and grains were subjected to ultrasonic treatments using two different ultrasonic intensities (US 1 : 40%; US 2 : 60%) within range of 0-100% and with two different time durations (t US1 : 5 min; t US2 : 10 min) at constant temperature. Third portion was also divided into four groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) (100 g of each group) and exposed to microwave treatments at two different power levels (MW 1 : 450 watt; MW 2 : 700 watt) within the range of 100-900 W for two different time durations (t MW1 : 15 s; t MW2 : 30s). Similarly, fourth portion was divided into four groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) (100 g of each group). Each group was exposed to both MW (MW 1 , MW 2 ) (100-900 watt power) & US (US 1 , US 2 ) (0-100% intensity) treatments at two different time levels (t US , t MW ). Then, germination was carried out and pre-treated raw and pre-treated germinated sorghum grains were analyzed for total oil yield, fatty acid

  14. Analysis of grain boundaries, twin boundaries, and Te precipitates in CdZnTe grown by high-pressure Bridgeman method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffelfinger, J.R.; Medlin, D.L.; James, R.B.

    1998-03-01

    Grain boundaries and twin boundaries in commercial Cd 1-x Zn x Te, which is prepared by a high pressure Bridgeman technique, have been investigated with transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared light microscopy and visible light microscopy. Boundaries inside these materials were found to be decorated with Te precipitates. The shape and local density of the precipitates were found to depend on the particular boundary. For precipitates that decorate grain boundaries, their microstructure was found to consist of a single, saucer shaped grain of hexagonal Te (space group P3 1 21). Analysis of a Te precipitate precipitates by selected area diffraction revealed the Te to be aligned with the surrounding Cd 1-x Zn x Te grains. This alignment was found to match the (111) Cd 1-x Z x Te planes with the (1 bar 101) planes of hexagonal Te. Crystallographic alignments between the Cd 1-x Zn x Te grains were also observed for a high angle grain boundary. The structure of the grain boundaries and the Te/Cd 1-x Zn x Te interface are discussed

  15. 7339 BASELINE SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SORGHUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muuicathy

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... factors affecting sorghum production and the sorghum farming ... The informal seed system includes methods such as retaining seed on-farm from ..... Jaetzold R and H Schmidt Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, Ministry.

  16. Productivity and Competitiveness of Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that sorghum production in the study areas yielded profitable returns ... Keywords: Sorghum, Profitability, Competitiveness, Investment Potential, .... Guinness Ghana Brewery Limited to estimate cost and returns at the marketing sector ...

  17. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sanette; Ndaba, Busiswa; Chiyanzu, Idan; Schabort, Corneels

    2014-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a hardy crop that can be grown on marginal land and can provide both food and energy in an integrated food and energy system. Lignocellulose rich sweet sorghum bagasse (solid left over after starch and juice extraction) can be converted to bioethanol using a variety of technologies. The largest barrier to commercial production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic material remains the high processing costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of acids and bases in the pretreatment step. In this paper, sweet sorghum bagasse was pretreated and hydrolysed in a single step using microwave irradiation. A total sugar yield of 820 g kg −1 was obtained in a 50 g kg −1 sulphuric acid solution in water, with a power input of 43.2 kJ g −1 of dry biomass (i.e. 20 min at 180 W power setting). An ethanol yield based on total sugar of 480 g kg −1 was obtained after 24 h of fermentation using a mixed culture of organisms. These results show the potential for producing as much as 0.252 m 3  tonne −1 or 33 m 3  ha −1 ethanol using only the lignocellulose part of the stalks, which is high enough to make the process economically attractive. - Highlights: • Different sweet sorghum cultivars were harvested at 3 and 6 months. • Sweet sorghum bagasse was converted to ethanol. • Microwave pretreatment and hydrolysis was done in a single step. • Sugar rich hydrolysates were converted to ethanol using co-fermentation

  18. Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Sorghum Plant Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L.; Chen, Y.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Rauh, B.; Kresovich, S.; Korte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are considered as the development of the modern science. However, besides with that wide application, nanoparticles arouse to the side effects on the environment and human health. As the catalyst of ceramics and fuel industry, Cerium (IV) oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) can be found in the environment following their use and life-cycle. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects that CeO2 NPs found in soils may have on plants. In this study, CeO2 NPs were analyzed for the potential influence on the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (Reg. no. 126) (PI 154844) growth and traits. The objectives of this research were to determine whether CeO2 NPs impact the sorghum germination and growth characteristics. The sorghum was grown in the greenhouse located at Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University under different CeO2 NPs treatments (0mg; 100mg; 500mg; 1000mg CeO2 NPs/Kg soil) and harvested around each month. At the end of the each growing period, above ground vegetative tissue was air-dried, ground to 2mm particle size and compositional traits estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy. Also, the NPK value of the sorghum tissue was tested by Clemson Agriculture Center. After the first harvest, the result showed that the height of above ground biomass under the nanoparticles stress was higher than that of control group. This difference between the control and the nanoparticles treatments was significant (F>F0.05; LSD). Our results also indicated that some of the compositional traits were impacted by the different treatments, including the presence and/or concentrations of the nanoparticles.

  19. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli in feces and feedlot surface manure from cattle fed diets with or without corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to cattle can increase the load of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine a role for the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces and fee...

  20. Quantitative trait loci for yield and grain plumpness relative to maturity in three populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown in a low rain-fall environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulti Tesso Obsa

    Full Text Available Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF, Commander x WI4304 (CW, and Fleet x WI4304 (FW developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness. QTL for grain plumpness and yield were analysed using genetic linkage maps made of genotyping-by-sequencing markers and major phenology genes, and field trials at three drought prone environments for two growing seasons. Seventeen QTL were detected for grain plumpness. Eighteen yield QTL explaining from 1.2% to 25.0% of the phenotypic variation were found across populations and environments. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed for all grain plumpness and yield QTL, except QPlum.FW-4H.1 and QYld.FW-2H.1. Unlike previous yield QTL studies in barley, none of the major developmental genes, including Ppd-H1, Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3, that drive barley adaption significantly affected grain plumpness and yield here. Twenty-two QTL controlled yield or grain plumpness independently of known maturity QTL or genes. Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se.

  1. Use of in vitro gas production technique to evaluate the effects of microwave irradiation on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and wheat (Triticum sp. nutritive values and fermentation characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Parnian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of microwave irradiation (900 W for 3, 5 and 7 min on the nutritive value of sorghum and wheat grains were evaluated by in vitro gas production technique. Gas volume was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and kinetics of gas production were estimated using model: GP = A exp {– exp [1 + (be/A (LAG – t]}. Cumulative gas production at 24 h was used for estimation of metabolizable energy, net energy for lactation, short chain fatty acids, digestible organic matter and microbial protein. For sorghum grain, microwave irradiation increased cumulative gas production for most times of incubation linearly. Microwave treatments for 5 and 7 min increased the A fraction linearly in both cereal grain, whereas the maximum rate of gas production (b decreased linearly only in wheat grain. Microwave treatments for 3, 5 and 7 min increased (P<0.05 metabolizable energy, net energy for lactation and short chain fatty acids content of sorghum grain, but not of wheat grain. It was concluded that microwave irradiation changed the gas production parameters resulting changed ruminal fermentation characteristics that can be considered in ration formulation.

  2. Characterization of three-dimensional grain boundary topography in a YBa2Cu3O7-d thin film bicrystal grown on a SrTiO3 substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayache, J.; Thorel, A.; Lesueur, J.; Dahmen, U.

    1998-01-01

    The topography and crystallography of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-d (YBCO) bicrystal films grown epitaxially on oriented SrTiO 3 (STO) bicrystals have been characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The YBCO films were formed by laser ablation on melt-grown Σ13 STO bicrystals with a misorientation of 24 degree around the left-angle 001 right-angle tilt axis. In agreement with previous reports, TEM analysis revealed that the grain boundary in the film did not always follow the planar substrate grain boundary faithfully, but undulated about the average boundary plane. High resolution electron microscopy observations of the apparently complex undulating boundary structures could be explained as a result of an overlap between different orientation variants of the orthorhombic YBCO film. Cross correlation between SEM, AFM, and TEM imaging gave a clear evidence that an island growth mechanism is responsible for the observed grain boundary structure and morphology for which a schematic model is presented. It is seen that meandering of the YBCO grain boundary (GB) is necessarily coupled to a wide range of inclination of the GB plane in the z direction. The implications of this interfacial structure for the behavior of GB based Josephson junctions are discussed and compared to models proposed in the literature. It is also seen that inclination of the GB may be responsible for the poor correlation usually found in the literature between calculations and experimental curves of current density J c versus the GB angle since the most elaborate models proposed up to now take into account only pure tilt GB plane facets, that is to say facets in the zone of the tilt axis. Moreover, such a GB structure may affect the interpretation of recent phase sensitive experiments done on bicrystal or tricrystal high T c superconductors to determine the symmetry of the order parameter. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  3. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity studies with sunflower and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubun, Y.V.; Kosterin, P.V.; Zakharova, E.A.; Fedorov, E.E. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation); Shcherbakov, A.A. [Saratov Military Inst. of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Defence, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Aim and Scope. Environmental pollution caused by arsenic (As) is a major ecological problem. There has been intense worldwide effort to find As-hyperaccumulating plants that can be used in phytoremediation - the green-plant-assisted removal of chemical pollutants from soils. For phytoremediation, it is natural to prefer cultivated rather than wild plants, because their agriculture is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.) for soil-As contents of 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, with sodium arsenite as a model contaminant. Methods. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days. Microfield experiments were conducted on experimental plots. To study the phytoremediation effect of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), we treated 1- and 3-day-old plant seedlings with water solutions of the auxins (concentrations of 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -7}, and 10{sup -9} g l{sup -1}). The soil and plant-biomass samples were analyzed for total As by using the color reaction of ammonium molybdate with As. Results and Discussion. Phytotoxicity studies showed that 100 mg as kg{sup -1} soil poisoned sunflower and sorghum growth by 50%. There was a linear correlation between soil-As content and As accumulation in the plants. Laboratory experiments showed that the soil-As content was reduced two- to threefold after sunflower had been grown with 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil for 30 days. Treatment of sunflower and sorghum seedlings with IAA and 2,4-D at a concentration of 10{sup -5} g l{sup -1} in microfield experiments enhanced the phytoremediation two- to fivefold as compared with untreated control plants. The best results were obtained with 3-day-old seedlings. Conclusion, Recommendation and Outlook. (a) Sunflower and sorghum are good candidates to remediate As-polluted soils. (b) Phytoremediation can be improved with IAA or 2

  4. Effect of plant population density on the growth and yield of sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of resource use efficiency and yields is probably possible through the use of appropriate plant densities. Field trials were therefore conducted to study the effects of four plant densities, varying from 2.0 to 12.5 plants m-2 on water and radiation use and performance of two Masakwa sorghum varieties grown on ...

  5. The Effect of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM on Yield and Yield Components of Three Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehraban

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM on yield and yield components of three sorghum cultivars, a factorial experiment based randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out in 2007, at the Agricultural Research Center of Zahak, Iran. The treatments were different mycorrhiza species in three levels: without mycorrhiza (M1, Glomus etanicatum (M2 and G. mosseae(M3 and three cultivars of sorghum: local cultivars (C1, KGS25 (C2 and KGS29 (C3. The results showed that all of the traits measured were increased by inoculation of cultivars with mycorrhiza. The highest plant height (165.1 cm, stem diameter (1.61 cm, flag leaf length (27.22 cm, flag leaf width (3.67 cm and ear width (5.00 cm was obtained by inoculation of seed with Glumus etanicatum, and highest ear length (19.21 cm, ear number (2.51, seed number per ear (10252.11, 1000-seed weight (17.56 g and grain yield (1967.32 kg/ha by using Glumus mossea. The highest leaf width and length belonged to local cultivar, and the highest seed yield to KGS 29 cultivar. However, differences of other traits among sorghum cultivars were not significant. Based on the experimental results it can be concluded that highest grain yield may be obtained by inoculating seeds of KGS 29 with Glumus mossea.

  6. Using Ridge Regression Models to Estimate Grain Yield from Field Spectral Data in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. Grown under Three Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernandez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding based on grain yield (GY is an expensive and time-consuming method, so new indirect estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of crops represent an alternative method to improve grain yield. The present study evaluated the ability of canopy reflectance spectroscopy at the range from 350 to 2500 nm to predict GY in a large panel (368 genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through multivariate ridge regression models. Plants were treated under three water regimes in the Mediterranean conditions of central Chile: severe water stress (SWS, rain fed, mild water stress (MWS; one irrigation event around booting and full irrigation (FI with mean GYs of 1655, 4739, and 7967 kg∙ha−1, respectively. Models developed from reflectance data during anthesis and grain filling under all water regimes explained between 77% and 91% of the GY variability, with the highest values in SWS condition. When individual models were used to predict yield in the rest of the trials assessed, models fitted during anthesis under MWS performed best. Combined models using data from different water regimes and each phenological stage were used to predict grain yield, and the coefficients of determination (R2 increased to 89.9% and 92.0% for anthesis and grain filling, respectively. The model generated during anthesis in MWS was the best at predicting yields when it was applied to other conditions. Comparisons against conventional reflectance indices were made, showing lower predictive abilities. It was concluded that a Ridge Regression Model using a data set based on spectral reflectance at anthesis or grain filling represents an effective method to predict grain yield in genotypes under different water regimes.

  7. Manejo de colheita e espaçamento da palma-forrageira, em consórcio com sorgo granífero, no Agreste de Pernambuco Harvest managing and plant spacing of spinelles fodder cactus, under grain sorghum intercropping at the semi-arid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDERVAL FARIAS

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na zona semi-árida de Pernambuco e teve como objetivo investigar o efeito de espaçamento, e a freqüência e intensidade de colheitas da palma-forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. consorciada com sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, sendo os espaçamentos alocados nas parcelas principais, e as freqüências e intensidades de colheitas, nas subparcelas. Os resultados são de um período de 12 anos, e as produções de matéria seca de palma, de grãos e restolhos de sorgo foram: 5,23, 1,65 e 2,07; 4,51, 1,30 e 2,10; 2,75, 1,97 e 3,51 t/ha/ano, em espaçamentos de 2,0 m x 1,0 m; 3,0 m x 1,0 m x 0,50 m e 7,0 m x 1,0 m x 0,50 m, respectivamente. A produção de matéria seca foi diferente entre as freqüências de corte, quando foram conservados os artículos primários: 4,08 t/ha/ano na freqüência de quatro anos, e de 3,43 t/ha/ano na freqüência de dois anos. A produção de palma aumentou com o período de crescimento da planta, nas duas intensidades de corte estudadas. A composição química dos artículos de palma e dos restolhos de sorgo foi pouco afetada pelos tratamentos.This trial was carried out in the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, aiming to study plant spacing and harvest frequencies and intensities of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.. An experimental design in a split plot design was applied, in which plant spacing were used as the main plots and harvest frequencies and intensities as the subplots. Results presented in this work are related to a twelve-year period. The dry matter yields of forage cactus, sorghum grains and stover were: 5.23, 1.65 and 2.07; 4.51, 1.30 and 2.10; 2.75, 1.97 and 3.5 ton/ha/year, for plant spacing 2.0 m x 1.0 m; 3.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.50 m and 7.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.50 m, respectively. Dry matter yield was different between harvest frequencies, when primary articles were conserved: 4

  8. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Felderhoff, Terry; M McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-07-07

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. Copyright © 2016 Felderhoff et al.

  9. Effect of high temperature annealing on the grain size of CVD-grown SiC and experimental PBMR TRISO coated particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoduwe, SM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available in the PBMR fuel SiC layer. square samples were cut from the original sample received from ORNL and prepared for grain size Prague, Czech Republic, October 18 – 2000 °C. These no significant ion of how the 8] also ge is also of tal THODS -Si... for grain size determination Fig. 5: Influence of high temperature annealing on the CVD ORNL polycrystalline 3 C-SiC. Fig. 6: Influence of high temperature annealing on the polycrystalline 3 C-SiC layer of PBMR TRISO CP batches D and E...

  10. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Sorghum Stem Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin S Byrt

    Full Text Available Sorghum vegetative tissues are becoming increasingly important for biofuel production. The composition of sorghum stem tissues is influenced by genotype, environment and photoperiod sensitivity, and varies widely between varieties and also between different stem tissues (outer rind vs inner pith. Here, the amount of cellulose, (1,3;1,4-β-glucan, arabinose and xylose in the stems of twelve diverse sorghum varieties, including four photoperiod-sensitive varieties, was measured. At maturity, most photoperiod-insensitive lines had 1% w/w (1,3;1,4-β-glucan in stem pith tissue whilst photoperiod-sensitive varieties remained in a vegetative stage and accumulated up to 6% w/w (1,3;1,4-β-glucan in the same tissue. Three sorghum lines were chosen for further study: a cultivated grain variety (Sorghum bicolor BTx623, a sweet variety (S. bicolor Rio and a photoperiod-sensitive wild line (S. bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum Arun. The Arun line accumulated 5.5% w/w (1,3;1,4-β-glucan and had higher SbCslF6 and SbCslH3 transcript levels in pith tissues than did photoperiod-insensitive varieties Rio and BTx623 (<1% w/w pith (1,3;1,4-β-glucan. To assess the digestibility of the three varieties, stem tissue was treated with either hydrolytic enzymes or dilute acid and the release of fermentable glucose was determined. Despite having the highest lignin content, Arun yielded significantly more glucose than the other varieties, and theoretical calculation of ethanol yields was 10 344 L ha-1 from this sorghum stem tissue. These data indicate that sorghum stem (1,3;1,4-β-glucan content may have a significant effect on digestibility and bioethanol yields. This information opens new avenues of research to generate sorghum lines optimised for biofuel production.

  11. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Sorghum Stem Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrt, Caitlin S; Betts, Natalie S; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Lim, Wai Li; Ermawar, Riksfardini A; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Shirley, Neil J; Lahnstein, Jelle; Corbin, Kendall; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Knauf, Vic; Burton, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum vegetative tissues are becoming increasingly important for biofuel production. The composition of sorghum stem tissues is influenced by genotype, environment and photoperiod sensitivity, and varies widely between varieties and also between different stem tissues (outer rind vs inner pith). Here, the amount of cellulose, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, arabinose and xylose in the stems of twelve diverse sorghum varieties, including four photoperiod-sensitive varieties, was measured. At maturity, most photoperiod-insensitive lines had 1% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in stem pith tissue whilst photoperiod-sensitive varieties remained in a vegetative stage and accumulated up to 6% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in the same tissue. Three sorghum lines were chosen for further study: a cultivated grain variety (Sorghum bicolor BTx623), a sweet variety (S. bicolor Rio) and a photoperiod-sensitive wild line (S. bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum Arun). The Arun line accumulated 5.5% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and had higher SbCslF6 and SbCslH3 transcript levels in pith tissues than did photoperiod-insensitive varieties Rio and BTx623 (<1% w/w pith (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan). To assess the digestibility of the three varieties, stem tissue was treated with either hydrolytic enzymes or dilute acid and the release of fermentable glucose was determined. Despite having the highest lignin content, Arun yielded significantly more glucose than the other varieties, and theoretical calculation of ethanol yields was 10 344 L ha-1 from this sorghum stem tissue. These data indicate that sorghum stem (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content may have a significant effect on digestibility and bioethanol yields. This information opens new avenues of research to generate sorghum lines optimised for biofuel production.

  12. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less than 100 micron of whole dust; bulk density; particle density; and ash content. PMID:3709482

  13. PAV markers in Sorghum bicolour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Xin; Liu, Zhiquan; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genic presence/absence variants (PAVs) correlate closely to the phenotypic variation, impacting plant genome sizes and the adaption to the environment. To shed more light on their genome-wide patterns, functions and to test the possibility of using them as molecular markers, we analyzed...... enriched in stress responses and protein modification. We used 325 polymorphic PAVs in two sorghum inbred lines Ji2731 and E-Tian, together with 49 SSR markers, and constructed a genetic map, which consisted of 10 linkage groups corresponding to the 10 chromosomes of sorghum and spanned 1430.3 cM in length...

  14. YIELD AND QUALITY OF SORGHUM IN IRRIGATED AGRO LANDSCAPES OF REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G. Muslimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. One of drought-resistant crops that can provide stable high yields is sorghum, which is salt-tolerant, heat-resistant and a flexible crop of versatile use (green forage, silage, hay, grass meal, grain forage. The research conducted in 2010-2013 included studies on the effectiveness of the methods and norms of sowing the sorghum, required quantities of mineral fertilizers to increase the crop yields and nutritional value of sorghum sown in the irrigated lowland areas of Dagestan. Methods. We conducted three field researches. In experiments with grain sorghum (the middle ripening group Zernogradskiy 88 we studied drill and broad-cast methods of sowing, seeding rate, the calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on programmable levels of crop yields: 6 t/ha (N160P112K70, 7 t/ha (N190P128K80 and 8 t/ha (N220P144K90. Seeding rate was 300, 350 and 400 thousand viable seeds per 1 ha; broadcast was chosen as a sowing method.A field experiment with sweet sorghum included promising hybrid crop Debut, fertilizers N140P80K70, N190P110K95 and N240P140K120 to obtain 60, 70 and 80 t/ha of green mass for two mowings, respectively. Results. The use of fertilizers based on a given level of productivity at optimum plant population can significantly improve the nutritional regime of the soil during the growing season of the sweet sorghum and create optimal conditions for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium security for the crops and thus obtain the planned crop yield. Conclusion. The fodder quality of sweet sorghum varies depending on the nutrient status of the soil and mowing time.

  15. Intercropping Urochloa brizantha and sorghum inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense for silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Hisashi Nakao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Livestock performance in the Brazilian Cerrado has been limited by the low availability of good quality fodder, especially during periods of low rainfall. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth and dry matter production in two cultivars of sorghum, inoculated or not with diazotrophic bacteria, and as a monocrop or intercropped with palisade grass under a system of crop-livestock integration. The experiments were carried out in the field in the Cerrado region during the autumn-winter period of 2015 and 2016, on the experimental farm of the Faculty of Engineering at Ilha Solteira, UNESP, in Selvíria, in the State of Mato Groso do Sul, Brazil (MS. A randomised complete block experimental design was used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments corresponded to two agricultural years (2015 and 2016; the cultivation of dual-purpose grain sorghum, alone or intercropped with palisade grass; with or without inoculation of the sorghum seeds with the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. The dry matter production of the plant components and plant growth were evaluated for the preparation of silage. Inoculation of sorghum seeds with the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense increases the production of plant dry matter for silage, irrespective of the cultivar or intercrop. Dual-purpose grain sorghum intercropped with palisade grass is a viable agronomic system for producing plant matter for silage during the autumn season.

  16. Assessment of Genetic Variability in Sorghum Accessions (Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The polymorphic information content (PIC) of individual primer ranged from 0.34 to 0.70 with a mean value of 0.54 indicating enough ... Keywords: Sorghum; Simple Sequence Repeat markers; Genetic variation; Polymorphic Information Content;. Coefficient of ... based techniques include Restriction Fragment Length.

  17. Estimation of in situ mating systems in wild sorghum (Sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The high outcrossing rates of wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia indicate a high potential for crop genes (including transgenes) to spread within the wild pool. Therefore, effective risk management strategies may be needed if the introgression of transgenes or other crop genes from improved cultivars into wild or ...

  18. Water requirements of sorghum in lower Euphrates basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.

    1993-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted for two years during July 1987 and 1988 at the Research Station of ACSAD near Deir-Ezzor. The objectives of this study were to determine water requirements and consumptive use of sorghum (Var-IZRA'A3). The treatments were three levels of soil moisture content at 30-45 cm soil layer at which irrigation was implemented I 1 , I 2 , I 3 , representing 80%, 70% and 60% of field capacity respectively. The moisture content in the different layers of soil was measured by neutron probe except the 0-15 cm layer, which was determined gravimetrically. Some chemical and physical characteristics of soil, moisture content in the soil before irrigation, consumptive use, coefficient of consumptive use, productivity of sorghum, efficiencies of irrigation, water, K-coefficient, rate of irrigation, amount of total water added to each treatment during growth season, were studied. The results indicate that treatment I 1 has higher grain and biomass (fresh weight) yield than I 2 and I 3 . The yields were 3.142, 2.678, 2.242 ton grain/ha and 40.1, 38.2, 25,1 ton biomass/ha for I 1 , I 2 , I 3 respectively as the mean for two seasons. The mean water requirements (total water added) and consumptive use during the two years 1987 and 1988 were: 6520.0, 4922.0 m 3 /ha and 6022.5, 4836.0, 4001.0 m 3 /ha for treatments I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 respectively. Water use efficiencies were 0.52, 0.56, 0.56 Kg grain/m 3 water, water application efficiencies were 0.92, 0.86, 0.80 and coefficient of consumptive use was 1.9, 1.80, 1.79 m 3 water/Kg grain for the first, second and third treatments respectively. Generally, the final results indicate that treatment I 1 , gives the highest yield among the others, the yield of grain was 3075.0 and 3210.2 Kg/ha for first and second year respectively. Therefore, we may suggest the use of I 1 for sorghum irrigation in Deir-Ezzor area. The proper percentage of soil moisture content at 30-45 cm depth to start irrigation is 80% of field

  19. (Sorghum bicolor (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-11-13

    Nov 13, 2017 ... major cereal crop with multi-purposes in lower and mid altitude regions ... efficiency and grain yield for different cereal crops (Malakouti, 2008). .... The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was ..... Agriculture and environment in EU-15 – the IRENA ... Moench) varieties to blended fertilizer on yield, yield component ...

  20. Genome wide association mapping of grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in rice (Oryza sativa L. grown at four international field sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Norton

    Full Text Available The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carry out genome-wide association (GWA mapping of grain concentrations of arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in brown rice using an established rice diversity panel of ∼ 300 accessions and 36.9 k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The study was performed across five environments: one field site in Bangladesh, one in China and two in the US, with one of the US sites repeated over two years. GWA mapping on the whole dataset and on separate subpopulations of rice revealed a large number of loci significantly associated with variation in grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc. Seventeen of these loci were detected in data obtained from grain cultivated in more than one field location, and six co-localise with previously identified quantitative trait loci. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of these elements were located near significantly associated SNPs (within 200 kb, the estimated global linkage disequilibrium previously employed in this rice panel. This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally-variable traits in a highly genetically structured diversity panel.

  1. Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vietor Donald M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sucrose that accumulates in the culm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and other large tropical andropogonoid grasses can be of commercial value, and can buffer assimilate supply during development. Previous study conducted with intact plants showed that sucrose can be radially transferred to the intracellular compartment of mature ripening sorghum internode without being hydrolysed. In this study, culm-infused radiolabelled sucrose was traced between cellular compartments and among related metabolites to determine if the compartmental path of sucrose during radial transfer in culm tissue was symplasmic or included an apoplasmic step. This transfer path was evaluated for elongating and ripening culm tissue of intact plants of two semidwarf grain sorghums. The metabolic path in elongating internode tissue was also evaluated. Results On the day after culm infusion of the tracer sucrose, the specific radioactivity of sucrose recovered from the intracellular compartment of growing axillary-branch tissue was greater (nearly twice than that in the free space, indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through symplasmic routes. In contrast, the sucrose specific radioactivity in the intracellular compartment of the mature (ripening culm tissue was probably less (about 3/4's than that in free space indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through routes that included an apoplasmic step. In growing internodes of the axillary branch of sorghum, the tritium label initially provided in the fructose moiety of sucrose molecules was largely (81% recovered in the fructose moiety, indicating that a large portion of sucrose molecules is not hydrolysed and resynthesized during radial transfer. Conclusion During radial transfer of sucrose in ripening internodes of intact sorghum plants, much of the sucrose is transferred intact (without hydrolysis and resynthesis and primarily through a path that includes an

  2. a survey of sorghum downy mildew in sorghum in the sudano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Sahel savanna AEZs respectively) indicated that the disease was present only at the seedling stage ... In the southern guinea ... northern Nigeria, sorghum downy mildew in sorghum .... There was a significant (P>0.05) difference in SDM.

  3. Litter characteristics and pododermatitis incidence in broilers fed a sorghum-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMC Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of footpad dermatitis and quality of broilers litter fed with sorghum grain and diets based in corn. It was used 544 male and female chicks, distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications. The chicken feed was formulated and produced from corn, soybean meal and sorghum grain. In the formulation were kept constant levels of energy and protein in accordance with the following treatments: A. Control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. Grain sorghum (Whole Sorghum + soybean meal. At 35 and 42 days were evaluated mineral matter (A %, calcium (Ca%, phosphorus (P%, pH and dry matter (DM % of the poultry litter. To evaluate the footpad dermatitis were evaluated eight feet per treatment by visual analysis. At 35 and 42 days of age DM % MM (%, Ca (% P (% and pH of poultry litter no difference (p>0.05 was found between the treatments and the type of ingredient in the birds' diet is not related (p>0.05 with the incidence of footpad dermatitis. The incidence of footpad dermatitis and the quality of the litter weren't influenced by the type of the ingredient used in diet.

  4. Whole grain gluten-free pastas and flatbreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grain gluten-free products were formulated and evaluated for acceptance by volunteer tasters. The tastes judged acceptance of whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pastas for corn 83%, sorghum 79%, brown rice 77% and millet 50%. The acceptance for similar high protein pasta was corn-garbanzo 70...

  5. Identification and profiling of salinity stress-responsive proteins in Sorghum bicolor seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngara, Rudo; Ndimba, Roya; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor, a drought tolerant cereal crop, is not only an important food source in the semi arid/arid regions but also a potential model for studying and gaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drought and salt stress tolerance in cereals. In this study, seeds of a sweet...... sorghum variety, MN1618, were planted and grown on solid MS growth medium with or without 100mM NaCl. Heat shock protein expression immunoblotting assays demonstrated that this salt treatment induced stress within natural physiological parameters for our experimental material. 2D PAGE in combination...... with MS/MS proteomics techniques were used to separate, visualise and identify salinity stress responsive proteins in young sorghum leaves. Out of 281 Coomassie stainable spots, 118 showed statistically significant responses (p...

  6. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brown midrib mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), with a high biomass yield and excellent tolerance to drought and low nutrition, has been recommended as one of the most competitive bioenergy crops. Brown midrib (bmr) mutant sorghum with reduced lignin content showed a high potential for the improvement of bioethanol ...

  7. Optimization of extraction of polyphenols from Sorghum Moench ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phenolic acid were assayed using high performance liquid (HPLC). ... quantification of antioxidants and phenolic compounds from Sorghum M, ... Keywords: Response surface methodology, Sorghum moench, Polyphenols, Antioxidants.

  8. Neurogenic plasma exudation mediates grain dust-induced tissue injury in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P; Von Essen, S; Rubinstein, I

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust (GDE) elicits neurogenic plasma exudation in the oral mucosa in vivo. Using intravital microscopy, we found that GDE elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and an increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass 70 kDa) from the hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust elicits immediate oral mucosa inflammation in vivo.

  9. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Rizal

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium's efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33 with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT. The back-cross (BC1F1 progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used

  10. Sorghum allelopathy--from ecosystem to molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Leslie A; Alsaadawi, Ibrahim S; Baerson, Scott R

    2013-02-01

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference also have been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse locations and with various sorghum plant parts. Phytotoxicity has been reported when sorghum was incorporated into the soil as a green manure, when residues remained on the soil surface in reduced tillage settings, or when sorghum was cultivated as a crop in managed fields. Allelochemicals present in sorghum tissues have varied with plant part, age, and cultivar evaluated. A diverse group of sorghum allelochemicals, including numerous phenolics, a cyanogenic glycoside (dhurrin), and a hydrophobic p-benzoquinone (sorgoleone) have been isolated and identified in recent years from sorghum shoots, roots, and root exudates, as our capacity to analyze and identify complex secondary products in trace quantities in the plant and in the soil rhizosphere has improved. These allelochemicals, particularly sorgoleone, have been widely investigated in terms of their mode(s) of action, specific activity and selectivity, release into the rhizosphere, and uptake and translocation into sensitive indicator species. Both genetics and environment have been shown to influence sorgoleone production and expression of genes involved in sorgoleone biosynthesis. In the soil rhizosphere, sorgoleone is released continuously by living root hairs where it accumulates in significant concentrations around its roots. Further experimentation designed to study the regulation of sorgoleone production by living sorghum root hairs may result in increased capacity to utilize sorghum cover crops more effectively for suppression of germinating weed seedlings, in a manner similar to that of soil-applied preemergent herbicides like trifluralin.

  11. Increasing CO2 differentially affects essential and non-essential amino acid concentration of rice grains grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huibin; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Zhongqi; Tang, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Environmental pollution by both ambient CO2 and heavy metals has been steadily increasing, but we do not know how fluctuating CO2 concentrations influence plant nutrients under high Cd pollution, especially in crops. Here, we studied the effects of elevated CO2 and Cd accumulation on proteins and amino acids in rice under Cd stress. In this pot experiment, we analyzed the amino-acid profile of 20 rice cultivars that accumulate Cd differently; the plants were grown in Cd-containing soils under ambient conditions and elevated CO2 levels. We found that although Cd concentrations appeared to be higher in most cultivars under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2, the effect was significant only in seven cultivars. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated CO2 strongly decreased rice protein and amino acid profiles, including essential and non-essential amino acids. Under elevated CO2, the ratios of specific amino acids were either higher or lower than the optimal ratios provided by FAO/WHO, suggesting that CO2 may flatten the overall amino-acid profile, leading to an excess in some amino acids and deficiencies in others when the rice is consumed. Thus, Cd-tainted rice limits the concentration of essential amino acids in rice-based diets, and the combination with elevated CO2 further exacerbates the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in Fusarium Species in brown midrib Sorghum and in Air Populations in Production Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Scully, Erin D; Sattler, Scott E; French, Roy C; O'Neill, Patrick M; Pedersen, Jeffrey F

    2017-11-01

    Several Fusarium spp. cause sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grain mold, resulting in deterioration and mycotoxin production in the field and during storage. Fungal isolates from the air (2005 to 2006) and from leaves and grain from wild-type and brown midrib (bmr)-6 and bmr12 plants (2002 to 2003) were collected from two locations. Compared with the wild type, bmr plants have reduced lignin content, altered cell wall composition, and different levels of phenolic intermediates. Multilocus maximum-likelihood analysis identified two Fusarium thapsinum operational taxonomic units (OTU). One was identified at greater frequency in grain and leaves of bmr and wild-type plants but was infrequently detected in air. Nine F. graminearum OTU were identified: one was detected at low levels in grain and leaves while the rest were only detected in air. Wright's F statistic (F ST ) indicated that Fusarium air populations differentiated between locations during crop anthesis but did not differ during vegetative growth, grain development, and maturity. F ST also indicated that Fusarium populations from wild-type grain were differentiated from those in bmr6 or bmr12 grain at one location but, at the second location, populations from wild-type and bmr6 grain were more similar. Thus, impairing monolignol biosynthesis substantially effected Fusarium populations but environment had a strong influence.

  13. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Cui, Zhengyong; Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  14. Improvement in soil and sorghum health following the application of polyacrylate polymers to a Cd-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiwei, Q.; Varennes, A. de; Martins, L.L.; Mourato, M.P.; Cardoso, A.I.; Mota, A.M.; Pinto, A.P.; Goncalves, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of soils with cadmium (Cd) is a serious global issue due to its high mobility and toxicity. We investigated the application of insoluble polyacrylate polymers to improve soil and plant health. Sorghum was grown in a Cd-contaminated sandy soil. Polyacrylate polymers at 0.2% (w/w) were added to half of the soil. Control soil without plants was also included in the experiment. Growth of sorghum was stimulated in the polymer-amended soil. The concentration of Cd in the shoots, and the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase decreased in plants from polymer-amended soil compared with unamended control. The amount of CaCl 2 -extractable Cd in the polymer-amended soil was 55% of that in the unamended soil. The Cd extracted in sorghum shoots was 0.19 mg per plant grown on soil without polymer and 0.41 mg per plant grown on polymer-amended soil. The total amount of Cd removed from each pot corresponded to 1.5 and more than 6% of soil CaCl 2 -extractable Cd in unamended and polymer-amended soil, respectively. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, urease, protease and cellulase were greatest in polymer-amended soil with sorghum. In conclusion, the application of polyacrylate polymers to reduce the bioavailable Cd pool seems a promising method to enhance productivity and health of plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils.

  15. Radiation balance in the sweet sorghum crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, F.N. de; Mendez, M.E.G.; Martins, S.R.; Verona, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluxes of incident solar radiation, reflected and net radiation were measured during the growing cicle of two fields of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), cus. BR-501 and BR-503, maintained under convenient irrigation level. Resultant data allowed to estimate the crop albedo as well as the estimates of Rn. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Extensive variation in the density and distribution of DNA polymorphism in sorghum genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Evans

    Full Text Available Sorghum genotypes currently used for grain production in the United States were developed from African landraces that were imported starting in the mid-to-late 19(th century. Farmers and plant breeders selected genotypes for grain production with reduced plant height, early flowering, increased grain yield, adaptation to drought, and improved resistance to lodging, diseases and pests. DNA polymorphisms that distinguish three historically important grain sorghum genotypes, BTx623, BTx642 and Tx7000, were characterized by genome sequencing, genotyping by sequencing, genetic mapping, and pedigree-based haplotype analysis. The distribution and density of DNA polymorphisms in the sequenced genomes varied widely, in part because the lines were derived through breeding and selection from diverse Kafir, Durra, and Caudatum race accessions. Genomic DNA spanning dw1 (SBI-09 and dw3 (SBI-07 had identical haplotypes due to selection for reduced height. Lower SNP density in genes located in pericentromeric regions compared with genes located in euchromatic regions is consistent with background selection in these regions of low recombination. SNP density was higher in euchromatic DNA and varied >100-fold in contiguous intervals that spanned up to 300 Kbp. The localized variation in DNA polymorphism density occurred throughout euchromatic regions where recombination is elevated, however, polymorphism density was not correlated with gene density or DNA methylation. Overall, sorghum chromosomes contain distal euchromatic regions characterized by extensive, localized variation in DNA polymorphism density, and large pericentromeric regions of low gene density, diversity, and recombination.

  17. Identification of QTLs for root characteristics in maize grown in hydroponics and analysis of their overlap with QTLs for grain yield in the field at two water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberosa, Roberto; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Landi, Pierangelo; Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Salvi, Silvio; Conti, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the overlap among quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in maize for seminal root traits measured in hydroponics with QTLs for grain yield under well-watered (GY-WW) and water-stressed (GY-WS) field conditions as well as for a drought tolerance index (DTI) computed as GY-WS/GY-WW. In hydroponics, 11, 7, 9, and 10 QTLs were identified for primary root length (R1L), primary root diameter (R1D), primary root weight (R1W), and for the weight of the adventitious seminal roots (R2W), respectively. In the field, 7, 8, and 9 QTLs were identified for GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, respectively. Despite the weak correlation of root traits in hydroponics with GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, a noticeable overlap between the corresponding QTLs was observed. QTLs for R2W most frequently and consistently overlapped with QTLs for GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. At four QTL regions, an increase in R2W was positively associated with GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. A 10 cM interval on chromosome 1 between PGAMCTA205 and php20644 showed the strongest effect on R1L, R1D, R2W, GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI. These results indicate the feasibility of using hydroponics in maize to identify QTL regions controlling root traits at an early growth stage and also influencing GY in the field. A comparative analysis of the QTL regions herein identified with those described in previous studies investigating root traits in different maize populations revealed a number of QTLs in common.

  18. Evaluating Genetic Variability of Sorghum Mutant Lines Tolerant to Acid Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puspitasari, W.; Human, S.; Wirnas, D.; Trikoesoemaningtyas

    2012-01-01

    High rainfall in some parts in Indonesia causes soil become acidic. The main constraint of acid soil is phosphor (P) deficiency and aluminum (Al) toxicity which decrease plant productivity. To overcome this problem, it is important to develop a crop variety tolerant to such conditions. Sorghum is probably one of the potential crops to meet that objective. Sorghum has been reported to have wide adaptability to various agro-ecology and can be used as food and animal feed. Unfortunately, sorghum is not Indonesian origin so its genetic variability is still low. From previous breeding works with induced mutation, some promising mutant lines have been developed. These mutant lines were included in the experiment carried out in Tenjo with soil condition was classified as acid soil with pH 4.8 and exchangeable-Al content 2.43 me/100 g. The objectives of this experiment were to study the magnitude of genetic variability of agronomy and grain quality characters in sorghum in order to facilitate the breeding improvement of the species. Plant materials used in this study were ten genotypes, including 6 mutant lines and 4 control varieties. The randomized block design with three replications was used in the experiment. The genetic variabilities of agronomic and grain quality characters existed among genotypes, such as plant height, number of leaves, stalk diameter, biomass weight, panicle length, grain yield per plant, 100 seed weight and tannin content in the grain. The broad sense heritabilities of agronomic characters were estimated ranging from medium to high. Grain yield showed significantly positive correlation with agronomic characters observed, but it was negatively correlated with protein content (author)

  19. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF SORGHUM USING TISSUE CULTURE-BASED AND POLLEN-MEDIATED APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkonin L.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation is a powerful tool for genetic improvement of arable crops. Genetic engineering approaches are especially important for modification of starch and protein contents, vitamin and micronutrient concentration, improvement of nutritive value of protein fractions, and increase tolerance to environmental stresses. Application of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of sorghum, a highly productive heat tolerant and drought resistant crop, is extremely important since climate aridization in many regions all over the globe hampers sustainable production of traditional cereals, such as wheat, maize and barley. However, sorghum, in spite of great number of investigations, is one of the most recalcitrant crop species to genetic modification. The most frequently reported problems are a low frequency of transformation and silencing of transgenes. Using the A. tumefaciens strain AGL0/p35SGIB with the bar and gus-intron genes under the nos and CaMV35S promoters, respectively, we studied different methods of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of the grain sorghum: in vitro culture-based techniques, by inoculation of immature embryos or embryo-derived calli, and pollen-mediated approach, by inoculation of flowering panicles. Four lines of grain sorghum – Milo-10, [9E] Milo-10 (CMS-line, KVV-114, and KVV-45 – were used. In both approaches, for activation of vir-genes agrobacterial cell suspension was grown in the AB or modified AB media with acetosyringone at room temperature. In vitro culture approach was effective for obtaining transgenic plants in the lines Milo-10 and KVV-45, which were able to produce embryogenic callus from immature embryos after their co-cultivation with agrobacterial cell suspension. Callus cultures tolerant to glufosinate ammonium (GA and capable to plant regeneration were obtained. The frequency of immature embryos producing PCR-positive transgenic plants varied in different experiments

  20. Dry matter production, seed yield and water use efficiency of some grain legumes grown under different water regimes using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, O.M.S.; Salem, M.S.A.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abd-Elwahed, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed in the experimental farm at the Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during 2002 and 2004 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of dry matter production, seed yield, water use efficiency and root characteristics for three legumes species, i.e. soybean (Glycine max cv. clark), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Kafr El-Sheikh) and mungbean (Vigna radiate cv. kawmy 1) grown on a new reclaimed sandy soil under different water regimes. The experiments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation water, i.e. full irrigation (W1), medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). The obtained results indicated that normal irrigation (W1) gave the highest above ground dry matter production at flowering stage and total dry matter yield at maturity for the tested legumes. Water stress decreased significantly seed yields for all the tested legume seeds. The seed yield of normal watering condition treatment (W1) out yielded seed yield of those irrigated with medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). Mungbean and cowpea were more adapted to severe water stress than soybean. Most of the reduction in yield arose from a decrease in pod number. Pod number, number of seeds per pod and the thousand seed weight were significantly affected by water stress. The highest water use efficiency based on seed yield or dry matter yield were obtained by exposing the legume plants to medium water stress (W2), while the lowest value was obtained by exposing the plants to severe water stress (W3). There were significant differences in WUE among the tested species, whereas, mungbean showed the highest value in response to water stress, followed by soybean while cowpea showed the lowest value of water use efficiency. Rooting depth was increased under the severe water stress treatment as compared with well watered condition in the tested legume plants. Mungbean had the

  1. Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to convert the starches from iles-iles tubers (Amorphophalus campanulatus and sorghum grains (Sorghum bicolor L into bioethanol as an alternative energy. Both of these agricultural products contains a high content starches and they do not use as the major foods in Indonesia. To find out the maximum ethanol concentration and yield, both the raw materials were converted to ethanol on various process variables including the concentration of flour substrate solution (100-300 g/L, β-amylase enzyme concentration (0.8 - 6.4 ml/kg of flour , the  concentration of dry yeast S. cerevisiae (2-15 g, and fermentation time (72-168 hours. The results showed that at the flour substrate concentration of 250 g/L produced the maximum ethanol contents of 100.29 g/L and 95.11 g/L   for iles-iles and sorghum, respectively. Effect of β-amylase enzyme in the saccharification process showed that at concentration  of 3.2 ml/kg  the maximum reducing sugar content of 204.94 g/L and 193.15 g/L  for iles-iles and sorghum substrate, respectively were generated therefore it was corresponding to the maximum ethanol production. The concentration effect of dry yeast S. cerevisiae in the fermentation stage for the iles-iles and sorghum substrate revealed that the maximum ethanol obtained at 5 g yeast activated in 100 ml medium starter resulted the highest ethanol content 100.29 g/L 95.11 g/L for iles-iles and sorghum substrate, respectively. To determine the effect of fermentation time on ethanol yield from iles-iles and sorghum substrate, the fermentation process were performed at 3, 5, and 7 days. The maximum ethanol fermentation was obtained at 5 days fermentation. The ethanol yield is calculated by weight of ethanol is formed (g divided by the weight of flour (g. Based on the experiment results, conducted, generally the highest ethanol yield of iles-iles was higher than that of sorghum flour. The highest yield (g/g iles-iles and sorghum

  2. Evaluation of field resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The relationship with strigolactones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohemed Ahmed Mohamed, Nasr Eldin; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Bakker, Evert J.; Ast, van Aad; Babiker, Abdelgabar Gt; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Significant losses in sorghum biomass and grain yield occur in sub-Saharan Africa owing to infection by the root-parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. One strategy to avoid these losses is to adopt resistant crop varieties. For further delineation of the role of germination

  3. Phylogenetic reconstruction using four low-copy nuclear loci strongly supports a polyphyletic origin of the genus Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jennifer S; Ramachandran, Dhanushya; Henderson, Ashley; Freeman, Jasmine; Carlise, Michael; Harris, Alex; Willison-Headley, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    Sorghum is an essential grain crop whose evolutionary placement within the Andropogoneae has been the subject of scrutiny for decades. Early studies using cytogenetic and morphological data point to a poly- or paraphyletic origin of the genus; however, acceptance of poly- or paraphyly has been met with resistance. This study aimed to address the species relationships within Sorghum, in addition to the placement of Sorghum within the tribe, using a phylogenetic approach and employing broad taxon sampling. From 16 diverse Sorghum species, eight low-copy nuclear loci were sequenced that are known to play a role in morphological diversity and have been previously used to study evolutionary relationships in grasses. Further, the data for four of these loci were combined with those from 57 members of the Andropogoneae in order to determine the placement of Sorghum within the tribe. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were performed on multilocus concatenated data matrices. The Sorghum-specific topology provides strong support for two major lineages, in alignment with earlier studies employing chloroplast and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) markers. Clade I is composed of the Eu-, Chaeto- and Heterosorghum, while clade II contains the Stipo- and Parasorghum. When combined with data from the Andropogoneae, Clade II resolves as sister to a clade containing Miscanthus and Saccharum with high posterior probability and bootstrap support, and to the exclusion of Clade I. The results provide compelling evidence for a two-lineage polyphyletic ancestry of Sorghum within the larger Andropogoneae, i.e. the derivation of the two major Sorghum clades from a unique common ancestor. Rejection of monophyly in previous molecular studies is probably due to limited taxon sampling outside of the genus. The clade consisting of Para- and Stiposorghum resolves as sister to Miscanthus and Saccharum with strong node support. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  4. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at ∼1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure α-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure β-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH 3 anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH 2 anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH 3 symmetric) and 2848 cm -1 (CH 2 asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH 3 to CH 2 ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed

  5. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  6. The Effect of Soil Fertilizers on Yield and Growth Traits of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2016-07-01

    , but they had significant effects on characteristics of root length colonization, specific root length, leaf area index, crop yield, number of seeds per panicle and thousand grains weight .The results demonstrated that the highest percent of root length colonization (82, specific root length (51.82 m root in 25 cm3 soil, leaf area index (5.47, seed yield (425.62 g.m-2, number of seeds in panicle (635 were obtained in mycorhhiza with Nitroxine® treatment. The highest weight of thousands seeds (29.26 g was gained in simultaneous use of mycrhhoriza and vermicampost. On the basis of our results, the integration of mycrhhoriza with Nitroxine® is suggested as the best fertilizer treatment for sorghum. Conclusions The results showed that the application of mycorrhiza with nitroxin had the greatest effect on growth characteristics and yield of sorghum. It seems that whenever there was a source of nitrogen beside the mycorrhiza, the performance of sorghum was higher. Undoubtedly, application of bio and organic fertilizers specially in poor soils, have positive effects on soil physical and nutritional characteristics. On the other hand according to economical, environmental and social aspects, they are benefits and could be appropriate alternative for chemical fertilizers in future.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines for Sorghum bicolor ? Sorghum propinquum

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D.; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K.; Auckland, Susan A.; Goff, Valorie H.; Rainville, Lisa K.; Burow, Gloria B.; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor ? Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor ? S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map ha...

  8. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eRiyazaddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1’s and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. Genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/ susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilised in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to sca (σ2s, dominance variance (σ2d, and lower predictability ratios than the variance due to gca (σ2g and additive variance (σ2a for shoot fly resistance traits indicated the predominance of dominance type of gene action, whereas trichome density, leaf

  9. On the extent of genetic variation for transpiration efficiency in sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, G.L.; Broad, I.J.; Farquhar, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    A glasshouse study examined 49 diverse sorghum lines for variation in transpiration efficiency. Three of the 49 lines grown were Sorghum spp. native to Australia; one was the major weed Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), and the remaining 45 lines were cultivars of Sorghum bicolor. All plants were grown under non-limiting water and nutrient conditions using a semi-automatic pot watering system designed to facilitate accurate measurement of water use. Plants were harvested 56-58 days after sowing and dry weights of plant parts were determined. Transpiration efficiency differed significantly among cultivars. The 3 Australian native sorghums had much lower transpiration efficiency than the other 46 cultivars, which ranged from 7.7 to 6.0 g/kg. For the 46 diverse cultivars, the ratio of range in transpiration efficiency to its l.s.d. was 2.0, which was similar to that found among more adapted cultivars in a previous study. This is a significant finding as it suggests that there is likely to be little pay-off from pursuing screening of unadapted material for increased variation in transpiration efficiency. It is necessary, however, also to examine absolute levels of transpiration efficiency to determine whether increased levels have been found. The cultivar with greatest transpiration efficiency in this study (IS9710) had a value 9% greater (P < 0.05) than the accepted standard for adapted sorghum cultivars. The potential impact of such an increase in transpiration efficiency warrants continued effort to capture it. Transpiration efficiency has been related theoretically and experimentally to the degree of carbon isotope discrimination in leaf tissue in sorghum, which thus offers a relatively simple selection index. In this study, the variation in transpiration efficiency was not related simply to carbon isotope discrimination. Significant associations of transpiration efficiency with ash content and indices of photosynthetic capacity were found. However, the

  10. Siderophore production by mycorrhizal sorghum roots under micronutrient deficient condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aliasgharzad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It has widely been accepted that mycorrhizal symbiosis improves micronutrients uptake by most of the plants. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. plants were grown in sterile perlite and were inoculated with either Glomus etunicatum (GE or G.intraradices (GI, while the control set was left un-inoculated. Rorison's nutrient solution with three levels of 0, half and full strength (C0, C0.5 and C1, respectively of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn was applied to the pots during 85 days of growth period. Chrome azurol-S assay was used for determination of siderophores in root leachates on 45, 65 and 85 days after sowing (DAS. Siderophore production per unit volume of root was higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. Both GE and GI were efficient fungi in this respect. Siderophore production was significantly induced at C0 level of the micronutrients. Amount of siderophores produced on 45 and 85 DAS was more than 65 DAS. Mycorrhizal root colonization by GE or GI was not significantly affected by micronutrient levels.

  11. RUMINAL AND INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF MAIZE (Zea mays AND SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L. MOENCH USING DIFFERENT DIGESTIBILITY TECHNIQUES (IN VIVO, IN VITRO AND IN SACCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises A Gonzalez Garcia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the digestibility of the food is basic to establish its nutritive value and bioavailability of the nutrients. Numerous laboratory tests have been used to estimate the ruminal and intestinal digestion of the food such as in vitro (Gas and Daisy production and in sacco, to be compared with the in vivo method. Sorghum presented the highest (P 0.05 were found between grains. With regard to the digestibility methods, the DMD was lower (P 0.01 for the in sacco and in vitro methods (Daisy. The production of VFA's was similar for both cereals. In situ and in vitro techniques (DaisyII® allow the determination of digestibility quick and easy compared to conventional methods. Sorghum grinding improves its nutritional value by increasing its digestibility, which represents an alternative to maize for feeding calves for fattening.

  12. Nutrient content of sorghum beer strainings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum beer strainings were analysed for starch, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, minerals and ... The importance of minerals in animal nutrition has been recognized for many ..... strainings is probably due to yeast activity during fermentation ...

  13. Genetic diversity among sorghum landraces and polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breeding program through marker-assisted selection. ... Keywords: Sorghum, diversity, stay-green trait, marker, polymorphism. ..... Na: Number of different alleles; Na Freq: Frequency of different alleles; Ne: Number of effective alleles; ...

  14. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  15. mechanisms of drought resistance in grain ii:.stomatal regulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    increasing in the recent years. This is mainly due to an increased demand for legumes as protein sources and soil fertility restorers. Most legumes, however, are commonly grown in the drought- prone regions of the country, like the common bean in the maize/sorghum systems and the chickpea in the teff/wheat dominate ...

  16. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and solar radiation on the growth response of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] seedlings to soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, A.; Katayama, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and solar radiation on the growth response to soil moisture were examined in sorghum seedlings grown in culture boxes. The effects of soil moisture (f) and amount of nitrogen fertilizer application (g) on the increment of total dry matter weight of sorghum seedling (ΔW) were represented satisfactorily by the following reciprocal equation, 1/ΔW = A/(f - f 0 ) + B(g + g 0 )/(f - f 0 ) + C/[(f - f 0 ) (g + g 0 )] + D/(g + g 0 ) + E, where f 0 and g 0 were the uppermost value of unavailable soil moisture and the amount of nitrogen supplied from soil and seeds. A, B, C, D and E were coefficients. The effects of soil moisture (f) and solar radiation (S) on ΔW were expressed approximately by the following reciprocal equation, 1/ΔW = A/(S - S 0 ) + B/(f - f 0 ) + C(f - f 0 ) + D, where S 0 was the daily compensation point. These results indicated that the effects of solar radiation and soil moisture are additive, but the interaction between soil moisture and nitrogen fertilizer is not negligible. The transpiration efficiency was unaffected by soil moisture, nitrogen fertilizer and solar radiation

  17. Desempenho e digestibilidade de nutrientes em frangos de corte alternativos alimentados com silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.557 Performance and nutrient digestibility in alternative broilers fed with high-moisture sorghum grains silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Pelícia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de inclusão de silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo (SGUS, em substituição ao milho seco da ração sobre desempenho, rendimento de carcaça, cortes e gordura abdominal, além de avaliação econômica da criação alternativa, no período de 1 a 49 dias de idade. Também foi avaliada a digestibilidade das rações aos 21 dias de idade. Para as análises de desempenho e rendimento de carcaça, foram distribuídos, em galpão, 600 pintos machos (Cobb, um dia de idade, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50% de inclusão SGUS, em substituição ao milho seco da ração, e quatro repetições de 25 aves cada. Para digestibilidade, foram alojados em câmara termoneutra, 72 pintos (Cobb, em 24 gaiolas, sendo três aves/gaiola, 12 aves/tratamento. Os tratamentos experimentais foram os mesmos adotados para o galpão. A SGUS pode substituir em até 50% o milho seco das rações de frangos alternativos, criados até 49 dias de idade, sem alterar desempenho, rendimento de carcaça, cortes e gordura abdominal, bem como a digestibilidade de nutrientes aos 21 dias de idade. Entretanto, o maior retorno econômico e melhor fator de produção foram obtidos com 10% de substituição.The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of inclusion of high-moisture sorghum grains silage (HMSS in replacement of dry corn in diet on performance, carcass yield, cuts and abdominal fat, and also economic analysis of alternative system at 1 to 49 d of age. The digestibility of the diets was determined at 21 d of age. For performance and carcass yield analysis, 600 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb were used, installed in a broiler house, in a randomized blocks, with six treatments based on the inclusion of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of HMSS in replacement of dry corn, and four replicates/treatment with 25 chicks each. For digestibility, 72 one-dayold male chicks (Cobb were

  18. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) seedling growth in marginal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has b...

  19. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seedling growth in marginal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has ...

  20. The diversity of local sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Nusa Tenggara Timur province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkun, L.; Lalel, H. J. D.; Richana, N.; Pabendon, M. B.; Kleden, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important food crop in the dry land including Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) Province. This plant has a high adaptability to drought, can produce on marginal land, and is relatively resistant to pests and diseases. The study aims to collect and identify the species of local sorghum being cultivated by farmers, and the purposes of cultivation. In addition, this study will preserve germ plasm of local sorghum by providing bank seeds for the next growing season. A collection of local sorghum samples was conducted in 7 districts using survey and observation method. A total of 53 species of sorghum were collected, with various characteristics and different local names. Based on the skin color of the seeds, the accessions were grouped into white groups (26.42%), light yellow (15.09%), black (20.75%), brown (24.52%), and red (13.20 %). Sorghum is used for complementary food for rice, consumption in times of food insecurity, fodder, and as a fence for corn and rice. It is necessary to characterize the type of local sorghum that has the potential to be developed for food, industrial raw materials, and for functional food.

  1. Radioinduced variation in genetic improvement of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (l.). Moench)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez del Rio, E.

    1984-01-01

    A genetic variability study among 25 varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is presented. The populations are irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 Krads of cobalt 60 as far as M 5 generation. An individual selection is done taking into consideration agronomic characteristics like precocity, type, size. height of the plant. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Preparation of Hulu-mur flavored carbonated beverage based on Feterita sorghum (Sorghum bicolor malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F. A. Baidab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available  In this study, sorghum Feterita malt extract was used to prepare carbonated beverages flavored with traditional Hulu-mur spices extract.  The beverages produced were assessed for their physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional qualities. Malting (3–5 days of the Feterita grains showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences in proximate composition from that of unmalted grains. Protein and sugars increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 with increased the malting time (days, while there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05 reduction in oil and starch  content  during malting progress. The kilning temperature of 150°C for 20 minutes was found to produce the most acceptable Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue in terms of flavor and taste. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were observed in physicochemical and nutritional qualities between the Hulu-mur analogue carbonated beverage and commercial non-alcoholic beverage. The Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue was rich in Na, K, Ca, and Fe (26.45, 21.84, 24.00, and 0.57 mg /100 g, respectively compared to levels of the same minerals in the non-alcoholic beverage (22.31, 8.19, 22.00 and 0.15 mg/100 g, respectively. The Hulu-mur analogue also had a higher calorific value (35.85 kcal /100 mL compared to the non-alcoholic beverage (32.96 kcal/100 mL.

  3. Whole grain gluten-free vegetable savory snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of savory snacks (gluten-free, whole grains with fresh vegetables, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. Composition of the base formulation (BF) as is basis was brown rice flour (45%), sorghum flour (20%), tapioca flour (7%), mashed potato (8%), canola oil (6%), guar gum (2%), baking pow...

  4. Grain dehullers: less toil, more food for Africans | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... ... from a Canadian design has eliminated drudgery for women and girls, and made convenient food products more widely available. Before grains like millet or sorghum can be milled into flour or used for other purposes, the hulls must be removed. This chore, when carried out in traditional fashion by hand, ...

  5. Whole grain Gluten-free vegetable spicy snacks (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of spicy snacks (gluten-free, whole grains with fresh vegetables, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. Composition of the base mix was brown rice flour 45%, sorghum flour 20%, tapioca flour 17%, mashed potato 8%, canola oil 6%, guar gum 2%, baking powder 1.5%, salt 0.5% and cayenne peppe...

  6. Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, U.; Craufurd, P.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Kumar, A.A.; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2012-01-01

    The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on

  7. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Effect of Sources and Storage Conditions on Quality of Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination test of sorghum seeds varied highly significantly (P<0.001) from Kwimba. 74%, Chamwino .... Mean separation test was done using Least. Significance ... for QDS sorghum is 98%. One dot represents more than one sample.

  9. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. No. AMS-LS-10-0103] Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

  10. Comparison of fluoride effects on germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max and Sorghum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Lupo, Maela; Dri, Nicolas; Lombarte, Mercedes; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Fluorosis is a disease caused by over-exposure to fluoride (F). Argentina's rural lands have higher fluorine content than urban lands. Evidence confirms that plants grown in fluoridated areas could have higher F content. We compared F uptake and growth of crops grown in different F concentrations. The effect of 0-8 ppm F concentrations on maize, soybeans and sorghum germination and growth was compared. After 6 days seeding, the germination was determined, the roots and aerial parts lengths were measured, and vigor index was calculated. F content was measured in each part of the plants. Controls with equal concentrations of NaCl were carried out. Significant decrease in roots and aerial parts lengths, and in vigor index of maize and soybeans plants was observed with F concentrations greater than 2 ppm. This was not observed in sorghum seedlings. Also, the amount of F in all crops augmented as F increases, being higher in roots and ungerminated seeds. Sorghum was the crop with the highest F content. Fluoride decreased the germination and growth of maize and soybeans and therefore could influence on their production. Conversely, sorghum seems to be resistant to the action of F. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Radiation-use efficiency response to vapor pressure deficit for maize and sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiniry, J.R.; Landivar, J.A.; Witt, M.; Gerik, T.J.; Cavero, J.; Wade, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Variability within a crop species in the amount of dry mass produced per unit intercepted solar radiation, or radiation-use efficiency (RUE), is important for the quantification of plant productivity. RUE has been used to integrate (1) leaf area, (2) solar radiation interception, and (3) productivity per unit leaf area into crop productivity. Responsiveness of RUE to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) should relate closely to responsiveness of CO 2 exchange rate (CER) to VPD. The objective of this study was to compare independent RUE measurements to published response functions relating VPD with RUE of maize (Zea mays L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)]. Data sets from five locations covering a wide range of mean VPD values were compared to published response functions. Predicted RUE values were nearly always within the 95% confidence intervals of measurements. Measured RUE of maize decreased as VPD increased from 0.9 to 1.7 kPa. For sorghum, measured values of RUE agreed closely with predictions. RUE of sorghum decreased as VPD increased from 1.1 to 2.2 kPa. The relative RUE:VPD responses for these two species were similar to CER:VPD responses reported in the literature. Thus, these RUE:VPD responses may be general and appear to be related to carbon exchange rates. We calculated the expected impacts of VPD on RUE at three USA locations during maize and sorghum growing seasons. The RUE:VPD equations offer hope in describing location effects and time-of-year effects on RUE. (author)

  12. Sorghum yield and associated satellite-derived meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum yield and associated satellite-derived meteorological parameters in semi-arid Botswana. ... African Crop Science Journal ... Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) yield for five seasons (2005/6 to 2009/10) from the Botswana Department of Crop ... Key Words: Coefficient of determination, NDVI, Pearson correlation ...

  13. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  14. Mapping and characterisation of the sorghum cell suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we reported the first secretomic study of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a naturally drought tolerant cereal crop. In this study, we used a gel-based proteomic approach in combination with mass spectrometry to separate and identify proteins secreted into the culture medium of sorghum cell suspensions, a first step ...

  15. A time course analysis of the extracellular proteome of Aspergillus nidulans growing on sorghum stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saykhedkar Sayali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungi are important players in the turnover of plant biomass because they produce a broad range of degradative enzymes. Aspergillus nidulans, a well-studied saprophyte and close homologue to industrially important species such as A. niger and A. oryzae, was selected for this study. Results A. nidulans was grown on sorghum stover under solid-state culture conditions for 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days. Based on analysis of chitin content, A. nidulans grew to be 4-5% of the total biomass in the culture after 2 days and then maintained a steady state of 4% of the total biomass for the next 12 days. A hyphal mat developed on the surface of the sorghum by day one and as seen by scanning electron microscopy the hyphae enmeshed the sorghum particles by day 5. After 14 days hyphae had penetrated the entire sorghum slurry. Analysis (1-D PAGE LC-MS/MS of the secretome of A. nidulans, and analysis of the breakdown products from the sorghum stover showed a wide range of enzymes secreted. A total of 294 extracellular proteins were identified with hemicellulases, cellulases, polygalacturonases, chitinases, esterases and lipases predominating the secretome. Time course analysis revealed a total of 196, 166, 172 and 182 proteins on day 1, 3, 7 and 14 respectively. The fungus used 20% of the xylan and cellulose by day 7 and 30% by day 14. Cellobiose dehydrogenase, feruloyl esterases, and CAZy family 61 endoglucanases, all of which are thought to reduce the recalcitrance of biomass to hydrolysis, were found in high abundance. Conclusions Our results show that A. nidulans secretes a wide array of enzymes to degrade the major polysaccharides and lipids (but probably not lignin by 1 day of growth on sorghum. The data suggests simultaneous breakdown of hemicellulose, cellulose and pectin. Despite secretion of most of the enzymes on day 1, changes in the relative abundances of enzymes over the time course indicates that the set of enzymes

  16. Impact of Brewery Waste Sludge on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench Productivity and Soil Fertility in Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nano Alemu Daba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on farmers' field in sofi district of Harari Regional State during 2013/2014 main cropping season, eastern Ethiopia, to investigate the impact of brewery sludge on sorghum production and soil fertility. The treatments comprised seven levels of brewery sludges (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0 t ha-1 and NP inorganic fertilizer at recommended rate, arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. Application of brewery sludge at 15 t ha-1 significantly increased the yield and biomass yield of sorghum by 79 and 85% over control and by 57 and 67% over NP application, respectively. There was no effect of brewery sludge application on heavy metals concentrations in soil after crop harvest, compared to international standard tolerable level. Co and Se levels were high in the control as well as in the soils treated with brewery sludge indicating the already high concentration of these heavy metals in the soils of the area. Plots, which received higher brewery sludge application, resulted in decreased or less percentage of grain nitrogen content showing the independence of grain protein content on lower brewery sludge level. The nitrogen uptake by sorghum grain, straw and the total was maximum (52.68, 44.25 and 79.03 kg ha-1, respectively with the application of brewery waste sludge at 10 and 15 t ha-1 which were significantly higher than the other brewery sludge and NP mineral fertilizer applications.

  17. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  18. Agro-biodiversity in Subsistence Farming Systems of South Somalia –Collection and Agronomic Assessment of Somali Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzelli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of Siyad Barre' regime, Somalia lost any form of agricultural research with negative consequences on food availability and seed sector stability. A fi rst step to restore food security can be represented by enhancing local genetic resources. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is a very important crop in rainfed areas of Somalia serving as primary source of food and forage. Eight morphological and productive characteristics were chosen to assess the phenotypic variability of 7 accessions from South Somalia. Univariate (ANOVA and multivariate (discriminant and cluster analysis methods were used to assess the productive variation within the accession and to group the 7 accessions into clusters based on quantitative characters. The results showed that there is a wide morpho-agronomical diversity among accessions, especially regarding specifi c features suitable for different purpose, such as grain and/or forage production. Moreover the landraces were able to grow and produce under harsh environmental conditions. The gathered information can be used to promote the conservation and future improvement of local sorghum landraces, thus aiding in the stabilisation of a secure and sustainable food resource for farmers of southern Somalia.

  19. Transfer factors of radionuclides 137Cs and 65Zn from soil to pearl millet and sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.; Sachdev, M.S.; Deb, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) of 137 Cs and 65 Zn were determined for two crops, sorghum and pearl millet, under irrigated conditions in greenhouse and under rain fed conditions in field. In the greenhouse experiment, the accumulation of 137 Cs was almost doubled when the soil contamination level was doubled. Under field conditions, 137 Cs concentration in both pearl millet and sorghum grains as well as straw was nearly four times more at 148 kBq Kg -1 level of soil contamination as compared to lower level of 74 kBq kg -1 soil. The TF values for 65 Zn determined under greenhouse conditions for both the crops were nearly a hundred-fold higher as compared to 137 Cs. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  20. ISSR-based analysis of genetic diversity among sorghum landraces growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basahi, Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis was used to determine the genetic diversity among 15 genotypes of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. A total of 92 alleles were amplified, with an average of 13 ISSR alleles per primer. Cluster analysis divided the 15 genotypes into two main groups. Group A consisted of five genotypes with white grains from Jazan and Abha with a similarity coefficient range of 0.527 to 0.818. Group B was comprised of 10 genotypes; two genotypes from Al-Qassim were clearly delimited from the remaining eight samples with a coefficient range from 0.709 to 0.490. The eight genotypes were divided into two clusters; one was comprised of landraces with dark grains from Abha in Saudi Arabia and Ab in Yemen, with a similarity coefficient range between 0.563 and 0.781, and the other cluster was differentiated into three white-colored-grain genotypes and one colored-grain genotype; all samples from North Yemen had a similarity coefficient range from 0.454 to 0.800. The current results encourage further collection and authentication of sorghum landraces in the gene banks of Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Sorghum Seed Maturity Affects the Weight and Feeding Duration of Immature Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Alysha M.; Whitworth, R. Jeff; McCornack, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed. PMID:24219328

  2. Sorghum seed maturity affects the weight and feeding duration of immature corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Alysha M; Whitworth, R Jeff; McCornack, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed.

  3. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...... sorghum plants. In each field, leaf samples were collected from five well-developed (performing) and five less-developed (non-performing) plants at 3-5 leaf stage, while at plant maturity leaf, stem and root samples were collected from the same plants and fungal endophytes were isolated. A total of 39...... fungal species belonging to 25 genera were isolated. The most represented genera included Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Curvularia, Nigrospora and Penicillium. The genera Fusarium and Penicillium occurred significantly higher in performing plants as compared to non-performing plants while the genera...

  4. Effect of potassium supply on drought resistance in sorghum: plant growth and macronutrient content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgharipour, M.R.; Heidari, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the main limiting natural resource is widely considered to be water. Therefore, research into crop management practices that enhance drought resistance and plant growth when water supply is limited has become increasingly essential. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of potassium (K) nutritional status on the drought resistance of grain sorghum during 2009. Drought stress by reducing the yield components, especially the number of panicle per plant and one-hundred grain weight reduced grain yield and greatest yield (3499 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained at full irrigation. Potassium sulfate increased grain and biological yield by 28% and 22%, respectively compared to control through improving growth conditions. Drought stress increased the N content, while reduced water availability decreased the K and Na in plant. No K fertilized plants had the lowest leaf K and N and highest Na concentrations. Chlorophyll content increased significantly with increase in K supply and increased frequency of irrigation. Interaction effect of drought stress and potassium sulfate on all studied traits except chlorophyll content was significant and optimum soil K levels protects plants from drought. These observations indicate that adequate K nutrition can improve drought resistance of sorghum. (author)

  5. Identification of Sweet Sorghum accessions with seedling cold tolerance using both lab cold germination test and field early Spring planting evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivars with quick seedling emergence and stand establishment at early spring cold conditions may be planted early in the same region with an extended period of plant growth and can potentially increase either grain yield, stem sugar yield, or biomass production of sorghum. Planting cultivars with...

  6. Efficient regeneration of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, from shoot-tip explant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamala, D; Devi, Prathibha

    2003-12-01

    Novel protocols for production of multiple shoot-tip clumps and somatic embryos of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were developed with long-term goal of crop improvement through genetic transformation. Multiple shoot-tip clumps were developed in vitro from shoot-tip explant of one-week old seedling, cultured on MS medium containing only BA (0.5, 1 or 2 mg/l) or both BA (1 or 2 mg/l) and 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) with bi-weekly subculture. Somatic embryos were directly produced on the enlarged dome shaped growing structures that developed from the shoot-tips of one-week old seedling explants (without any callus formation) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with both 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l). However, the supplementation of MS medium with only 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) induced compact callus without any plantlet regeneration. Each multiple shoot-clump was capable of regenerating more than 80 shoots via an intensive differentiation of both axillary and adventitious shoot buds, the somatic embryos were capable of 90% germination, plant conversion and regeneration. The regenerated shoots could be efficiently rooted on MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 1 mg/l). The plants were successfully transplanted to glasshouse and grown to maturity with a survival rate of 98%. Morphogenetic response of the explants was found to be genotypically independent.

  7. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  8. Losses of nutrients and anti-nutrients in red and white sorghum cultivars after decorticating in optimised conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María Gimena; Llopart, Emilce Elina; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2018-05-01

    The aims were to optimise pearling process of red and white sorghum by assessing the effects of pearling time and grain moisture on endosperm yield and flour ash content and to assess nutrient and anti-nutrient losses produced by pearling different cultivars in optimised conditions. Both variables significantly affected both responses. Losses of ashes (58%), proteins (9.5%), lipids (54.5%), Na (37%), Mg (48.5%) and phenolic compounds (43%) were similar among red and white hybrids. However, losses of P (30% vs. 51%), phytic acid (47% vs. 66%), Fe (22% vs. 55%), Zn (32% vs. 62%), Ca (60% vs. 66%), K (46% vs. 61%) and Cu (51% vs. 71%) were lower for red than white sorghum due to different degree of extraction and distribution of components in the grain. Optimised pearling conditions were extrapolated to other hybrids, indicating these criteria could be applied at industrial level to obtain refined flours with proper quality and good endosperm yields.

  9. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  10. Impact of sorghum processing on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in thick porridges

    OpenAIRE

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van, M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study focussed on the impact of process variables on levels of phytate and phenolic compounds, and in vitro solubility of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in sorghum porridges, a major staple in semi-arid tropics. The aim was to identify practices that enhance the mineral availability in this type of staple food. We studied the example of the West African porridge `dibou' for which the processing methods involve grain cleaning, milling, sieving and cooking. Regional variations occur in the proces...

  11. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    PRICE, H. JAMES; DILLON, SALLY L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; ROONEY, WILLIAM L.; ROSS, LARRY; JOHNSTON, J. SPENCER

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  12. Phylogenetic relationship among Kenyan sorghum germplasms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Kiboi

    phylogenetic relationships based on 10 DNA fragments at AltSB loci with SbMATE, ORF9 and MITE primers. .... estimate the overall genetic diversity in Kenyan sorghum lines: Cheprot et al. 3529 ..... EARN project and Generation Challenge (GCP), ... genetics and molecular biology of plant aluminum resistance and toxicity.

  13. Brown midrib sorghum deserves a look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage sorghum varieties have been developed to allow them to thrive under low moisture and poor soil conditions while producing adequate amounts of forage. In addition, newer varieties, such as the brown midrib (BMR) hybrids, can be alternatives to conventional varieties as they contain less lignin...

  14. PROTEIN ENRICHMENT OF SPENT SORGHUM RESIDUE USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The optimum concentration of spent sorghum for protein enrichment with S. cerevisiae was 7.Sg/100 ml. Th.: protein ... production of single sell protein using Candida utilis and cassava starch effluem as substrate. ... wastes as substrates, Kluyveromyces fragilis and milk whey coconut water as substrate (Rahmat et al.,. 1995 ...

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Vaňková, Radomíra; Song, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, JUN 2014 (2014), s. 15-24 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12162; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13029 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Sorghum * Cadmium * Zinc Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2014

  16. Variation of Transpiration Efficiency in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining freshwater resources, increasing population, and growing demand for biofuels pose new challenges for agriculture research. To meet these challenges, the concept “Blue Revolution” was proposed to improve water productivity in agriculture--“More Crop per Drop”. Sorghum is the fifth most imp...

  17. Variation in transpiration efficiency in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining freshwater resources, increasing population, and growing demand for biofuels pose new challenges for agriculture research. To meet these challenges, the concept “Blue Revolution” was proposed to improve water productivity in agriculture--“More Crop per Drop”. Sorghum is the fifth most imp...

  18. Cadmium accumulation by jack-bean and sorghum in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francato Zancheta, Ariana Carramaschi; De Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Zambrosi, Fernando César Bachiega; de Magalhães Erismann, Norma; Andrade Lagôa, Ana Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Among the technologies used to recuperate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils, phytoextraction are particularly important, where the selection of suitable plants is critical to the success of the soil remediation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the responses of jack-bean and sorghum to Cd supply and to quantify Cd accumulation by these species grown in hydroponic culture. The plants were subjected to 0, 15, 30, or 60 μmol Cd L(-1) in the nutrient solution, and gas exchange, plant growth and Cd accumulation were measured at 25 days after starting Cd treatments. The Cd supply severely reduced growth of shoots and roots in both species. In jack-bean, Cd decreased photosynthesis by 56-86%, stomatal conductance by 59-85% and transpiration by 48-80%. The concentrations and amounts of Cd accumulated in the plant tissues were proportional to the metal supply in the nutrient solution. Sorghum was more tolerant than jack-bean to Cd toxicity, but the latter showed a greater metal concentration and accumulation in the shoot. Therefore, jack-bean would be more suitable than sorghum for use in Cd phytoremediation programs based on phytoextraction.

  19. 7 CFR 800.86 - Inspection of shiplot, unit train, and lash barge grain in single lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limit Breakpoint Class Tannin Not less than 90.0% −1.9 Sorghum Not less than 97.0% −1.0 White Not less... averages of the analysis of sublots. (4) Grain rejected by the inspection plan. When grain which is offered...

  20. Identification of Dw1, a Regulator of Sorghum Stem Internode Length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Hilley

    Full Text Available Sorghum is an important C4 grain and grass crop used for food, feed, forage, sugar, and biofuels. In its native Africa, sorghum landraces often grow to approximately 3-4 meters in height. Following introduction into the U.S., shorter, early flowering varieties were identified and used for production of grain. Quinby and Karper identified allelic variation at four loci designated Dw1-Dw4 that regulated plant height by altering the length of stem internodes. The current study used a map-based cloning strategy to identify the gene corresponding to Dw1. Hegari (Dw1dw2Dw3dw4 and 80M (dw1dw2Dw3dw4 were crossed and F2 and HIF derived populations used for QTL mapping. Genetic analysis identified four QTL for internode length in this population, Dw1 on SBI-09, Dw2 on SBI-06, and QTL located on SBI-01 and SBI-07. The QTL on SBI-07 was ~3 Mbp upstream of Dw3 and interacted with Dw1. Dw1 was also found to contribute to the variation in stem weight in the population. Dw1 was fine mapped to an interval of ~33 kbp using HIFs segregating only for Dw1. A polymorphism in an exon of Sobic.009G229800 created a stop codon that truncated the encoded protein in 80M (dw1. This polymorphism was not present in Hegari (Dw1 and no other polymorphisms in the delimited Dw1 locus altered coding regions. The recessive dw1 allele found in 80M was traced to Dwarf Yellow Milo, the progenitor of grain sorghum genotypes identified as dw1. Dw1 encodes a putative membrane protein of unknown function that is highly conserved in plants.

  1. Bioenergy Sorghum Crop Model Predicts VPD-Limited Transpiration Traits Enhance Biomass Yield in Water-Limited Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Mullet, John E

    2017-01-01

    Bioenergy sorghum is targeted for production in water-limited annual cropland therefore traits that improve plant water capture, water use efficiency, and resilience to water deficit are necessary to maximize productivity. A crop modeling framework, APSIM, was adapted to predict the growth and biomass yield of energy sorghum and to identify potentially useful traits for crop improvement. APSIM simulations of energy sorghum development and biomass accumulation replicated results from field experiments across multiple years, patterns of rainfall, and irrigation schemes. Modeling showed that energy sorghum's long duration of vegetative growth increased water capture and biomass yield by ~30% compared to short season crops in a water-limited production region. Additionally, APSIM was extended to enable modeling of VPD-limited transpiration traits that reduce crop water use under high vapor pressure deficits (VPDs). The response of transpiration rate to increasing VPD was modeled as a linear response until a VPD threshold was reached, at which the slope of the response decreases, representing a range of responses to VPD observed in sorghum germplasm. Simulation results indicated that the VPD-limited transpiration trait is most beneficial in hot and dry regions of production where crops are exposed to extended periods without rainfall during the season or to a terminal drought. In these environments, slower but more efficient transpiration increases biomass yield and prevents or delays the exhaustion of soil water and onset of leaf senescence. The VPD-limited transpiration responses observed in sorghum germplasm increased biomass accumulation by 20% in years with lower summer rainfall, and the ability to drastically reduce transpiration under high VPD conditions could increase biomass by 6% on average across all years. This work indicates that the productivity and resilience of bioenergy sorghum grown in water-limited environments could be further enhanced by development

  2. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-12-01

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  3. Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri

    2017-06-17

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer's rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and broth aromatics were identified. Volatile compounds were also associated with earthy, musty, and meaty aromas and flavor notes. This study showed that extruded dry dog foods manufactured with different red sorghum fractions had similar aroma, flavor, and volatile profiles.

  4. Evaluation of some sorghum genotypes under normal and moisture-stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Assar, A. H.; Salih, M.; Wagner, C.; Friedt, W.; Abdelmula, A. A.; Ordon, F.; Steffens, D.

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the morphological and physiological attributes related to drought tolerance in sorghum (sorghum bicolor (L) Moench). Eight genotypes were tested in a pot experiment carried out at Giessen, Germany. Drought conditions were imposed by withholding watering of the plants when filed water-holding capacity was at 40% and 70%. The tested genotypes differed significantly in most of the measured traits. Grain yield under drought stress ranged from 28 to 61 g/ plant, and relative yield ranged 30% to 56% with an average of 47%. Based on yield/plant, the genotypes Wad Ahmed (61g). SAR 41 (55 g) and ICSR 91030 (54 g) were the best under drought stress conditions, and based on relative yield, the best genotypes were SAR 41 (56%), Wad Ahmed (55%), and Red Mugud (53%). The mean potassium content was 18 mg/g, with a range of 14 mg/g (Red Mugud) to 22 mg/g (Arfa Gadamak). Significant difference were obtained for protein percentage of the dry matter under conditions of drought stress. The values ranged form 14.1% (Red Mugud) to 16.7% (Tabat) with a mean of 15.3%. Grain yield under drought stress was positively correlated with relative yield (r= 0.89), total biomass (r= 0.56), number of seeds per panicle (r= 0.66) and harvest index (r= 0.81), but negatively correlated with 1000-grain (r= 0.37). (Author)

  5. RAPD cluster analysis and chlorate sensitivity of some Indian isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina from sorghum and their relationships with pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I K; Fakrudin, B; Arora, D K

    2008-01-01

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is an economically important disease in sorghum grown during the post rainy season in India. Variations in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymorphisms, chlorate sensitivity and pathogenicity were studied among sorghum isolates of M. phaseolina collected from different parts of India. RAPD data based on 14 random primers of Kit A and C (OPA and OPC) on 20 isolates showed a high degree of polymorphism (98.1%) in different isolates. UPGMA dendrogram on RAPD data produced 7 clusters at the level of 37% similarity. Isolates from the same locations showed a tendency to group closer, substantiating closer genetic relatedness. Sorghum infecting Macrophomina isolates showed a mixed response for sensitivity to potassium chlorate (120 mM). Chlorate-resistant isolates were predominant (>65% of the isolates) over sensitive isolates. Chlorate-sensitive isolates were found to be genetically closer among them than the resistant ones. For the first time it was shown that chlorate sensitivity in Macrophomina had some relations with charcoal rot severity in sorghum.

  6. Natural Variation in Synthesis and Catabolism Genes Influences Dhurrin Content in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Hayes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glucosides are natural compounds found in more than 1000 species of angiosperms that produce HCN and are deemed undesirable for agricultural use. However, these compounds are important components of the primary defensive mechanisms of many plant species. One of the best-studied cyanogenic glucosides is dhurrin [(--hydroxymandelonitrile-β--glucopyranoside], which is produced primarily in sorghum [ (L. Moench]. The biochemical basis for dhurrin metabolism is well established; however, little information is available on its genetic control. Here, we dissect the genetic control of leaf dhurrin content through a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a panel of 700 diverse converted sorghum lines (conversion panel previously subjected to pre-breeding and selected for short stature (∼1 m in height and photoperiod insensitivity. The conversion panel was grown for 2 yr in three environments. Wide variation for leaf dhurrin content was found in the sorghum conversion panel, with the Caudatum group exhibiting the highest dhurrin content and the Guinea group showing the lowest dhurrin content. A GWAS using a mixed linear model revealed significant associations (a false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05 close to both UGT 185B1 in the canonical biosynthetic gene cluster on chromosome 1 and close to the catabolic dhurrinase loci on chromosome 8. Dhurrin content was associated consistently with biosynthetic genes in the two N-fertilized environments, while dhurrin content was associated with catabolic loci in the environment without supplemental N. These results suggest that genes for both biosynthesis and catabolism are important in determining natural variation for leaf dhurrin in sorghum in different environments.

  7. Cs phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil and in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-04-03

    Cs accumulation characteristics by Sorghum bicolor were investigated in hydroponic system (Cs level at 50-1000 μmol/L) and in soil (Cs-spiked concentration was 100 and 400 mg/kg soil). Two varieties of S. bicolor Cowly and Nengsi 2# grown on pot soil during the entire growth period (100 days) did not show significant differences on the height, dry weight (DW), and Cs accumulation. S. bicolor showed the potential phytoextraction ability for Cs-contaminated soil with the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF) values usually higher than 1 in soil system and in hydroponic system. The aerial parts of S. bicolor contributed to 86-92% of the total removed amounts of Cs from soil. Cs level in solution at 100 μmol/L gave the highest BCF and TF values of S. bicolor. Cs at low level tended to transfer to the aerial parts, whereas Cs at high level decreased the transfer ratio from root to shoot. In soil, the plant grew well when Cs spiked level was 100 mg/kg soil, but was inhibited by Cs at 400 mg/kg soil with Cs content in sorghum reaching 1147 mg/kg (roots), 2473 mg/kg (stems), and 2939 mg/kg (leaves). In hydroponic system, average Cs level in sorghum reached 5270 mg/kg (roots) and 4513 mg/kg (aerial parts), without significant damages to its biomass at 30 days after starting Cs treatment. Cs accumulation in sorghum tissues was positively correlated with the metal concentration in medium.

  8. Effect of heat moisture treatment (HMT) on product quality of sorghum starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryani, Kristinah; Hadiyanto, Handayani, Noera; Nugraheni, Dwi; Suryanto

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum is a cereal plant that rich of nutrition contents. The high content of carbohydrate in sorghum make this plant can be processed into one of the processed food i.e vermicelli. To give better quality, it is necessary to use flour substitution from sorghum starch. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of natural sorghum starch substitution, the addition of CMC, and a comparison of the natural starch with starch sorghum forage sorghum against solid losses value, rehydration weight and texture profiles. The variable used in this study: amount of natural sorghum starch subtituion (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%), the addition of CMC (0.1%; 0.2%; 0.3%; 0.4%; 0.5%) and substituting sorghum starch Natural: HMT sorghum starch (1: 1; 1: 2; 1: 3; 1: 4; 1: 5) and the quality parameters were evaluated. The result indicated that to substitute sorghum starch naturally at a rate of 50% had the best results with a value of solid losses 5.1% (white sorghum) 5.83% (red sorghum) and weighing rehydration 301.82% (white sorghums) 293.16% (red sorghum), the addition of CMC with 0.5% concentration of 3.96% solid losses value (red sorghum) 4:21% (white sorghums) and weight rehydration 252.71% (white sorghums) 244.45% (red sorghums).

  9. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  10. Effectiveness of an improved form of insecticide-based diatomaceous earth against four stored grain pests on different grain commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Nadia; Farooq, Muhammad; Shakeel, Muhammad; Ashraf, Misbah

    2018-04-07

    The effectiveness of Grain-Guard, an improved form of diatomaceous earth (DE), with low risk to the environment, was evaluated against the storage pests Liposcelis paeta, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Tribolium castaneum on four grain commodities, wheat, rice, maize and sorghum. The overall mortality of stored grain pests increased with the rise of application rate and exposure intervals of diatomaceous earth and decreased over 120 days of post-treatment period. Our results revealed that mortality of adults 14 days post-disclosure was > 80% on wheat at the start of post-treatment than rice, maize, and sorghum, respectively. During the first 60 days of post-treatment, adult mortality increased, whereas later on, a steady decrease in adult mortality was observed. Considerable differences in dose rates were observed on mortality levels along with grain commodities. Following 14 days of exposure, all adults of four species were dead on wheat at 100 ppm and on rice at 150 ppm except maize and sorghum. The suppression of progeny was noticeably higher at the beginning of post-treatment duration while after 60-days of post-treatment, progeny numbers started to increase with the rise in post-treatment durations. This new improved DE formulation was found to be effective at dose rates that are extensively lower than required with previous DE formulations and will contribute to lower the risk of health and environment.

  11. Clay and organic matter applications on the coarse quartzy tailing material and the sorghum growth on the post tin mining at Bangka Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nurcholis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal mining on the island of Bangka leaves a lot of damaged land surface covered by coarse-sized tailings that are dominated by the quartz mineral and it causes soil to be extremely unfertile. The objective of the present research was to understand the impact of the clay and organic matter (OM applications on the tailings for supporting the growth of an adaptive plant which is used in the present study is sorghum. The study was conducted on the artisanal mine closure land at Pangkalpinang, the clay material and cow dung were collected from locally near location. Land was prepared by constructing four treatments, i.e.: control, OM + NPK, clay + OM, and clay + OM + NPK. The amendment materials were applied by mixing the tailing on the 30 cm wide and depth on each planting strip with a distance of 70 cm. Sorghum seeds were planted with a spacing of 20 cm. Watering plants was done by utilizing the water pit at the beginning of germination and plant growth. The results showed that sorghum grown and survived only one month in the control treatment. Sorghum growth is very good on the treatment of clay + OM+ NPK, while the other two treatments result in stunted growth of sorghum.

  12. Sweet Sorghum Crop. Effect of the Compost Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, M. J.; Solano, M. L.; Carrasco, J.; Ciria, P.

    1998-01-01

    A 3 year-plot experiments were performed to determined the possible persistence of the positive effects of treating soil with compost. For this purpose, a sweet sorghum bagasse compost has been used. Experiments were achieved with sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L. Moench) vr Dale as energy crop. Similar sorghum productivities were obtained both in plots with consecutive compost applications and in plots amended with mineral fertilizers. No residual effect after three years has been detected. It could be due to the low dose of compost application. (Author) 27 refs

  13. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  14. Processing cereal grains, thin stillage, and cheese whey to fuel ethanol in a farm-scale plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W R; Westby, C A

    1988-01-01

    Hydrous fuel ethanol (95%) and distiller's wet grain (DWG) were produced in a farm-scale plant from corn, wheat, and grain sorghum particles of various sizes, from corn combined with thin stillage-whey, and from various other cereal grains. These variations were made in a search to find the best set of conditions for maximizing the energy balance and minimizing the cost of ethanol production. We found that the optimum hammermill screen size for corn, wheat, and grain sorghum was 1.59 - 2.38 mm. In tests with thin stillage and whey a higher energy balance (2.91) occurred when one part whey was mixed with three parts stillage, rather than the reverse (2.69). However, the reverse (three parts whey and one part stillage) gave a lower ethanol cost ($0.45 liter/sup -1/) than the original ($0.47 liter/sup -1/). Tests with various cereal grains (corn, oats, wheat, barley, rye, and grain sorghum) gave identical energy balance values (2.26) when 10% (v/v) ethanol beers were produced. However, rye ($0.50 liter/sup -1/), grain sorghum ($0.46 liter/sup -1/), and corn ($0.51 liter/sup -1/) yielded ethanol at the lowest net cost. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are also provided.

  15. Micron-sized columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 grown by solvent-vapor assisted low-temperature (75 °C) solid-state reaction: The role of non-coordinating solvent-vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The preparation of hybrid perovskite films with large columnar grains via low-temperature solid-state reaction remains a big challenge. Conventional solvent annealing using DMF, DMSO and ethanol, etc. fails to work effectively at low temperature (solar cells based on benzyl-alcohol-vapor annealing (75 °C), delivered much higher photovoltaic performance, better stability and smaller hysteresis than those based on conventional thermal annealing. Additionally, a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.1% was obtained and the average PCE reached 12.2% with a tiny deviation. Finally, the mechanism of solvent annealing with non-coordinating solvent was discussed. Moreover, we revealed that high polarity and high boiling point of the solvent used for generating vapor, was critical to grow micron-sized columnar grains at such a low temperature (75 °C). This work will contribute to understanding the mechanism of grain growth in solvent annealing and improving its facility and effectiveness.

  16. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  17. In vitro binding of Sorghum bicolor transcription factors ABI4 and ABI5 to a conserved region of a GA 2-OXIDASE promoter: possible role of this interaction in the expression of seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoro, Renata; Crocco, Carlos Daniel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis; Rodríguez, María Verónica

    2013-12-01

    The precise adjustment of the timing of dormancy release according to final grain usage is still a challenge for many cereal crops. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] shows wide intraspecific variability in dormancy level and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Both embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism play an important role in the expression of dormancy of the developing sorghum grain. In previous works, it was shown that, simultaneously with a greater embryo sensitivity to ABA and higher expression of SbABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (SbABI4) and SbABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (SbABI5), dormant grains accumulate less active GA4 due to a more active GA catabolism. In this work, it is demonstrated that the ABA signalling components SbABI4 and SbABI5 interact in vitro with a fragment of the SbGA 2-OXIDASE 3 (SbGA2ox3) promoter containing an ABA-responsive complex (ABRC). Both transcription factors were able to bind the promoter, although not simultaneously, suggesting that they might compete for the same cis-acting regulatory sequences. A biological role for these interactions in the expression of dormancy of sorghum grains is proposed: either SbABI4 and/or SbABI5 activate transcription of the SbGA2ox3 gene in vivo and promote SbGA2ox3 protein accumulation; this would result in active degradation of GA4, thus preventing germination of dormant grains. A comparative analysis of the 5'-regulatory region of GA2oxs from both monocots and dicots is also presented; conservation of the ABRC in closely related GA2oxs from Brachypodium distachyon and rice suggest that these species might share the same regulatory mechanism as proposed for grain sorghum.

  18. Modified Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 For High Fiber Muffin Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, D. D. S; Human, S

    2009-01-01

    Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induce sorghum genetic variation. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher grain yield than the original variety. Research on modified starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in food industry. Functionality of pregelatinized, hydroxypropyl and crosslinked starch of this mutant line (Mutant TexInstant 30) has been studied for its use in high fiber muffin products. Characteristics of high fiber muffins containing 1.50; 3.50 and 5.50% of Mutant Tex-Instant 30 replacement levels to wheat flour were evaluated using both sensory panel and physical test methods. With regard to the sensory parameters, the high fiber muffins containing 1.50 - 5.50 % Mutant Tex-Instant 30 in general were not significantly different compared to the standard reference muffin. Results of physical evaluations showed that all Mutant Tex-Instant 30 containing products retained more moisture during baking than the standard reference. Tenderness of all products decreased at similar rate following 24 and 48 hr of room temperature storage and seven days at freezer temperature. These results suggested that sorghum mutant line Zh-30 starch could be modified and potentially used in food industry as a subtitute of wheat flour (author)

  19. Modified Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 for High Fiber Muffin Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D.S. Santosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induce sorghum genetic variation. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher grain yield than the original variety. Research on modified starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in food industry. Functionality of pregelatinized, hydroxypropyl and crosslinked starch of this mutant line (Mutant TexInstant 30 has been studied for its use in high fiber muffin products. Characteristics of high fiber muffins containing 1.50; 3.50 and 5.50% of Mutant Tex-Instant 30 replacement levels to wheat flour were evaluated using both sensory panel and physical test methods. With regard to the sensory parameters, the high fiber muffins containing 1.50 - 5.50 % Mutant Tex-Instant 30 in general were not significantly different compared to the standard reference muffin. Results of physical evaluations showed that all Mutant Tex-Instant 30 containing products retained more moisture during baking than the standard reference. Tenderness of all products decreased at similar rate following 24 and 48 hr of room temperature storage and seven days at freezer temperature. These results suggested that sorghum mutant line Zh-30 starch could be modified and potentially used in food industry as a subtitute of wheat flour.

  20. Increased root exudation of 14C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.J.; Gaskins, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering 14 C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total 14 C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of 14 C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of 14 C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of 14 C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with 14 CO 2 , about 15% of the total 14 C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates. (orig.)

  1. The Effects of Storage on Germination Characteristics and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadi M.S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed moisture content (MC and storage temperature are the most important factors affecting seed longevity and vigor. Exposure to warm, moist air is principally responsible for this. Proper storage and optimum seed moisture content can affect the grain quality significantly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the different storage treatments on seed quality of sorghum. The seed materials were fresh without any storage period. For storage treatments, 3 seed moisture contents (6, 10, 14 % were stored for 8 month in 0.5 L capacity sealed aluminum foil packet in 0.3 bar inside incubators set at 4 temperatures (5, 15, 25, 35 °C. After storage time, the higher the storage temperature, the lower was the grain quality of sorghum. The highest germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage were achieved in control conditions (0 day of storage. Our results showed that increasing storage duration resulted higher reduction in germination characteristics. Also our results showed that, germination percentage, means time to germination, germination index, normal seedling percentage decrease significantly by storage. Enzyme activity decrease significantly by increased in storage.

  2. In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Ferreira Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate in situ degradability and degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF of silage, with or without tannin in the grains. Two isogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMS-XS 114 with tannin and CMS-XS 165 without tannin and two sorghum hybrids (BR-700 dual purpose with tannin and BR-601 forage without tannin were ensiled; dried and ground silage samples were placed in nylon bags and introduced through the fistulas. After incubation for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, bags were taken for subsequent analysis of fibrous fractions. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replicates and 4 treatments and means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. As for the DM degradation rate, silage of CMSXS165without tannin was superior. Silages of genotypes BR700 and CMSXS 114 with tannin showed the highest values of indigestible ADF (59.54 and 43.09%. Regarding the NDF, the potential degradation of silage of CMSXS165 line without tannin was superior. Tannin can reduce ruminal degradability of the dry matter and fibrous fractions.

  3. Industrial hemp as a potential bioenergy crop in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lalitendu; Liu, Enshi; Saeed, Areej; Williams, David W; Hu, Hongqiang; Li, Chenlin; Ray, Allison E; Shi, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This study takes combined field trial, lab experiment, and economic analysis approaches to evaluate the potential of industrial hemp in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum. Agronomy data suggest that the per hectare yield (5437kg) of industrial hemp stem alone was at a similar level with switchgrass and sorghum; while the hemp plants require reduced inputs. Field trial also showed that ∼1230kg/ha hemp grain can be harvested in addition to stems. Results show a predicted ethanol yield of ∼82gallons/dry ton hemp stems, which is comparable to the other three tested feedstocks. A comparative cost analysis indicates that industrial hemp could generate higher per hectare gross profit than the other crops if both hemp grains and biofuels from hemp stem were counted. These combined evaluation results demonstrate that industrial hemp has great potential to become a promising regional commodity crop for producing both biofuels and value-added products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of temperature, water activity and incubation time on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production by toxinogenic Aspergillus flavus isolates on sorghum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouar, Amani; Marin, Sonia; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Saïd, Salem; Sanchis, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum, which is consumed in Tunisia as human food, suffers from severe colonization by several toxigenic fungi and contamination by mycotoxins. The Tunisian climate is characterized by high temperature and humidity that stimulates mold proliferation and mycotoxin accumulation in foodstuffs. This study investigated the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 37°C), water activity (aw, between 0.85 and 0.99) and incubation time (7, 14, 21 and 28 d) on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by three Aspergillus flavus isolates (8, 10 and 14) inoculated on sorghum grains. The Baranyi model was applied to identify the limits of growth and mycotoxin production. Maximum diameter growth rates were observed at 0.99 a(w) at 37°C for two of the isolates. The minimum aw needed for mycelial growth was 0.91 at 25 and 37°C. At 15°C, only isolate 8 grew at 0.99 a(w). Aflatoxin B1 accumulation could be avoided by storing sorghum at low water activity levels (≤0.91 a(w)). Aflatoxin production was not observed at 15°C. This is the first work on the effects of water activity and temperature on A. flavus growth and AFB1 production by A. flavus isolates on sorghum grains. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Improved Sorghum Varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study indicated that age and distance to input market were negatively and significantly related to improved sorghum varieties whereas farm size and type of house owned were found to have been positively and significantly related to improved sorghum varieties. The results of the study confirm that ...

  6. Performance evaluation of biomass sorghum in Hawaii and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biomass sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been identified as a high yielding bioenergy feedstock crop on the continental USA, there is lack of conclusive data on its performance in HI. The objective of this study was to (i) determine the adaptability and productivity of two biomass...

  7. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available isozyme of pI approximately 4.4-4.5, unlike the many isozymes all of higher pI in barley. However, like barley, sorghum beta-amylase was more temperature-labile than its alpha-amylase. Beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt was increased by germination time...

  8. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations | Araujo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has been studied as an additional source of raw material for production or partial replacement of foods due to its high fiber concentration. Its consumption is associated with the prevention of some diseases and nutritional benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the partial ...

  9. Electrochemical evaluation of sweet sorghum fermentable sugar bioenergy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redox active constituents of sorghum, e.g., anthocyanin, flavonoids, and aconitic acid, putatively contribute to its pest resistance. Electrochemical reactivity of sweet sorghum stem juice was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) for five male (Atlas, Chinese, Dale, Isidomba, N98) and three fema...

  10. Antimicrobial evaluation of red, phytoalexin-rich sorghum food biocolorant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akogou, Folachodé U.G.; Besten, Den Heidy M.W.; Polycarpe Kayodé, A.P.; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2018-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) extract is traditionally used as red biocolorant in West Africa to colour foods, among which wagashi, a soft cheese. This biocolorant is a source of the phytoalexin apigeninidin and phenolic acids, and users claim that it has preservative effects next to its colouring

  11. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product.

  12. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  13. Evaluation of sorghum genotypes under drought stress conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) were studied in both drought and normal conditions. In each condition, the genotypes were evaluated using a split plot based randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI), mean ...

  14. Fermentation of sweet sorghum syrup to butanol in the presence of natural nutrients and inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum syrups represent a renewable raw material that can be available year-round for production of biofuels and biochemicals. Sweet sorghum sugars have been used as sources for butanol production in the past but most often the studies focused on sweet sorghum juice and not on sweet sorghum s...

  15. Interstellar grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  16. Evaluation of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) on several population density for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarti; Efendi, R.; Massinai, R.; Pabendon, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) crop management that is use for raw source of bioethanol for industrial purpose in Indonesia is less developed. The aim of this research was to evaluated sweet sorghum variety at several population to determine optimum density for juice production. Experiment design was set on split-plot design with three replications, conducted on August to December 2016 at the Indonesian Cereals Research Institute Research Station, Maros South Sulawesi. Main plot were six variation of plant row, and sub plot were three sweet sorghum varieties. Result of the study showed that plant population was high significanty affect to stalk weight, total biomass yield, leaf weight, and also significantly affect bagass weight and juice volume. Varieties were high significantly different in plant height, juice volume, and number of nodes. Super 1 variety on population at 166,667 plants/ha (P1) was obtained the highest juice volume (19,445 lHa-1), meanwhile the highest brix value obtained from Numbu at the same plants population. Furthermore juice volume had significant correlation with biomass weight at the r=0.73. Based on ethanol production, Super 2 and Numbu had the highest volume at 83.333 plants/ha density (P3) and Super 1 at 166.667 plants/ha density with the ethanol volume were 827.68 l Ha-1, 1116.50 l/ha and 993.62 l Ha-1 respectively.

  17. Genomic dissection of anthracnose resistant response in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to use a genomics-based approaches to identify anthracnose resistance loci from diverse sorghum germplasm as an effort to the disease resistance mechanism of at least one of these genes. This information will provide plant breeders with a tool kit that can be used to maxi...

  18. In Vitro Screening for Drought Tolerance in Different Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Tsago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the complex environmental factors affecting growth and yield of sorghum in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Sixteen elite sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L Moench genotypes were evaluated for their genetic potential to drought tolerance at callus induction and plant regeneration stage for drought tolerance. The non-ionic water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG of molecular weight 6000 was used as osmoticum to simulate water stress. The factorial experiment was laid down in a completely randomized design which comprised of a combination of two factors (genotypes and five PEG stress level; 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/v treatments. Data were recorded for callus induction efficiency, callus fresh weight, embryogenic callus percentage and plant regeneration percentage. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes, treatments and their interactions for the evaluated plant traits suggesting a great amount of variability for drought tolerance in sorghum. The correlation analysis also revealed strong and significant association between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent as well as between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent. By taking into consideration all the measured traits, Mann Whitney rank sum test revealed that 76T1#23 and Teshale followed by Meko, Gambella-1107 and Melkam showed better drought stress tolerance. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for genetic analysis, gene mapping and improvement of drought tolerance while Chelenko, Hormat and Raya appear to be drought sensitive.

  19. Biolistic mediated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) transformation via mannose and bialaphos based selection systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of transformation. In sorghum, concerns about flow of herbicide and antibiotic resistance gene into genetically related wild and weedy species have a direct bearing on the choice of suitable selectable markers in many tropical and subtropical regions. The authors...

  20. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  1. High density of (pseudo) periodic twin-grain boundaries in molecular beam epitaxy-grown van der Waals heterostructure: MoTe{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Horacio Coy; Ma, Yujing; Chaghi, Redhouane; Batzill, Matthias [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2016-05-09

    Growth of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) promises synthesis of artificial van der Waals materials with controllable layer compositions and separations. Here, we show that MBE growth of 2H-MoTe{sub 2} monolayers on MoS{sub 2} substrates results in a high density of mirror-twins within the films. The grain boundaries are tellurium deficient, suggesting that Te-deficiency during growth causes their formation. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveal that the grain boundaries arrange in a pseudo periodic “wagon wheel” pattern with only ∼2.6 nm repetition length. Defect states from these domain boundaries fill the band gap and thus give the monolayer an almost metallic property. The band gap states pin the Fermi-level in MoTe{sub 2} and thus determine the band-alignment in the MoTe{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} interface.

  2. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  3. Effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified White sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Hasnain, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sorghum starches were chemically modified. ► Starch–lipid complexes were studied in the presence of emulsifiers. ► Type II complexes were also detected in native and oxidized starches on adding GMS. ► Starch–lipid complexes sharply reduced retrogradation in modified starches. - Abstract: The effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified white sorghum starches was studied. Complex forming tendency of white sorghum starch with commercially available emulsifiers GMS and DATEM improved after acetylation. Presence of emulsifiers reduced λ max (wavelength of maximum absorbance) both for native and modified sorghum starches suggesting lower availability of amylose chains to complex with iodine. In native white sorghum starch (NWSS) and oxidized white sorghum starch (OWSS), both Type I and Type II starch–lipid complexes were observed on addition of 1.0% GMS prior to gelatinization. Acetylated-oxidized white sorghum starch (AOWSS) formed weakest complexes among all the modified starches. The results revealed that antistaling characteristics of modified sorghum starches were enhanced when used in combination with emulsifiers. The most prominent decline in reassociative capability among modified starches was observed for acetylated starches.

  4. Economic feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, Joseph A.; Miller, J. Corey; Little, Randall D.; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Coble, Keith H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of producing sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States through representative counties in Mississippi. We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs to estimate sweet sorghum producers' breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. This breakeven cost for the sweet sorghum producer is used to estimate breakeven costs for the ethanol producer based on wholesale ethanol price, production costs, and transportation and marketing costs. Stochastic models are developed to estimate profits for sweet sorghum and competing crops in two representative counties in Mississippi, with sweet sorghum consistently yielding losses in both counties. -- Highlights: → We examine the economic feasibility of sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock. → We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs. → We estimate breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. → Stochastic models determine profits for sweet sorghum in two Mississippi counties.

  5. Evaluation of Brown Midrib Sorghum Mutants as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for 2,3-Butanediol Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guragain, Yadhu N; Srinivasa Rao, P; Vara Prasad, P V; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2017-11-01

    Three sorghum backgrounds [Atlas, Early Hegari (EH), and Kansas Collier (KC)] and two bmr mutants (bmr6 and bmr12) of each line were evaluated and compared for grain and biomass yield, biomass composition, and 2,3-butanediol production from biomass. The data showed that the bmr6 mutation in EH background led to a significant decrease in stover yield and increase in grain yield, whereas the stover yield was increased by 64% without affecting grain yield in KC background. The bmr mutants had 10 to 25% and 2 to 9% less lignin and structural carbohydrate contents, respectively, and 24 to 93% more non-structural sugars than their parents in all sorghum lines, except EH bmr12. The total fermentable sugars released were 22 to 36% more in bmr mutants than in parents for Atlas and KC, but not for EH. The bmr6 mutation in KC background produced the most promising feedstock, among the evaluated bmr mutants, for 2,3-butanediol production without affecting grain yield, followed by KC bmr12 and Atlas bmr6, but the bmr mutation had an adverse effect in EH background. This indicated that the genetic background of the parent line and type of bmr mutation significantly affect the biomass quality as a feedstock for biochemical production.

  6. Genetic analysis of recombinant inbred lines for Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K; Auckland, Susan A; Goff, Valorie H; Rainville, Lisa K; Burow, Gloria B; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J; Paterson, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor × Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor × S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor × S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development.

  7. Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Zhu, Q; Wang, W

    2001-09-01

    Lodging-resistant rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars usually show slow grain filling when nitrogen is applied in large amounts. This study investigated the possibility that a hormonal change may mediate the effect of water deficit that enhances whole plant senescence and speeds up grain filling. Two rice cultivars showing high lodging resistance and slow grain filling were field grown and applied with either normal or high amount nitrogen (HN) at heading. Well-watered and water-stressed (WS) treatments were imposed 9 days post anthesis to maturity. Results showed that WS increased partitioning of fixed (14)CO(2) into grains, accelerated the grain filling rate but shortened the grain filling period, whereas the HN did the opposite way. Cytokinin (zeatin + zeatin riboside) and indole-3-acetic acid contents in the grains transiently increased at early filling stage and WS treatments hastened their declines at the late grain filling stage. Gibberellins (GAs; GA(1) + GA(4)) in the grains were also high at early grain filling but HN enhanced, whereas WS substantially reduced, its accumulation. Opposite to GAs, abscisic acid (ABA) in the grains was low at early grain filling but WS remarkably enhanced its accumulation. The peak values of ABA were significantly correlated with the maximum grain filling rates (r = 0.92**, P water stress during grain filling, especially a decrease in GAs and an increase in ABA, enhances the remobilization of prestored carbon to the grains and accelerates the grain filling rate.

  8. Seed of sweet sorghum: studies on fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, F A; Onetto, E; Angeloro, H; Victorio Gugliucci, S

    1961-01-01

    Both the percentage of starch transformed by saccharification with malt and the alcohol fermentation efficiency for four varieties of sweet sorghum is determined, and it is compared with those of a corn sample. Seeds of the varieties with low peel content yield values comparable to those of corn. Seeds of the varieties with high peel content give values lower than those of the low peel content, but, if they are previously peeled, the yield of both, in terms of transformed starch and alcohol produced, is improved, the values approaching those obtained with corn.

  9. Growth and N2-fixation of Dhaincha C-3/Sorghum C-4 and Dhaincha C-3/Sunflower C-3 intercropping systems using the 15N and 13C natural abundance method technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2007-06-01

    A field experiment on dhaincha C 3 (Sesbania aculeata Pers), sunflower C 3 (Helianthus annuus L.) and sorghum C 4 (Sorghum bicolor L.) plants grown in monocropping and intercropping systems was conducted to evaluate seed yield, dry matter production, total N yield, land equivalent ratio (LER), intraspecific competition for soil N uptake, water use efficiency (WUE) and N 2 -fixation using the 15 N natural abundance technique (δ 15 N ). Moreover, carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13 C ) was determined to assess factors responsible for crop performance variability in the different cropping systems. Intercropping of sesbania/sorghum showed greater efficiency over monocropping in producing dry matter, during the entire growth period, as indicated by the LERs (>1); whereas, the efficiency of producing dry matter in the sesbania /sunflower intercropping was similar to that in the monocropping system (LER=1). Moreover, sorghum plants (C 4 ) was more competitive than sesbania (C 3 ) for soil N uptake; whereas, sesbania seemed to be more competitive than its associated sunflower (C 3 ). N uptake in the mixed stand of sesbania/sorghum was improved due to the increase in soil N uptake by the component sorghum and the higher root nodule activity of component sesbania without affecting the amount of N 2 fixed. In both cropping systems, sesbania plants fixed almost the same amount of N 2 (an average of 105 kg N/ha) although the number of rows in the mixed stand was 2/3 of that in the pure stand. This gives an advantage of the intercropping over sole cropping system with regards to N 2 -fixation. 13 C discrimination in plant materials was found to be affected by plant species and the cropping system. Factors affected Δ13 C in plants grown in the mixed stand relative to solely grown crops are discussed.(author)

  10. Mutants with increased resistance to herbicide in Guinea corn Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeigah, P.G.C.; Adewoyin, A.F.; Obatayo, O.O.

    1990-01-01

    Sorghum is an important staple food in many tropical countries. In Nigeria, it is extensively cultivated for food and, in recent times, as raw material for the brewing, baking and starch-making industries. We have investigated the possibilities of breeding crop cultivars of Sorghum with improved seed protein, amylase activities and resistance to herbicide by means of induced mutation. Seeds were treated by soaking them in an aqueous solution of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) 8 or 64 mM at room temperature 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 24 hours. After the treatment, the seeds were briefly rinsed in water and transferred to petri dishes containing moist filter paper for germination. The seedlings were later transplanted to loamy sand soil in plastic trays. M, seedlings were grown to maturity in the greenhouse. The M 1 contained plants with variegated leaves and other morphological abnormalities. Only the progenies of normal plants were grown for further generations. Resistance to Igran 500 E.G. (2-tert-butylamino-4-ethylamino-6-methylthio-striazine; from Ciba Geigy) was tested in M 2 seedlings by mixing 1 part per 100 (by volume) of the herbicide with the soil a day before sowing the seeds. Preliminary screening of 2,500 M 2 plants revealed a number of morphological and leaf colour mutations. 50 seedlings were more resistant to the herbicide but no seedling resistance was observed in the parent cultivar. There was a 23.43% reduction in seedling weight of the M 2 lines grown in soil treated with Igran 500, whereas the reduction in seedling weight of the original cultivar was 42.46%. The resistant M 2 seedlings had longer and better roots

  11. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J.; Carrasco, J.E.; Negro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the protein synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH4NO3. taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing spillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO3 as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Heavy metal phytoextraction-natural and EDTA-assisted remediation of contaminated calcareous soils by sorghum and oat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Suthar, Vishandas; Ahmad, Rizwan; Yousra, Munazza

    2017-10-30

    The abilities of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) to take up heavy metals from soils amended with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were assessed under greenhouse conditions. Both plants were grown in two soils contaminated with heavy metals (Gujranwala-silty loam and Pacca-clay loam). The soils were treated with 0, 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mM EDTA kg -1 soil applied at both 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS); the experiment was terminated at 75 DAS. Addition of EDTA significantly increased concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb in roots and shoots, and bio-concentration factors and phytoextraction rates were also increased. Post-harvest soil analysis showed that soluble fractions of metals were also increased significantly. The increase in Cd was ≈ 3-fold and Pb was ≈ 15-fold at the highest addition of EDTA in Gujranwala soil; in the Pacca soil, the increase was less. Similarly, other phytoremediation factors, such as metal translocation, bio-concentration factor, and phytoextraction, efficiency were also maximum when soils were treated with 2.5 mM EDTA kg -1 soil. The study demonstrated that sorghum was better than oat for phytoremediation.

  13. The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22% and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%. The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10. The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.

  14. Determining water use of sorghum from two-source energy balance and radiometric temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sánchez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of surface actual evapotranspiration (ET can assist in predicting crop water requirements. An alternative to the traditional crop-coefficient methods are the energy balance models. The objective of this research was to show how surface temperature observations can be used, together with a two-source energy balance model, to determine crop water use throughout the different phenological stages of a crop grown. Radiometric temperatures were collected in a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor field as part of an experimental campaign carried out in Barrax, Spain, during the 2010 summer growing season. Performance of the Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance (STSEB model was evaluated by comparison of estimated ET with values measured on a weighing lysimeter. Errors of ±0.14 mm h−1 and ±1.0 mm d−1 were obtained at hourly and daily scales, respectively. Total accumulated crop water use during the campaign was underestimated by 5%. It is then shown that thermal radiometry can provide precise crop water necessities and is a promising tool for irrigation management.

  15. Evaluation of a miniaturized NIR spectrometer for cultivar identification: The case of barley, chickpea and sorghum in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Worku, Tigist

    2018-01-01

    Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated. Predictive multiclass models of 24 barley cultivars, 19 chickpea cultivars and 10 sorghum cultivars delivered an accuracy of 89%, 96% and 87% on hold-out sample. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) algorithms consistently outperformed other algorithms. Several cultivars, believed to be widely adopted in Ethiopia, were identified with perfect accuracy. These results advance the discussion on cultivar identification survey methods by demonstrating that miniaturized NIR spectrometers represent a low-cost, rapid and viable tool. We further discuss the potential utility of the method for adoption surveys, field-scale agronomic studies, socio-economic impact assessments and value chain quality control. Finally, we provide a free tool for R to easily carry out crop cultivar identification and measure uncertainty based on spectral data.

  16. Expression Pattern of the Alpha-Kafirin Promoter Coupled with a Signal Peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP.

  17. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  18. Modification of Sorghum Starch-Cellulose Bioplastic with Sorghum Stalks Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Darni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of bioplastics production by various ratio of sorghum starch and cellulose from red seaweed Eucheuma spinossum, and the use of glycerol as plasticizer and sorghum stalks as filler. Solid-liquid matrix transition should be far over the operating temperature of gelatinization and extracted at 95oC in order to avoid the loss of conductivity. The analyzed variables were starch and cellulose seaweed Eucheuma spinossum and the addition of variation of filler. Sorghum stalk could be expected to affect the mechanical and physical properties of bioplastics. A thin sheet of plastic (plastic film was obtained as a result that have been tested mechanically to obtain the best condition for the formulation of starch-cellulose 8.5:1.5 (g/g. From the result of morphological studies, the fillers in the mixture composites were more randomly in each product and the addition of filler can increase mechanical properties of bioplastics. Chemical modification had a major effect on the mechanical properties. The phenomena of degradation and thermoplasticization were visible at chemical changes that can be observed in FTIR spectrum test results.

  19. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production ..... The authors wish to acknowledge financial support from ... Official energy statistics from.

  1. Productivity of Cassava, Sorghum and Groundnut Intercrop Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of Cassava, Sorghum and Groundnut Intercrop Using Poultry Manure with Chemical Fertilizer Replacement Combinations. II Ibeawuchi, CI Duruigbo, LU Ihenacho, GO Ihejirika, MO Ofor, OP Obilo, JC Obiefuna ...

  2. Baseline survey on factors affecting sorghum production and use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Sorghum, which is closely related to maize in utilization, therefore, could be an alternative staple food crop in arid areas ...

  3. Performance of broiler chickens fed South African sorghum-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mabelebele, Monnye

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... availability of starch and protein in the sorghum. ... component of acid-insoluble ash, was included in the diet as an inert marker. ... Calculated analysis .... and carbohydrate-polyphenol interactions are the main factors affecting.

  4. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Additionally, sorghum cell suspension cultures have been initiated from the friable ... proteomics technologies. The field of proteomics is .... air dried at room temperature and resuspended in 2 ml of urea buffer [9 M urea, 2 M ...

  5. Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor leaf base extract for gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Key words: Sorghum bicolor, gastrointestinal, motility, diarrhoea, jejunum, ileum, fundus. INTRODUCTION ..... the propulsive movement of charcoal meal through the .... A delay in gastric emptying will prevent speedy evacua-.

  6. Plant growth-promoting activities of Streptomyces spp. in sorghum and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Sree Vidya, Meesala; Rathore, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-24, CAI-121, CAI-127, KAI-32 and KAI-90) were earlier reported by us as biological control agents against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FOC). In the present study, the Streptomyces were characterized for enzymatic activities, physiological traits and further evaluated in greenhouse and field for their plant growth promotion (PGP) of sorghum and rice. All the Streptomyces produced lipase, β-1-3-glucanase and chitinase (except CAI-121 and CAI-127), grew in NaCl concentrations of up to 6%, at pH values between 5 and 13 and temperatures between 20 and 40°C and were highly sensitive to Thiram, Benlate, Captan, Benomyl and Radonil at field application level. When the Streptomyces were evaluated in the greenhouse on sorghum all the isolates significantly enhanced all the agronomic traits over the control. In the field, on rice, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced stover yield (up to 25%; except CAI-24), grain yield (up to 10%), total dry matter (up to 18%; except CAI-24) and root length, volume and dry weight (up to 15%, 36% and 55%, respectively, except CAI-24) over the control. In the rhizosphere soil, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon (except CAI-24), nitrogen, dehydrogenase (except CAI-24), total N, available P and organic carbon (up to 41%, 52%, 75%, 122%, 53% and 13%, respectively) over the control. This study demonstrates that the selected Streptomyces which were antagonistic to FOC also have PGP properties.

  7. Potencialidades do sorgo sacarino [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] para a produção sustentável de bioetanol no Alentejo The potential of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] for sustainable bioethanol production in Alentejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.V. Lourenço

    2007-01-01

    sweet sorghum grown in Alentejo can be expected to be over 5000 l/ha.

  8. Cost to deliver sweet sorghum fermentables to a central plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundiff, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The major obstacle to a sweet sorghum-for-ethanol industry in the Piedmont of Virginia is the short harvest season of eight weeks. A Piedmont harvesting system is described that will enable the Piedmont to compete with Louisiana in production of sweet sorghum for ethanol. The cost to supply feedstock (up to the point fermentation begins) for a one million GPY ethanol plant was estimated to be $2.35/gal expected ethanol yield. This amount compared favorably with two other options

  9. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  10. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.

  11. The variation of nitrogen and phosphorus contents in M4-generation seeds of an irradiated local sorghum variety originating from northern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, W.; Buah, S.S.J.; Abdulai, M.S.; Nyamekye, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Natural genetic variability in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is very large, however, a number of attempts have been made to broaden its genetic base by induced mutations. Most authors refer to visible characters in plant and grain. Occasionally, effects on grain quality, e.g. high lysine/high protein, are reported. Sorghum in northern Ghana, commonly called 'guinea corn', is a widely cultivated cereal crop and can be found in three local races among which the caudatum race is represented by 'Naga White', an improved local variety originating from the Upper East Region of Ghana. It is characterized by short straw, earliness, good grain yield, a semi-loose head, and white grains, but with a relatively poor grain quality. The objective in several breeding programmes was the improvement of its grain quality, and an induced mutations programme was started at Nyankpala Agricultural Experiment Station (NAES) in 1988. About 10,000 seeds of Naga White were treated with 200Gy from a 60 Co gamma-rays source. The M 1 -generation was planted at NAES and multiplied up to M 4 in 1991, subject to selection for agronomic value. Protein contents (Nx5.7) varied from 9 to 10% for grains of parental genotype and from 8 to 12% in M 2 grains harvested in 1990. In 1992, the agronomically best 112 seed samples of M 4 lines were analyzed for N and P contents, 1000-grain weight (GW) and protein contents. Protein contents ranged from 7.0 to 13.6%, phosphorus from 0.15 to 0.45%, and thousand grain weight varied from 11.8 to 19.0 g. The coefficient of the phenotypic correlation between N and P was + 0.337, and several lines with both high N and P contents could be identified. The coefficients of correlation between grain size and both N and P contents were slightly negative but not statistically significant. The coefficient of variation for the P content was twice as high as that for the N content. This might indicate a considerable microvariability in soil phosphorus due to

  12. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  13. Apomictic frequency in sorghum R473

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, C.S.; Schertz, K.F.; Bashaw, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Apomixis has been reported in a few lines of sorghum, among them R473 which was originally reported to be an obligate apomict. Although this line has multiple embryo sacs, the frequency of apomictic seed formation has not been determined because a progeny test has not been possible. R473 does not cross as a female with other lines except when its own pollen is present. In the present study mutations were induced in R473 by hydrazine and irradiation. Crosses were made between male-sterile mutants as females and normal R473 as males. Plants of R473 produced F 1 hybrids sexually, thus indicating that they were not obligate apomicts. These F 1 's also reproduced sexually, as indicated by segregation for male sterility and male fertility in F 2 progenies. (orig.)

  14. 77 FR 74592 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... biodiesel and renewable diesel. Regulated categories include: NAICS \\1\\ Examples of potentially regulated... feedstock transport includes emissions from transporting bushels of harvested grain sorghum from the farm to the ethanol production facility, as well as the emissions associated with transporting ethanol from...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Major Grains and Cotton by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the number of major grains grown, yield in tons, and area in hectares for several major grains and for cotton by 12-digit Hydrologic...

  16. Avaliação nutricional da silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo de alto ou de baixo conteúdo de taninos para leitões na fase de creche Nutritional evaluation of high moisture sorghum silage grain of high or low tannin contents for nursery piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Mayumi Ishida Patricio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização da silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo (SGUS de alto ou baixo conteúdo de tanino na alimentação de leitões na fase de creche. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados (peso inicial de 15,9±1,9 kg, alojados em gaiolas para estudos de metabolismo, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em que a unidade experimental foi constituída por um leitão. O método utilizado foi o de coleta total de fezes e urina. Os valores de MS, proteína, amido, MO e energia digestíveis e os de EM, na matéria natural (68,75% de MS, foram, respectivamente, 43,94; 5,45; 46,67; 63,46%; 2.700 e 2.674 kcal/kg para a SGUS de alto teor de tanino e 40,72; 5,92; 44,08; 63,75%; 2.641 e 2.608 kcal/kg, para SGUS de baixo conteúdo de tanino. O segundo experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o desempenho de leitões e a viabilidade econômica da utilização de rações com diferentes níveis de substituição do milho seco por SGUS de alto ou baixo teor de tanino. Foram utilizados 56 suínos mestiços (14,7±1,9 e 29,2±3,0 kg de pesos inicial e final distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e dois leitões por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração à base de milho e farelo de soja e de outras seis com 33, 66 e 100% de substituição do milho seco por SGUS de alto ou baixo conteúdo de taninos, com base nos valores de energia digestível (ED desses ingredientes. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho dos animais entre os tratamentos, entretanto, houve aumento linear no consumo diário de ração para a SGUS de baixo teor de tanino e redução linear para o custo da ração por quilograma de peso vivo ganho para a SGUS de alto teor de tanino.Two trials were carried out to evaluate the feeding of high moisture sorghum silage

  17. Avaliação nutricional da silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo de alto ou de baixo conteúdo de tanino para frangos de corte Nutritional evaluation of high moisture sorghum silage grain with high or low tannin content for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Carla Grigoletto Barcellos

    2006-02-01

    evaluate the moisture sorghum silage (HMSS with high or low tannin content as ingredient in broiler chicken diets. In the digestibility trial, ninety 20-d chicks were assigned to a completely randomized design with three treatments and six replications, and five chicks per experimental unit. Coefficients of metabolizable dry matter (MDM, metabolizable protein (MP, metabolizable starch (MS, metabolizable organic matter (MOM and metabolizable energy (ME of HMSS with high tannin, as-fed basis (66.22%DM, were as follows: 57.29; 56.96; 4.45; 35.27% and 2,408 kcal/kg, respectively. The coefficients of HMSS with low tannin were of 60.42; 59.95; 5.11; 39.58% and 2578 kcal/kg, respectively, as-fed basis (65.28% DM. In the performance assay, eight hundred and forty chicks were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with seven treatments, four replications and thirty chicks per experimental unit. Treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal -based diet and six with 33, 66 and 100% HMSS with high or low content replaced by dry corn. Increasing HMSS levels with high tannin contents in diets caused a linear decrease on weight, weight gain, feed intake at 21 and 40 days old, but this effect was not observed for HMSS of low tannin content. Forty-day-old broilers fed diets with HMSS of high tannin content in 66 and 100% replacement levels showed lower weight and lower weigh gain. However, broilers fed HMSS with low tannin content did not differ from control. Linear decrease on the chicken leg color of was observed when HMSS was included in the diets. Performance results demonstrated that HMSS with high tannin content may replace um 33% of corn and with low tannin HMSS up to 100% of corn in diets of broilers, with no effect on performance and with lower cost per kilogram of produced broiler.

  18. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum

  19. Effect of diammonium phosphate application on strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in three sorghum cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.; Mourik, van T.A.; Charnikova, T.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Striga hermonthica infection poses a major constraint to sorghum production in sub-Saharan Africa, and low soil fertility aggravates the S. hermonthica problem. Under mineral nutrient deficiency, the sorghum host secretes large quantities of strigolactones, signalling molecules, into the

  20. Antioxidant properties of digestive enzyme-treated fibre-rich fractions from wheat, finger millet, pearl millet and sorghum: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Siddiq A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains are rich in antioxidant components (AC, most of which are bound to fibre fraction and released during digestion. The study investigated the effect of digestive enzymes on the antioxidant properties of fibre-rich fractions from wheat (Triticum aestivum, finger millet (Eleusine coracana, pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. Coarse (CF and fine fractions (FF of milled flour were separated using a standard sieve and analysed for nutritional composition, AC extractable in different solvents and antioxidant activity (AA in untreated and enzyme-treated fractions. The CF had a higher range of insoluble dietary fibre (17.26–20.93% than FF (10.65–17.29%. The highest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids was extractable in different solvents from finger millet and pearl millet, respectively. FF of pearl millet showed higher total AA in all solvents. Enzyme-treated samples had a much higher content of AC as well as higher total AA. Free radical scavenging assay revealed that enzyme-treated millet flours had higher activity in comparison to wheat. Between fractions, wheat exhibited variable results. Among millets, CF of finger millet and FF of pearl millet and sorghum had higher AA. In conclusion, digestive enzyme treatment released more AC from grains, and exhibited a higher AA.

  1. Gibberellin deficiency pleiotropically induces culm bending in sorghum: an insight into sorghum semi-dwarf breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ordonio, Reynante L.; Ito, Yusuke; Hatakeyama, Asako; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Sazuka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of symmetrical cell growth in the culm is important for proper culm development. So far, the involvement of gibberellin (GA) in this process has not yet been demonstrated in sorghum. Here, we show that GA deficiency resulting from any loss-of-function mutation in four genes (SbCPS1, SbKS1, SbKO1, SbKAO1) involved in the early steps of GA biosynthesis, not only results in severe dwarfism but also in abnormal culm bending. Histological analysis of the bent culm revealed that the intr...

  2. Identification of widely varying levels of resistance to meloidogyne incognita in sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a potential bioenergy crop that could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US, where it would likely be rotated with cotton. The desirability of including sweet sorghum in a cotton cropping system will be influenced by sweet sorghum’s host ...

  3. The environment strongly affects estimates of heterosis in hybrid sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has potential as a biofuel feedstock but hybrid cultivars are needed to support an industry based on this crop. The purpose of this study was to compare five inbred sweet sorghum lines and 15 hybrids derived from them, and to determine the extent of envir...

  4. Tapping the US historic sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has gained an important role as a viable alternative to fossil fuels and a more profitable option than maize and sugarcane. Nevertheless, the actual narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum breeding programs is limiting the development of new biofuel varietie...

  5. Problems, control, and opportunity of starch in the large scale processing of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) crops are members of the grass (Poaceae) family, and consist of stalks rich in soluble sugars. The extracted juice from both of these crops contains insoluble starch, with much greater quantities occurring in sweet sorghum. ...

  6. Three sorghum serpin recombinant proteins inhibit midgut trypsin activity and growth of corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genome contains at least 17 putative serpin (serine protease inhibitor) open reading frames, some of which are induced by pathogens. Recent transcriptome studies found that most of the putative serpins are expressed but their roles are unknown. Four sorghum serpins were...

  7. FEEDING BROWN MIDRIB FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGE AND CORN GLUTEN FEED TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum contains less lignin , resulting in increased NDF digestibility compared to conventional sorghum . An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BMR forage sorghum silage in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). The objective was to determine the e...

  8. Biological and water-use efficiencies of sorghum-groundnut intercrop

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to compare water-use efficiency of sole crops and intercrops, 2 experiments were conducted in 2 consecutive years with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on a loamy, Grossarenic Paleudult. In a randomized block, split-plot design, sorghum (SS), groundnut (GG), ...

  9. Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and

  10. An economic analysis of sweet sorghum cultivation for ethanol production in North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Ren, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhu, Y.; Xie, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a promising non-food energy crop. The objective of this study was to determine the economic costs and input sensitivity of sweet sorghum compared to cotton, maize, and sunflower, at two saline-alkali sites in Shandong (Wudi County) and Inner Mongolia

  11. The influence of time and severity of Striga infection on the Sorghum bicolor - Striga hermonthica association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, van A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Striga hermonthica , Sorghum bicolor , infection time, infection level, tolerance.This thesis presents the results of a study on the interaction between the parasitic weed Strigahermonthica (Del.) Benth. and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench). The main objective of the study was

  12. Epicoccum nigrum the new pathogen of sorghum seed in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen samples of sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. 'Alba', 'Gold', 'Prima' and 'Reform' were analyzed in the localities of Bački Petrovac and Čantavir in the period 2009-2011. Tipresence of species belonging to the genera Epicoccum, Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium was established in single and mixed infections. From the infected sorghum seed, monosporial cultures identified as Epicoccum nigrum based on morphology, proved their pathogenicity on artificially inoculated sorghum seedlings. Molecular identification was performed by PCR and amplification of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA. Gene sequences of selected isolates 291-09 (JQ619838 and 315-09 (JQ619839 exhibited 99-100% nucleotide identity with the sequences of 31 isolates of E. nigrum deposited in the GenBank. It obtained results represent the first detailed characterization of E. nigrum in Serbia. The presence of a large number of phytopathogenic fungi on sorghum seed should be further investigated in order to clarify their relationships and relative significance.

  13. Characterizing Sorghum Panicles using 3D Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonesome, M.; Popescu, S. C.; Horne, D. W.; Pugh, N. A.; Rooney, W.

    2017-12-01

    To address demands of population growth and impacts of global climate change, plant breeders must increase crop yield through genetic improvement. However, plant phenotyping, the characterization of a plant's physical attributes, remains a primary bottleneck in modern crop improvement programs. 3D point clouds generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) based structure from motion (SfM) are a promising data source to increase the efficiency of screening plant material in breeding programs. This study develops and evaluates methods for characterizing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) panicles (heads) in field plots from both TLS and UAS-based SfM point clouds. The TLS point cloud over experimental sorghum field at Texas A&M farm in Burleston County TX were collected using a FARO Focus X330 3D laser scanner. SfM point cloud was generated from UAS imagery captured using a Phantom 3 Professional UAS at 10m altitude and 85% image overlap. The panicle detection method applies point cloud reflectance, height and point density attributes characteristic of sorghum panicles to detect them and estimate their dimensions (panicle length and width) through image classification and clustering procedures. We compare the derived panicle counts and panicle sizes with field-based and manually digitized measurements in selected plots and study the strengths and limitations of each data source for sorghum panicle characterization.

  14. Morphological characteristics of BRS 501 sweet sorghum under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Moreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] crop is distinguished from other crops for its tolerance to both water deficit and excess soil moisture, under very dry and/or very hot environmental situations in which the productivity of other cereals becomes uneconomical. This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of irrigation on root conformation at the initial development phase of sweet sorghum. So, BRS 501 cv. was subjected to four irrigation levels based on 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of the field capacity (CC. The decreased availability of water in the soil negatively affected the majority of the characteristics under evaluation except for the relationship between the root system and the aerial part (SR/PA, average root diameter (DMR and specific root area (ARE. We concluded that the growth of sweet sorghum plants under evaluation is sensible to the decrease of water in the soil, as it is affected by low water availability. This methodology, common to other crops, can be used for saccharine sorghum in order to establish hydric availabilities in new experiments to discriminate the drought-tolerant cultivars.

  15. Tempeh: a mold-modified indigenous fermented food made from soybeans and/or cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmeister, K A; Fung, D Y

    1993-01-01

    A variety of indigenous fermented foods exist today; however, tempeh has been one of the most widely accepted and researched mold-modified fermented products. Tempeh is a traditional fermented food made from soaked and cooked soybeans inoculated with a mold, usually of the genus Rhizopus. After fermentation has occurred, the soybeans are bound together into a compact cake by dense cottony mycelium. An important function of the mold in the fermentation process is the synthesis of enzymes, which hydrolyze soybean constituents and contribute to the development of a desirable texture, flavor, and aroma of the product. Enzymatic hydrolysis also may decrease or eliminate antinutritional constituents; consequently, the nutritional quality of the fermented product may be improved. Current technology and new scientific advancements have enabled researchers to examine specific strains of Rhizopus and new substrates such as cereal grains. Because Kansas produces numerous cereal grains, production of a fermented tempeh-like product using wheat, sorghum (milo), oats, rye, barley, corn, and triticale is a definite possibility for generating a Kansas Value-Added Product. In this study, several different tempeh-like products were produced using various cereal grains inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2549 or R. oligosporus NRRL 2710. Grains used included hard red winter wheat, triticale, yellow sorghum (milo), and red sorghum (milo). The grain source as well as the strain of R. oligosporus used influenced the product's appearance, flavor, and patty integrity. Results showed that R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 produced more mycelium at a more rapid rate than did the R. oligosporus NRRL 2710 strain. The combination of red sorghum and R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 yielded a product with good patty texture, aroma, and appearance. Furthermore, the red sorghum fermented product was well suited for slicing. On the other hand, yellow sorghum inoculated with either R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 or

  16. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties adopt strongly contrasting strategies in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C; Stepien, Piotr; Johnson, Giles N

    2014-10-01

    Sorghum is one of the most drought tolerant crops but surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms achieving this. We have compared physiological and biochemical responses to drought in two sorghum cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance. These closely related cultivars have starkly contrasting responses to water deficit. In the less tolerant Samsorg 40, drought induced progressive loss of photosynthesis. The more drought tolerant Samsorg 17 maintained photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content until the most extreme conditions. In Samsorg 40, there was a highly specific down-regulation of selected proteins, with loss of PSII and Rubisco but maintenance of PSI and cytochrome b6 f, allowing plants to maintain ATP synthesis. The nitrogen released allows for accumulation of glycine betaine and proline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of specific reengineering of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to drought. In contrast, in Samsorg 17 we detected no substantial change in the photosynthetic apparatus. Rather, plants showed constitutively high soluble sugar concentration, enabling them to maintain transpiration and photosynthesis, even in extremely dry conditions. The implications for these strikingly contrasted strategies are discussed in relation to agricultural and natural systems. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Effect of salinity and silicon application on oxidative damage of sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) moench.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, M.; Nabati, J.; Masoumi, A.; Mehrgerdi, M.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Application of silicon (Si) to soil is considered as an alternative approach to alleviate salinity stress in crop plants. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Si application [control (without Si), 1.44 and 1.92 g.kg /sup -1/ soil on membrane stability index (MSI), relative water content (RWC), leaf proline, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, total phenols and dry matter accumulation of two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars under three levels of salinity of irrigation water (5.2, 10.5 and 23.1 dS m/sup -1/ . The results showed that leaf proline content, activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), Na/sup +/ concentration significantly increased only at high level of salinity, while, RWC Si caused an and dry matter accumulation were significantly decreased at all salinity levels. Soil application of 1.44 g.kg/sup -1/ increase in the activities of APX, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (PRO), glutathione reductase soil Si caused an increase in membrane stabilityindex, (GR), total antioxidant and total phenol contents and 1.92 g.kg/sup -1/ soluble sugar and total phenol contents, CAT, SOD and total antioxidant activity. Soluble sugars, total phenols, SOD and total antioxidant activity and dry matter accumulation in cv. Omidbakhsh were higher than those in cv. Sepideh. In conclusion, alleviation of salinity stress by exogenous application of Si was found to be associated partly with enhanced antioxidant activity. (author)

  18. Radiation induced mutations for breeding of sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretaudeau, A [Rural Polytechnic Inst., Katibougou, Koulikoro (Mali)

    1997-07-01

    Several sorghum cultivars of Mali were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays and compared with the Caudatum types. Radio-sensitivity studies suggested that the local types were less sensitive to radiation than the introduced types. Whereas the local varieties survived dose of 300 Gy, in Caudatum types, seed germination and growth were significantly reduced at 200 Gy. Several agronomically important mutants were obtained among the progeny of the local types. Some of the mutants were shorter and had improved panicle characteristics. Radiation-induced variation was observed in several characters such as plant height, resistance to lodging, plant architecture, drought tolerance, panicle length and compactness, seed size and color, seed quality (viterous or floury) and protein content, glume color and structure, flowering data (early and late maturity), and tillering capacity. One mutant was drought tolerant. Promising mutants were selected and are presently under evaluation in the National List Trials to confirm their potential and future release. Selected variants have been also crossed with local types to obtain promising material. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs.

  19. Radiation induced mutations for breeding of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretaudeau, A.

    1997-01-01

    Several sorghum cultivars of Mali were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays and compared with the Caudatum types. Radio-sensitivity studies suggested that the local types were less sensitive to radiation than the introduced types. Whereas the local varieties survived dose of 300 Gy, in Caudatum types, seed germination and growth were significantly reduced at 200 Gy. Several agronomically important mutants were obtained among the progeny of the local types. Some of the mutants were shorter and had improved panicle characteristics. Radiation-induced variation was observed in several characters such as plant height, resistance to lodging, plant architecture, drought tolerance, panicle length and compactness, seed size and color, seed quality (viterous or floury) and protein content, glume color and structure, flowering data (early and late maturity), and tillering capacity. One mutant was drought tolerant. Promising mutants were selected and are presently under evaluation in the National List Trials to confirm their potential and future release. Selected variants have been also crossed with local types to obtain promising material. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  20. The application of secondary metabolites in the study of sorghum insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunming, Bai; Yifei, Liu; Xiaochun, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Insect attack is one of the main factors for limiting the production of rice and sorghum. To improve resistance to pests of rice and sorghum will be of great significance for meliorating their production and quality. However, the source and material of anti-pest was scarce. In this study, we will study on the expression patterns of hydrocyanic acid biosynthesis relative genes in sorghum firstly. And we will also genetically transform them into rice and sorghum by specific and constitutive promoters and verify their pest-resistant ability. Finally, high pest-resistant genetically modified new sorghum cultivars will be bred with favorable comprehensive agronomic traits.

  1. Transcriptome Characterization and Functional Marker Development in Sorghum Sudanense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqin Li

    Full Text Available Sudangrass, Sorghum sudanense, is an important forage in warm regions. But little is known about its genome. In this study, the transcriptomes of sudangrass S722 and sorghum Tx623B were sequenced by Illumina sequencing. More than 4Gb bases were sequenced for each library. For Tx623B and S722, 88.79% and 83.88% reads, respectively were matched to the Sorghum bicolor genome. A total of 2,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected by RNA-Seq between the two libraries, including 849 up-regulated genes and 1,548 down-regulated genes. These DEGs could be divided into three groups by annotation analysis. A total of 44,495 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were discovered by aligning S722 reads to the sorghum reference genome. Of these SNPs, 61.37% were transition, and this value did not differ much between different chromosomes. In addition, 16,928 insertion and deletion (indel loci were identified between the two genomes. A total of 5,344 indel markers were designed, 15 of which were selected to construct the genetic map derived from the cross of Tx623A and Sa. It was indicated that the indel markers were useful and versatile between sorghum and sudangrass. Comparison of synonymous base substitutions (Ks and non-synonymous base substitutions (Ka between the two libraries showed that 95% orthologous pairs exhibited Ka/Ks<1.0, indicating that these genes were influenced by purifying selection. The results from this study provide important information for molecular genetic research and a rich resource for marker development in sudangrass and other Sorghum species.

  2. Changes in protein and starch digestibility in sorghum flour during heat-moisture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thanh-Hien; Bean, Scott; Hsieh, Chao-Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure. Sorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg -1 w.b.) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120 and 140 °C) and times (1, 2 and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg -1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg -1 vs. 56 g kg -1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg -1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction. HMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorcus C. GEMENET

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available West Africa (WA is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, unaffordable to resource-poor farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1 The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2 Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3 Plant responses to P deficiency; (4 Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5 Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6 Systems approaches to addressing soil P-deficiency in WA.Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not however be a sustainable solution in

  4. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenet, Dorcus C; Leiser, Willmar L; Beggi, Francesca; Herrmann, Ludger H; Vadez, Vincent; Rattunde, Henry F W; Weltzien, Eva; Hash, Charles T; Buerkert, Andreas; Haussmann, Bettina I G

    2016-01-01

    West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1) The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2) Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3) Plant responses to P deficiency; (4) Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5) Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6) Systems approaches to address soil P-deficiency in WA. Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not, however, be a sustainable

  5. Sweet Sorghum Alternative Fuel and Feed Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, Donald C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Dept.; Kaltenbach, C. Colin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-07-30

    The University of Arizona undertook a “pilot” project to grow sweet sorghum on a field scale (rather than a plot scale), produce juice from the sweet sorghum, deliver the juice to a bio-refinery and process it to fuel-grade ethanol. We also evaluated the bagasse for suitability as a livestock feed and as a fuel. In addition to these objectives we evaluated methods of juice preservation, ligno-cellulosic conversion of the bagasse to fermentable sugars and alternative methods of juice extraction.

  6. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROSPECTS OF SORGHUM CROP

    OpenAIRE

    Agatha POPESCU; Reta CONDEI

    2014-01-01

    The paper purpose was to analyze the sorghum statement at world, EU and Romania level in order to establish the main trends in the future of this crop. Sorghum is an important cereal coming on the 5th position after maize, rice, wheat and barley at world level due to its importance in human nutrition, animal feed, in producing bioethanol and green energy, and due to its good impact on environment. It is cultivated on all the continents, in the tropical, subtropical and temperate areas due to ...

  7. Rétablissement de la capacité de production de sorgho (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench d'un vertisol dégradé dans la région de l'Extrême Nord du Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvondo-Awono, JP.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench production capacity in degraded vertisols in the Far North Region of Cameroon. In Northern Cameroon, degraded soils represent 10 to 20% of arable land. Recovering the production capacity of these degraded soils is one of the main challenges faced by agriculture in the region. The objective of the present study, conducted from 2007 to 2009, was to examine the possibility of growing sorghum on degraded and bare vertisols. A combination of the following techniques was used in a randomized complete block design: two land preparation techniques (plowing or mounding, two levels of cow dung dust (6 or 12 t·ha-1 and three rates of urea application (0, 50 or 100 kg·ha-1. The soil was sampled at a depth of up to 25 cm and was analyzed for its properties following standard analytical procedures. Critical levels established for tropical soils were used to declare sufficiency or deficiency of soil nutrients within the samples. Sorghum straw and grain yields were obtained and analyzed. Soil characteristics were found to be similar to those of other degraded vertisols found in the Far North Region of Cameroon. The hard top soil layer was found to be unfavorable to the establishment of sorghum. On the other hand, levels of organic carbon (0.85% and the sum of cations (4.91 meq·100 g-1 of soil were found to be favorable. The ratio of cations was found to be unfavorable to Ca. Available phosphorus (5.35 mg·kg-1 of soil and total N (0.04 g·kg-1 were very low. Following the application of treatments, 2.4 to 3.5 t·ha-1 of sorghum straw were produced and 1.3 to 2.8 t·ha-1 of grain were harvested during the experimental period. Soil plowing and mounding successfully disturbed the hard top soil layer. Soil mounding resulted into in a 16% increase in straw production in comparison with soil plowing alone. The application of 12 t·ha-1 of cow dung dust produced an additional grain yield of 17% in 2008 and of 39% in

  8. A Survey of Viral Diseases of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Geun Min

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout year 2015 to 2016, 101 proso millet and 200 sorghum samples were collected from five provinces in South Korea. The samples were subjected to paired-end RNA sequencing and further analyzed by RT-PCR. The results indicated that Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV was detected from sorghum collected in Gyeongsang province. The other four viruses, including RBSDV, Rice stripe virus (RSV, Barley virus G (BVG, and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV, were detected from proso millet. Among four viruses, both RSV and RBSDV were identified high frequency from proso millet collected from Gyeongsang province. Otherwise, BVG was nearly equally identified from five provinces, suggesting that the virus was supposedly widespread nationwide. RBSDV was first identified from both proso millet and sorghum in South Korea. The other virus annotated CYDV identified proso millet was shown to have relatively low identities compared to CYDV previously reported, suggesting that the virus might be new member of Polerovirus.

  9. Comparison of brown midrib-6 and -18 forage sorghum with conventional sorghum and corn silage in diets of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A L; Grant, R J; Pedersen, J F; O'Rear, J

    2004-03-01

    Total mixed rations containing conventional forage sorghum, brown midrib (bmr)-6 forage sorghum, bmr-18 forage sorghum, or corn silage were fed to Holstein dairy cows to determine the effect on lactation, ruminal fermentation, and total tract nutrient digestion. Sixteen multiparous cows (4 ruminally fistulated; 124 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated Latin square design with 4-wk periods (21-d adaptation and 7 d of collection). Diets consisted of 40% test silage, 10% alfalfa silage, and 50% concentrate mix (dry basis). Acid detergent lignin concentration was reduced by 21 and 13%, respectively, for the bmr-6 and bmr-18 sorghum silages when compared with the conventional sorghum. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greatest for cows fed bmr-6 (33.7 kg/d) and corn silage (33.3 kg/d), was least for cows fed the conventional sorghum (29.1 kg/d), and was intermediate for cows fed the bmr-18 sorghum (31.2 kg/d), which did not differ from any other diet. Total tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (54.4%) and corn silage (54.1%) diets and was lower for the conventional (40.8%) and bmr-18 sorghum (47.9%) diets. In situ extent of NDF digestion was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (76.4%) and corn silage (79.0%) diets, least for the conventional sorghum diet (70.4%), and intermediate for the bmr-18 sorghum silage diet (73.1%), which was not different from the other diets. Results of this study indicate that the bmr-6 sorghum hybrid outperformed the conventional sorghum hybrid; the bmr-18 sorghum was intermediate between conventional and bmr-6 in most cases. Additionally, the bmr-6 hybrid resulted in lactational performance equivalent to the corn hybrid used in this study. There are important compositional differences among bmr forage sorghum hybrids that need to be characterized to predict animal response accurately.

  10. Performance of five surface energy balance models for estimating daily evapotranspiration in high biomass sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Bhattarai, Nishan; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Kakani, Vijaya G.

    2017-06-01

    Robust evapotranspiration (ET) models are required to predict water usage in a variety of terrestrial ecosystems under different geographical and agrometeorological conditions. As a result, several remote sensing-based surface energy balance (SEB) models have been developed to estimate ET over large regions. However, comparison of the performance of several SEB models at the same site is limited. In addition, none of the SEB models have been evaluated for their ability to predict ET in rain-fed high biomass sorghum grown for biofuel production. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of five widely used single-source SEB models, namely Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping ET with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS), Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI), and operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop), for estimating ET over a high biomass sorghum field during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. The predicted ET values were compared against eddy covariance (EC) measured ET (ETEC) for 19 cloud-free Landsat image. In general, S-SEBI, SEBAL, and SEBS performed reasonably well for the study period, while METRIC and SSEBop performed poorly. All SEB models substantially overestimated ET under extremely dry conditions as they underestimated sensible heat (H) and overestimated latent heat (LE) fluxes under dry conditions during the partitioning of available energy. METRIC, SEBAL, and SEBS overestimated LE regardless of wet or dry periods. Consequently, predicted seasonal cumulative ET by METRIC, SEBAL, and SEBS were higher than seasonal cumulative ETEC in both seasons. In contrast, S-SEBI and SSEBop substantially underestimated ET under too wet conditions, and predicted seasonal cumulative ET by S-SEBI and SSEBop were lower than seasonal cumulative ETEC in the relatively wetter 2013 growing season. Our results indicate the necessity of inclusion of soil moisture or plant water stress

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF A TINCTORIAL PLANT OF BENIN TRADITIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA: THE RED SORGHUM (Sorghum caudatum) OF BENIN

    OpenAIRE

    PASCAL D. C. AGBANGNAN; CHRISTINE TACHON; HELENE BONIN; ANNA CHROSTOWKA; ERIC FOUQUET; DOMINIQUE C. K. SOHOUNHLOUE

    2012-01-01

    The full phytochemical screening of red sorghum from Benin (Sorghum caudatum) achieved in this work reveals the presence of leucoanthocyanins, flavonoides, free quinones, combined anthracene derivatives, sterols and terpenes in higher concentration in the leaf sheath and marrow of stem than in the seed. Catechin tannin content is 11.4% in the leaf sheath (slightly higher than that of red wine), 5.8% in the marrow and 2.8% in the seed. Gallic tannins, saponins and the mucilage present in the l...

  12. Changes in sorghum starch during parboiling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Young, R

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available again (boil-soak-boil process) or, alternatively, soaked overnight and boiled for 10 min (soak-boil process). The grain was dried at room temperature and decorticated. Parboiled kernels were darker, denser, smaller, and harder than non-parboiled kernels...

  13. Effect of drought stress on male fertility restoration in A3 CMS-inducing cytoplasm of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V. Kozhemyakin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in hybrid breeding requires effective male fertility-restoring lines. In sorghum, very few restoring lines that can restore fertility in A3 CMS have been reported. To identify the reasons for this deficiency, F1 and F2 hybrids of an A3 CMS line crossed with the line IS1112C, a donor of fertility-restoring (Rf genes for A3 cytoplasm, and testcrosses of fertile plants to A3 CMS lines were grown under contrasting water availability regimes in dryland and irrigated field plots. In the irrigated plots the frequency of fertile plants in testcrosses was twice that in dryland plots (P < 0.05. Fertile plants from the F2 family grown in the irrigated plots showed significantly higher restoration ability than fertile plants from the same family grown in dryland plots. F3 plants from the F2 family grown in irrigated plots yielded on average a sixfold higher frequency of fertile plants in testcrosses than F3 plants derived from dryland plots (P < 0.01. Fertility of testcross hybrids correlated negatively with air vapor pressure deficit (VPD at flowering (r = −0.96; P < 0.01 suggesting that VPD is a trigger for downregulation of Rf genes for A3 cytoplasm.

  14. Application Of Database Program in selecting Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Soeranto

    2000-01-01

    Computer database software namely MSTAT and paradox have been exercised in the field of mutation breeding especially in the process of selecting plant mutant lines of sorghum. In MSTAT, selecting mutant lines can be done by activating the SELECTION function and then followed by entering mathematical formulas for the selection criterion. Another alternative is by defining the desired selection intensity to the analysis results of subprogram SORT. Including the selected plant mutant lines in BRSERIES program, it will make their progenies be easier to be traced in subsequent generations. In paradox, an application program for selecting mutant lines can be made by combining facilities of Table, form and report. Selecting mutant lines with defined selection criterion can easily be done through filtering data. As a relation database, paradox ensures that the application program for selecting mutant lines and progeny trachings, can be made easier, efficient and interactive

  15. Nutritional characterization of grain amaranth grown in Nigeria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mg/100g; Thiamine-0.2756 mg (%), Riboflavin-0.734 mg (%) and Niacin-1.042. More research efforts are needed on growing, inclusion in diets, consumer behavior and market acceptability of Amaranth cruentus based products in order to contribute to the efforts of addressing food security, poverty reduction, nutritional, ...

  16. Inheritance and Heritability of Heat Tolerance in Several Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sorghum parental lines, RTx430, BTx3197, RTx7000, and B35 and their F1 and reciprocals, and F2 progenies were evaluated during their reproductive phases to access the genetic basis of heat tolerance. Heat tolerance was measured under field and greenhouse conditions at College Station, Texas during 1990.

  17. growth and yield parameters of sorghum genotypes as affected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Field trial was conducted at Bayero University, Kano research farm with the aim of determining the effect of stem injection artificial inoculation technique on the growth and yield parameters of one hundred and four sorghum genotypes against head smut. The trial was laid on a randomized complete block design ...

  18. Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Bara, C.A.; Dalode-Vieira, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of antioxidant biocolorant pigments from leaf sheaths of dye sorghum was optimized. Effects of temperature and ethanol concentration of the extraction solvent on the concentrations of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, and the colour parameters of the

  19. Genetic variability of sorghum landraces from lower Eastern Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reuben M. Muasya

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... from the farmers and four improved varieties were analyzed using 20 SSR markers. All markers were polymorphic with ... Levels and patterns of diversity within and between cultivated and wild sorghum gene pools ..... environmental heterogeneity and/or farmer preferences and random genetic drift (Neal, ...

  20. Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . It was found that sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) containing 100 g l-1 of total sugar without nutrient supplement could be used as the low-cost IP medium instead of the typical IP medium or yeast extract malt extract (YM) medium. Ethanol ...