WorldWideScience

Sample records for grain salba salvia

  1. Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in the treatment of overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan, V; Jenkins, A L; Brissette, C; Choleva, L; Jovanovski, E; Gibbs, A L; Bazinet, R P; Au-Yeung, F; Zurbau, A; Ho, H V T; Duvnjak, L; Sievenpiper, J L; Josse, R G; Hanna, A

    2017-02-01

    Preliminary findings indicate that consumption of Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.), an ancient seed, improves management of type 2 diabetes and suppresses appetite. The aim of this study was to assesse the effect of Salba-chia on body weight, visceral obesity and obesity-related risk factors in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel groups involved 77 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA 1c : 6.5-8.0%; BMI: 25-40 kg/m 2 ). Both groups followed a 6-month calorie-restricted diet; one group received 30 g/1000 kcal/day of Salba-chia, the other 36 g/1000 kcal/day of an oat bran-based control. Primary endpoint was change in body weight over 6-months. Secondary endpoints included changes in waist circumference, body composition, glycemic control, C-reactive protein, and obesity-related satiety hormones. At 6-months, participants on Salba-chia had lost more weight than those on control (1.9 ± 0.5 kg and 0.3 ± 0.4 kg, respectively; P = 0.020), accompanied by a greater reduction in waist circumference (3.5 ± 0.7 cm and 1.1 ± 0.7 cm, respectively; P = 0.027). C-reactive protein was reduced by 1.1 ± 0.5 mg/L (39 ± 17%) on Salba-chia, compared to 0.2 ± 0.4 mg/L (7 ± 20%) on control (P = 0.045). Plasma adiponectin on the test intervention increased by 6.5 ± 0.7%, with no change observed on control (P = 0.022). The results of this study, support the beneficial role of Salba-chia seeds in promoting weight loss and improvements of obesity related risk factors, while maintaining good glycemic control. Supplementation of Salba-chia may be a useful dietary addition to conventional therapy in the management of obesity in diabetes. REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01403571. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the

  2. Comparison of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety in healthy individuals: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan, V; Choleva, L; Jovanovski, E; Jenkins, A L; Au-Yeung, F; Dias, A G; Ho, H V T; Zurbau, A; Duvnjak, L

    2017-02-01

    Flax and Salba-chia seeds have risen in popularity owing to their favorable nutrient composition, including a high fiber content. Despite having comparable nutritional profiles, preliminary observations suggest differences in gelling properties, an attribute that may alter the kinetics of food digestion. Thus, we compared the effect of two seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety scores. Fifteen healthy participants (M/F: 5/10; age: 23.9±3 years; BMI: 22.2±0.8 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to receive a 50 g glucose challenge, alone or supplemented with either 25 g ground Salba-chia or 31.5 g flax, on three separate occasions. Blood glucose samples and satiety ratings were collected at fasting and over 2-h postprandially. In addition, in vitro viscosity of the beverages was assessed utilizing standard rheological methodology. Both Salba-chia and flax reduced blood glucose area under the curve over 120 min by 82.5±19.7 mmol/l (Pchia reduced peak glucose (-0.64±0.24 mmol/l; P=0.030) and increased time to peak (11.3±3.8 min; P=0.015) compared with flax. Salba-chia significantly reduced the mean ratings of desire to eat (-7±2 mm; P=0.005), prospective consumption (-7±2 mm; P=0.010) and overall appetite score (-6±2 mm; P=0.012), when compared with flax. The viscosity of Salba-chia, flax and control was 49.9, 2.5, and 0.002 Pa·s, respectively. Despite the similarities in nutritional composition, Salba-chia appears to have the ability to convert glucose into a slow-release carbohydrate and affect satiety to a greater extent than flax, possibly due to the higher fiber viscosity. Incorporation of either flax or Salba-chia into the diet may be beneficial, although use of Salba-chia may confer additional benefit.

  3. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L) improves the altered metabolic fate of glucose and reduces increased collagen deposition in the heart of insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creus, Agustina; Benmelej, Adriana; Villafañe, Noelia; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2017-06-01

    This study reports the effects of dietary Salba (chia) seeds on the mechanisms underlying impaired glucose metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Wistar rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Afterwards, half the animals continued with the SRD; in the other half's diet chia seeds replaced corn oil (CO) for three months (SRD+chia). In the control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seeds in the SRD restored the activities of key enzymes involved in heart glucose metabolism decreasing fatty acid oxidation. Chia seeds normalized insulin stimulated GLUT-4 transporter, the abundance of IRS-1 and pAMPK, changed the profile of fatty acid phospholipids, reduced left-ventricle collagen deposition and normalized hypertension and dyslipidemia. New evidence is provided concerning the effects of dietary chia seeds in improving the altered metabolic fate of glucose in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L) seed rich in α-linolenic acid improves adipose tissue dysfunction and the altered skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Ferreira, M R; Chicco, A; Lombardo, Y B

    2013-10-01

    This work reports the effect of dietary Salba (chia) seed rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid on the morphological and metabolic aspects involved in adipose tissue dysfunction and the mechanisms underlying the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Thereafter, half the rats continued with SRD while in the other half, corn oil (CO) was replaced by chia seed for 3 months (SRD+chia). In control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seed in the SRD reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, cell volume and size distribution, improved lipogenic enzyme activities, lipolysis and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. In the skeletal muscle lipid storage, glucose phosphorylation and oxidation were normalized. Chia seed reversed the impaired insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate and GLUT-4 protein levels as well as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) ameliorates the adipose tissue dysfunction of dyslipemic insulin-resistant rats through mechanisms involving oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M R; Alvarez, S M; Illesca, P; Giménez, M S; Lombardo, Y B

    2018-02-01

    Rats fed a long-term sucrose-rich diet (SRD) developed adipose tissue dysfunction. In the adipose tissue of these SRD-fed rats, the present study analyzed the possible beneficial effects of dietary Salba (chia) seeds in improving or reversing the depletion of antioxidant defenses, changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines and ROS production. Wistar rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. After that, half of the animals continued with the SRD until month 6, while in the other half, corn oil was replaced by chia seeds for 3 months (SRD + chia). A reference group consumed a control diet all the time. Compared with the SRD-fed rats, the animals fed a SRD + chia showed a reduction in epididymal fat pad weight; the activities of antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD and GPx returned to control values, while GR significantly improved; mRNA GPx increased, and both mRNA SOD and the redox state of glutathione returned to control values; a significant increase in the expression of Nrf2 was recorded. These results were accompanied by a decrease in XO activity and ROS contents as well as plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Chia seeds reversed the decrease in PPARγ protein mass level and increased the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio of membrane phospholipids. Besides, dyslipidemia and insulin sensitivity were normalized. This study provides new information concerning some mechanisms related to the beneficial effects of dietary chia seeds in reversing adipose tissue oxidative stress and improving the adipose tissue dysfunction induced by a SRD.

  6. Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Mi; Noh, Eun-Mi; Song, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Minok; Lee, Soo Ho; Park, Sueng Hyuk; Ahn, Chan-Keun; Lee, Guem-San; Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lee, Young-Rae

    2017-09-01

    Cancer cell invasion is crucial for metastasis. A major factor in the capacity of cancer cell invasion is the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the extracellular matrix. Salvia miltiorrhiza has been used as a promotion for blood circulation to remove blood stasis. Numerous previous studies have demonstrated that S. miltiorrhiza extracts (SME) decrease lipid levels and inhibit inflammation. However, the mechanism behind the effect of SME on breast cancer invasion has not been identified. The inhibitory effects of SME on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP-9 expression were assessed using western blotting, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and zymography assays. MMP-9 upstream signal proteins, including mitogen-activated protein kinases and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were also investigated. Cell invasion was assessed using a matrigel invasion assay. The present study demonstrated the inhibitory effects of the SME ethanol solution on MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in TPA-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. SME suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and MCF-7 cell invasion by blocking the transcriptional activation of AP-1. SME may possess therapeutic potential for inhibiting breast cancer cell invasiveness.

  7. Leaf Essential oils of Salvia nilotica and Salvia schimperi : Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Salvia nilotica and Salvia schimperi were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of the analyses indicated that the components of the two oils are qualitatively similar with significant quantitative differences. Twenty-seven compounds ...

  8. Salvia officinalis used in pharmaceutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents some pharmaceutical properties of Salvia officinalis, a plant belonging the Lamiaceae family, one of the oldest medicinal plants, which play an important role in improving the state of health.

  9. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  10. Apianane terpenoids from Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, K; Kikuzaki, H; Nakatani, N

    2001-12-01

    Three apianane terpenoids, rel-(5S, 6S, 7S, 10R, 12S, 13R)-7-hydroxyapiana-8,14-diene-11,16-dion-(22,6)-olide, rel-(5S, 6S, 7R, 10R, 12S, 13R)-7-hydroxyapiana-8,14-diene-11,16-dion-(22,6)-olide and rel-(5S, 6S, 7S, 10R, 12R, 13S)-7-hydroxyapiana-8,14-diene-11,16-dion-(22,6)-olide were isolated from the leaves of Salvia officinalis, together with 15 known compounds, salvigenin, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, physcion, carnosol, rosmadial, rosmanol, epirosmanol, isorosmanol, columbaridione, atuntzensin A, miltirone, carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral evidence.

  11. Antioxidant and anticholinesterase constituents of Salvia poculata

    OpenAIRE

    KOLAK, Ufuk; HACIBEKİROĞLU, Işıl; ÖZTÜRK, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Two triterpenoids, namely 2a,3a-dihydroxy-24-nor- 4(23),12-oleanadien-28-oic acid (1) and ursolic acid (2); 4 flavonoids, namely 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (3), cirsimaritin (4), eupatilin (5), and salvigenin (6); a diterpenoid, namely sclareol (7); and a steroid, namely b-sitosterol (8), were isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia poculata Nab., a Turkish endemic Salvia species. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the crude extract were determined as pyrocatechol and...

  12. Effect of Static Magnetic Field Exposure of Salvia Seeds on Germination Characteristics (Salvia officinalis, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Carbonell Padrino, Maria Victoria; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of magnetic treatment, in addition to the geomagnetic field, on germination of salvia officinalis L. seeds. This objective has a practice application in agriculture science: to obtain an early growth of salvia. A great development of crops of medicinal, condimentary and aromatic plants crops is taking place in Mediterranean countries due to their high added value as consequence of the Fitotherapy reappearance among other reasons. In...

  13. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... investigated in this study and the findings obtained were compared with other studies conducted on Salvia genus. Metcalfe and Chalk (1950) found the data on the anatomical characteristics of S. species. These researchers revealed that the species belonging to Labiatae family usually have rectangle or ...

  14. Flavones and rosmarinic acid from Salvia limbata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Ahmad R; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Malmir, Maryam; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbass; Ajani, Yousef

    2010-12-01

    The genus Salvia (Lamiaceae) contains more than 50 shrub species in Iran, and Salvia limbata C.A. Meyer grows widely in the north and central parts of the country. Six flavones and rosmarinic acid were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowered aerial parts of S. limbata collected from Semnan province. The separation process was carried out using several chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was based on NMR data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as ladanein (1), salvigenin (2), luteolin 7-methyl ether (3), cirsiliol (4), eupatorin (5), luteolin 7-O-glucoside (6) and rosmarinic acid (7). Some of these flavonoids have been reported to show antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

  15. Essential Oil Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Sage, Salvia officinalis L (Lamiaceae), is widely cultivated medicinal plant for its economic importance and large content of bioactive components; therefore, in the present study, the active components (volatile compounds) and the anti-inflammatory effect of S. officinalis have been investigated. Methods: Salvia ...

  16. Transplantation of artificial gelatin-co-bletillastriata gelatin/ Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the growth of the composite corium (constructed with fibroblast cells and gelatinco- Bletillastriata gelatin/Salvia miltiorrhiza materials) on rats. Methods: The composite artificial corium was constructed by culturing fibroblast cells in gelatin-co- Bletillastriata gelatin/Salvia miltiorrhiza materials.

  17. Sunbirds hover at flowers of Salvia and Lycium | Wester | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here I present detailed observations of foraging behaviour in two sunbird species (Malachite Sunbird Nectarinia famosa and Southern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris chalybeus) at flowers of three Salvia species (Salvia africana-lutea, S. lanceolata and S. africana-caerulea; Lamiaceae) and one natural hybrid as well as ...

  18. Antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of Salvia sclarea essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiying; Zhang, Xuejing; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Chengting; Lin, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, essential oils are recognized as safe substances and can be used as antibacterial additives. Salvia sclarea is one of the most important aromatic plants cultivated world-wide as a source of essential oils. In addition to being flavoring foods, Salvia sclarea essential oil can also act as antimicrobials and preservatives against food spoilage. Understanding more about the antibacterial performance and possible mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil will be helpful for its application in the future. But so far few related researches have been reported. In our study, Salvia sclarea oil showed obvious antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) of seven pathogens were 0.05 and 0.1 % respectively. In addition, Salvia sclarea oil also exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and meats. After treated with Salvia sclarea oil, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images can clearly see the damage of cell membrane; the intracellular ATP concentrations of E. coli and S. aureus reduced 98.27 and 69.61 % respectively, compared to the control groups; the nuclear DNA content of E. coli and S. aureus was significantly reduced to 48.32 and 50.77 % respectively. In addition, there was massive leakage of cellular material when E. coli and S. aureus were exposed to Salvia sclarea oil. Salvia sclarea essential oil damaged the cell membrane and changed the cell membrane permeability, leading to the release of some cytoplasm such as macromolecular substances, ATP and DNA. In general, the antimicrobial action of Salvia sclarea essential oil is not only attributable to a unique pathway, but also involves a series of events both on the cell surface and within the cytoplasm. Therefore, more experiments need to be done to fully understand the antimicrobial mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil.

  19. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba) Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina Creus; María R. Ferreira; María E. Oliva; Yolanda B. Lombardo

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR) rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) and investigates if chia seeds (rich in ?-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA) improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO), was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SR...

  20. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba) Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creus, Agustina; Ferreira, María R.; Oliva, María E.; Lombardo, Yolanda B.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR) rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA) improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO), was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia). A reference group consumed a control diet (CD) all the time. Triglyceride, long-chain acyl CoA (LC ACoA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (M-CPT1) activities and protein mass levels of M-CPT1, membrane fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were analyzed. Results show that: (a) the hearts of SRD-fed rats display lipotoxicity suggesting impaired myocardial lipid utilization; (b) Compared with the SRD group, dietary chia normalizes blood pressure; reverses/improves heart lipotoxicity, glucose oxidation, the increased protein mass level of FAT/CD36, and the impaired insulin stimulated FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane. The enhanced M-CPT1 activity is markedly reduced without similar changes in protein mass. PPARα slightly decreases, while the UCP2 protein level remains unchanged in all groups. Normalization of dyslipidemia and IR by chia reduces plasma fatty acids (FAs) availability, suggesting that a different milieu prevents the robust translocation of FAT/CD36. This could reduce the influx of FAs, decreasing the elevated M-CPT1 activity and lipid storage and improving glucose oxidation in cardiac muscles of SRD-fed rats. PMID:26828527

  1. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Creus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO, was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia. A reference group consumed a control diet (CD all the time. Triglyceride, long-chain acyl CoA (LC ACoA and diacylglycerol (DAG contents, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (M-CPT1 activities and protein mass levels of M-CPT1, membrane fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 were analyzed. Results show that: (a the hearts of SRD-fed rats display lipotoxicity suggesting impaired myocardial lipid utilization; (b Compared with the SRD group, dietary chia normalizes blood pressure; reverses/improves heart lipotoxicity, glucose oxidation, the increased protein mass level of FAT/CD36, and the impaired insulin stimulated FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane. The enhanced M-CPT1 activity is markedly reduced without similar changes in protein mass. PPARα slightly decreases, while the UCP2 protein level remains unchanged in all groups. Normalization of dyslipidemia and IR by chia reduces plasma fatty acids (FAs availability, suggesting that a different milieu prevents the robust translocation of FAT/CD36. This could reduce the influx of FAs, decreasing the elevated M-CPT1 activity and lipid storage and improving glucose oxidation in cardiac muscles of SRD-fed rats.

  2. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba) Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creus, Agustina; Ferreira, María R; Oliva, María E; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2016-01-28

    This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR) rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA) improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO), was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia). A reference group consumed a control diet (CD) all the time. Triglyceride, long-chain acyl CoA (LC ACoA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (M-CPT1) activities and protein mass levels of M-CPT1, membrane fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were analyzed. Results show that: (a) the hearts of SRD-fed rats display lipotoxicity suggesting impaired myocardial lipid utilization; (b) Compared with the SRD group, dietary chia normalizes blood pressure; reverses/improves heart lipotoxicity, glucose oxidation, the increased protein mass level of FAT/CD36, and the impaired insulin stimulated FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane. The enhanced M-CPT1 activity is markedly reduced without similar changes in protein mass. PPARα slightly decreases, while the UCP2 protein level remains unchanged in all groups. Normalization of dyslipidemia and IR by chia reduces plasma fatty acids (FAs) availability, suggesting that a different milieu prevents the robust translocation of FAT/CD36. This could reduce the influx of FAs, decreasing the elevated M-CPT1 activity and lipid storage and improving glucose oxidation in cardiac muscles of SRD-fed rats.

  3. Activity of Salvia dolomitica and Salvia somalensis Essential Oils against Bacteria, Molds and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from Salvia dolomitica and Salvia somalensis, widely employed in the cosmetic and perfume industry, were analyzed for composition and tested against bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated from clinical and environmental specimens. The analyses were carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudointermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Mucor sp. and Trichothecium roseum. Both EOs showed similar percentages of total monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole and β-caryophyllene in S. dolomitica and bornyl acetate and camphor in S. somalensis. The selected EOs have no relevant antifungal or antibacterial activities if compared to conventional drugs.

  4. Flavones and Flavone Glycosides from Salvia macrosiphon Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Ebrahimi, Hakimeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Foruzani, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Puneh; Ajani, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    Salvia genus, which is generally called Maryam-Goli in the Persian language, belongs to Lamiaceae family and comprises 58 species in Iran. Four flavonoids plus a steroid compound were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Salvia macrosiphon Boiss, using different chromatographic methods on the silica gel and sephadex LH20. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be apigenin-7, 4?-dimethyl ether (1), ?-sitosterol (2), salvigenin (3) ap...

  5. A new triterpene from Salvia xanthocheila Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomkar, Somayyeh; Yousefi, Maryam; Habibi, Zohreh; As'habi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    From the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Salvia xanthocheila, one new triterpene, together with two known diterpenes, two known flavonoids and a phytosterol was isolated. On the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including electron ionisation mass spectra, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, 1-D nuclear Overhauser effect, distortionless enchancement by polarisation transfer, H,H correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy spectra and comparison with spectral data of known compounds, the structure of new compounds was established as 1β,3β-dihydroxy-olean-9(11),12-dienyl (1). The five known compounds (2-6) were 7α-acetoxyroyleanone, taxodione, salvigenin, apigenin-7,4'-dimethyl ether and β-sitosterol, respectively. These known structures are isolated from the aerial parts of S. xanthocheila for the first time.

  6. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of Salvia apiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivedavyasasri, Radhakrishnan; Hayes, Taylor; Ross, Samir A

    2017-09-01

    Salvia apiana (white sage, Lamiaceae family) plant is native to southern California and parts of Mexico. Some Native American tribes local to this region consider S. apiana to be sacred and burn the leaves as incense for purification ceremonies. The plant has been used to treat sore throats, coughs, chest colds, upper respiratory infections and poison oak rashes. The aqueous ethanolic extract of S. apiana showed moderate CB1 activity (58.3% displacement). Chromatographic purification of the ethanolic extract on silica gel column led to isolation of nine compounds: rosmadial (I), carnosol (II), 16-hydroxycarnosol (III), sageone (IV), cirsimaritin (V), salvigenin (VI), oleanolic acid (VII), 3β,28-dihydroxy-urs-12-ene (VIII), and ursolic acid (IX). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by their 1D, 2D NMR and MS spectral data. All the fractions and isolated compounds were tested for cannabinoid and opioid receptor binding.

  7. Bioactive constituents of Salvia chrysophylla Stapf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çulhaoğlu, Burcu; Yapar, Gönül; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2013-03-01

    The dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Stapf (Lamiaceae), which is an endemic species to south-western Anatolia, was studied for non-volatile secondary metabolites for the first time in this study. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated as sclareol, β-sitosterol, salvigenin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the pure isolates were investigated to establish their antioxidant potential. Their anticholinesterase activity was carried out by the Ellman assay against both enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase, and diterpene sclareol exhibited fairly good activity against both the enzymes while the two triterpenoids oleanolic and ursolic acids exhibited selective activity against AChE.

  8. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  9. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia Hypoleuca Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad R Gohari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca.Results:The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, manool (4, 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5, ursolic acid (6,oleanolic acid (7, 3-epicorosolic acid (8, 3-epimaslinic acid (9 and coleonolic acid (10.Conclusions:In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, someof the isolated compounds (1–7, 9 have not been previously reported from the species S.hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time.

  10. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia hypoleuca Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidnia Soodabeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca. Results The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, manool (4, 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5, ursolic acid (6, oleanolic acid (7, 3-epicorosolic acid (8, 3-epimaslinic acid (9 and coleonolic acid (10. Conclusions In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, some of the isolated compounds (1–7, 9 have not been previously reported from the species S. hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time.

  11. Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Kavita M; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W

    2008-02-01

    Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa ("Kratom"), two unscheduled dietary supplements whose active agents are opioid receptor agonists, have discrete psychoactive effects that have contributed to their increasing popularity. Salvia divinorum contains the highly selective kappa- opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A; this compound produces visual hallucinations and synesthesia. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid identified from Kratom, has been reported as a partial opioid agonist producing similar effects to morphine. An interesting minor alkaloid of Kratom, 7-hydroxymitragynine, has been reported to be more potent than morphine. Both Kratom alkaloids are reported to activate supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors, explaining their use by chronic narcotics users to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Despite their widespread Internet availability, use of Salvia divinorum and Kratom represents an emerging trend that escapes traditional methods of toxicologic monitoring. The purpose of this article is to familiarize toxicologists and poison control specialists with these emerging psychoactive dietary supplements.

  12. Antibacterial compounds from Salvia adenophora Fernald (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Angela; Schito, Anna Maria; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Mele, Giacomo; Piatti, Gabriella; Romussi, Giovanni; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2015-02-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia adenophora Fernald four derivatives of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1-4) together with five clerodane diterpenoids (5, 6, 8-10), and one known diterpene (7) have been isolated. Compounds 1-6 and 8-10 are described for the first time. The structures were established by extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI-TOFMS spectroscopic methods. Finally, the absolute configuration has been established by comparing of experimental and quantum chemical calculation of ECD spectra. Despite a total lack of antimicrobial activity of the plant extract, hinting to the existence of antagonistic interactions in the crude material, three oxylipins (2-4) displayed a promising inhibition on Gram-positive multidrug-resistant clinical strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and, particularly, Staphylococcus epidermidis, while the compounds 9 and 10 revealed a specific and strain-dependent activity against S. epidermidis. Interestingly, the inhibition provided by these compounds was independent of the resistance patterns of these pathogens to classic antibiotics. No action was reported on Gram-negative strains nor on Candida albicans. These results confirm that clerodanes and, particularly, prostaglandin-like compounds can be considered as interesting antimicrobial agents deserving further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flavones and Flavone Glycosides from Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Ebrahimi, Hakimeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Foruzani, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Puneh; Ajani, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    Salvia genus, which is generally called Maryam-Goli in the Persian language, belongs to Lamiaceae family and comprises 58 species in Iran. Four flavonoids plus a steroid compound were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Salvia macrosiphon Boiss, using different chromatographic methods on the silica gel and sephadex LH20. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be apigenin-7, 4'-dimethyl ether (1), β-sitosterol (2), salvigenin (3) apigenin-7-O-glucoside (4) and luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5) using the (1)H, (13)C-NMR and MS spectra in comparison with those reported in the literature.

  14. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  15. Anti-mutagenic activity of Salvia merjamie extract against gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Khalid Mashay

    2015-01-01

    Gemcitabine is an anti-cancer drug with clinically uses in the treatment of various neoplasms, including breast, ovarian, non-small cell lung, pancreaticand cervical cancers, T-cell malignancies, germ cell tumours, and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, it has also been reported to have many adverse effects. Naturally occurring anti-mutagenic effects, especially those of plant origin, have recently become a subject of intensive research. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the anti-mutagenic effects of Salvia merjamie (Family: Lamiaceae) plant extracts against the mutagenic effects of gemcitabine. The anti-mutagenic properties of Salvia merjamie were tested in Inbred SWR/J male and female mice bone marrow cells. The mice were treated in four groups; a control group treated with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine and three treatment groups, each with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine together with, respectively, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight Salvia merjamie extract. Chromosomal aberration and mitotic index assays were performed with the results demonstrating that Salvia merjamie extract protects bone marrow cells in mice against gemcitabine induced mutagenicity. This information can be used for the development of a potential therapeutic anti-mutagenic agents.

  16. Extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge on the cytokines of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometriosis is a common mysterious and fascinating gynaecological condition with diverse clinical manifestations, highly variable and unpredictable clinical course with decreased quality of life. Clinically, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB, Chinese Danshen) has been applied to treat endometriosis and get satisfactory ...

  17. Antilipolytic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of dietary Salvia triloba Lf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modulatory effects of Salvia triloba L.f. (Lamiaceae) leaves methanol extract (ME) on a high fat diet ... triloba L.f.) specifically is a medicinal plant widely ..... Inhibitory activities of Zygophyllum album: a natural weight-lowering plant on key enzymes in high-fat diet fed rats. Evid Based. Complement Altern Med 2012; Article ID ...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. collected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils of Salvia officinalis L. collected at two different altitudes in Syrian coastline were analyzed by gas chromatography. Plant's development stage and the ecological factors had impact on the qualitative composition of S. officinalis essential oil. Although, the major components of the essential oils extracted ...

  19. Een „oude” voor Nederland nieuwe Salvia-bastaard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    1968-01-01

    Among the Dutch material of Salvia nemorosa L. in the collections of the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, the author found several specimens of the hybrid S. X sylvestris L. (S. nemorosa L. X S. pratensis L.). L.). A short description of this hybrid and the differences between the parent species are given.

  20. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Salvia officinalis L. flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a comparison of the Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial action of the aqueous and 70% methanol extracts from the flower of the herbal species Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), originating from Sudan was carried out. Material and Methods: Aqueous, and aquatic methanolic extracts of S. officinalis was investigated for ...

  1. Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2003-08-01

    The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

  2. Antilipolytic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of dietary Salvia triloba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL) is a noteworthy pharmacological target for the management of dyslipidemia, and diabetes and obesity. This study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of Salvia triloba L.f. (Lamiaceae) leaves methanol extract (ME) on a high fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertriglyceridemia ...

  3. Antagonistic bioactivity of endophytic strains isolated from Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic-producing potential of endophytic populations from medical plant of Salvia miltiorrhiza was examined. A total of 63 isolates was screened against five fungal and three bacterial species for the production of antimicrobial compounds. It showed that more isolates was antagonistic to fungi than to bacteria.

  4. Kleinbloemige salie (Salvia verbenaca L.) terug in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de Awie J.; Weeda, Eddy J.

    2001-01-01

    In the past Salvia verbenaca occurred as a native, albeit very rare plant in two parts of the Netherlands, viz. the southwestern province of Zeeland and the riverine area in the eastern province of Gelderland. Because it was not recorded anymore after 1948, it was considered extinct. Excluding the

  5. COMPOSITION OF STEMBARK ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SALVIA MACROSIPHON BOISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIROUZ MATLOUBI-MOGHADDAM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia macrosiphon boiss (Labiatae was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and coupled GC/MS. Twenty substances out of about thirty-three detected components were identified. The major constituents were sesquiterpenes (69.5%, a-Gurjunene (11%, P-Cubebene (10.6%, Germacrene-B (7%.

  6. Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibits the expressions of transcription factor T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SM powder for injection repressed the expressions of T-bet and TNFα in the experimental colitis in mice, which could relieve the inflamed colonic lesions and elevate the survival of mice. Keywords: Salvia miltiorrhiza, T-bet, tumor necrosis factor α, colitis, mice, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis ...

  7. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  8. Molecular docking and ex vivo and in vitro anticholinesterase activity studies ofSalvia sp. and highlighted rosmarinic acid

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİREZER, LÜTFİYE ÖMÜR; GÜRBÜZ, PERİHAN; UĞUR, EMİNE PELİN KELİCEN; BODUR, MİNE; ÖZENVER, NADİRE; UZ, AYŞE; GÜVENALP, ZÜHAL

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: To evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of the major molecule from Salvia sp., rosmarinic acid, as a drug candidate molecule for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). Materials and methods: The AChE inhibitory activity of different extracts from Salvia trichoclada, Salvia verticillata, and Salvia fruticosa was determined by the Ellman and isolated guinea pig ileum methods, and the antioxidant capacity was determined with DPPH. The A...

  9. Essential oils of Salvia bracteata and Salvia rubifolia from Lebanon: Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effect on human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardile, Venera; Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Piozzi, Franco

    2009-11-12

    Salvia bracteata Banks et Sol. and Salvia rubifolia Boiss. are known in folk medicine of Lebanon for the treatment of microbial infections, cancer, urinary and pulmonary problems. In the present study the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aerial parts of Salvia bracteata and Salvia rubifolia collected in Lebanon were evaluated. The oils were also tested for their potential antiproliferative effects against M14 human melanoma cells. The oils were studied by GC and GC-MS and their antibacterial activity (MIC and MBC) was tested against ten bacteria species using the broth dilution method. The inhibitory effect on human melanoma cells (measurement of cell vitality, cell membrane integrity and genomic DNA fragmentation) was studied using MTT assay, calculation of LDH release and COMET assay. The oils showed a good antibacterial activity (MIC = 50 microg/ml) against Gram+ bacteria. They besides exhibited an inhibitory effect on the human cancer cells examined inducing also apoptotic cell death, but the oil of Salvia rubifolia was significantly (p < 0.001) more active as compared to the oil of Salvia bracteata. The results on the pharmacological activities of these Salvia species provide an in vitro scientific support for the use of these plants in traditional herbal preparations.

  10. Salvia elegans: uma fonte natural de compostos antioxidantes

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Olívia R.; Afonso, Andrea F.; Silva, Joana de A.; Batista, Ana Rita; Sobral, Abílio J. F. N.; Cardoso, Susana M.

    2014-01-01

    A espécie Salvia elegans é um arbusto que pertence ao género Salvia, família das Lamiaceae. Várias espécies do mesmo género têm vindo a ser cultivadas para uso na culinária e em medicina tradicional [1]. Devido ao seu cheiro característico, a S. elegans é vulgarmente conhecida por salva ananás e utilizada como condimento ou aromatizante em alimentos. No México esta espécie é popularmente conhecida como “mirto” e tem sido usada na medicina tradicional para tratar afeções do sistema nervoso cen...

  11. The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Tan, Soon Guan

    2012-01-01

    With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining heal...

  12. Study on improving RVNRL films' aging properties with Salviae Miltiorrhizae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Nankang; Zhang Youjiu; Wang Chunlei

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Salviae Miltiorrhizae (SM) on aging properties of RVNRL films are studied with heat aging method. The results show that SM can effectively improve RVNRL films' aging properties. SM-a is the best aging agent among SM, SM-w and SM-a. The SM-a(c-1999) content is suitable to improving aging properties of RVNRL films, it is found that aging properties of SM-a are different which come from different regions

  13. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  14. A new lupene triterpenetriol and anticholinesterase activity of Salvia sclareoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Amélia P; Branco, Isabel; Lopes, Rui G; Justino, Jorge; Silva, Filipa V M; Noronha, João P; Cabrita, Eurico J; Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime

    2007-12-01

    A new lupene triterpenetriol was isolated from the acetone extract of the aerial parts of Salvia sclareoides and characterised as (1beta,3beta)-lup-20(29)-ene-1,3,30-triol (1). In addition, nepetidin (2), nepeticin (3), lupendiol (4), (1beta,11alpha)-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-3-one (5), ursolic acid (6), sumaresinolic acid (7) and hederagenin (8), were identified in this Salvia sp. To the best of our knowledge, the compounds 2 and 7 are new constituents in Salvia spp. The acetone, ethanol, butanol and water extracts of the plant were screened for the in vitro inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrilcholinesterase (BChE), enzymes which play a role in the Alzheimer disease. All extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity at 10 microg/ml, a remarkable activity since the standard drug rivastigmine does not inhibit acetylcholinesterase at the same concentration. Regarding the butyrilcholinesterase, the acetone extract at 1000 microg/ml was able to inhibit completely the enzyme activity and the butanol and ethanol extracts, at this concentration, produced a potent inhibition of BchE.

  15. GC Analyses of Salvia Seeds as Valuable Essential Oil Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Taârit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of seeds of Salvia verbenaca, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia sclarea were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields (w/w were 0.050, 0.047, and 0.045% in S. verbenaca, S. sclarea, and S. officinalis, respectively. Seventy-five compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S. verbenaca seeds showed that over 57% of the detected compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed by sesquiterpenes (24.04% and labdane type diterpenes (5.61%. The main essential oil constituents were camphor (38.94%, caryophyllene oxide (7.28%, and 13-epi-manool (5.61%, while those of essential oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone (14.77%, camphor (13.08%, and 1,8-cineole (6.66%. In samples of S. sclarea, essential oil consists mainly of linalool (24.25%, α-thujene (7.48%, linalyl acetate (6.90%, germacrene-D (5.88%, bicyclogermacrene (4.29%, and α-copaene (4.08%. This variability leads to a large range of naturally occurring volatile compounds with valuable industrial and pharmaceutical outlets.

  16. Morphological characterisation and agronomical parameters of different species of Salvia sp. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossi, A J; Cansian, R L; Paroul, N; Toniazzo, G; Oliveira, J V; Pierozan, M K; Pauletti, G; Rota, L; Santos, A C A; Serafini, L A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the morphological characteristics and parameters of biomass production, such as fresh and dry matter weight (FMW and DMW, g/plant), yield of dry matter (YDM) in terms of ton/ha, essential oil content (EOC, mL/100 g) and yield of essential oils (YEO) expressed as L/ha of the following plants Salvia verbenaca, Salvia argentea, Salvia lavandulifolia, Salvia pratensis, Salvia sclarea, Salvia triloba and Salvia officinalis. Except for Salvia argentea (S2) all other species have adapted to the south Brazilian climate conditions, with morphological differences among the species evaluated. In terms of DMW and YDM, S. officinalis was found to be the most productive species with 445.83 g/plant and 11.14 ton/ha. The higher essential oil content and yield was observed for S. officinalis, affording 1.99 mL/100 g and 221.74 L/ha, respectively. Chemical characterisation of the essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation was performed through GC and GC/MSD analyses, which revealed for most of the species studied, α e β-thujone, camphor and 1,8-cineole as major compounds, apart from S. sclarea, for which linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol were the major components.

  17. Morphological characterisation and agronomical parameters of different species of Salvia sp. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Mossi

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the morphological characteristics and parameters of biomass production, such as fresh and dry matter weight (FMW and DMW, g/plant, yield of dry matter (YDM in terms of ton/ha, essential oil content (EOC, mL/100 g and yield of essential oils (YEO expressed as L/ha of the following plants Salvia verbenaca, Salvia argentea, Salvia lavandulifolia, Salvia pratensis, Salvia sclarea, Salvia triloba and Salvia officinalis. Except for Salvia argentea (S2 all other species have adapted to the south Brazilian climate conditions, with morphological differences among the species evaluated. In terms of DMW and YDM, S. officinalis was found to be the most productive species with 445.83 g/plant and 11.14 ton/ha. The higher essential oil content and yield was observed for S. officinalis, affording 1.99 mL/100 g and 221.74 L/ha, respectively. Chemical characterisation of the essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation was performed through GC and GC/MSD analyses, which revealed for most of the species studied, α e β-thujone, camphor and 1,8-cineole as major compounds, apart from S. sclarea, for which linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol were the major components.

  18. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge extract on liver cirrhosis in rats | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.extract(SMBE) on diethylnitrosamine(DEN)- induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods: SMBE was obtained by extracting dried Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. in water. Liver cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by injecting diethylnitrosamine in abdominal cavity once a week for ...

  19. A Case Report of Poisoning Caused by Incorrect Use of Salvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianyi; Chen, Danyang; Chai, Lin; Duan, Hui; Guo, Hui; Li, Shuang; Xiao, Min; Chen, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 54 Final Diagnosis: Salvia intoxication Symptoms: Frequent nausea Medication: Thyroxine Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Previous reports suggest that homoplantaginin, one of the compounds isolated from Salvia plebeia, has a protective and therapeutic effect on hepatocyte injury. We present a case of serious liver and kidney damage due to incorrect use of Salvia plebeia in a patient with a history of thyroid tumorectomy, who was successfully treated for poisoning with blood purification and systemic, comprehensive critical care. Case Report: A 54-year-old female patient with salvia intoxication combined with multiple organ dysfunction was transported to our emergency center by ambulance after presenting with nausea, vomiting, and skin yellowing. On arrival, she exhibited fatigue, dizziness, lightheadedness, yellowish discoloration of her skin, breathing difficulties, and low back pain, all of which was suggestive of salvia intoxication combined with multiple organ dysfunction. The treatment strategy was to immediately speed up the excretion of toxins and administered blood purification therapy. She also displayed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which was successfully treated with plasma infusion of blood coagulation factor combined with LMWH acupuncture therapy. Conclusions: Salvia plebeia should only be considered for use in patients who have infectious disease or oxidative stress related disease and only at an appropriate dose. In addition, for patients with salvia poisoning, prompt administration of blood purification therapy and systemic comprehensive measures involving multiple supportive therapies can save such patients. PMID:27523588

  20. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  1. Terpenes of Salvia species leaf oils: chemosystematic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Coassini Lokar, Laura; Moneghini, Mariarosa

    2017-01-01

    Wild specimens of Salvia L. were collected in three different moments of anthesis and their volatile leaf oils were analyzed by GC/GCMS. The quantitative terpene composition is very variable with the anthesis. S. bertolonii is the richest species in a-thujone. S. officinalis is characterized by high percentages of 1,8 cineole, 4-terpineol, isorboneol and a -bisabolol. In S. verticillata high percentages of borneol and {3-cariophyllene are present. In the three species a-thujone was always mor...

  2. Metabolic profiles and cDNA-AFLP analysis of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia castanea Diel f. tomentosa Stib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Yang

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Salvia produce various types of phenolic compounds and tanshinones which are effective for treatment of coronary heart disease. Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib are two important members of the genus. In this study, metabolic profiles and cDNA-AFLP analysis of four samples were employed to identify novel genes potentially involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis, including the red roots from the two species and two tanshinone-free roots from S. miltiorrhiza. The results showed that the red roots of S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib produced high contents of rosmarinic acid (21.77 mg/g and tanshinone IIA (12.60 mg/g, but low content of salvianolic acid B (1.45 mg/g. The red roots of S. miltiorrhiza produced high content of salvianolic acid B (18.69 mg/g, while tanshinones accumulation in this sample was much less than that in S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. Tanshinones were not detected in the two tanshinone-free samples, which produced high contents of phenolic compounds. A cDNA-AFLP analysis with 128 primer pairs revealed that 2300 transcript derived fragments (TDFs were differentially expressed among the four samples. About 323 TDFs were sequenced, of which 78 TDFs were annotated with known functions through BLASTX searching the Genbank database and 14 annotated TDFs were assigned into secondary metabolic pathways through searching the KEGGPATHWAY database. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the expression of 9 TDFs was positively correlated with accumulation of phenolic compounds and tanshinones. These TDFs additionally showed coordinated transcriptional response with 6 previously-identified genes involved in biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic compounds in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots treated with yeast extract. The sequence data in the present work not only provided us candidate genes involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis

  3. Antimicrobial activity of six constituents of essential oil from Salvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonboli, Ali; Babakhani, Babak; Mehrabian, Ahmad Reza

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of three Salvia species, i.e. S. santolinifolia, S. hydrangea and S. mirzayanii, essential oils were investigated. The essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts of plants and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents of aforementioned species were alpha-pinene (72.4%), beta-pinene (6.6%) and limonene (5.3%); beta-caryophyllene (25.1%), 1,8-cineol (15.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.5%); alpha-terpinenyl acetate (22.6%), 1,8-cineol (21.2%) and linalool (8.9%), respectively. Bioassays exhibited that the property of the oil of S. myrzayanii was superior to others. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Salvia species may well be due to the presence of synergy between six tested compounds (linalool, 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene and limonene) and other constituents of the oils with various degrees of antimicrobial activity. Among these, linalool and 1,8-cineol had the highest antimicrobial activity.

  4. Investigating wound healing, tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extracts of Salvia cryptantha and Salvia cyanescens using in vivo and in vitro experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süntar, Ipek; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Keles, Hikmet; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2011-04-26

    Salvia L. species are widely used against wounds and skin infections in Turkish folk medicine. The aim of the present study is to evaluate wound healing activity of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts of Salvia cryptantha and Salvia cyanescens. For the assessment of wound healing activity linear incision and circular excision wound models were employed on rats and mice. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol(®). Inhibition of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in skin aging, was achieved using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenger effect, ferrous ion-chelating ability, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests. The EtOH extract of Salvia cryptantha treated groups of animals showed 56.5% contraction, whereas the reference drug Madecassol(®) showed 100% contraction. On the other hand, the same extract on linear incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (33.2%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histopathological examination maintained the upshot of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. These findings specify that Salvia cryptantha for wound healing activity can be appealed further phytochemical estimation for spotting its active components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antileishmanial activity of 12-methoxycarnosic acid from Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, Salvia repens is used traditionally to treat sores, stomach ache and diarrhoea. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based activity profiling of S. repens whole plant extract showed an active abietane diterpene...

  6. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma by metabolites isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K B; Jørgensen, M.; Kotowska, D

    2010-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia officinalis has been used as a traditional remedy against diabetes in many countries and its glucose-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animal studies. The active compounds and their possible mode of action are still unknown although it has been...... suggested that diterpenes may be responsible for the anti-diabetic effect of Salvia officinalis. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate whether the reported anti-diabetic effects of Salvia officinalis are related to activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR......)gamma and to identify the bioactive constituents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a dichloromethane extract of Salvia officinalis able to activate PPARgamma several major metabolites were isolated by chromatographic techniques. To assess bioactivity of the isolated metabolites a PPARgamma transactivation assay was used...

  7. Study on the valorization of Salvia officinalis volatile oil in dermato-cosmetology

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Dumitrache1,; Anca Dragomirescu1,; Felicia Andrei1 ,; Alexa Ersilia2,; Lemle Katerina1

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND Recent studies have revealed other properties of Salvia Officinalis, such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential. It is also implicated in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases and has several other beneficial effects (1). Salvia Officinalis contains estrogenic substances, sitosterol, vitamins B1 and C, organic acids etc., which have a theoretically positive effect in the antiaging process. A...

  8. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Fourty Five Salvia Species by Thermal Desorption-GC-MS Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Damla Hatipoglu; Nihal Zorlu; Tuncay Dirmenci; Ahmet C. Goren; Turan Ozturk; Gulacti Topcu

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from dried aerial parts (flowers, leafs, leafy branches and stems) of fourty five Salvia species, harvested from different regions of Turkey, were determined using thermal desorption technique coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS). Total percentages of the detected volatile organic compounds of the Salvia species ranged from 70.30 to 99.65% . Total yield of VOC was found to be highly variable among Salvia species, and the percentage of eac...

  9. A nor-diterpene from Salvia sahendica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi Tabatabaei, Sahar; Salehi, Peyman; Moridi Farimani, Mahdi; Neuburger, Markus; De Mieri, Maria; Hamburger, Matthias; Nejad-Ebrahimi, Samad

    2017-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of n-hexane extract of Salvia sahendica by normal phase column chromatography resulted in the isolation of six compounds. Structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and HRMS, as a new norditerpene 1, and known terpenoids, sclareol (2), oleanolic acid (3), β-sitosterol (4), salvigenin (5) and 3α-hydroxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (6). The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by a combination of X-ray single crystal analysis and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxic activity on breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and also the antimicrobial activity of the pure compounds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilus cereus and Escherichia coli.

  10. Contents of Aerial Parts of Salvia leriifolia Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseinpoor Mohsen Abadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have reported the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Salvia leriifolia extracts and fractions. Methanolic, n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts were screened to analysis their antioxidant activities by four complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity (RSA, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and ferrous ion cheating (FIC. In most cases the leaf extracts and ethyl acetate fraction had more activity. The methanolic extracts of leaf and flower showed considerable antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, Acinetobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extracts showed the highest activity against P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia.

  11. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (Sage is a plant in the family of Labiatae/Lamiaceae. It is native to Middle East and Mediterranean areas, but today has been naturalized throughout the world. In folk medicine, S. officinalis has been used for the treatment of different kinds of disorders including seizure, ulcers, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, dizziness, tremor, paralysis, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia. In recent years, this plant has been a subject of intensive studies to document its traditional use and to find new biological effects. These studies have revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities for S. officinalis. Present review highlights the up-to-date information on the pharmacological findings that have been frequently reported for S. officinalis. These findings include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidementia, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. Also, chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological effects of S. officinalis and the clinical studies on this plant are presented and discussed.

  12. Phytochemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Salvia suffruticosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Rustaie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Salvia suffruticosa is a perennial plant from Lamiaceae family. Many Salvia species have been employed as medicinal plants; despite the medicinal potentials of S. suffruticosa, there is limited studies regarding its phytochemical profile or biological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of the plant and evaluate its biological activities. Methods: Essential oil from the aerial parts of the plant was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Isolation of compounds from methanol and petroleum ether fractions was achieved by using column chromatography with different stationary phases. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR techniques. Cytotoxicity potentials were evaluated using MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH method. Results: Hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes were identified as the predominant components of the oil, with β-caryophyllene (27.35%, bicyclogermacrene (22.15%, germacrene-D (9.49% and β-farnesene (9.08% as the major constituents. Phytochemical analysis of the extract resulted in isolation of lupeol (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, caffeic acid (4 and 1-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (5. Among the tested samples, lupeol demonstrated the most potent inhibitory activity toward breast cancer cell lines including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values equal to 33.38±2.6, 36.70±3.1 and 23.66±1.4 μg/mL, respectively; caffeic acid with IC50 value of 12.1±1.2 μg/mL showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested S. suffruticosa as a promising source of bioactive compounds useful in prevention and treatment of cancer.

  13. [Salvia divinorum--representation of a new drug in the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, H; Specka, M; Schifano, F; Deluca, P; Scherbaum, N

    2006-05-01

    The German pages of the Internet were searched for the presence of the hallucinogenic herbal drug Salvia divinorum, which is not dealt with in current addiction medicine or psychiatric text books. The investigation is part of the EU sponsored project "Psychonaut" as preparatory work for the development of an Internet-based early warning system. The first 100 websites of the search using "Salvia divinorum" were compared with the search results for "cannabis" and "LSD". The following aspects of the sites were especially analyzed: the originator, marketing of drugs, and the attitude towards drug use. Salvia was offered for sale on approximately a third of the sites (29%); cannabis and LSD were not marketed on any sites. Official websites such as those from governmental organizations or universities were seldom found when searching for "Salvia divinorum", and then only under the last hits. The percentage of institutional sites (e. g. public organizations) were 12% with Salvia, 21% with cannabis, and 38% with LSD. A drug-friendly attitude was found at 64 % of the sites with regard to Salvia, 58% for cannabis, and 24% for LSD. The drug help system must be aware of that the Internet is a source of drug-related information, and of drug trade. As this investigation shows, sites often have a drug-friendly attitude. The low availability of official information on Salvia divinorum (also outside the Internet) relative to the presence of drug-friendly or drug trading sites is an indication that new trends of drug consumption can be tracked in the Internet before they will be found in official literature.

  14. Study on the valorization of Salvia officinalis volatile oil in dermato-cosmetology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dumitrache1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND Recent studies have revealed other properties of Salvia Officinalis, such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential. It is also implicated in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases and has several other beneficial effects (1. Salvia Officinalis contains estrogenic substances, sitosterol, vitamins B1 and C, organic acids etc., which have a theoretically positive effect in the antiaging process. Additionally, our premise was that the anti-aging effects have a solid specific support: the antiglycation effect of Salvia Officinalis (2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Salvia Officinalis volatile oil has been incorporated into an ointment base in order to obtain a cosmetic cream W/O type. A number of three creams were prepared using three different concentrations of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil (0,5 and 1,5 respectively. RESULTS In order to characterize the obtained creams, corneometry was used to measure the skin hydration degree. A number of 15 volunteers, aged between 20 and 50 years underwent customer testing. This test has provided information on the left gloss, smoothness, residue, side effects and penetration ability of the three creams, with different concentration of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil. We observed a significant increase (twice the initial value in the degree of skin hydration in all subjects who used the cream and especially in those who applied the cream containing 1,5 concentration of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil. CONCLUSIONS The three creams with different concentrations of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil were well tolerated by patients and showed beneficial effects in preventing dehydration and restoration of skin elasticity. Table 1. Subjects who applied the cream containing a 1,5 concentration REFERENCES 1. Garcia CSC, Menti C, Lambert APF et al. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae: antioxidant, and antitumor in

  15. TLC Fingerprint analysis of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in some Iranian Salvia spp., a chemotaxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Fotovvat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is an important genus of Lamiaceae which phenolic compounds are the main secondary metabolites of its members. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the leaves and flowers from 41 wild populations of 27 Salvia species from Iran by TLC method and evaluation of their significance as chemical markers for taxonomic purposes. Rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acids A and B, apigenin, rutine, scutellarin and baicalin were characterized as the main compounds of the studied Salvia species. Based on the dendrogram obtained from the didtribution patterns of phenolic compounds using cluster analysis by UPGMA method, the Salvia species were studied chemotaxonomically. Results showed that the patterns of phenolic compounds in the leaf and flower organs were similar in populations of a species, while they were different among the species. It seems that substantial differences in the patterns of these compounds at inter-species level were mainly due to genetic differences. The results from classification of the species by cluster analysis of the phenolic data supported their grouping according to their classical taxonomy in the Flora Iranica. This suggests the importance of these compounds as chemical markers for the classification of Salvia species at inter-species and subgenus levels.

  16. Antioxidant Properties and Total Phenolic Content of Eight Salvia Species from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURAT TOSUN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of eight Salvia species, namely S. aethiopis, S. candidissima, S. limbata, S. microstegia, S. nemorosa, S. pachystachys, S. verticillata, and S. virgata, sampled from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and b-carotene/linoleic acid. Total phenolic content of the extracts of Salvia species were performed Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and gallic acid used as standard. A wide variation has been observed among species in terms of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. In both DPPH and b-carotene system, the most active plant was Salvia verticillata with a value of IC50=18.3 μg/ml and 75.8%, respectively. This specie also has the highest total phenolic content (167.1 mgGAE/g DW. The total amount of phenolics was between 50.3 to 167.1 mg GAE/g DW among species. A positive linear correlation was observed between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results suggest that the extract of Salvia species, notably Salvia verticillata with the highest antioxidant activity, can be used as natural antioxidants in the food industry.

  17. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology. PMID:27536196

  18. Biological activity of bicyclic and tricyclic diterpenoids from Salvia species of immediate pharmacological and pharmaceutical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Maria Carmela; Cicala, Carla; Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Maione, Francesco; Mascolo, Nicola

    2011-08-01

    Diterpenoids are a class of compounds that derive from the condensation of four isoprene units that leads to a wide variety of complex chemical structures, including acyclic bi-, tri-and tetra-cyclic compounds; in Salvia species, only bi-, tri-and tetra-cyclic compounds have been found. This review covers a wide range of biological activities and mode of action of diterpenoids isolated from Salvia species that might raise some pharmacological and pharmaceutical interest. We have produced a synoptic table where the biological activities of the main active principles are summarized. Our analysis emphasizes that diterpenoids from Salvia species continue to be a plant defence system since their antimicrobic activity. Experimental studies show that most of diterpenoids considered have cytotoxic and/or antiproliferative activity. Some of them have also cardiovascular and central effects. In a less extended manner, diterpenoids from Salvia species show gastrointestinal, urinary, antinflammatory, antidiabetic, ipolipidemic and antiaggregating effects. In the last decade, several clinical trials have been developed in order to investigate the real value of Salvia extracts treatment; results obtained are promising and confer scientific basis in the use of medicinal plants from folk medicine.

  19. Genetic Differentiations among the Populations of Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and Its Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARMONO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and genetic variations within Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and its related species in Japan were analyzed for clarifying their taxonomic significance. The genetic variations were explored through chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences and allozyme polymorphisms. Since chromosome numbers characterized the genus of Salvia, we also examined whether the karyotypes were different. We examined 58 populations of S. japonica and 14 populations of others species of Salvia. Among the populations of S. japonica represented four forms (f. japonica, f. longipes, f. lanuginosa and f. albiflora. The size of chromosomes were various among Salvia spp. Based on the allozyme as well as the DNA sequence, the populations of S. japonica separated from the others Salvia species. The populations of S. japonica exhibited four combinations of the morphological characters. However, these combinations did not correlate to the four forms of S. japonica. In addition, the morphological variations did not correlate to the allozyme and DNA sequences. It is suggested that the four morphological variations as well as the four form of S. japonica should not considered to be a taxonomic unit; accordingly, S. japonica were considered to be still at the early stage of speciation process.

  20. [Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Salvia apiana against clinically important microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel H; Díaz-Rubio, Laura; Franco-Cabrera, Santiago; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolas A; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Soto-Castro, Tely A; Martinez-Morales, Flavio; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario

    Due to the great global concern regarding bacterial resistance to antibiotics, an ongoing search for new molecules having antibacterial activity is necessary. This study evaluated the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of a hexane extract from the root of Salvia apiana. Salvia extracts at concentrations of 27, 13.5, 6.8 and 3.4mg/ml caused growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. However, no significant effect was observed on Escherichia coli and Candida tropicalis in comparison to vehicle. It was here demonstrated for the first time that Salvia apiana has an important antimicrobial effect on human pathogens of great clinical value, thus opening the field to continue the evaluation of this lamiaceous plant for its future use as a therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  2. Chia (Salvia hispanica can be used to manufacture sugar-snap cookies with an improved nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Barrientos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technologists and nutritionists are always looking for alternative ingredients to use in their formulations to improve functional and nutritional properties. Therefore, cookies using Chia (Salvia hispanica, a grain with high quality nutrients, were prepared. The nutritional value was determined by measuring the chemical composition, mineral content, and the fatty acid composition (saturated, monunsaturated, polyunsaturated, linoleic and linolenic acids. Data obtained from this chemical analysis was used to estimate the nutrients intake and compare them to the dietary reference intakes (DRIs. Cookies supplemented with chia flour contained signicantly more protein, fat, crude fiber, calcium, zinc, and alpha-linolenic (n-3 acid. It was estimated that the supplemented cookies would contribute to the corresponding DRIs in the range of 8.1-13.8% (children and 6.5-11.0% (males/females for calcium; and 14.0-18.0% (children and 6.4-11.3 (males/females for zinc. The addition of chia flour to the cookies resulted in a product sensorially acceptable with a better fatty acid profile (lower n-6/n-3. Supplemented cookies would contribute to alpha-linolenic DRI in the range of 65.9-134.5% (children, 49.4-100.9% (males, and 53.9-110.0% (females. Dietary intake of protein, fiber, calcium, zinc, and alpha-linolenic (n-3 acid could be increased by the consumption of sugar-snap cookies supplemented with chia flour.

  3. Polyphenolic characterization and chromatographic methods for fast assessment of culinary Salvia species from South East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovikj, I; Stefkov, G; Acevska, J; Stanoeva, J Petreska; Karapandzova, M; Stefova, M; Dimitrovska, A; Kulevanova, S

    2013-03-22

    Although the knowledge and use of several Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, and Salvia pomifera) can be dated back to Greek Era and have a long history of culinary and effective medicinal use, still there is a remarkable interest concerning their chemistry and especially the polyphenolic composition. Despite the demand in the food and pharmaceutical industry for methods for fast quality assessment of the herbs and spices, even now there are no official requirements for the minimum content of polyphenols in sage covered by current regulations neither the European Pharmacopoeia monographs nor the ISO 11165 standard. In this work a rapid analytical method for extraction, characterization and quantification of the major polyphenolic constituents in Sage was developed. Various extractions (infusion - IE; ultrasound-assisted extraction - USE and microwave-assisted extraction - MWE) were performed and evaluated for their effectiveness. Along with the optimization of the mass-detector and chromatographic parameters, the applicability of three different reverse C18 stationary phases (extra-density bonded, core-shell technology and monolith column) for polyphenolics characterization was evaluated. A comprehensive overview of the very variable polyphenolic composition of 118 different plant samples of 68 populations of wild growing culinary Salvia species (S. officinalis: 101; S. fruticosa: 15; S. pomifera: 2) collected from South East Europe (SEE) was performed using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and more than 50 different compounds were identified and quantified. With this work the knowledge about polyphenols of culinary Sage was expanded thus the possibility for gaining an insight into the chemodiversity of culinary Salvia species in South East Europe was unlocked. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlaily Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.

  6. Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  7. In vitro establishment of Salvia hispanica L. plants and callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Marconi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have optimized the culture conditions for the initiation and maintenance of Salvia hispanica L. (Chia plant and callus cultures. Stems section were the best explant source for starting in vitro cultures. Both IAA and NAA, at all the concentration tested with or without the addition of citokinines, have induced the development of adventitious roots both in darkness as in light. In darkness, 2,4-D (2.25 mM has induced the development of S. hispanica embryogenic tissues and in light promoted the initiation and establishment of green, and fast-growing calli that lost their friability with time. When subcultured to MS culture media with NAA:kin (0.54 mM:0.46 mM or Picloram (1.72 mM, 3.43 mM as plant growth regulators, calli maintained friability for two years in culture. It was possible to detect fatty acid content in the calli obtained but the values remained significant lower than those of seeds. Key words: callus induction, chia, micropropagation, plant growth regulators

  8. The promising future of chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Tan, Soon Guan

    2012-01-01

    With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.

  9. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from the roots of Salvia lachnocalyx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hadavand Mirzaei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salvia lachnocalyx Hedge, Lamiaceae, is an endemic sage which grows naturally in the Fars Province of Iran. The phytochemical analyses of the roots of S. lachnocalyx led to the isolation of five known diterpenoids: ferruginol (1, taxodione (2, sahandinone (3, 4-dehydrosalvilimbinol (4 and labda-7,14-dien-13-ol (5. Their chemical structures were elucidated using one (1H and 13C and two dimensional (COSY, HSQC and HMBC NMR spectroscopic data as well as electron impact mass spectra. The cytotoxicity of the purified compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines; MOLT-4 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, HT-29 (colorectal adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma and all of the isolated compounds showed considerable cytotoxic activity against these cell lines. Compounds 2 and 3 (IC50 range: 0.41–3.87 µg/ml with endocyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl functional group, exhibited the highest cytotoxic activities compared to the other compounds (IC50 range: 6.85–17.23 µg/ml. In conclusion, compounds 2 and 3 are presented as compounds that deserve further investigation of their biological activities.

  10. Allelopathic effects of Clinopodium menthifolium and Salvia sclarea aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur Jovana T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary plant biomolecules are the main agents in biochemical inter­actions between plants and the environment. It is possible to distinguish the role of secondary biomolecules in allelopathic (plant-plant activity, plant-insect, plant-microbe, plant-herbivore and others. These interactions can significantly affect the productivity of agricultural crops. Application of allelochemicals into agricultural practice may reduce the use of herbicides. Effect of Salvia sclarea L. and Clinopodium menthifolium (Host aqueous extracts on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L. and soybean (Glycine max L. seedlings were examined 24 h, 72 h and 120 h after the treatment. The third aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against Rhyzopertha dominica. Our results showed that S. sclarea aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in roots of Jimson weed seedlings 24 h after the treatment. Furthermore, both tested concentrations of C. menthifolium aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in Jimson weed roots 72 h and 120 h after the treatment. It was observed that S. sclarea aqueous extract showed toxic effect against R. dominica, with high mortality rate (above 95%.

  11. Essential Oil Composition of Salvia tebesana Bunge (Lamiaceae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Goldansaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia tebesana Bunge (Lamiaceae is an endemic medicinal species which grows wild in center of Iran. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil of the plant at two developmental stages (vegetative and full flowering was reported for the first time. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from air-dried samples and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield of oil (w/w % in different stages was in the order: full flowering (0.32 % > vegetative (0.14 %. In total 44 and 61 constituents were identified and quantified in the studied samples representing 99.6 and 99.2 % of the total oil, respectively. The main constituents were 7-epi-α-eudesmol, (E-nerolidol, (E-caryophyllene, α-pinene, caryophyllene oxide, and δ-cadinen. Oxygenated sesquiterpens (43.7% and 48.2% followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3% and 32.7% were the main group of compound in the oil of the plant at vegetative and full flowering stages, respectively.

  12. Salvia broussonetii Benth.: aroma profile and micromorphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Basma; Pistelli, Luisa; Cervelli, Claudio; Fico, Gelsomina; Giuliani, Claudia

    2017-10-26

    The volatile profiles (VOC) and the essential oil (EO) composition from the aerial parts of Salvia broussonetii were analysed. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominate the VOCs from leaves (95.7%) and flowers (67.6%), followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (2.6 and 29.7%, respectively). The main common compounds are germacrene D, β-bourbonene, α-pinene, α-copaene and α-gurjunene, even if with divergent relative abundances. In the leaf EOs the sesquiterpenes prevail, even if not overwhelmingly (about 50.0%), followed by monoterpenes (23.0-35.0%) and by minor fractions of diterpene hydrocarbons and non-terpene derivates. The most abundant common compounds across the two sampling periods are α-pinene, β-pinene, isobornyl acetate, α-gurjenene, germacrene D and bifloratriene. A morphological characterisation of the trichomes responsible for the productivity in terpenes was also performed. Four different morphotypes were observed on the above ground organs of S. brussonetii: peltates and capitates of type II and III resulted the only producers of volatile substances.

  13. Evaluation of content of essential oil in selected Salvia L. Species / Hodnocení obsahu silice ve vybraných druzích rodu Salvia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neugebauerová J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salvia L. je aromatická rostlina, používaná v řadě průmyslových odvětví, včetně farmaceutického, kosmetického, potravinářského a je významná také v okrasném zahradnictví. Cílem této práce je zhodnocení obsahu silice v okrasných taxonech rodu Salvia L., které byly pěstovány na experimentálních plochách Zahradnické fakulty Mendelovy univerzity v Brně, v letech 2002-2004 a 2009-2012. Proměnlivost obsahu silice čtyřiceti dvou různých taxonů byly sledovány po dobu devíti let. Obsah silice byl stanoven pomocí destilace s vodní parou a vyjádřený v ml/kg. Nejnižší obsah byl, za celé období, shledán ve vzorku S. przewalskii, v roce 2010 (0,02 ml/kg a nejvyšší obsah ve vzorku S. officinalis ‚Extrakta‘, v roce 2004 (22,90 ml/kg. Výsledky hodnocení obsahu silice v rodu Salvia L. jsou v souladu s údaji uvedenými v literatuře, v případě porovnání poddruhů a odrůd Salvia officinalis L. Průměrný obsah silice se pohybuje v rozmezí 6,51-19,20 ml/kg.

  14. Chemical Composition of Salvia plebeian R.Br. Essential Oil and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Chemical Composition of Salvia plebeian R.Br. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract .... oil of Eucalyptus urophylla (LC50 = 95.5 μg/mL). [25]; essential oils from four Guarea species (G.

  15. Antioxidant, antiinflammatory activities and HPLC analysis of South African Salvia species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kamatou, GGP

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the methanol:chloroform (1:1) extracts of 16 Salvia species indigenous to South Africa were evaluated. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 2,20- azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic...

  16. The Association of Salvia divinorum and Psychotic Disorders: A Review of the Literature and Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Joseph; Sahakian, Nayiri

    2015-01-01

    The association of substance abuse and psychotic disorders is of interest to clinicians, academics, and lawmakers. Commonly abused substances, such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, and alcohol, have all been associated with substance-induced psychosis. Hallucinogens can induce desired psychedelic effects and undesirable psychomimetic reactions. These are usually transient and resolve once the duration of action is over. Sometimes, these effects persist, causing distress and requiring intervention. This article focuses on the hallucinogenic substance Salvia divinorum, the use of which has been observed, particularly among youth worldwide. We present background information based on a review of the literature and on our own clinical encounters, as highlighted by two original case reports. We hypothesize that consumption of Salvia divinorum could be associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We propose that clinicians routinely inquire about the use of Salvia in patients with substance use disorders or psychotic illnesses. More research is required to assess any relationship between Salvia divinorum and psychosis. Additionally, we advocate increased public and medical awareness of this substance and other emerging drugs of abuse.

  17. VARIATION IN FITNESS-RELATED CHARACTERS AMONG SMALL AND LARGE POPULATIONS OF SALVIA-PRATENSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUBORG, NJ; VANTREUREN, R

    1 The threatened perennial Salvia pratensis is restricted to a few isolated populations in the Netherlands, which vary in size from 10 to 1500 flowering individuals. Small populations are known to have significantly lower allozyme diversity than the large populations, probably as a consequence of

  18. Variation in Fitness-Related Characters among Small and Large Populations of Salvia-Pratensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouborg, N.J.; Van Treuren, R.

    1995-01-01

    1 The threatened perennial Salvia pratensis is restricted to a few isolated populations in the Netherlands, which vary in size from 10 to 1500 flowering individuals. Small populations are known to have significantly lower allozyme diversity than the large populations, probably as a consequence of

  19. Construction of full-length cDNA library of white flower Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to screen and isolate secondary metabolite biosynthesis related gene, we construct a cDNA library of white flower Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f.alba. High quality of total RNA was successfully isolated from roots of white flower S. miltiorrhiza using modified CTAB method. Double strand cDNA was cloned into pDNR-LIB ...

  20. Anti-thrombolytic effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge extract in rats | Tian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. extract (SMBE) on thrombosis in rats. Methods: SMBE was obtained in water at 60 oC in an oven and then freeze-drying. Rats were divided into 6 groups of ten rats each: normal group, control group, reference group (aspirin 5 mg/kg) as well as three groups of SMBE ...

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis, S. fruticosa, Melissa officinalis, and their infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couladis Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried leaves of commercially available Salvia officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, and Melissa officinalis were divided into two parts; the first part was subjected to hydrodistillation and the second part was used for the preparation of the infusions. The essential oil and the infusion of each sample were subjected to analysis by means of GC-FID and GC-MS. The oxygenated monoterpenes 1,8-cineole (27.5% and camphor (11.5% appeared as the most important metabolites in Salvia officinalis, α- and β-thujone (16.5%, 16.4%, followed by 1,8-cineole (8.8% were characterizing the essential oil of Salvia fruticosa, whereas in the oil of Melissa officinalis the sesquiterpene caryophyllene oxide (14.9% was the most abundant constituent, followed by geranial (12.2%, neral (11.2% and citronellal (6.7%. The infusions were characterized by the higher levels of the most important compounds found in the essential oil of the respective sample, as in the case of S. officinalis (1,8-cineol 53.6%, camphor 25.8% and S. fruticosa (α- thujone 61.2%, β-thujone 24.3%, 1,8-cineole 14.5%, while the infusion of M. officinalis was dominated by palmitic and stearic acid (25.5%, 19.5%.

  2. Anti-thrombolytic effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge extract in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. extract (SMBE) on thrombosis in rats. Methods: SMBE was obtained in water at 60 oC in an oven and then freeze-drying. Rats were divided into 6 groups of ten rats each: normal group, control group, reference group (aspirin 5 mg/kg) as well as three groups of SMBE ...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION-SIZE AND PLANT-DENSITY ON OUTCROSSING RATES IN LOCALLY ENDANGERED SALVIA-PRATENSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANTREUREN, R; BIJLSMA, R; OUBORG, NJ; VANDELDEN, W

    Multilocus outcrossing rates were estimated in natural and experimental populations of Salvia pratensis, an entomophilous, gynodioecious, protandrous perennial. Male steriles were used to check the estimation procedure of outcrossing rates in hermaphrodites. Estimates of outcrossing rates in

  4. Salvia officinalis L. extract and its new food antioxidant formulations induce apoptosis through mitochondrial/ caspase pathway in leukemia L1210 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantová Soňa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae is one of the most widespread herbal species used in the area of human health and in the foodprocessing industry. Salvia and its extracts are known to be a rich source of antioxidants. As shown previously, the crude ethanolic extract of salvia (SE exerts lower anti-oxidative properties in lard compared to the new salvia food formulations No. 1 (SF1; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Dimodan S-T and No. 2 (SF2; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Topcithin 50.

  5. Seletividade de sálvia (Salvia splendens ao herbicida oxyfluorfen veiculado à palha de arroz Selectivity of Salvia splendens to oxyfluorfen applied to rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F.L. Pivetta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas daninhas em canteiros de floríferas é um dos principais aspectos que interferem na manutenção dos jardins. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a possibilidade de veiculação do oxyfluorfen à palha de arroz e a seletividade da sálvia (Salvia splendens, uma das principais floríferas produzidas e comercializadas no Brasil, ao herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro quantidades de palha de arroz (0, 4, 6 e 8 t ha-1 combinadas com três doses do herbicida oxyfluorfen (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1. Observou-se que os tratamentos que levaram à veiculação do herbicida (nas duas doses testadas e nas três quantidades de palha apresentaram controle de plantas daninhas sem que efeitos fitotóxicos severos fossem observados nas plantas de sálvia. A pulverização direta do herbicida sobre o solo e as plantas de sálvia não se mostrou viável. O tratamento que proporcionou controle satisfatório de plantas daninhas sem causar danos às plantas de sálvia e que, por isso, pode ser recomendado foi o que recebeu o herbicida na dose de 2 L ha-1, veiculado a 4 t ha-1 de palha de arroz.Weed control is one of the main constrains to flower garden maintenance. This work aimed to study the possibility of translocating oxyfluorfen to rice straw and of selectivity of Salvia splendens, one of the main ornamental species produced and commercialized in Brazil, to the herbicide. A randomized block design was used in the factorial scheme 4 x 3, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of four amounts of rice straw (0, 4, 6 and 8 t ha-1 combined with three doses of oxyfluorfen (0, 1 and 2 L ha-1. The results showed that the treatments that led to translocation of the herbicide to rice straw showed great weed control, without any high phytotoxicty damage to the salvia plants. The treatment receiving g 4 L ha-1 of herbicide in 2

  6. Salvinorina A: terpeno alucinógeno presente en Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-Restrepo, Valentina; Taborda-Ocampo, Gonzalo; Garzón-Méndez, William

    2017-01-01

    Resumen. Tema y alcance: el objetivo de esta revisión es presentar los estudios químicos que se han realizado sobre Salvia divinorum E&J en estos últimos años. Características: desde la década de 1990 hasta hoy se ha incrementado la distribución y el uso de Salvia divinorum E&J para “fines recreativos”, debido a sus efectos alucinógenos y a su fácil acceso. Sus efectos en el organismo se han relacionado con las de otras sustancias como: delta-9- thc en la marihuana, dmt, lsd, mdma, pcp y keta...

  7. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  8. Exploring Triacylglycerol Biosynthetic Pathway in Developing Seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): A Transcriptomic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    R. V., Sreedhar; Kumari, Priya; Rupwate, Sunny D.; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome...

  9. Drinking of Salvia officinalis tea increases CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Cristóvão F.; Ferreira, Manuel Fernandes; Wilson, Cristina Pereira

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, the drinking of a Salvia officinalis tea (prepared as an infusion) for 14 days improved liver antioxidant status in mice and rats where, among other factors, an enhancement of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed. Taking in consideration these effects, in the present study the potential protective effects of sage tea drinking against a situation of hepatotoxicity due to free radical formation, such as that caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), were evalu...

  10. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Squalene Synthase 2(SQS2) in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    OpenAIRE

    Qixian Rong; Dan Jiang; Dan Jiang; Yijun Chen; Yijun Chen; Ye Shen; Qingjun Yuan; Huixin Lin; Liangping Zha; Yan Zhang; Luqi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge,which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine,is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In the presen...

  11. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Squalene Synthase 2(SQS2) in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Qixian; Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yijun; Shen, Ye; Yuan, Qingjun; Lin, Huixin; Zha, Liangping; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In th...

  12. Application of enzymatic methods for chia (Salvia hispanica L) oil extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Ciau-Solís; Gabriel Rosado-Rubio; Luis Chel Guerrero; David Betancur-Ancona

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim was to evaluate the use of different enzymatic treatments on the oil extraction yield from Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds Methods. Enzymatic extraction was performed by treating of whole and degummed chia flours with different conditions of enzyme concentration, pH and temperature. Commercial enzymes were employed: Viscozyme LTM (endo-1,3 (4)-betaglucanase) derived from Aspergillus aculeatus, with 100 FBG g (Beta Glucanase-unit Fungal) and Neutrase0.8LTM, neutral prote...

  13. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Sol?s, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submit...

  14. [Anticancer activity of Salvia officinalis essential oil against HNSCC cell line (UMSCC1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, S; Eichhorn, T; Plinkert, P K; Efferth, T

    2011-12-01

    Every year there are several hundred thousand new cases of oral cancer worldwide. Clinical oncology is still challenged by toxicity and side effects of multimodal therapy strategies in which is associated with poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to develop novel therapy strategies. As the majority of anticancer drugs are of natural origin, natural products represent a valuable source for the identification and development of novel treatment options for cancer. The aim of this investigation was to study the cytotoxicity of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) essential oil. Salvia officinalis essential oil was gained by aqueous extraction from plant material and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. The cytotoxicity of the essential oil on the squamous human cell carcinoma cell line of the oral cavity (UMSCC1) was assessed with the XTT assay. These experiments revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the essential oil. It was used in the microarray-based analysis of gene expression of UMSSC1 cells. The results were submitted to a signaling pathway analysis. The main constituents of Salvia officinalis essential oil include the monoterpenes thujone, β-pinene, and 1,8-cineol. Low concentrations of the essential oil increased vitality of the UMSCC1 cells. Beyond the concentration of the IC(50) of 135 µg/ml, sage essential oil reduced UMSSC1 cells viability to a minimum. In the microarray gene expression analysis, genes involved in cancer, cellular growth and proliferation, cell death, cell morphology, cell cycle, gene expression, and DNA repair were the most prominent. The three most significantly regulated pathways by sage were aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, cell cycle (G1/S checkpoint) regulation, and p53 signaling. To the best of our knowledge, this study suggests for the first time the ability of Salvia officinalis essential oil to inhibit human HNSCC cell growth. The therapeutic potential of sage essential oil

  15. Identification and characterization of the cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferase gene family in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Li; Caili Li; Shanfa Lu

    2018-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation is highly conserved epigenetic modification involved in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes. It was established and maintained by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases) in plants. Through genome-wide identification, eight putative SmC5-MTase genes were identified from the genome of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine material and an emerging model medicinal plant. Based on conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis, ei...

  16. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil From Salvia mirzayanii Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Pakshir, Keyvan; Karami, Forough; Sabahi, Zahra

    2017-10-01

    Resistance of many pathogens to available drugs is a global challenge and is leading to growing interest in natural alternative products. In this study, chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oil from Salvia mirzayanii were investigated. The chemical constituents of essential oil from S mirzayanii were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity was determined by broth microdilution. The main identified compounds were 1,8-cineole (41.2 ± 1.3%), linalool acetate (11.0 ± 0.5%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.0 ± 0.4%) (mL of essential oil/g of plant material). The MIC 95 were 0.03 to 0.5 µL/mL and 16 to 128 µL/mL for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results indicated that Salvia mirzayanii essential oil significantly inhibited the growth of standard and clinically isolated tested yeasts by MIC 50 0.03 to 1 µL/mL. Potent antibacterial and antifungal activities of Salvia mirzayanii essential oil may be considered in future study, particularly against antibiotic-resistant cases.

  17. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  18. Development of new microsatellite markers for Salvia officinalis L. and its potential use in conservation-genetic studies of narrow endemic Salvia brachyodon Vandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Ivan; Satovic, Zlatko; Jakse, Jernej; Javornik, Branka; Greguraš, Danijela; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Liber, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Nine new microsatellite markers (SSR) were isolated from Salvia officinalis L. A total of 125 alleles, with 8 to 21 alleles per locus, were detected in a natural population from the east Adriatic coast. The observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.46 to 0.83, 0.73 to 0.93 and 0.70 to 0.92, respectively. New microsatellite markers, as well as previously published markers, were tested for cross-amplification in Salvia brachyodon Vandas, a narrow endemic species known to be present in only two localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Out of 30 microsatellite markers tested on the natural S. brachyodon population, 15 were successfully amplified. To obtain evidence of recent bottleneck events in the populations of both species, observed genetic diversity (H(E)) was compared to the expected genetic diversity at mutation-drift equilibrium (H(EQ)) and calculated from the observed number of alleles using a two-phased mutation model (TPM). Recent bottleneck events were detected only in the S. brachyodon population. This result suggests the need to reconsider the current threat category of this endemic species.

  19. Novel use patterns of Salvia divinorum: unobtrusive observation using YouTube™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselman, Ivan; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-12-08

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND AIMS: The traditional use of the Hallucinogenic sage, Salvia divinorum has been of ethnopharmalogical interest for some time. This plant, endemic to Oaxaca Mexico and traditionally used by the Mazatec, is now utilized worldwide for its psychoactive effects. This use demonstrates a novel use pattern which is distinctly different from Mazatec use. This study offers a new methodology to study emerging global plant use and assesses the users' experience with it. The aim of this research was to develop a new methodology to collect and analyze archived data on the World Wide Web, specifically videos which depict Salvia divinorum use. The basis of the methodology for this project was unobtrusive observation which allows the researcher to observe without influencing the event which is being observed. Qualitative, ethnographic data was used in conjunction with quantitative meta data collected by a customized web crawler programed to archive YouTube™ data. Using this methodology enabled us to understand reported uses and the users' experiences as expressed on the World Wide Web. The main result of this research was the documentation of a distinct, novel use pattern of Salvia divinorum which has developed outside of Oaxaca; a use pattern which differs in a number of ways from traditional, Mazatec use. The majority of the YouTube™ videos analyzed were found to present indications of a positive Salvia divinorum experience. This result highlighted the contradiction between ethnographic data and what is reported by the media. Finally the representation of Salvia divinorum on YouTube™ (and by inference the WWW as a whole) is a growing phenomena. While anthropological and more specifically medico-anthropological research has, for many years, embraced the dynamics of cultures, until recently, ethnopharmalogical research has generally focused on 'traditional' plant use, failing to capture the dynamic elements of plant/human interaction and

  20. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  1. Molecular docking and ex vivo and in vitro anticholinesterase activity studies of Salvia sp. and highlighted rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirezer, Lütfiye Ömür; Gürbüz, Perihan; Kelicen Uğur, Emine Pelin; Bodur, Mine; Özenver, Nadire; Uz, Ayse; Güvenalp, Zühal

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of the major molecule from Salvia sp., rosmarinic acid, as a drug candidate molecule for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). The AChE inhibitory activity of different extracts from Salvia trichoclada, Salvia verticillata, and Salvia fruticosa was determined by the Ellman and isolated guinea pig ileum methods, and the antioxidant capacity was determined with DPPH. The AChE inhibitory activity of the major molecule rosmarinic acid was determined by in silico docking and isolated guinea pig ileum methods. The methanol extract of Salvia trichoclada showed the highest inhibition on AChE. The same extract and rosmarinic acid showed significant contraction responses on isolated guinea pig ileum. All the extracts and rosmarinic acid showed high radical scavenging capacities. Docking results of rosmarinic acid showed high affinity to the selected target, AChE. In this study in vitro and ex vivo studies and in silico docking research of rosmarinic acid were used simultaneously for the first time. Rosmarinic acid showed promising results in all the methods tested.

  2. WORLD GRAIN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mary Bălan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain is part of agricultural commodities and is of utmost importance for world agriculture,since it is the essential element of food and animal feed. Against this background, grain trade among countries of the world is dynamic and represents about 10% of global trade in food products.This article examines global grain trade both in terms of quantitative and qualitative developments, and highlights the most important competitor countries in this sector. It also details the patterns of grain trade for the world's main exporters and importers of such commodities.Two distinct sections of the research relate to the evolution of the primary grain quotations(wheat, corn, barley, rice and sorghum at the most representative international agricultural commodities markets (Chicago Board of Trade, based on a comprehensive statistical analysis, and the short-term forecasts for global grain trade, respectively.

  3. Clinical study of adjuvant therapy on ischemic stroke with salviae miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Qin Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant therapy with salviae miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine injection on neural function injury, degree of oxidative stress reaction, chemotactic factor and adhesion molecule in patients with ischemic stroke. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke admitted in our hospital from August 2013 to October 2015 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into conventional treatment (CT group receiving conventional treatment and traditional Chinese medicine auxiliary (TCMA group receiving adjuvant therapy with salviae miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine injection. After the treatment of the first month and the third month, serum was collected to detect the contents of nerve injury molecules, oxidative stress parameters, chemotactic factor and adhesion molecule. Results: After the 4-week treatment, the contents of serum neuron specific enolase, S100 calcium-binding protein B, heart-type fatty acid binding protein, malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, CD40, CD40 ligand, vascular endothelial cadherin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 in patients of TCMA group were all significantly lower than those of CT group, and the contents of superoxidase dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly higher than those of CT group. After the 8-week treatment, the contents of serum neuron specific enolase, S100 calcium-binding protein B, heart-type fatty acid binding protein, malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, CD40, CD40 ligand, vascular endothelial cadherin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 in patients of TCMA group were all significantly lower than those of CT group and the contents of superoxidase dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were

  4. Mechanistic studies of antiproliferative effects of Salvia triloba and Salvia dominica (Lamiaceae) on breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Dahab, Rana; Abdallah, Maha R; Kasabri, Violet; Mhaidat, Nizar M; Afifi, Fatma U

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts obtained from two Salvia species, S. triloba and S. dominica, collected from the flora of Jordan, were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines by the sulforhodamine B assay. The ethanol extracts were biologically active with IC50 values of (29.89 ±0.92) and (38.91 ±2.44) μg/mL for S. triloba against MCF7 and T47D cells, respectively, and (5.83 ±0.51) and (12.83 ±0.64) μg/mL for S. dominica against MCF7 and T47D cells, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis and the annexinV-propidium iodide (PI) assay revealed apoptosismediated, and to a lesser extent necrosis-induced, cell death by the S. triloba and S. dominica ethanolic extracts in T47D cells. The mechanism of apoptosis was further investigated by determining the levels of p53, p21/WAF1, FasL (Fas ligand), and sFas (Fas/APO-1). The extract from S. triloba induced a more pronounced enrichment in cytoplasmic mono- and oligonucleosomes than that from S. dominica (p T47D cells. In response to the extract from S. dominica, but not from S. triloba, the proapoptotic efficacy was specifically regulated by p21. Extracts from both Salvia spp. did not enhance p53 levels, and apoptosis induced by them was not caspase-8- or sFas/FasL-dependent. Thus, our findings indicate that S. triloba and S. dominica ethanolic extracts may be useful in breast cancer management/treatment via proapoptotic cytotoxic mechanisms.

  5. Presolar Grains in Indarch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Nittler, L. R.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.

    1995-09-01

    We report results for the EH(4) Indarch. Earlier work [1] found 20 micrometers clumps of sub-micron SiC whose presolar nature was inferred from step-wise combustion, noble gas [2], and ion probe isotopic measurements. Our results indicate that the clumps were an artifact of sample preparation. Our sample was first cleaned using 6N HCl, and water and isopropanol rinses, then powdered and reacted with HCl-HF/HCl, KOH, and H3BO3-HCl/HCl giving a C-rich residue 1.14 wt.% of the original. X-ray mapping showed SiC grains and 5x as many Si3N4 grains, but no fine-grained clumps. Large (6 micrometers to 20 micrometers) C-rich spheroids were also present. The sample was further treated with KOH/HNO3 and NH3H2O; attempts to do density-separates were unsuccessful. An aliquot was treated with perchloric acid and separated into 1 micrometer fractions. SEM-EDS measurements of 73 (1 micrometer) grains with the addition of 2 spinel and one Al2O3 grains. The whole rock concentration of SiC was 5.8 ppm, higher than previous determinations [1,3,9]. Confirming earlier suggestions [1,2], we find that SiC in Indarch is much finer-grained than in Murchison; about 2/3 of the mass is in grains size-sorting in the nebula or selective destruction of fine-grained material. Ion probe measurements of 22 (1-3 micrometers) grains gave isotopic results in the range previously measured for Murchison SiCs [4]. Several normal Si3N4 grains (>1 micron) were measured; probably exsolution products similar to those in Qingzhen [7]. Ion mapping was used to search for presolar oxide grains using previously developed techniques [5]. Seven candidate grains out of ~1000 were found. Multiple imaging confirmed an ^(16)O/^(18)O anomaly in one spinel grain - the first presolar oxide found in an E chondrite. Although the proportion of oxide grains relative to SiC is smaller, the fraction of anomalous oxide grains is not strikingly different in Indarch than in Murchison (1/1000) or Tieschitz (1/300). Prior ion probe

  6. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Salvia Palaestina Bentham growing in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq A.

    2007-01-01

    The aerial parts of Salvia Palaestina Bentham (Lamiaceae) on steam distillation afforded an essential oil, which was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Out of thirty-eight peaks (representing 99.2% of the oil), thirty-four components representing 97.1% of the total oil composition were identified. The major components were sclareol (26.8%), b-caryophyllene (16.9%), linalool (7.8%), guaiol (5.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.2%). The oil was tested against seven Gram positive and negative bacteria and two pathogenic fungi, to exhibit an interesting antimicrobial profile. (author)

  7. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of the species Salvia officinalis L. and its synergistic action with the preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in vitro against selected food spoiling bacteria. Synergism was assessed by the checkerboard assay method and quantitatively represented by the FIC index. Synergistic action was established for aqueous extract/sodium benzoate, aqueous extract/potassium sorbate, aqueous extract/sodium nitrite combinations. Synergism was detected in relation to: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus sp. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding up to 1/8 MIC values.

  8. FAT COMPOSITION AND FATTY ACID CHARACTERIZATION OF CHIA SEED (Salvia hispánica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Quelal, María; Reinoso García, María; Vásquez Castillo, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    The alterations of the lipid metabolism and the uncertainty at the moment of selecting beneficial foods to the human body lead to the investigation of omega fatty acids. The study is based on the evaluation of the effect of three preparation methods of chía seed, before getting the oil through two extraction methods and the characterization of the lipid fraction of chia seed (Salvia hispánica L.) from Colta-Ecuador. The oil yield of the conditioned seeds showed statistical differences. Regard...

  9. [Study on purification process of depsides in Salvia miltiorrhiza with macroporous resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-chun; Wu, Qing; Li, Ji-xiang

    2007-06-01

    To study the technological parameters of the purification process of Depsides in Salvia miltiorrhiza with macroporous resin. The adsorptive characteristics and eluting parameters of the process were studied by taking the content of depsides as index. 85 mL of extractive of depsides (1.25 g x mL(-1)) was purified with a column of macroreticular resin ( Phi30 mm,127 mL) and washed with 4 BV of distilled water, the eluted with 4 BV of 80% ethanol (1% ammonia). This process of applying macroporous resin to adsorb and purify depsides in S. miltiorrhiza is feasible.

  10. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Azar; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sadeghnia, Hamid-Reza

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Methods Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) root and normal saline (10 ml/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior repe...

  11. Grains and Starchy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Every time you choose to eat a starchy food, make it count! Leave the processed white flour-based products, especially the ones with added ... wheat grain is ground up. "Refined" flours like white and enriched wheat flour include only ... whole grain foods can be a challenge. Some foods only contain ...

  12. All About the Grains Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grains All about the Grains Group Print Share What foods are in the Grains Group? Any food made ... Whole Grains Food Gallery Take the Grains Quiz What Is MyPlate? Food Guide History MyPlate, MyWins Fruits All About the ...

  13. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  14. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Fourty Five Salvia Species by Thermal Desorption-GC-MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Damla Hatipoglu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOC from dried aerial parts (flowers, leafs, leafy branches and stems of fourty five Salvia species, harvested from different regions of Turkey, were determined using thermal desorption technique coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS. Total percentages of the detected volatile organic compounds of the Salvia species ranged from 70.30 to 99.65% . Total yield of VOC was found to be highly variable among Salvia species, and the percentage of each component also exhibited high variation. While sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 0.90-45.02% of the volatile organic compounds, the others were found to be monoterpene hydrocarbons 0.00-32.25%, monoterpenoids 0.94- 53.60%, sesquiterpenoids 0.00- 31.45% and hydrocarbons and derivatives 2.99-46.87%. The rest of the composition consisted of diterpene alcohols, fatty acids, phenolics and triterpenes. In total, 108 volatile compounds were identified from studied 45 Anatolian Salvia species.

  15. Groeiremming als middel voor productie van visueel aantrekkelijke vaste planten : fosfaatvoeding als groeiremmer bij Salvia en Delphinium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aendekerk, T.G.L.

    2007-01-01

    Het onderzoek in de teelt naar gedrongen kwalitatief goede vaste planten is in 2006 gestart op het PPO op de locatie Lisse. In dit onderzoek wordt getracht het gewenste fosfaatniveau vast te stellen voor Delphinium cultorum ‘Dark Blue/White Bee' en Salvia nemorosa ‘Blaukoenigin’ om de groei te

  16. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components

  17. Interstellar grain chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, V.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter discusses the chemical evolution and composition of dust in dense interstellar clouds. Studies use observations in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. These grains are thought to be made largely of highly disordered and/or composite materials. Recently acquired data on Halley's comet and on the structure, composition and spectral properties of interplanetary dust particles (IDP) are used to study grain chemistry. These substances are though to be similar to dense cloud dust. Dense clouds are thought to contain minerals, poorly crystallized carbonaceous/organic polymers, coating mineral grains and dirty ice mantles and the chemistry of these substances is considered. (UK)

  18. Salvia divinorum: from Mazatec medicinal and hallucinogenic plant to emerging recreational drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Wojcieszak, Jakub

    2013-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a sage endemic to a small region of Mexico and has been traditionally used by the Mazatec Indians for divination and spiritual healing. Recently, it has gained increased popularity as a recreational drug, used by adolescents and young adults as an alternative to marijuana and LSD. Salvinorin A, the major active ingredient of the plant, is considered to be the most potent known hallucinogen of natural origin. This review surveys the current state of knowledge on the neurochemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological properties of salvinorin A, the trends and motivation behind S. divinorum use, and the health problems among users of the plant's products. S. divinorum induces intense, but short-lived, psychedelic-like changes in mood and perception, with concomitant hallucinations and disorientation. Many websites have misinterpreted the limited existing research-based information on the side effects of salvia as evidence for its safety. However, data accumulated over the last few years indicate that potential health risks are associated with the use of S. divinorum, especially by teenagers, users of other substances of abuse, and individuals with underlying psychotic disturbances. Taken together, the data presented in this review point to the need for further basic and clinical studies to create a basis for the development of well-addressed prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Antioxidant compounds in Salvia officinalis L. shoot and hairy root cultures in the nutrient sprinkle bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the production of compounds with antioxidant activity in hairy root and shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis grown in laboratory-scale sprinkle nutrient bioreactors. HPLC analysis showed that production of rosmarinic acid in transformed roots (34.65 ±1.07 mg l-1 was higher that in shoot culture (26.24 ±0.48 mg l-1. In the latter diterpenoids: carnosic acid (1.74 ±0.02 mg l-1 and carnosol (1.34 ±0.01 mg l-1 were also found. Biomass accumulation after a growth period in the bioreactor was also studied. An 18-fold increase in hairy root biomass was recorded after 40 days of culture. In sage shoot culture, biomass increased 43 times after 21 days of bioreactor run. The current operating conditions of the bioreactor were not suitable for the propagation of Salvia officinalis mainly due to the hyperhydricity problem of leaves and stems.

  20. Inhibition of the initiation stage of carcinogenesis by Salvia disermas constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawas, Usama W; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; El-Toumy, Sayed A A; Meyer, J J Marion; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical studies of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Salvia disermas resulted in the isolation of seven known compounds, rosmarinic (1) and caffeic (2) acids, salvigenin (3), luteolin (4), luteolin 7-O-beta-arabinoside (5), luteolin 7-O-beta-glucoside (6), and ocotillol II (7). The initiation stage of carcinogenesis is triggered by activation of procarcinogens by phase I enzymes, such as cytochrome P-450 1A, and oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage. The initiation stage is countered by phase II detoxification enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases (GST), quinine reductase (QR), epoxide hydrolase (mEH) besides conjugation with thiols. We aimed to investigate the cancer chemopreventive and tumour anti-initiating activity of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Salvia disermas and its constituents. The S. disermas extract was a promising inhibitor of CYP1A activity, inducer of GST, QR, and mEH activities, enhancer of thiol content, radical scavenger, and inhibitor of DNA damage. On the other hand, 3 was an enhancer of thiol content and QR activity, while 4 was an inhibitor of CYP1A activity, inducer of QR activity, and radical scavenger of ROO*, and 5 was an inducer of GST activity and inhibitor of DNA damage. The present study indicated that the ethanolic extract of S. disermas and 4 are promising anti-initiating and multipotent blocking agents.

  1. Genomic survey of bZIP transcription factor genes related to tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinones are a class of bioactive components in the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis and regulation have been widely studied. Current studies show that basic leucine zipper (bZIP proteins regulate plant secondary metabolism, growth and developmental processes. However, the bZIP transcription factors involved in tanshinone biosynthesis are unknown. Here, we conducted the first genome-wide survey of the bZIP gene family and analyzed the phylogeny, gene structure, additional conserved motifs and alternative splicing events in S. miltiorrhiza. A total of 70 SmbZIP transcription factors were identified and categorized into 11 subgroups based on their phylogenetic relationships with those in Arabidopsis. Moreover, seventeen SmbZIP genes underwent alternative splicing events. According to the transcriptomic data, the SmbZIP genes that were highly expressed in the Danshen root and periderm were selected. Based on the prediction of bZIP binding sites in the promoters and the co-expression analysis and co-induction patterns in response to Ag+ treatment via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, we concluded that SmbZIP7 and SmbZIP20 potentially participate in the regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis. These results provide a foundation for further functional characterization of the candidate SmbZIP genes, which have the potential to increase tanshinone production. KEY WORDS: bZIP genes, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Phylogenetic analysis, Expression pattern analysis, Tanshinone biosynthesis

  2. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content in Different Salvia officinalis L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants to improve health is an ancient practice and in recent years it has been observed an increasing interest of scientific researchers for the study of plants with biological properties and active principles responsible for their therapeutic effects. Salvia officinalis L. is considered the queen of herbs and belongs to the Lamiaceae (Labiatae family. Due to the increasing interest in plants health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize various extracts of Romanian sage regarding their content in compounds with antioxidant activity. Three different techniques and five solvents were used for extraction of bioactive compounds from Salvia officinalis L. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of plant extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and respectively by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Methanolic extract exhibited the highest content in phenolic compound (1974.89 mg GAE/100g dw as well ass the strongest antioxidant capacity (85.12%.

  3. Phytochemical Characterization and Biological Evaluation of the Aqueous and Supercritical Fluid Extracts from Salvia sclareoides Brot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae are known to have a wide range of biological properties. In this work, extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Salvia sclareoides Brot. were evaluated to investigate their chemical composition, toxicity, bioactivity, and stability under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The composition of the supercritical fluid extract was determined by GC and GC-MS, while the identification of the infusion constituents was performed by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both extracts (0-2 mg/mL was evaluated in Caco-2 cell lines by the MTT assay. The anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterase activities were determined through the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, while β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test and the DPPH assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The infusion inhibited cyclooxygenase-1 (IC50 = 271.0 μg/mL, and acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 487.7 μg/ mL enzymes, also demonstrated significant antioxidant properties, as evaluated by the DPPH (IC50 = 10.4 μg/mL and β-carotene/linoleic acid (IC50 = 30.0 μg/mL assays. No remarkable alterations in the composition or in the bioactivities of the infusion were observed after in vitro digestion, which supports the potential of S. sclareoides as a source of bioactive ingredients with neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  4. Chemotaxonomy and flavonoid diversity of Salvia L.(Lamiaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the chemotaxonomic status and chemical diversity of Salvia L. species in Iran using leaf flavonoid profiles. From natural habitats in the country, we collected samples of 14 species of the genus: S. spinosa L.; S. macrosiphon Boiss.; S. reuterana Boiss.; S. sharifii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. nemorosa L.; S. virgata Jacq.; S. syriaca L.; S. mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. atropatana Bunge; S. limbata C. A. Mey; S. sclarea L.; S. ceratophylla L.; S. multicaulis Vahl.; and S. hydrangea Dc. ex Benth. Two-dimensional maps of these species were created with thin-layer chromatography. In order to study the taxonomic position of these species and 37 accessions, cluster analysis was applied. The results of the cluster analysis showed that S. spinosa was distinct from S. reuterana. Despite considerable morphological similarity between S. nemorosa and S. virgata, those two species are definitely distinguished. In addition, S. spinosa and S. macrosiphon were roughly grouped, whereas S. ceratophylla and S. multicaulis composed two separate groups. In the 14 species collected, the flavonoids identified were flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols and chalcones. We found that flavonoids are appropriate indicators to determine the taxonomic position of Salvia species.

  5. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  6. Chemical classification of the essential oils of the Iranian Salvia species in comparison with their botanical taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Asadollahi, Mojtaba; Masroor, Mahdi; Schuman, Meredith C; Mehdizadeh, Zeynab; Soleimani, Mahboobeh; Miri, Ramin

    2012-07-01

    The essential oils of eight Salvia species collected from different localities in Iran were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The analytical results were compared with those previously published for related Iranian sage species in order to identify chemical markers for these species. Salvia eremophila, S. hypoleuca, and S. reuteriana are endemic, while S. atropatana, S. chloroleuca, S. santolinifolia, S. aegyptiaca, and S. macrosiphon also grow wild in neighboring countries. We categorized the Iranian Salvia species into four main chemotypes according to their essential-oil constituents: those which are dominated by 1) monoterpenes, 2) mono- and sesquiterpenes, or 3) sesquiterpenes as the major constituents, and 4) those containing low-molecular-weight acids, aldehydes, and esters, and green-leaf volatiles (GLVs). Likely due to the chemical diversity of different Salvia chemotypes, this categorization was supported by principal component analysis (PCA) for the group sampled here, but not for the values reported in the literature. We identified the following chemical markers: α-pinene, β-pinene, 1,8-cineol, linalool, and borneol in monoterpene-rich species, or β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, spathulenol, and caryophyllene oxide in sesquiterpene-rich species. Among these, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and germacrene D are the most common and abundant in the Salvia species investigated. In accordance with their close biological taxonomy, the chemical similarity of the essential oils of S. santolinifolia and S. eremophila is so high that we may consider them chemically identical. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%–80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route.

  8. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of many nutrients: B vitamins (thiamin (Vitamin B1), riboflavin (Vitamin B2), niacin (Vitamin B3) and folate (Vitamin ... be the first ingredient listed. Choose whole grain foods that contain one of the following ingredients first ...

  9. Fine Grain Aluminum Superplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Continua on ravaraa sida H nacaaaary and identify by block numbar) Superplastic aluminum, Superplasticity, Superplastic forming. High strength aluminum...size. The presence of precipitate particles also acts to impede grain boundary migration during recrystallization, further aiding in maintaining a

  10. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    complexion transitions occur often in doped titanates, such as BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, and have been utilized to tailor microstructural develop- ment [275,276...Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 Despite decades of research, efforts to identify grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals via...evidence suggesting grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals has existed for decades. For example, researchers have reported anomalies and

  11. Diversidad y distribución del género Salvia (Lamiaceae en Michoacán, México Diversity and distribution of the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Cornejo-Tenorio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la riqueza y distribución de las especies de Salvia en los municipios del estado de Michoacán con datos florísticos y ecológicos para cada especie. Con base en trabajo de campo y revisión de ejemplares depositados en los herbarios CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU y MO, se registraron 64 especies nativas de Salvia en Michoacán. El 67.2% de éstas son endémicas de México y 4 (6.2% del área de estudio. Salvia iodantha Fernald y S. mexicana L. fueron las especies con más ejemplares herborizados (140 y 134, respectivamente. Los bosques que albergan el mayor número de especies (40 fueron el de Pinus-Quercus y el de Quercus, en un intervalo altitudinal de 1 500 a 3 000 m. Morelia fue el municipio con más especies registradas (34. En cuanto a las formas de crecimiento, predominan las hierbas perennes o arbustos (86%. El 76.5% de las especies tiene flores azules y/o moradas. La floración se presenta todo el año, con una actividad máxima en octubre. Se sugiere que en un futuro cercano se incremente la exploración florística del género Salvia en Michoacán, especialmente en sus áreas protegidas y en la sierra Madre del Sur.This paper presents the richness and distribution by municipality of Salvia species in the state of Michoacán, floristic and ecological data are included. Based on herbarium specimens deposited in CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU, and MO, as well as collecting trips, 64 native species of Salvia were recognized in the study area. Endemic species to Mexico and Michoacán reached 67.2% and 6.2%, respectively. Salvia iodantha Fernald and S. mexicana L. were species with most herbarium specimens (140 and 134, respectively. The vegetation types with most species (40 were Pinus-Quercus and Quercus forests. The highest number of species occurred between 1 500 and 3 000 m. The municipality with the most Salvia species recorded was Morelia (34 species. Perennial herbs and shrubs were the most common growth

  12. Comparison of the effect of aromatherapy with Jasminum officinale and Salvia officinale on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Maghbool, Shahla; Azima, Sara; Tabaei, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using non-pharmacological pain relief methods for reducing labor pain has always been one of the major concerns in obstetrics and gynecology. Objective: Comparing the effects of aromatherapy with jasmine and salvia on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 156 nulliparous women in labor were randomly selected and divided into salvia, jasmine, and control groups (52 in each group). The study duration was 6 mon...

  13. grain-filling, chlorophyll content in relation with grain yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    number of fertile tillers nor number of grains per m². Grain weight is, however, reduced (Hochman,. 1982) due to a shortening of the grain filling period resulting from accelerated senescence. A long duration of grain filling is often an indicator of photosynthetic activity optimum, but a high velocity of filling is indicative of water.

  14. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity ofSalvia chloroleucaAerial Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh

    2016-08-01

    Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech . f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca . Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca . The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study indicated that S. chloroleuca could be an important dietary

  15. Analysis of Active Components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Injection Based on Vascular Endothelial Cell Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI. HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  16. Salvia divinorum: an hallucinogenic mint which might become a new recreational drug in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, C; Felber, F; Augsburger, M; Horisberger, B; Rivier, L; Mangin, P

    2000-08-14

    Salvia divinorum Epling & Jativa is an hallucinogenic mint traditionally used for curing and divination by the Mazatec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico. Young people from Mexican cities were reported to smoke dried leaves of S. divinorum as a marijuana substitute. Recently, two S. divinorum specimens were seized in a large-scale illicit in-door and out-door hemp plantation. Salvinorin A also called divinorin A, a trans-neoclerodane diterpene, was identified in several organic solvent extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The botanical identity of the plant was confirmed by comparing it to an authentic herbarium specimen. More plants were then discovered in Swiss horticulturists greenhouses. All these data taken together suggest that many attempts exist in Switzerland to use S. divinorum as a recreational drug. This phenomenon may be enhanced because neither the magic mint, nor its active compound are banned substances listed in the Swiss narcotic law.

  17. Pharmacological activity of salvinorin A, the major component of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listos, Joanna; Merska, Alicja; Fidecka, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum (i.e., "magic mint") is a member of the Sage family that has been historically used for divination and shamanism by the Mazatecs. Today, S. divinorum has become increasingly popular as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic effects. The non-nitrogenous diterpene, salvinorin A, the major active component of S. divinorum, is responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of this plant. Here, we described the behavioral effects of salvinorin A in animals including the addictive, antinociception and antidepressant properties of the drug. The present paper also demonstrates the not well recognized (or unclear) mechanisms of action of salvinorin A. The last part of the paper presents information about the legal status of S. divinorum and its derivatives. Taking into account the increasing popularity and consumption of salvinorin A and S. divinorum today, it is important to collect all data on the pharmacological profile of this plant and its products.

  18. Application of enzymatic methods for chia (Salvia hispanica L oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ciau-Solís

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to evaluate the use of different enzymatic treatments on the oil extraction yield from Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds Methods. Enzymatic extraction was performed by treating of whole and degummed chia flours with different conditions of enzyme concentration, pH and temperature. Commercial enzymes were employed: Viscozyme LTM (endo-1,3 (4-betaglucanase derived from Aspergillus aculeatus, with 100 FBG g (Beta Glucanase-unit Fungal and Neutrase0.8LTM, neutral protease with 0.8 AU-NH/g of activity, derived from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Results. All treatments of enzymatic oil extraction were different (P <0.05 and the maximum oil yield obtained was 9.35%. Conclusion. Oil extraction using enzymatic methods is not a viable for chia seed

  19. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial, eco-friendly edible nanocomposite films containing Salvia macrosiphon and nanoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davachi, Seyed Mohammad; Shekarabi, Azadeh Sadat

    2018-02-17

    Nowadays, food security is a vital issue and antimicrobial packaging could play an important role in this matter. In this regard, Salvia macrosiphon seed mucilage (SSM) and nanoclay, as new sources for the production of food-grade edible films were investigated. These edible films were prepared by incorporation of SSM with glycerol and different percentage of nanoclay. Upon addition of nanoclay up to 2% physical, mechanical and thermal properties were considerably improved and the composite films showed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP), as well as highest elongation at break and tensile strength. The nanocomposite edible films also showed antibacterial activity due to the SSM nature. Addition of nanoclay, increased the hydrophobicity, which makes the films great alternatives for food packaging. This study revealed that these novel antimicrobial edible films could be a promising packaging option for a wide range of food products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Absorption and isolation of macroporous resin for five salvianolic acids from Salviae mitiorrhizae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Jing-Bo; Li, Lin; Jin, Yue

    2008-05-01

    To study the adsorption of the macroporous resin for the five salvianolic acids (danshen su, rosmarinic acid, protocate chualdehyde, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, extracted from Salviae mitiorrhizae. The five salvianolic acids were employed as an index, and the change of them in the static and dynamic absorbent was detected by HPLC, respectively. HP20 resin was a suitable marcoporous resin to purify salvianolic acids. The dynamic adsorption capacity of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B and salvianolic acid A was 30.506 mg x g(-1) (dry resin), 36.996 mg x g(-1), (dry resin), 43.85 mg x g(-1) (dry resin) respectively. It is not suitable that danshensu and protocate chualdehyde are the evaluation indexes for using 8 macroporous resins to purify salvianolic acids.

  1. [In situ extraction effect of macroporous resins on tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lin

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the in situ extraction effect of macroporous resins on tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root. Macroporous resins were added to S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture and the contents of three major tanshinones (crypotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A)) in root, medium and resin were analyzed by HPLC. The macroporous resin X - 5 had the best adsorption effect on total tanshinones among three chosen resins (X - 5, AB - 8, XAD - 4) during the S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture. The adsorption reached equilibrium after four hours with the addition of the resin X -5. The saturation of X - 5 on total tanshinones was 1.2 mg g)-1) resin and the adsorption ratio reached 92.4%. The macroporous resin X -5 could extract tanshinones in situ effectively during S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture and simplify the further separation process.

  2. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry. PMID:26904622

  3. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential Oil of Salvia chrysophylla Staph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Duru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Staph (Lamiaceae, endemic to Turkey, was investigated by using GC and GC-MS. Fifty-four of 55 components, represented 99.52% of the total oil were identified. The major components of the essential oil were found to be α-terpinenyl acetate (36.31%, β-caryophyllene (15.29%, linalool (8.12% and β-elemene (4.26%. The antioxidant activity of the oil was investigated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. Anticholinesterase activity was screened against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s diseases. The essential oil showed weak antioxidant activity. However, at 1 mg/mL concentration, the essential oil exhibited mild acetylcholinesterase (52.5±2.0% and modarate butyrylcholinesterase (76.5±2.7% inhibitory activity.

  4. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  5. In vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis L. as a source of antioxidant compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in different materials from differentiated (multiple shoot cultures and regenerated plants and undifferentiated (callus and cell suspension in vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis were determined by HPLC. The results suggested that diterpenoid (carnosic acid and carnosol production is closely related to shoot differentiation. The highest diterpenoid yield (11.4 mg g-1 for carnosic acid and 1.1 mg g-1 for carnosol was achieved in shoots of 10-week-old micropropagated plants. The levels were comparable to those found in shoots of naturally growing plants. Undifferentiated callus and cell suspension cultures produced only very low amounts of carnosol (ca. 0.05 mg g-1 of dry weight. In contrast, content of rosmarinic acid in callus and suspension cultures as well as shoots growing in vitro and in vivo was similar and ranged between 11.2 and 18.6 mg g-1 of dry weight.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  7. Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Celli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica, an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  8. Chemical composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L. essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Porte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L. from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, for international trade. The oil was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed through a combination of GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield was 2.3 % on dry basis. Forty-seven constituents were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra, corresponding to 94.90 % of the compounds present. The major constituents of the oil were α-thujone (40.90 %, camphor (26.12 %, α-pinene (5.85 % and β-thujone (5.62 %. The essential oil studied was similar to those found in several European countries and can be a valuable product for the small farmers from the Petrópolis region in Rio de Janeiro State.

  9. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  10. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  11. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  12. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Salvia leriifolia Benth (Lamiaceae) extract demonstrates in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Conforti, Filomena; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Nadjafi, Farsad; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Salvia leriifolia Benth extracts and fractions. The functional role of herbs and spices and their constituents is a hot topic in food-related plant research. Salvia species have been used since ancient times in folk medicine for cognitive brain function and have been subjected to extensive research. Thus, we hypothesize that S leriifolia, because of its functional properties, would be a good candidate to use as a nutraceutical product for improving memory in the elderly or patients affected by Alzheimer disease (ad). To test this hypothesis, we examined the cholinesterase inhibitory activity using the modified colorimetric Ellman's method against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The n-hexane exhibited the highest activity, with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 0.59 and 0.21 mg/mL, for AChE and BChE, respectively. This extract was fractionated, and 9 of these fractions (A-I) were obtained and tested. Fraction G, characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes as major components, was the most active against AChE (IC(50) = 0.05 mg/mL). Because oxidative stress is a critical event in the pathogenesis of AD, we decided to screen the antioxidant activity (AA) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test, β-carotene bleaching test, and bovine brain peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid) assay. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity, with IC(50) values of 2 and 33 μg/mL on β-carotene bleaching test and thiobarbituric acid test, respectively. These results suggest potential health benefits of S leriifolia extracts. However, this finding requires additional investigation in vivo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mirazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided in five groups. Control, propylthiouracil (PTU in 4 groups + SOE. The animals were induced hypothyroidism by administration of PTU 0.1% orally in tap water for 14 days. The blood samples were collected and T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed. Hypothyroid groups were divided into 4 groups and received (PTU+ SOE 40 mg/kg +levothyroxine sodium, 15mcg/kg, orally in tap water and LV+ SOE. All test groups were treated with SOE and levothyroxine sodium for one week. The blood samples were col-lected and for T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed at the end of the 3rd week. All data were expressed as mean ± SEM and all statistical procedures were performed by MANOVA test.Results: Our results showed that the T3 & T4 plasma levels in hypothyroid animals treated by SOE had significant differences (P<0.05 compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the SOE has stimulatory effect on thyroid gland func-tion and raises plasma T3 & T4 levels.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:27-35

  15. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R V, Sreedhar; Kumari, Priya; Rupwate, Sunny D; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34%) and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research and

  16. Floral diversity and pollen transfer mechanisms in bird-pollinated Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Petra; Classen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-08-01

    Bird-pollinated (ornithophilous) Salvia species (sages) transfer pollen either by means of a staminal lever mechanism or by immovable stamens. As the distribution of the two modes within the genus is not known, we present a survey of all ornithophilous sages. The main focus is given to floral diversity especially with respect to functional lever morphology. Thereby the hypothesis is tested that, due to a pollinator shift from bees to birds, the lever mechanism became unnecessary. To get a general idea about the diversity of pollen transfer mechanisms, 186 ornithophilous Salvia species were classified according to the functional morphology of the stamen and the need for a lever movement. To test the functionality of the staminal levers and the fitting between flowers and birds the process of pollen transfer was examined by pollinator observations and tested by inserting museum skins and metal rods into fresh flowers. The diversity of pollen transfer mechanisms is represented by eight case studies illustrating three main groups. In group I (approx. 50 %) the staminal lever mechanism is necessary to open access to nectar and to enable the transfer of pollen that is hidden in the upper lip. In group II (approx. 34 %) pollen is freely accessible and the lever mechanism is reduced in different ways and to different degrees. In group III (approx. 4 %) the lever works as in group I, but pollen is freely accessible as in II. The remaining approx. 13 % are not clearly classified. It is considered that the driving force behind the diverse modes of reduction is the necessity to increase the distance between nectar and pollen, thereby ensuring pollen deposition on the bird's feathered head. This is achieved several times in parallel by corolla elongation and/or exposure of the pollen-sacs. As soon as pollen is freely accessible, the lever movement loses its significance for pollination.

  17. Relationship Between Soil and Essential Oil Profiles in Salvia desoleana Populations: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapposelli, Emma; Melito, Sara; Barmina, Giovanni Gabriele; Foddai, Marzia; Azara, Emanuela; Scarpa, Grazia Maria

    2015-09-01

    Salvia desoleana is a herbaceous perennial shrub endemic of Sardinia (Italy). The leaves are a source of essential oil, used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The therapeutic function of this species has been associated to the presence of essential oils rich in α/β-pinene, p-cimene, linalool, linalyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. Today.the industrial request of Salvia essential oils is increasing and most of the biomass is exploited from the natural populations which are under severe risk of genetic erosion. In order to improve the essential oil production, the study of the environmental parameters that influence composition, quality and quantity of the essential oils, turns out to be necessary. Soil physical and chemical structure represents one of the determinant factors in secondary metabolites production, and could also be involved in volatiles fraction composition in the same species. The main aim of this research was to explore the relationship between essential oil profiles and soil characteristics in S. desoleana populations. GC/MS analysis performed on the essential oil extracts identified 22 principal compounds, which were extremely variable among the five S. desoleana populations studied. The analysis of the essential oils revealed different compositions in the terpenes fractions: 68.2% of monoterpenes, 27.3% of sesquiterpenes and 4.5% of diterpenes. Analysis of chemical and physical soil parameters at the collection sites revealed that silt and sand contents were correlated with α-pinene and sclareol fractions and the total K20 was significantly correlated to several compounds belonging to the three terpene fractions identified. These results will provide guidelines for the in site conservation and for the improvement of the commercial value of the species.

  18. Simulating grain size estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saxl, Ivan; Sülleiová, K.; Ponížil, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2001), s. 396-409 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/99/0269 Keywords : grain size estimation% ASTM standards%Voronoi tessellations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.343, year: 2001

  19. Interstellar grain surface chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical calculations, laboratory studies, and observations of interstellar icy grain mantles are reviewed. The emphasis is on recent ground-based observations of the interstellar 2167 cm -1 (4.67μm) band and air-borne studies of the interstellar 1665 and 1460 cm -1 (6.0 and 6.85μm) bands. From a comparison with laboratory studies it is concluded that interstellar icy gain mantles consist mainly of H 2 O, CH 3 OH and CO in an approximate ratio of 100:50:5. Traces of other molecules have also been detected. Evidence for the presence of a separate, more inert, grain mantle component, perhaps consisting mainly of solid CO, will also be presented. Theoretical calculations of the composition of interstellar icy gain mantles are confronted with observational data and the shortcomings of the models are pointed out. Finally, the evolution of icy grain mantles under UV irradiation and their possible interrelationship with an organic grain component observed in the diffuse interstellar medium are discussed

  20. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have stable, not too short crop duration with ... Ndiaye is located in the. Costal Delta region of Senegal. The climate of the Delta is characterized by a wet season from July to October with approximately. 200 mm of ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant height of 16 rice.

  1. [Optimization of preparative separation and purification of water-soluble substance from Salvia miltiorrhiza by macroporous resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Li, Yong; Shen, Xue-mei; Sun, Li-min

    2007-10-01

    To study the optimum conditions for the isolation and purification of water-soluble substance from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. The optimum macroporous resin was selected and the separation and purification process was evaluated by measuring the content of Salvianolic acid B in the fractions by HPLC. The XDA-5 macroporous resin was the most effective compared with other macroporous resins. The optimum conditions were screened, which were 18 mg/ml corresponding to Salvianolic acid B for concentration of extract, pH was 4, and the volume of 70% (V/V) ethanol as eluant was 3 BV. By this method, the elution efficiency of Salvianolic acid B exceeded 90%. The method is more effective for large-scale isolation and purification of water-soluble substance from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Background Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fa...

  3. Fatty acids characterization, oxidative perspectives and consumer acceptability of oil extracted from pre-treated chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Manzoor, Muhammad Faisal; Javed, Amna; Ali, Zafar; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Ali, Muhammad; Hussain, Yasir

    2016-01-01

    Background Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds have been described as a good source of lipids, protein, dietary fiber, polyphenolic compounds and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The consumption of chia seed oil helps to improve biological markers related to metabolic syndrome diseases. The oil yield and fatty acids composition of chia oil is affected by several factors such as pre-treatment method and size reduction practices. Therefore, the main mandate of present investigate was to study ...

  4. Evaluation of toxic and protective effects of an essential oil of salvia officinalis L on liver cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Cristóvão F.; Carvalho, Felix; Fernandes, Eduarda; Bastos, Maria de Lurdes; Gomes, P. Santos; Ferreira, Manuel Fernandes; Wilson, Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    The widespread use of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in herbal teas and as a food condiment requires that studies of their biological effects are conducted in order to prevent ill effects on human health. It is known that the essential oil (EO) of this plant is neurotoxic, but in higher concentrations than those used in the applications referred above. In this study we have isolated and characterized the EO of S. officinalis and studied its toxic/protective effects in rat hepatocytes isolate...

  5. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  6. Phytochemical composition of fractions isolated from ten Salvia species by supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2017-06-01

    Ten Salvia species, S. amplexicaulis, S. austriaca, S. forsskaolii S. glutinosa, S. nemorosa, S. officinalis, S. pratensis, S. sclarea, S. stepposa and S. verticillata were fractionated using supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid (ethanol and water) extractions. Fifteen phytochemicals were identified using commercial standards (some other compounds were identified tentatively), 11 of them were quantified by ultra high pressure chromatography (UPLC) with quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF, TQ-S). Lipophilic CO 2 extracts were rich in tocopherols (2.36-10.07mg/g), while rosmarinic acid was dominating compound (up to 30mg/g) in ethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide, caffeic and carnosic acids were quantitatively important phytochemicals in the majority other Salvia spp. Antioxidatively active constituents were determined by using on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis combined with 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (HPLC-DPPH). Development of high pressure isolation process and comprehensive characterisation of phytochemicals in Salvia spp. may serve for their wider applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  8. The claustrum’s proposed role in consciousness is supported by the effect and target localization of Salvia Divinorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus M Stiefel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article brings together three findings and ideas relevant for the understanding of human consciousness: (I Crick's and Koch's theory that the claustrum is a conductor of consciousness center crucial for subjective conscious experience. (II Subjective reports of the consciousness-altering effects the plant Salvia divinorum, whose primary active ingredient is salvinorin A, a -opioid receptor agonist. (III The high density of -opioid receptors in the claustrum. Fact III suggests that the consciousness-altering effects of salvinorin A are due to a κ-opioid receptor mediated inhibition of primarily the claustrum and, additionally, the deep layers of the cortex, mainly in prefrontal areas. Consistent with Crick & Koch’s theory that the claustrum plays a key role in consciousness, our analysis of the subjective effects of Salvia divinorum finds that salvia disrupts certain facets of consciousness much more than the largely-serotonergic hallucinogen LSD. Based on this data and on the relevant literature, we suggest that the claustrum does indeed serve as a conductor for certain aspects of higher-order integration of brain activity, while integration of auditory and visual signals mostly relies on coordination by other areas including parietal cortex and the pulvinar.

  9. Salvia officinalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of different doses of sage extract on the growth and blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage in partridges. In total, 252 day-old partridges (Alectoris chukar) were used. The birds were divided into four groups: 0.1% flavomycin was included in the diet of ...

  10. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  11. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  12. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  13. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  14. Role of Leaves of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract in the Restitution of Lipid Composition and Minimizing the Free Radicals Concentration in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahim, Th.M.; Mansour, S.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to determine the antioxidant activity and the protective ability of water-extractable phytochemicals from Salvia officinalis leaves (strongly aromatic leaves) on lipid fractions and peroxidation degree induced by irradiated rats serum, liver and brain homogenates. Total free radicals generated in blood were examined by electron spin resonance (ESR). Four equal groups were chosen for the study: control, Salvia officinalis treated (1ml/kg body wt), Irradiated (fractionated dose of gamma-irradiation (6Gy) delivered as 1.5 Gy two times a week for 2 weeks) and Salvia officinalis plus irradiation group (rats received Salvia officinalis for 14 days before irradiation and daily within the period of irradiation (2 weeks), and seven days post the last radiation dose. Irradiation of rats caused biochemical alterations represented by markedly elevated levels of lipid fractions in serum, lipid peroxidation level in liver and brain tissues. Also, radiation of rats showed a significant decline in most unsaturated fatty acids concentration. The study pointed out to the promising positive role of Salvia officinalis as a nontoxic natural product to reduce oxidative stress and protect vital physiological processes post radiation exposure.

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of 10 Salvia Species Using High Pressure Methods for the Isolation of Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Plant Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-03-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a well-known source of antioxidants and other bioactive compounds, while many other species within the Salvia genus have been poorly studied. The total content of phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity indicators were evaluated for the extracts of 10 Salvia spp. consecutively isolated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) and pressurized liquid extraction with ethanol and water. Antioxidant properties of solid plant material were evaluated by the direct antioxidant capacity measurement by the so-called QUENCHER method. Total antioxidant capacity values were calculated by integrating the results obtained for all extracts and the whole plant material. TPC and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were greatly dependent on the plant species and extraction solvent. Ethanol extracts possessed significantly higher antioxidant capacity and TPC comparing to the extracts isolated with other solvents. In general, all studied Salvia species demonstrated strong antioxidant capacity; however, the antioxidant potential of such species as S. forsskaolii and S. verticillata was the highest and comparable with that of S. officinalis. The majority of studied Salvia species may be considered as promising sources of functional ingredients to be used in human nutrition for functional food and nutraceutical formulations.

  16. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  17. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.: a transcriptomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar R V

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L., a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae, is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA. At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb, with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%, of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34% and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%. A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research

  18. Alternative grains in nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevcsák Sz.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people suffer from gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance. They have to avoid or limit their gluten intake. Sorghum and millet are gluten-free cereals, wherefore persons with gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance could consume them. Moreover, they have a lot of positive effects due to their phenolic compounds as phenol acid or flavonoid. Antioxidant activity in sorghum is especially high in comparison with other cereals. Our aim was to compare literature data about the chemical compositions of sorghum and millet with other grains.

  19. The physiological and biochemical responses of a medicinal plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza L. to stress caused by various concentrations of NaCl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Gengmao

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is commonly known as Danshen, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To illustrate its physiological and biochemical responses to salt stress and to evaluate the feasibility of cultivating this plant in saline coastal soils, a factorial experiment under hydroponic conditions was arranged on the basis of a completely randomised design with three replications. Five salinity treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl were employed in this experiment. The results showed that salinity treatments of <100 mM NaCl did not affect the growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza in a morphological sense, but significantly inhibit the accumulation of dry matter. Salinity treatments significantly decreased the Chl-b content but caused a negligible change in the Chl-a content, leading to a conspicuous overall decrease in the T-Chl content. The Na(+ content significantly increased with increasing hydroponic salinity but the K(+ and Ca(2+ contents were reversed, indicating that a high level of external Na(+ resulted in a decrease in both K(+ and Ca(2+ concentrations in the organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salt stress significantly decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves in comparison with that of the control. On the contrary, the catalase (CAT activity in the leaves markedly increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. Moreover, the soluble sugar and protein contents in Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves dramatically increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. These results suggested that antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes are partially involved in the adaptive response to salt stress in Salvia miltiorrhiza, thereby maintaining better plant growth under saline conditions.

  20. Cytotoxic activity of abietane diterpenoids from roots of Salvia sahendica by HPLC-based activity profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Moradi-Afrapoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Screening of medicinal plants from Iranian flora against human cancer cell-lines have shown that an hexane extract from roots of Salvia sahendica Boiss. & Buhse, Lamiaceae, is active against human cervical cancer (HeLa and colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cell-lines at the test concentration of 100 µg/ml (100% inhibition. Cytotoxicity of the extract was localized with the aid of HPLC-time-based activity profiling adapted to the tetrazolium colorimetric bioassay. Four abietane-type diterpenoids in active time-windows were identified as cytotoxic compounds namely: sahandone (1, sahandol (2, 12-deoxy-salvipisone (3 and sahandinone (4. Compound 1 showed the highest toxicity against HeLa cells (IC50 = 5.6 ± 0.1 µg/ml, which was comparable with betulinic acid (IC50 = 4.3 ± 1.2 µg/ml, the positive control. Compound 2 was active against the HeLa cells (IC50 = 8.9 ± 0.7 µg/ml but not the Caco-2 cell-line. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 exhibited moderate activity (IC50 = 22.9–41.4 µg/ml against the Caco-2 cells. This study reveals that the HeLa cells are more sensitive to all tested compounds than the Caco-2 cells. In silico molecular docking study showed a rigid binding of the compounds to tyrosine kinase pp60src, and proved their cytotoxic activity.

  1. HPLC/DAD determination of rosmarinic acid in Salvia officinalis: sample preparation optimization by factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina B. de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Bras H. de, E-mail: bho@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-01-15

    Sage (Salvia officinalis) contains high amounts of the biologically active rosmarinic acid (RA) and other polyphenolic compounds. RA is easily oxidized, and may undergo degradation during sample preparation for analysis. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of RA in sage, using factorial design of experiments for optimizing sample preparation. The statistically significant variables for improving RA extraction yield were determined initially and then used in the optimization step, using central composite design (CCD). The analytical method was then fully validated, and used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. The optimized procedure involved extraction with aqueous methanol (40%) containing an antioxidant mixture (ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), with sonication at 45 deg C for 20 min. The samples were then injected in a system containing a C{sub 18} column, using methanol (A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (B) in step gradient mode (45A:55B, 0-5 min; 80A:20B, 5-10 min) with flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and detection at 330 nm. Using this conditions, RA concentrations were 50% higher when compared to extractions without antioxidants (98.94 {+-} 1.07% recovery). Auto-oxidation of RA during sample extraction was prevented by the use of antioxidants resulting in more reliable analytical results. The method was then used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. (author)

  2. Investigating the Mechanisms of Action of Depside Salt from Salvia miltiorrhiza Using Bioinformatic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used for treating cardiovascular diseases. Depside salt from S. miltiorrhiza (DSSM contains the following active components: magnesium lithospermate B, lithospermic acid, and rosmarinic acid. This study aimed to reveal the mechanisms of action of DSSM. After searching for DSSM-associated genes in GeneCards, Search Tool for Interacting Chemicals, SuperTarget, PubChem, and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, they were subjected to enrichment analysis using Multifaceted Analysis Tool for Human Transcriptome. A protein-protein interaction (PPI network was visualised; module analysis was conducted using the Cytoscape software. Finally, a transcriptional regulatory network was constructed using the TRRUST database and Cytoscape. Seventy-three DSSM-associated genes were identified. JUN, TNF, NFKB1, and FOS were hub nodes in the PPI network. Modules 1 and 2 were identified from the PPI network, with pathway enrichment analysis, showing that the presence of NFKB1 and BCL2 in module 1 was indicative of a particular association with the NF-κB signalling pathway. JUN, TNF, NFKB1, FOS, and BCL2 exhibited notable interactions among themselves in the PPI network. Several regulatory relationships (such as JUN → TNF/FOS, FOS → NFKB1 and NFKB1 → BCL2/TNF were also found in the regulatory network. Thus, DSSM exerts effects against cardiovascular diseases by targeting JUN, TNF, NFKB1, FOS, and BCL2.

  3. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  4. The effect of gamma radiation on Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) edible film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chierentin, Gabriel S.; Teixeira, Bruna S.; Del Mastro, Nélida L.

    2017-01-01

    Edible films and coatings have received considerable attention in recent years for their advantages over synthetic films for edible packaging materials. Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) have functional and important nutritional values: protein content (15 - 25%), fats (30 - 33%), carbohydrates (26 - 41%), dietary fiber (18 - 30%), and ash (4-5%). It also contains a high amount of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Mucilage of chia, a natural exudates from chia seeds, is mainly composed of xylose, glucose and glucuronic acid forming a branched polysaccharide. In the present preliminary work whole chia seeds were irradiated in a 60 Co source Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0, 5 and 10 kGy, dose rate about 0.8 kGy h -1 . The irradiated seeds were crushed and soaked in an aqueous solution (6% w/w) together with glycerol (1% w/w), under magnetic stirring for 15 minutes at room temperature and poured into casting plates. The plates were placed in an oven with forced air circulation at 35 °C for at least 20 h. Water uptake, moisture, solubility and water activity of the films were established. The most expressive result was a decrease in water uptake with the increase of the radiation dose. Solubility remained almost unaffected by radiation in doses of 5kGy and moisture analysis showed also a decrease with dose. (author)

  5. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  6. The influence of cultivation method on the flowering of Salvia horminum L. 'Oxford Blue'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pogroszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia horminum L. 'Oxford Blue' was grown from transplants or it was direct seeded. Four sowing dates were applied: 15 March or 30 March - in a greenhouse, in order to obtain transplants, 13 April, 27 April and 11 May - sown directly into the ground. Three plant densities were applied: 25 plants×m2, 16 plants×m2, 12 plants×m2. It was found that Horminum sage can be grown from transplants or direct seeded. The cultivation from transplants is more advantageous due to the earlier flowering of plants, by about two weeks, and a better quality of inflorescences evaluated in terms of their length and size of bracteoles. Direct sowing of Horminum sage at two-week intervals from the 2nd decade of April till the 2nd decade of May ensures that by the end of August mature inflorescence stems are obtained, ready for cutting. A delay in the date of sowing results in the development of significantly shorter inflorescence stems, irrespective of the plant density. Plant density does not affect significantly the length of the period of inflorescence formation and the date of flowering, but a larger spacing is favourable to plants growing big, what results in a larger fresh weight of the above-ground portion. Sage grown from transplants responses to favourable climatic conditions by the development of bigger inflorescences.

  7. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  8. Identification of a Novel (--5-Epieremophilene Synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza via Transcriptome Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, a medicinal plant in China, has been used for thousands of years to treat coronary heart diseases. Although biosynthesis of tanshinones, a group of diterpenoids in S. miltiorrhiza, has been extensively investigated, to date we know little about the formation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in this medicinal plant. Here, we report the characterization of three sesquiterpene synthases, named SmSTPS1, SmSTPS2, and SmSTPS3, which catalyzed the formation of a new compound, (--5-epieremophilene. Additionally, the (--5-epieremophilene biosynthesis activity of SmSTPS1 was confirmed by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Despite the similar enzyme activities of SmSTPS1, SmSTPS2, and SmSTPS3, the three (--5-epieremophilene synthase genes displayed different spatial expression patterns and responded differently to hormone treatments, implicating their specific roles in plant-environment interactions. Our results provide valuable data to understanding the biosynthesis and composition of terpenes in plant.

  9. Antibacterial evaluation of Salvia miltiorrhizae on Escherichia coli by microcalorimetry coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guangyao; Zhang, Shanshan; Hu, Yuli; Yang, Meihua; Chen, Ping; Wu, Xiaoru; Guo, Weiying; Kong, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    For seeking novel antibacterial agents with high efficacy and low toxicity to deal with drug resistance, the effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae from various sources on Escherichia coli were evaluated by microcalorimetry coupled with chemometrics. Firstly, the heat-flow power-time curves of E. coli growth affected by different S. miltiorrhizae samples were recorded. Then, some crucial quantitative thermo-kinetic parameters including growth rate constant, heat-flow power and heat output, etc. were obtained from theses curves and were further investigated by some powerful chemometric techniques including similarity analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, hierarchical clustering analysis and principle component analysis. By analyzing the principle parameters, growth rate constant of the second exponential phase (k 2 ) and the heat-flow output powers of the second highest peak (P 2 ), together with the derived parameter inhibitory ratio (I,  %), it could be quickly concluded that the tested S. miltiorrhizae samples from different sources in China exhibited strong antibacterial effects on E. coli and the samples from Beijing city exhibited the strongest anti-E. coli effects, which might be used as novel and underlying antibacterial candidates for the resistance of E. coli to the existing drugs in practice. This study provides a useful tool and helpful idea to accurately and rapidly evaluate the antibacterial effects of some complex matrices, offering some references for exploring new antibacterial agents.

  10. Drinking of Salvia officinalis tea increases CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2007-03-01

    In a previous study, the drinking of a Salvia officinalis tea (prepared as an infusion) for 14 days improved liver antioxidant status in mice and rats where, among other factors, an enhancement of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed. Taking in consideration these effects, in the present study the potential protective effects of sage tea drinking against a situation of hepatotoxicity due to free radical formation, such as that caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), were evaluated in mice of both genders. Contrary to what was expected, sage tea drinking significantly increased the CCl(4)-induced liver injury, as seen by increased plasma transaminase levels and histology liver damage. In accordance with the previous study, sage tea drinking enhanced significantly GST activity. Additionally, glutathione peroxidase was also significantly increased by sage tea drinking. Since CCl(4) toxicity results from its bioactivation mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, the expression level of this protein was measured by Western Blot. An increase in CYP 2E1 protein was observed which may explain, at least in part, the potentiation of CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity conferred by sage tea drinking. The CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity was higher in females than males. In conclusion, our results indicate that, although sage tea did not have toxic effects of its own, herb-drug interactions are possible and may affect the efficacy and safety of concurrent medical therapy with drugs that are metabolized by phase I enzymes.

  11. Pathway engineering for phenolic acid accumulations in Salvia miltiorrhiza by combinational genetic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yan, Ya-Ping; Wu, Yu-Cui; Hua, Wen-Ping; Chen, Chen; Ge, Qian; Wang, Zhe-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To produce beneficial phenolic acids for medical and commercial purposes, researchers are interested in improving the normally low levels of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) produced by Salvia miltiorrhiza. Here, we present a strategy of combinational genetic manipulation to enrich the precursors available for Sal B biosynthesis. This approach, involving the lignin pathway, requires simultaneous, ectopic expression of an Arabidopsis Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 transcription factor (AtPAP1) plus co-suppression of two endogenous, key enzyme genes: cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (SmCCR) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (SmCOMT). Compared with the untransformed control, we achieved a greater accumulation of Sal B (up to 3-fold higher) along with a reduced lignin concentration. This high-Sal B phenotype was stable in roots during vegetative growth and was closely correlated with increased antioxidant capacity for the corresponding plant extracts. Although no outward change in phenotype was apparent, we characterized the molecular phenotype through integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome profiling. Our results demonstrated the far-reaching consequences of phenolic pathway perturbations on carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, photo-respiration, and stress responses. This report is the first to describe the production of valuable end products through combinational genetic manipulation in S. miltiorrhiza plants. Our strategy will be effective in efforts to metabolically engineer multi-branch pathway(s), such as the phenylpropanoid pathway, in economically significant medicinal plants. © 2013 International Metabolic Engineering Society Published by International Metabolic Engineering Society All rights reserved.

  12. The profiling of bioactive ingredients of differently aged Salvia miltiorrhiza roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Peng, Huasheng; Shen, Ye; Zhao, Rong; Huang, Luqi

    2013-09-01

    The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., named Danshen in traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, also for food auxiliary agent. Rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA are all responsible for the pharmacological activity of Danshen, they are important quality evaluation index for Danshen. The quality evaluation of Danshen is mainly concentrated in difference of cultivated regions and years, but the difference in root systems themselves and the cause of the difference were overlook. The growth rings were employed to identified the roots ages in root systems. Then the contents of eight bioactive component in different aged, diameter and tissue of individual roots of the same root system were evaluated using HPLC coupled with an ultraviolet photodiode array detector. The root system of S. miltiorrhiza was a complex root systems composed by different aged and diameter roots, in which the contents of bioactive compounds vary greatly from the other. The lipophilic diterpenoid quinones mainly distributed in the bark and increased with the cultivated years. The hydrophilic depsides distributed in all tissues, and the contents are relatively high in xylem in 1-year-old roots. It was very important to identify the individual root age of S. miltiorrhiza root system cultivated for several years. In the same root system of S. miltiorrhiza roots with 0.4-cm diameter contain more bioactive compounds, which maybe cause by the uneven distribution of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Flavonoids from Salvia chloroleuca with α-Amylsae and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Behvar; Salehi, Peyman; Sonboli, Ali; Nejad Ebrahimi, Samad

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes including α-amylase and α-glucosidase is one of the therapeutic approaches to decrease the postprandial glucose level after a meal, especially in the people with type 2 diabetes. Medicinal plants and their extracts are one of the main sources to find new inhibitors to the enzymes. In our study four flavonoids, namely luteolin 7-O-glucoside (1), luteolin 7-O-glucuronide (2), diosmetin 7-O-glucuronide (3) and salvigenin (4) were isolated from aerial parts of Salvia chloroleuca. The inhibitory activity of these compounds against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were evaluated. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 18.3, 14.7, and 17.1 µM, respectively. Also these compounds exhibited moderate α-amylase activity with IC50 values 81.7, 61.5, and 76.3 µM, respectively.

  14. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza injection suppresses kidney injury induced by iron overload in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjiang Guan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Excessive iron can accumulate in the kidney and induce tissue damage. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza injection is a traditional Chinese medicinal preparation used for preventing and treating chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with Danshen injection on iron overload-induced kidney damage. METHODS: Mice were mock-treated with saline (control group or given a single dose of iron dextran without treatment (iron overload group, 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks or with daily treatments of low-dose Danshen (3 g/kg/day, high-dose Danshen (6 g/kg/day or deferoxamine (100 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: Treatment of iron-overloaded mice with Danshen injection led to significant improvements of body weight and decreased iron levels in the kidney. Danshen injection treatment also reduced concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and malondialdehyde and enhanced glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Histopathological examinations showed that Danshen injection ameliorated pathological changes and reduced iron deposition in kidneys of iron overloaded mice. Furthermore, the treatment was demonstrated to suppress apoptosis in nephrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that Danshen injection exerted significant renal protective effects in iron-overloaded mice, which were closely associated with the decrease of iron deposition and suppression of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the kidney.

  15. Antidiarrheal Activity of 19-Deoxyicetexone Isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sánchez-Mendoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA- and prostaglandin (PGE2-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS, as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis, infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE2-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats’ ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a copalyl diphosphate synthase gene promoter from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szymczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The promoter, 5' UTR, and 34-nt 5' fragments of protein encoding region of the Salvia miltiorrhiza copalyl diphosphate synthase gene were cloned and characterized. No tandem repeats, miRNA binding sites, or CpNpG islands were observed in the promoter, 5' UTR, or protein encoding fragments. The entire isolated promoter and 5' UTR is 2235 bp long and contains repetitions of many cis-active elements, recognized by homologous transcription factors, found in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. A pyrimidine-rich fragment with only 6 non-pyrimidine bases was localized in the 33-nt stretch from nt 2185 to 2217 in the 5' UTR. The observed cis-active sequences are potential binding sites for trans-factors that could regulate spatio-temporal CPS gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Obtained results are initially verified by in silico and co-expression studies based on A. thaliana microarray data. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the entire 2269-bp copalyl diphosphate synthase gene fragment has the promoter activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to study changes in CPS promoter activity occurring in response to the application of four selected biotic and abiotic regulatory factors; auxin, gibberellin, salicylic acid, and high-salt concentration.

  17. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  18. Characterization of Salvia Miltiorrhiza ethanol extract as an anti-osteoporotic agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM has long been used as a traditional oriental medicine for cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence also indicates that SM has anti-osteoporotic effects. This study was conducted to examine the SM-induced anti-osteoporotic effect and its possible mechanisms with various doses of SM. Methods We studied Sprague-Dawley female rats aged 12 weeks, divided into six groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, OVX rats supplemented with SM (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and biochemistry analysis was performed. Specimens from both tibia and liver were processed for light microscopic examination. DEXA and μ-CT analyses of the tibia were also performed. Results SM treatment significantly ameliorated the decrease in BMD and trabecular bone mass according to DEXA and trabecular bone architecture analysis of trabecular bone structural parameters by μ-CT scanning. In serum biochemical analysis, SM decreased the released TRAP-5b, an osteoclast activation marker and oxidative stress parameters including MDA and NO induced by OVX. Conclusions The preventive effect of SM was presumably due to its anti-oxidative stress partly via modulation of osteoclast maturation and number. In current study, SM appears to be a promising osteoporosis therapeutic natural product.

  19. Enhanced Diterpene Tanshinone Accumulation and Bioactivity of Transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots by Pathway Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Luo, Xiuqin; Ju, Guanhua; Li, Leilei; Huang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Huizhong; Kai, Guoyin

    2016-03-30

    Tanshinones are health-promoting diterpenoids found in Salvia miltiorrhiza and have wide applications. Here, SmGGPPS (geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase) and SmDXSII (1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase) were introduced into hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Overexpression of SmGGPPS and SmDXSII in hairy roots produces higher levels of tanshinone than control and single-gene transformed lines; tanshinone production in the double-gene transformed line GDII10 reached 12.93 mg/g dry weight, which is the highest tanshinone content that has been achieved through genetic engineering. Furthermore, transgenic hairy root lines showed higher antioxidant and antitumor activities than control lines. In addition, contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, indoleacetic acid, and gibberellins were significantly elevated in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These results demonstrate a promising method to improve the production of diterpenoids including tanshinone as well as other natural plastid-derived isoprenoids in plants by genetic manipulation of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway.

  20. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri-Asl Marjan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Methods Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg root and normal saline (10 ml/kg were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior reperfusion. During preischemia, ischemia and reperfusion conditions the electromyographic (EMG potentials in the muscles were recorded. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total sulfhydryl (SH groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle (using FRAP assay were measured. Results In peripheral ischemia, the average peak-to-peak amplitude during ischemic-reperfusion was found to be significantly larger in extracts groups in comparison with control group. Following extracts administration, the total SH contents and antioxidant capacity were elevated in muscle flap. The MDA level was also declined significantly in test groups. Conclusion It is concluded that S. leriifolia root extracts have some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in muscle tissue injury caused by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion.

  1. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Azar; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sadeghnia, Hamid-Reza

    2007-07-07

    Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) root and normal saline (10 ml/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior reperfusion. During preischemia, ischemia and reperfusion conditions the electromyographic (EMG) potentials in the muscles were recorded. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle (using FRAP assay) were measured. In peripheral ischemia, the average peak-to-peak amplitude during ischemic-reperfusion was found to be significantly larger in extracts groups in comparison with control group. Following extracts administration, the total SH contents and antioxidant capacity were elevated in muscle flap. The MDA level was also declined significantly in test groups. It is concluded that S. leriifolia root extracts have some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in muscle tissue injury caused by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion.

  2. Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mohamed; Yangui, Thabèt; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

    2009-11-01

    The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values ranged from 0.031 to 0.25 microLmL(-1). The essential oils concentrations of 0.5% and 1% (v/v) resulted in a reduction in viability higher than 5 and 4 log units per mL for the standard bacteria and fungi, respectively, within a contact time of 5 min. Using an air sampler and an aroma dispenser, vaporisation of 0.25 mLm(-3) of S. officinalis essential oils resulted in (72%, 73% and 70%) and (54%, 55% and 55%) reduction of the total microbial count and the total count of yeasts and moulds, after a residence time of 1h, 6h and 24h in a selected testing room, respectively. S. officinalis essential oils showed a potent vapour activity against a panel of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This supported their use as a natural eco-friendly disinfectant to manage airborne microbes.

  3. One-step separation of four flavonoids from Herba Salviae Plbeiae by HSCCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yu, Qi; Fu, Xiaohui; Wang, Weina

    2014-01-01

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of four flavonoids from Herba Salviae Plbeiae using stepwise and dual-mode elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems. The systems composed of n-hexane-chloroform-methanol-water (0.5 : 4 : 3 : 2, v/v/v/v) and chloroform-methanol-water (4 : 3 : 2, v/v/v). Analytical HSCCC was used for the preliminary selection of a suitable system, and a linear scale-step procedure was performed at a preparative grade. Hispidulin (91 mg), nepetin (148 mg), homoplantaginin (405 mg) and nepetin-7-glucoside (192 mg) could be obtained from 1,500-mg crude sample in a one-step separation, with purities >95% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their chemical structures were identified by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Diterpenes from the aerial parts of Salvia candelabrum and their protective effects against lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicsák, Gábor; Hohmann, Judit; Zupkó, István; Forgo, Peter; Rédei, Dóra; Falkay, György; Máthé, Imre

    2003-12-01

    A methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Salvia candelabrum was subjected to multiple chromatographic separation under the guidance of anti-lipid peroxidation assay. From the most active fractions seven abietane and seco-abietane diterpenes were isolated by preparative TLC purification. Besides candesalvoquinone, candelabroquinone, 12- O-methylcandesalvone B, candesalvone B methyl ester and candelabrone (all reported earlier), the known candesalvone B and the new candesalvolactone were identified. The structures were established by means of mass spectroscopy and advanced 2D NMR methods. All the identified compounds were evaluated for antioxidant activity in enzyme-dependent (IC (50) values 3.49 - 10.42 microM) and enzyme-independent (IC (50) values 1.40 - 13.40 microM) systems of lipid peroxidation. All compounds displayed marked concentration-dependent effects in both tests as compared with those of authentic ascorbic, rosmarinic and caffeic acids. The differences in antioxidant capacities observed in the enzyme-independent system allowed conclusions concerning structure-activity relationships.

  5. Assessing gelling properties of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour through rheological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Susana; Fradinho, Patrícia; Mata, Paulina; Raymundo, Anabela

    2017-04-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds are considered a promising ingredient for the development of functional products owing to their high nutritional value: 343 g kg -1 lipids, 251 g kg -1 protein and 226 g kg -1 fibre. Considering chia's technological capacities, mainly the ability to swell when absorbing water and gel-forming properties, its addition to a food matrix can affect texture and rheological behaviour, acting as a texturing and stabilizing agent. The aim of the present work was to assess the gelling properties of chia flour through the rheological characterization of 100, 130 and 150 g kg -1 chia flour gels. According to the mechanical spectra, all gels presented weak gel-like structures, as G' was always less than a decade higher than G″, but higher chia flour concentrations showed a considerable increase in viscoelastic moduli. The gels had relatively low maturation times, almost instantaneous for lower concentrations, but the cooling rate affected the dynamics of formation of the gel structure. Based on texture and rheological properties, gels with 130 g kg -1 of chia flour processed at 90 °C for 30 min showed the most suitable characteristics for use in the development of new food applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  7. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L. Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Rubi Segura-Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG and gum partly defatted (PDCG. Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P<0.05. The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber. The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber. In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  8. An abietane diterpene from Salvia cuspidata and some new derivatives are active against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, E S; Spina, R M; Tonn, C E; Sosa, M A; Cifuente, D A

    2015-12-01

    The Plant Kingdom is an excellent source for obtaining natural compounds with antiprotozoal activity. In the present work, we studied the effect of the diterpene 12-hydroxy-11,14-diketo-6,8,12-abietatrien-19,20-olide (HABTO) obtained from the aerial parts of Salvia cuspidata on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. This compound was found to inhibit parasite growth even at low concentrations (IC50 5 μg/mL) and with low toxicity on mammalian cells. In addition, this diterpene induced an intense vacuolization within the parasites. In order to obtain analogs with greater lipophilicity, chemical modifications on the enol moiety were carried out to obtain the acetyl (AABTO), the sylil (SABTO) and the allyl (ALLABTO) derivatives. We observed that the SABTO was the most effective one on the parasites, and the effect could be attributed to a greater lipophilicity of this compound. Taking into account these data we conclude that the increase of lipophilicity by chemical modifications is an adequate strategy for improving the trypanocidal activity of this kind abietane diterpenes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Climatic zoning of chia (Salvia hispanica L. in Chile using a species distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cortés

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia hispanica L., known as chia, is a plant species originally from tropical and subtropical Mesoamerica. It is economically important because its seeds produce omega-3, thus its demand has increased in Chile and internationally. As there is no commercial production in Chile, we investigated the places in the country where this species could be cultivated in order to satisfy at the least the national demand. The aim of the study was to quantify the main climatic requirements of chia and to produce a climatic aptitude map for chia cultivation in Chile. The methodology was based on the Maxent species distribution model. We used 78 georeferenced data points where chia is grown throughout the world, mostly from the GBIF database, along with raster climatic layers from the Worldclim project. We estimated the performance curves of annual precipitation and temperature along with their respective optimal and critical values, in analogy with the Ecocrop method. The maps used two scenarios for crops in different conditions, with and without irrigation. The results indicated that the intermediate depression and coastal edge of mainly the Arica y Parinacota, Tarapacá, Antofagasta and Atacama regions have optimum conditions for irrigated crops, but it would be impossible in rainfed conditions. We conclude that chia’s cultivation niche is reduced due to its tropical climate requirements; however, it can be cultivated under irrigation in northern Chile.

  10. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  11. Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Anticancer Therapy with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chiang Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. We aim to provide a systematic review about the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS in anticancer therapy with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen. Danshen, including its lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents, is potentially beneficial for treating various cancers. The mechanisms of ROS-related anticancer effects of Danshen vary depending on the specific type of cancer cells involved. Danshen may enhance TNF-α-induced apoptosis, upregulate caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, endoplasmic reticulum stress, P21, P53, Bax/Bcl-2, DR5, and AMP-activated protein kinase, or activate the p38/JNK, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and FasL signaling pathways. Conversely, Danshen may downregulate human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA, telomerase, survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, CD31, NF-κB, Erk1/2, matrix metalloproteinases, microtubule assembly, and receptor tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptors, HER2, and P-glycoprotein and inhibit the PI3K/Akt/mTOR or estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Therefore, Danshen may inhibit cancer cells proliferation through antioxidation on tumor initiation and induce apoptosis or autophagy through ROS generation on tumor progression, tumor promotion, and tumor metastasis. Based on the available evidence regarding its anticancer properties, this review provides new insights for further anticancer research or clinical trials with Danshen.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Salvia tomentosa Mill. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREY MARCHEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and bioactivity of essential oil from Salvia tomentosa Mill. natively grown in Bulgaria were investigated. GC-MS analysis identified 60 compounds which represented 98% of the oil constituents. The prevalent constituents were monoterpenes with eight dominant compounds being identified: borneol (10.3%, β-pinene (9%, camphor (7.9%, α-pinene (6%, camphene (4%, 1.8-cineole (3.8%, α-limonene (3.5% and β-caryophyllene (3%. The essential oil showed considerable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.28±0.06 µg/mL, comparable with that of galanthamine. Study of antioxidant activity strongly suggested that the hydrogen atom transfer reaction was preferable over the electron transfer (ORAC=175.0±0.40 µM Trolox equivalents/g oil and FRAP=1.45±0.21 mM Trolox equivalents/g oil. The essential oil showed moderate antifungal and antibacterial activities against Candida albicans and Gram-positive bacteria, whereas it was almost inactive against the investigated Gram-negative strains. The results suggested that the essential oil of Bulgarian S. tomentosa could be considered as a prospective active ingredient for prevention of oxidative stress-related and neurodegenerative disorders in aromatherapy. Because of the high antioxidant capacity, the oil could be considered as natural supplement or antioxidant in cosmetics and food products.

  13. The effect of gamma radiation on Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) edible film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chierentin, Gabriel S.; Teixeira, Bruna S.; Del Mastro, Nélida L., E-mail: gabrielsouza.ch@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Edible films and coatings have received considerable attention in recent years for their advantages over synthetic films for edible packaging materials. Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) have functional and important nutritional values: protein content (15 - 25%), fats (30 - 33%), carbohydrates (26 - 41%), dietary fiber (18 - 30%), and ash (4-5%). It also contains a high amount of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Mucilage of chia, a natural exudates from chia seeds, is mainly composed of xylose, glucose and glucuronic acid forming a branched polysaccharide. In the present preliminary work whole chia seeds were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0, 5 and 10 kGy, dose rate about 0.8 kGy h{sup -1}. The irradiated seeds were crushed and soaked in an aqueous solution (6% w/w) together with glycerol (1% w/w), under magnetic stirring for 15 minutes at room temperature and poured into casting plates. The plates were placed in an oven with forced air circulation at 35 °C for at least 20 h. Water uptake, moisture, solubility and water activity of the films were established. The most expressive result was a decrease in water uptake with the increase of the radiation dose. Solubility remained almost unaffected by radiation in doses of 5kGy and moisture analysis showed also a decrease with dose. (author)

  14. Inhibition of bone resorption by Tanshinone VI isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nicolin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, a more detailed knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in osteoclastogenesis has driven research efforts in the development and screening of compound libraries of several small molecules that specifically inhibit the pathway involved in the commitment of the osteoclast precursor cells. Natural compounds that suppress osteoclast differentiation may have therapeutic value in treating osteoporosis and other bone erosive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or metastasis associated with bone loss. In ongoing investigation into anti-osteoporotic compounds from natural products we have analyzed the effect of Tanshinone VI on osteoclasts differentiation, using a physiologic three-dimensional osteoblast/bone marrow model of cell co-culture. Tanshinone VI is an abietane diterpene extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae, a Chinese traditional crude drug, ‘’Tan-Shen’’. Tashinone has been widely used in clinical practice for the prevention of cardiac diseases, arthritis and other inflammation-related disorders based on its pharmacological actions in multiple tissues. Although Tanshinone VI A has been used as a medicinal agent in the treatment of many diseases, its role in osteoclast-related bone diseases remains unknown. We showed previously that Tanshinone VI greatly inhibits osteoclast differentiation and suppresses bone resorption through disruption of the actin ring; subsequently, we intended to examine the precise inhibitory mechanism of Tanshinone VI on osteoclast differentiating factor. This study shows, for the first time, that Tanshinone VI prevents osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting RANKL expression and NFkB induction.

  15. Oxidative stress in bromus seedlings treated with Salvia sclarea L. aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur, J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Knowledge on allelopathic interactions could provide effective tools for a better exploitation of natural resources in the management of weeds without using herbicides. One of highly resistant weed species is bromus. The effects of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Salvia sclarea L. aqueous extract on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in leaves and roots of bromus (Bromus mollis L. seedlings, were examined. Our results showed that both concentrations of the extract used (0.1% and 0.2% stimulated the significant increase of the superoxide dismutase activity in leaves and roots of bromus 72 hours and 120 hours after the treatment. The significant increase of the catalase activity was recorded in roots of bromus 72 h after the treatment. Two tested extract concentrations affected activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the same way, but the higher activity was observed in the roots treated with higher concentration (0.2%. The increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes, in response to stress induced by S. sclarea aqueous extract, indicate that the plant extract possesses allelopathic activity on treated plant.

  16. Overexpression of SmMYC2 Increases the Production of Phenolic Acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available MYC2 is a core transcription factor in the plant response to jasmonates. It also functions in secondary metabolism and various processes for growth and development. However, the knowledge about its role in Salvia miltiorrhiza is still very limited. We determined that the biosynthesis of salvianolic acid B (Sal B was strongly induced in 2-month-old transgenic plants that over-expressed SmMYC2. In the roots of transgenic line 12 that over-expressed SmMYC2 (OEM-12, the Sal B concentration was as high as 5.95 ± 0.07 mg g-1, a level that was 1.88-fold higher than that in control plants that had been transformed with an empty vector. Neither tanshinone IIA nor cryptotanshinone was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography in any of the genotypes. Global transcriptomic analysis using RNA sequencing revealed that most enzyme-encoding genes for the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were up-regulated in the overexpression lines. Furthermore, both the phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis pathways were activated in those transgenics. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of SmMYC2 promotes the production of phenolic acids by simultaneously activating both primary and secondary pathways for metabolism in S. miltiorrhiza.

  17. Essential oil composition of Salvia fruticosa Mill. populations from Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cvetkovikj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO isolated from 19 different populations of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Greek sage, Lamiaceae from nine different regions of Albania and Greece. The EO yield ranged from 0.25% to 4.00%. Eighteen of the total analyzed populations met the Ph.Eur.8.0 minimal requirements concerning the essential oil yield. Performing GC/FID/MS analyses, a total of 75 components were detected, representing 79.15-97.83% of the oils. Thirteen components (α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, γ-terpinene, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, terpinene-4-ol, trans-(E-caryophyllene, aromadendrene and α-humulene were identified in all samples, with 1,8-cineole as a predominant constituent. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical origin of plants did not have significant influence on the variation in chemical composition of the Greek sage essential oil.

  18. [Study on configuration fabric and germinative conditions of Salvia miltiorrhizy seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Liang, Zong-suo; Li, Shao-jun; Liu, Wen-ting; Li, Xiao-Li; Jiang, Chuan-zhong; Wang, Jing-min; Wei, Xin-rong

    2004-10-01

    To provide theoretic warrant and technical reference for Salvia miltiorrhizr standardization planting, by carrying out various systemic studies such as observation of seeds configuration fabric, idiosyncrasy of water absorption and groping germinating conditions. In the study of configuration fabric, seeds were observed and taken photos by scanning electronic microscope, and heft method was used for measuring changes of water absorption velocity and dehydration velocity. Seeds germination conditions were probed into under the national test regulations for crop seeds and related prescription from international standards. (1) There was a layer of slime about 10-20 microm thickness covering epicarp of Danshen seeds. The slime formed as diamond meshwork (reseau) and the weight of it was 8%-10% of total seeds weight. (2) The speed of water absorption of seeds was extremely rapid. The weight of seeds could increase above 10 times as original while the dehydration velocity was quite low. (3) The optimal temperature for the seeds germination is around 25 degrees C, and the germination rate of the new seeds gained yearly was above 75%, but the rate would decrease sharply as years went by. It was also found that the seeds germination power and exponent of vigor were quite high under the temperature transformation between 23 degrees C, 28 degrees C. Such treatments as pre-cool, PEG treatment and infusing with GA3 could increase the rate of seeds germination capacity obviously.

  19. Identification of Salvia haenkei as gerosuppressant agent by using an integrated senescence-screening assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Ivana; Revandkar, Ajinkya; Chen, Jingjing; Bisio, Angela; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Cocetta, Veronica; Brun, Paola; Mancino, Giorgio; Milanese, Martina; Mattei, Maurizio; Montopoli, Monica; Alimonti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that is the causative process of aging. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is implicated in the control of cellular senescence and inhibitors of this pathway have been successfully used for life span prolongation experiments in mammals. PTEN is the major regulator of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and loss of PTEN promotes a senescence response termed PICS. Here we report a novel-screening assay, for the identification of compounds that block different types of senescence response. By testing a library of more than 3000 natural and chemical compounds in PTEN deficient cells we have found that an extract from Salvia haenkei (SH), a native plant of Bolivia is a potent inhibitor of PICS. SH also decreases replicative and UV-mediated senescence in human primary fibroblasts and in a model of in vitro reconstructed human epidermis. Mechanistically, SH treatment affects senescence driven by UV by interfering with IL1-ɑ signalling. Pre-clinical and clinical testing of this extract by performing toxicity and irritability evaluation in vitro also demonstrate the safety of SH extract for clinical use as anti-aging skin treatment. PMID:27922821

  20. Chemical description and essential oil yield variability of different accessions of Salvia lavandulifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Palá-Paúl, Jesús; Rodríguez, Manuel Santa-Cruz; Herraiz-Peñalver, David

    2014-02-01

    The amount and chemical composition of essential oils are crucial for the modulation of the flavor, scent and therapeutic properties of aromatic and medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of phenology and weather conditions on the essential oil yield obtained from the aerial parts of Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl. Besides, we tried to carry out an approach to the chemical composition at the time of full bloom. Essential oil production of several accessions was monitored throughout the whole phenological cycle, both, at the original location growing wild and at the experimental plot as cultivated plants. Local pedoclimatic conditions seem to be crucial for the plant essential oil production. Our results showed high conditioning rates from both yearly climatic conditions and developmental stage of the plants. Maximum yield production was reported at the full seed maturation stage (average 1.74%) and after a slight dry period (average 2.16%). Phytochemical differences were maintained when plants were forced to grow under common pedoclimatic conditions. Thereby, essential oil analysis showed some populations formed by clearly distinct individuals while others had more homogenous plants. Compounds such alpha-pinene, beta-pinene + myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineol, camphor and beta-caryophyllene were the main compounds of the essential oils of S. lavandulifolia.

  1. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricevic, D; Sosa, S; Della Loggia, R; Tubaro, A; Simonovska, B; Krasna, A; Zupancic, A

    2001-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. leaves, obtained from four plant populations of different origin, were investigated for their topical anti-inflammatory properties. The n-hexane and the chloroform extracts dose-dependently inhibited the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice, the chloroform extracts being the most active. By contrast, the methanol extracts showed a very low effect and the essential oil was inactive. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of the most potent chloroform extract, issued from an autochthonous sage population grown in the submediterranean climatic region of Slovenia, revealed ursolic acid as the main component involved in its anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effect of ursolic acid (ID50 = 0.14 microMoles/cm2) was two fold more potent than that of indomethacin (ID50 = 0.26 microMoles/cm2), which was used as a reference non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The content of ursolic acid in sage and sage-based remedies for the topical treatment of inflammatory diseases is proposed as a parameter for quality control purposes.

  2. Diversity of essential oil glands of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, C; Grassi, P; Novak, J; Weber, M; Franz, C

    2008-07-01

    The Lamiaceae is rich in aromatic plant species. Most of these species produce and store essential oils in specialised epidermal oil glands, which are responsible for their specific flavour. Two types of glands producing essential oil and possessing different morphological structure can be found in Salvia sclarea: peltate and capitate glands. The content of single oil glands from different positions on the plant (corolla, calyx and leaf) were sampled using an SPME fibre and analysed by gas chromatography in order to study variability of the essential oil composition. It was found that the composition of terpenoids is quite variable within an individual plant. Capitate oil glands mainly produce three essential oil compounds: the monoterpenes linalool and linalyl acetate, and the diterpene sclareol. Peltate oil glands, however, accumulate noticeable concentrations of sesquiterpenes and an unknown compound (m/z = 354). Furthermore, the oil composition varies within each gland type according to the plant organ. Linalool and linalyl acetate are characteristic substances of flowers, whereas the sesquiterpenes occur in higher proportions in leaves. Even within one gland type on a single leaf, the chemical variability is exceedingly high.

  3. [Diuretic effect of an infusion of the herbal plant, Salvia scutellarioides, in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Jorge Hernán; Palacios, Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Oscar

    2006-03-01

    In the Colombian traditional medicine, an infusion made of the entire plant Salvia scutellarioides (known locally as mastranto or oreja de perro (dog's ear)) is used for its antihypertensive and diuretic effects. However, experimental studies have never been done to validate the reported effects. In the current study, a rat model was used to determine the effect of S. scutellarioides on rat diuresis and urinary electrolytes concentration. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed in four groups: Group 1--normal saline solution, Group 2--furosemide (10 mg/kg), Groups 3 and 4 with S. scutellarioides infusion, 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg respectively. All treatments were administered in a volume of 25 ml/kg of rat weight. After treatment, the rats were placed in a metabolic cage for 6 hours. During this period, urinary excretion was monitored and quantified. At the end of 6 hours, the urinary electrolyte concentrations were measured. The administration of S. scutellarioides at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg produced a significant increase in diuresis when compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The administration of S. scutellarioides at these doses also increased the urinary excretion of potassium and chloride. These results corroborate the apparent diuretic activity of S. scutellarioides described by traditional herbalists and possibly explains its reported antihypertensive effect. Further studies are required to determine the pharmacological and toxicological profile of the plant.

  4. Efecto diurético de la especie Salvia scutellarioides en ratas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernán Ramírez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En la medicina tradicional colombiana se usa la infusión de toda la planta llamada ""mastranto"" u ""oreja de perro"" (Salvia scutellarioides por sus efectos antihipertensivos y diuréticos. Hasta ahora no se han hecho estudios experimentales para validar los efectos reportados. Objetivos. Determinar el efecto de S. scutellarioides en la diuresis y concentración de electrolitos urinarios utilizando un modelo en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Veinticuatro ratas Sprague-Dawley machos fueron repartidas al azar en cuatro grupos homogéneos: el grupo 1 recibió solución salina normal; el grupo 2, furosemida (10 mg/kg, y los grupos 3 y 4, S. scutellarioides (1 g/kg y 2 g/kg, respectivamente. Todos los tratamientos se administraron en un volumen de 25 ml/kg de peso del animal. Las ratas se colocaron en una jaula metabólica durante seis horas, y se cuantificó la excreción urinaria y los electrolitos en orina. Resultados. La administración de S. scutellarioides en dosis de 1 y 2 g/kg produjo un aumento significativo de la diuresis comparado con la del grupo control (p

  5. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R.

    1990-01-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes ( 14 C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism

  6. Oxidative Stress andSalvia miltiorrhizain Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Chun; Hu, Wen-Long; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging-associated cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have some risk factors that are closely related to oxidative stress. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) has been used commonly to treat CVDs for hundreds of years in the Chinese community. We aimed to explore the effects of SM on oxidative stress in aging-associated CVDs. Through literature searches using Medicine, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CINAHL, and Scopus databases, we found that SM not only possesses antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects but also exerts angiogenic and cardioprotective activities. SM may reduce the production of reactive oxygen species by inhibiting oxidases, reducing the production of superoxide, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins, and ameliorating mitochondrial oxidative stress. SM also increases the activities of catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and coupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In addition, SM reduces the impact of ischemia/reperfusion injury, prevents cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction, preserves cardiac function in coronary disease, maintains the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and promotes self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in stroke. However, future clinical well-designed and randomized control trials will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of SM in aging-associated CVDs.

  7. Effect of Salvia chorassanica Root Aqueous, Ethanolic and Hydro Alcoholic Extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Mehraban

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, through the previous researches, it has become clear that Salvia has important health benefits. Salvia chorassanica is one of the valuable native Iranian species which only grows in Khorasan province, Iran. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Salvia chorassanica root aqueous, ethanolic and hydro alcoholic extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Methods In this experimental study, maceration method was used to prepare extracts. Study setup was conducted in March 2014.The duration of study setup took for two months. The micro dilution method by ELISA was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of aqueous, ethanolic and hydro alcoholic extracts of root of Salvia chorassanica against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial effect also was evaluated using agar diffusion method. The inhibition zones of growth against the extracts were measured in comparison to standards antibiotics. Chloramphenicol as positive control on Enterococcus faecalis, Tetracycline on Staphylococcus aureus, Gentamicin on Escherichia coli and Neomycin on Salmonella typhimurium. The data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with SPSS version 16. Results The highest inhibition zone in diffusion method was related to ethanolic extract of Salvia chorassanica root against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The calculated MIC in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of root for Staphylococcus aureus was 240 and 120 mg/mL, for Enterococcus faecalis was 120 and 60 mg/mL respectively, and for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was equal to 240 mg/mL. The amount in hydro alcoholic extracts for Gram-positive bacteria was 60 mg/mL and for Gram-negative bacteria was 120 mg/mL. The

  8. The Effect of Salvia Rhytidea Extract on the Number of Cells of Different Layers of Cerebellar Cortex Following Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farahmand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Salvia has anti-oxidant oxygen free radicals which are generated during the interruption and reestablishment of ischemia reperfusion.  The aim of study was to investigate the effect of Salvia Rhytidea extract on the number of cells of different layers of cerebellar cortex following ischemia reperfusion in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 35 adult male rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 5: Group 1 (control-: Sampling without ischemia. Group 2 (control +: Cerebellar ischemia with administration of normal saline. Group 3(sham: Manipulation without ischemia with normal saline administration. Group 4   received (3.2 mg/kg aqueous and alcoholic Salvia extract 2 hours after ischemia. Group 5 received 50 mg/kg silymarin drug, 2 hours after ischemia. Group 6 received 3.2 mg/kg aqueous and alcoholic Salvia extract 72, 48, 24 and 0 h before ischemia and group 7 received silymarin drug (50 mg/kg, 0, 24, 48, and 72, hrs. before ischemia. 24 hrs. following reperfusion, the rats were euthanized and samples of the cerebellum were obtained. By using routine histological technique, the sections were stained by H&E. The measurement of cell count in cerebellar cortex were accomplished. Data were evaluated with One-Way ANOVA and Tukey diagnostic tests. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the number of neural cells in granular layer in the non-treated ischemia group and in the groups which received Salvia extract and silymarin, two hours after the ischemia (p< 0.05. No significant decrease was observed in the number of cells of this layer in the groups which received salvia extract before ischemia. But regarding the cell number of molecular and purkinje layers in above groups, no significant difference was observed compared to the control group (P˃0.05. However, no significant differences was seen in the number of cells layers compared to the control group (P˃0.05. Conclusion: Finally, administration of

  9. Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food.

  10. Grain boundary melting in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wilen, L. A.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentr...

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE Salvia hispanica L. CULTIVADA EN EL SUR DE SANTA FE (REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA)

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Busilacchi; Mirta Quiroga; Mirian Bueno; Osvaldo Di Sapio; Voykos Flores; Cecilia Severin

    2013-01-01

    Salvia hispanica L. (chía)-Lamiaceae, es una especie de interés dietario-medicinal, fuente de ácidos grasos Omega-6 y Omega-3, proteínas, antioxidantes y fibras solubles e insolubles. No existen suficientes datos disponibles sobre las posibilidades de llevar el cultivo a término en el sur de la provincia de Santa Fe, considerando principalmente la incidencia de heladas tardías. Ante la escasez de información sobre el cultivo a campo de S. hispanica en diferentes regiones de Argentina, teni...

  12. Composition and variability of the essential oil of Salvia nemorosa (Lamiaceae) from the Vienna area of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzola, Remigius

    2012-12-01

    The volatiles present in the aerial parts of Salvia nemorosa L. (Lamiaceae), grave sage, were analysed by GC/MS and GC in plants growing at different sites in the outskirts of Vienna, Austria. The flower oils contained mainly sabinene (37-44%), germacrene D (9-14%), beta-caryophyllene (8-12%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.6-4.4%). Leaf samples had beta-caryophyllene (14-41%), germacrene D (14-38%) and caryophyllene oxide (5-20%) as main compounds, while stem oils were characterized by an high hexadecanoic acid percentage besides germacrene D and beta-caryophyllene.

  13. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Walch, Stephan G.; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentration...

  14. Evaluation of toxic/protective effects of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis on freshly isolated rat hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Cristóvão F.; Carvalho, Felix; Fernandes, Eduarda; Bastos, Maria de Lurdes; Gomes, P. Santos; Ferreira, Manuel Fernandes; Wilson, Cristina Pereira

    2004-01-01

    For this study the essential oil (EO) of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) was isolated from air-dried vegetative aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total yield of 12.07 mg of EO per g of plant dry mass was obtained and more than 50 compounds identified. The major compounds were cis-thujone (17.4 %), alpha-humulene (13.3 %), 1,8-cineole (12.7 %), E-caryophyllene (8.5 %) and borneol (8.3 %). The EO fraction of sage tea was also isolated by partition with...

  15. Shock processing of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Shock processing plays an important role in the life of a typical interstellar grain. Shocks of 100 km/s-l or greater can destroy about 50% of the grain material under appropriate preshock conditions of density and magnetic field. The destruction occurs by grain-grain collisions and nonthermal sputtering for steady state radiative shocks and by thermal sputtering for fast adiabatic shocks. The evaluation of the lifetime of grains against shock destruction depends on models of the interstellar medium (ISM) structure and on supernova remnants (SNR) evolution. Results from various authors give lifetimes between 10 to the 8th and 10 to the 9th power years, compared to typical injection times for new grains of a few times 10 to the 9th power years. These numbers require that a major portion of the interstellar silicon bearing grain material must be formed by grain growth in the ISM. At the same time, the presence of isotopic anomalies in some meteorites implies that at least some grains must survive from their formation in SNRs or red giant winds through incorporation into the solar system

  16. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  17. Substituting maize grain with barley grain in concentrates fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of substituting maize grain with barley grain in the diet of lactating Jersey cows grazing kikuyu-ryegrass pasture. Sixty Jersey cows were blocked in terms of number of days in milk, lactation number, milk yield and live weight and randomly assigned to one of five treatments (n ...

  18. Development of New Microsatellite Markers for Salvia officinalis L. and Its Potential Use in Conservation-Genetic Studies of Narrow Endemic Salvia brachyodon Vandas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine new microsatellite markers (SSR were isolated from Salvia officinalis L. A total of 125 alleles, with 8 to 21 alleles per locus, were detected in a natural population from the east Adriatic coast. The observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.46 to 0.83, 0.73 to 0.93 and 0.70 to 0.92, respectively. New microsatellite markers, as well as previously published markers, were tested for cross-amplification in Salvia brachyodon Vandas, a narrow endemic species known to be present in only two localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Out of 30 microsatellite markers tested on the natural S. brachyodon population, 15 were successfully amplified. To obtain evidence of recent bottleneck events in the populations of both species, observed genetic diversity (HE was compared to the expected genetic diversity at mutation-drift equilibrium (HEQ and calculated from the observed number of alleles using a two-phased mutation model (TPM. Recent bottleneck events were detected only in the S. brachyodon population. This result suggests the need to reconsider the current threat category of this endemic species.

  19. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the β-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-[G- 3 H]camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess β-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2[U- 14 C]campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C 14 to C 20 ) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots

  20. Effect of Water Deficit on Water Relations, Photosynthesis and Osmolytes Accumulation of Salvia leriifolia Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dashti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of water deficit (WD stress on water relations and some physiological characteristics of Salvia leriifolia Bench., a greenhouse experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with three replications. Irrigation treatments were fully irrigated as control (-0.035 MPa, mild stress (-0.138 MPa, moderate stress (-0.516 MPa and severe stress (-1.92 MPa. One set of stressed plants were kept constantly in different levels of matric potentials and the other set (Recovery treatments irrigated to maximum water holding capacity after soil water was depleted in each stress level. Measured parameters were leaf relative water content (LRWC, membrane stability index (MSI, prolin and soluble carbohydrates content, gas exchange parameters, Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency (WUEi and Intrinsic Gas Exchange Efficiency (GEEi. The results showed that LRWC and MSI in control plants significantly (P≤0.05 were lower than mild stress but decreased 17.3% and 21% respectively in severe stress compared to control. Soluble carbohydrates content was increased with increasing WD levels but it was only significant with control plants. There was strong negative correlation between LRWC and proline content (r= -0.99***, therefore leaves proline content increased twice (1023 nmol per g fresh weight at -1.92 Mpa compared to control. Results also indicated that gas exchange parameters were not significantly difference in mild WD against control but with decreasing soil matric potential to -1.92 Mpa, net photosynthesis rate (A, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance (gs decreased 52, 62 and 75 % respectively. In contrast WUEi and GEE increased 35 and 92% respectively.

  1. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Rubi Segura Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa. ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fractions. The hydrolysate was extensive (DH = 51.64% and had 58.46% ACE-inhibitory activity. Inhibition ranged from 53.84% to 69.31% in the five ultrafiltered fractions and was highest in the <1 kDa fraction (69.31%. This fraction’s amino acid composition was identified and then it was purified by gel filtration chromatography and ACE-I inhibition measured in the purified fractions. Amino acid composition suggested that hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to chia peptide ACE-I inhibitory strength, probably by blocking angiotensin II production. Inhibitory activity ranged from 48.41% to 62.58% in the purified fractions, but fraction F1 (1.5–2.5 kDa exhibited the highest inhibition (IC50 = 3.97 μg/mL; 427–455 mL elution volume. The results point out the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from chia proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequentional system.

  2. Characterization of protein fractions and antioxidant activity of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Kačmárová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L. is an annual herbaceous plant categorized under Lamiaceae family. Chia seeds were investigated as a source of proteins and natural antioxidants. It is a potential alternative source of high quality protein, fats, carbohydrates, high dietary fibre, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate chia seed from protein content and antioxidant acivity and highlight the quality of this pseudocereal. A crude protein, moisture content, content of protein fractions, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activity of chia seeds and food products containing chia seeds were determined. The protein content of chia seeds ranged from 2.9% to 4.6% dry matter from that albumins and globulins ranged from 54.6% to 62.8%. Chia is poor in a prolamines (<15%. Various chia seeds showed differences in their SOD activity and exhibited the high antiradical activity against 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in sample chia seeds from Bolivia (1.46 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter and the lowest values of antioxidant activity was estimated in sample chia seeds from Argentina (1.05 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter. The highest SOD activity was determined in sample chia from Argentina (2191.8 U.g-1 in the dry matter. The lowest SOD activity was found in sample chia-bio from Argentina (754.0 U.g-1 in the dry matter.. It makes them potentially suitable for use in the gluten-free diet of coeliac people and it can be used as a potential ingredient in health food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  3. Evaluation of antiviral activity of fractionated extracts of sage Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmidling Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity and extracellular and intracellular antiviral activity of frac­tionated extracts of wild and cultivated sage Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in vitro using the WISH-VSV model system. Extracts were obtained by fractionating depigmented ethanol extracts of sage plants with supercritical CO2 at different pressures. Cytotoxicity was determined by examining cellular morphology in situ with the aid of a colorimetric micromethod and by cell staining with trypan blue. The fraction of distilled cultivated sage obtained at CO2 pressure of 300 bars and temperature of 60°C (149/3 was the most cytotoxic, with CTD10 44 μg/ml. That of non-distilled cultivated sage obtained at CO2 pressure of 500 bars and temperature of 100°C (144/5 was the least toxic (CTD10 199 μg/ml. Moreover, 144/5 had an antiviral effect at the intracellular level: when added 5 hours before VSV infection, it caused 100% reduction of CPE at concentrations of 99.5 and 199.0 μg/ml; when added after virus penetration had occurred, the same concentrations caused 35 and 60% reduction, respectively. The obtained results indicate that antiviral activity of 144/5 involves inhibition of the early steps of the virus infective cycle without a direct virucidal effect. Abbreviations: WISH - human amnion epithelial cells, VSV - vesicular stomatitis virus, HSV - herpes simplex virus, CPE - cytopathic effect, IS - selectivity index, TCID50 - tissue culture infective dose, CTD10 - 10% cytotoxic concentrations.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Squalene Synthase 2(SQS2 in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixian Rong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge,which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine,is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21 converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In the present study, cloning and characterization of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge squalene synthase 2 (SmSQS2, Genbank Accession Number: KM408605 cDNA was investigated subsequently followed by its recombinant expression and preliminary enzyme activity. The full-length cDNA of SmSQS2 was 1 597 bp in length, with an open reading frame (ORF of 1 245 bp encoding 414 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmSQS2 shared high similarity with those of SQSs from other plants. To obtain soluble recombinant enzymes, the truncated SmSQS2 in which 28 amino acids were deleted from the carboxy terminus was expressed as GST-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with farnesyl diphosphate and NADPH. GC-MS analysis showed that squalene was detected in the in vitro reaction mixture. The gene expression level was analyzed through Quantitative real-time PCR, and was found to be higher in roots as compared to the leaves, and was up-regulated upon YE+ Ag+ treatment. These results could serve as an important to understand the function of the SQS family. In addition, the identification of SmSQS2 is important for further studies of terpenoid and sterol biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Squalene Synthase 2(SQS2) in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qixian; Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yijun; Shen, Ye; Yuan, Qingjun; Lin, Huixin; Zha, Liangping; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In the present study, cloning and characterization of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge squalene synthase 2 (SmSQS2, Genbank Accession Number: KM408605) cDNA was investigated subsequently followed by its recombinant expression and preliminary enzyme activity. The full-length cDNA of SmSQS2 was 1 597 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 1 245 bp encoding 414 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmSQS2 shared high similarity with those of SQSs from other plants. To obtain soluble recombinant enzymes, the truncated SmSQS2 in which 28 amino acids were deleted from the carboxy terminus was expressed as GST-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with FPP and NADPH. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis showed that squalene was detected in the in vitro reaction mixture. The gene expression level was analyzed through Quantitative real-time PCR, and was found to be higher in roots as compared to the leaves, and was up-regulated upon YE+ Ag(+) treatment. These results could serve as an important to understand the function of the SQS family. In addition, the identification of SmSQS2 is important for further studies of terpenoid and sterol biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  6. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to prepare controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum as natural polymer. Tablets were formulated by direct compression technology employing the natural polymer in different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w. The prepared batches were evaluated for drug assay, diameter, thickness, hardness and tensile strength, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength (using texture analyzer and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Real-time stability studies were also conducted on prepared batches. In vitro drug release data were fitted in various release kinetic models for studying the mechanism of drug release. Tensile strength was found to increase from 0.808 ± 0.098 to 1.527 ± 0.10 mN/cm 2 and mucoadhesive strength increased from 13.673 ± 1.542 to 40.378 ± 2.345 N, with an increase in the polymer concentration from 5 to 20% (A1 to A4. Swelling index was reported to increase with both increase in the concentration of gum and the time duration. The in vitro drug release decreased from 97.76 to 83.4% (A1 to A4 with the increase in polymer concentration. The drug release from the matrix tablets was found to follow zero-order and Higuchi models, indicating the matrix-forming potential of natural polymer. The value of n was found to be between 0.5221 and 0.8992, indicating the involvement of more than one drug release mechanism from the formulation and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. These research findings clearly indicate the potential of S. plebeian gum to be used as binder, release retardant and mucoadhesive natural material in tablet formulations.

  7. Composition of the Essential Oil of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae and Its Insecticidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Cecilia Cárdenas-Ortega

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils can be used as an alternative to using synthetic insecticides for pest management. Therefore, the insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae were tested against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The results demonstrated insecticidal and insectistatical activities against this insect pest with concentrations at 80 µg·mL−1 resulting in 20% larval viability and 10% pupal viability. The larval viability fifty (LV50 corresponded to a concentration of 128.8 µg·mL−1. This oil also increased the duration of the larval phase by 5.5 days and reduced the pupal weight by 29.2% withrespect to the control. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of S. ballotiflora showed its main components to be caryophyllene oxide (15.97%, and β-caryophyllene (12.74%, which showed insecticidal and insectistatical activities against S. frugiperda. The insecticidal activity of β-caryophyllene began at 80 µg·mL−1, giving a larval viability of 25% and viability pupal of 20%. The insectistatic activity also started at 80 µg·mL−1 reducing the pupal weight by 22.1% with respect to control. Caryophyllene oxide showed insecticidal activity at 80 µg·mL−1 giving a larval viability of 35% and viability pupal of 20%.The insectistatic activity started at 400 µg·mL−1 and increased the larval phase by 8.8% days with respect to control. The LV50 values for these compounds were 153.1 and 146.5 µg·mL−1, respectively.

  8. Possible therapeutic uses of Salvia triloba and Piper nigrum in Alzheimer's disease-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Salem, Ahmed M; Sabry, Gilane M; Husein, Ahmed A; Kotob, Soheir E

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of Salvia triloba L. and Piper nigrum extracts in ameliorating neuroinflammatory insults characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an experimentally induced rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into Group 1 (n=10): normal healthy animals serving as the negative control group; Group 2 (n=60): the AD-induced group. After AD induction, animals in the AD-induced group were divided randomly and equally into 6 subgroups. The first subgroup served as AD control; the second one, which served as positive control, was treated orally with the conventional therapy for AD (rivastigmine) at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) daily for 3 months. The third and fourth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the S. triloba extract at a dose of 750 and 375 mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. The fifth and sixth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the P. nigrum extract at a dose of 187.5 and 93.75 mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. Levels of brain acetylcholine (Ach), serum and brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, C-reactive protein (CRP), total nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were estimated. The results showed that administration of AlCl3 resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of AchE activity, CRP, NF-κB, and MCP-1 accompanied with a significant depletion in the Ach level. Treatment of AD rats with each of the selected medicinal plant extracts caused marked improvement in the measured biochemical parameters. In conclusion, S. triloba and P. nigrum methanolic extracts have potent anti-inflammatory effects against neuroinflammation characterizing AD.

  9. Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stešević, Danijela; Ristić, Mihailo; Nikolić, Vuko; Nedović, Marijana; Caković, Danka; Šatović, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), α-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and α-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between α-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and α-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, α-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and α-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Effect of Sunlight Radiation on the Growth and Chemical Constituents of Salvia plebeia R.Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jae Jang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition changes of Salvia plebeia R.Br. cultivated under different light sources, including florescent light and sunlight. The plants were exposed to fluorescent light for four months and sunlight and then examined for the next 5–7 months. Plants were harvested monthly during the seven months, and we examined whether the difference in light source affected the phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. A simple and reliable HPLC method using a PAH C18 column was applied for the quantitative analysis of two triterpenoids from the S. plebeia groups. Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9999 within the test ranges (0.005–0.05 mg/mL, and the average percentage recoveries of the OA and UA were 95.1–104.8% and 97.2–107.1%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs were less than 2.0%. After exposure to sunlight, the phenolic contents, including rosmarinic acid, showed a reduced tendency, whereas the flavonoid contents, including homoplantaginin and luteolin 7-glucoside, were increased. The content of the triterpenoids also showed an increased tendency under sunlight irradiation, but the variance was not larger than those of the phenolic and flavonoid contents. Among experimental groups, the group harvested at six months, having been exposed to sunlight for two months, showed the most potent antioxidant activity. Therefore, these results showed that the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of S. plebeia R.Br. was affected from environmental culture conditions, such as light source. Our studies will be useful for the development of functional materials using S. plebeia R.Br.

  11. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  12. New Insights into the Functional Morphology of the Lever Mechanism of Salvia pratensis (Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Martin; Baumann, Gisela; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine; Speck, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The functional morphology of Salvia pratensis flowers was re-investigated, after new insights revealed that pollen dispensing is one of the main functions of the staminal lever. In particular, no detailed information was available regarding the process of pollen transfer and the forces arising between the pollen-bearing thecae and the pollinating bee's body. The assumption was made that these forces play a significant role in pollen dispensing. Methods The functional morphology of S. pratensis flowers and the interaction between flowers and bees (Apis mellifera) were studied by reconstructing stress and strains by using qualitative and semi-quantitative theoretical analysis. Flowers were manipulated to study the spatial arrangement of the filament and lever, and of the head and proboscis of the visiting bee inside the tube. Photographs and films of bee visits on flowers were used to analyse the interaction of pollinator and staminal lever. Key Results The spoon-shaped lower lever of S. pratensis has a small hole through which a bee introduces its proboscis into the corolla tube. Although mentioned for the first time by Kerner von Marilaun in 1891, presented here is the first drawing and the first photograph showing this interaction in detail. The analysis of the interaction of flower visitor and the lever mechanism revealed that the position of bees on different flowers is spatially very similar. Flower morphology constrains postures of legitimately nectar-probing bees within narrow bounds. A theoretical discussion on structural elements and force progression in the flower allows the principles of lightweight architecture in flower morphology to be recognized. Conclusions The staminal lever of S. pratensis is a pollen-dispensing device. It seems to influence the amount of pollen deposited on pollinators by determining the forces arising between the pollinator and the pollen. The relevant forces occur either during the first, dynamic phase or

  13. The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jonathan D; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N

    2017-06-29

    Background: Common sage ( Salvia officinalis ) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb. A literature survey has revealed that sage oils can vary widely in their chemical compositions. The purpose of this study was to examine sage essential oil from different sources/origins and to define the possible chemotypes of sage oil. Methods: Three different samples of sage leaf essential oil have been obtained and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on 185 sage oil compositions reported in the literature as well as the three samples in this study. Results: The major components of the three sage oils were the oxygenated monoterpenoids α-thujone (17.2-27.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.9-26.9%), and camphor (12.8-21.4%). The cluster analysis revealed five major chemotypes of sage oil, with the most common being a α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole chemotype, of which the three samples in this study belong. The other chemotypes are an α-humulene-rich chemotype, a β-thujone-rich chemotype, a 1,8-cineole/camphor chemotype, and a sclareol/α-thujone chemotype. Conclusions: Most sage oils belonged to the "typical", α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole, chemotype, but the essential oil compositions do vary widely and may have a profound effect on flavor and fragrance profiles as well as biological activities. There are currently no studies correlating sage oil composition with fragrance descriptions or with biological activities.

  14. Development of the trophic part of consortia’s relations of the gossamer-winged butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae with Salvia nutans (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Goloborodko

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of dummy individual consortia of Salvia nutans L. an important component of fertilization mechanism – the dynamics of trophic relations of antophylus agents with an entomophilous angiosperm autotroph was investigated. The dominant position in species structure of fertilizers in conditionally native steppe ecosystems is occupied by relict TomaresnogelidobrogensisCar.

  15. In vivo evaluation of antiparasitic effects of Artemisia abrotanum and Salvia officinalis extracts on Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculoris tetrapetra and Hymenolepis nana parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amirmohammadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Salvia officinalis and Artemisia abrotanum extracts against digestive system parasites of mice. Methods: The ethanol extract was prepared and dissolved in distilled water. The mebendazole was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. After counting eggs per gram feces, infected mice with 16 eggs per gram feces contained two to three parasites of Syphacia obvelata, Aspicoloris terepetra and Hymenolipis nana designated in 4 groups. The first group was given extracts of Artemisia (150 mg/kg, the second group was given Salvia extract (150 mg/kg, the third group was given mebendazole (10 mg/kg and finally the fourth group was given distilled water (2 mL/kg. Results: The ethanol extracts of Artemisia and Salvia plants reduced the number of parasite eggs per gram of feces. Results showed significant reduction (P-value<0.001 in the number of eggs excreted by Hymenolepis nana, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata in mice. Conclusions: These results revealed that antiparasitic effects of Artemisia and Salvia are reasonable and these two plants might be used as antiparasitic natural products.

  16. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GENETIC EROSION IN THE PROCESS OF EXTINCTION .1. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION IN SALVIA-PRATENSIS AND SCABIOSA-COLUMBARIA IN RELATION TO POPULATION-SIZE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANTREUREN, R; BIJLSMA, R; VANDELDEN, W; OUBORG, NJ

    As part of a programme to determine the importance of the loss of genetic variation for the probability of population extinction, the amount of allozyme variation was determined in 14 populations of Salvia pratensis and in 12 populations of Scabiosa columbaria. Significant correlations were found

  17. Salvianolic acid B, an antioxidant from Salvia miltiorrhiza, prevents A beta(25-35)-induced reduction in BPRP in PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yan-Hua; Liu, Ai-Hua; Wu, Hong-Li; Westenbroek, Christel; Song, Qian-Liu; Yu, He-Ming; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Li, Xue-Jun; Li, Xiang-yi

    2006-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support that beta-amyloid (A beta)-induced neurotoxicity is mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevation of intracellular calcium. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), the major and most active anti-oxidant from Salvia miltiorrhiza. protects diverse

  18. Alignment of suprathermally rotating grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarian, A.

    1995-12-01

    It is shown that mechanical alignment can be efficient for suprathermally rotating grains, provided that they drift with supersonic velocities. Such a drift should be widely spread due to both Alfvenic waves and ambipolar diffusion. Moreover, if suprathermal rotation is caused by grain interaction with a radiative flux, it is shown that mechanical alignment may be present even in the absence of supersonic drift. This means that the range of applicability of mechanical alignment is wider than generally accepted and that it can rival the paramagnetic one. We also study the latter mechanism and re-examine the interplay between poisoning of active sites and desorption of molecules blocking the access to the active sites of H_2 formation, in order to explain the observed poor alignment of small grains and good alignment of large grains. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of alignment, we briefly discuss the alignment by radiation fluxes and by grain magnetic moments.

  19. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity among some accessions of sage (Salvia officinalis L. using electrophoresis of seed storage proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Mirjalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salvia (Lamiaceae comprises over 900 species in the world, with a relatively wide dispersion in the Iran’s flora. Until now, about 58 species of the genus have been reported and identified in Iran, in which 17 of them were endemic. In order to study, investigate and evaluate the intraspecific diversity, similarity and dissimilarity among Iranian Salvia officinalis accessions, an experiment was carried out using SDS-PAGE technique. In this study, the seeds from five accessions were collected from gene bank and were evaluated. The seed storage proteins were extracted by buffers and were measured. Phylogenetic relationships were analyzed according to presence and absence of bands on the gel. A dendrogram was prepared using calculation of the accession’s similarity index. Mean comparison were done by Tukey’s test. The seed protein contents showed significant differences (p≤0.01 among accessions. A total of 39 bands were indicated on the gel. The maximum diversity was detected in the accession No. 2 while, the lowest band’s number were recorded with the accessions No. 1 and 5. Based on dendrogram, the accessions were divided into two groups; one includes accession No. 1 and 4 other accessions were located in the second group further classified into two subgroup including accessions No. 2 and 3 in one clade and accessions No. 4 and 5 in the other ones.

  1. Systematic review of clinical trials assessing pharmacological properties of Salvia species on memory, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Quattropani, Maria C; Calapai, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2014-06-01

    Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia lavandulaefolia L. have a longstanding use as traditional herbal remedies that can enhance memory and improve cognitive functions. Pharmacological actions of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia on healthy subjects and on patients suffering of cognitive decline have been investigated. Aim of this review was to summarize published clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia in the enhancement of cognitive performance in healthy subjects and neurodegenerative illnesses. Furthermore, to purchase a more complete view on safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia, we collected and discussed articles regarding toxicity and adverse reactions. Eight clinical studies investigating on acute effects of S. officinalis on healthy subjects were included in the review. Six studies investigated on the effects of S. officinalis and S. lavandaeluaefolia on cognitive performance in healthy subjects. The two remaining were carried out to study the effects of sage on Azheimer's disease. Our review shows that S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia exert beneficial effects by enhancing cognitive performance both in healthy subjects and patients with dementia or cognitive impairment and is safe for this indication. Unfortunately, promising beneficial effects are debased by methodological issues, use of different herbal preparations (extracts, essential oil, use of raw material), lack of details on herbal products used. We believe that sage promising effects need further higher methodological standard clinical trials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Improving the Classification Accuracy for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Chinese Salvia miltiorrhiza Using Local Variable Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianqing Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the classification accuracy of Chinese Salvia miltiorrhiza using near-infrared spectroscopy, a novel local variable selection strategy is thus proposed. Combining the strengths of the local algorithm and interval partial least squares, the spectra data have firstly been divided into several pairs of classes in sample direction and equidistant subintervals in variable direction. Then, a local classification model has been built, and the most proper spectral region has been selected based on the new evaluation criterion considering both classification error rate and best predictive ability under the leave-one-out cross validation scheme for each pair of classes. Finally, each observation can be assigned to belong to the class according to the statistical analysis of classification results of the local classification model built on selected variables. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through near-infrared spectra of cultivated or wild Salvia miltiorrhiza, which are collected from 8 geographical origins in 5 provinces of China. For comparison, soft independent modelling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis methods are, respectively, employed as the classification model. Experimental results showed that classification performance of the classification model with local variable selection was obvious better than that without variable selection.

  3. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  4. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  5. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GRAIN MICRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  6. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrients, including dietary fiber , several B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate), and minerals ( iron , magnesium , and selenium). Dietary fiber from whole grains or other foods, may help reduce blood cholesterol levels and may ...

  7. Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph; Mehl, H. L.; Acharya, Bhupendra

    2017-01-01

    Offers data about the grain sorghum testing program, and evaluations of commercial and experimental varieties of grain sorghum. Statistical analyses are provided, as well as information on relative yield, grain moisture, head mold, and more.

  8. Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph; Thomason, Wade Everett; Pitman, Robert Melvin, 1948-; Mehl, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Offers data about the grain sorghum testing program, and evaluations of commercial and experimental varieties of grain sorghum. Statistical analyses are provided, as well as information on relative yield, grain moisture, head mold, and more.

  9. Continuing treatment with Salvia miltiorrhiza injection attenuates myocardial fibrosis in chronic iron-overloaded mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available Iron overload cardiomyopathy results from iron accumulation in the myocardium that is closely linked to iron-mediated myocardial fibrosis. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM, also known as Danshen, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been widely used for hundreds of years to treat cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effect and potential mechanism of SM on myocardial fibrosis induced by chronic iron overload (CIO in mice. Kunming male mice (8 weeks old were randomized to six groups of 10 animals each: control (CONT, CIO, low-dose SM (L-SM, high-dose SM (H-SM, verapamil (VRP and deferoxamine (DFO groups. Normal saline was injected in the CONT group. Mice in the other five groups were treated with iron dextran at 50 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally for 7 weeks, and those in the latter four groups also received corresponding daily treatments, including 3 g/kg or 6 g/kg of SM, 100 mg/kg of VRP, or 100 mg/kg of DFO. The iron deposition was estimated histologically using Prussian blue staining. Myocardial fibrosis was determined by Masson's trichrome staining and hydroxyproline (Hyp quantitative assay. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA content and protein expression levels of type I collagen (COL I, type I collagen (COL III, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 were analyzed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of SM against iron-overloaded fibrosis. Treatment of chronic iron-overloaded mice with SM dose-dependently reduced iron deposition levels, fibrotic area percentage, Hyp content, expression levels of COL I and COL III, as well as upregulated the expression of TGF- β1 and MMP-9 proteins in the heart. Moreover, SM treatment decreased MDA content and increased SOD activity. In conclusion, SM exerted activities against cardiac fibrosis induced by CIO, which may be attributed to its inhibition of iron deposition, as well as collagen metabolism and oxidative

  10. Fatty acid profile of goat milk in diets supplemented with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, B; Vega, S; Gutiérrez, R; Escobar, A; Romero, J; Domínguez, E; González-Ronquillo, M

    2017-08-01

    Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) is the greatest known plant source of n-3 α-linolenic acid. The present study evaluated the effects of 3 inclusion levels of chia seed [zero (control); low, 2.7% (CLow); and high, 5.5% (CHigh)] in diets of dairy goats on milk yield and fatty acid profile. Nine Saanen dairy goats in the last third of lactation period, live weight 38 ± 8.7 kg, housed in metabolic cages, were fed iso-proteic and iso-energetic (160 g of crude protein/d and 11 MJ of metabolizable energy/d) diets. Gas chromatography was used to analyze fatty acid profile and total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Silver ion HPLC was used to analyze the isomeric profile of CLA. The results were subjected to variance analysis using a Latin square design repeated 3 × 3. The CHigh treatment was higher for dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber intake compared with CLow and control diets. Digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of chia seeds. The CHigh diet improved N intake with respect to the control and CLow diet. Milk yield and chemical composition were not affected by the treatment. The milk fatty acid profile of C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C:20 was higher for CHigh than the other treatments. The in vitro gas production (mL of gas/g of dry matter) was lower in CHigh than the control diet. In conclusion, the addition of chia seeds at the CHigh level in dairy goat diets negatively affected in vitro rumen fermentation, but increased the milk fatty acid profile of C18:0, C18:1n-9 cis, and C:20, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The total CLA content increased from 0.33 to 0.73% with the supplementation of chia to the diet, as well as the isomers cis-9,trans-11, trans-7,cis-9, trans-11,cis-13, and trans-12,trans-14. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endophyte Chaetomium globosum D38 Promotes Bioactive Constituents Accumulation and Root Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza is known for tanshinones and salvianolic acids, which have been shown to have a protective effect against ROS, especially for cardiovascular diseases and other various ailments of human organs. Due to the low yield of tanshinones and their analogs in S. miltiorrhiza, multiple stimulation strategies have been developed to improve tanshinones production in plant tissue cultures. Endophytic fungi have been reported to form different relationships with their host plants, including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic, and parasitic interactions. Thus we take the assumption that endophytic fungi may be a potential microbial tool for secondary metabolism promotion in medicinal plants. We recently isolated Chaetomium globosum D38 from the roots of S. miltiorrhiza and our study aimed to examine the effects of this live endophytic fungus D38 and its elicitor on the accumulation of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures of S. miltiorrhiza. Our results revealed that C. globosum D38 mainly colonized in the intercellular gap of xylem parenchyma cells of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots during the long term co-existence without any toxicity. Moreover, both of the live fungus and its mycelia extract could increase the production of tanshinones, especially for dihydrotanshinone I and cryptotanshinone. The effect of the mycelia extract was much stronger than that of the live fungus on tanshinones synthesis, which significantly increased the transcriptional activity of those key genes in tanshinone biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the live C. globosum D38 could also be made into biotic fertilizer used for S. miltiorrhiza seedlings culture, which not only significantly promoted the growth of the host plant, but also notably enhanced the accumulation of tanshinones and salvianolic acids. We thus speculated that, in the soil environment D38 could form bitrophic and mutual beneficial interactions with the host and enhance the plant growth and its

  12. Grain boundary melting in ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Wilen, L. A.

    2013-03-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentration. Although we understand that the interfacial surface charge densities qs and solute concentrations can potentially dominate the film thickness, we cannot directly measure them within a given grain boundary. Therefore, as a framework for interpreting the data we consider two appropriate qs dependent limits; one is dominated by the colligative effect and other is dominated by electrostatic interactions.

  13. Complex Chemistry on Interstellar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Kelley, Matthew J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    Early interstellar chemical models considered complex molecule formation on grains [Allen & Robinson (1977)], but current models assume that simple molecules form on grains and subsequent gas phase ion-molecule reactions produce the more complex species [Ruffle & Herbst (2001), Charnley (2001)]. It has been shown, however, that gas phase ion-molecule reactions are insufficient for the production of such complex organic species as ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO) [Horn et al. (2004)]. Organics such as acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), ethanol, methyl formate, acetic acid (CH3COOH), and glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) have also been detected in high abundance in regions of grain mantle disruption or evaporation, indicating that these species are formed on grain surfaces [see Chengalur & Kanekar (2003), Bottinelli et al. (2004), Hollis et al. (2001)]. The mechanisms for complex molecule production on grains are clearly much more important, and much more complex, than has been recognized. Recent observational studies of these types of species have offered insight into the mechanisms for their possible grain surface synthesis. The relative hot core abundances of the 2C structural isomers methyl formate, acetic acid, and glycolaldehyde (52:2:1, respectively [Hollis et al. (2001)]) indicate that if they form on grains it is not from kinetically-controlled single-atom addition reactions. Likewise, the 3C aldose sugar, glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO), was not detected in Sgr B2(N-LMH) [Hollis et al. (2004)] while the 3C ketose sugar, dihydroxyacetone (CO(CH2OH)2) was detected in this source [Widicus Weaver & Blake (2005)]. Chemical pathways favoring the more stable carbonates over acids and aldehydes are required to explain these results. Interestingly, all of these species can be formed from reactions involving the abundant grain mantle constituents CO, HCOOH, and CH3OH and their radical precursors. A model has been developed to investigate this type of chemical network, and

  14. An unusual racemic C12-norabietane diterpene and a new abietane diterpene alkaloid from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue-Ge; He, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Xue; Zhang, Jia; Ma, Bing-Zhi; Zhang, Wei-Ku; Xu, Jie-Kun

    2018-03-01

    A rare C 12 -norabietane diterpene racemate (1) and a new abietane diterpene alkaloid (2) were isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Their structures were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, and 1 was successfully resolved by chiral HPLC, demonstrating that 1 is racemic. The absolute configurations of 1a [(+)-miltiorolide A], 1b [(-)-miltiorolide A], and 2 were determined using TDDFT-ECD calculations. 1a and 1b are the first examples of enantiomeric C 12 -norabietane diterpenes featuring an isobutylene with a tetrahydronaphthalene-butyrolactone ring system. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates (1 and 2) were evaluated against three human cancer cell lines BEL-7402, HT-29 and PANC-28. A plausible biogenetic pathway of 1 was also proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ajmal; Fazal Rahman; Muhammad Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g).Co...

  16. Apparent digestibility of mixed feed with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds in rabbit diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meineri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to three groups with ten animals each (five male and five female rabbits each, and kept individually in separate cages. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds (SHS (0, 10, and 15%. The digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and gross energy (GE were calculated according to standard procedures following the indirect digestibility method, using acid insoluble ash as an internal marker. The results showed that the DM, OM and GE digestibilities of 10% and 15% SHS diets were higher than those of the control diet, while the ADF digestibility of the 15% SHS diet was lower than that of the 10% SHS diet.

  17. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Salvia palaestina (Bentham and S. ceratophylla (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevcihan Gursoy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and in-vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oils of Salvia palaestina (Bentham and S. ceratophylla (L.. GC-EIMS analyses of the essential oils were resulted in the determination 70 and 53 different compounds, representing 92.50% and 95.80% of the total oils, respectively. In S. palaestina oil, t he major compounds were caryophyllene oxide (16.1% and (E-caryophyllene 4.5%. In the latter case g -muurolene (11.4% and α-pinene (7.6% were the major compounds. Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by four different test systems namely β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power and chelating effect. In all systems, S. palaestina oil showed greater activity profile than that of S. ceratophylla. None of the essential oils showed metal chelating effect.

  18. [Construction of RNAi vectors for SmNAC1 transcription factors of Salvia miltiorrhiza using Gateway cloning technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong; Rong, Qi-Xian; Liu, Yu-Zhong; Shen, Ye; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-05-01

    NAC transcription factors involved in plant growth and development, as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stress. RNAi Vectors for SmNAC transcription factors of Salvia miltiorrhiza was constructed by using Gateway cloning technology, in order to further study the function of SmNAC1 transcription factor. According to Gateway cloning technology, the specific fragments of SmNAC1 containing attB adapter was amplified by PCR using ultra-fideling phusion polymerase of NEB. By the BP recombination reaction, the PCR product containing attB was transferred to an donor vector (pENTR/SD/D-TOPO). Finally, SmNACi specific gene was cloned into pK7GWIWG2D plant expression vectors by LR recombination reaction. Experimental results showed that Gateway cloning technology provide a rapid and highly efficient way to clone the interested gene.

  19. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  20. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  1. Anti-inflammatory, anticholinesterase and antioxidative constituents from the roots and the leaves of Salvia nipponica Miq. var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hsiu-Hui; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Su, Chung-Ren; Reddy, Mopur Vijaya Bhaskar; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2011-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species and granule proteases produced by neutrophils contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The extracts of the roots and the leaves of Salvia nipponica var. formosana were showed potent inhibitory effects on superoxide anion production in fMLP/CB-activated human neutrophils as well as other anti-inflammatory effects, and led to the isolation of 25 compounds. Among them, compounds 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17 and 20 were exhibited more potent inhibitory effect on superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB. Moreover, those isolated compounds also showed significant anticholinesterase and antioxidative activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of phytochemical and biological activity study on S. nipponica var. formosana. 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy on intact dried leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L. – chemotaxonomic discrimination and essential oil composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudi, Gennadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is cultivated worldwide for its aromatic leaves which are used as herbal spice and for phytopharmaceutical applications. Fast analytical strategies for essential oil analysis, performed directly on plant material would reduce the delay between sampling and analytical results. This would enhance product quality by improving technical control of cultivation. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy method described here provides a reliable calibration model for quantification of essential oil components (EOC and its main constituents (e.g. -thujone and -thujone directly on dried, intact leaves of sage. Except for drying no further sample preparation is required for ATR-FTIR and the measurement time of less than 5 min per sample contrasts with the most common alternative of hydro-distillation followed by GC analysis which can take several hours per sample.

  3. Micronutrients evaluation and its influence on secondary metabolism of Bidens pilosa and Salvia officinalis, plants applied in diabetes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo Daniel Moreno Reis

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects the carbohydrates, lipids and proteins metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose excretion by urine. It is estimated that the number of cases of this disease will increase in the coming years, worrying the public health system of the most affected countries. Besides the use of allopathic medicine, complementary treatments such as the use of medicinal plants can contribute to improving the patients quality of life. Among the herbs used, both in Brazil and in other countries, are Bidens pilosa and Salvia officinalis. The mechanisms responsible for antidiabetic activity of the plants, are usually associated with secondary metabolites, however, the influence of micronutrient content should not be discarded. Studies have shown that there is a correlation between the concentration of these elements and the presence and development of the disease. The objective of this work was to study the elements Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn concentration in Bidens pilosa (beggarticks) and Salvia officinalis (sage) cultivated with normal treatment (commercial substrate) and, with the addition of these elements, to verify their influence in the production of secondary metabolites that can act as hypoglycemic agents. The elemental determination and quantification were performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. For the secondary metabolites analysis Liquid Chromatography High Performance technique was used. The results indicated that B. pilosa and S. officinalis may be used as sources of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn. It was observed that B. pilosa absorbed a larger amount of Fe in the treatment group, and S. officinalis was able to accumulate Zn its in leaves whether treated or not. Considering the secondary metabolism compounds, the results indicated that its production by plants was apparently not altered by the addition of the nutrient solution. (author)

  4. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH, which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50 SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05 reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  5. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianzhong; Chen, Linlin; Wu, Hongyuan; Lu, Yiming; Hu, Zhenlin; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Liming; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH), which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA) of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA) of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50) SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05) reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes) of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries. PMID:26501264

  6. A novel ventricular restraint device (ASD) repetitively deliver Salvia miltiorrhiza to epicardium have good curative effects in heart failure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Wenhua, Li; Gang, Wang; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Abbas, Muhammad; Liao, Xiaoqian; Yang, Mengqi; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaolin; Qi, Xiaoming; Chen, Yineng; Jiadi, Lv; Ye, Linlan; Zhijie, Wang; Ding, Chen Ding; Feng, Yu; Xiaohui, Zhou

    2017-11-01

    A novel ventricular restraint is the non-transplant surgical option for the management of an end-stage dilated heart failure (HF). To expand the therapeutic techniques we design a novel ventricular restraint device (ASD) which has the ability to deliver a therapeutic drug directly to the heart. We deliver a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen Zhusheye) through active hydraulic ventricular support drug delivery system (ASD) and we hypothesize that it will show better results in HF management than the restraint device and drug alone. SD rats were selected and divided into five groups (n=6), Normal, HF, HF+SM (IV), HF+ASD, HF+ASD+SM groups respectively. Post myocardial infarction (MI), electrocardiography (ECG) showed abnormal heart function in all groups and HF+ASD+SM group showed a significant therapeutic improvement with respect to other treatment HF, HF+ASD, and HF+SM (IV) groups on day 30. The mechanical functions of the heart such as heart rate, LVEDP, and LVSP were brought to normal when treated with ASD+SM and show significant (P valueASD+SM group animals compared with other treatment groups. Masson's Trichrome staining was used to study histopathology of cardiac myocytes and quantification of fibrosis was assessed. The large blue fibrotic area was observed in HF, HF+ASD, and HF+SM (IV) groups while HF+ASD+SM showed negligible fibrotic myocyte at the end of study period (30days). This study proves that novel ASD device augments the therapeutic effect of the drug and delivers Salvia miltiorrhiza to the cardiomyocytes significantly as well as provides additional support to the dilated ventricle by the heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. EST analysis and annotation of transcripts derived from a trichome-specific cDNA library from Salvia fruticosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulou, Fani M; Makris, Antonios M; Argiriou, Anagnostis; Degenhardt, Jörg; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2010-05-01

    Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa Mill., Syn. Salvia triloba L.) is appreciated for its essential oil which is used as an aromatic spice and active against a wide range of microorganisms and viruses. The essential oil is dominated by terpenoids and flavonoids which are produced and stored in glandular trichomes on the plant surface. The present study aims to give insights into the metabolic activities of S. fruticosa trichomes on a transcriptome level. A total of 2,304 clones were sequenced from a cDNA library from leaves' trichomes of S. fruticosa. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 1,615 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 592 bp. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 197 contigs (908 clones) and 707 singletons, generating a total of 904 unique sequences. Of the 904 unique ESTs, 628 (69.5%) had significant hits in the non-redundant protein database and were annotated. A total of 517 (82.3%) sequences were functionally classified using the gene ontologies (GO) and established pathway associations to 220 (24.3%) sequences in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). In addition, 52 (5.8%) of the unique ESTs revealed a GO biological term with relation to terpenoid (78 ESTs), phenylpropanoid (43 ESTs), flavonoid (18 ESTs) or alkaloid (10 ESTs) biosynthesis or to P450s (26 ESTs). Expression analysis of a selected set of genes known to be involved in the pathways of secondary metabolite synthesis showed higher expression levels in trichomes, validating the tissue specificity of the analyzed glandular trichome library.

  8. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  9. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  10. Grain growth in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Scoberg, J.A.; Walden, W.

    1979-06-01

    Grain growth studies have been carried out on UO 2 to provide data for the fuel modelling program and to evaluate fuel fabricated in commissioning the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Fuel examined includes natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from ADU powder for CANDU reactors; natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from AU powder; natural UO 2 from ADU and AU powder, fabricated in the MOFFL; and commercially fabricated UO 2 enriched 1.7, 4.5, and 9.6 wt. percent U-235 in U. Samples were step-annealed in vacuo at 1870-2070 K for up to 32.5 h. All data fit a (grain size)sup(2.5) versus annealing time relationship. Apparent activation energy for grain growth, Q, depends on fuel type and varies from 150+-10 kJ/mol for early AU powder to 360+-10 kJ/mol for pellets from ADU fabricated in the MOFFL. Grain sizes calculated using the laboratory equation in a fuel performance code tend to be greater than those measured in irradiated natural fuel, suggesting irradiation-induced inhibition of grain growth. However, any inhibition is equivalent to that expected for a systematic 5 percent underpredicition in reactor power. (author)

  11. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  12. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmanns, M.; Kumm, M.; Wurm, G.; Wolf, D. E.; Teiser, J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced) particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  13. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  14. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidpour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, sage (Salvia species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage (Saliva.

  15. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia) to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidpour, Mohsen; Hamidpour, Rafie; Hamidpour, Soheila; Shahlari, Mina

    2014-04-01

    For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage (Saliva).

  16. Nutritional and therapeutic perspectives of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, M.; Khalique, A.; Imran, M.; Mehmood, S.; Javid, A.; Hussain, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ancient grain is becoming enormously popular in modern food regimen in many countries; the higher proportion of ?-linolenic acid makes chia the superb source of omega-3 fatty (about 65?% of the oil content). Omega-3 fatty acid has been associated with a large number of physiological functions in human body. Chia seed is a potential source of antioxidants with the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol which are believed to have cardiac, hepatic pr...

  17. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Key words: Pesticides, food security, grain merchants, storage, perception. INTRODUCTION. Food security in sub-Saharan Africa largely depends upon improved food productivity through the use of sustainable agricultural practices and the reduction of post-harvest losses caused by pests and diseases (Adedire, 2001).

  18. Pesticides Use among Grain Merchants in Mubi Grain Markets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is, therefore, recommended that farmers, retailers, distributors and all the pesticide workers should undergo regular training/workshop on the use and safety measures of pesticides. Also multimedia awareness activities in local language should be massively conducted. Key words: Pesticides, food security, grain merchants ...

  19. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lejček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary segregation, their dependence on volume solid solubility, mutual solute–solute interaction and pressure effect in ferrous alloys is demonstrated.

  20. The Antinutritional Components of Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Grains provide humans and farmed animals with a very large proportion of the energy and macro- and micronutrients they need. Unfortunately, grains also contain compounds that interfere with the utilization of the nutrients by animals. These so-called antinutritionals may result in poor resource u......, biotechnology, and food chemistry....... utilization, increased costs in meat production, and even malnourishment in humans. The major antinutritionals are phytate, proteinaceous inhibitors of digestive enzymes, tannins, and nonstarch polysaccharides. For each compound, countermeasures are available in the diverse fields of plant breeding...

  1. Salvia officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract as Add-on to Statin Therapy in Hypercholesterolemic Type 2 Diabetic Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Nabati, Farzaneh; Abasi, Behrooz

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis combined with statin have not been evaluated in dyslipidemic diabetes mellitus type 2 (DDMT2) so far. The plant extract antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The total flavonoid, total phenolic and quercetin contents of the capsules containing the plant extract were also measured. Moreover, the effects of 2-month extract intake (500 mg capsule three times a day) as add-on to daily use of 15 mg glyburide, 2000 mg...

  2. The first insight into the salvia (lamiaceae) genome via bac library construction and high-throughput sequencing of target bac clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, D.C.; Vautrin, S.; Berges, H.; Chen, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Salvia is a representative genus of Lamiaceae, a eudicot family with significant species diversity and population adaptibility. One of the key goals of Salvia genomics research is to identify genes of adaptive significance. This information may help to improve the conservation of adaptive genetic variation and the management of medicinal plants to increase their health and productivity. Large-insert genomic libraries are a fundamental tool for achieving this purpose. We report herein the construction, characterization and screening of a gridded BAC library for Salvia officinalis (sage). The S. officinalis BAC library consists of 17,764 clones and the average insert size is 107 Kb, corresponding to 3 haploid genome equivalents. Seventeen positive clones (average insert size 115 Kb) containing five terpene synthase (TPS) genes were screened out by PCR and 12 of them were subject to Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing, which yielded 28,097,480 90-bp raw reads (2.53 Gb). Scaffolds containing sabinene synthase (Sab), a Sab homolog, TPS3 (kaurene synthase-like 2), copalyl diphosphate synthase 2 and one cytochrome P450 gene were retrieved via de novo assembly and annotation, which also have flanking noncoding sequences, including predicted promoters and repeat sequences. Among 2,638 repeat sequences, there are 330 amplifiable microsatellites. This BAC library provides a new resource for Lamiaceae genomic studies, including microsatellite marker development, physical mapping, comparative genomics and genome sequencing. Characterization of positive clones provided insights into the structure of the Salvia genome. These sequences will be used in the assembly of a future genome sequence for S. officinalis. (author)

  3. Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Abu-Darwish; C. Cabral; I. V. Ferreira; M. J. Gonçalves; C. Cavaleiro; M. T. Cruz; T. H. Al-bdour; L. Salgueiro

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectro...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fournomiti; Athanasios Kimbaris; Ioanna Mantzourani; Stavros Plessas; Irene Theodoridou; Virginia Papaemmanouil; Ioannis Kapsiotis; Maria Panopoulou; Elisavet Stavropoulou; Eugenia E. Bezirtzoglou; Athanasios Alexopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditi...

  5. Evaluación in vitro de compuestos presentes en Critoniella acuminata y Salvia rubescens frente a enzimas de desgranulación leucocitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes Galvis, Diana Carolina

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se implementaron técnicas in vitro con el fin de contribuir al estudio farmacológico de principios activos de plantas medicinales colombianas con potencial antiinflamatorio como: ayapina, aislada de Critoniella acuminata, amarisolide y arbutina aisladas de Salvia rubescens previamente en el Grupo de Investigación de Principios Bioactivos de Plantas. Se evaluaron enzimas relacionadas con el proceso de desgranulación leucocitaria: Mieloperoxidasa, Elastasa, Lisozima y Bet...

  6. Comparison of the effect of aromatherapy with Jasminum officinale and Salvia officinale on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Maghbool, Shahla; Azima, Sara; Tabaei, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using non-pharmacological pain relief methods for reducing labor pain has always been one of the major concerns in obstetrics and gynecology. Objective: Comparing the effects of aromatherapy with jasmine and salvia on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 156 nulliparous women in labor were randomly selected and divided into salvia, jasmine, and control groups (52 in each group). The study duration was 6 months (from October 2009 to March 2010). Each group underwent aromatherapy using an incense mask for 15 min (distilled water for the control group). Pain severity was measured before and 30 and 60 min after the incense aromatherapy. Also, duration of the first and second stages of labor, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type were measured and recorded in each group. Results: In comparison to the other groups, pain severity and duration of the first and second stages of labor were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group of salvia 30 min after the intervention (P = 0.001). However, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding pain severity 60 min after the aromatherapy, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that aromatherapy with saliva had beneficial effects on pain relief, shortened the labor stages, and had no negative impact on the baby's APGAR score. PMID:25558267

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis in controlling hot flashes in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Katrien; Ost, Piet; Oosterlinck, Willem; Fonteyne, Valérie; Neve, Wilfried De; Meerleer, Gert De

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis in controlling hot flashes in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Ten patients experiencing hot flashes were included in a single-centre prospective pilot study. Treatment consisted of 150 mg of Salvia officinalis extract taken orally three times daily. A diary questionnaire scoring hot flashes, subjective side effects and quality of life (QOL) had to be completed. Clinical examination was performed at every visit and the concentration of ADT-linked hormones, haemoglobin and cholesterol was measured before, during and after ending treatment. Before the start of treatment, a 1 week baseline registration was performed. An analysis of variance with time of measurement as a within-subject factor was performed. When analysing the hot flashes score, one patient was excluded due to insufficient diary notes. The mean weekly score declined from 112 (SD = 71) at baseline to 59 (SD = 54) at the end of treatment (p = 0.002). Hot flashes diminished significantly from the first week up to and including week 3. This was maintained during treatment. There was no effect on QOL. There were no side effects. It is concluded that Salvia officinalis is efficient and safe in the treatment hot flashes, without improving QOL. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Comparison of the effect of aromatherapy with Jasminum officinale and Salvia officinale on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Maghbool, Shahla; Azima, Sara; Tabaei, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-11-01

    Using non-pharmacological pain relief methods for reducing labor pain has always been one of the major concerns in obstetrics and gynecology. Comparing the effects of aromatherapy with jasmine and salvia on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women. In this randomized clinical trial, 156 nulliparous women in labor were randomly selected and divided into salvia, jasmine, and control groups (52 in each group). The study duration was 6 months (from October 2009 to March 2010). Each group underwent aromatherapy using an incense mask for 15 min (distilled water for the control group). Pain severity was measured before and 30 and 60 min after the incense aromatherapy. Also, duration of the first and second stages of labor, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type were measured and recorded in each group. In comparison to the other groups, pain severity and duration of the first and second stages of labor were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group of salvia 30 min after the intervention (P = 0.001). However, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding pain severity 60 min after the aromatherapy, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type. The results of the present study indicated that aromatherapy with saliva had beneficial effects on pain relief, shortened the labor stages, and had no negative impact on the baby's APGAR score.

  9. Stress-driven grain growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1998-11-13

    Full Text Available This article shows the differences of two-dimensional polycrystal of a material with a rectangular unit cell with lattice spacing b and b (1 + epsilon), subjected to a uniform external stress sigma. Consider a grain in which the lattice vector...

  10. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, John Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.; Boyce, Brad Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  11. Small Grain Production Pt 2: Growth and Development of Small Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Lee; Williams, Jack

    2006-01-01

    Part 2 of the 14-part Small Grain Production Manual describes the stages of small grain growth, including germination, tillering, vegetative growth, stem elongation, heading, flowering, grain filling, growth habit and yield components.

  12. Pressure effect on grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary migration in metallic materials is theoretically investigated. The model is suggested that permits describing changes in activation energy of grain boundary self-diffusion and diffusion permeability of grain boundaries under hydrostatic pressure. The model is based on the ideas about island-type structure of grain boundaries as well as linear relationship of variations in grain boundary free volume to hydrostatic pressure value. Comparison of theoretical data with experimental ones for a number of metals and alloys (α-Zr, Sn-Ge, Cu-In with Co, In, Al as diffusing elements) shows a qualitative agreement

  13. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Three-Dimensional X-ray Diraction (3DXRD) Microscopy is a generic term covering a variety of dierent techniques for characterising the mi- crostructure within the bulk of polycrystalline materials. One strategy | namely grain centre mapping | enables fast measurements of the av- erage characteris......Three-Dimensional X-ray Diraction (3DXRD) Microscopy is a generic term covering a variety of dierent techniques for characterising the mi- crostructure within the bulk of polycrystalline materials. One strategy | namely grain centre mapping | enables fast measurements of the av- erage...... and the closely related boxscan method is given. Both validation experiments and applications for in situ studies of microstructural changes during plastic deformation and crack growth are given. Finally an outlook with special emphasis on coupling the measured results with modelling is given....

  14. Effect of γ-irradiation on bioactivity, fatty acid compositions and volatile compounds of clary sage seed (Salvia sclarea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Hasan; Ozturk, Ismet; Tulukcu, Eray; Sagdic, Osman

    2011-09-01

    Clary sage seeds (Salvia sclarea L.) were obtained from plants cultivated, and 2.5, 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0 kGy doses of γ-irradiation were applied to the clary sage seeds. They were then analyzed for their protein, ash, oil and dry matter contents, and fatty acid composition. Additionally, the total phenolic contents, antiradical, antioxidant activities, and volatile compounds of the clary sage seed extract were determined. There was no significant difference in protein content. However, the moisture, oil, and ash contents of the samples were affected by irradiation. While the 7 kGy dose had a positive effect on the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of the sage seed extract, all doses have negative effects on the antioxidant activity of the sage seed. The main fatty acid of the sage seed was remarkably found as α-linolenic acid. The four irradiation levels caused significant differences in fatty acid composition by affecting all fatty acids except palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosenoic acids. The dominant volatile compounds of control sage seed were found as β-pinene (18.81%) and limonene (15.60%). Higher doses of the irradiation decreased volatile components of sage seed. Clary sage seed including high omega-3 can be irradiated with low doses (≤ 2.5 kGy) of γ-irradiation. Clary sage is one of the most popular Salvia species in Turkey and many countries. Clary sage seed has approximately 29% oil content and this oil contains >50% of α-linolenic acid. γ-Irradiation is widely applied in the preservation of spice quality. The present study shows that the antioxidant activity of the clary sage seed is decreased by γ-irradiation. Additionally, higher doses of irradiation also decreased the volatile components of sage seed. Therefore, we suggest that clary sage seed which includes high levels of omega-3 should be irradiated with low doses (≤ 2.5 kGy) of γ-irradiation. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Applied thermodynamics: Grain boundary segregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Zheng, L.; Hofmann, S.; Šob, Mojmír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 1462-1484 ISSN 1099-4300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA ČR GAP108/12/0144; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : interfacial segregation * Gibbs energy of segregation * enthalpy * entropy * volume * grain boundaries * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2014

  16. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ηηi has a value of unity inside the ith grain, decreases smoothly through the grain boundary region to zero out- side the grain. For a symmetric alloy of composition, c = 0⋅⋅5, our results show that microstructural evolution depends largely on the difference in the grain boundary energies, γγgb, of A-rich (αα) and B-rich (ββ) ...

  17. On the elastic stiffness of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Hack, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The elastic softening of grain boundaries is evaluated from the starting point of grain boundary energy. Several examples are given to illustrate the relationship between boundary energy and the extent of softening. In general, a high grain boundary energy is associated with a large excess atomic volume in the boundary region. The consequent reduction in grain boundary stiffness can represent a significant fraction of that observed in bulk crystals. (orig.)

  18. Conception, definition, measuring procedure of grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    1976-12-01

    The conception, definition, measuring procedure of ''Grain Size'' were surveyed. A concept ''grain diameter'' was introduced after deriving a calculation formula for the grain diameter for using the Comparison (simple) and Intercept(detailed) procedure. As an example and putting into practice, the grain diameter determination was carried out by means of the Comparison procedure for a UO 2 pellet used in a densification experiment. (auth.)

  19. Effect of Transplanting Times on Rate and Duration of Grain Filling, Final Grain Weight and Grain Yield of Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vahdati-Rad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of temperature and radiation on rate and duration of grain filling and final grain weight in rice cultivars, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at different transplanting times at the research field of University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran in 2013. Factors were: transplanting dates in main plots (5 May, 20 May and 5 June and rice cultivars (Hashemi, Ali Kazemi, Sangejo, Khazar, Dorfak and Gouhar in sub plots. The greatest grain weight (31.9 mg was obtained in Gouhar at 20 May and the smallest grain weight (20.4 mg was observed in Sangejo at 5 June transplanting dates. The longest effective filling period (32.9 days was achieved in Gouhar at 5 May transplanting date and the shortest grain filling duration (13.9 days was obtained in Hashemi. The greatest grain filling rate (1.62 mg day-1 was obtained in the Hashemi and the smallest rate (0.92 mg day-1 was observed in Gouhar. Significant correlations were observed between cumulative temperature and radiation with final grain weight (R = 0.689. There were significant and positive correlations between the cumulative temperature and irradiance with grain filling duration, in contrary to negative correlations with grain filling rate and grain filling period. The results of this experiment showed that the grain filling duration plays a greater role, than grain filling rate, in determination of the grain weight. It could be concluded that an early transplanting (5 May brings about favorable temperature and radiation conditions for an appropriate grain filling period and a greater final grain weight.

  20. Transient Solute Drag in Migrating Grain Boundaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fischer, F. D.; Liendl, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 17 (2011), s. 6556-6562 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Grain boundary diffusion * Grain boundary migration * Grain boundary segregation Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamic s Impact factor: 3.755, year: 2011

  1. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  2. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    will work together to grow and test hardy and highly nutritious grains, including several varieties of millets, grain amaranth, and associated legumes. Researchers ... security of small-farm families. • Reduced physical labour for women through improved grain-processing equipment. • Improved environmental sustainability on ...

  3. Determination of grain boundary geometry using TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, H.; Farkas, D.; Hosson, J.T.M. De

    An experimental method to obtain the grain boundary geometry using the transmission electron microscope is presented. The method allows Σ determination including grain boundary plane orientation. In order to determine the specialness of the grain boundary, three different criteria for maximum

  4. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  5. Nutritional and therapeutic perspectives of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, M; Khalique, A; Imran, M; Mehmood, S; Javid, A; Hussain, J

    2016-04-01

    The ancient grain is becoming enormously popular in modern food regimen in many countries; the higher proportion of α-linolenic acid makes chia the superb source of omega-3 fatty (about 65 % of the oil content). Omega-3 fatty acid has been associated with a large number of physiological functions in human body. Chia seed is a potential source of antioxidants with the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol which are believed to have cardiac, hepatic protective effects, anti-ageing and anti-carcinogenic characteristics. It is also a great source of dietary fibre which is beneficial for the digestive system and controlling diabetes mellitus with higher concentration of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, gluten free protein, vitamin, minerals and phenolic compounds. Therapeutic effects of chia in the control of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-blood clotting, laxative, antidepressant, antianxiety, analgesic, vision and immune improver is scientifically established.

  6. Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Zhu, Q; Wang, W

    2001-09-01

    Lodging-resistant rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars usually show slow grain filling when nitrogen is applied in large amounts. This study investigated the possibility that a hormonal change may mediate the effect of water deficit that enhances whole plant senescence and speeds up grain filling. Two rice cultivars showing high lodging resistance and slow grain filling were field grown and applied with either normal or high amount nitrogen (HN) at heading. Well-watered and water-stressed (WS) treatments were imposed 9 days post anthesis to maturity. Results showed that WS increased partitioning of fixed (14)CO(2) into grains, accelerated the grain filling rate but shortened the grain filling period, whereas the HN did the opposite way. Cytokinin (zeatin + zeatin riboside) and indole-3-acetic acid contents in the grains transiently increased at early filling stage and WS treatments hastened their declines at the late grain filling stage. Gibberellins (GAs; GA(1) + GA(4)) in the grains were also high at early grain filling but HN enhanced, whereas WS substantially reduced, its accumulation. Opposite to GAs, abscisic acid (ABA) in the grains was low at early grain filling but WS remarkably enhanced its accumulation. The peak values of ABA were significantly correlated with the maximum grain filling rates (r = 0.92**, P water stress during grain filling, especially a decrease in GAs and an increase in ABA, enhances the remobilization of prestored carbon to the grains and accelerates the grain filling rate.

  7. Computer simulation of grain growth in HAZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinhua

    Two different models for Monte Carlo simulation of normal grain growth in metals and alloys were developed. Each simulation model was based on a different approach to couple the Monte Carlo simulation time to real time-temperature. These models demonstrated the applicability of Monte Carlo simulation to grain growth in materials processing. A grain boundary migration (GBM) model coupled the Monte Carlo simulation to a first principle grain boundary migration model. The simulation results, by applying this model to isothermal grain growth in zone-refined tin, showed good agreement with experimental results. An experimental data based (EDB) model coupled the Monte Carlo simulation with grain growth kinetics obtained from the experiment. The results of the application of the EDB model to the grain growth during continuous heating of a beta titanium alloy correlated well with experimental data. In order to acquire the grain growth kinetics from the experiment, a new mathematical method was developed and utilized to analyze the experimental data on isothermal grain growth. Grain growth in the HAZ of 0.2% Cu-Al alloy was successfully simulated using the EDB model combined with grain growth kinetics obtained from the experiment and measured thermal cycles from the welding process. The simulated grain size distribution in the HAZ was in good agreement with experimental results. The pinning effect of second phase particles on grain growth was also simulated in this work. The simulation results confirmed that by introducing the variable R, degree of contact between grain boundaries and second phase particles, the Zener pinning model can be modified as${D/ r} = {K/{Rf}}$where D is the pinned grain size, r the mean size of second phase particles, K a constant, f the area fraction (or the volume fraction in 3-D) of second phase.

  8. Global identification of the full-length transcripts and alternative splicing related to phenolic acid biosynthetic genes in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao eXu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acids are among the main bioactive components in Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. However, previous studies on the biosynthesis of phenolic acids using next-generation sequencing platforms are limited with regard to the assembly of full-length transcripts. Based on hybrid-seq (next-generation and single molecular real-time sequencing of the S. miltiorrhiza root transcriptome, we experimentally identified 15 full-length transcripts and 4 alternative splicing events of enzyme-coding genes involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid. Moreover, we herein demonstrate that lithospermic acid B accumulates in the phloem and xylem of roots, in agreement with the expression patterns of the identified key genes related to rosmarinic acid biosynthesis. According to co-expression patterns, we predicted that 6 candidate cytochrome P450s and 5 candidate laccases participate in the salvianolic acid pathway. Our results provide a valuable resource for further investigation into the synthetic biology of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza.

  9. Core Microbiome of Medicinal Plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Seed: A Rich Reservoir of Beneficial Microbes for Secondary Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed microbiome includes special endophytic or epiphytic microbial taxa associated with seeds, which affects seed germination, plant growth, and health. Here, we analyzed the core microbiome of 21 Salvia miltiorrhiza seeds from seven different geographic origins using 16S rDNA and ITS amplicon sequencing, followed by bioinformatics analysis. The whole bacterial microbiome was classified into 17 microbial phyla and 39 classes. Gammaproteobacteria (67.6%, Alphaproteobacteria (15.6%, Betaproteobacteria (2.6%, Sphingobacteria (5.0%, Bacilli (4.6%, and Actinobacteria (2.9% belonged to the core bacterial microbiome. Dothideomycetes comprised 94% of core fungal microbiome in S. miltiorrhiza seeds, and another two dominant classes were Leotiomycetes (3.0% and Tremellomycetes (2.0%. We found that terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, degradation of limonene, pinene, and geraniol, and prenyltransferases, were overrepresented in the core bacterial microbiome using phylogenetic examination of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt software. We also found that the bacterial genera Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas were enriched core taxa and overlapped among S. miltiorrhiza, maize, bean, and rice, while a fungal genus, Alternaria, was shared within S. miltiorrhiza, bean, and Brassicaceae families. These findings highlight that seed-associated microbiomeis an important component of plant microbiomes, which may be a gene reservoir for secondary metabolism in medicinal plants.

  10. Core Microbiome of Medicinal Plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Seed: A Rich Reservoir of Beneficial Microbes for Secondary Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haimin; Wu, Hongxia; Yan, Bin; Zhao, Hongguang; Liu, Fenghua; Zhang, Haihua; Sheng, Qing; Miao, Fang; Liang, Zongsuo

    2018-02-27

    Seed microbiome includes special endophytic or epiphytic microbial taxa associated with seeds, which affects seed germination, plant growth, and health. Here, we analyzed the core microbiome of 21 Salvia miltiorrhiza seeds from seven different geographic origins using 16S rDNA and ITS amplicon sequencing, followed by bioinformatics analysis. The whole bacterial microbiome was classified into 17 microbial phyla and 39 classes. Gammaproteobacteria (67.6%), Alphaproteobacteria (15.6%), Betaproteobacteria (2.6%), Sphingobacteria (5.0%), Bacilli (4.6%), and Actinobacteria (2.9%) belonged to the core bacterial microbiome. Dothideomycetes comprised 94% of core fungal microbiome in S. miltiorrhiza seeds, and another two dominant classes were Leotiomycetes (3.0%) and Tremellomycetes (2.0%). We found that terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, degradation of limonene, pinene, and geraniol, and prenyltransferases, were overrepresented in the core bacterial microbiome using phylogenetic examination of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) software. We also found that the bacterial genera Pantoea, Pseudomonas , and Sphingomonas were enriched core taxa and overlapped among S. miltiorrhiza , maize, bean, and rice, while a fungal genus, Alternaria , was shared within S. miltiorrhiza , bean, and Brassicaceae families. These findings highlight that seed-associated microbiomeis an important component of plant microbiomes, which may be a gene reservoir for secondary metabolism in medicinal plants.

  11. Potential of Ocimum basilicum L. and Salvia officinalis L. essential oils against biofilms of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović-Radić, Z; Pejcić, M; Stojanović, N; Sharifi-Rad, J; Stanković, N

    2016-08-29

    Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, responsible for more than 60% of the chronic human infections and they represent one of the leading concerns in medicine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is human pathogenic bacteria which causes numerous diseases and is known for its ability to produce biofilm. Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) are widely used plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of different conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of basil and sage essential oils against P. aeruginosa biofilm producing strains. The efficacy of two essential oils on P. aeruginosa biofilm forming ability was determined using crystal violet method. Out of 15 strains isolated from different clinical biological samples, two were strong, 11 moderate and one weak biofilm producer. Good efficacy of sage essential oil towards strong and weak biofilm producers, but not of basil essential oil, was observed. In the case of moderate biofilm producers, 81.8% showed lower biofilm production after incubation with the sage oil, while 63.6% showed the reduction of biofilm production after basil essential oil treatment. The obtained results showed high potential of both oils for the treatment of persistent infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

  12. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  13. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ajmal, M.; Rehman, F.; Ayaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  14. Post-Harvest Induced Production of Salvianolic Acids and Significant Promotion of Antioxidant Properties in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB, the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying process. In addition, the results of various radical scavenging activity assays, including lipid peroxidation (1, DPPH (2, hydroxyl (3 and superoxide (4, were significantly increased along with the accumulation of total salvianolic acids in the process. The contents of chemical targets and antioxidant activities both reached the highest value under thermal treatment at 130 °C for 80 min. In this dehydration period, contents of SaB, and sum of nine SAs increased from 0.01% to 5.51%, and 0.20% to 6.61%; and IC50 of antioxidant activity decreased from 4.85 to 2.69 (1; 7.75 to 0.43 (2; 2.57 to 1.13 (3 and 17.25 to 1.10 mg/mL. These results further supported the hypothesis that the newly harvested plant roots were still physiologically active and the secondary metabolites might be produced due to dehydration stress after harvest. Our findings supplied an important and useful theoretical basis for promoting the quality of Danshen and other medicinal plant materials.

  15. Effects of Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed supplementation on rabbit meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cornale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed (SHS dietary supplementation is effective in improving the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers and could contribute to the novel concept of “functional food” in human nutrition. A trial has been conducted in order to verify the effects of three levels (0, 10, or 15% of SHS inclusion in a rabbit diet on the meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits. The dietary treatment did not induce any differences in the ultimate pH, chemical composition, drip losses of the longissimus dorsi muscle or the initial and ultimate pH of the biceps femoris muscle, but the SHS supplementation increased cooking losses of the rabbit meat. The inclusion of SHS also reduced oxidative stability during meat storage. No adverse effects were observed on the meat quality or customer acceptability. The inclusion of SHS in rabbit diets, which is effective in improving the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids content of meat, increased the lipid oxidation in the hind leg meat. An improvement in tissue oxidative stability could be obtained by feeding rabbits with higher levels of antioxidants.

  16. In vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Ghaznavi, Habib; Rahbar, Amir; Sadr, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed

    2014-06-01

    The anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves against extracellular (promastigote) and intracellular (amastigote) forms of Leishmania major were evaluated in this study. In the first stage, promastigote forms of L. major, were treated with different doses of the plant extracts in a 96-well tissue-culture microplate and IC50 values for each extract were measured with colorimetric MTT assay. In the second stage, macrophage cells were infected with L. major promastigotes. Infected macrophages were treated with plant extracts. Then the macrophages were stained with Gimsa and the number of infected macrophages and amastigotes were counted with a light microscope. The results indicated that the plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for promastigote assay were 108.19, 155.15, and 184.32 μgmL(-1) for C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds and S. officinalis, respectively. The extracts also reduced the number of amastigotes in macrophage cells from 264 for control group to 88, 97, and 102 for test groups. Although the anti-leishmanial activity of the extracts were not comparable with the standard drug, miltefosine; but they showed significant efficiency in reducing the number of amastigotes in macrophages, in comparison with the control group (P officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds, and S. officinalis leaves to control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O[sub 2]-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl[sub 2], camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn[sup 2+]-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. 44 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Synergistic Antifungal, Allelopatic and Anti-Proliferative Potential of Salvia officinalis L., and Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and the synergistic potential of two essential oils (EOs, as obtained from Salvia officinalis L. (SEO, and Thymus vulgaris L. (TEO. The antifungal potential was tested in vitro against Fusarium graminearum (Fg 06_17, the herbicidal effect was studied using weed seeds of Amaranthus retroflexus (ARET, Chenopodium album (CALB, Echinochloa crus-galli (EGAL, but also wheat seeds (WS of the Lovrin variety and tomato seeds Saint-Pierre of the variety. The GC-MS profile highlights that the mains compounds identified in SEO were: caryophyllene (25.364%, camphene (14.139%, eucalyptol (13.902%, and β-pinene (11.230%, while in TEO, the predominant phytochemicals were: γ-terpinene (68.415% and p-thymol (24.721%. The results indicated that the tested EOs alone as well as in combination have allelopathic effect against investigated seeds, while the synergistic effect of TEO and SEO in terms of fungal growth was demonstrated at a level of 0.06%. Thyme and sage EOs exhibited in vitro anti-proliferative activity on two melanoma cell lines, namely A375 human melanoma and B164A5 mouse melanoma alone, as well as in combination. SEO was most effective in terms of decreasing the cell viability of murine and human melanoma cell lines when compared to TEO.

  19. Salvia plebeia Extract Inhibits Xanthine Oxidase Activity In Vitro and Reduces Serum Uric Acid in an Animal Model of Hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Woo Jung; Hyun, Jung Mi; Lee, Jong Suk; Kwon, Jin Gwan; Seo, Changon; Song, Myung-Jin; Choi, Chun Whan; Hong, Seong Su; Park, Kyuhee; Kim, Pansoo; Sung, Hachang; Lee, Jin Koo; Choi, Yongmun

    2017-11-01

    Hyperuricemia is a clinical condition characterized by an elevated level of serum uric acid and is a key risk factor for the development of gout and metabolic disorders. The existing urate-lowering therapies are often impractical for certain patient populations, providing a rationale to explore new agents with improved safety and efficacy. Here, we discovered that Salvia plebeia extract inhibited the enzyme activity of xanthine oxidase, which is a key enzyme generating uric acid in the liver. In an animal model of hyperuricemia, S. plebeia extract reduced serum urate to the levels observed in control animals. The urate-lowering effect of S. plebeia extract in vivo was supported by the identification of compounds that inhibit xanthine oxidase enzyme activity in vitro . Nepetin, scutellarein, and luteolin contributed significantly to S. plebeia bioactivity in vitro . These compounds showed the highest potency against xanthine oxidase with IC 50 values of 2.35, 1.74, and 1.90 µM, respectively, and were present at moderate quantities. These observations serve as a basis for further elaboration of the S. plebeia extracts for the development of new therapeutics for hyperuricemia and related diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Screening and determination of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae using ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2013-04-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitors play an important role in the treatment of gout and many other diseases related to the superoxide anion metabolism. In this study, an ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UF-LC-MS) method was developed for the screening and identification of potential XOD inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract. Eleven lipophilic diterpenoid quinines were identified as XOD inhibitors from the extract. The relationship between the structure and activity of the detected compounds was estimated on the basis of the UF-LC-MS data. The results demonstrate that the 1,2-naphthoquinone group is necessary for the XOD inhibitory activity of the compounds, and that furan and hydroxyl on the alicyclic ring could enhance the activity of the compounds at different levels. These results may explain and support the medical use of the extract of Radix S. Miltiorrhizae for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cumulative organic anion transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of multiple components in salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen) preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Venitz, Jürgen; Sweet, Douglas H

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate organic anion transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential for individual active components of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) vs. combinations using in vitro and in silico approaches. Inhibition profiles for single Danshen components and combinations were generated in stably-expressing human (h)OAT1 and hOAT3 cells. Plasma concentration-time profiles for compounds were estimated from in vivo human data using an i.v. two-compartment model (with first-order elimination). The cumulative DDI index was proposed as an indicator of DDI potential for combination products. This index was used to evaluate the DDI potential for Danshen injectables from 16 different manufacturers and 14 different lots from a single manufacturer. The cumulative DDI index predicted in vivo inhibition potentials, 82% (hOAT1) and 74% (hOAT3), comparable with those observed in vitro, 72 ± 7% (hOAT1) and 81 ± 10% (hOAT3), for Danshen component combinations. Using simulated unbound Cmax values, a wide range in cumulative DDI index between manufacturers, and between lots, was predicted. Many products exhibited a cumulative DDI index > 1 (50% inhibition). Danshen injectables will likely exhibit strong potential to inhibit hOAT1 and hOAT3 function in vivo. The proposed cumulative DDI index might improve prediction of DDI potential of herbal medicines or pharmaceutical preparations containing multiple components.

  2. Fingerprinting of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis compared with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming; Zhang, Shufeng; Su, Zhiguo; Chen, Yi; Ouyang, Fan

    2004-11-19

    The component of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can be influenced by soil, climate, and growth stage, and fingerprint is an important means in its quality control. Our previous studies showed that high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was helpful in the development of fingerprint of TCM. Since the HSCCC method is new, it is necessary to compare it with conventional ones, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). Comparison with HPLC was conducted in our previous study. In this study, HSCCC was compared with non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). With NACE, seven stable components were separated within 55 min, respectively, from three crude samples of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge from different growth locations. In HSCCC separation, 12 components were separated, respectively, with good correspondence and precision within 13 h. Both NACE and HSCCC were effective in showing whole concentration distribution of all kinds of constituents. Principles of these two methods were very different, which led to different elution sequences and relative contents of peaks. HSCCC showed better performance in analysis of tanshinones, which made its fingerprint containing more chemical information than that of NACE. It was further proven that HSCCC could be a feasible and cost-effective method in the development of the fingerprint of TCM.

  3. Chia seed (Salvia Hispanica L.) added yogurt reduces short-term food intake and increases satiety: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Aylin; Akyol, Asli; Inan-Eroglu, Elif; Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Samur, Gulhan; Akbiyik, Filiz

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have reported that consumption of Salvia Hispanica L. ,commonly known as chia seed, may exert beneficial effects on health outcomes. The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of chia seed consumption as a mid-morning snack on short-term satiety. Subjects (n = 24) were tested using a randomized, cross-over design consisting of three mid-morning snacks. Yogurt with no chia seed, yogurt with 7 g chia seed, and yogurt with 14 g chia seed were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes, ad libitum lunch was served, and energy intake of individuals was measured. VAS scores indicated that participants reported significantly lower scores for hunger ( P = 0.033), prospective food consumption ( P = 0.031), amounts of food that could be consumed ( P = 0.017), desire for sugary foods ( P = 0.015), and higher scores for satiety ( P = 0.031) on the test days with 7 g and 14 g chia seed. Energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower when they consumed yogurt with 7 g or 14 g chia seed ( P = 0.037). The study demonstrated that chia seed consumption as a mid-morning snack may induce short-term satiety in healthy individuals.

  4. Lactic Acid Fermentation Improved Textural Behaviour, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Chia 
(Salvia hispanicaL.) Dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Ana Yanina; Gerez, Carla Luciana; Mohtar Mohtar, Lina Goumana; Paz Zanini, Verónica Irene; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Taranto, María Pía; Iturriaga, Laura Beatriz

    2017-09-01

    In this work, autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) dough and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification and proteolytic activity. Strain no. C8, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum C8, was selected and used as starter to obtain chia sourdough. Lactic acid fermentation increased the organic acid mass fractions (lactic, acetic and phenyl lactic acids to 12.3 g, 1.0 g and 23.8 µg per kg of dough respectively), and antioxidant activities, which increased by approx. 33-40% compared to unfermented chia flour dough. In addition, total phenolic content increased 25% and its composition was strongly modified after 24 h of fermentation by L. plantarum C8. Chlorogenic acid was only found in the fermented dough (2.5 mg/g), while ferulic acid was detected from the beginning of fermentation, being 32% higher in chia sourdough (5.6 mg/g). The use of fermented chia sourdough improved the overall characteristics of white bread, including physical ( e.g. reduced hardness and chewiness of the crumb) and antioxidant properties (25% on average), compared to the white bread. These results indicate that the use of chia sourdough could be a promising alternative to improve the technological and antioxidant properties of wheat bread. In addition, this work has shown, for the first time, that lactic acid bacterium is able to ferment chia dough, improving its overall characteristics.

  5. Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical potential of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Oliviert; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2014-06-13

    Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica) were analyzed for total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and quantification of phenolic acids and isoflavones by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), in order to obtain a phenolic phytochemical profile. The total phenolic concentration was 1.8-fold higher than previous reports and the antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay showed 68.83% inhibition, which was higher than the values reported previously for chia and different plant foods. Additionally, a simple, reproducible and rapid UHPLC method was proposed for the analysis of phenolic acids and isoflavones in chia. The method demonstrated to perform well with regard to linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. The detection limits ranged from 0.05 to 0.4ng/mL and the recovery percentage from 23.62 to 162.48%. With this method the major compounds identified and quantified were: rosmarinic acid 0.92, protocatechuic ethyl ester 0.74, caffeic acid 0.02, gallic acid 0.01, and daidzin 0.006mg/g seed. In brief, this study demonstrates that chia could be considered a seed with high antioxidant capacity and novel isoflavone source that can be incorporated in human diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cold extraction method of chia seed mucilage (Salvia hispanicaL.): effect on yield and rheological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lucas Silveira; Junqueira, Luciana Affonso; de Oliveira Guimarães, Ívina Catarina; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2018-02-01

    Chia seeds ( Salvia hispanica L.) when immersed in water, produce a highly viscous solution due to the release of mucilage, high molecular weight complex carbohydrates with wide application in the food industry. Thus, this study involve development of method for extracting mucilage from chia seed based on mechanical process and low temperature. The method involve extraction by cold pressing and drying by freeze-drying, which was compared to the traditional hot extraction method. The chia seed mucilage cultivated in Brazil was extracted successfully using the previously mentioned extraction method. Rheological analysis including thixotropy, flow curve and frequency sweep of mucilage was done. Microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The optimal process at 27 °C gave yield of 8.46%. The rheograms showed that the apparent viscosity decreased with increase in shear rate and this effect was most notable in the dispersions obtained by cold extraction and with high concentrations. The gum obtained using CE presented higher values for thixotropic behavior. The storage modulus (G') was consistently higher than the loss modulus (G″) and the data indicated formation of 'weak gel' structure of the dispersions. SEM indicated macroscopic fibrous structure of mucilage obtained through cold extraction process, indicating that the macromolecular network formed by fibrous material contained in mucilage maintained its structure in the process of deep freezing and freeze-drying.

  7. Composition and Antioxidant, Antienzymatic and Antimicrobial Activities of Volatile Molecules from Spanish Salvia lavandulifolia (Vahl) Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2017-08-21

    The current study describes the composition of Salvia lavandulifolia (Vahl) essential oils (SlEOs) obtained from plants cultivated in Murcia (Spain), as determined by gas chromatography. Relative and absolute concentrations, the enantiomeric ratios of chiral compounds and the in vitro antioxidant, antienzymatic and antimicrobial activities are described. The main components of the SlEOs were camphor, 1,8-cineole, camphene and α-pinene, and the main enantiomers were (+)-camphor and (-)-camphene. The activities against free radicals and the capacity to reduce and chelate metallic ions were measured. SlEO-3 showed the highest activity in ORAC, DPPH, ABTS and reducing power methods, while SlEO-1 exhibited the highest chelating power. The activity of lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase could be inhibited by all the SlEOs, being bornyl acetate and limonene the most active individual compounds against lipoxygenase and 1,8-cineole against acetylcholinesterase. SlEOs and some individual compounds inhibited Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans . These results increase our knowledge of SlEOs and, particularly, provide for the first time a complete characterization of SlEOs from Murcia, Spain, while proposing possible biotechnological uses for them.

  8. Salvia miltiorrhiza Induces Tonic Contraction of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter in Rats via Activation of Extracellular Ca2+ Influx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chung Tsai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to 40% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD suffer from proton pump inhibitor refractory GERD but clinically the medications to strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter (LES to avoid irritating reflux are few in number. This study aimed to examine whether Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM extracts induce tonic contraction of rat LES ex vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. To investigate the mechanism underlying the SM extract-induced contractile effects, rats were pretreated with atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist, tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker, nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker, and Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, followed by administration of cumulative dosages of SM extracts. SM extracts induced dose-related tonic contraction of the LES, which was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, atropine, or nifedipine. However, the SM extract-induced LES contraction was significantly inhibited by Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with EGTA. Next, SM extracts significantly induce extracellular Ca2+ entry into primary LES cells in addition to intracellular Ca2+ release and in a dose-response manner. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the SM extracts consistently induced significant extracellular Ca2+ influx into primary LES cells in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, SM extracts could induce tonic contraction of LES mainly through the extracellular Ca2+ influx pathway.

  9. [Research of mechanism of secondary metabolites of phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root induced by jasmonate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Guanghong; Shao, Aijuan; Huang, Luqi

    2012-01-01

    To study the mechanism of secondary metabolites of some phenolic acids in the hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza induced by methyl jasmonate. The hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza were induced with methyl jasmonate (100 micromol x L(-1)) and collected at 0, 12, 24, 36 h after treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR was used for detecting the mRNA expression level of the key enzyme genes on the secondary metabolites pathway of rosmarinic acid, while a LC-MS method was developed to determine the content of rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B. The concentration of phenolic acids grew up and accumulated quickly in the hairy roots with exogenous signal molecule MJ induced, and it was showed that the content of CA and RA reached the maximum after 24 h and the content of LAB reached the maximum in 36 h by MJ induced. The induction mechanism may be activated with different levels of RA synthesis in PAL, 4CL, C4H genes on the key enzyme phenylalanine pathway and TAT, HPPR genes on tyrosine pathway. The time of gene expression was different, among them, 4CL and PAL genes were more important. In a word, the result can provide some basis data about the mechanism of secondary metabolites of phenolic acids for further research.

  10. Comparison of Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of Two Populations of Salvia macilenta Boiss. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Mirzania

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Salvia macilenta Boiss. is a fragrant subshrub which grows wild in some regions of Iran. In this work, we contrasted essential oil contents and components of two wild populations under two different ecological situations (Kerman and Baluchistan Provinces, Center and South East of Iran, respectively. For the first time the antibacterial and the antimycotic properties of these essential oils were also evaluated against seven bacterial and fungal strains. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method and the chemical compositions of the samples were examined by GC and GC-MS. Kerman (K specimen was found to be rich in α -pinene (29.0%, p-cymene (10.7%, veridiflorol (9.1%, α-eudesmol (8.7%, bornyl acetate (7.3% with lesser concentrations of borneol (4.9% . Principal components were identified as α -eudesmol (35.6%, α-pinene (7.7%, bornyl acetate (7.6%, ( E -nerolidol (6.5% and veridiflorol (5.9% from Baluchistan (B sample. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were found to be the principal class of components in the oil of Baluchistan sample (53.0% whereas monoterpene hydrocarbons were the main class in Kerman specimen (46.6%. The results demonstrated that the variety in the volatile compounds could be considered as chemotaxonomic importance and it may be ascribed to their different ecological and geographical source.

  11. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of drought stress on specialised metabolism: Biosynthesis and the expression of monoterpene synthases in sage (Salvia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Alzahraa; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk

    2017-09-01

    In previous experiments, we demonstrated that the amount of monoterpenes in sage is increased massively by drought stress. Our current study is aimed to elucidate whether this increase is due, at least in part, to elevated activity of the monoterpene synthases responsible for the biosynthesis of essential oils in sage. Accordingly, the transcription rates of the monoterpene synthases were analyzed. Salvia officinalis plants were cultivated under moderate drought stress. The concentrations of monoterpenes as well as the expression of the monoterpene synthases were analyzed. The amount of monoterpenes massively increased in response to drought stress; it doubled after just two days of drought stress. The observed changes in monoterpene content mostly match with the patterns of monoterpene synthase expressions. The expression of bornyl diphosphate synthase was strongly up-regulated; its maximum level was reached after two days. Sabinene synthase increased gradually and reached a maximum after two weeks. In contrast, the transcript level of cineole synthase continuously declined. This study revealed that the stress related increase of biosynthesis is not only due to a "passive" shift caused by the stress related over-reduced status, but also is due - at least in part-to an "active" up-regulation of the enzymes involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  14. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with pSage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.

  15. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan G Walch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea. The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analysed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardisation, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterise the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone with potentially adverse effects.

  17. Volatile Profile of Croatian Lime Tree (Tilia sp., Fir Honeydew (Abies alba and Sage (Salvia officinalis Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile profiles of lime tree (Tilia sp., fir honeydew (Abies alba and sage (Salvia officinalis honey produced in Croatia have been studied by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Melissopalynological and sensory characterization have been performed in order to check the reliability of botanical origin of the samples. In case of sage honey, sensory characteristics are reported for the first time and are rather uniform including: colour characterized as beige to jade, depending on the consistency; odour characterized as between light and medium intensity, slightly pungent and wooden; taste characterized as low sweetness, expressive acidity and apple caramel, with persistent fruity aftertaste. Characteristic volatile profiles of the analyzed honeys are described. Taking into consideration similarities with lime and fir honey volatile profiles reported in literature, characteristic volatile compounds resulting from qualitative data evaluation are proposed. Sage honey volatile profile has been reported for the first time and it was found quite different compared to the other studied honeys showing the lowest number of peaks among the studied honeys, 34. Several compounds belonging to the sage honey volatile profile have been identified for the first time in honeys. They include tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, 3-hexenyl ester of butanoic acid, 2-methylbenzene, maltol, methyl ester of 3-furanocarboxylic acid and benzeneacetic acid. Based on the obtained results and with the lack of comparative literature data, they are proposed as characteristic volatiles for the volatile pattern of sage honey.

  18. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis, and Allium hirtifolium Boiss Against Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Razavi Satvati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium which can cause life-threatening infections in humans. E. faecalis has been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth and is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. Nowadays modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine. Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Allium hirtifolium Boiss are commonly found in Iran and used as antimicrobial agents in folklore medicine. Objectives: In this study, antimicrobial activities of aqueous extracts of some plants were examined in vitro against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts of T. terrestris, A. sativum, S. officinalis and A. hirtifolium Boiss were examined using disc and well diffusion methods, and the19 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of aqueous extracts were determined against E. faecalis using agar and broth dilution methods. Results: The obtained results showed that the extract of A. hirtifolium Boiss inhibited the growth of E. faecalis (MIC of 10 mg/mL. Other plants had no effect on the target bacterium. Conclusion: According to the best effect of A. hirtifolium extract on E. faecalis and stability of this extract in thermal condition, we may purify this extract and use it for treatment of infections.

  19. Grain storage at farm and warehouses level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacşu, A. N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain storage is very important because the quality of flour obtained from grain will be found in the finished products’ quality. Grains must be stored in well established conditions regarding temperature, humidity, airflow, trying to avoid the risk of being attacked by rodents and insects. If these conditions are not complied with, some qualitative deficits of the grains - such as mould at pH, infestation, fermentation etc. - may appear. The storage methods are those responsible for maintaining a good quality of the grains.

  20. 3D modeling of metallic grain growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.

    1999-06-01

    This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN3D. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.

  1. Grain boundary corrosion of copper canister material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennell, P.A.H.; Graham, A.J.; Smart, N.R.; Sofield, C.J.

    2001-03-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues in Sweden is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will then be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast inner container fitted inside a corrosion-resistant copper canister. During fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities within the copper at the new grain boundaries. The work described in this report was undertaken to determine whether there is any possibility of enhanced corrosion at grain boundaries within the copper canister. The potential for grain boundary corrosion was investigated by exposing copper specimens, which had undergone different heat treatments and hence had different grain sizes, to aerated artificial bentonite-equilibrated groundwater with two concentrations of chloride, for increasing periods of time. The degree of grain boundary corrosion was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. AFM showed no increase in grain boundary 'ditching' for low chloride groundwater. In high chloride groundwater the surface was covered uniformly with a fine-grained oxide. No increases in oxide thickness were observed. No significant grain boundary attack was observed using optical microscopy either. The work suggests that in aerated artificial groundwaters containing chloride ions, grain boundary corrosion of copper is unlikely to adversely affect SKB's copper canisters

  2. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  3. Whole grains and health: from theory to practice--highlights of The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Nicola M; Jacques, Paul F; Seal, Chris J; de Vries, Jan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Clemens, Roger; Webb, Densie; Murphy, Lee Anne; van Klinken, Jan-Willem; Topping, David; Murray, Robyn; Degeneffe, Dennis; Marquart, Leonard F

    2013-05-01

    The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit, held May 19-22, 2012 in Minneapolis, was the first meeting of its kind to convene >300 scientists, educators, food technologists, grain breeders, food manufacturers, marketers, health professionals, and regulators from around the world. Its goals were to identify potential avenues for collaborative efforts and formulate new approaches to whole-grains research and health communications that support global public health and business. This paper summarizes some of the challenges and opportunities that researchers and nutrition educators face in expanding the knowledge base on whole grains and health and in translating and disseminating that knowledge to consumers. The consensus of the summit was that effective, long-term, public-private partnerships are needed to reach across the globe and galvanize the whole-grains community to collaborate effectively in translating whole-grains science into strategies that increase the availability and affordability of more healthful, grain-based food products. A prerequisite of that is the need to build trust among diverse multidisciplinary professionals involved in the growing, producing, marketing, and regulating of whole-grain products and between the grain and public health communities.

  4. Differential activity of autochthonous bacteria in controlling drought stress in native Lavandula and Salvia plants species under drought conditions in natural arid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armada, Elisabeth; Roldán, Antonio; Azcon, Rosario

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was studied in Lavandula dentata and Salvia officinalis growing in a natural arid Mediterranean soil under drought conditions. These bacteria identified as Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Enterobacter sp. (E), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and Bacillus sp. (Bsp). Each bacteria has different potential to meliorate water limitation and alleviating drought stress in these two plant species. B. thuringiensis promoted growth and drought avoidance in Lavandula by increasing K content, by depressing stomatal conductance, and it controlled shoot proline accumulation. This bacterial effect on increasing drought tolerance was related to the decrease of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) that resulted sensitive indexes of lower cellular oxidative damage involved in the adaptative drought response in B. thuringiensis-inoculated Lavandula plants. In contrast, in Salvia, having intrinsic lower shoot/root ratio, higher stomatal conductance and lower APX and GR activities than Lavandula, the bacterial effects on nutritional, physiological and antioxidant enzymatic systems were lower. The benefit of bacteria depended on intrinsic stress tolerance of plant involved. Lavadula demonstrated a greater benefit than Salvia to control drought stress when inoculated with B. thuringiensis. The bacterial drought tolerance assessed as survival, proline, and indolacetic acid production showed the potential of this bacteria to help plants to grow under drought conditions. B. thuringiensis may be used for Lavandula plant establishment in arid environments. Particular characteristic of the plant species as low shoot/root ratio and high stomatal conductance are important factors controlling the bacterial effectiveness improving nutritional, physiological, and metabolic plant activities.

  5. Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, S; Noroozian, M; Mohammadi, M; Ohadinia, S; Jamshidi, A H; Khani, M

    2003-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a slow, progressive decline in cognitive function and behaviour. Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors are the only agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. All other agents prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease are used on an off-label basis. Current research into new drugs is focused on agents that will prevent, slow down and/or halt the progress of the disease process. Salvia officinalis has been used in herbal medicine for many centuries. It has been suggested, on the basis of traditional medicine, its in vitro cholinergic binding properties and modulation of mood and cognitive performance in humans, that Salvia officinalis might potentially provide a novel natural treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis extract using a fixed dose (60 drops/day), in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, over a 4-month period. This was a 4-month, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial undertaken in three centres in Tehran, Iran. Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease aged between 65 and 80 years (n = 42, 18 women) with a score of > or = 12 on the cognitive subscale of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) and officinalis extract. Over the 16 weeks, the main efficacy measures were the change in the ADAS-cog and CDR-Sum of Boxes scores compared with baseline. In addition, side-effects were systematically recorded throughout the study using a checklist. At 4 months, S. officinalis extract produced a significant better outcome on cognitive functions than placebo (ADAS-cog: F = 4.77, d.f. = 1, P = 0.03) (CDR-SB: F = 10.84, d.f. = 1, P officinalis extract in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, S. officinalis may well reduce agitation of patients but this needs to be confirmed.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF GRAIN MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Maslak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is a set of theoretical, methodological and practical fundamentals of organizational and economic functioning are integrated agricultural formations in the grain market of Ukraine. The methodological basis of research is the complex analysis of economic processes in the grain market in Ukraine and the world. During research we used such methods as method of systematization and comparison, statistic, economic, balance, constructive, target-oriented, and the methods of induction and deduction, analogy and comparison. Main aim of this article is the analysis of the situation on the grain market in Ukraine, defining the role of integrated agricultural formations in this market, improving the organizational-economic mechanism of its functioning, identifies ways of improving the competitiveness of Ukraine among world exporters of grain. Using results of the studies we examined trends grain market in Ukraine; influence of businesses in grain production; analysis of constraints to improve production efficiency of grain; defined domestic (internal needs of grain in Ukraine; assessed the status and expediency transformation infrastructure of the grain market of Ukraine; defined priority directions of development of the grain market in Ukraine. As a result of the preparation of articles, it is obtained the following conclusions: Ukraine is the world's largest producers and exporters of grain, the production of integrated agricultural units to a third of the total grain; technical condition of farm does not meet the needs of production; the domestic market is unable to provide the existing demand for grain production, contributing to export growth; Ukraine has a number of problems due to increased grain production, namely the shortage of storage capacity for the storage of grain, limited performance transshipment of grain in port elevators and imperfection and depreciation of transport systems; solving the existing problems is

  7. Coarse-graining complex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat-tailed distribu......Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat...... macroscopic variables all produce identical long time relaxation behaviors. Hence, CTRW shed no light on the link between microscopic and macroscopic dynamics. We then highlight how a more recent approach, Record Dynamics (RD) provides a viable alternative, based on a very different set of physical ideas......: while CTRW make use of a renewal process involving identical traps of infinite size, RD embodies a dynamical entrenchment into a hierarchy of traps which are finite in size and possess different degrees of meta-stability. We show in particular how RD produces the stretched exponential, power...

  8. Study on grain growth of fine grained WC-Co hardmetal by numerical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, N. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Hayashi, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of industrial Science

    2000-12-15

    This paper reviews our simulation study by numerical calculation based on two-, three- and multi-grain-size models on WC grain growth in fine grained WC-Co hardmetal doped with VC. The study aimed to presume or predict the following: (1) the cause and conditions for the abnormal grain growth which occurs in some cases in the fine grained hardmetal prepared from fine WC powders with mean grain size below about 0.2{mu}m, and (2) how the mean grain size of the hardmetal varies with decreasing mean grain size of the WC starting powder to 0.1 pm or nano-meter size. The calculation results by these three kinds of models suggested the following, respectively: (1) the occurrence of the abnormal grain growth is generally substantial for WC starting powder with bimodal size-distribution and mean gram size below 0.1 - 0.2{mu}m, and not due to the non-uniform distribution of the grain growth inhibitor, (2) the introduction of middle grains caused the disappearance of small (fine) grains during sintering, leading to abruptly increase of the mean grain size of alloy, and (3) the mean grain size of alloy becomes so large as about 0.3 - 0.4{mu}m, even when the WC starting powders with nano-size as well as 0.1 {mu}m are used. (author)

  9. Grain boundary segregation and intergranular failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Trace elements and impurities often segregate strongly to grain boundaries in metals and alloys. Concentrations of these elements at grain boundaries are often 10 3 to 10 5 times as great as their overall concentration in the alloy. Because of such segregation, certain trace elements can exert a disproportionate influence on material properties. One frequently observed consequence of trace element segregation to grain boundaries is the occurrence of grain boundary failure and low ductility. Less well known are incidences of improved ductility and inhibition of grain boundary fracture resulting from trace element segregation to grain boundaries in certain systems. An overview of trace element segregation and intergranular failure in a variety of alloy systems as well as preliminary results from studies on Al 3% Li will be presented

  10. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  11. Biodiesel production from Norouzak (Salvia lerifolia) seeds as an indigenous source of bio fuel in Iran using ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajinezhad, Ahmad; Abedi, Sepideh; Ghobadian, Barat; Noorollahi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Salvia lerifolia seed oil is introduced as an indigenous source of biodiesel production in Iran. • Biodiesel was obtained from the samples by basic trans-esterification method using ultrasounds device. • Norouzak oil profile was extracted based on BF3 method, and it was determined by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Metcalf method. • The produced biodiesel characteristics from Norouzak oil seed is suitable for use in CI engines with low air pollutions. - Abstract: Population growth with increased demand for fossil fuels and also significant increases in air pollution has confirmed necessity of using alternative fuels such as biodiesel. In this paper, Norouzak (Salvia lerifolia) seed oil is introduced as an indigenous source of biodiesel production in Iran. The seeds were collected from desert area of South Khorasan province Northeastern-Iran. In this regards, kinematic and dynamic viscosity, density, amount of free fatty acids, soap value, acid value and water content of the Noruzak oil are measured which are 28.435 (mP s), 31.433 (mm 2 /s), 0.9046 (g/cm 2 ), 0.71%, 160.25 (mg/1 g), 1.4139 (mg) and 0/3% respectively. Also, fatty acid methyl esters C 16:0 , C 16:1 , C 18:0 , C 18:1 , C 18:1c , C 18:2 , C 18:2c , C 18:3 , C 20 , C 20:1 , C 22 , C 22:1 , C 24 , C 24:1 are known by Gas Chromatography (GC) and BF 3 method which results shows C 18:2 (40.8%) and C 18:1 (24) have the highest proportion of methyl ester in this oil. Norouzak biodiesel was obtained by basic trans-esterification method using ultrasounds device as a new sustainable and environmentally-friendly green technique under ultrasonic amplitude of 60% and 9 min at 45 °C, with methanol ratio of 1:5, 1:6, 1:7 and 1% potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The results showed that there is maximum performance of methyl ester production (97.60) with methanol molar ratio of 1:6 which shows significant improvement in the bio fuel production yield using ultrasound technology under the operating

  12. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... techniques in manipulating the micro-structure and domain structure to result in desired interactions between neighbouring grains could prove to be beneficial for future polycrystalline ferroelectric materials....

  13. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved

  14. Liquid shoot culture of Salvia officinalis L. for micropropagation and production of antioxidant compounds; effect of triacontanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid shoot culture of Salvia officinalis L. in MS medium containing IAA (0.1 mg l-1 and BAP (0.45 mg l-1 was developed and evaluated in relation to shoot multiplication and antioxidant compound (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid accumulation. In the liquid medium, on average, 3 new shoots per explant (shoot tip were obtained within 3 weeks. The shoots produced 8.2±0.02 mg of diterpenoids and 31.2±0.29 mg of rosmarinic acid per gram of dry weight. Shoot proliferation and diterpenoid content increased when triacontanol (5, 10 or 20 pg l-1 was added to the liquid medium. In optimum conditions (at 20 pg l-1 TRIA almost 7 shoots were formed per explant after 3 weeks. An increase in diterpenoid production (expressed as the sum of carnosol and carnosic acid ranged from 30% to 50% and dependended on triacontanol concentration tested. The level of diterpenoids in triacontanol-treated shoots was similar to the content of compounds in commercial herbal product (dried leaves of S. officinalis (10-12 mg g-1 dry wt. Triacontanol did not increase rosmarinic acid production, but the content of the phenolic as compound in shoots grown in liquid culture (31 mg g-1 dry wt was even 24 times higher compared to samples of dried leaves of S. officinalis plants. We also demonstrated that the highest amounts of CA, Car and RA were accumulated in young, top parts of sage shoots. This observation could be useful for improving the selection of material for the extraction of natural antioxidants from S. officinalis.

  15. Edible coating composed of chitosan and Salvia fruticosa Mill. extract for the control of grey mould of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetis, Loukas; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Charalambous, Zinovia; Goulas, Vlasios

    2017-01-01

    Consumer concerns regarding high-quality produce, free of pesticide residues, direct research towards disease management strategies that minimise or even exclude the use of synthetic chemistries in crop production. The efficacy of a chitosan-based edible coating combined with the acetonic extract of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (ASF) was assessed against the grey mould of table grapes. HPLC-SPE-NMR and q-NMR analyses defined major constituents of ASF to be the flavonoids hispidulin, salvigenin and cirsimaritin and the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol and the 12-methoxycarnosic acid. The extract was found to be efficacious in reducing spore germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro at 10 and 25 °C. However, the combination of the ASF with chitosan 1% (w/v; CHIT) significantly improved fungal inhibition. Similarly, in fruit inoculation trials at 10 °C, the efficacy of the combined application of the ASF at 500 mg L -1 with CHIT against grey mould was statistically equal to the synthetic fungicide thiabendazole, ranging from 98.4% to 92.7% at 12 and 21 days post-inoculation, respectively. Furthermore, chitosan coating alone and in combination with ASF decreased the rate of fruit weight loss during cold storage, while preserved soluble solids content and titratable acidity. Chitosan-based coatings did not affect quality attributes and the bioactive compounds in table grapes. The combined application of the ASF in the form of an edible coating with chitosan could effectively control B. cinerea without deteriorating quality and physico-chemical properties of grapes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Is pollen removal or seed set favoured by flower longevity in a hummingbird-pollinated Salvia species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aximoff, Izar Araujo; Freitas, Leandro

    2010-09-01

    The period between the beginning of anthesis and flower senescence modulates the transport of pollen by pollinators among conspecific flowers, and its length may therefore influence reproductive success. This study evaluated whether floral longevity favours pollen removal from the anthers over fecundity (seed set) in an ornithophilous species that does not undergo pollen limitation. Field investigations were conducted on floral longevity, nectar production, pollinator behaviour, and variations in fruit set (FS), mean number of seeds per fruit (MSF) and pollen removal by hummingbirds (PR) during the anthesis of Salvia sellowiana in south-east Brazil. Anthesis of flowers exposed to pollinators lasted 4 d, as well as on flowers with pollen removed from the anthers or deposited on the stigma. The longevity of bagged flowers was significantly higher (approx. 9 d). FS and PR reached 87.2 and 90 %, respectively, in natural conditions. PR increased gradually over the period of anthesis; however, FS and MSF reached their maxima in the first hours of anthesis. Nectar production was continuous, but the secretion rate was reduced after pollination. The removal of nectar from non-pollinated flowers stimulated its production. The longevity of anthesis in S. sellowiana seems to be related to the mechanism of gradual dispensing of pollen, resulting in greater male reproductive success. This is in agreement with the pollen-donation hypothesis. The small number of ovules (four) of S. sellowiana and the high frequency and the foraging mode of its pollinators may favour the selection for floral longevity driven by male fitness in this system.

  17. Ultrasonic Removal of Mucilage for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Omega-3 Rich Oil from Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2017-03-29

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction. The proposed mucilage extraction method, using an ultrasonic probe and only water, was optimized at mild conditions (50 °C and sonication 3 min) to guarantee the omega-3 oil quality. Chia oil extraction was performed using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with different solvents and their mixtures at five different extraction temperatures (60, 90, 120, 150, and 200 °C). Optimal PLE conditions were achieved with ethyl acetate or hexane at 90 °C in only 10 min of static extraction time (chia oil yield up to 30.93%). In addition, chia oils extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents by PLE were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid composition at different extraction conditions. Chia oil contained ∼65% of α-linolenic acid regardless of mucilage extraction method, solvent, or temperature used. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols were also analyzed by HPLC in the extracted chia oils. The mucilage removal allowed the subsequent extraction of the chia oil with polar or nonpolar solvents by PLE producing chia oil with the same fatty acid and tocopherol composition as traditional extraction.

  18. Determination of Essential Oil Bioactive Components and Rosmarinic Acid of Salvia officinalis Cultivated under Different Intra-row Spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ABU DARWISH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis, known also as sage, is a medicinal plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family that spreads all over the word in several countries. The demand for the raw material and extracts of this plant is increasing due to its numerous applications in pharmacy, food and herbal tea production. The present study investigated for the first time the effect of 15, 30 and 45 cm intra-row spacing (plant density on the main constituents of sage essential oils and rosmarinic acid content. The highest content of essential oils (2.7% and rosmarinic acid (2.0% were obtained in plants grown using 15 cm planting space. Likewise, close spacing resulted also in a substantial content of 1,8-cineole (47-50%, GC/FID; 55-60%, GC/MS. This work indicated that 1,8-cineole chemotype was a dominant character of cultivated S. officinalis in south of Jordan. In general, the percent of α-thujone in essential oil was not affected by intra-row spacing. However, the percent of β-thujone decreased from (2-3%, GC/MS in plants grown using 15 cm intra-row spacing to (1-2%, GC/MS in plants grown using 30 and 45 cm intra-row spacing. The highest content of α-and β-pinene was recorded in plants grown using 45 cm planting space (8-10%, GC/FID; 5-6% GC/MS. Based on GC/MS, camphor compound was enriched (9-10% in sage plants grown under 15 cm spacing and greater than in plants grown under 30 (6-7% or 45 cm (5-6% spacing. The results make the potential use of sage extracts in the treatment of some human disorders or illness an area of further research.

  19. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Salvia officinalis L. against Acute Liver Toxicity of Acetaminophen in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Foruozandeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The medical herbs play important roles in the treatment of liver diseases. In the traditional medicine, Salvia officinalis is highly used to heal a wide range of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of Saliva officinalis on hepatotoxicity due to acetaminophen. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 60 albino mice were studied. The rats were divided into 6 groups. The first, second, and third groups were physiological serum, crude extract of Saliva officinalis, and 500mg acetaminophen per 1Kg consumed as single dose, respectively. The fourth, fifth, and sixth groups received 5-day 125, 250, and 500mg per 1Kg extract of Saliva officinalis, respectively. Then, they received 500mg acetaminophen one hour after the last administration of extract. Blood sampling was done from the carotids of the rats 24hour later, and the levels of bilirubin and liver enzymes were measured. In addition, their liver tissues were studied. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using one-way ANOVA. Findings: There were significant increases in the direct and complete bilirubin concentration and liver enzymes due to acetaminophen compared to control group (p<0.05. There were significant reductions in the direct and complete bilirubin and liver enzymes due to 125, 250, and 500mg per 1Kg of the extract of Saliva officinalis compared to control group (p<0.05. The results were confirmed by the histology studies. Conclusion: 250 and 500mg per 1Kg of Saliva officinalis potentially protect the damages caused by acetaminophen. In addition, they considerably improve the tissue damage and the biochemical indices in the liver damages.

  20. Selection and validation of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Salvia hispanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gopalam

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR has become the most popular choice for gene expression studies. For accurate expression analysis, it is pertinent to select a stable reference gene to normalize the data. It is now known that the expression of internal reference genes varies considerably during developmental stages and under different experimental conditions. For Salvia hispanica, an economically important oilseed crop, there are no reports of stable reference genes till date. In this study, we chose 13 candidate reference genes viz. Actin11 (ACT, Elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α, Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3E (ETIF3E, alpha tubulin (α-TUB, beta tubulin (β-TUB, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, Cyclophilin (CYP, Clathrin adaptor complex (CAC, Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, FtsH protease (FtsH, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA, S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC and Rubisco activase (RCA and the expression levels of these genes were assessed in a diverse set of tissue samples representing vegetative stages, reproductive stages and various abiotic stress treatments. Two of the widely used softwares, geNorm and Normfinder were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of these 13 candidate reference genes under different conditions. Results showed that GAPDH and CYP expression remain stable throughout in the different abiotic stress treatments, CAC and PP2A expression were relatively stable under reproductive stages and α-TUB, PP2A and ETIF3E were found to be stably expressed in vegetative stages. Further, the expression levels of Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1, a key enzyme in triacylglycerol synthesis was analyzed to confirm the validity of reference genes identified in the study. This is the first systematic study of selection of reference genes in S. hispanica, and will benefit future expression studies in this crop.

  1. Antidepressive and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract and fruticuline A from Salvia lachnostachys Benth leaves on rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Alencar Santos

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice.In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p.o. were also evaluated with respect to nociceptive behavior induced by formalin. In addition, clonidine-induced depressive-like behavior was also analyzed.The oral administration of SLEE for up to 15 days and the subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of ketamine (positive control significantly inhibited SNI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased immobility in the FST. On the 15th day of oral treatment, SLEE prevented the SNI-induced increase in cold sensitivity. In the formalin test, SLEE and fruticuline A significantly reduced the frequency of paw licking during the first and second phases and decreased the formation of edema. In locomotor analysis (open field test without clonidine treatment, SLEE and fruticuline A did not alter the response. SLEE and fruticuline A significantly attenuated clonidine-induced suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity (squares invaded and licking and emotionality (grooming and freezing compared with controls, similar to the naive group.SLEE exhibits antihyperalgesic, antidepressant, and antinociceptive effects, and fruticuline A appears to be at least partly responsible for the effects of SLEE. Together, these results demonstrate the antidepressive effects of SLEE and fruticuline A and indicate that both derivatives obtained from S. lachnostachys act against spontaneous neuropathic pain.

  2. C15082. Phytochemical Variations and Enhanced Efficiency of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Ingredients in Salvia officinalis as Inoculated with Different Rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Hatami, Mehrnaz; Kariman, Khalil; Dahaji, Payman Abbaszadeh

    2016-02-10

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites to improve their performance upon exposure to pathogens, pests, herbivores or environmental stresses. Secondary metabolism in plants is, therefore, highly regulated by presence of biotic or abiotic elicitors in the environment. The present research was undertaken to characterize plant growth promoting attributes of four plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) including two Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf Ap1, Pf Ap18) and two P. putida (Pp Ap9, Pp Ap14) strains and to determine their role (individually or in consortium) on growth of Salvia officialis and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as essential oils (EOs), total phenolics and flavonoids. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the extracts and EOs obtained from the inoculated plants were also investigated. The PGPR inoculum was applied to soil, cuttings and foliage. Results indicated that different PGPR strains varied in their efficiency for production of auxin, siderophore, 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and phosphate solubilization. All singly inoculated plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass, leaf phosphorus content, essential oils (EOs) yield, total phenolics and flavonoids content compared to uninoculated control plants. The major constituents of EOs, cis-thujene, camphor and 1,8-cineol, increased following inoculation with reference PGPRs. Although the extract from all inoculated plants had improved antioxidant activity, it was remarkable for the Pf Ap18 strain, which had the lowest IC 50 value across treatments. Antibacterial assay of various EOs and their major constituents against pathogenic bacteria showed that the highest activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus using EOs of Pp Ap14 source. Based on our findings, we suggest that individual inoculation with effective PGPR strains can substantially improve plant growth and secondary metabolism in S. officinals plants. This article is protected

  3. Phytochemical Variations and Enhanced Efficiency of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Ingredients in Salvia officinalis as Inoculated with Different Rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Hatami, Mehrnaz; Kariman, Khalil; Abbaszadeh Dahaji, Payman

    2016-03-01

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites to improve their performance upon exposure to pathogens, pests, herbivores, or environmental stresses. Secondary metabolism in plants is, therefore, highly regulated by presence of biotic or abiotic elicitors in the environment. The present research was undertaken to characterize plant growth-promoting attributes of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) including two Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf Ap1, Pf Ap18) and two P. putida (Pp Ap9, Pp Ap14) strains, and to determine their role (individually or in consortium) on growth of Salvia officialis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as essential oils (EOs), total phenolics, and flavonoids. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the extracts and EOs obtained from the inoculated plants were also investigated. The PGPR inoculum was applied to soil, cuttings, and foliage. Results indicated that different PGPR strains varied in their efficiency for production of auxin, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and phosphate solubilization. All individually inoculated plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass, leaf P content, EOs yield, total phenolics, and flavonoids content compared to uninoculated control plants. The major constituents of EOs, cis-thujene, camphor, and 1,8-cineol, increased following inoculation with reference PGPRs. Although the extract from all inoculated plants had improved antioxidant activity, it was remarkable for the Pf Ap18 strain, which had the lowest IC50 value across treatments. Antibacterial assay of various EOs and their major constituents against pathogenic bacteria showed that the highest activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus using EOs of Pp Ap14 source. Based on our findings, we suggest that individual inoculation with effective PGPR strains can substantially improve plant growth and secondary metabolism in S. officinalis plants. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta

  4. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-07-21

    The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%). The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol), which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds.

  5. "Fungal elicitors combined with a sucrose feed significantly enhance triterpene production of a Salvia fruticosa cell suspension".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmritz, Sibylle; Louis, Marilena; Haas, Christiane; Oehmichen, Franz; Gantz, Stephanie; Delenk, Hubertus; Steudler, Susanne; Bley, Thomas; Steingroewer, Juliane

    2016-08-01

    Oleanolic (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are plant secondary metabolites with diverse pharmacological properties. To reach reasonable productivities with plant cell suspension cultures, elicitation is a widely used strategy. Within the presented work, the effects of different elicitors on growth and production of OA and UA in a Salvia fruticosa cell suspension culture were examined. Beside commonly used elicitors like jasmonic acid (JA) and yeast extract, the influence of medium filtrates of the endophytic fungi Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens was investigated. The best eliciting effects were achieved with JA and fungal medium filtrates. Both increased the triterpene content by approximately 70 %. Since JA showed significant growth inhibition, the volumetric triterpene yield did not increase. But, adding fungal filtrates increased the volumetric triterpene yield by approximately 70 % to 32.6 mgOA l(-1) and 65.9 mgUA l(-1) for T. virens compared to the control with 19.4 mgOA l(-1) and 33.3 mgUA l(-1). An elicitation strategy combining fungal medium filtrate of T. virens with sucrose feeding significantly enhanced cell dry weight concentration to 22.2 g l(-1) as well as triterpene content by approximately 140 %. In total, this led to an approximately 500 % increase of volumetric triterpene yield referring to the control with final values of 112.9 mgOA l(-1) and 210.4 mgUA l(-1). Despite the doubled cultivation duration, productivities of 6.7 mgOA l(-1) day(-1) and 12.4 mgUA l(-1) day(-1) were reached. These results demonstrate methods by which increased productivities of triterpenes can be achieved to attain yields competing with intact plants.

  6. In vitro anti-herpes simplex virus-2 activity of Salvia desoleana Atzei & V. Picci essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagno, Valeria; Sgorbini, Barbara; Sanna, Cinzia; Cagliero, Cecilia; Ballero, Mauro; Civra, Andrea; Donalisio, Manuela; Bicchi, Carlo; Lembo, David; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Salvia desoleana Atzei & V. Picci is an indigenous species in Sardinia island used in folk medicine to treat menstrual, digestive and central nervous system diseases. Nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the pleasant smell of its essential oil (EO), whose antimicrobial and antifungal activities have already been screened. This study evaluated the in vitro anti-Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) activity of S. desoleana EO, fractions and main components: linalyl acetate, alpha terpinyl acetate, and germacrene D. Phytochemical composition of S. desoleana EO was studied by GC-FID/MS analysis and the active fraction(s) and/or compounds in S. desoleana EO were identified with a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure through in vitro assays on cell viability and HSV-2 and RSV inhibition. S. desoleana EO inhibits both acyclovir sensitive and acyclovir resistant HSV-2 strains with EC50 values of 23.72 μg/ml for the former and 28.57 μg/ml for the latter. Moreover, a significant suppression of HSV-2 replication was observed with an EC50 value of 33.01 μg/ml (95% CI: 26.26 to 41.49) when the EO was added post-infection. Among the fractions resulting from flash column chromatography on silica gel, the one containing 54% of germacrene D showed a similar spectrum of activity of S. desoleana EO with a stronger suppression in post-infection stage. These results indicated that S. desoleana EO can be of interest to develop new and alternative anti-HSV-2 products active also against acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strains.

  7. Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salvia officinalis on Ovarian Angiogenesis in Mice at Preimplantation: A Morphological and Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Beigi Boroujeni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Salvia officinalis is a phytoestrogen, which is used to reduce clinical signs of pregnancy and improve the female infertility in herbal medicine treatment. The effect of S. officinalis on ovarian angiogenesis at the preimplantation time is unknown. Objectives This research was a histomorphometric and quantitative real-time study on angiogenic activity in the ovarian tissue in mice after exposure to S. officinalis at preimplantaion. Methods The extract of S. officinalis leaves, which was analyzed by phytochemical methods, administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 14 days to female mice. Then, pseudopregnancy was induced and ovarian tissue samples were removed for histological and molecular assessment. Results Data analysis on the space-solid phase micro extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated α-thujone (33.90%, camphor (19.34%, cineole (11.01% and ß-thujone (9.48% were the dominating compounds in the leaves of S. officinalis. Data analysis on histomorphometric parameters showed a significant difference in the vascular parameters between the test and control groups. Furthermore, gene expression analysis implied an increased level of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF (3.175 and was also associated with an increase in the level of Kinase insert domain protein receptor (KDR/Flk gene expression (3.556 and FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt gene expression (3.437 in the test group compared to the control group. Conclusions Increased ovarian angiogenesis after exposure to S. officinalis may induce vascular permeability and finally contribute to a variety of disorders including clinical signs similar to the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  8. In vitro permeation through porcine buccal mucosa of Salvia desoleana Atzei & Picci essential oil from topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschel, G C; Maffei, P; Moretti, M D; Demontis, S; Peana, A T

    2000-02-15

    In the light of recent studies, which have shown that the essential oil derived from some Lamiaceae species has appreciable anti-inflammatory activity, moderate anti-microbial action and the ability to inhibit induced hyperalgesia, an assessment of the diffusion and permeation of Salvia desoleana Atzei & Picci (S. desoleana) essential oil through porcine buccal mucosa was considered useful for a possible application in the stomatological field. Topical formulations (microemulsions, hydrogels and microemulsion-hydrogels) were prepared for application to the buccal mucosa. The mucosa permeation of the oil from the formulations was evaluated using Franz cells, with porcine buccal mucosa as septum between the formulations (donor compartment) and the receptor phase chambers. The study also aimed at optimising the permeability of the S. desoleana essential oil by means of an enhancer, the diethylene glycol monoethyl ether Transcutol. The diffusion of the oil through the membrane was determined by evaluating the amount of essential oil components present in the receiving solution, the flux and the permeation coefficient (at the steady state) in the different formulations at set intervals. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were done by gas chromatographic analysis. All the formulations allow a high permeability coefficient in comparison with the pure essential oil. In particular, the components with a terpenic structure (beta-pinene, cineole, alpha-terpineol and linalool) have the highest capacity to pass through the porcine buccal mucosa when compared to the other components (linalyl acetate and alpha-terpinil acetate). Moreover, the enhancer, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether largely increases the permeation of the essential oil components in relation to the concentration.

  9. Development of large grain cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DESY activities on 1.3 GHz tesla shape single cell and nine-cell large grain (LG resonators are presented; results of the past five years are covered. The R&D program explores the potential for production of elliptical superconducting cavities. The main efforts have been devoted to material investigation, development of LG disk production, cavity fabrication from this material, and a search for appropriate treatment. More than 250 LG disks are manufactured; several single cell and 11 nine-cell resonators are produced and rf tested after buffered chemical polishing and after additional electropolishing. A maximum accelerating gradient of approximately 45  MV/m for this type of cavity was achieved in two resonators. Two of the LG cavities have been installed and are currently being used in the FLASH accelerator operation. Assembly of a cryomodule, consisting of LG cavities only, is in the works. Perspectives of the LG cavity application are discussed.

  10. Grain orientation studies in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sudhakar; Schulze, Walter A.

    1990-01-01

    Grain oriented fabrication of ceramics utilizes the presence of some form of anisotropy in the particles of the starting material to obtain textured microstructures. The molten salt, or flux method, a popular technique for growing crystals and particles with anisotropic morphology, is utilized in this study. The formation of Ba2YCu3O(7-x) in the presence of molten salts of Na, K, Li belonging to chloride and sulfate systems does not appear feasible in the temperature range up to 900 C. Researchers also present the results of studies in using BaY2CuO5 as seed crystals in the formation of Ba2YCu3O(7-x) wherein BaY2CuO5 has been observed to have better stability in water and against most of the salts as compared to Ba2YCu3O(7-x). Additional results of molten salt processing of bismuth systems are also presented.

  11. Signature spectrale des grains interstellaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, A.

    Notre connaissance de la nature des grains interstellaires reposait sur un nombre très restreint de signatures spectrales dans la courbe d'extinction du milieu interstellaire. Une information considérable est contenue dans les 40 bandes interstellaires diffuses dans le visible, mais reste inexploitée. L'interprétation récente des cinq bandes IR en émission, en terme de molécules d'hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques, est développée. Elle permet l'utilisation d'une information spectroscopique comparable, à elle seule, à ce sur quoi était basée jusqu'alors notre connaissance de la matière interstellaire condensée. Différentes implications de cette mise en évidence sont proposées.

  12. The effects of irradiation on grain coat color and grain texture in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Bingliang; Liu Xueyu

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of the variety ''Yangmai 5'' with red grain coat, semihard grain texture, and the variety ''Ningmai 3'' with red grain coat, soft grain texture were irradiated with Y-rays at various doses.The effect on M1 grain coat color was different between two varieties, the higher doses made grain coat color of ''Yangmai 5'' redder, but had hardly effect on ''Ningmai 3''.The effect on M1 grain texture showed that the grain texture became softer with doses increased.It was found that there were 0.6% of positive ( red to white ) grain coat color mutants and 2.0% of negative(hard to soft) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Yangmai 5'', and there were 0.7% of negative ( white to red ) grain coat color mutants and 3.6% of positive ( soft to hard ) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Ningmai 3''. It seemed that the positive mutants selected in M3 were stable in M4. The results showed that γ-rays can be used to improve the grain coat color andgrain texture of wheat varieties

  13. Grain interaction effects in polycrystalline Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, C.; Somers, Marcel A.J.; Wert, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Crystal orientation maps for a grain in a deformed Cu polycrystal have been analysed with the goal of understanding the effect of grain interactions on orientation subdivision. The polycrystal was incrementally strained in tension to 5, 8, 15 and 25% extension; a crystal orientation map was measu......Crystal orientation maps for a grain in a deformed Cu polycrystal have been analysed with the goal of understanding the effect of grain interactions on orientation subdivision. The polycrystal was incrementally strained in tension to 5, 8, 15 and 25% extension; a crystal orientation map...

  14. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Salehnia, Ali; Khamisabadi, Kiumars

    2014-01-01

    Background Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study. Methods: Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls. Results: In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol Prepellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (Prepellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups. Conclusion: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils. PMID:25629066

  15. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  16. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol, Myrtus communis (Myrtle, Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Kayedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study.Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33% as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls.In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42 and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001. In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001. The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups.Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils.

  17. Affinity selection-based two-dimensional chromatography coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for discovering xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Mo, Hua-Yan; Gao, Wen; Hong, Jia-Ying; Lu, Jun; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a key oxidative enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and certain diseases induced by excessive reactive oxygen species. XOD inhibitors could provide an important therapeutic approach to treat such diseases. A new method using affinity selection-based two-dimensional chromatography coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the online screening of potential XOD inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae. Based on our previous study, the two-dimensional, turbulent-flow chromatography (TFC) was changed to a mixed-mode anion-exchange/reversed-phase column and one reversed-phase column. The developed method was validated to be selective and sensitive for screening XOD-binding compounds, especially weak acidic ones, in the extracts. Three salvianolic acids were screened from the Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract via the developed method. The XOD inhibitory activities of salvianolic acid C and salvianolic acid A were confirmed, and their inhibitory modes were measured. Salvianolic acid C exhibited potent XOD inhibitory activity with an IC(50) of 9.07 μM. This work demonstrated that the developed online, two-dimensional TFC/LC-MS method was effective in discovering the binding affinity of new compounds from natural extracts for target proteins, even at low concentrations.

  18. Involvement of Bax and Bcl-2 in Induction of Apoptosis by Essential Oils of Three Lebanese Salvia Species in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Russo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men, and research to find more effective and less toxic drugs has become necessary. In the frame of our ongoing program on traditionally used Salvia species from the Mediterranean Area, here we report the biological activities of Salvia aurea, S. judaica and S. viscosa essential oils against human prostate cancer cells (DU-145. The cell viability was measured by 3(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release was used to quantify necrosis cell death. Genomic DNA, caspase-3 activity, expression of cleaved caspase-9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 associated X (Bax proteins were analyzed in order to study the apoptotic process. The role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was also investigated. We found that the three essential oils, containing caryophyllene oxide as a main constituent, are capable of reducing the growth of human prostate cancer cells, activating an apoptotic process and increasing reactive oxygen species generation. These results suggest it could be profitable to further investigate the effects of these essential oils for their possible use as anticancer agents in prostate cancer, alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents.

  19. Evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated samples of sage (Salvia fruticosa) by activity-guided fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Fatma Sezer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Erdem, Sinem Aslan; Kartal, Murat; Sener, Bilge; Kan, Yüksel; Celep, Ferhat; Kahraman, Ahmet; Dogan, Musa

    2011-11-01

    In European folk medicine, Salvia species have traditionally been used to enhance memory. In our previous study of 55 Salvia taxa, we explored significant anticholinesterase activity of cultivated S. fruticosa. In this study, we compared the inhibitory activity of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of 3 wild-grown samples and 1 cultivated sample of S. fruticosa against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes (which are associated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease) by using the spectrophotometric Ellman method. Antioxidant activities were assessed by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The dichloromethane extract of the cultivated sample was then subjected to fractionation by using open column chromatography and medium-pressure liquid chromatography to obtain the most active fraction by activity-guided fractionation. All fractions and subfractions were tested in the same manner, and inactive subfractions were discarded. The essential oil of the cultivated sample was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  20. Grain-boundary engineering applied to grain growth in a high temperature material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Crystallography of grain boundaries are determined for a high temperature material, before and after grain growth processes, so as to study the induction of special properties useful for application in components of a gas-turbine engine. The philosophy of grain-boundary engineering is applied to grain growth in APK-6, a powder formed nickel-base superalloy so as to establish the possible structure/property relationships. The alloy in the as received condition is shown to possess a strong texture and contained coincident site lattices (CSL) boundaries with most boundaries having sigma values in the range of 3 > sigma > 25. A normal grain-growth heat treatment result in a good population of low angle grain boundaries, and drastically reduces the proportion of CSL boundaries. A strong [011] annealing texture is observed after an intermediate grain growth; most grain boundaries, here, tend to be high angle indicating a possibility of possessing special properties. (author)

  1. Supercube grains leading to a strong cube texture and a broad grain size distribution after recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, F.X.; Zhang, Y. B.; Pantleon, W.

    2015-01-01

    growth rates. However, most other cube grains do not grow preferentially. Because of the few supercube grains, the grain size distribution after recrystallization is broad. Reasons for the higher growth rates of supercube grains are discussed, and are related to the local deformed microstructure.......This work revisits the classical subject of recrystallization of cold-rolled copper. Two characterization techniques are combined: three-dimensional X-ray diffraction using synchrotron X-rays, which is used to measure the growth kinetics of individual grains in situ, and electron backscatter...... diffraction, which is used for statistical analysis of the microstructural evolution. As the most striking result, the strong cube texture after recrystallization is found to be related to a few super large cube grains, which were named supercube grains. These few supercube grains become large due to higher...

  2. Evolution of orientations and deformation structures within individual grains in cold rolled columnar grained nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Winther, G.; Juul Jensen, D.; Liu, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Columnar grained Ni is used as a model material allowing simultaneous non-surface investigations of the evolution of crystallographic orientations and deformation microstructures within individual grains as a function of rolling strain up to ε = 0.7. Electron channelling contrast and electron backscattered diffraction are used to visualise microstructures and crystallographic orientations. It is found that both the microstructural and the textural development depend strongly on the initial grain orientation. A grain size effect is observed on the deformation-induced orientation scatter within the grains. Large grains have microstructure and orientation scatters similar to those observed in single crystals of similar orientation. The observations are interpreted based on a slip system analysis, considering the relative effects of the initial grain orientation and the interaction between neighbouring grains as well.

  3. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fischer, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2014), Art. No. 015013 ISSN 0965-0393 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain boundary segregation * abnormal grain growth * theory * modelling * solute drag Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.167, year: 2014

  4. The Role of Grain Boundary Energy on Grain Boundary Complexion Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarski, Stephanie A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Rohrer, Gregory S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain boundary and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed boundaries and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain boundary energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). The current work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain boundary character and energy. Furthermore, the current work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain boundary energy distribution.

  5. Grain Unloading of Arsenic Species in Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Charnock, John M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Manchester); (Aberdeen); (UC)

    2010-01-11

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). To investigate how As species are unloaded into grain rice, panicles were excised during grain filling and hydroponically pulsed with arsenite, arsenate, glutathione-complexed As, or DMA. Total As concentrations in flag leaf, grain, and husk, were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and As speciation in the fresh grain was determined by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The roles of phloem and xylem transport were investigated by applying a {+-} stem-girdling treatment to a second set of panicles, limiting phloem transport to the grain in panicles pulsed with arsenite or DMA. The results demonstrate that DMA is translocated to the rice grain with over an order magnitude greater efficiency than inorganic species and is more mobile than arsenite in both the phloem and the xylem. Phloem transport accounted for 90% of arsenite, and 55% of DMA, transport to the grain. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping and fluorescence microtomography revealed marked differences in the pattern of As unloading into the grain between DMA and arsenite-challenged grain. Arsenite was retained in the ovular vascular trace and DMA dispersed throughout the external grain parts and into the endosperm. This study also demonstrates that DMA speciation is altered in planta, potentially through complexation with thiols.

  6. GRAIN QUALITY IN SIERRA LEONE I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and traders, as well as the marketing practices and aspirations for the improvement of rice grain quality in the ... smallholders who use manual traditional processing and handling practices like head portage for ... The study was a national market perception survey on the nature of rice grain quality in Sierra Leone with ...

  7. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials. H RAMANARAYAN and T A ABINANDANAN*. Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Abstract. We have used a phase field model to study spinodal decomposition in polycrystalline materials in which the grain size is of the same ...

  8. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have used a phase field model to study spinodal decomposition in polycrystalline materials in which the grain size is of the same order of magnitude as the characteristic decomposition wavelength ( λ S D ). In the spirit of phase field models, each grain () in our model has an order parameter ( η i ) associated with it; ...

  9. Evidence from Ethiopian Grain Traders and Millers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    According to Dessalegn et.al. (1997), limited access to finance was identified as one of the major constraints of grain marketing in Ethiopia. Traders who did not obtain loan from banks identified lack of collateral, high risk in grain trade and high competition from unlicensed traders as the main reasons constraining access to ...

  10. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  11. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. A new treatment of transient grain growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fratzl, P.; Zickler, G. A.; Fischer, F. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, AUG (2016), s. 442-447 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Grain size distribution * Grain growth * Growth kinetics * Thermodynamic modelling * Numerical solution of integro-differential equations Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamic s Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  13. Grain transport mechanics in shallow flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flows. The two-phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a dispe...

  14. Grain transport mechanics in shallow overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flow. The two phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a disper...

  15. The Rosseland mean opacity of interstellar grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; El Shalaby, M.A.; El-Nawawy, M.S.

    1990-10-01

    We have calculated the opacity of interstellar grains in the temperature range 10 deg. K - 1500 deg. K. Two composite grain models have been considered. One of them consists of silicate coated with ice mantle and the second has a graphite core coated also with ice mantle. These models are compared with isolated grain models. An exact analytical and computational development of Guettler's formulae for composite grain models has been used to calculate the extinction coefficient. It has been found that the thickness of the mantle affects the opacity of the interstellar grains. The opacity of composite models differs from that of the isolated models. The effect of the different species (ice, silicate and graphite) is also clear. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. Grain Boundary Engineering of Electrodeposited Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein

    Grain boundary engineering aims for a deliberate manipulation of the grain boundary characteristics to improve the properties of polycrystalline materials. Despite the emergence of some successful industrial applications, the mechanism(s) by which the boundary specific properties can be improved...... to engineer new materials. In this study, one of the most widely used electrolytes for electrodeposition is chosen for the synthesis of nickel films and based on thorough characterization of the boundaries the potentials in grain boundary engineering are outlined. The internal structure of the nickel films...... of the favorable boundaries that break the network of general grain boundaries. Successful dedicated synthesis of a textured nickel film fulfilling the requirements of grain boundary engineered materials, suggests improved boundary specific properties. However, the textured nickel film shows fairly low...

  17. Chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of salvia L. species Caracterização química e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de distintas espécies de salvia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Karen Pierozan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the essential oils of S. officinalis, S. sclarea, S. lavandulifolia and S. triloba were chemically analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry detector (GC/MSD, and their antimicrobial activity was tested against 10 microorganisms using the disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC technique. The following major compounds were identified in the essential oils: α - and β-thujone, camphor and 1,8-cineole, except in S. sclarea, where linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol were the major constituents. The antimicrobial activity showed significant differences (p Neste trabalho os óleos essenciais de S. officinalis, S. sclarea, S. lavandulifolia e Salvia sp. foram analisados quimicamente por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas. A atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais foi testada contra 10 microrganismos utilizando o método de difusão em discos e através da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. Cânfora, α - e ß-thujone e 1,8-cineol foram os compostos majoritários identificados na maioria dos óleos essenciais, exceto para S. sclarea, em que linalol, acetato de linalil e α-terpineol foram os compostos majoritários identificados. As atividades antimicrobianas apresentaram diferenças significativas (p < 0,05 somente quando obtidas pelo método CIM. Microorganismos gram-positivos apresentaram grande sensibilidade para os óleos essenciais. A menor CIM foi observada para o Staphylococcus aureus quando exposto a 2,31 mg.mL-1 de óleo essencial de S. lavandulifolia, enquanto que a maior CIM foi observada para Shigella flexneri exposta a 9,25 mg.mL-1 do mesmo óleo essencial, provando que este óleo constitui-se em um eficiente agente bacteriostático contra microrganismos gram-positivos.

  18. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  19. Short Communication. Effect of phosphorus nutrition and grain position within maize cob on grain phosphorus accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamamad Nadeem

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of grains may vary due to external nutrient supply and their position within parent maize cob. Phosphorus (P is the least mobile nutrient in the soil and therefore newly growing seedlings are largely dependent on the stored grain P contents which are accumulated during the crop maturity period. Objective of this study was to access the effects of different P applications and grain positions on P and dry matter contents in grains. Phosphorus application and grain position has significant (p<0.05 effects on P contents in grains whereas dry weight and P content are highly correlated. Grain weight and P contents decreased linearly from base to apical position possibly due to flow of nutrients from base towards apical position within cob. Significantly higher grain dry weight (0.35±0.01 g and P contents (962±57 µg P are recorded in high P application (92.50 kg ha-1 rate on base position whereas minimum grain dry weight (0.14±0.01 g and P contents (219±11 µg P were recorded on apical grain position in low P application (5.60 kg ha-1 rate. The results suggest that for better seedling P nutrition especially in soils of low inherent P, maize grains should be selected from base or middle position where maximum dry weight and P contents are concentrated to support the seedlings to reach at growth at which roots are capable of external P uptake.

  20. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary diffusion, grain boundary sliding and dislocation activities are considered. Effects of pressure on the grain boundary diffusion and sliding mechanisms are taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of grain size distribution on macroscopic response is studied. The model is shown to capture the fundamental mechanical characteristics of nanocrystalline metals. These include grain size dependence of the strength, i.e., both the traditional and the inverse Hall-Petch effects, the tension-compression asymmetry and the enhanced rate sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photoluminescence Imaging of Large-Grain CdTe for Grain Boundary Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Steve; Allende Motz, Alyssa; Reese, Matthew O.; Burst, James M.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    In this work, we use photoluminescence (PL) imaging to characterize CdTe grain boundary recombination. We use a silicon megapixel camera and green (532 nm) laser diodes for excitation. A microscope objective lens system is used for high spatial resolution and a field of view down to 190 um x 190 um. PL images of large-grain (5 to 50 um) CdTe samples show grain boundary and grain interior features that vary with processing conditions. PL images of samples in the as-deposited state show distinct dark grain boundaries that suggest high excess carrier recombination. A CdCl2 treatment leads to PL images with very little distinction at the grain boundaries, which illustrates the grain boundary passivation properties. Other process conditions are also shown, along with comparisons of PL images to high spatial resolution time-resolved PL carrier lifetime maps.

  2. Grain boundary and grain interior conduction in γ'-Bi2MoO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, C.M.C.; Aragon, R.

    2005-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy of fine grained ( 2 MoO 6 samples, in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz-250 kHz, relevant to sensor applications, up to 800 deg. C, has been used to characterize grain boundary and grain interior contributions to conduction. Above 500 deg. C, the grain boundary contribution is no longer rate limiting and conduction is dominated by the grain interior component. The corresponding activation energies are 0.98 eV for grain boundary and 0.73 eV for grain interior components. The weak dependence of conductivity on oxygen partial pressure below 500 deg. C can be attributed to electrode-electrolyte interface phenomena, whereas the robust response to ethanol is commensurate with changes in intrinsic ionic conductivity

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of the Salvia sclarea L. ethanolic extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Milica; Kitić, Dušanka; Petrović, Milica B; Jevtović-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Jović, Marko; Petrović, Aleksandar; Živanović, Slavoljub

    2017-03-06

    Salvia sclarea L., clary, is an aromatic plant traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. Although it has been primarily used as a stomachic, there are data on traditional use of S. sclarea as an agent against gingivitis, stomatitis and aphthae. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the S. sclarea ethanolic extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontitis in rats from the immunological and histopathological standpoint. Periodontal inflammation in rats was induced by repeated injections of LPS from Escherichia coli into the interdental papilla between the first and second right maxillary molars. The extract was administered two times a day by oral gavage (200mg/kg body weight). The inflammatory status was assessed by the measurements of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of gingival tissues and descriptive analysis of histological sections of periodontium. Chemical characterization of the extract was determined using high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC). Antioxidant activity of the extract was estimated with two in vitro complementary methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene/linoleic acid models. Treatment with S. sclarea extract, compared to the untreated group of the rats, significantly diminished the process of inflammation decreasing the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, reducing the gingival tissue lesions and preserving bone alveolar resorption. Considerably smaller number of inflammatory cells and larger number of fibroblasts was noticed. The administration of the extract three days earlier did not have significant preventive effects. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant compound in the extract. The extract showed strong antioxidant effects in both test systems. S. sclarea extract manifested anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-induced periodontitis suggesting that it may have a role as a

  4. The endophytic fungi of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.f. alba are a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ling; Xin, Xiao-Ming; Chang, Zheng-Yao; Shi, Ren-Jiu; Miao, Zeng-Min; Ding, Jing; Hao, Gang-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba is a traditional Chinese herbal drug with special pharmacological effect on thromboangiitis obliterans. However, the nature source of S.miltiorrhiza Bge.f.alba is now in short supply because of the over-collection of the wild plant. To better utilize this resource, the diversity and antioxidant activity of endophytic fungi isolated from S. miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba were investigated. A total of 14 endophytic fungi were isolated from different parts of S. miltiorrhiza Bge.f.alba. Based on morphological and molecular identification, the endophytic fungi isolated were classified into four genera (Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Schizophyllum sp. and Trametes sp.). These fungal extracts were prepared using ethanol and evaluated for their phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity. Alternaria alternata SaF-2 and Fusarium proliferatum SaR-2 are of particular interest because they yielded all of nine phytochemicals including saponins, phenol, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, tannins, alkaloids, anthroquinone and terpenoids. F. proliferatum SaR-2 and A. alternata SaF-2 also exhibited stronger antioxidant activities by FRAP and DPPH method, having the higher levels of phenol and flavonoid than those of plant root. The total amount of phenol and flavonoid quantified were of 21.75, 20.53 gallic acid equivalent per gram and 8.27 and 7.36 μg/mg of quercetin equivalent respectively. These two endophytic fungi (SaR-2 and SaF-2) were found to have comparable scavenging abilities on both FRAP (1682.21 and 1659.05 μmol/mg, respectively) and DPPH-free radicals (90.14% and 83.25%, respectively, at 0.1 mg/mL). This is the first report about isolation of endophytic fungi from S. miltiorrhiza Bge.f.alba and their antioxidant activities. These results indicate that the endophytic fungi associated with S. miltiorrhiza Bge.f. alba can be a potential source of novel natural antioxidants.

  5. Obtención y purificación de IgY dirigidas contra la lectina de Salvia bogotensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Barroso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las inmunoglobulinas presentes en la yema de huevo de gallina (IgY han sido ampliamente utilizadas en inmunología, bioquímica, biotecnología y salud humana y animal. Aunque presentan una serie de ventajas frente a las IgG de mamíferos, su aislamiento requiere, por una parte, la eliminación de los lípidos presentes en la yema del huevo sin alterar su funcionalidad y, por otra, la utilización de metodologías de purificación que permitan una recuperación tal que haga factible su empleo como herramientas de detección y purificación a una escala significativa. Objetivo. Dado el interés que presenta el antígeno Tn como marcador tumoral en muchos tipos de cáncer, y la capacidad que tiene la lectina aislada de semillas de Salvia bogotensis para reconocer específicamente este antígeno, se adelantó el presente trabajo con la meta de disponer de IgY anti-lectina para emplearla en estudios inmunohistoquímicos y de biología celular. Materiales y métodos. Se produjo IgY anti-lectina inmunizando gallinas con lectina de S. bogotensis y se evaluó la respuesta inmune en función de la dosis y del tiempo; se ensayaron varios métodos de remoción de lípidos y de extracción y se compararon los rendimientos y la pureza de IgY obtenidas con varios métodos de purificación. Resultados. El mejor método de delipidación y extracción de IgY requiere dilución con agua, acidificación del extracto y precipitación con (NH42SO4 60%s, recuperándose 43,35 mg de proteína/yema. La cromatografía tiofílica permite obtener las IgY puras en buena cantidad (10,4 mg/yema, preservando la funcionalidad y características de estos anticuerpos. Conclusión. Se establecieron las mejores condiciones para extraer y purificar IgY funcionales dirigidas contra la lectina de S. bogotensis.

  6. Chemical composition and larvicidal evaluation of Mentha, Salvia, and Melissa essential oils against the West Nile virus mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, George; Pitarokili, Danae; Kioulos, Elias; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2010-07-01

    The volatile metabolites of wild-growing Mentha spicata, M. longifolia, M. suaveolens, Melissa officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, S. pomifera subsp. calycina, and S. pomifera subsp. pomifera from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal properties of the analyzed essential oils were screened on Culex pipiens larvae. Additionally two of the main components of the essential oils, piperitenone oxide and 1,8-cineole were assayed against C. pipiens in order to define the affiliation between them and the larvicidal properties of the oils. The most effective oils were M. suaveolens (major constituent piperitenone oxide, 62.4%), M. spicata (piperitenone oxide, 35.7% and 1,8-cineole, 14.5%) and M. longifolia--Central Greece (piperitenone oxide, 33.4%; 1,8-cineole, 24.5% and trans-piperitone epoxide, 17.4%), which exhibited LC(50) values ranging from 47.88 to 59.33 mg l(-1). Medium activity revealed the oils of M. officinalis (terpin-4-ol, 15.8%; caryophyllene oxide, 13.2%; sabinene, 12.9%; beta-pinene, 12.1%; and trans-caryophyllene, 10.2%), M. longifolia--Southern Greece (carvone, 54.7% and limonene 20.0%), S. pomifera subsp. pomifera (trans-caryophyllene, 22.5% and trans-thujone, 21.0%), S. pomifera subsp. calycina--West Southern Greece (trans-thujone, 56.1% and 1,8-cineole, 10.4%), and S. fruticosa--population 2 (camphor, 23.1%; alpha-pinene, 12.7%; and borneol, 12.6%), with LC(50) values ranging from 78.28 to 91.45 mg l(-1). S. pomifera subsp. calycina (Central Greece) essential oil (trans-thujone, 26.5% and cis-thujone, 12.0%) presented rather low activity (LC(50) values 140.42 mg l(-1)), while S. fruticosa--population 1 (1,8-cineole, 31.4% and camphor, 22.6%) was the only inactive oil. Additionally, the constituent piperitenone oxide was found to be highly active (LC(50) values 9.95 mg l(-1)), whereas 1,8-cineole revealed no toxicity.

  7. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  8. EFFECT OF CHIA SEED (SALVIA HISPANICA L.) CONSUMPTION ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN HUMANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Cynthia; dd Sousa Fomes, Lucilia de Fátima; da Silva, Gilze Espirito Santo; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    chia is a seed rich in such nutrients as proteins, n-3 fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), minerals, fibers and antioxidants. Efforts have been made to assess whether human consumption of chia can reduce cardiovascular risk factors; however, it has not been established as effective and the findings of the few studies to have looked into the matter are inconsistent. to systematize the findings of studies assessing the effect the consumption of chia seed, either milled or whole, has in the prevention/control of cardiovascular risk factors in humans. this is a systematic literature review (SLR) with no meta-analysis. The articles scrutinizedwere identified in the electronic databases Lilacs, Medline (Pub- Med version), Cochrane, Scielo, Scopus, and Web of Science under the keywords"dyslipidemia" or "dislipidemia", "hyperlipidemia" or "hiperlipidemia", "obesity" or "obesidade", "salvia"or"salviahispanica", "Lamiaceae" or "chia", "hypertension" or "hipertensão", "hypertrygliceridemia" or "hipertrigliceridemia", and "riscocardiovascular" or "cardiovascularrisk." We chose for our selection English-, Portuguese- or Spanish-language articles about clinical trials on humans and published within the last ten years. The biases of risk analysis were carried out considering 6 of the 8 criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. seven studies (n = 200) fit our inclusion criteria. Of the chosen clinical trials, only one was not randomized. Five of the studies were blind experiments. Two of the studies were acute trials, both of them randomized. Of the chia seed interventions, one study showed a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inflammatory markers, yet there was no change in body mass, lipid profile or blood sugar. In four of the studies reviewed there was a significant spike in ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with no significant change to other parameters. In the acute trials, post

  9. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger Wolf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. Results A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%. The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol, which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. Conclusions The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T 4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO 2 /kg) was observed in T 4 , which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO 2 /kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of

  11. Static Recrystallized Grain Size of Coarse-Grained Austenite in an API-X70 Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Qingyun; Li, Guiyan; Li, Dahang

    2013-12-01

    The effects of initial grain size and strain on the static recrystallized grain size of coarse-grained austenite in an API-X70 steel microalloyed with Nb, V, and Ti were investigated using a Gleeble-3800 thermomechanical simulator. The results indicate that the static recrystallized grain size of coarse-grained austenite decreases with decreasing initial grain size and increasing applied strain. The addition of microalloying elements can lead to a smaller initial grain size for hot deformation due to the grain growth inhibition during reheating, resulting in decreasing of static recrystallized grain size. Based on the experimental data, an equation for the static recrystallized grain size was derived using the least square method. The grain sizes calculated using this equation fit well with the measured ones compared with the equations for fine-grained austenite and for coarse-grained austenite of Nb-V microalloyed steel.

  12. Fate of Ice Grains in Saturn's Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamil, O.; Cravens, T. E.; Reedy, N. L.; Sakai, S.

    2018-02-01

    It has been proposed that the rings of Saturn can contribute both material (i.e., water) and energy to its upper atmosphere and ionosphere. Ionospheric models require the presence of molecular species such as water that can chemically remove ionospheric protons, which otherwise are associated with electron densities that greatly exceed those from observation. These models adopt topside fluxes of water molecules. Other models have shown that ice grains from Saturn's rings can impact the atmosphere, but the effects of these grains have not been previously studied. In the current paper, we model how ice grains deposit both material and energy in Saturn's upper atmosphere as a function of grain size, initial velocity (at the "top" of the atmosphere, defined at an altitude above the cloud tops of 3,000 km), and incident angle. Typical grain speeds are expected to be roughly 15-25 km/s. Grains with radii on the order of 1-10 nm deposit most of their energy in the altitude range of 1,700-1,900 km, and can vaporize, depending on initial velocity and impact angle, contributing water mass to the upper atmosphere. We show that grains in this radius range do not significantly vaporize in our model at initial velocities lower than about 20 km/s.

  13. Diffusion mechanisms in grain boundaries in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A critical review is given of our current knowledge of grain-boundary diffusion in solids. A pipe mechanism of diffusion based on the well-established dislocation model seems most appropriate for small-angle boundaries. Open channels, which have atomic configurations somewhat like dislocation cores, probably play a major role in large-angle grain-boundary diffusion. Dissociated dislocations and stacking faults are not efficient paths for grain-boundary diffusion. The diffusion and computer modeling experiments are consistent with a vacancy mechanism of diffusion by a rather well-localized vacancy. The effective width of a boundary for grain-boundary diffusion is about two atomic planes. These general features of grain-boundary diffusion, deduced primarily from experiments on metals, are thought to be equally applicable for pure ceramic solids. The ionic character of many ceramic oxides may cause some differences in grain-boundary structure from that observed in metals, resulting in changes in grain-boundary diffusion behavior. 72 references, 5 figures

  14. Tracing magnetic fields with aligned grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g., transport of heat), and cosmic rays. One of the easiest ways to determine the magnetic field direction is via polarization of radiation resulting from extinction or/and emission by aligned dust grains. Reliability of interpretation of the polarization maps in terms of magnetic fields depends on how well we understand the grain-alignment theory. Explaining what makes grains aligned has been one of the big issues of the modern astronomy. Numerous exciting physical effects have been discovered in the course of research undertaken in this field. As both the theory and observations matured, it became clear that the grain-alignment phenomenon is inherent not only in diffuse interstellar medium or molecular clouds but also is a generic property of the dust in circumstellar regions, interplanetary space and cometary comae. Currently the grain-alignment theory is a predictive one, and its results nicely match observations. Among its predictions is a subtle phenomenon of radiative torques. This phenomenon, after having stayed in oblivion for many years after its discovery, is currently viewed as the most powerful means of alignment. In this article, I shall review the basic physical processes involved in grain alignment, and the currently known mechanisms of alignment. I shall also discuss possible niches for different alignment mechanisms. I shall dwell on the importance of the concept of grain helicity for understanding of many properties of grain alignment, and shall demonstrate that rather arbitrarily shaped grains exhibit helicity when they interact with gaseous and radiative flows

  15. Equation of Motion for a Grain Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luchan; Han, Jian; Xiang, Yang; Srolovitz, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Grain boundary (GB) migration controls many forms of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials. Recent theory, simulations, and experiments demonstrate that GB migration is controlled by the motion of discrete line defects or disconnections. We present a continuum equation of motion for grain boundary derived from the underlying discrete disconnection mechanism. We also present an equation of motion for the junctions where multiple grain boundaries meet—as is always the case in a polycrystal. The resulting equation of motion naturally exhibits junction drag—a widely observed phenomena in junction dynamics in solids and liquids.

  16. Statistical Theory of Normal Grain Growth Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, A.; Luczka, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three physically relevant problems concerning the normal grain growth process. These are: Infinite vs finite size of the system under study (a step towards more realistic modeling); conditions of fine-grained structure formation, with possible applications to thin films and biomembranes, and interesting relations to superplasticity of materials; approach to log-normality, an ubiquitous natural phenomenon, frequently reported in literature. It turns out that all three important points mentioned are possible to be included in a Mulheran-Harding type behavior of evolving grains-containing systems that we have studied previously. (author)

  17. CASS Ferrite and Grain Structure Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Clayton O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This document summarizes the results of research conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine whether, based on experimental measurements, a correlation existed between grain structure in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping and ferrite content of the casting alloy. The motivation for this research lies in the fact that ultrasonic testing (UT) is strongly influenced by CASS grain structure; knowledge of this grain structure may help improve the ability to interpret UT responses, thereby improving the overall reliability of UT inspections of CASS components.

  18. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Murata, K.; Hara, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  19. RF installation for the grain disinfestation

    CERN Document Server

    Zajtzev, B V; Kobetz, A F; Rudiak, B I

    2001-01-01

    The ecologically pure method of grain product disinfestations through the grain treatment with the RF electric field is described. The experimental data obtained showed that with strengths of the electrical RF field of E=5 kV/cm and frequency of 80 MHz the relative death rate is 100%.The time of the grain treatment it this case is 1 sec. The pulses with a duration of 600 mu s and repetition rate of 2 Hz were used, the duration of the front was 10 mu s. The schematic layout of installation with a productivity of 50 tones/h and power of 10 kW is given.

  20. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  1. The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGDC (now NCEI) Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database contains particle size data for over 17,000 seafloor samples worldwide. The file was begun by NGDC in 1976...

  2. PROGRESS ON LARGE GRAIN AND SINGLE GRAIN NIOBIUM: INGOTS AND SHEET AND REVIEW OF PROGRESS ON LARGE GRAIN AND SINGLE GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Kneisel

    2008-02-12

    Large grain and single crystal niobium has been proposed several years ago as an alternative material to poly-crystalline niobium for superconducting cavities, exhibiting potential advantages such as ¿stream-lined¿ procedures, reduced costs and better reproducibility in performance. Several major laboratories have investigated the use of large grain and single crystal material in the past years and the niobium producing industry has responded in providing ingot material with enlarged grain sizes. Besides a large number of single cell and multi-cell cavities from large grain niobium, several single crystal cavities have been fabricated and tested with good performances. This contribution will review the progress since the SRF workshop in 2005 in material processing and handling and in cavity performances.

  3. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Tsunami sediments and their grain size characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulastya Putra, Purna

    2018-02-01

    Characteristics of tsunami deposits are very complex as the deposition by tsunami is very complex processes. The grain size characteristics of tsunami deposits are simply generalized no matter the local condition in which the deposition took place. The general characteristics are fining upward and landward, poor sorting, and the grain size distribution is not unimodal. Here I review the grain size characteristics of tsunami deposit in various environments: swale, coastal marsh and lagoon/lake. Review results show that although there are similar characters in some environments and cases, but in detail the characteristics in each environment can be distinguished; therefore, the tsunami deposit in each environment has its own characteristic. The local geological and geomorphological condition of the environment may greatly affect the grain size characteristics.

  5. Grain Elevators: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Grain Elevators aims to reduce particulate matter pollution. The new amendments seek to clarify definitions, and requirements, as well as propose new regulations on particulate matter emissions

  6. Grain operator miffed at port administration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ventspils Grain Terminal saatis president Vaira Vike-Freibergale ja mitmetele ministritele kirja sõnumiga, et Ventspilsi Vabasadama (Ventspils Free Port) administratsiooni tegevus takistab terminali äritegevust

  7. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  8. Grain breakage under uniaxial compression, through 3D DEM modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, François; Silvani, Claire; Djeran-Maigre, Irini

    2017-06-01

    A breakable grain model is presented, using the concept of particles assembly. Grains of polyhedral shapes are generated, formed by joining together tetrahedral subgrains using cohesive bonds. Single grain crushing simulations are performed for multiple values of the intra-granular cohesion to study the effect on the grain's strength. The same effect of intra-granular cohesion is studied under oedometric compression on samples of around 800 grains, which allows the evaluation of grain breakage model on the macroscopic behaviour. Grain size distribution curves and grain breakage ratios are monitored throughout the simulations.

  9. The formation of small grains in shocks in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony P.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Carbonaceous and silicate grains swept up, and betatron accelerated, by supernova-generated shock waves in the interstellar medium are exposed to grain destructive processing. The degree of grain destruction is determined by the differential gas-grain and grain-grain velocities, which lead to sputtering of the grain surface and grain core disruption (deformation, vaporization and shattering), respectively. The threshold pressure for grain shattering in grain-grain collisions (100 k bar) is considerably lower than that for vaporization (approximately 5 M bar). Therefore, collisions between grains shatter large grains into smaller fragments (i.e., small grains and PAH's). Using a new algorithms for the destructive processes, it was possible to model the formation fo small grain fragments in grain-grain collisions in the warm phase of the interstellar medium. It was found that in one cycle through the warm medium (approximately 3 x 10(sup 6) years) of order 1-2% of the total grain mass is shattered into particles with radii of less than 50 A.

  10. Protective Effects of the Essential Oil of Salvia fruticosa and Its Constituents on Astrocytic Susceptibility to Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmann, Anat; Mordechay, Sharon; Rindner, Miriam; Larkov, Olga; Elkabetz, Meital; Ravid, Uzi

    2009-08-12

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathologic processes associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS), and any damage to them will affect neuronal survival. This study compares the ability of essential oils prepared from different herbs and spices to protect cultured primary brain astrocytes from H2O2-induced death. The results show that the essential oil of Salvia fruticosa (Sf) among the tested essential oils demonstrated remarkable protective activity. The protective effect of Sf could be attributed to alpha-humulene and alpha-pinene. Following incubation, alpha-humulene and trans-beta-caryophyllene could be found in the cytosol of astrocytes. It is proposed that Sf, by attenuating H2O2-induced cell death, might be used as a functional food or may be offered as a means of therapy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. HPLC-SPE-NMR characterization of major metabolites in Salvia fruticosa Mill. extract with antifungal potential: relevance of carnosic acid, carnosol, and hispidulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchou, Vassiliki; Kanetis, Loukas; Charalambous, Zenovia; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Gekas, Vassilis; Goulas, Vlasios

    2015-01-21

    Plant pathogenic fungi are considered of significant economic importance for adversely affecting both quantitatively and qualitatively fresh and processed produce. Extracts of Salvia fruticosa were initially screened for their antifungal activity, and the ethyl acetate fraction, being the most active, was further analyzed using HPLC-SPE-NMR hyphenation. The methoxylated flavones hispidulin, salvigenin, and cirsimaritin and the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol, and 12-methoxycarnosic acid were identified as the major components of the extract. In addition, the concentration levels of all identified components were determined using q-NMR. The antifungal activity of the crude extract and selected phytochemicals was estimated against the fungal species Aspergillus tubingensis, Botrytis cinerea, and Penicillium digitatum. The estimated MIC and MFC values of the ethyl acetate extract of S. fruticosa, as well as three of its major constituents, carnosic acid, carnosol, and hispidulin, support their antifungal activity, especially against B. cinerea and P. digitatum, suggesting their potential use in food and agricultural systems.

  12. Isolation and structural elucidation by 2D NMR of planteose, a major oligosaccharide in the mucilage of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaohui; Hsieh, Yves S Y; Yap, Kuok; Ang, Main E; Lahnstein, Jelle; Tucker, Matthew R; Burton, Rachel A; Bulone, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    An oligosaccharide was isolated in high purity and excellent yield from the water-extractable mucilage of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds using an optimized solid-phase extraction method. LC-MS analysis showed that the compound presents a molecular mass of 504Da and trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis revealed that it consists of galactose, glucose and fructose. Glycosidic linkage analysis showed that the oligosaccharide contains two non-reducing ends corresponding to terminal glucopyranose and terminal galactopyranose, respectively. The oligosaccharide was identified as planteose by the complete assignment of a series of 2D NMR spectra (COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC). The significance of the presence of planteose in chia seeds is discussed in the context of nutrition and food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oil-in-water emulsion gels stabilized with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and cold gelling agents: Technological and infrared spectroscopic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado, T; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Carmona, P; Herrero, A M

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports on the development of olive oil-in-water emulsion gels containing chia (Salvia hispanica L.) (flour or seed) and cold gelling agents (transglutaminase, alginate or gelatin). The technological and structural characteristics of these emulsion gels were evaluated. Both structural and technological changes in emulsion gels resulting from chilled storage were also determined. The color and texture of emulsion gels depend on both the cold gelling agents used and chilled storage. Lipid oxidation increased (p oil lipid chain related to lipid interactions and droplet size in the emulsion gels could be decisive in determining their textural properties. The half-bandwidth of 2923 cm(-1) band and area of 3220 cm(-1) band did not show significant differences during chilled storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of essential oil from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal dust (food industry by-product) on the microbiological stability of fresh pork sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šojić, B.; Ikonić, P.; Pavlić, B.; Zeković, Z.; Tomović, V.; Kocić-Tanackov, S.; Džinić, N.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.; Jokanović, M.; Tasić, T.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of essential oil obtained from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal dust (a food industry by-product) (SEO), on the pH value, microbiological stability and sensory properties of fresh pork sausages prepared without chemical additives was evaluated during 8 days of aerobic storage at 3±1°C. The addition of SEO significantly (pSEO added at a level of 0.05 µL/g had no negative effect on sensory properties of this meat product. Hence, the results of this study showed significant antimicrobial activity of SEO obtained from sage filter tea processing byproducts and the potential for utilising SEO in fresh pork sausages in order to enhance their stability and safety.

  15. Grain Contrast Imaging in UHV SLEEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikmeková, Šárka; Hovorka, Miloš; Müllerová, Ilona; Man, O.; Pantělejev, L.; Frank, Luděk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2010), s. 292-296 ISSN 1345-9678 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE08012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : scanning low energy electron microscopy * electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) * grain contrast * ultra-fine grained materials Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.779, year: 2010 http://www.jim.or.jp/journal/e/51/02/292.html

  16. Pollen grains are efficient cloud condensation nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, F D, E-mail: fdp21@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    This letter presents a laboratory study investigating the ability of pollen grains to act as cloud condensation nuclei. The hygroscopicity of pollen is measured under subsaturated relative humidities using an electrodynamic balance. It is found, along with other results, that pollen exhibits bulk uptake of water under subsaturated conditions. Through the use of an environmental scanning electron microscope it was observed that the surface of pollen is wettable at high subsaturated humidities. The hygroscopic response of the pollen to subsaturated relative humidities is parametrized using {kappa}-Koehler theory and values of the parameter {kappa} for pollen are between 0.05 and 0.1. It is found that while pollen grains are only moderately hygroscopic, they can activate at critical supersaturations of 0.001% and lower, and thus pollen grains will readily act as cloud condensation nuclei. While the number density of pollen grains is too low for them to represent a significant global source of cloud condensation nuclei, the large sizes of pollen grains suggest that they will be an important source of giant cloud condensation nuclei. Low temperature work using the environmental scanning electron microscope indicated that pollen grains do not act as deposition ice nuclei at temperatures warmer than - 15 deg. C.

  17. Coarse Graining Shannon and von Neumann Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of coarse graining is intuitively “obvious”, but it is rather difficult to find explicit and calculable models of the coarse graining process (and the resulting entropy flow discussed in the literature. What we would like to have at hand is some explicit and calculable process that takes an arbitrary system, with specified initial entropy S, and that monotonically and controllably drives the entropy to its maximum value. This does not have to be a physical process, in fact for some purposes it is better to deal with a gedanken-process, since then it is more obvious how the “hidden information” is hiding in the fine-grain correlations that one is simply agreeing not to look at. We shall present several simple mathematically well-defined and easy to work with conceptual models for coarse graining. We shall consider both the classical Shannon and quantum von Neumann entropies, including models based on quantum decoherence, and analyse the entropy flow in some detail. When coarse graining the quantum von Neumann entropy, we find it extremely useful to introduce an adaptation of Hawking’s super-scattering matrix. These explicit models that we shall construct allow us to quantify and keep clear track of the entropy that appears when coarse graining the system and the information that can be hidden in unobserved correlations (while not the focus of the current article, in the long run, these considerations are of interest when addressing the black hole information puzzle.

  18. Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils alone and in combination with nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mehdizadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Plant essential oils are sometimes considered for use as antimicrobial agents in foods and medicines and they could be combined with other antimicrobial agents to strengthen the effect and/or reduce the required dose. This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of the Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils and evaluate their antibacterial efficiency, alone and in combination with nisin, against Escherichia coli O 157 and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: The chemical composition of three essential oils (Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis and Trachyspermum ammi were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Further, their antibacterial properties and the synergistic effect of the combination of three essential oils and nisin were also assessed against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was determined by evaluation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC by broth dilution method in 96-well microplates. The synergistic effects were tested by the checkerboard method and the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index was calculated. Results: The major components of O. basilicum, S. officinalis and T. ammi were linalool (35.99%, 1,8-cineole (22.91% and p-Cymene (35.5%, respectively. In general, all of the essential oils as well as nisin exerted more considerable antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative one. The essential oil of T. ammi showed the highest activity against S. aureus with MIC (≤0.078 mg/mL and MBC (≤0.156 mg/mL. The combined application showed synergistic activity against E. coli but no change in activity was observed against S. aureus. The most synergistic effect was observed for the combination of nisin and S. officinalis (FIC 0.03. Conclusion: It can be concluded that nisin could enhance the antibacterial potential of the

  19. Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root Water-Extract (Danshen Has No Beneficial Effect on Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A Randomized Double-Blind Cross-Over Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleun C M van Poppel

    Full Text Available Danshen is the dried root extract of the plant Salvia Miltiorrhiza and it is used as traditional Chinese medicinal herbal product to prevent and treat atherosclerosis. However, its efficacy has not been thoroughly investigated. This study evaluates the effect of Danshen on hyperlipidemia and hypertension, two well known risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis.This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study performed at a tertiary referral center. Participants were recruited by newspaper advertisement and randomized to treatment with Danshen (water-extract of the Salvia Miltiorrhiza root or placebo for 4 consecutive weeks. There was a wash out period of 4 weeks. Of the 20 analysed participants, 11 received placebo first. Inclusion criteria were: age 40-70 years, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. At the end of each treatment period, plasma lipids were determined (primary outcome, 24 hours ambulant blood pressure measurement (ABPM was performed, and vasodilator endothelial function was assessed in the forearm.LDL cholesterol levels were 3.82±0.14 mmol/l after Danshen and 3.52±0.16 mmol/l after placebo treatment (mean±SE; p<0.05 for treatment effect corrected for baseline. Danshen treatment had no effect on blood pressure (ABPM 138/84 after Danshen and 136/87 after placebo treatment. These results were further substantiated by the observation that Danshen had neither an effect on endothelial function nor on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose metabolism, hemostasis and blood viscosity.Four weeks of treatment with Danshen (water-extract slightly increased LDL-cholesterol without affecting a wide variety of other risk markers. These observations do not support the use of Danshen to prevent or treat atherosclerosis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01563770.

  20. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo.

  1. Variability for grain mold resistance in sorghum F3 progenies of red × red and red × white grain crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay patted, M. Y. Kamatar and S. K. Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to estimate the nature and magnitude of genetic variability for yield and grain moldresistance in 99 sorghum F3 progenies of red × red and red × white crosses including parents and checks. Variation for grain moldassociated traits was analyzed with respect to grain hardness, panicle compactness, grain colour, glume length and glume colour.Among 99 F3 progenies 30 progenies exhibited partly hard grains and 19 progenies had hard grains and which exhibit...

  2. Control and Characterization of Individual Grains and Grain Boundaries in Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    field (B). Figure 5c presents low temperature (4.3 K) magnetoresistance (Rxx(B)) measurements across the grain boundary compared to Rxx(B) measured within...voltage leads labelled in the legend. c, Four-terminal magnetoresistance (Rxx) measured at 4.3 K within each graphene grain and across the grain boundary...graphene nanoribbons. Nature 444, 347–349 (2006). 37. Huang, M. Y. et al. Phonon softening and crystallographic orientation of strained graphene studied by

  3. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  4. Mechanism of secondary recrystallization of Goss grains in grain-oriented electrical steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Since its invention by Goss in 1934, grain-oriented (GO) electrical steel has been widely used as a core material in transformers. GO exhibits a grain size of over several millimeters attained by secondary recrystallization during high-temperature final batch annealing. In addition to the unusually large grain size, the crystal direction in the rolling direction is aligned with , which is the easy magnetization axis of α-iron. Secondary recrystallization is the phenomenon in which a certain very small number of {110} (Goss) grains grow selectively (about one in 10 6 primary grains) at the expense of many other primary recrystallized grains. The question of why the Goss orientation is exclusively selected during secondary recrystallization has long been a main research subject in this field. The general criterion for secondary recrystallization is a small and uniform primary grain size, which is achieved through the inhibition of normal grain growth by fine precipitates called inhibitors. This paper describes several conceivable mechanisms of secondary recrystallization of Goss grains mainly based on the selective growth model.

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Various Fertilizers (N, P, K Application on Morphological and Growth Characteristics of Salvia leriifolia Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salvia leriifolia Benth. (Nowruzak is a herbal plant from Lamiaceae family, which is exclusively native of Iran and Afghanistan. Existence of this species is reported in Khorasan and Semnan provinces of Iran. As extreme pressure of grazing and harvesting the nature has put this species at risk of extinction, and on the other hand this plant has numerous herbal values and its cultivation can produce the market needs as well as preserve it from extinction. Therefore its domestication is now a priority and optimized nutrition for cultivated plants is one of the important factors in quality and quantity enhancement of the product. The aim of this research was to study the effect of three main nutrient: nitrogen, Phosphor, and potassium (NPK on growth of Nowruzak and measure its morphological reactions to these elements in the poor soil of its habitat. Materials and methods To study the effect of different nutritious elements on quantitative properties of Nowruzak, a factorial experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in the Research Field of Islamic Azad University of Gonabad in March 2014. In this experiment, nitrogen fertilizers in three levels (N1= control, N2=100 kg.ha-1 and N3=200 kg.ha-1 based on net nitrogen, Phosphor in three levels (0, 50 and100 kg.ha-1 based on P2O5 and potassium fertilizers in two levels (0- and 50 kg.ha-1 based on K2O were applied of farm to specify the effect of each elements and their reactions on quantitative growth properties of Nowruzak. Results and discussion Results show that the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on plant height, harvest index, cover crown diameter and number of fertile branches are significant at 1% level. In a way that levels of nitrogen fertilizer are placed in first, second and third group of Duncan multiple range test, respectively. The highest plant height with average of 41.97 cm is assigned to 200 kg net nitrogen

  6. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms. PMID:27537548

  7. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of 'whole grain'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jan Willem; Poutanen, Kaisa; Seal, Chris J; Richardson, David P

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005-2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe - when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes.

  8. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Helfenstein

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India, and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1 did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  9. Effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil on milk somatic cell count, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in Awassi sheep with subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alekish, Myassar O.; Ismail, Zuhair B.; Awawdeh, Mofleh S.; Shatnawi, Shoroq

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil (EO) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of s...

  10. Empirical insights into multi-grain averaging effects from ‘pseudo’ single-grain OSL measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.J.; Demuro, M.; Ruiz, M. Navazo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we assess the signatures of multi-grain averaging effects for a series of sedimentary samples taken from the archaeological site of Hotel California, Atapuerca, Spain. We focus on the special case of equivalent dose (D e ) measurements made on single-grain discs that contain more than one quartz grain in each of the individual grain-hole positions with the aims of (i) providing insight into the nature and extent of averaging effects in very small multi-grain aliquots of sedimentary quartz, and (ii) assessing the suitability of ‘pseudo’ single-grain D e measurements for this particular dating application. Pseudo single-grain OSL measurements made on standard discs loaded with 90–100 μm grains (equivalent to ∼30 grains per hole) yield significantly different D e distribution characteristics and finite mixture model (FMM) burial dose estimates compared with single-grain OSL measurements. Grains with aberrant luminescence behaviours, which are routinely rejected during single-grain analysis, exert strong averaging effects on the pseudo single-grain and multi-grain aliquot D e distributions. Grain-hole averaging effects arising from pseudo single-grain measurements also give rise to ‘phantom’ dose components and are apt to provide bias assessments of quartz signal characteristics and grain type classifications. Though this is a site-specific study, it serves as a cautionary note for interpretations of other pseudo single-grain OSL and D e datasets – particularly those obtained from measurements of discs containing several tens of grains per hole and those derived from complex depositional environments. The use of custom single-grain discs drilled with smaller sized grain holes is recommended as a means of limiting grain-hole averaging effects when dealing with very fine (<180 μm) sediments.

  11. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  12. 7 CFR 800.61 - Prohibited grain handling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such blending will result in grain being designated as Mixed grain in accordance with subpart E of the... processed into a product(s) by the purchaser and not resold into the grain market. (3) Products or... include additional requirements for grain that is officially inspected and weighed. (3) Marketing dockage...

  13. Effect of stress-induced grain growth during room temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The TEM observations reveal that stress-induced grain growth during tensile deformation is significantly suppressed for the nc Ni–Co alloys rich in Co in sharp contrast to those poor in Co. We believe that sufficient solutes could effectively pin grain boundaries making grain boundary motions (e.g. grain boundary migration ...

  14. Identification of putative candidate gene markers for grain zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gande

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... 659. Table 1. Genes used for designing the primer. Name. Chromosome Location. Reference. OsYSL2. 2. High grain zn content. Chandel, 2011. OsNAAT1. 2. High grain zn content. Chandel, 2011. OsNAC. 3. High grain zn content. Chandel, 2011. OsZIP1. 3. High grain zn content. Chandel, 2011. OsZIP3. 4.

  15. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... effect on the grain size of AZ31 magnesium alloy under the effect of Al4C3 grain refiner. Electromagnetic stirring can `activate' the Al4C3 particles, resulting in more heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary -Mg grains. But, longer holding time can `deactivate' the Al4C3 particles and poison the grain refining effect.

  16. Grain Boundaries From Theory to Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Priester, Louisette

    2013-01-01

    Grain boundaries are a main feature of crystalline materials. They play a key role in determining the properties of materials, especially when grain size decreases and even more so with the current improvements of  processing tools and methods that allow us to control various elements in a polycrystal. This book presents the theoretical basis of the study of  grain boundaries and aims to open up new lines of research in this area. The treatment is light on mathematical approaches while emphasizing practical examples; the issues they raise are discussed with reference to theories. The general approach of the book has two main goals: to lead the reader from the concept of ‘ideal’ to ‘real’ grain boundaries; to depart from established knowledge and address the opportunities emerging through "grain boundary engineering",  the control of morphological and crystallographic features that affect material properties. The book is divided in three parts:  I ‘From interganular order to disorder’ deals wit...

  17. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-08-02

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries-the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θ(GB)) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe(2)As(2) (BaFe(2)As(2):Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (J(c)(BGB)) remained high (>1 MA cm(-2)) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θ(c) of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θ(c) of ∼5° for YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ). Even at θ(GB)>θ(c), the decay of J(c)(BGB) was much slower than that of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ).

  18. Radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, V.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed by Ghanaian scientists from 1977 to 1987 to evaluate the seriousness of infestation and to establish effective doses for radiation disinfestation against insects and fungi which cause deterioration in grains and cocoa beans. Supporting investigations have been done on the effect of radiation disinfestation on some quality parameters and wholesomeness of grains (with maize as the test grain) and cocoa beans. A minimum dose of 0.8 kGy was established for effective control of insects present in stored grains and cocoa beans. For the decontamination against fungi and yeasts, a combination of moist heat (85% RH) applied to 60 deg. C for 30 min followed by a dose of 4 kGy was effective for maize and moist heat (85% RH) applied 80 deg. C and a dose of 4 kGy was recommended for cocoa beans. No significant difference was found between the organoleptic qualities of the products from maize and cocoa that had been treated with moist heat and radiation and the untreated samples. The cooling (solidifying) curves of cocoa butter prepared from untreated and treated cocoa beans were very similar. Irradiated cocoa beans were found to be wholesome. The prospects of radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans have also been discussed. (author). 27 refs, 4 tabs

  19. Chemistry and infrared spectroscopy of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis focuses on three aspects of interstellar grains: the photochemistry of the grain mantles, their infrared spectroscopy and the surface chemistry that takes place during mantle accretion. It provides a combination of pure and applied chemistry and spectroscopy. The experiments described in this thesis have been carried out with low temperature (10 K) solid molecular mixtures representing the mantles of interstellar grains. The samples have been prepared by slowly condensing gaseous mixtures of simple molecules (e.g. CO, H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4 ) on a cold substrate (mirror or window) cooled by a cryogenic refrigerator mounted in a high vacuum chamber. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the sample. A laboratory study of the photochemistry in interstellar grain mantles is described. It shows that irradiation of solid binary mixtures of CO with H 2 O, NH 3 or CH 4 with 1600 A vacuum ultraviolet light, which is representative of the interstellar ultraviolet field, gives rise to the formation of a number of large molecules as well as radicals. Moreover, a theoretical study is given of the chemical composition of grain mantles accreted in dense clouds. (Auth.)

  20. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.