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Sample records for grain nitrogen concentration

  1. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  2. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  3. Effect of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen on some grain elements concentration of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions

    A. Mojab Ghasrodashti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in order to study the influence of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen rate on grain quality of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions during growing season of 2008-2009. The experiment was arranged as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications. Main plot included five levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N.ha-1 and sub plots included four levels of municipal solid waste compost (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. The Results showed that the highest fresh ear and grain yield resulted from application of 200 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 compost. The grain quality analysis showed that nitrogen had significant effect on grain nitrogen percent and had not significant effect on grain phosphorus and nitrogen content. Also, compost had significant effect on grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent but had no significant effect on grain potassium percent. Soil analysis results showed that effect of compost on organic matter, EC and pH and interactions between nitrogen and compost were significant only on soil nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus percent. Nitrogen had no significant effect only on soil nitrogen percent. Also, the results showed that optimum amount of grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent were gained by using 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost and optimum amount of grain potassium percent was achieved by using 30 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost. Application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost consequences to optimum amount of soil nitrogen and potassium was gained and optimum amount of soil phosphorus was gained in 150 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments. In general, to achieve the optimum growth of this crop in similar soils, application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments could

  4. Leaf nitrogen remobilisation for plant development and grain filling.

    Masclaux-Daubresse, C; Reisdorf-Cren, M; Orsel, M

    2008-09-01

    A major challenge of modern agriculture is to reduce the excessive input of fertilisers and, at the same time, to improve grain quality without affecting yield. One way to achieve this goal is to improve plant nitrogen economy through manipulating nitrogen recycling, and especially nitrogen remobilisation, from senescing plant organs. In this review, the contribution of nitrogen remobilisation efficiency (NRE) to global nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and tools dedicated to the determination of NRE are described. An overall examination of the physiological, metabolic and genetic aspects of nitrogen remobilisation is presented.

  5. Consequences of diverse use of nitrogen sources on grain yield ...

    A two year field experiment was conducted to check the consequences of diverse use of nitrogen sources on grain yield, grain quality and growth attributes of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Autumn 2008 and 2009. Experiments were laid out in a ...

  6. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...

  7. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  8. Nitrogen dose and plant density effects on popcorn grain yield ...

    and plant densities on grain yield and yield-related plant characteristics of popcorn in Hatay, located at Southern Mediterranean region of Turkey, during 2002 and 2003. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Nitrogen doses of 0, 120, 180 ...

  9. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  10. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... assimilation rate and nitrogen use efficiency resulting in higher grain yields and proper grain protein content in malting barley.......Split nitrogen applications are widely adopted to improve grain yield and enhance nitrogen use effective in crops. In a twoyear field experiment at two eco-sites, five fractions of topdressed nitrogen of 0%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were implemented. Responses of radiation interception and leaf...

  11. Tracer concentration contours in grain lattice and grain boundary diffusion

    Kim, Y. S.; Olander, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Grain boundary diffusion plays a significant role in fission gas release, which is one of the crucial processes dominating nuclear fuel performance. Gaseous fission products such as Xe and Kr generated during nuclear fission have to diffuse in the grain lattice and the boundary inside fuel pellets before they reach the open spaces in a fuel rod. These processes can be studied by 'tracer diffusion' techniques, by which grain boundary diffusivity can be estimated and directly used for low burn-up fission gas release analysis. However, only a few models accounting for the both processes are available and mostly handle them numerically due to mathematical complexity. Also the numerical solution has limitations in a practical use. In this paper, an approximate analytical solution in case of stationary grain boundary in a polycrystalline solid is developed for the tracer diffusion techniques. This closed-form solution is compared to available exact and numerical solutions and it turns out that it makes computation not only greatly easier but also more accurate than previous models. It can be applied to theoretical modelings for low burn-up fission gas release phenomena and experimental analyses as well, especially for PIE (post irradiation examination). (author)

  12. Nitrogen (15N) accumulation in corn grains as affected by source of nitrogen in red latosol

    Duete, Robson Rui Cotrim; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Silva, Edson Cabral da; Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is the most absorbed mineral nutrient by corn crop and most affects grains yield. It is the unique nutrient absorbed by plants as cation (NH 4 + ) or anion (NO 3 - ). The objectives of this work were to investigate the N accumulation by corn grains applied to the soil as NH 4 + or NO 3 - in the ammonium nitrate form compared to amidic form of the urea, labeled with 15 N; to determine the corn growth stage with highest fertilizer N utilization by the grains, and to quantify soil nitrogen exported by corn grains. The study was carried out in the Experimental Station of the Regional Pole of the Sao Paulo Northwestern Agribusiness Development (APTA), in Votuporanga, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in a Red Latosol. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 13 treatments and four replications, disposed in factorial outline 6x2 + 1 (control, without N application). A nitrogen rate equivalent to 120 kg N ha-1 as urea- 15 N or as ammonium nitrate, labeled in the cation NH 4 + ( 15 NH 4 + NO 3 - ) or in the anion NO 3 - (NH 4 + 15N+O 3 - ), was applied in six fractions of 20 kg N ha-1 each, in different microplots, from seeding to the growth stage 7 (pasty grains). The forms of nitrogen, NH 4 + -N and N O 3 --N, were accumulated equitably by corn grains. The corn grains accumulated more N from urea than from ammonium nitrate. The N applied to corn crop at eight expanded leaves stage promoted largest accumulation of this nutrient in the grains. (author)

  13. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice

    Boudreau, Thomas F.; Peck, Gregory M.; O'Keefe, Sean F.; Stewart, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest f...

  14. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

    V. Feiziasl

    2017-01-01

    measurement in the soil KCl extracts was down by spectrophotometry method and colorimetric reaction at 655 nm. Also, Absorption spectrophotometry method was used for determination of nitrate in soil extract based on its UV absorbance at 210 nm. In this method two measurements were carried out; one before (by Zn coated by Cu and second after reduction of nitrate. Using the difference between these two measurements, concentration of nitrate in the extracts was determined. Soil water content was also measured with Diviner 2000 after calibration in 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm soil profile in sub-sub plots. After wheat harvest, the most suitable regression model between soil mineral nitrogen (Nm and soil moisture (θ was fitted with wheat grain yield by DataFit version 9.0 software. Results and Discussion: The best model between soil N forms (nitrate, ammonium and mineral nitrogen was calibrated between mineral nitrogen (Nm and soil moisture (θ with crop response (Y=a+bN_m+c ln⁡〖(θ〗+dN_m^2+eln⁡〖(θ〗^2+fN_m ln⁡〖(θ〗 that explained 80% of dryland wheat yield variations. In this model, the contributions of mineral nitrogen (NO3− +NH4+ were 26%, soil moisture 50% and their interactions 24%. According to this model, the effect of soil moisture on production of grain yield was 2.3 folds greater than the mineral N. These results are most suitable for sampling and calibration of mineral nitrogen in 0-40 cm in dryland wheat stem elongation (ZGS32. Critical value of soil mineral N was 41 kg/ha, equal to 18.0 mg Nm/kg in this layer for obtaining higher grain yield (over 2500 kg/ha. According to regression model, application of 50 kg N/ha in autumn was able to provide Nm critical level in 0-40 cm layer for dryland wheat genotypes under experimental conditions. Also simulation model showed that nitrogen fertilizer increased grain yield and it is more than the soil mineral nitrogen. If the soil mineral nitrogen is 20 kg/ha or less in 0-40 cm soil layer, there may be

  15. Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications

    Richard T. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha−1 (0 to 47% higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting.

  16. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  17. Transport rates and concentration gradients during grain filling in wheat

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term mass transport rates into wheat ears were calculated at mid grain fill from 32 PO 4 translocation velocities and sieve tube sap concentrations in the peduncle. Over a wide range of velocities (8.5 to 170 cm/hr), sieve tube sap concentrations (514 to 1050 milliosmolal) and grains per ear (20 to 54 in intact ears, as few as 7 in partially degrained ears), there were no evident differences in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle. Increased sieve tube sap concentration was accompanied in the endosperm cavity sap by increased sucrose concentration, but amino acid concentration and total osmolality remained essentially constant. Thus the rate of transport into the grains appeared to remain constant in spite of altered concentration gradients across the crease tissues of the grain and changing sucrose concentration in the endosperm cavity. The constancy of endosperm cavity sap osmolality suggests that osmoregulatory processes in the grain may play a role in regulating transport rate into the grain

  18. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe

    Harmens, H.; Norris, D.A.; Cooper, D.M.; Mills, G.; Steinnes, E.; Kubin, E.; Thoeni, L.; Aboal, J.R.; Alber, R.; Carballeira, A.; Coskun, M.; De Temmerman, L.; Frolova, M.; Gonzalez-Miqueo, L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses ( 2 = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. - Highlights: → Nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at ca. 3000 sites across Europe. → Moss concentrations were compared with EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition. → The asymptotic relationship for Europe showed saturation at ca. 15 kg N ha -1 y -1 . → Linear relationships were found with measured nitrogen deposition in some countries. → Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. - Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

  19. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics

    Muchow, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply on the relative contributions of pre- and post-anthesis net above-ground biomass accumulation and N uptake to grain-yield and grain N concentration was examined in four contrasting environments in semi-arid tropical Australia. The four environments had different radiation and temperature regimes, and varying levels of water deficit. The grain-yield achieved under high N supply ranged from 156 to 621 g m −2 (on an oven-dry basis). In all but the lowest-yielding environment, there was substantial biomass accumulation during grain-filling and it increased with N application. Only in the lowest-yielding environment was there substantial mobilization of pre-anthesis biomass to grain. Biomass mobilization was not affected by N application. Nitrogen uptake during grain-filling was unresponsive to N application, and was small relative to total N uptake during the life-cycle. Mobilization of pre-anthesis N to the grain was much more significant. In all but the lowest-yielding environment, N mobilization increased with N application. Grain-yield under variable N supply and differing environmental conditions was not dependent on the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis growth. However, grain-yield was proportional to biomass at maturity over the entire yield range in this study and variability in biomass accounted for 95% of the variance in grain-yield. Similarly, grain N concentration was not related to the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis N uptake, but variability in total N uptake accounted for 92% of the variance in grain N accumulation. Consequently, there was no differential effect of N supply or environmental factors on yield physiology that could not be explained by their effect on biomass and N uptake. (author)

  20. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...... with a quadrant model, the optimum N application rates for high grain yield with high nitrogen use-efficiency in malting barley could be indicated. So, the higher yields could be mainly ascribed to the higher accumulation of photoassimilates between anthesis and maturity. In order to achieve high grain yield...

  1. Effects of Nitrogen Application Time on Caryopsis Development and Grain Quality of Rice Variety Yangdao 6

    Fei XIONG

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen application time (during the tillering or the booting stages with the same nitrogen rates on the caryopsis development and grain quality of rice variety Yangdao 6. The increased nitrogen fertilizer (urea, especially applied during the booting stage, could evidently increase the milled rice rate, head rice rate and protein content in rice grains compared with the control (no nitrogen application, and decrease chalky grain rate and amylose content. Moreover, the increased nitrogen fertilizer significantly affected the caryopsis development and enhanced the grain weight when nitrogen applied during the tillering and the booting stages, especially during the booting stage. During caryopsis development the increased nitrogen fertilizer applied during the tillering and booting stages could obviously decrease the total starch and amylose contents, but not obviously for the amylopectin content in rice grain. Increased topdressing of nitrogen fertilizer, especially applied during the booting stage, had significant effect on the development and structures of amyloplasts and proteinoplasts. That is, it could change the distribution, number and shape of amyloplasts and proteinoplasts in the endosperm cells especially in grain abdomen. Compared with the control the arrangements of amyloplasts and proteinoplasts were closer, with more numbers, higher density and less interspaces each ohter. Furthermore, most amyloplasts showed polyhedron under the increased nitrogen fertilizer level.

  2. Nitrogen efficiency in oats on grain yield with stability

    José A. G. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N is the nutrient most absorbed by the oat crop. Unfavorable climate conditions decrease its efficiency, generating instability and reduction in yield. The objective of this study was to improve N use efficiency in oat grain yield by the economic value of the product and of the input and by models that scale the stability, considering systems of succession of high and reduced residual-N release in favorable and unfavorable years for cultivation. The study was conducted in the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 in two systems of succession (soybean/oat, maize/oat in randomized blocks with eight replicates, using the N-fertilizer doses of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1. The N-fertilizer dose for maximum economic efficiency in oats should be considered based on the meteorological trends of the cultivation year. N use optimization by models that determine the stability is an innovative proposal to increase fertilization efficiency on the yield. The N-fertilizer dose of 60 kg ha-1 promotes greater efficiency with predictability and yield, regardless of the agricultural year and the system of succession.

  3. Concentration of radiocaesium in grain following the Chernobyl accident

    Kanyar, B.; Czegledi, P.; Kerekes, A.; Kovacs, L.; Sohar, J.; Sztanyik, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements and dose assessments in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident have shown that the consumption of baker's ware contributes significantly to the internal dose of man. Flour and bread have been contaminated mainly due to radiocaesium deposition onto the of cereals at the end of April and beginning of May, 1986. Because of the different seasonal and growing conditions of biomass, the interception fraction of the standing winter wheat became higher than that of the summer wheat. Therefore, the contribution of grain to the internal dose was relatively high in Hungary where near to 90 per cent of flour and bread is produced from winter wheat in comparison with other countries. The average concentration of 137 Cs in winter grain harvested in summer 1986 was 32 Bq/kg with a range of 11-140 Bq/kg. The bran contained almost half of the total radiocaesium of the grain with about 20 per cent of the weight. The 40 K concentration of grain was 149 Bq/kg. The 137 Cs concentration in white bread commonly used in Hungary was 22 Bq/kg in average. The concentrations found in bread samples from the whole country showed a high variation due to the uneven deposition of radioactive substances. The 137 Cs concentration in winter grain was 0.0075±0.0017 Bq/kg normalized to 1 Bq/m 2 deposition density. The 137 Cs concentration in grain harvested in 1987 or later became less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that the root uptake of radiocaesium by cereals must be very small. The per caput committed effective dose equivalent due to consumption of baker's ware was estimated as 50 micro-Sv. (author)

  4. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice.

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2018-01-01

    Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple ( Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest fraction of YAN, with a mean value of 51 mg N L -1 FAN compared to 9 mg N L -1 ammonium. Observed YAN values ranged from nine to 249 mg N L -1 , with a mean value of 59 mg N L -1 . Ninety-four percent of all samples analyzed in this study contained yeast to fully utilize all of the fermentable sugars. FAN concentration was correlated with total YAN concentration, but ammonium concentration was not. Likewise, there was no correlation between FAN and ammonium concentration.

  5. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe

    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Cooper, D.M., E-mail: cooper@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Mills, G., E-mail: gmi@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.no [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Thoeni, L., E-mail: lotti.thoeni@fub-ag.ch [FUB-Research Group for Environmental Monitoring, Alte Jonastrasse 83, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland); Aboal, J.R., E-mail: jesusramon.aboal@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.it [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Carballeira, A., E-mail: alejo.carballeira@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.be [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Tervuren (Belgium); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.lv [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Riga (Latvia); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.es [Univ. of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations ({>=}1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km x 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r{sup 2} = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. - Highlights: > Nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at ca. 3000 sites across Europe. > Moss concentrations were compared with EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition. > The asymptotic relationship for Europe showed saturation at ca. 15 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. > Linear relationships were found with measured nitrogen deposition in some countries. > Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. - Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

  6. Consequences of diverse use of nitrogen sources on grain yield ...

    Muhammad Waseem

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... sources on grain yield, grain quality and growth attributes of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) at the. Agronomic Research Area, University ...... rate were found in 2009. Evans et al. (2003) also noted similar interactive effects of hybrid and N sources in maize. In year 2008, contrasts comparison (Table 4) between ...

  7. Genetic variations in ARE1 mediate grain yield by modulating nitrogen utilization in rice.

    Wang, Qing; Nian, Jinqiang; Xie, Xianzhi; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Jiaoteng; Dong, Guojun; Hu, Jiang; Bai, Bo; Chen, Lichao; Xie, Qingjun; Feng, Jian; Yang, Xiaolu; Peng, Juli; Chen, Fan; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zuo, Jianru

    2018-02-21

    In crops, nitrogen directly determines productivity and biomass. However, the improvement of nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) is still a major challenge in modern agriculture. Here, we report the characterization of are1, a genetic suppressor of a rice fd-gogat mutant defective in nitrogen assimilation. ARE1 is a highly conserved gene, encoding a chloroplast-localized protein. Loss-of-function mutations in ARE1 cause delayed senescence and result in 10-20% grain yield increases, hence enhance NUE under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Analysis of a panel of 2155 rice varieties reveals that 18% indica and 48% aus accessions carry small insertions in the ARE1 promoter, which result in a reduction in ARE1 expression and an increase in grain yield under nitrogen-limiting conditions. We propose that ARE1 is a key mediator of NUE and represents a promising target for breeding high-yield cultivars under nitrogen-limiting condition.

  8. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    Koenig, R.T.; Cogger, C.G.; Bary, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha -1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  9. Rational Application of Fertilizer Nitrogen to Soil in Combination With Foliar Zn Spraying Improved Zn Nutritional Quality of Wheat Grains

    Haiyong Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate human zinc (Zn deficiency, it is worthy to develop rational agronomic managements to achieve high yielding and high resource-use efficiency wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains biofortified with Zn. Effects of application of three rates of nitrogen (N fertilizer (75,200 and 275 kg·ha−1 to soil in combination with three foliar applications (deionized water, Zn alone, and a combination of Zn and sucrose on grain yield, yield components, grain Zn concentration, protein, phytic acid (PA, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, and carbon (C, as well as on Zn bioavailability, were investigated in four wheat cultivars (“Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” under field conditions. Enhanced N increased Zn and protein concentrations as well as bioavailability; excessive N input did not result in further improvements. Zinc spraying was more effective than soil fertilizer N application, the spray of Zn (with or without sucrose increased grain Zn concentrations by 11.1–15.6 mg·kg−1 (27.1–38.1%, and increased grain Zn bioavailability, estimated using total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ and molar ratios of PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn, by 0.4–0.6 mg d−1 (28.6–42.9%, 23.1–27.4% and 24.0–28.0%, respectively. Remarkably, increases caused by ‘Zn + sucrose’ were higher than spraying Zn alone. Grain Zn bioavailability was more sensitive to the selection of cultivar than Zn concentrations. Among cultivars, the higher the grain yields and concentrations of antinutritional compounds, the lower the grain Zn nutritional quality would be. 200 kg N ha−1 application rate in combination with foliar spraying of “Zn + sucrose” maximized grain Zn concentrations of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” to be 59.4, 56.9, 55.8, and 60.9 mg kg−1, respectively, achieving the target value for biofortification. Additionally, PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” and “Luyuan 502” were

  10. Control of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by hot trapping

    Sakurai, Toshiharu; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Akihiro; Muroga, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was controlled by the method of hot trapping. V-Ti alloy and chromium were used as nitrogen gettering materials. Chromium is known to form ternary nitride with lithium. Gettering experiments were conducted at 823 K for 0.8-2.2 Ms. Under high nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium, above 10 -2 mass%, nitrogen gettering effect of chromium was found to be larger than that of V-10at.% Ti alloy. Nitrogen gettering by chromium at 823 K reached a limit at about 6.5x10 -3 mass% of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium. Instability of ternary nitride of chromium and lithium below this nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was considered to be the reason for this limit. The composition of the ternary nitride that was formed in this study was considered to be Li 6 Cr(III) 3 N 5 . In addition, immersion experiments of yttrium with V-10at.% Ti alloy were performed. It was found that nitriding of yttrium in liquid lithium is controlled by nitrogen gettering effect of V-10at.% Ti alloy

  11. Blank evaluation in nitrogen determination in seed grains by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

    Wasek, M.; Sterlinski, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the term 'blank' signifies total radiation of the sample analyzed except that the element to be determined (analyte) is absent. On the basis of the evaluation of the blank components (nuclear and spectral interferences, air-nitrogen between grains, etc.), a semiempirical formula for calculating the nitrogen content in plant grain samples is proposed. The reliability of the results obtained with the use of this formula was demonstrated for five sorts of seeds (rye, wheat, barley, broad bean and soybean) which were analyzed by the Kjeldahl method and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis, respectively. (author)

  12. Nitrogen concentration estimation with hyperspectral LiDAR

    O. Nevalainen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural lands have strong impact on global carbon dynamics and nitrogen availability. Monitoring changes in agricultural lands require more efficient and accurate methods. The first prototype of a full waveform hyperspectral Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR instrument has been developed at the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI. The instrument efficiently combines the benefits of passive and active remote sensing sensors. It is able to produce 3D point clouds with spectral information included for every point which offers great potential in the field of remote sensing of environment. This study investigates the performance of the hyperspectral LiDAR instrument in nitrogen estimation. The investigation was conducted by finding vegetation indices sensitive to nitrogen concentration using hyperspectral LiDAR data and validating their performance in nitrogen estimation. The nitrogen estimation was performed by calculating 28 published vegetation indices to ten oat samples grown in different fertilization conditions. Reference data was acquired by laboratory nitrogen concentration analysis. The performance of the indices in nitrogen estimation was determined by linear regression and leave-one-out cross-validation. The results indicate that the hyperspectral LiDAR instrument holds a good capability to estimate plant biochemical parameters such as nitrogen concentration. The instrument holds much potential in various environmental applications and provides a significant improvement to the remote sensing of environment.

  13. Zinc, iron, manganese and copper uptake requirement in response to nitrogen supply and the increased grain yield of summer maize.

    Yanfang Xue

    Full Text Available The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu in maize (Zea mays L. were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain. Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1 and 5.3 g, respectively were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60% and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg-1 rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively. The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield.

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967. Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960. Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pirie (1955. Analyses demonstrated the presence in aleurone grains of inorganic P, acid-soluble organophosphorus compounds, phospholipids and RNA.

  15. Effect of nitrogen fertiliser rates and plant density on grain yield of ...

    Low soil fertility has constrained maize production in Sidama district in the Southern region of Ethiopia. The effects of four levels of nitrogen fertiliser (0, 46, 92, 138 kg N ha-1) and four plant populations (44000, 53000, 67000 and 89000 plants ha-1) on grain yield of maize were evaluated over four years (1995-98) at Awassa ...

  16. Nitrogen accumulation profiles of selected grain and vegetable crops: A bibliography (1940-1992)

    Meischen, S.J.; Byrd, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    A bibliography of nitrogen accumulation profile data for 25 vegetable and grain crops reported between 1940 and 1992 is presented. The selected crops are asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn, cotton, cucumber, field bean, field pea, garlic, lettuce, onions, and peppers.

  17. Sensitivity of nitrogen dioxide concentrations to oxides of nitrogen controls in the United Kingdom

    Dixon, J.

    2001-01-01

    There is a possibility of further controls on emissions to the atmosphere of nitrogen dioxides to meet air quality objectives in the UK. Data in the National Air Quality Archive were used to calculate the likely sensitivity of hourly concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in ambient urban air to changes in the total oxides of nitrogen. Since the role of atmospheric chemical reactions is to make the responses non-linearly dependent on the emissions control, we seek to establish the magnitude and sign of the effects that this non-linearity might cause. We develop a quantitative approach to analysing the non-linearity in the data. Polynomial fits have been developed for the empirical ratio NO 2 :NO x (the 'yield'). They describe nitrogen dioxide concentrations using total oxides of nitrogen. The new functions have the important feature of increased yield in winter episodes. Simpler functions tend to omit this feature of the yields at the highest hourly concentrations. Based on this study, the hourly nitrogen dioxide objective in the UK may require emissions control of no more than about 50% on total oxides of nitrogen at the most polluted sites: other sites require less or even no control. (Author)

  18. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Protić Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  19. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior

  20. Effect of nitrogen concentration of urea ammonium nitrate, and ...

    Liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) was applied to dryland Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu (Chiov)) and Cynodon hybrid (Coastcross II (L.) (Pers.)) pastures at two levels (207 and 414 kg N/ha/season) and at three concentrations (10, 5; 21 and 42% N) of nitrogen. The degree of leaf scorch increased as both the amount ...

  1. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Alvarez, David; Davanture, Marlène; Boudet, Julie; Pailloux, Marie; Zivy, Michel; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling. Large-scale analysis of the nuclear and albumin-globulin subproteomes during this key developmental phase revealed that the abundance of 203 proteins was significantly modified by the nutrition treatments. Our results showed that the grain proteome was highly affected by perturbation in the N:S balance. S supply strongly increased the rate of accumulation of S-rich α/β-gliadin and γ-gliadin, and the abundance of several other proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. Post-anthesis N supply resulted in the activation of amino acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of transport processes including nucleocytoplasmic transit. Protein accumulation networks were analyzed. Several central actors in the response were identified whose variation in abundance was related to variation in the amounts of many other proteins and are thus potentially important for GSP accumulation. This detailed analysis of grain subproteomes provides information on how wheat GSP composition can possibly be controlled in low-level fertilization condition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible ...

    Casey W

    reviewed paper: Proc. ... maize grain is a staple food for humans and a major ingredient in the diets of intensively fed livestock. Therefore, Se in ..... Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and carotenoids. National Research.

  3. The influence of grain size, grain color, and suspended-sediment concentration on light attenuation: why fine-grained terrestrial sediment is bad for coral reef ecosystems

    Storlazzi, Curt; Norris, Benjamin; Rosenberger, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Sediment has been shown to be a major stressor to coral reefs globally. Although many researchers have tested the impact of sedimentation on coral reef ecosystems in both the laboratory and the field and some have measured the impact of suspended sediment on the photosynthetic response of corals, there has yet to be a detailed investigation on how properties of the sediment itself can affect light availability for photosynthesis. We show that finer-grained and darker-colored sediment at higher suspended-sediment concentrations attenuates photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) significantly more than coarser, lighter-colored sediment at lower concentrations and provide PAR attenuation coefficients for various grain sizes, colors, and suspended-sediment concentrations that are needed for biophysical modeling. Because finer-grained sediment particles settle more slowly and are more susceptible to resuspension, they remain in the water column longer, thus causing greater net impact by reducing light essential for photosynthesis over a greater duration. This indicates that coral reef monitoring studies investigating sediment impacts should concentrate on measuring fine-grained lateritic and volcanic soils, as opposed to coarser-grained siliceous and carbonate sediment. Similarly, coastal restoration efforts and engineering solutions addressing long-term coral reef ecosystem health should focus on preferentially retaining those fine-grained soils rather than coarse silt and sand particles.

  4. Nitrogen removal from concentrated latex wastewater by land treatment

    Vikanda Thongnuekhang

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the concentrated latex factories in the South of Thailand discharge treated wastewater that contains high level of nitrogen to a nearby river or canals leading to a water pollution problem. A study of land treatment system was conducted to treat and utilize nitrogen in treated wastewater from the concentrated latex factory. The experimental pilot-scale land treatment system was constructed at the Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus. It consisted of water convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. Reptans, tropical carpet grass (Axonopus compresus (Swartz Beav. and control unit (no plantation. The treated wastewater from the stabilization pond system of the selected concentrated latex factoryin Songkhla was used to irrigate each experimental unit. Influent and effluent from the experimental units were analyzed for TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, NO3 --N, NO2 --N, BOD5, sulfate, pH and EC. The land treatment system resulted a high removal efficiency for nitrogen. Tropical carpet grass provided higher removal efficiency than other units for all parameters. The removal efficiency of water convolvulus and control unit were not significantly different. The average removal efficiency of TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, BOD5 and sulfate for tropical carpet grass unit were 92, 97, 61, 88 and 52%, for water convolvulus unit were 75, 80, 43, 41 and 30%, and for control unit were 74, 80, 41, 31 and 28%, respectively. Mass balance of nitrogen transformation was conducted. It revealed that plant uptake was the major mechanism for nitrogen removal in land treatment.

  5. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    Paulin, L. M.; Diette, G. B.; Scott, M.; McCormack, M. C.; Matsui, E. C.; Curtin-Brosnan, J.; Williams, D. L.; Kidd-Taylor, A.; Shea, M.; Breysse, P. N.; Hansel, N. N.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placemen...

  6. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration.

    Xue, Cheng; Auf'm Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.

  7. Split nitrogen application improves wheat baking quality by influencing protein composition rather than concentration

    Cheng eXue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of late nitrogen (N fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g. booting, heading or anthesis to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.

  8. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Water management, rice varieties and mycorrhizal inoculation influence arsenic concentration and speciation in rice grains.

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Songlin; Ren, Baihui; Chen, Baodong

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of water management and mycorrhizal inoculation on arsenic (As) uptake by two rice varieties, the As-resistant BRRI dhan 47 (B47) and As-sensitive BRRI dhan 29 (B29). Grain As concentration of B47 plants was significantly lower than that of B29, and grain As concentration of B47 was higher under flooding conditions than that under aerobic conditions. In general, mycorrhizal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) had no significant effect on grain As concentrations, but decreased the proportion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in grains of B47. The proportion of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the total grain As was dramatically higher under flooding conditions. Results demonstrate that rice variety selection and appropriate water management along with mycorrhizal inoculation could be practical countermeasures to As accumulation and toxicity in rice grains, thus reducing health risks of As exposure in rice diets.

  10. Effects of water deficit and nitrogen levels on grain yield and oil and protein contents of maize

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in 2014, to evaluate the effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield, oil and protein contents of maize (cv. double Cross 303. The experiment was arranged as split-plot based on Randomized Complete Block design (RCB with three replications. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation and nitrogen levels (0, 46 and 92 kg N/ha were located in the main and sub plots, respectively. Mean grain yield per unit area decreased with decreasing water availability, but it was improved with increasing nitrogen fertilizer. Grain oil percentage significantly decreased, but protein percentage slightly increased as a result of water deficit. In general, oil and protein yields significantly decreased under moderate and severe water stress, mainly because of decreasing grain yield under these conditions. Nitrogen application decreased oil percentage, but increased protein percentage significantly. Nevertheless, nitrogen fertilizer enhanced oil and protein yields per unit area, with no significant difference between nitrogen rates. These results were positively related with grain yield per unit area in maize.

  11. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations.

    Paulin, L M; Diette, G B; Scott, M; McCormack, M C; Matsui, E C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Kidd-Taylor, A; Shea, M; Breysse, P N; Hansel, N N

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. Several combustion sources unique to the residential indoor environment, including gas stoves, produce nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and higher NO2 concentrations, are associated with worse respiratory morbidity in people with obstructive lung disease. A handful of studies have modified the indoor environment by replacing unvented gas heaters; this study, to our knowledge, is the first randomized study to target unvented gas stoves. The results of this study show that simple home interventions, including replacement of an unvented gas stove with an electric stove or placement of HEPA air purifiers with carbon filters, can significantly decrease indoor NO2 concentrations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A

  12. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Negatively Affect Nitrogen Acquisition and Grain Yield of Maize in a N Deficient Soil.

    Wang, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Yu; Cheng, Yang; Liu, Shitong; Chen, Xinping; Feng, Gu; Kuyper, Thomas W

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in enhancing the acquisition of immobile nutrients, particularly phosphorus. However, because nitrogen (N) is more mobile in the soil solution and easier to access by plants roots, the role of AMF in enhancing N acquisition is regarded as less important for host plants. Because AMF have a substantial N demand, competition for N between AMF and plants particularly under low N condition is possible. Thus, it is necessary to know whether or not AMF affect N uptake of plants and thereby affect plant growth under field conditions. We conducted a 2-year field trial and pot experiments in a greenhouse by using benomyl to suppress colonization of maize roots by indigenous AMF at both low and high N application rates. Benomyl reduced mycorrhizal colonization of maize plants in all experiments. Benomyl-treated maize had a higher shoot N concentration and content and produced more grain under field conditions. Greenhouse pot experiments showed that benomyl also enhanced maize growth and N concentration and N content when the soil was not sterilized, but had no effect on maize biomass and N content when the soil was sterilized but a microbial wash added, providing evidence that increased plant performance is at least partly caused by direct effects of benomyl on AMF. We conclude that AMF can reduce N acquisition and thereby reduce grain yield of maize in N-limiting soils.

  13. The value of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by grain legumes in comparison to the cost of nitrogen fertilizer used in developing countries

    Hardarson, G.; Bunning, S.; Montanez, A.; Roy, R.; MacMillan, A.

    2001-01-01

    A great challenge lies in devising more sustainable farming systems without compromising food production levels and food security. Obviously, increasing productivity is necessary to accommodate growth in the global population. World wide, the environmental factors that most severely restrict plant growth are the availability of water and nitrogen. The challenges in developing countries are to find ways of meeting this additional nitrogen demand without concomitant degrading natural productivity. Widespread adoption of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) would contribute to this goal. BNF, together with adequate N management in the ecosystem, appears to be the most promising alternative to increasing the use of inorganic fertiliser nitrogen. BNF technologies represent economic, sustainable and environmentally friendly means of ensuring the nitrogen requirement of an agro-ecosystem. Here we investigate the value of BNF by grain legumes and compares it to the cost of nitrogen fertilizer used in developing countries. Our data show that major grain legumes fix approximately 11.1 million metric tons of nitrogen per annum in developing countries. If this N was supplied by inorganic fertiliser one would have to apply at least double that amount to achieve the same yields, and this would cost approximately 6.7 billion US dollars. As the eight major grain legumes grown in developing countries contribute 30 - 40% of the annual N requirement the contribution of BNF is of great economic and environmental importance. (author)

  14. EFFECT OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA ON GRAIN YIELD AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOODED IRRIGATED RICE

    AMAURI NELSON BEUTLER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Azospirillum brasilense , a nitrogen - fixing bacterium, on flooded irrigated rice yield. Evaluations were carried out in a shaded nursery, with seedlings grown on an Alfisol. Were performed two sets of experiments. In the first, were carried out four experiments using the flooded rice cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424; these trials were set up as completely randomized design in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha - 1 and four levels of liquid inoculant Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the manufacturer's recommendation without seed treatment. In second set, were performed two experiments using the cultivars Puitá Inta - CL and Br Irga 409, arranged in the same design, but using a 4x2 factorial. In this set, treatments were composed of four levels of Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense liquid inoculant (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the recommendation of 100 mL ha - 1 , using rice seeds with and without insecticide and fungicide treatment. Shoot dry matter, number of panicles, and rice grain yield per pot were the assessed variables. The results showed that rice seed inoculation with A. brasilense had no effects on rice grain yield of the cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424.

  15. Estimations of Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    Poonsak Miphokasap

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the spatial variation of sugarcane Canopy Nitrogen Concentration (CNC using spectral data, which were measured from a spaceborne hyperspectral image. Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR and Support Vector Regression (SVR were applied to calibrate and validate the CNC estimation models. The raw spectral reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and absorption features to remove the spectral noise and finally used as input variables. The results indicate that the estimation models developed by non-linear SVR based Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel yield the higher correlation coefficient with CNC compared with the models computed by SMLR. The best model shows the coefficient of determination value of 0.78 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE value of 0.035% nitrogen. The narrow sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content in the combined cultivar environments existed mainly in the electromagnetic spectrum of the visible-red, longer portion of red edge, shortwave infrared regions and far-near infrared. The most important conclusion from this experiment is that spectral signals from the space hyperspectral data contain the meaningful information for quantifying sugarcane CNC across larger geographic areas. The nutrient deficient areas could be corrected by applying suitable farm management.

  16. Genetic diversity for grain Zn concentration in finger millet genotypes: Potential for improving human Zn nutrition

    Ramegowda Yamunarani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half of the world population suffers from micronutrient malnutrition, particularly Zn deficiency. It is important to understand genetic variation for uptake and translocation behaviors of Zn in relevant crop species to increase Zn concentration in edible parts. In the present study, genetic variation in grain Zn concentration of 319 finger millet genotypes was assessed. Large genetic variation was found among the genotypes, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 86 μg g− 1 grain. Uptake and translocation studies with Zn/65Zn application in 12 selected low-Zn genotypes showed wide variation in root uptake and shoot translocation, with genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 showing greater uptake and translocation. Genotypes GEC164 and GEC543 showed increased grain Zn concentration. Genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 also showed improved yield under Zn treatment. Appreciable variation in grain Zn concentration among finger millet genotypes found in this study offers opportunities to improve Zn nutrition through breeding.

  17. Spatial variations in nitrogen dioxide concentrations in urban Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Vintar Mally Katja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations are regularly measured at only two monitoring stations in the city centre of Ljubljana, and such scanty data are inadequate for drawing conclusions about spatial patterns of pollution within the city, or to decide on effective measures to further improve air quality. In order to determine the spatial distribution of NO2 concentrations in different types of urban space in Ljubljana, two measuring campaigns throughout the city were carried out, during the summer of 2013 and during the winter of 2014. The main source of NO2 in Ljubljana is road transport. Accordingly, three types of urban space have been identified (urban background, open space along roads, and street canyon, and their NO2 pollution level was measured using Palmes diffusive samplers at a total of 108 measuring spots. This article analyses the results of both measuring campaigns and compares the pollution levels of different types of urban space.

  18. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application timing on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat in Ireland

    Efretuei A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of initiating application of fertilizer nitrogen (N to winter wheat at different growth stages (GSs on grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE. A factorial experiment was carried out in two growing seasons (2011 and 2012 with five timings of first N application (GS 24/26 [tillering], GS 30, GS 31, GS 32 or GS 37 and an unfertilized control, two sowing densities (100 and 400 seeds/m2 and a cattle slurry treatment (with or without slurry. The latter was included to simulate variation in soil N supply (SNS. Delaying the first application of N from the tillering stage until GS 30 had no significant effect on grain yield in either year. Further delaying the initial N application until GS 31 caused a significant yield reduction in 2011, in comparison to GS 30 application, but not in 2012. Differences in efficiency of recovery and use of fertilizer N by the crop among the first three application timings were small. There was no evidence to support alteration in the timing of the first application of N in response to low plant density. Slurry application did not influence SNS, so the interaction between SNS and fertilizer N application timing could not be determined. It is concluded that in order to maximise yield and NUE, the first N application should be applied to winter wheat between late tillering and GS 30 and that delaying the first N until GS 31 can lead to yield reductions compared to the yield obtained with earlier application.

  19. In-vehicle nitrogen dioxide concentrations in road tunnels

    Martin, Ashley N.; Boulter, Paul G.; Roddis, Damon; McDonough, Liza; Patterson, Michael; Rodriguez del Barco, Marina; Mattes, Andrew; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding in-vehicle concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during transit through road tunnels in urban environments. Furthermore, previous studies have tended to involve a single vehicle and the range of in-vehicle NO2 concentrations that vehicle occupants may be exposed to is not well defined. This study describes simultaneous measurements of in-vehicle and outside-vehicle NO2 concentrations on a route through Sydney, Australia that included several major tunnels, minor tunnels and busy surface roads. Tests were conducted on nine passenger vehicles to assess how vehicle characteristics and ventilation settings affected in-vehicle NO2 concentrations and the in-vehicle-to-outside vehicle (I/O) concentration ratio. NO2 was measured directly using a cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique that gave a high temporal and spatial resolution. In the major tunnels, transit-average in-vehicle NO2 concentrations were lower than outside-vehicle concentrations for all vehicles with cabin air recirculation either on or off. However, markedly lower I/O ratios were obtained with recirculation on (0.08-0.36), suggesting that vehicle occupants can significantly lower their exposure to NO2 in tunnels by switching recirculation on. The highest mean I/O ratios for NO2 were measured in older vehicles (0.35-0.36), which is attributed to older vehicles having higher air exchange rates. The results from this study can be used to inform the design and operation of future road tunnels and modelling of personal exposure to NO2.

  20. Biomass and nitrogen-use efficiency of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) with nitrogen and supplemental irrigation in Coastal Plain Region, USA

    Poor rainfall distribution and soil conditions such as high soil strength, low water holding capacity of soils and poor soil fertility in the humid Coastal Plain region may affect production of grain crops. Nitrogen insufficiency and water stress can both reduce crop yield, but little information is...

  1. A note on the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers on chemical composition of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains

    Hago, T. E. M; Eltilib, A. M. A.; Ali, S. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    A filed experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons (1999/2000 and 2000/2001) at the University of Zalengi, Western Darfur State, Sudan, to study the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers on chemical composition of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains. A local pearl millet cultivar (Darmassa) was used as a test crop. The treatments consisted of four nitrogen (0, 30, 60,80 kg N/ha) and four phosphorus (0, 15, 30, 60 kg p 2 O 5 /ha) rates, using urea (46% N) and triple superphosphate (48% P 2 O 5 ) as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. The experimental design was split plot with five replicates, allocating nitrogen to the main and phosphorus to the subplots. The results showed that nitrogen significantly increased grain protein content in both seasons, while phosphorus caused a consistent increase in grain protein and phosphorus contents in both seasons, but the increase was significant in the second season only. As for the other grain constituents (K, Ca, Mg), they were not effected by any of the treatment. Moreover, there were no significant interactions between the treatments.(Author)

  2. Effects of Controlled-Release Urea on Grain Yield of Spring Maize, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Balance

    JI Jing-hong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mixing controlled-released urea (CRU (release period of resin coated urea is 90 days and urea (U on maize yield, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen balance were studied by 4 plot experiments (site:Shuangcheng, Binxian, Harbin and Zhaoyuan in two years (from year 2011 to 2012 to clarify the effect of controlled release urea on spring maize and soil nitrogen balance. Results were as follow:Spring maize yield and nitrogen absorption were increased with the increasing nitrogen fertilizer. Compared with applying urea treatment, applying CRU could increase yield, nitrogen absorption, nitrogen use efficiency, agriculture efficiency of nitrogen and nitrogen contribution rate. Under the same amount of nitrogen (100%, 75%, 50%, compared with 100% U as basic fertilizer treatment, maize yield of 100% CRU treatment increased 391, 427, 291 kg·hm-2, nitrogen use efficiency increased by 5.9%,4.9% and 5.1%, agriculture efficiency of nitrogen increased 2.0, 2.6, 2.6 kg·kg-1, and nitrogen contribution rate increased 2.7%, 3.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The value of maize yield, nitrogen absorption, nitrogen use efficiency and agriculture efficiency of nitrogen between the treatment four (40% urea as basic fertilizer+60% urea as topdressing and treatment five (40% urea plus 60% controlled release urea as basic fertilizer were similar. Apparent profit and loss of nitrogen decreased with the increase of nitrogen nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen apparent loss by applying 100% controlled release urea was reduced of 15.0 kg·hm-2 than applying 100% U treatment;Nitrogen apparent loss amount was decreased of 23.9 kg·hm-2 under treatment five. The method of mixing 40% urea and 60% controlled release urea should be applied in maize production in Heilongjiang Province.

  3. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Laura Tatiana Moreno-Moyano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L. with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2 transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of 8 mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 µg Fe g-1 and 40 µg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 µg Fe g-1 and 56 µg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica progeny, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  4. Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management.

    Aziz, Omar; Hussain, Saddam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Bashir, Saqib; Lin, Lirong; Mehmood, Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Yaseen, Rizwan; Lu, Guoan

    2018-06-01

    The looming water resources worldwide necessitate the development of water-saving technologies in rice production. An open greenhouse experiment was conducted on rice during the summer season of 2016 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, in order to study the influence of irrigation methods and nitrogen (N) inputs on water productivity, N economy, and grain yield of rice. Two irrigation methods, viz. conventional irrigation (CI) and "thin-shallow-moist-dry" irrigation (TSMDI), and three levels of nitrogen, viz. 0 kg N ha -1 (N 0 ), 90 kg N ha -1 (N 1 ), and 180 kg N ha -1 (N 2 ), were examined with three replications. Study data indicated that no significant water by nitrogen interaction on grain yield, biomass, water productivity, N uptake, NUE, and fertilizer N balance was observed. Results revealed that TSMDI method showed significantly higher water productivity and irrigation water applications were reduced by 17.49% in TSMDI compared to CI. Thus, TSMDI enhanced root growth and offered significantly greater water saving along with getting more grain yield compared to CI. Nitrogen tracer ( 15 N) technique accurately assessed the absorption and distribution of added N in the soil crop environment and divulge higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) influenced by TSMDI. At the same N inputs, the TSMDI was the optimal method to minimize nitrogen leaching loss by decreasing water leakage about 18.63%, which are beneficial for the ecological environment.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation characterisation of water status of developing grains of maize (Zea mays L.) grown at different nitrogen levels.

    Krishnan, Prameela; Chopra, Usha Kiran; Verma, Ajay Pal Singh; Joshi, Devendra Kumar; Chand, Ishwar

    2014-04-01

    Changes in water status of developing grains of maize (Zea mays L.) grown under different nitrogen levels were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. There were distinct changes in water status of grains due to the application of different levels of nitrogen (0, 120 and 180 kg N ha(-1)). A comparison of the grain developmental characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, not only the developmental characteristics like grain weight, grain number/ear, and rate of grain filling increased, but also bound water characterized by the T2 component of NMR relaxation increased with nitrogen application (50-70%) and developmental stages leading to maturation (10-60%). The consistency in the patterns of responses to free water and intermediate water to increasing levels of nitrogen application and grain maturity suggested that nitrogen application resulted in more proportion of water to both bound- and intermediate states and less in free state. These changes are further corroborated by the concomitant increases in protein and starch contents in grains from higher nitrogen treatments as macromolecules like protein and starch retain more amount of water in the bound state. The results of the changes in T2 showed that water status during grain development was not only affected by developmental processes but also by nitrogen supply to plants. This study strongly indicated a clear nutrient and developmental stage dependence of grain tissue water status in maize. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of the Stable Nitrogen Isotope to Reveal the Source-Sink Regulation of Nitrogen Uptake and Remobilization during Grain Filling Phase in Maize.

    Lan Yang

    Full Text Available Although the remobilization of vegetative nitrogen (N and post-silking N both contribute to grain N in maize (Zea mays L., their regulation by grain sink strength is poorly understood. Here we use 15N labeling to analyze the dynamic behaviors of both pre- and post-silking N in relation to source and sink manipulation in maize plants. The results showed that the remobilization of pre-silking N started immediately after silking and the remobilized pre-silking N had a greater contribution to grain N during early grain filling, with post-silking N importance increasing during the later filling stage. The amount of post-silking N uptake was largely driven by post-silking dry matter accumulation in both grain as well as vegetative organs. Prevention of pollination during silking had less effect on post-silking N uptake, as a consequence of compensatory growth of stems, husk + cob and roots. Also, leaves continuously export N even though grain sink was removed. The remobilization efficiency of N in the leaf and stem increased with increasing grain yield (hence N requirement. It is suggested that the remobilization of N in the leaf is controlled by sink strength but not the leaf per se. Enhancing post-silking N uptake rather than N remobilization is more likely to increase grain N accumulation.

  7. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on micronutrient content in grain maize (Zea mays L.

    Josef Maňásek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year small-plot field experiment with the grain maize hybrid KWS 2376 was conducted on heavy soil with a low supply of available nutrients incl. potassium (K at Otrokovice, Czech Republic, during 2010–2011. The experiment included 4 treatments: unfertilized control; nitrogen (N fertilisation with urea (120 kg N/ha alone or combined with two forms of K fertiliser (potassium chloride (KCl or potassium sulphate (K2SO4; 125 kg K2O/ha. Biomass samples for determination of Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe were taken as the whole aboveground biomass in the DC 32 (first node stage, the ear-leaf in the DC 61 (flowering stage and grain during the harvest.Between the two years the content of micronutrients in the individual treatments varied irregularly. In DC 32 and DC 61 the order of the content of micronutrients was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu. The Fe content was significantly the highest in the unfertilised control and the Mn content after the application of N + K2SO4 in both samplings. In the grain the order was as follows: Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu (mg/kg DM: at the following contents: Zn: 19.20–23.19; Fe: 15.12–19.87; Mn: 0.85–3.60; Cu: 0.19–1.34. We can recommend fertilisation of maize with urea and with both potassium mineral fertilisers without any negative effects on the content of the micronutrients in the maize biomass.

  8. Long-term trends in nitrogen isotope composition and nitrogen concentration in brazilian rainforest trees suggest changes in nitrogen cycle.

    Hietz, Peter; Dünisch, Oliver; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    Direct or indirect anthropogenic effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycles are important components of global change. Recent research has shown that N isotopes in tree rings reflect changes in ecosystem nitrogen sources or cycles and can be used to study past changes. We analyzed trends in two tree species from a remote and pristine tropical rainforest in Brazil, using trees of different ages to distinguish between the effect of tree age and long-term trends. Because sapwood differed from heartwood in delta(15)N and N concentration and N can be translocated between living sapwood cells, long-term trends are best seen in dead heartwood. Heartwood delta(15)N in Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) increased with tree age, and N concentrations increased with age in Cedrela. Controlling for tree age, delta(15)N increased significantly during the past century even when analyzing only heartwood and after removing labile N compounds. In contrast to northern temperate and boreal forests where wood delta(15)N often decreased, the delta(15)N increase in a remote rainforest is unlikely to be a direct signal of changed N deposition. More plausibly, the change in N isotopic composition indicates a more open N cycle, i.e., higher N losses relative to internal N cycling in the forest, which could be the result of changed forest dynamics.

  9. Nitrogen grain-boundary passivation of In-doped ZnO transparent conducting oxide

    Ali, D.; Butt, M. Z.; Coughlan, C.; Caffrey, D.; Shvets, I. V.; Fleischer, K.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the properties and conduction limitations of spray pyrolysis grown, low-cost transparent conducting oxide ZnO thin films doped with indium. We analyze the optical, electrical, and crystallographic properties as functions of In content with a specific focus on postgrowth heat treatment of these thin films at 320 ∘C in an inert, nitrogen atmosphere, which improves the films electrical properties considerably. The effect was found to be dominated by nitrogen-induced grain-boundary passivation, identified by a combined study using i n situ resistance measurement upon annealing, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and x-ray diffraction studies. We also highlight the chemical mechanism of morphologic and crystallographic changes found in films with high indium content. By optimizing growth conditions according to these findings, ZnO:In with a resistivity as low as 2 ×10 -3Ω cm , high optical quality (T ≈90 % ), and sheet resistance of 32 Ω /□ has been obtained without any need for postgrowth treatments.

  10. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential input factor required for plant growth and biomass production. However, very limited information is available on how nitrogen fertilization affects the quality of crop residues to be used as lignocellulosic feedstock. In the present study, straw of winter wheat plants grown...... linearly from 0.32% to 0.71% over the range of nitrogen treatments. Cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by the nitrogen supply while lignin peaked at medium rates of nitrogen application. The nitrogen treatments had a distinct influence on the silicon concentration, which decreased from 2.5% to 1.......5% of the straw dry matter when the nitrogen supply increased from 48 to 192kgha-1. No further decline in Si occurred at higher rates of nitrogen application. The most abundant metals in the straw were potassium and calcium and their concentrations almost doubled over the range of nitrogen supplies. The enzymatic...

  11. Influence of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and some baking quality characteristics of spring wheat

    Paavo Elonen

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1967—70 twelve irrigation experiments of spring wheat were carried out in southern Finland (60-62° N, 22-26° E. Sprinkler irrigation (2 X 30 mm increased the grain yields on an average by 1240±470kg/ha (from 2740 to 3980 kg or 45±17 %. The increases in yield were significant on clay soils (9 trials and loam (1 trial but insignificant on fines and (1 trial and mould (1 trial. Additional nitrogen fertilization (from 76 to 143kg/ha N increased the grain yields on an average by 350± 200 kg/ha or 11±6 %. The ripening of wheat was significantly promoted by irrigation in one year but slightly retarded in three years. Nitrogen fertilization slightly retarded ripening every year The falling number of grains tended to be slightly improved by irrigation (from 285 to 321, on an average, but in most trials irrigation and nitrogen fertilization had no significant influence on the falling number. Irrigation decreased the crude protein content of grains in all trials, on an average by 2.2 ± 0.7 %-units (from 16.3 to 14.1%. This unfavourable effect was, however, avoided with additional nitrogen which increased the protein content by 1.9±0.4%-units (from 14,3 to 16.2 %. The effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on those characteristics of wheat that are correlated with protein, were similar to the effects on the protein content. Thus, irrigation decreased the zeleny value (from 64 to 53 ml, cold viscosity (from 214 to 114 seconds, water absorption (from 66.5 to 64.9 % and the valorimeter value (from 68 to 60, while these characteristics were improved by nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation did not decrease the Pelshenke value but increased significantly the ratio of the Pelshenke value/protein content (from 5,1 to 6.1. This indicates that the quality of protein was improved by irrigation, while the effect of nitrogen fertilization was the reverse. In fact, irrigation and additional nitrogen fertilization affected the quantity and

  12. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Lenz Haderlein

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yields and increase grain N and N use efficiency when compared to the practice of side-banding of urea N fertilizer. CRU was designed to release timely and adequate, but not excessive, amounts of N to the crop. Crop uptake of N from seed-placed CRU was sufficient to provide yields similar to those of side-banded urea N. Grain N concentrations of the CRU treatments were higher, on average, than those from side-banded urea, resulting in 4.2% higher N use efficiency across the entire N application range from 25 to 100 kg ha-1. Higher levels of removal of N in grain from CRU compared to side-banded urea can result in less residual N remaining in the soil, and limit the possibility of N losses due to denitrification and leaching.

  14. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on carbon and nitrogen distribution and grain yield and nutritional quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Zhang, Xue; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Yang, Jixian; Su, Meng

    2017-07-01

    The importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for nutrient uptake and growth in rice has been widely recognized. However, little is known about the distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in rice under AMF inoculation, which can affect grain yield and quality. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of C and N within rice plants under AMF inoculation and the effects on grain yield and quality. AMF inoculation significantly increased N accumulation and distribution in vegetative tissues at tillering, and N translocation into seeds from heading to maturity. Consequently, AMF inoculation more strongly impacted the distribution of N than that of C in seeds, with significantly reduced C:N ratios and increased protein content (by 7.4%). Additionally, AMF inoculation significantly increased grain yield by 28.2% through increasing the grain:straw ratio by 18.4%. In addition, the roots of inoculated rice exhibited greater change in C distribution, with significantly higher C concentrations, C accumulations, and C:N ratios at tillering and maturity. AMF inoculation affected the distribution of N in seeds and C in roots. As such, AMF inoculation may be a potential method for improving grain yield and quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The proportion of nitrate in leaf nitrogen, but not changes in root growth, are associated with decreased grain protein in wheat under elevated [CO2].

    Bahrami, Helale; De Kok, Luit J; Armstrong, Roger; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; Bourgault, Maryse; Henty, Samuel; Tausz, Michael; Tausz-Posch, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]) is increasing and predicted to reach ∼550ppm by 2050. Increasing [CO 2 ] typically stimulates crop growth and yield, but decreases concentrations of nutrients, such as nitrogen ([N]), and therefore protein, in plant tissues and grains. Such changes in grain composition are expected to have negative implications for the nutritional and economic value of grains. This study addresses two mechanisms potentially accountable for the phenomenon of elevated [CO 2 ]-induced decreases in [N]: N uptake per unit length of roots as well as inhibition of the assimilation of nitrate (NO 3 - ) into protein are investigated and related to grain protein. We analysed two wheat cultivars from a similar genetic background but contrasting in agronomic features (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Scout and Yitpi). Plants were field-grown within the Australian Grains Free Air CO 2 Enrichment (AGFACE) facility under two atmospheric [CO 2 ] (ambient, ∼400ppm, and elevated, ∼550ppm) and two water treatments (rain-fed and well-watered). Aboveground dry weight (ADW) and root length (RL, captured by a mini-rhizotron root growth monitoring system), as well as [N] and NO 3 - concentrations ([NO 3 - ]) were monitored throughout the growing season and related to grain protein at harvest. RL generally increased under e[CO 2 ] and varied between water supply and cultivars. The ratio of total aboveground N (TN) taken up per RL was affected by CO 2 treatment only later in the season and there was no significant correlation between TN/RL and grain protein concentration across cultivars and [CO 2 ] treatments. In contrast, a greater percentage of N remained as unassimilated [NO 3 - ] in the tissue of e[CO 2 ] grown crops (expressed as the ratio of NO 3 - to total N) and this was significantly correlated with decreased grain protein. These findings suggest that e[CO 2 ] directly affects the nitrate assimilation capacity of wheat with direct negative implications

  16. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and 32 P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar

  17. Effects of dietary combination of corn and rice as whole crop silage and grain sources on carbohydrate digestion and nitrogen use in steers.

    Li, Zongfu; Sugino, Toshihisa; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2014-02-01

    Four Holstein steers were used to evaluate the combination effects of whole crop corn (Cs) or rice (Rs) silage with steam-flaked corn (Cg) or rice (Rg) grain (four dietary treatments) on ruminal carbohydrate digestion, duodenal nitrogen (N) flow and plasma essential amino acid (EAA) concentration. The ruminal digestibility of starch and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) for Rs and Rg diets compared with Cs and Cg diets was greater, but that of neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom) was less. Because the ruminal disappearance of NFC plus aNDFom was similar across four dietary treatments, microbial N flow was not affected by the diets. There was an interaction of methionine (Met) flow by silage and grain sources: greatest for CsRg and least for RsRg diet, and blood plasma concentration of Met after feeding was lower for Rg than Cg diets. Postprandial reduction degree of plasma EAA varied with the diets and individual EAA. The Cs diets compared with the Rs diets tended to be greater in N retention because of greater digestible organic matter (OM) intake. These results suggest that silage source combined with corn or rice grain affects N use in steers through the digestible OM intake, and the kinds of limiting AA may differ among the combination of silage and grain sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. An improved procedure for determining grain boundary diffusion coefficients from averaged concentration profiles

    Gryaznov, D.; Fleig, J.; Maier, J.

    2008-03-01

    Whipple's solution of the problem of grain boundary diffusion and Le Claire's relation, which is often used to determine grain boundary diffusion coefficients, are examined for a broad range of ratios of grain boundary to bulk diffusivities Δ and diffusion times t. Different reasons leading to errors in determining the grain boundary diffusivity (DGB) when using Le Claire's relation are discussed. It is shown that nonlinearities of the diffusion profiles in lnCav-y6/5 plots and deviations from "Le Claire's constant" (-0.78) are the major error sources (Cav=averaged concentration, y =coordinate in diffusion direction). An improved relation (replacing Le Claire's constant) is suggested for analyzing diffusion profiles particularly suited for small diffusion lengths (short times) as often required in diffusion experiments on nanocrystalline materials.

  19. Determination of the concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    The concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite was determined from of the rate of retracting nitrogen from thin initially N-saturated coupons. Nitrogen saturated homogeneous foils of expanded austenite were obtained by nitriding AISI 304 and AISI 316 in pure...... in the composition range where nitrogen can be extracted by hydrogen gas at the diffusion temperature. Numerical simulation of the denitriding experiments shows that the thus determined concentration dependent diffusion coefficients are an accurate approximation of the actual diffusivity of nitrogen in expanded...... ammonia at 693 K and 718 K. Denitriding experiments were performed by equilibrating the foils with a successively lower nitrogen activity, as imposed by a gas mixture of ammonia and hydrogen. The concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite was approximated...

  20. The influence of different forms and concentrations of nitrogen on ...

    ... mass and leaf area development were enhanced in plants supplied with nitrogen in any form. It was suggested that growth of D. eriantha was influenced by carbohydrate fluctuations.D. eriantha. Keywords: botany; carbohydrates; digitaria eriantha; dry mass; growth; leaf area; leaves; nitrogen; physiology; plant physiology; ...

  1. The influence of different forms and concentrations of nitrogen on ...

    Reports the results of a study conducted to compare the growth and total reduced nitrogen content of the above ground components of Digitaria eriantha and Chloris gayana plants grown in saline conditions and supplied with different levels of nitrogen in the form of nitrate and ammonia; Chloris gayana and Digitaria ...

  2. Nitrogen chemistry on dust grains: the formation of hydroxylamine, precursor to glycine

    Vidali, Gianfranco; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Shi, Jianming; Hopkins, Tyler; Garrod, Rob; He, Jiao

    2015-08-01

    In ices coating dust grains in molecular clouds, nitrogen-containing molecules - mostly NH3 - are present in sizable quantity, up to 15-20% with respect to water ice, the largest component. We studied the oxidation of ammonia in a series of experiments using beams of oxygen and ammonia in various configurations (co-deposition and sequential deposition with various NH3:O ratios). We detected the formation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and other products, depending on the degree of oxidation. A simulation of a dense cloud with input from experimental data shows that on and in ices at 14 K and with modest activation energy for reaction, NH2OH is easily formed and its abundance never falls below a tenth of the NH3 abundance. Strategies for detection of hydroxylamine in the ISM will be presented.This work is supported by the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Division (grant No.1311958 to G.V.). R.T.G. acknowledges the support of the NASA Astrophysics Theory Program (grant No. NNX11AC38G).

  3. Relationship between atmospheric ammonia concentration and nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2014-01-01

    From April 2006 to April 2007, the geographical and seasonal variation in nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa) and atmospheric ammonia concentrations were measured at five heathland sites. The seasonal variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was small, even though...... there was a large seasonal variation in the air concentration of ammonia. A sizable local variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was found even at the scale of a few kilometres. The nitrogen content in the lichen showed a high correlation to the yearly mean value of the measured ammonia concentration...

  4. Effect of solute concentration on grain boundary migration with segregation in stainless steel and model alloys

    Kanda, H.; Hashimoto, N.; Takahashi, H.

    The phenomenon of grain boundary migration due to boundary diffusion via vacancies is a well-known process for recrystallization and grain growth during annealing. This phenomenon is known as diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM) and has been recognized in various binary systems. On the other hand, grain boundary migration often occurs under irradiation. Furthermore, such radiation-induced grain boundary migration (RIGM) gives rise to solute segregation. In order to investigate the RIGM mechanism and the interaction between solutes and point defects during the migration, stainless steel and Ni-Si model alloys were electron-irradiated using a HVEM. RIGM was often observed in stainless steels during irradiation. The migration rate of boundary varied, and three stages of the migration were recognized. At lower temperatures, incubation periods up to the occurrence of the boundary migration were observed prior to first stage. These behaviors were recognized particularly for lower solute containing alloys. From the relation between the migration rates at stage I and inverse temperatures, activation energies for the boundary migration were estimated. In comparison to the activation energy without irradiation, these values were very low. This suggests that the RIGM is caused by the flow of mixed-dumbbells toward the grain boundary. The interaction between solute and point defects and the effective defect concentration generating segregation will be discussed.

  5. Evaluation of Six Algorithms to Monitor Wheat Leaf Nitrogen Concentration

    Xia Yao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid and non-destructive monitoring of the canopy leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC in crops is important for precise nitrogen (N management. Nowadays, there is an urgent need to identify next-generation bio-physical variable retrieval algorithms that can be incorporated into an operational processing chain for hyperspectral satellite missions. We assessed six retrieval algorithms for estimating LNC from canopy reflectance of winter wheat in eight field experiments. These experiments represented variations in the N application rates, planting densities, ecological sites and cultivars and yielded a total of 821 samples from various places in Jiangsu, China over nine consecutive years. Based on the reflectance spectra and their first derivatives, six methods using different numbers of wavelengths were applied to construct predictive models for estimating wheat LNC, including continuum removal (CR, vegetation indices (VIs, stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR, partial least squares regression (PLSR, artificial neural networks (ANNs, and support vector machines (SVMs. To assess the performance of these six methods, we provided a systematic evaluation of the estimation accuracies using the six metrics that were the coefficients of determination for the calibration (R2C and validation (R2V sets, the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP for the calibration and validation sets, the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD, the computational efficiency (CE and the complexity level (CL. The following results were obtained: (1 For the VIs method, SAVI(R1200, R705 produced a more accurate estimation of the LNC than other indices, with R²C, R²V, RMSEP, RPD and CE values of 0.844, 0.795, 0.384, 2.005 and 0.10 min, respectively; (2 For the SMLR, PLSR, ANNs and SVMs methods, the SVMs using the first derivative canopy spectra (SVM-FDS offered the best accuracy in terms of R²C, R²V, RMSEP, RPD, and CE, at 0.96, 0.78, 0.37, 2.02, and 21

  6. Control of the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by the hot trap method

    Sakurai, Toshiharu; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Akihiro; Muroga, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    The nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was controlled by the hot-trap method. Titanium, vanadium and a V-Ti alloy were used as nitrogen gettering materials. Gettering experiments were conducted at 673, 773 and 823 K for 0.4-2.8 Ms. After immersion, the nitrogen concentration increased in titanium and V-Ti were tested at 823 K. Especially the nitrogen gettering effect by the V-10at.%Ti alloy was found to be large. Nitrogen was considered to exist mainly as solid solution in the V-10at.%Ti alloy. The decrease of the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by the V-Ti gettering was also confirmed

  7. [Progress in inversion of vegetation nitrogen concentration by hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Wang, Li-Wen; Wei, Ya-Xing

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen is the necessary element in life activity of vegetation, which takes important function in biosynthesis of protein, nucleic acid, chlorophyll, and enzyme etc, and plays a key role in vegetation photosynthesis. The technology about inversion of vegetation nitrogen concentration by hyperspectral remote sensing has been the research hotspot since the 70s of last century. With the development of hyperspectral remote sensing technology in recent years, the advantage of spectral bands subdivision in a certain spectral region provides the powerful technology measure for correlative spectral characteristic research on vegetation nitrogen. In the present paper, combined with the newest research production about monitoring vegetation nitrogen concentration by hyperspectral remote sensing published in main geography science literature in recent several years, the principle and correlated problem about monitoring vegetation nitrogen concentration by hyperspectral remote sensing were introduced. From four aspects including vegetation nitrogen spectral index, vegetation nitrogen content inversion based on chlorophyll index, regression model, and eliminating influence factors to inversion of vegetation nitrogen concentration, main technology methods about inversion of vegetation nitrogen concentration by hyperspectral remote sensing were detailedly introduced. Correlative research conclusions were summarized and analyzed, and research development trend was discussed.

  8. Spatial Variability Analysis of Within-Field Winter Wheat Nitrogen and Grain Quality Using Canopy Fluorescence Sensor Measurements

    Xiaoyu Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain protein content (GPC is a key component when evaluating wheat nutrition. It is also important to determine wheat GPC before harvest for agricultural and food process enterprises in order to optimize the wheat grading process. Wheat GPC across a field is spatially variable due to the inherent variability of soil properties and position in the landscape. The objectives of this field study were: (i to assess the spatial and temporal variability of wheat nitrogen (N attributes related to the grain quality of winter wheat production through canopy fluorescence sensor measurements; and (ii to examine the influence of spatial variability of soil N and moisture across different growth stages on the wheat grain quality. A geostatistical approach was used to analyze data collected from 110 georeferenced locations. In particular, Ordinary Kriging Analysis (OKA was used to produce maps of wheat GPC, GPC yield, and wheat canopy fluorescence parameters, including simple florescence ratio and Nitrogen Balance Indices (NBI. Soil Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N content and soil Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR value in the study field were also interpolated through the OKA method. The fluorescence parameter maps, soil NO3-N and soil TDR maps obtained from the OKA output were compared with the wheat GPC and GPC yield maps in order to assess their relationships. The results of this study indicate that the NBI spatial variability map in the late stage of wheat growth can be used to distinguish areas that produce higher GPC.

  9. Grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals as affected by nitrogen fertilization in northern conditions: a meta-analysis

    Elena Valkama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed quantitatively 40 Finnish field experiments related to the effect of nitrogen (N fertilizer on the main parameters of grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals. The experiments were conducted on a wide range of mineral soils under varying growth conditions from the 1950s to the 1990s. Overall there was no statistically significant effect on 1000 grain weight and a slightly negative effect on grain test weight. Nitrogen fertilizer increased N uptake much more steeply in slightly acidic soils (SA, pH 5.8–6.9, located mostly in South Finland, than in moderately acidic soils (MA, pH 5.0–5.7, located in Central Finland. With increasing N rates, protein content increased to a larger extent in spring barley and oats than in spring wheat. In the light of the current trend to reduce N fertilizerapplication, the obtained regressions between N rates and the parameters of grain quality may be used to maintain yield quality at a desirable level, while optimizing N management.

  10. Surface concentration of defects at grain boundaries in sintered alumina determined by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Kansy, J.; Ahmad, A.Si.; Moya, G.; Liebault, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sintered alumina samples of grain diameters spanning from 1.2 to 4.5 μm have been investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. One series of samples was produced from material containing about 150 ppm impurities (mainly SiO 2 ). The second one was made from material having about 2700 ppm of various elements (SiO 2 , MgO, CaO). Two models of positron trapping at grain boundaries are compared: The first one relates to the diffusion-limited regime; and the other one - to the transmission-limited regime of trapping. As a results of relative change of surface concentration of defects at grain boundaries is determined. Additionally, positron diffusion constant in bulk alumina at room temperature, D + = 0.36 ± 10 cm 2 /s, is estimated. (author)

  11. GRAIN YIELD AND PROFITABILITY IN CORN AS A FUNCTION OF GENOTYPE, BIOFERTILIZER AND NITROGEN, UNDER WARM CLIMATE

    Cid Aguilar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corn growth and production depend of the environmental conditions in which it grows and the nitrogen fertilizer that is crucial to increase grain yield. The use of bacteria for nitrogen fixation and mycorrhiza as a complement to the inorganic fertilizer, can be an option to increase yields, reduce production costs and conserve the environment. As an alternative to this problem, the objective of the present study was to determine the production of dry matter (DM, harvest index, grain yield (GY, and its components, and profitability in the genotypes of maize race "Vandeño", synthetic variety VS-535 and hybrids H-562 and H-7573, with and without biofertilizer and 0, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1. The study was conducted in Iguala, Gro. in early sown under irrigation, phenological stages were recorded. Assessments were evaluated at harvest. For the region of study and time of sowing, only differences between cultivars were observed. The differences observed were genotypical, by effect of biofertilizer and nitrogen in the production of DM and GY. The higher DM and GY were achieved with the combination of H-562, biofertilizer and 160 kg N ha-1 (3000 and 924 g m-2, respectively and the lower treatment correspond to H-562, without biofertilizer and nitrogen (1703 and 376 g m-2, respectively. The higher net income was achieved with H-562 and 160 kg N ha-1 regardless of the use of biofertilizer.

  12. Growth response of four freshwater algal species to dissolved organic nitrogen of different concentration and complexity

    Fiedler, Dorothea; Graeber, Daniel; Badrian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    1. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compounds dominate the nitrogen pool of many lakes, but their importance as nitrogen sources for freshwater phytoplankton is not fully understood. Previous growth experiments demonstrated the availability of urea and amino acids but often at unnaturally high...... (DCAA), natural organic matter (NOM)) or with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Monocultures of Chlamydomonas spp., Cyclotella meneghiniana, Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena flos-aquae were incubated with dissolved nitrogen compounds at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 mg N L−1, which...... and their compound preferences. Therefore, DON composition can influence biomass and structure of phytoplankton communities. 6. These experiments demonstrate the importance of the main DON compounds for phytoplankton growth when no inorganic nitrogen is available. DON should in future be included in nitrogen budget...

  13. A mesocosm study using four native Hawaiian plants to assess nitrogen accumulation under varying surface water nitrogen concentrations.

    Unser, C U; Bruland, G L; Hood, A; Duin, K

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of nitrogen (N) by native Hawaiian riparian plants from surface water was measured under a controlled experimental mesocosm setting. Four species, Cladium jamaicense, Cyperus javanicus, Cyperus laevigatus, and Cyperus polystachyos were tested for their ability to survive in coconut fiber coir log media with exposure to differing N concentrations. It was hypothesized that the selected species would have significantly different tissue total nitrogen (TN) concentrations, aboveground biomass, and TN accumulation rates because of habitat preference and physiological growth differences. A general linear model (GLM) analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined that species differences accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates, when compared with the other main effects (i.e. N concentration, time) and their interactions. A post hoc test of means demonstrated that C. jamaicense had significantly higher tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates than the other species under all N concentrations. It was also hypothesized that tissue TN concentrations and biomass growth would increase in plants exposed to elevated N concentrations, however data did not support this hypothesis. Nitrogen accumulation rates by species were controlled by differences in plant biomass growth.

  14. The effect of nitrogen fertilizing and fungicide application on the yield and selected parameters of grain quality of winter wheat

    Alena Bezdíčková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2001–2004 an influence of gradually increased portions of nitrogen (100–130–160 kg/N.ha–1 applied on the wheat variety Ebi in combination with the modified fungicidal protection in the yield and the selected quality grain parameters were observed within the small-plot field trials. Nitrogenous fertilizers according to the amount of nitrogen contained were applied in 2–4 terms during vegetation in regeneration (55kg/N.ha–1, 1st production (45kg/N.ha–1, 2nd production (30kg/N.ha–1 and qualitative portion (30kg/N.ha–1. The fungicidal protection was based on the equal treatment in the phase of BBCH 37 and with regard to the varieties different treatment in the phase of BBCH 55. The dependence on the year was proved at all observed parameters. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization had no decisive impact on the yields. From the point of view of increased yields, the second production nitrogenous fertilization had the strongest impact; it increased the grain yields by 0.084–0.461 t./ha–1. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization positively influenced the baker’s grain quality. The increased portions of nitrogen decisively increased the volume of N-substances in all trial years. The second production nitrogenous fertilization increased the N-substances volume from 0.1 to 0.8%. Qualitative additional fertilization increased their volume from 0.26 to 1.38%. Higher N portions increased sedimentation in most cases. The falling number was not considerably influenced. The mechanical grain qualities (volume weight, number full grains, and GTW were relatively less influenced than the baker’s quality by the nitrogenous fertilization. The application of fungicides positively influenced not only the yields but also mechanical qualities of the grain, i.e. volume weight, thousand grains weight and portion of Full grains. On the contrary the baker’s quality was not decisively influenced. It was proved that the decisive

  15. Grain boundary chromium concentration effects on the IGSCC and IASCC of austenitic stainless steels

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Arey, B.W.; Charlot, L.A.

    1993-08-01

    Comparisons are made between grain boundary composition and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of 304 and 309 austenitic stainless steels in high-temperature water environments. Chromium depletion had the dominant effect on cracking resistance with the extent of IG cracking controlled by the interfacial chromium concentration. The minimum chromium concentration required to promote cracking was a function of the applied strain rate during slow-strain-rate tensile tests in 288 C air-saturated water. Depletion from bulk levels of 18 wt% to ∼13.5 wt% Cr at grain boundaries prompted 100% IG cracking at a strain rate of 1 x 10 -6 s -1 , while embrittlement was observed with only a slight depletion to ∼17 wt% at 2 x 10 -7 s -1 . Insights into critical interfacial compositions promoting IGSCC are discussed in reference to cracking of irradiated stainless steel nuclear reactor core components

  16. Intake of whole grains and vegetables determines the plasma enterolactone concentration of Danish women.

    Johnsen, Nina F; Hausner, Helene; Olsen, Anja; Tetens, Inge; Christensen, Jane; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), which is produced from dietary plant-lignan precursors by the intestinal microflora, may protect against breast cancer and other hormone-dependent cancers. This cross-sectional study examined which variables related to diet and lifestyle were associated with high plasma concentrations of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women. Plasma ENL was measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in 857 Danish women aged 50-64 y who participated in a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ, and background information on lifestyle was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple analyses of covariance were completed in two steps. The median plasma ENL concentration was 27 nmol/L (range 0-455 nmol/L). In covariance analyses, positive associations were found between consumption of cereals, vegetables, and beverages and plasma ENL concentration. When analyzing subgroups of these food groups, the associations were confined to whole-grain products, cabbage, leafy vegetables, and coffee. For fat and the nondietary variables, negative associations between BMI, smoking, and frequency of bowel movements and plasma ENL concentration were observed. These data show that foods high in ENL precursors are associated with high concentrations of ENL. Furthermore, smoking, frequent bowel movements, and consumption of fat seems to have a negative affect on the ENL concentration. In conclusion, whole grains and vegetables are the most important dietary providers of plant lignans for the concentration of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women, and if ENL is found to protect against cancer or heart disease, the intake of whole grains and vegetables should be increased.

  17. Effect of nitrogen concentration on temperature dependent mechanical properties of vanadium

    Carlson, O.N.; Rehbein, D.K.

    1979-01-01

    The critical resolved shear stress and strain rate sensitivity of vanadium were determined for vanadium-nitrogen alloys over the temperature range of 77K to 400K for concentrations of 1 to 500 wt ppm nitrogen. The concentration dependence of the hardening rate agrees quite well with either the Fleischer or Labusch strengthening model but the combined temperature and concentration dependence follows more closely the form predicted by Ono and Sommer. The strain rate sensitivity exhibits a peak at 140K which decreases with increasing nitrogen content but above 250K there is a reversal in this effect. (orig.) [de

  18. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO 2 (750 μmol mol -1 ) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO 2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO 2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO 2 . The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO 2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  19. Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate

    C. Lanzerstorfer; M. Hinterberger

    2017-01-01

    The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-graine...

  20. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  1. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...

  2. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 00...

  3. Trends in stream nitrogen concentrations for forested reference catchments across the USA

    A. Argerich; S.L. Johnson; S.D. Sebestyen; C.C. Rhoades; E. Greathouse; J.D. Knoepp; M.B. Adams; G.E. Likens; J.L. Campbell; W.H. McDowell; F.N. Scatena; G.G. Ice

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether stream nitrogen concentrations in forested reference catchments have changed over time and if patterns were consistent across the USA, we synthesized up to 44 yr of data collected from 22 catchments at seven USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests. Trends in stream nitrogen presented high spatial variability both among catchments at a site and among...

  4. Application technique affects the potential of mineral concentrates from livestock manure to replace inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    Klop, G.; Velthof, G.L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that mineral concentrates (MCs) produced from livestock manure might partly replace inorganic N fertilizers, thereby further closing the nitrogen (N) cycle. Here, we quantified nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and N loss pathways associated with MCs, compared with inorganic

  5. Relationships between Concentrations of Phytoplankton Chlorophyll a and Total Nitrogen in Ten U.S. Estuaries

    This presentation focuses on the summertime response of phytoplankton chlorophyll to nitrogen concentrations in the upper water columns of ten U.S. estuaries. Using publicly available data from monitoring programs, regression relationships have been developed between summer surfa...

  6. Comparative analysis the selenium concentration in grains of wheat and barley species

    Jalal, F.; Arif, M.; Munsif, F.; Ali, K.

    2016-01-01

    Macro and micro nutrients are essential for human health and growth development. It is reported that about three million people are suffering from nutrient deficiencies all over the world. Various sources are available like: vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and cereals to overcome these deficiencies. Among cereals, wheat and barley are main source to meet the requirement of this dietary element. Two year studies were conducted to investigate the Se concentration in grains of different wheat (T. aestivum L., T. turgidum L. and T. durum L.) and barley (H. spontaneum L. and H. vulgare L.) species originated from different parts of the world. Results indicated that the durum and emmer wheat grains contain higher Se level in both studied years (70.5 and 72.9 micro g kg-1 in 2012 and 74.1 and 73.2 microg kg-1 in 2013 respectively). Among H. spontaneum L. collected from six populations, Mahola population of barley showed remarkable variations in grain Se concentration ranged from 88.3-437.2 and 90.2-439.5 micro g kg-1 in 2012 and 2013 respectively. The information obtained from the findings helps in identifying the lines of wild barley that have more Se uptake and accumulation capability. According to the conclusion of the study that H. Spontaneum L. had greater genetic variation for Se as compare to other species of wheat and barley. (author)

  7. Silicon Decreases Dimethylarsinic Acid Concentration in Rice Grain and Mitigates Straighthead Disorder.

    Limmer, Matthew Alan; Wise, Patrick; Dykes, Gretchen E; Seyfferth, Angelia L

    2018-04-17

    While root Si transporters play a role in the uptake of arsenite and organic As species dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in rice ( Oryza sativa L.), the impact of Si addition on the accumulation of DMA and MMA in reproductive tissues has not been directly evaluated, particularly in isolation from inorganic As species. Furthermore, DMA and MMA are suspected causal agents of straighthead disorder. We performed a hydroponic study to disentangle the impact of Si on accumulation of DMA and MMA in rice grain. At 5 μM, MMA was toxic to rice, regardless of Si addition, although Si significantly decreased root MMA concentrations. Plants dosed with 5 μM DMA grew well vegetatively but exhibited straighthead disorder at the lowest Si dose, and this DMA-induced yield loss reversed with increasing solution Si. Increasing Si also significantly decreased DMA concentrations in roots, straw, husk, and grain, particularly in mature plants. Si restricted grain DMA through competition for root uptake and downregulation of root Si transporters particularly at later stages of growth when Si uptake was greatest. Our finding that DMA causes straighthead disorder under low Si availability but not under high Si availability suggests Si as a straighthead management strategy.

  8. Effects of Foliar Application of Nitrogen, Zinc and Manganese on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Quality of Chickpea in Two Growing Seasons

    B. Shirani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of foliar application of zinc, manganese and nitrogen on yield, yield components and grain quality of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L. two experiments, one in autumn and the other in spring were conducted at Research Farm, Shahrekord University in 2009-2010 growing season each as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were foliar application of zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate mixture, nitrogen and distilled water (as control. The results showed that planting season had a significant effect on plant height, 100-seed weight and seed yield. All measured traits, except plant height, increased in winter compared to spring growing season. This increase was more than 12% for grain yield. Foliar application of nutrients significantly affected seed yield and seed yield components. Foliar application of nitrogen, presumably, through significant increase in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and 100-seed weight, increased the grain yield by 6.2% compared to control. Foliar application × planting season interactions were significant for plant height and number of pods per plant. Foliar application of nitrogen caused a significant increase in grain yield and protein content. Foliar application of zinc sulphate significantly increased Zn content of grains however it did not affect seed yield. In conclusion, foliar application of nitrogen could be suggested for increasing protein and grain yield in chickpea under similar conditions to that of the present study.

  9. Factors Affecting Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Summer Maize on Smallholder Farms in the North China Plain

    Guangfeng Chen; Hongzhu Cao; Jun Liang; Wenqi Ma; Lufang Guo; Shuhua Zhang; Rongfeng Jiang; Hongyan Zhang; Keith W. T. Goulding; Fusuo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The summer maize yields and partial factor productivity of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (PFPN, grain yield per unit N fertilizer) on smallholder farms in China are low, and differ between farms due to complex, sub-optimal management practices. We collected data on management practices and yields from smallholder farms in three major summer maize-producing sites—Laoling, Quzhou and Xushui—in the North China Plain (NCP) for two growing seasons, during 2015–2016. Boundary line analysis and a Proc Mix...

  10. Analyzing nitrogen concentration using carrier illumination (CI) technology for DPN ultra-thin gate oxide

    Li, W.S.; Wu, Bill; Fan, Aki; Kuo, C.W.; Segovia, M.; Kek, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in the gate oxide plays a key role for 90 nm and below ULSI technology. Techniques like secondary ionization mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are commonly used for understanding N concentration. This paper describes the application of the carrier illuminationTM (CI) technique to measure the nitrogen concentration in ultra-thin gate oxides. A set of ultra-thin gate oxide wafers with different DPN (decoupled plasma nitridation) treatment conditions were measured using the CI technique. The CI signal has excellent correlation with the N concentration as measured by XPS

  11. Spatial variations in nitrogen dioxide concentrations in an urban area

    Nicholas Hewitt, C.

    Fortnightly average NO 2 concentrations have been measured at 49 sites in the small city of Lancaster, U.K., over a continuous 1-year period using passive diffusion tubes. At sampling sites on a congested main road in the city centre considerable spatial and temporal variability in concentrations was found. An annual mean concentration of 63 μgm -3 was found witha range of 12-222 μgm -3. The mean concentration in an adjacent main road was 58 μgm -3 with a range of 5-107 μgm -3. Rather less variability was seen in a suburban main road and in a suburban residential street, which had annual mean concentrations of 38 and 30 μm -3, respectively. Concentrations in a city centre pedestrian precinct decreased with distance from the main road, having an annual mean value of 30μm -3. The data suggest that the precise location of a sampling device may be crucial in determining whether or not a given NO 2, concentration or standard is exceeded.

  12. Whole grain intake, determined by dietary records and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, is low among pregnant women in Singapore.

    Ross, Alastair B; Colega, Marjorelee T; Lim, Ai Lin; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Macé, Katherine; Saw, Seang Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary F F

    2015-01-01

    To quantify whole grain intake in pregnant women in Singapore in order to provide the first detailed analysis of whole grain intake in an Asian country and in pregnant women. Analysis of 24-h diet recalls in a cross-sectional cohort study and analysis of a biomarker of whole grain intake (plasma alkylresorcinols) in a subset of subjects. The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes-mother offspring cohort study based in Singapore. 998 pregnant mothers with complete 24-h recalls taken during their 26-28th week of gestation. Plasma samples from a randomly select subset of 100 subjects were analysed for plasma alkylresorcinols. Median (IQR) whole grain intake for the cohort and the 30% who reported eating whole grains were 0 (IQR 0, 9) and 23.6 (IQR 14.6, 44.2) g/day respectively. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations were very low [median (IQR)=9 (3, 15) nmol/L], suggesting low intake of whole grain wheat in this population. Plasma alkylresorcinols were correlated with whole grain wheat intake (Spearman's r=0.35; pSingapore was well below the 2-3 (60-95 g) servings of whole grains per day recommended by the Singapore Health Promotion Board. Efforts to increase whole grain intake should be supported to encourage people to choose whole grains over refined grains in their diet.

  13. Farmer driven national monitoring of nitrogen concentrations in drainage water in Denmark

    Piil, Kristoffer; Lemming, Camilla; Kolind Hvid, Søren; Knudsen, Leif

    2014-05-01

    Field drains are often considered to short circuit the hydrological cycle in agricultural catchments and lead to an increased risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. Because of increased regulation of agricultural practices due to catchment management plans, resulting from the implementation of the water frame directive, Danish farmers pushed for a large scale monitoring of nitrogen loss from field drains. Therefore, the knowledge centre for agriculture, Denmark, organized a three year campaign where farmers and local agricultural advisory centres collected water samples from field drains three to five times during the winter season. Samples were analysed for nitrate and total nitrogen. Combined, more than 600 drains were monitored over the three years. During the first two years of monitoring, average winter concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.1 mg N L-1 to 31.1 mg N L-1, and the fraction of total nitrogen present as nitrate ranged from 0% to 100%. This variation is much larger than what is observed in the Danish national monitoring and assessment programme, which monitors only a few drains in selected catchments. Statistical analysis revealed that drainage water nitrogen concentrations were significantly correlated to the cropping system and the landscape type (high ground/lowlands/raised seabed) in which the monitored fields were situated. The average total nitrogen concentration was more than 2 mg N L-1 lower on raised seabed than on high ground, and the average fraction of total nitrogen present as nitrate was more than 20% lower. This indicates that substantial nitrate reduction occurs at or above the drain depth on raised sea flats, in particular in the north of Denmark. This inherent nitrogen retention on raised seabed is not taken into account in the current environmental regulation, nor in the first generation catchment management plans. The monitoring program demonstrated large variation in nitrogen concentrations in drainage water, in

  14. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    -freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC...... concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation–emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at −18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax...... component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties...

  15. Mineral composition of durum wheat grain and pasta under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Miglietta, Franco; Cattivelli, Luigi; Menga, Valeria; Nigro, Franca; Pecchioni, Nicola; Fares, Clara

    2018-03-01

    The concentrations of 10 minerals were investigated in the grain of 12 durum wheat genotypes grown under free air CO 2 enrichment conditions, and in four of their derived pasta samples, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to ambient CO 2 (400ppm; AMB), under elevated CO 2 (570ppm; ELE), the micro-element and macro-element contents showed strong and significant decreases in the grain: Mn, -28.3%; Fe, -26.7%; Zn, -21.9%; Mg, -22.7%; Mo, -40.4%; K, -22.4%; and Ca, -19.5%. These variations defined the 12 genotypes as sensitive or non-sensitive to ELE. The pasta samples under AMB and ELE showed decreased mineral contents compared to the grain. Nevertheless, the contributions of the pasta to the recommended daily allowances remained relevant, also for the micro-elements under ELE conditions (range, from 18% of the recommended daily allowance for Zn, to 70% for Mn and Mo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrogen Fertilizer Deep Placement for Increased Grain Yield and Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency in Rice Grown in Subtropical China

    Meng Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field plot experiments were conducted over 3 years (from April 2014 to November 2016 in a double-rice (Oryza sativa L. cropping system in subtropical China to evaluate the effects of N fertilizer placement on grain yield and N recovery efficiency (NRE. Different N application methods included: no N application (CK; N broadcast application (NBP; N and NPK deep placement (NDP and NPKDP, respectively. Results showed that grain yield and apparent NRE significantly increased for NDP and NPKDP as compared to NBP. The main reason was that N deep placement (NDP increased the number of productive panicle per m-2. To further evaluate the increase, a pot experiment was conducted to understand the N supply in different soil layers in NDP during the whole rice growing stage and a 15N tracing technique was used in a field experiment to investigate the fate of urea-15N in the rice–soil system during rice growth and at maturity. The pot experiment indicated that NDP could maintain a higher N supply in deep soil layers than N broadcast for 52 days during rice growth. The 15N tracing study showed that NDP could maintain much higher fertilizer N in the 5–20 cm soil layer during rice growth and could induce plant to absorb more N from fertilizer and soil than NBP, which led to higher NRE. One important finding was that NDP and NPKDP significantly increased fertilizer NRE but did not lead to N declined in soil compared to NBP. Compared to NPK, NPKDP induced rice plants to absorb more fertilizer N rather than soil N.

  17. Use of optical sensor for in-season nitrogen management and grain yield prediction in maize

    Bandhu Raj Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture technologies have developed optical sensors which can determine plant’s normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI.To evaluate the relationship between maize grain yield and early season NDVI readings, an experiment was conducted at farm land of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan during winter season of 2012. Eight different levels of N 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg N/ha were applied for hybrid maize RML 32 × RML 17 to study grain yield response and NDVI measurement. Periodic NDVI was measured at 10 days interval from 55 days after sowing (DAS to 115 DAS by using Green seeker hand held crop sensor. Periodic NDVI measurement taken at a range of growing degree days (GDD was critical for predicting grain yield potential. Poor exponential relationship existed between NDVI from early reading measured before 208 GDD (55 DAS and grain yield. At the 261GDD (65DAS a strong relationship (R2 = 0.70 was achieved between NDVI and grain yield. Later sensor measurements after 571 GDD (95DAS failed to distinguish variation in green biomass as a result of canopy closure. N level had significantly influenced on NDVI reading, measured grain yield, calculated in season estimated yield (INSEY, predicted yield with added N (YPN, response index (RI and grain N demand. Measuring NDVI reading by GDD (261–571 GDD allow a practical window of opportunity for side dress N applications. This study showed that yield potential in maize could be accurately predicted in season with NDVI measured with the Green Seeker crop sensor.

  18. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  19. Past and future trends in concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the Arctic

    Hole, Lars R.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in nitrogen and sulphur compounds in air and precipitation from a range of Arctic monitoring stations are presented, with seasonal data from the late 70s to 2004 or 2005. Earlier findings of declining sulphur concentrations are confirmed for most stations, while the pattern is less...... clear for reduced and oxidized nitrogen. In fact there are positive trends for nitrogen compounds in air at several stations. Acidity is generally reduced at many stations while the precipitation amount is either increasing or stable. Variability of sulphate concentrations in air for the period 1991......-2000 is reasonably well reproduced at most stations using an Eulerian, hemispherical model. Results for nitrogen compounds are weaker. Scenario studies show that even if large sulphur emission reductions take place in important source regions in South-East Asia in the coming decades, only small changes in Arctic...

  20. Nitrogen dynamics following grain legumes and subsequent catch crops and the effects on succeeding cereal crops

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2009-01-01

    balances. A 2½-year lysimeter experiment was carried out on a temperate sandy loam soil. Crops were not fertilized in the experimental period and the natural 15N abundance technique was used to determine grain legume N2 fixation. Faba bean total aboveground DM production was significantly higher (1,300 g m...... on the subsequent spring wheat or winter triticale DM production. Nitrate leaching following grain legumes was significantly reduced with catch crops compared to without catch crops during autumn and winter before sowing subsequent spring wheat. Soil N balances were calculated from monitored N leaching from...

  1. Low-to-moderate nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations accelerate microbially driven litter breakdown rates

    John S. Kominoski; Amy D. Rosemond; Jonathan P. Benstead; Vladislav Gulis; John C. Maerz; David Manning

    2015-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) processing is an important driver of aquatic ecosystem productivity that is sensitive to nutrient enrichment and drives ecosystem carbon (C) loss. Although studies of single concentrations of nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) have shown effects at relatively low concentrations, responses of litter breakdown rates along gradients of low-to-...

  2. Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value of Concentrated Liquid Fraction of Separated Pig Slurry Applied to Grassland

    Middelkoop, Van J.C.; Holshof, G.

    2017-01-01

    Seven grassland experiments on sandy and clay soils were performed during a period of 4 years to estimate the nitrogen (N) fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) of concentrated liquid fractions of separated pig slurry (mineral concentrate: MC). The risk of nitrate leaching when applying MC was

  3. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N fertilizers (EEFs may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP and polymer-coated urea (PCU to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total accumulation of mineral nutrients, nor to have any impact on grain mineral nutrition when biomass and grain yields are equal to those of rice grown with urea or urea-DMPP.

  4. Indices to screen for grain yield and grain-zinc mass concentrations in aerobic rice at different soil-Zn levels

    Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.; Zhao, M.; Keulen, van H.; Fan, T.Q.; Stomph, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Zinc is an important micronutrient for both crop growth and human nutrition. In rice production, yields are often reduced and Zn mass concentrations in the grains are often low when Zn is in short supply to the crop. This may result in malnutrition of people dependent on a rice-based diet. Plant

  5. Control of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by iron-titanium alloy

    Hirakane, Shinji; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium is one of the most important steps in creating a liquid lithium blanket system. In this study, in order to verify the nitrogen gettering performance of Fe-Ti alloy, the variation in the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium, into which Fe-10 at.% Ti or Fe-5 at.% Ti getter was immersed, was examined. The results confirmed a gettering performance of Fe-Ti alloy comparable to that of V-Ti alloy, although the effects were not durable in either the Fe-Ti or the V-Ti alloy. After the immersion test, the existing states of nitrogen absorbed in the gettering material were analyzed by means of XRD, XMA and XPS. TiN and some nitrogen dissolved in α-Fe without forming TiN were observed. It was indicated that nitrogen gettering is prevented not only by the surface nitrides, but also by the internal diffusion barriers originating from the absorbed nitrogen

  6. ASSESS CONCENTRATIONS OF THE FORMS OF NITROGEN IN URBANIZED CATCHMENT FOR EXAMPLE OLIWA STREAM

    Karolina Matej-Łukowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of nitrogen compounds (NH4, NO2-, NO3- in water samples collected at six locations (sampling points at the Oliwa Stream will be presented. The study was carried out in 2016-2017, analyzing the changes caused by rainfall in the urban catchment. After the spring rain the concentration of ammonia nitrogen is considerably higher than in autumn. The results were compared with the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment, which describes two main classes of water purity. In addition, the article describes the results of the nitrogen compounds after the rainfall of 15th July 2016 will be presented.

  7. Analysis of hyperspectral field radiometric data for monitoring nitrogen concentration in rice crops

    Stroppiana, D.; Boschetti, M.; Confalonieri, R.; Bocchi, S.; Brivio, P. A.

    2005-10-01

    Monitoring crop conditions and assessing nutrition requirements is fundamental for implementing sustainable agriculture. Rational nitrogen fertilization is of particular importance in rice crops in order to guarantee high production levels while minimising the impact on the environment. In fact, the typical flooded condition of rice fields can be a significant source of greenhouse gasses. Information on plant nitrogen concentration can be used, coupled with information about the phenological stage, to plan strategies for a rational and spatially differentiated fertilization schedule. A field experiment was carried out in a rice field Northern Italy, in order to evaluate the potential of field radiometric measurements for the prediction of rice nitrogen concentration. The results indicate that rice reflectance is influenced by nitrogen supply at certain wavelengths although N concentration cannot be accurately predicted based on the reflectance measured at a given wavelength. Regression analysis highlighted that the visible region of the spectrum is most sensitive to plant nitrogen concentration when reflectance measures are combined into a spectral index. An automated procedure allowed the analysis of all the possible combinations into a Normalized Difference Index (NDI) of the narrow spectral bands derived by spectral resampling of field measurements. The derived index appeared to be least influenced by plant biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) providing a useful approach to detect rice nutritional status. The validation of the regressive model showed that the model is able to predict rice N concentration (R2=0.55 [p<0.01] RRMSE=29.4; modelling efficiency close to the optimum value).

  8. Evaluation of plant available nitrogen in concentrated pig slurry

    Ramirez, M.; Comas, J.; Pujola, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Northeast Spin the expansion of the pig industry has brought as a result the production of vast amounts of pig slurry that exceeds field crops fertilization needs and consequently has contributed to the environmental deterioration of the region particularly ground water with NO 3 pollution. Under such circumstances, it is needed to treat and/or export pig slurry. During the last year the implantation of cogeneration plants that take advantage of the surplus of energy to produce concentrate pig slurry by water evaporation that could easily transported. (Author)

  9. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat.

    Barunawati, Nunun; Giehl, Ricardo F Hettwer; Bauer, Bernhard; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-01-01

    The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA) in green leaves, while 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approximately one third of the total Fe, Zn, or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  10. Mid-Season Leaf Glutamine Predicts End-Season Maize Grain Yield and Nitrogen Content in Response to Nitrogen Fertilization under Field Conditions

    Travis Goron

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available After uptake in cereal crops, nitrogen (N is rapidly assimilated into glutamine (Gln and other amino acids for transport to sinks. Therefore Gln has potential as an improved indicator of soil N availability compared to plant N demand. Gln has primarily been assayed to understand basic plant physiology, rather than to measure plant/soil-N under field conditions. It was hypothesized that leaf Gln at early-to-mid season could report the N application rate and predict end-season grain yield in field-grown maize. A three-year maize field experiment was conducted with N application rates ranging from 30 to 218 kg ha−1. Relative leaf Gln was assayed from leaf disk tissue using a whole-cell biosensor for Gln (GlnLux at the V3-V14 growth stages. SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index measurements were also performed. When sampled at V6 or later, GlnLux glutamine output consistently correlated with the N application rate, end-season yield, and grain N content. Yield correlation outperformed GreenSeekerTM NDVI, and was equivalent to SPAD chlorophyll, indicating the potential for yield prediction. Additionally, depleting soil N via overplanting increased GlnLux resolution to the earlier V5 stage. The results of the study are discussed in the context of luxury N consumption, leaf N remobilization, senescence, and grain fill. The potential and challenges of leaf Gln and GlnLux for the study of crop N physiology, and future N management are also discussed.

  11. Impact of glycerol and nitrogen concentration on Enterobacter A47 growth and exopolysaccharide production.

    Torres, Cristiana A V; Marques, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Ana R V; Antunes, Sílvia; Grandfils, Christian; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enterobacter A47 produces a fucose-containing exopolysaccharide (EPS) by cultivation in mineral medium supplemented with glycerol. EPS synthesis by Enterobacter A47 was shown to be influenced by both the initial glycerol and nitrogen concentrations and by the nutrients' feeding rate during the fed-batch phase. Initial nitrogen concentrations above 1.05g/L were detrimental for EPS synthesis: the productivity was reduced to 0.35-0.62g/Ld (compared to 1.89-2.04g/Ld under lower nitrogen concentrations) and the polymer had lower fucose content (14-17%mol, compared to 36-38%mol under lower nitrogen concentrations). On the other hand, EPS productivity was improved to 5.66g/Ld by increasing the glycerol and nitrogen feeding rates during the fed-batch phase. However, the EPS thus obtained had lower fucose (26%mol) and higher galactose (34%mol) contents, as well as lower average molecular weight (7.2×10(5)). The ability of Enterobacter A47 to synthesize EPS with different physico-chemical characteristics may be useful for the generation of biopolymers with distinct functional properties suitable for different applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of different forms of nitrogen fertlizers applied in the end of tillering on yield and quality of winter wheat grain

    Ladislav Ducsay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1999 to 2001 in conditions of small-plot field experiments was carried out on loamy degraded chernozems at the Plant Breeding Station of Sládkovičovo-Nový Dvor to solve the problems of topdressing winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, L., variety Astella, with different forms of nitrogenous fertilizers. Nitrogenous fertilizers were applied at the growth phase of the 6th leaf (Zadoks = 29. Four various forms of fertilizers were exemined: urea solution, DAM-390, DAM-390 + Dumag, DASA. Different weather conditions statistically highly significantly influenced grain yield in respective experimental years. Topdressing with nitrogen (30 kg N.ha–1 caused statistically highly significant increase of grain yield in all fertilized variants ranging from +0.29 t.ha–1 (applied of DAM-390 to +0.69 t.ha–1 (applied of DASA according to respective treatments. Average grain yield in unfertilized control variant represented 7.23 t.ha–1. Nitrogen nutrition showed positive effect on the main macroelements offtake (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S by winter wheat grain in all fertilized variants. Nitrogen fertilizing positively influenced formation of wet gluten and crude protein with highest increment in variant with DASA and variant with DAM-390 + Dumag.

  13. Nitrogen levels and yeast viability during ethanol fermentation of grain sorghum containing condensed tannins

    Mullins, J T; NeSmith, C

    1988-01-01

    Selected varieties of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, give high crop yields and they also return to favorable energy balance in terms of energy calories produced per cultural energy invested. The brown, condensed-tannin, bird- and mold-resistant varieties illustrate these advantages, but their nutritional value and ability to support the expected rate of ethanol fermentation is significantly lower than that of non-brown sorghums. It has been previously shown that the addition of nitrogen to brown sorghum mash supports a high rate of fermentative metabolism without removing the tannins, and suggested that the basis for the inhibition of ethanol fermentation was nitrogen starvation of the yeast cells. In this investigation, it is demonstrated that the addition of protease enzyme to mash results in an increase in amino nitrogen sufficient to support accelerated rates of ethanol fermentation by yeast cells. Thus, the hypothesis commonly cited in the literature that the presumed inhibitor, condensed tannins, function to reduce fermentative metabolism solely via the binding and precipitation of proteins is rejected.

  14. Optimization of free ammonia concentration for nitrite accumulation in shortcut biological nitrogen removal process.

    Chung, Jinwook; Shim, Hojae; Park, Seong-Jun; Kim, Seung-Jin; Bae, Wookeun

    2006-03-01

    A shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) utilizes the concept of a direct conversion of ammonium to nitrite and then to nitrogen gas. A successful SBNR requires accumulation of nitrite in the system and inhibition of the activity of nitrite oxidizers. A high concentration of free ammonia (FA) inhibits nitrite oxidizers, but unfortunately decreases the ammonium removal rate as well. Therefore, the optimal range of FA concentration is necessary not only to stabilize nitrite accumulation but also to achieve maximum ammonium removal. In order to derive such optimal FA concentrations, the specific substrate utilization rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were measured. The optimal FA concentration range appeared to be 5-10 mg/L for the adapted sludge. The simulated results from the modified inhibition model expressed by FA and ammonium/nitrite concentrations were shown very similar to the experimental results.

  15. Evaluation of local stress and local hydrogen concentration at grain boundary using three-dimensional polycrystalline model

    Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Kaburaki, Hideo; Suzudo, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    The decohesion model in which hydrogen segregating at grain boundaries reduces cohesive energy is considered to explain hydrogen embrittlement. Although there are several experimental and theoretical supports of this model, its total process is still unclear. In order to understand hydrogen embrittlement in terms of the decohesion model, therefore, it is necessary to evaluate stress and hydrogen concentration at grain boundaries under experimental conditions and to verify the grain boundary decohesion process. Under this consideration, we evaluated the stress and the hydrogen concentration at grain boundaries in the three-dimensional polycrystalline model which was generated by the random Voronoi tessellation. The crystallographic anisotropy was given to each grain. As the boundary conditions of the calculations, data extracted from the results calculated in the notched round-bar specimen model under the tensile test condition in which fracture of the steel specimen is observed was given to the polycrystalline model. As a result, it was found that the evaluated stress does not reach the fracture stress which was estimated under the condition of the evaluated hydrogen concentration by first principles calculations. Therefore, it was considered that the initiation of grain boundary fracture needs other factors except the stress concentration due to the crystallographic anisotropy. (author)

  16. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage time, grain processing (whole vs. rolled) and the combination of phytase, xylanase, β-glucanase and protease on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) solubility during high moisture airtight (HMA) storage of barley and triticale at various...... moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C......) in HMA storage at 29% moisture to a greater extent compared with dry storage (P levels increased P solubility (rolled barley, whole and rolled triticale) and N solubility (whole and rolled triticale) linearly and decreased Phytate P:Total P (rolled barley) linearly...

  17. Changes in Growth and Oil Yield Indices of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola 401 in Different Concentrations andTimes of Application of Supplementary Nitrogen Fertilizer

    P. Tousi Kehal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of concentration and time of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer spray on growth indices of rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran as a randomized complete blocks design with 16 treatments and 3 replications in 2008-2009. The treatments included concentration of nitrogen fertilizer (urea at two levels (5 and 10 ppm in seven levels of application time:1 spraying at 6-8- leaf stage, 2 beginning of stem elongation, 3 prior to flowering, 4 at 6-8- leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation, 5 at 6-8- leaf + prior to flowering, 6 beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, and 7 at 6-8- leaf + beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, which were compared with two control treatments (no fertilizer nitrogen and conventional soil fertilization. Results showed that significant difference was observed between spray treatments including concentration and times of nitrogen application, between controls and between controls with spray treatments, of grain and oil yield, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and leaf area duration (LAD. Application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages produced maximum grain yield (4221.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1771.1 kg/ha. Spray treatments produced maximum oil yield index (15.3% compared to controls. Maximum LAI (6.9 and 5.6 respectively, CGR (15.2 and 14.3 g/m2.10 GDD, respectively and LAD (1204 and 1029 cm2/10 GDD, respectively were also obtained from spray application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages and at 6-8-leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation + prior to flowering. According to the results of the present investigation, it seems that foliar application of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer at the end growth stages (beginning of stem elongation and prior to flowering of rapeseed plants may help to enhance growth indices

  18. The influence of benefit microorganisms on yield and quality of soybean grains under conditions of reduced nitrogen fertilization

    Suzana Kristek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to reduce the application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers through the application of beneficial microorganisms (genus Bradyrhizobium, Azotobacter, bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus spp., etc.. Research was conducted during 2013 and 2014 on Eutric brown soil. The experiment was set up in a split-block scheme with 12 different variants in 4 repetitions: two soybean cultivars were used; two different treatments of nitrogen fertilizers and three different treatments of microbiological preparation were applied. Analysed parameters were soybean grain yield (kg/ha based on 13% moisture, protein content (%, oil content (% and hectolitre mass (kg. Given that the climatic conditions in the second year of research were more favourable than in the first year of research, all the elements of research, including control variants, achieved better results in the second year of research. All variants treated with microbiological preparations, either by application in soil or by application in soil combined with foliar treatments, also achieved statistically significant differences compared to the control variants.

  19. Past and future trends in concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the Arctic

    Hole, Lars R.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in nitrogen and sulphur compounds in air and precipitation from a range of Arctic monitoring stations are presented, with seasonal data from the late 70s to 2004 or 2005. Earlier findings of declining sulphur concentrations are confirmed for most stations, while the pattern is less ...

  20. Effects of substrate type on plant growth and nitrogen and nitrate concentration in spinach

    The effects of three commercial substrates (a mixture of forest residues, composted grape husks, and white peat; black peat; and coir) on plant growth and nitrogen (N) and nitrate (NO3) concentration and content were evaluated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Tapir). Spinach seedlings were trans...

  1. Importance of Foliar Nitrogen Concentration to Predict Forest Productivity in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Yude Pan; John Hom; Jennifer Jenkins; Richard Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    To assess what difference it might make to include spatially defined estimates of foliar nitrogen in the regional application of a forest ecosystem model (PnET-II), we composed model predictions of wood production from extensive ground-based forest inventory analysis data across the Mid-Atlantic region. Spatial variation in foliar N concentration was assigned based on...

  2. Interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on nitrogen metabolism and urea-nitrogen recycling in dairy cows.

    Gozho, G N; Hobin, M R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (656.3 +/- 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 +/- 12.3 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Experimental diets contained dry-rolled barley or pelleted barley in combination with whole canola or whole flaxseed as supplemental fat sources. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 15 to 19, with concurrent measurements of urea-N kinetics using continuous intrajugular infusions of [15N 15N]-urea. Dry matter intake and N intake were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet, but fecal N excretion was higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in those fed pelleted barley. Actual and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by diet. Milk fat content and milk fat yield were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat did not affect urea-N kinetics. Urea-N production was higher (442.2 vs. 334.3 g of N/d), and urea-N entering the GIT tended to be higher (272.9 vs. 202.0 g of N/d), in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. The amount of urea-N entry into the GIT that was returned to the ornithine cycle was higher (204.1 vs. 159.5 g of N/d) in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in pelleted barley-fed cows. The amount of urea-N recycled to the GIT and used for anabolic purposes, and the amounts lost in the urine or feces were not affected by dietary treatment. Microbial nonammonia N supply, estimated using total urinary excretion of purine derivatives, was not affected by diet. These results show that even though barley grain processing altered urea

  3. Nitrogen concentration profiles in oxy-nitrited high-speed steel

    Barcz, A.; Turos, A.; Wielunski, L.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear microanalysis has been applied for the determination of in-depth concentration profiles of nitrogen in oxy-nitrided high-speed steel. The concentration profiles were deduced from measurements of the nitrogen content, determined by means of the 14 N(d,α) 12 C reaction for the set of initially identical samples after the removal of surface layers of sequentially increasing thicknesses. The 1.2 MeV deuterons were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Research Van de Graaf accelerator LECH. The α-particles produced in the 14 N(d,α) 12 C reaction were detected by means of silicon surface barrier detector mounted at 150 deg C. Strong blocking of the nitrogen diffusion due to the presence of oxygen has been observed. The accuracy of nitrogen detection is of the order of 5% for nitrogen-rich regions and 10% for the matrix. However, the local non-uniformity of the steel may cause a spread of about 20% of the measured values. (T.G.)

  4. Use of Potato Nitrogen Concentrate in the Production of α-Amylase by Aspergillus oryzae

    Eric Thaller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various nitrogen sources and media supplements on α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1 formation by Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 1011 was investigated in shake flask experiments and batch fermentations. Both inorganic and organic nitrogen-containing supplements have been applied, while corn starch and ammonium sulphate were used as the major source of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Shake flask experiments revealed that potato nitrogen concentrate (PNC is almost equivalent to corn steep liquor (CSL in supporting amylase formation. A pretreatment step consisting of clarification of the turbid material did not show any significant effect. The replacement of the inorganic nitrogen source by sodium nitrate led to lower enzyme yields. Other complex supplements may reduce the enzyme level formed, e.g. casein hydrolysate, or increase the amylase titre slightly, e.g. yeast extract or malt extract. Cultivations in instrumented bench top reactors on media supplemented with PNC led to higher cell growth rates and yields of α-amylase in comparison with the medium without any supplement. Replacement of PNC by CSL revealed a slightly increased enzyme level, which is in the range of 9–17 % after 100 h of cultivation. Only minor differences were revealed in the growth kinetics and enzyme formation when PNC was used as the sole nitrogen source, replacing a mixture of soybean meal, yeast extract, malt extract and casein hydrolysate in bioreactor cultivations with lactose as the carbon source. However, metabolic differences as seen from the course of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT, α-amino nitrogen concentration and the amount of acid needed to maintain a constant pH were observed.

  5. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat

    Nunun eBarunawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA in green leaves, while 2’-deoxymugineic acid (DMA remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approx. one third of the total Fe, Zn or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  6. Radiation and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level by wheat and oilseed rape during the critical period for grain number definition

    Dreccer, M.F.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Oijen, van M.; Pot, C.S.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the critical period for grain number definition, the amount of biomass produced per unit absorbed radiation is more sensitive to nitrogen (N) supply in oilseed rape than in wheat, and reaches a higher value at high N. This response was investigated by combining experimental and modelling

  7. Prediction of the HBS width and Xe concentration in grain matrix by the INFRA code

    Yang, Yong Sik; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Young Min

    2004-01-01

    Formation of a HBS(High Burnup Structure) is an important phenomenon for the high burnup fuel performance and safety. For the prediction of the HBS(so called 'rim microstructure') proposed rim microstructure formation model, which is a function of the fuel temperature, grain size and fission rate, was inserted into the high burnup fuel performance code INFRA. During the past decades, various examinations have been performed to find the HBS formation mechanism and define HBS characteristics. In the HBEP(High Burnup Effects Program), several rods were examined by EPMA analysis to measure HBS width and these results were re-measured by improved technology including XRF and detail microstructure examination. Recently, very high burnup(∼100MWd/kgU) fuel examination results were reported by Manzel et al., and EPMA analysis results have been released. Using the measured EPMA analysis data, HBS formation prediction model of INFRA code are verified. HBS width prediction results are compared with measured ones and Xe concentration profile is compared with measured EPMA data. Calculated HBS width shows good agreement with measured data in a reasonable error range. Though, there are some difference in transition region and central region due to model limitation and fission gas release prediction error respectively, however, predicted Xe concentration in the fully developed HBS region shows a good agreement with the measured data. (Author)

  8. (Blastomogenic action of low concentrations of nitrosodimethylamine, dimethylamine and nitrogen dioxide)

    Benemanskii, V V; Prusakov, V M; Leshchenko, M E

    1981-01-01

    The round-the clock inhalation of the mixture of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), dimethylamine (DMA) and nitrogen dioxide, with NDMA concentrations varying within 0.66-0.0026 mg/m3, was followed by development of tumors in the kidney, liver, lungs and at other sites in albino nonbred rats, after a year of exposure. Application of DMA and nitrogen dioxide modified the carcinogenic effect of NDMA. In male rats, the blastogenic effect of the mixture was higher, as compared with that of inhalation of NDMA alone. NDMA inhalation resulted in a lower tumor yield in female rats.

  9. Nitrogen

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  10. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  11. Impact of Tile Drainage on the Distribution of Concentration and Age of Inorganic Soil Nitrogen.

    Woo, D.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive network of tile drainage network across the Midwestern United States, northern Europe and other regions of the world have enhanced agricultural productivity. Because of its impact on sub-surface flow patterns and moisture and temperature dynamics, it controls the nitrogen cycle in agricultural systems, and its influence on nitrogen dynamics plays a key role in determining the short- and long-term evolution of soil inorganic nitrogen concentration and age. The spatial mapping of nitrogen concentration and age under tile-drained fields has, therefore, the potential to open up novel solution to the vexing challenge of reducing environmental impacts while at the same time maintaining agricultural productivity. The objective of this study is to explore the impacts of tile drains on the age dynamics of nitrate, immobile ammonium, mobile ammonia/um, and non-reactive tracer (such as chloride) by implementing two mobile interacting pore domains to capture matrix and preferential flow paths in a coupled ecohydrology and biogeochemistry model, Dhara. We applied this model to an agricultural farm supporting a corn-soybean rotation in the Midwestern United States. It should be expected that the installation of tile drains decrease the age of soil nutrient due to nutrient losses through tile drainage. However, an increase in the age of mobile ammonia/um is observed in contrast to the cases for nitrate, immobile ammonium, and non-reactive tracer. These results arise because the depletion of mobile ammonia/um due to tile drainage causes a high mobility flux from immobile ammonium to mobile ammonia/um, which also carries a considerable amount of relatively old age of immobile ammonium to mobile ammonia/um. In addition, the ages of nitrate and mobile ammonia/um in tile drainage range from 1 to 3 years, and less than a year, respectively, implying that not considering age transformations between nitrogen species would result in substantial underestimation of nitrogen ages

  12. Effects of increased CO[sub 2] concentration and temperature on growth and yield of winter wheat at two levels of nitrogen application

    Mitchell, R.A.C.; Mitchell, V.J.; Driscoll, S.P.; Franklin, J.; Lawlor, D.W. (Institute of Arable Crops Research, Harpenden (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Physiology)

    1993-06-01

    Winter wheat was grown in chambers under light and temperature conditions similar to the UK field environment for the 1990/1991 growing season at two levels each of atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration (seasonal means: 361 nd 692 [mu]mol mol[sup -1]), temperature (tracking ambient and ambient +4[degree]C) and nitrogen application (equivalent to 87 and 489 kg ha[sub -1] total N applied). Total dry matter productivity through the season, the maximum number of shoots and final ear number were stimulated by CO[sub 2] enrichment at both levels of the temperature and N treatments. At high N, there was a CO[sub 2]-induced stimulation of grain yield (+15%) similar to that for total crop dry mass (+12%), and there was no significant interaction with temperature. Temperature had a direct, negative effect on yield at both levels of the N and CO[sub 2] treatments. This could be explained by the temperature-dependent shortening of the phenological stages, and therefore, the time available for accumulating resources for grain formation. At high N, there was also a reduction in grain set at ambient +4[degree]C temperature, but the overall negative effect of warmer temperature was greater on the number of grains (-37%) than on yield (-18%), due to a compensating increase in average grain mass. At low N, despite increasing total crop dry mass and the number of ears, elevated CO[sub 2] did not increase grain yield and caused a significant decrease under ambient temperature conditions. This can be explained in terms of a stimulation of early vegetative growth by CO[sub 2] enrichment leading to a reduction in the amount of N available later for the formation and filling of grain.

  13. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor.

    Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2015-08-01

    The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of traffic-related nitrogen oxides concentrations using Structural Time-Series models

    Lawson, Anneka Ruth; Ghosh, Bidisha; Broderick, Brian

    2011-09-01

    Ambient air quality monitoring, modeling and compliance to the standards set by European Union (EU) directives and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines are required to ensure the protection of human and environmental health. Congested urban areas are most susceptible to traffic-related air pollution which is the most problematic source of air pollution in Ireland. Long-term continuous real-time monitoring of ambient air quality at such urban centers is essential but often not realistic due to financial and operational constraints. Hence, the development of a resource-conservative ambient air quality monitoring technique is essential to ensure compliance with the threshold values set by the standards. As an intelligent and advanced statistical methodology, a Structural Time Series (STS) based approach has been introduced in this paper to develop a parsimonious and computationally simple air quality model. In STS methodology, the different components of a time-series dataset such as the trend, seasonal, cyclical and calendar variations can be modeled separately. To test the effectiveness of the proposed modeling strategy, average hourly concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides from a congested urban arterial in Dublin city center were modeled using STS methodology. The prediction error estimates from the developed air quality model indicate that the STS model can be a useful tool in predicting nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides concentrations in urban areas and will be particularly useful in situations where the information on external variables such as meteorology or traffic volume is not available.

  15. Increasing Selenium and Yellow Pigment Concentrations in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) Grain with Foliar Application of Selenite.

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Dong, Shu-Qi; Wen, Yin-Yuan; Gao, Zhen-Pan; Guo, Mei-Jun; Guo, Ping-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Although addition of selenium (Se) is known to increase Se in crops, it is unclear whether exogenous Se is linked to nutritional and functional components in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In this study, we examined the potential of increasing Se and yellow pigment (YP) in foxtail millet grain by foliar application of Se. Field experiments were conducted during the growing season of foxtail millet in 2013 and 2014 to assess the effects of foliar spray of sodium selenite (10-210 g Se ha(-1)) on the yield, Se uptake and accumulation, total YP, and microminerals in the grain. Average grain yields with Se application were 5.60 and 4.53 t ha(-1) in the 2 years, showing no significant differences from the unfertilized control. However, grain Se concentration increased linearly with Se application rate, by 8.92 and 6.09 μg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1) (maximum grain recovery rates of Se fertilizer, 52 and 28 %). Likewise, total grain YP concentration markedly increased by 0.038 and 0.031 mg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1). Grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by Se application. This study indicated that foliar application of Se effectively and reliably increased the concentrations of Se and YP in foxtail millet grain without affecting the yield or mineral micronutrient concentrations. Thus, foliar-applied selenite has a significant potential to increase the concentrations of selenium and YP (putative lutein (Shen, J Cereal Sci 61:86-93, 2015; Abdel-Aal, Cereal Chem 79:455-457, 2002; Abdel-Aal, J Agric Food Chem 55:787-794, 2007)) of foxtail millet and, thus, the health benefits of this crop.

  16. Prediction of CP and starch concentrations in ruminal in situ studies and ruminal degradation of cereal grains using NIRS.

    Krieg, J; Koenzen, E; Seifried, N; Steingass, H; Schenkel, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2018-03-01

    Ruminal in situ incubations are widely used to assess the nutritional value of feedstuffs for ruminants. In in situ methods, feed samples are ruminally incubated in indigestible bags over a predefined timespan and the disappearance of nutrients from the bags is recorded. To describe the degradation of specific nutrients, information on the concentration of feed samples and undegraded feed after in situ incubation ('bag residues') is needed. For cereal and pea grains, CP and starch (ST) analyses are of interest. The numerous analyses of residues following ruminal incubation contribute greatly to the substantial investments in labour and money, and faster methods would be beneficial. Therefore, calibrations were developed to estimate CP and ST concentrations in grains and bag residues following in situ incubations by using their near-infrared spectra recorded from 680 to 2500 nm. The samples comprised rye, triticale, barley, wheat, and maize grains (20 genotypes each), and 15 durum wheat and 13 pea grains. In addition, residues after ruminal incubation were included (at least from four samples per species for various incubation times). To establish CP and ST calibrations, 620 and 610 samples (grains and bag residues after incubation, respectively) were chemically analysed for their CP and ST concentration. Calibrations using wavelengths from 1250 to 2450 nm and the first derivative of the spectra produced the best results (R 2 Validation=0.99 for CP and ST; standard error of prediction=0.47 and 2.10% DM for CP and ST, respectively). Hence, CP and ST concentration in cereal grains and peas and their bag residues could be predicted with high precision by NIRS for use in in situ studies. No differences were found between the effective ruminal degradation calculated from NIRS estimations and those calculated from chemical analyses (P>0.70). Calibrations were also calculated to predict ruminal degradation kinetics of cereal grains from the spectra of ground grains

  17. Transport, retention, and size perturbation of graphene oxide in saturated porous media: Effects of input concentration and grain size

    Accurately predicting the fate and transport of graphene oxide (GO) in porous media is critical to assess its environmental impact. In this work, sand column experiments were conducted to determine the effect of input concentration and grain size on transport, retention, and size perturbation of GO ...

  18. Zinc Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grains and Allocation in Plants as Affected by Different Zinc Fertilization Strategies

    Yin, Hong Juan; Gao, Xiao Peng; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Li, Lu Jiu; Zhang, Fu Suo; Zou, Chun Qin

    2016-01-01

    Concern over the food chain transfer of zinc (Zn) is increasing because of its importance in human health. A field experiment was conducted on a low Zn soil to determine the effect of different Zn fertilization strategies on grain Zn concentration and Zn allocation in different plant tissues of

  19. Slope position and Soil Lithological Effects on Live Leaf Nitrogen Concentration.

    Szink, I.; Adams, T. S.; Orr, A. S.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil lithology has been shown to have an effect on plant physiology from the roots to the leaves. Soils at ridgetop positions are typically more shallow and drier than soils at valley floor positions. Additionally, sandy soils tend to have a much lower water holding capacity and can be much harder for plants to draw nutrients from. We hypothesized that leaves from trees in shale derived soil at ridgetop positions will have lower nitrogen concentration than those in valley floor positions, and that this difference will be more pronounced in sandstone derived soils. This is due to the movement of nitrogen through the soil in a catchment, and the holding and exchange capacities of shale and sandstone lithologies. To test this, we collected live leaves using shotgun sampling from two locations in Central Pennsylvania from the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO); one location where soils are underlain by the Rose Hill Shale, and one from where soils are underlain by the Tuscarora Sandstone formation. We then measured, dried, and massed in order to determine specific leaf area (SLA). Afterwards, we powderized the leaves to determined their C:N ratio using a CE Instruments EA 1110 CHNS-O elemental Analyzer based on the "Dumas Method". We found that live leaves of the same species at higher elevations had lower nitrogen concentrations than those at lower elevations, which is consistent with our hypothesis. However, the comparison of leaves from all species in the catchment is not as strong, suggesting that there is a species specific effect on nitrogen concentration within leaves. We are currently processing additional leaves from other shale and sandstone sites. These results highlight the effect of abiotic environments on leaf nutrient concentrations, and the connection between belowground and aboveground tree physiology.

  20. Indoor-outdoor nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations at three sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Rowe, D.R. (D.R. Rowe Engineering Services, Inc., Bowling Green, KY (United States)); Al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Mansour, M.E. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nitric oxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations indoors and outdoors at three sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results show that the outdoor and indoor concentrations for NO were at least 270 and 16 times the reported average worldwide NO concentrations, respectively. The NO(sub 2) concentrations were about 14 times reported outdoor worldwide levels; however, NO(sub 2) concentrations indoors were generally below those reported in the literature. The data presented, in combination with information presented in previous articles, will provide a valuable background database for use in dispersion models to determine the effect of the Kuwaiti oil well fires on the air quality of Riyadh.

  1. Round Robin test for the determination of nitrogen concentration in solid Lithium

    Favuzza, P.; Antonelli, A.; Furukawa, T.; Groeschel, F.; Hedinger, R.; Higashi, T.; Hirakawa, Y.; Iijima, M.; Ito, Y.; Kanemura, T.; Knaster, J.; Kondo, H.; Miccichè, G.; Nitti, F.S.; Ohira, S.; Severi, M.; Sugimoto, M.; Suzuki, A.; Traversi, R.; Wakai, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen contained in solid Lithium is converted into Ammonium ion. • Ammonium ion is suitably quantified by ionic chromatograph or by Ammonia sensor. • Good agreement of the partner’s results has been achieved. • Maximum operative reproducibility and blank subtraction are necessary. - Abstract: Three different partners, ENEA, JAEA ed University of Tokyo, have been involved during 2014–2015 in the Round Robin experimentation for the assessment of the soundness of the analitycal procedure for the determination of the Nitrogen impurities contained inside a solid Lithium sample. Two different kinds of Lithium samples, differing by about an order of magnitude in Nitrogen concentration (∼230 wppm; ∼20–30 wppm), have been selected for this cross analysis. The agreement of the achieved results appears very good for what concerns the most concentrated Lithium and indicates each partner’s procedure is appropriate and intrinsecally able to lead to meaningful values, characterized by a relative uncertainty of just few %. The smaller agreement in the case of the less concentrated Lithium anyway points out that particular attention must be paid to reduce as much as possible any source of external contamination and highlights the importance of the proper blank subtraction.

  2. Round Robin test for the determination of nitrogen concentration in solid Lithium

    Favuzza, P., E-mail: paolo.favuzza@enea.it [ENEA Center, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Antonelli, A. [ENEA Research Center, Brasimone, 40035, Camugnano (Italy); Furukawa, T. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Groeschel, F. [KIT Research Center, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1,76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hedinger, R. [F4E Research Center, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Higashi, T. [University of Tokyo (Japan); Hirakawa, Y.; Iijima, M.; Ito, Y.; Kanemura, T. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Knaster, J. [IFMIF-EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Kondo, H. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Miccichè, G.; Nitti, F.S. [ENEA Research Center, Brasimone, 40035, Camugnano (Italy); Ohira, S. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Severi, M. [University of Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA Research Center, Rokkasho (Japan); Suzuki, A. [University of Tokyo (Japan); Traversi, R. [University of Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Wakai, E. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen contained in solid Lithium is converted into Ammonium ion. • Ammonium ion is suitably quantified by ionic chromatograph or by Ammonia sensor. • Good agreement of the partner’s results has been achieved. • Maximum operative reproducibility and blank subtraction are necessary. - Abstract: Three different partners, ENEA, JAEA ed University of Tokyo, have been involved during 2014–2015 in the Round Robin experimentation for the assessment of the soundness of the analitycal procedure for the determination of the Nitrogen impurities contained inside a solid Lithium sample. Two different kinds of Lithium samples, differing by about an order of magnitude in Nitrogen concentration (∼230 wppm; ∼20–30 wppm), have been selected for this cross analysis. The agreement of the achieved results appears very good for what concerns the most concentrated Lithium and indicates each partner’s procedure is appropriate and intrinsecally able to lead to meaningful values, characterized by a relative uncertainty of just few %. The smaller agreement in the case of the less concentrated Lithium anyway points out that particular attention must be paid to reduce as much as possible any source of external contamination and highlights the importance of the proper blank subtraction.

  3. Response of biomass and nitrogen yield of white clover to radiation and atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Manderscheid, R.; Bender, J.; Schenk, U.; Weigel, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test (i) whether the effect of season-long CO 2 enrichment on plant dry matter production of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Karina) depends on the temperature or can solely be explained by changes in radiation use efficiency, and (ii) whether the atmospheric CO 2 concentration affects the relationship between tissue %N and plant biomass. Plants were grown in pots with adequate nutrient and water supply and were exposed to ambient and above ambient CO 2 concentrations (approximately +80 ppm, +160 ppm, +280 ppm) in open-top chambers for two seasons. Nitrogen fertilizer was given only before the experiment started to promote N 2 fixation. Plants were clipped to a height of 5 cm, when the canopy had reached a height of about 20 cm and when the CO 2 effect had not been diminished due to self-shading of the leaves. Photon exposure (400–700 nm) measured above the canopy was linearly related to the above ground biomass, the leaf area index and the nitrogen yield (r 2 > 0.94). The slopes of the curves depended on the CO 2 concentration. Since most of the radiation (>90%) was absorbed by the foliage, the slopes were used to calculate the CO 2 effect on the radiation use efficiency of biomass production, which is shown to increase curvilinearly between 380 and 660 ppm CO 2 from 2.7 g MJ −1 to 3.9 g MJ −1 . CO 2 enrichment increased above ground biomass by increasing the leaf number, the individual leaf weight and the leaf area; specific leaf weight was not affected. The relative CO 2 response varied between harvests; there was a slight but not significant positive relationship with mean daytime temperature. At the beginning of the season, plant nitrogen concentration in the above ground biomass was decreased by CO 2 enrichment. However, at later growth stages, when the plants depended solely on N 2 fixation, nitrogen concentration was found to be increased when the nitrogen concentration value was adjusted for the decrease

  4. Concentration contours in lattics and grain boundary diffusion in a polycrystalline solid

    Kim, Yong Soo; Jae, Won Mok; El Saied, Usama; Olander, Donald R.

    1995-01-01

    Grain boundary diffusion plays significant role in the fission gas release, which is one of the crucial processes dominating nuclear fuel performance. Gaseous fission products such as Xe and Kr generated inside fuel pellet have to diffuse in the lattice and in the grain boundary before they reach open space in the fuel rod. In the mean time, the grains in the fuel pellet grow and shrink according to grain growth kinetics, especially at elevated temperature at which nuclear reactors are operating. Thus the boundary movement ascribed to the grain growth greatly influences the fission gas release rate by lengthening or shortening the lattice diffusion distance, which is the rate limiting step. Sweeping fission gases by the moving boundary contributes to the increment of the fission gas release as well. Lattice and grain boundary diffusion processes in the fission gas release can be studied by 'tracer diffusion' technique, by which grain boundary diffusivity can be estimated and used directly for low burn up fission gas release analysis. However, even for tracer diffusion analysis, taking both the intragranular grain growth and the diffusion processes simultaneously into consideration is not easy. Only a few models accounting for the both processes are available and mostly handle them numerically. Numerical solutions are limited in the practical use. Here in this paper, an approximate analytical solution of the lattice and stationary grain boundary diffusion in a polycrystalline solid is developed for the tracer diffusion techniques. This short closed form solution is compared to available exact and numerical solutions and turns out to be acceptably accurate. It can be applied to the theoretical modeling and the experimental analysis, especially PIE (post irradiation examination), of low burn up fission gas release

  5. Effect of organic nitrogen concentration on the efficiency of trickling filters

    Kopeć, Łukasz; Drewnowski, Jakub; Fernandez-Morales, F. J.

    2018-02-01

    The study was conducted in Poland at six selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) based on the trickling filters Bioclere® technology. The aim of the study was to find the relationship between the influent organic nitrogen concentration and the purification efficiency expressed as effluent COD concentration. In the tests performed, the COD to BOD5 relationship was close to 2 and the ratio of BOD5 to TN was lower than 4. The research indicated that this specific chemical composition of raw wastewater causes appearance of filamentous bacteria on the surface of trickling filter filling and strongly affect the effluent quality.

  6. Feasibility study of using PET to determine nitrogen concentration after high energy photon irradiation

    Alghamdi, A.A.; Spyrou, N.M.; Al-Mokhlef, J.; Alhaj, A.

    2007-01-01

    The technique of photon activation analysis (PAA) is widely employed in many fields as an effective non-invasive tool for measuring elemental compositions and concentrations. In recent years there has been a revival and growing interest of PAA in general and for medical applications in particular. The feasibility of using a PET scanner (Ecat Exact 931) to determine nitrogen concentration in a dead rabbit is described. This method is based on the photon activation of 14 N(γ,n) 13 N (T 1/2 = 9.9 min) using an 18 MV photon beam Medical Linear Accelerator (Varian 2300EX). (author)

  7. Genetic variations in the dynamics of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation and translocation in new T. aestivum L. varieties. II. Nitrogen assimilation and translocation in relation to grain yield and protein content

    Nankova, M.; Kostov, K.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The study was carried out under greenhouse and field conditions and showed considerable genotype differences between the vrs. Enola, Karat, Svilena and Pliska (T. aestivum L.) with regard to N assimilation during heading, which played an important role in grain yield formation (0.852). Grain yield depends considerably on N translocation (NT) in the period heading-full maturity (0.864) and on its part affects the intensity of N uptake in grain during grain filling-full maturity. In both experiments cv. Svilena demonstrated high NR from the leaves, which was the reason for more than 52 % of N in grain. In the field experiment cv. Svilena confirmed this tendency, the NR being highest in the 2-3 leaf stage, followed by the flag leaf and the down leaves. The intensity of N uptake in grain during grain filling-full maturity was highest in the vrs. Enola and Karat. This intensity was in strong correlation with NA during heading, and with NT in V m during heading-full maturity. It also affected to a high degree the protein content in grain, as well as grain yield. In both experiments a strong negative correlation was established between the NHI/GHI ratio, and grain yield and nitrogen assimilation during heading; a positive correlation was determined with grain NHI. Under the conditions of increasing N dressing, the vrs. Enola, Karat, and Svilena had higher N expense for formation of a production unit, 63 up to 91 % of the N being used for formation of grain with high protein content. Protein yield correlated strongly not only with protein in grain, but also with the intensity of uptake in grain during grain filling - full maturity. The highest protein yield was registered in cv. Karat. By their N expense for production of 100 kg protein, the new varieties did not differ from the standard variety Pliska. The results from the study showed a higher genetic potential of the agrochemically promising varieties Karat, Enola and Svilena than the standard variety Pliska. Refs. 10

  8. A method for the determination of low nitrogen concentrations in niobium by vacuum hot extraction

    Gruenwald, W.; Haessner, F.; Schulze, K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the vacuum hot extraction of gases without the use of crucibles and fluxes is described and applied to the determination of gas contents of high-melting-point metals at low atomic ppm. The Nb-N system is quoted as an example. The reaction vessel (after baking at 150 0 C) was evacuated by means of a turbomolecular pump at an effective rate of 240 l s -1 . Degassing was carried out in ultra-high vacuum employing a residual nitrogen partial pressure of 2 X 10 -10 Torr and liquid and/or solid samples were melted by the levitation method in a radiofrequency field. The evolved gases were detected using a quadrupole mass filter and the quantity of nitrogen evolved calculated by integrating the partial pressure over the time period at a given pumping rate independent of pressure. In addition to giving a chemical analysis of the gas-metal system at low atomic ppm, this method also enables the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters to be determined. The minimum detectable concentration of nitrogen dissolved in niobium was ca. 0.5 at. ppm, the distribution coefficient between solid and liquid niobium 0.76 with the solubility of nitrogen being unaffected by additions of carbon up to 4.5 at.%. The contamination of high purity niobium during sample preparation has also been investigated. (Auth.)

  9. The Effect of Inoculation with Azotobacter and Nitrogen Levels on Grain and Corn Yield Components at Simultaneous Cropping System with Legumes

    mohammad mirzakhani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corn has been regarded as one of the important crops from the view point of both human and animal feeding resource. Intercropping defined as cultivation of two or more species together. The advantages of intercropping can be included: efficient use of water and sunlight, exchange of nutrients, weed competition reduction, reduction of pathogens and the increase of soil fertility. Research shows that intercropping combinations of legume–grass will increase forage quality. Because, grasses Grains have a lot of carbohydrates and legumes are rich in protein and vitamins. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation with azotobacter and nitrogen levels on grain and corn yield components at simultaneous cropping system with legumes under the weather conditions of Markazi province. Materials and methods: This study was carried out at agricultural research field of Payame Noor University, Arak Branch during 2011. A factorial arrangement of treatment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Methods of plant nutrition (M0= inoculation with azotobacter, M1= inoculation with azotobacter + 37/5 Kg ha-1 of rare nitrogen with foliar application method, M2= inoculation with azotobacter + 150 Kg ha-1 of rare nitrogen mix with soil and simultaneous cropping treatment of legumes, [S1= corn + alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., S2= corn + bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus L., S3= corn + mung bean (Vigna radiata L., S4= corn + chickpea (Cicer arientinum L., S5= corn + vetch (Vicia ervillia L. ] were assigned in plots. Each sub plot consisted of 4 rows, 6 m long with 60 cm between rows space and 20 cm between plants on the rows and S.C Apex hybrid was used. In this study characteristics such as: plant height, earing height, the number of grains per m-2, the number of rows per ear, the number of grains per row, surface of ear leaf, grain yield of corn, 1000 grain weight, harvest index of corn, nitrogen use

  10. Experimental human exposure to inhaled grain dust and ammonia: towards a model of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur T; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Watt, Janet A; Kline, Joel N

    2004-10-01

    Ammonia and endotoxin-rich dust are present in high concentrations in swine confinement facilities; exposure to this environment is linked to workers' respiratory problems. We hypothesized that experimental exposure to ammonia and dust would impair pulmonary function, and that these exposures would be synergistic. We exposed six normal subjects and eight subjects with mild asthma to ammonia (16-25 ppm) and/or endotoxin-rich grain dust (4 mg/m3). Pulmonary function and exhaled NOx were measured before and after exposure. There was no significant change in pulmonary function in the normal subjects following any of the exposure conditions. Among asthmatics, a significant transient decrease in FEV1 was induced by grain dust, but was not altered by ammonia; increased bronchial hyperreactivity was also noted in this group. In a vulnerable population, exposure to grain dust results in transient airflow obstruction. Short-term exposure to ammonia does not increase this response.

  11. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  12. Defect concentration in nitrogen-doped graphene grown on Cu substrate: A thickness effect

    Sharma, Dhananjay K., E-mail: dhananjay@ua.pt [Department of Physics & CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Mechanical Engineering & Centre for Mechanical Technology & Automation, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fateixa, Sara [Department of Chemistry & CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Hortigüela, María J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Centre for Mechanical Technology & Automation, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Vidyasagar, Reddithota [Department of Physics & CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Otero-Irurueta, Gonzalo [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Centre for Mechanical Technology & Automation, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Nogueira, Helena I.S. [Department of Chemistry & CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Singh, Manoj Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Centre for Mechanical Technology & Automation, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Kholkin, Andrei, E-mail: kholkin@ua.pt [Department of Physics & CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    Tuning the band-gap of graphene is a current need for real device applications. Copper (Cu) as a substrate plays a crucial role in graphene deposition. Here we report the fabrication of in-situ nitrogen (N) doped graphene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique and the effect of Cu substrate thickness on the growth mechanism. The ratio of intensities of G and D peaks was used to evaluate the defect concentration based on local activation model associated with the distortion of the crystal lattice due to incorporation of nitrogen atoms into graphene lattice. The results suggest that Cu substrate of 20 µm in thickness exhibits higher defect density (1.86×10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}) as compared to both 10 and 25 µm thick substrates (1.23×10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} and 3.09×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, respectively). Furthermore, High Resolution -X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HR-XPS) precisely affirms ~0.4 at% of nitrogen intercalations in graphene. Our results show that the substitutional type of nitrogen doping dominates over the pyridinic configuration. In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows all the XRD peaks associated with carbon. However, the peak at ~24° is suppressed by the substrate peaks (Cu). These results suggest that nitrogen atoms can be efficiently incorporated into the graphene using thinner copper substrates, rather than the standard 25 µm ones. This is important for tailoring the properties by graphene required for microelectronic applications.

  13. Organic Nitrogen in Atmospheric Drops and Particles: Concentrations, (Limited) Speciation, and Chemical Transformations

    Anastasio, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2003-12-01

    While quite a bit is known of the concentrations, speciation, and chemistry of inorganic forms of nitrogen in the atmosphere, the same cannot be said for organic forms. Despite this, there is growing evidence that organic N (ON) is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, especially in atmospheric condensed phases such as fog/cloud drops and aerosol particles. Although the major compounds that make up organic N are generally unknown, as are the sources of these compounds, it is clear that there are significant fluxes of ON between the atmosphere and ecosystems. It also appears that organic N can have significant effects in both spheres. The goal of our recent work in this area has been to better describe the atmospheric component of the biogeochemistry of organic nitrogen. Based on particle, gas, and fogwater samples from Northern California we have made three major findings: 1) Organic N represents a significant component, approximately 20%, of the total atmospheric N loading in these samples. This is broadly consistent with studies from other locations. 2) Amino compounds, primarily as combined amino acids, account for approximately 20% of the measured ON in our condensed phase samples. Given the properties of amino acids, these compounds could significantly affect the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric particles. 3) Organic nitrogen in atmospheric particles and drops is transformed to inorganic forms - primarily ammonium, nitrate, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) - during exposure to sunlight and/or ozone. These chemical reactions likely increase the bioavailability of the condensed phase nitrogen pool and enhance its biological effects after deposition to ecosystems.

  14. Effect of baking and fermentation on the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of grain-based food.

    Bostic, Joshua N; Palafox, Sherilyn J; Rottmueller, Marina E; Jahren, A Hope

    2015-05-30

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is used extensively to reconstruct general attributes of prehistoric and modern diets in both humans and animals. In order to apply these methods to the accurate determination of specific intakes of foods/nutrients of interest, the isotopic signature of individually consumed foods must be constrained. For example, 86% of the calories consumed in the USA are derived from processed and prepared foods, but the relationship between the stable isotope composition of raw ingredients and the resulting products has not been characterized. To examine the effect of common cooking techniques on the stable isotope composition of grain-based food items, we prepared yeast buns and sugar cookies from standardized recipes and measured bulk δ(13) C and δ(15) N values of samples collected throughout a 75 min fermentation process (buns) and before and after baking at 190°C (buns and cookies). Simple isotope mixing models were used to determine if the isotopic signatures of 13 multi-ingredient foods could be estimated from the isotopic signatures of their constituent raw ingredients. No variations in δ(13) C or δ(15) N values were detected between pre- and post-baked yeast buns (pre: -24.78‰/2.61‰, post: -24.75‰/2.74‰), beet-sugar cookies (pre: -24.48‰/3.84‰, post: -24.47‰/3.57‰), and cane-sugar cookies (pre: -19.07‰/2.97‰, post: -19.02‰/3.21‰), or throughout a 75 min fermentation process in yeast buns. Using isotopic mass balance equations, the δ(13) C/δ(15) N values of multi-ingredient foods were estimated from the isotopic composition of constituent raw ingredients to within 0.14 ± 0.13‰/0.24 ± 0.17‰ for gravimetrically measured recipes and 0.40 ± 0.38‰/0.58 ± 0.53‰ for volumetrically measured recipes. Two common food preparation techniques, baking and fermentation, do not substantially affect the carbon or nitrogen isotopic signature of grain-based foods. Mass-balance equations can be used to

  15. Factors Affecting Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Summer Maize on Smallholder Farms in the North China Plain

    Guangfeng Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The summer maize yields and partial factor productivity of nitrogen (N fertilizer (PFPN, grain yield per unit N fertilizer on smallholder farms in China are low, and differ between farms due to complex, sub-optimal management practices. We collected data on management practices and yields from smallholder farms in three major summer maize-producing sites—Laoling, Quzhou and Xushui—in the North China Plain (NCP for two growing seasons, during 2015–2016. Boundary line analysis and a Proc Mixed Model were used to evaluate the contribution of individual factors and their interactions. Summer maize grain yields and PFPN ranged from 6.6 t ha−1 to 14.2 t ha−1 and 15.4 kg kg−1 to 96.1 kg kg−1, respectively, and averaged 10.5 t ha−1 and 49.1 kg kg−1, respectively. The mean total yield gap and PFPN gap were 3.6 t ha−1 and 43.3 kg kg−1 in Laoling, 2.2 t ha−1 and 24.5 kg kg−1 in Xushui, and 2.8 t ha−1 and 41.1 kg kg−1 in Quzhou. A positive correlation was observed between the yield gap and PFPN gap; the PFPN gap could be reduced by 6.0 kg kg−1 (3.6–6.6 kg kg−1 by reducing the yield gap by 1 t ha−1. The high yield and high PFPN (HH fields had a higher plant density and lower N fertilization rate than the low yield and low PFPN (LL fields. Our results show that multiple management factors caused the yield gap, but the relative contribution of plant density is slightly higher than that of other management practices, such as N input, the sowing date, and potassium fertilizer input. The low PFPN was mainly attributed to an over-application of N fertilizer. To enhance the sustainable production of summer maize, the production gaps should be tackled through programs that guide smallholder farmers on the adoption of optimal management practices.

  16. Heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses are declining across Europe whilst some “hotspots” remain in 2010

    Harmens, H.; Norris, D.A.; Sharps, K.; Mills, G.; Alber, R.; Aleksiayenak, Y.; Blum, O.; Cucu-Man, S.-M.; Dam, M.; De Temmerman, L.; Ene, A.; Fernández, J.A.; Martinez-Abaigar, J.; Frontasyeva, M.; Godzik, B.; Jeran, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, naturally growing mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. In 2010, the lowest concentrations of metals and nitrogen in mosses were generally found in northern Europe, whereas the highest concentrations were observed in (south-)eastern Europe for metals and the central belt for nitrogen. Averaged across Europe, since 1990, the median concentration in mosses has declined the most for lead (77%), followed by vanadium (55%), cadmium (51%), chromium (43%), zinc (34%), nickel (33%), iron (27%), arsenic (21%, since 1995), mercury (14%, since 1995) and copper (11%). Between 2005 and 2010, the decline ranged from 6% for copper to 36% for lead; for nitrogen the decline was 5%. Despite the Europe-wide decline, no changes or increases have been observed between 2005 and 2010 in some (regions of) countries. - Highlights: • In 2010, heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at up to 4400 sites across Europe. • Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. • For most metals, concentrations in mosses have significantly declined since 1990. • Heavy metal pollution remains high in (South-)eastern Europe. • Nitrogen pollution remains high in the central European belt. - Heavy metal pollution remains high particularly in (south-)eastern Europe, whereas nitrogen pollution remains high in the central belt of Europe

  17. A caveat regarding diatom-inferred nitrogen concentrations in oligotrophic lakes

    Arnett, Heather A.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (Nr) has enriched oligotrophic lakes with nitrogen (N) in many regions of the world and elicited dramatic changes in diatom community structure. The lakewater concentrations of nitrate that cause these community changes remain unclear, raising interest in the development of diatom-based transfer functions to infer nitrate. We developed a diatom calibration set using surface sediment samples from 46 high-elevation lakes across the Rocky Mountains of the western US, a region spanning an N deposition gradient from very low to moderate levels (phosphorus, and hypolimnetic water temperature were related to diatom distributions. A transfer function was developed for nitrate and applied to a sedimentary diatom profile from Heart Lake in the central Rockies. The model coefficient of determination (bootstrapping validation) of 0.61 suggested potential for diatom-inferred reconstructions of lakewater nitrate concentrations over time, but a comparison of observed versus diatom-inferred nitrate values revealed the poor performance of this model at low nitrate concentrations. Resource physiology experiments revealed that nitrogen requirements of two key taxa were opposite to nitrate optima defined in the transfer function. Our data set reveals two underlying ecological constraints that impede the development of nitrate transfer functions in oligotrophic lakes: (1) even in lakes with nitrate concentrations below quantification (<1 μg L−1), diatom assemblages were already dominated by species indicative of moderate N enrichment; (2) N-limited oligotrophic lakes switch to P limitation after receiving only modest inputs of reactive N, shifting the controls on diatom species changes along the length of the nitrate gradient. These constraints suggest that quantitative inferences of nitrate from diatom assemblages will likely require experimental approaches.

  18. Substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, em dietas com alto teor de concentrado, sobre a amônia ruminal, os parâmetros sangüíneos e o metabolismo do nitrogênio em bovinos de corte Total replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in high grain diets on nitrogen metabolism, ruminal ammonia-N concentration and blood parameters in beef cattle

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-06-01

    parameters were: rumen ammonia-N concentration, plasma urea-N, glucose and nitrogen balance. Experimental treatments were: 1 soybean meal (SBM; 2 urea and 3 starea (A-150S. Diets were isonitrogen (13% CP. The rumen ammonia-N concentration was higher in the treatment with urea, compared to the treatment with SBM, and starea showed no difference compared to the others. Starea had higher loss of urinary N. N retention (g/d and % of consumed and protein biological value (N retention, % of N digestible were higher for urea treatment, compared to the others. There was no difference on plasma urea-N and glucose concentration among treatments. Total replacement of SBM by urea, adjusting PDR in diets for growing beef cattle, demonstrated to be viable. Conventional urea showed advantage compared to starea.

  19. Using nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens to spatially assess the relative contribution of atmospheric nitrogen sources in complex landscapes

    Pinho, P.; Barros, C.; Augusto, S.; Pereira, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators. Our aim was to rank land-cover types according to the amount and form of emitted atmospheric Nr in a complex landscape with multiple sources of N. To do so, we measured and mapped nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichen thalli, which we then related to land-cover data. Results suggested that, at the landscape scale, intensive agriculture and urban areas were the most important sources of Nr to the atmosphere. Additionally, the ocean greatly influences Nr in land, by providing air with low Nr concentration and a unique isotopic composition. These results have important consequences for managing air pollution at the regional level, as they provide critical information for modeling Nr emission and deposition across regional as well as continental scales. - Highlights: • Which land-cover types are reactive nitrogen sources or sinks at a landscape level? • Nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition were analyzed in lichens. • This allowed determination of the main nitrogen sources: agricultural and urban areas. • Marine sources provided persistent low concentrations of reactive nitrogen. • The typical signature of each source was also determined. - Reactive-nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens were used to rank Nr sources at a landscape level.

  20. Combined effects of nitrogen to phosphorus ratios and nitrogen speciation on cyanobacterial metabolite concentrations in eutrophic Midwestern USA reservoirs.

    Harris, T.D.; Smith, V.H.; Graham, J.L.; Van de Waal, D.B.; Tedesco, L.P.; Clercin, N.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio and nitrogen oxidation state may have substantial effects on secondary metabolite (e.g., microcystins) production in cyanobacteria. We investigated the relationship between the water column TN:TP ratio and the

  1. Leaf litter nitrogen concentration as related to climatic factors in Eurasian forests

    Liu, Chunjiang; Berg, Bjørn; Kutsch, Werner

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the patterns of nitrogen (N) concentrations in leaf litter of forest trees as functions of climatic factors, annual average temperature (Temp, °C) and annual precipitation (Precip, dm) and of forest type (coniferous vs. broadleaf, deciduous vs. evergreen, Pinus...... concentration and Temp and Precip by means of regression analysis. Leaf litter data from N2-fixing species were excluded from the analysis. Results: Over the Eurasian continent, leaf litter N concentration increased with increasing Temp and Precip within functional groups such as conifers, broadleaf, deciduous....... In the context of global warming, these regression equations are useful for a better understanding and modelling of the effects of geographical and climatic factors on leaf litter N at a regional and continental scale....

  2. Trends in concentrations and export of nitrogen in boreal forest streams

    Sarkkola, S.; Nieminen, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland); Koivusalo, H. [Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

    2012-11-01

    Temporal trends in inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) export in the stream water between 1979 and 2006 were studied in eight forested headwater catchments in eastern Finland, where an increasing air-temperature trend and a decreasing N-deposition trend has been observed since the 1980s. The Seasonal Kendall test was conducted to study if the stream water N concentrations have changed concurrently and a mixed model regression analysis was used to study which catchment characteristics and hydrometeorological variables were related to the variation in stream water N. The annual concentrations of total organic N (TON) increased at two catchments and the concentrations of nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) and ammonium (NH{sub 4}-N) decreased at three and four catchments, respectively. The main factor explaining variation in concentrations and export of N was percentage of peatlands in a catchment. The NH{sub 4}-N concentrations were also related to the N deposition, and the exports of NO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}, and TON to precipitation. Quantitative changes in both the N concentrations and exports were small. The results suggested relatively small changes in the N concentrations and exports between 1979 and 2006, most probably because the effects of increased air and stream water temperatures largely have been concealed behind the concurrent decrease in N deposition. (orig.)

  3. Trends in stream nitrogen concentrations for forested reference catchments across the USA

    Argerich, A; Greathouse, E; Johnson, S L; Sebestyen, S D; Rhoades, C C; Knoepp, J D; Adams, M B; Likens, G E; Campbell, J L; McDowell, W H; Scatena, F N; Ice, G G

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether stream nitrogen concentrations in forested reference catchments have changed over time and if patterns were consistent across the USA, we synthesized up to 44 yr of data collected from 22 catchments at seven USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests. Trends in stream nitrogen presented high spatial variability both among catchments at a site and among sites across the USA. We found both increasing and decreasing trends in monthly flow-weighted stream nitrate and ammonium concentrations. At a subset of the catchments, we found that the length and period of analysis influenced whether trends were positive, negative or non-significant. Trends also differed among neighboring catchments within several Experimental Forests, suggesting the importance of catchment-specific factors in determining nutrient exports. Over the longest time periods, trends were more consistent among catchments within sites, although there are fewer long-term records for analysis. These findings highlight the critical value of long-term, uninterrupted stream chemistry monitoring at a network of sites across the USA to elucidate patterns of change in nutrient concentrations at minimally disturbed forested sites. (letter)

  4. Quantification of Fine-grained Sediment Concentration in the Aquatic Environment Using Optical and Acoustic Sensors: Insight from Lab Experiments

    Xu, K.; Champagne, B. N.

    2017-12-01

    The transport of sediment in the coastal zone and continental shelf is highly impacted by fluvial and oceanographic dynamics. In Louisiana, the Mississippi River delivers a bulk of water, sediment, and nutrients to the coast. However, coastal land loss highlights the importance of the sediment deposited at the mouth of the river. Sediment is the foundation to build land and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) tracks the delivery, deposition, and erosion of sediment. On a more applicable scale, variables such as SSC can be used to calculate sediment transport flux, an important parameter for projects such as sediment diversions and barrier island restoration. In order to rely on suspended sediment concentration (SSC) as continuous data, lab experiments are needed to establish the relationship between turbidity and SSC. Factors such as sensor type (optical or acoustic) and grain size (coarse or fine) can greatly impact the estimated SSC. In this study, fine-grained sediment was collected from multiple sites in coastal Louisiana and used to calibrate both optical backscatter (OBS) and acoustic backscatter (ABS) sensors to establish the relationship between sensor type and accuracy of the SSC estimation. Multiple grain-size analyses using a Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer helped determine the effects of sensor accuracy regarding grain size. The results of these experiments were combined in order to establish the calibration curves of SSC. Our results indicated that the OBS-3A sensor's turbidity data were more correlated with the SSC than the OBS-5+'s data. Possible explanations for this could be due to differences between the instruments' measuring ranges and their sensitivity to various grain sizes. This technology development has a broad impact to the studies of sediment delivery, transport, and deposition in multiple types of coastal protection and restoration projects.

  5. Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law.

    Cuppo, F L S; Gómez, S L; Figueiredo Neto, A M

    2004-04-01

    In this paper is reported a systematic experimental study of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped isotropic lyotropic mixtures as a function of the magnetic-grains concentration. The linear optical absorption of ferrolyomesophases increases in a nonlinear manner with the concentration of magnetic grains, deviating from the usual Beer-Lambert law. This behavior is associated to the presence of correlated micelles in the mixture which favors the formation of small-scale aggregates of magnetic grains (dimers), which have a higher absorption coefficient with respect to that of isolated grains. We propose that the indirect heating of the micelles via the ferrofluid grains (hyperthermia) could account for this nonlinear increase of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient as a function of the grains concentration.

  6. Effect of Sowing Date and Sulfur on Yield, Oil Content and Grain Nitrogen of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Autumn Cultivation

    N Safara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays oilseed crops are considered as the second most important sources of energy in the diet. In this regard, cultivation of oilseed crops such as safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is important due to quality of oil seed and medicinal properties. Different planting dates leads to adaptation of vegetative and reproductive growth of plant to temperature, day-length and various solar radiations and as a result affects plant’s development phase and yield. With delayed planting date , temperature and day length increases and development phase will accelerate. In this condition the crop yield will reduce due to crop growth and developmental period will shorten. Sulfur is an essential element for plant nutrition and its role is greater than Phosphorus. Using sulfur increases the heads per plant and grain yield. In order to investigate the effect of sulfur fertilizer under heat stress condition at the terminal growth stages and its role in reducing the negative effects of high temperature stress on safflower, this research was performed. Materials and Methods In order to study effect of planting date and sulfur manure on yield components, nitrogen and oil percent in safflower, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications in as split plot arrangement at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan during 2013-2014. The experimental treatments consisted of four planting dates of 30 November, 21 December, 22 January and 1st February were randomly placed in main plots and four levels of sulfur of 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 performed randomly in subplots, Sulfur fertilizer was corporated to soil one week before each planting date. Harvest was performed from the mid-May to early-June, during physiological maturity. To measure the yield on maturity time after the removal of margins, Safflower plants were harvested from one m2 unit area. Nitrogen percent was determined

  7. Simultaneous nitrogen, phosphorous, and hardness removal from reverse osmosis concentrate by microalgae cultivation.

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Wu, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Dao, Guo-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2016-05-01

    While reverse osmosis (RO) is a promising technology for wastewater reclamation, RO concentrate (ROC) treatment and disposal are important issues to consider. Conventional chemical and physical treatment methods for ROC present certain limitations, such as relatively low nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies as well as the requirement of an extra process for hardness removal. This study proposes a novel biological approach for simultaneous removal of nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions from the ROC of municipal wastewater treatment plants by microalgal cultivation and algal biomass production. Two microalgae strains, Chlorella sp. ZTY4 and Scenedesmus sp. LX1, were used for batch cultivation of 14-16 days. Both strains grew well in ROC with average biomass production of 318.7 mg/L and lipid contents up to 30.6%, and nitrogen and phosphorus could be effectively removed with efficiencies of up to 89.8% and 92.7%, respectively. Approximately 55.9%-83.7% Ca(2+) could be removed from the system using the cultured strains. Mg(2+) removal began when Ca(2+) precipitation ceased, and the removal efficiency of the ion could reach up to 56.0%. The most decisive factor influencing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) removal was chemical precipitation with increases in pH caused by algal growth. The results of this study provide a new biological approach for removing nitrogen, phosphorous, and hardness from ROC. The results suggest that microalgal cultivation presents new opportunities for applying an algal process to ROC treatment. The proposed approach serves dual purposes of nutrient and hardness reduction and production of lipid rich micro-algal biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of nitrogen source and concentrations on wheat growth and production inside "Lunar Palace-1"

    Dong, Chen; Chu, Zhengpei; Wang, Minjuan; Qin, Youcai; Yi, Zhihao; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

    2018-03-01

    Minimizing nitrogen (N) consumption and maximizing crop productivity are major challenges to growing plants in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) for future long-term space mission. Plants cultivated in the controlled environments are sensitive to the low recyclable N (such as from the urine). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer (NH4+-N and NO3--N) disturbance on growth, photosynthetic efficiency, antioxidant defence systems and biomass yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars during ontogenesis. Experiments were divided into 4 controlled groups,Ⅰ: NO3--N: NH4+-N = 7:1 mmol L-1; Ⅱ: NO3--N: NH4+-N = 14:0.5 mmol L-1; Ⅲ: NO3--N: NH4+-N = 7:0.5 mmol L-1 and CK: NO3--N: NH4+-N = 14:1 mmol L-1, and other salt concentrations were the same. The results showed that heading and flowering stages in spring wheat are sensitive to low N concentration, especially NO3--N in group Ⅰ and Ⅲ. NO3- is better to root growth than to shoot growth. The plants were spindling and the output was lower 21.3% when spring wheat was in low N concentration solution. Meanwhile, photosynthetic rate of low N concentrations is worse than that of CK. The soluble sugar content of the edible part of wheat plants is influenced with NO3-: NH4+ ratio. In addition, when N concentration was lowest in group Ⅲ, the lignin content decreased to 2.58%, which was more beneficial to recycle substances in the processes of the environment regeneration.

  9. The effect of the Tom Thumb dwarfing gene on grain size and grain number of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Gale, M.D.; Flintham, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Tom Thumb dwarfing gene, Rht3, like the related genes Rht1 and Rht2 from Norin 10, has pleiotropic effects on individual ear yields, and grain protein concentrations. An experiment was conducted in which tiller number per plant and grain number per spike were restricted to ascertain whether reduced grain size and protein content are primary or secondary competitive effects in near-isogenic lines. The potential for grain growth was shown to be identical in Rht3 and rht genotypes when grain set was restricted, indicating that the primary effect of the gene is to increase spikelet fertility. Nitrogen accumulation within the grain was also affected by inter-grain competition but decreased nitrogen yields per plant indicated that reduced protein levels are, in part, a primary effect of the gene. Analysis of individual grain yields within Rht3 and rht spikes showed that the gene affected developmental 'dominance' relationships within the spike. (author)

  10. Increasing in-stream nitrogen concentrations under different bioenergy crop management practices in central Germany

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Thraen, Daniela; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in land use and agriculture practices is crucial for improving instream water quality prediction. In central Germany, expansion of bioenergy crops such as maize and rape for ethanol production during the last decade led to increasing of fertilizer application rates. To examine the effect of these changes, surface water quality of a drinking water reservoir catchment was investigated for more than 30 years. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. For the period 2004-2012, the share of maize and rape has been increased by 52% and 20%, respectively, for enhancing bioenergy production. To achieve our gaols, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was calibrated for discharge and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (IN) during the period 1997-2000.The model was validated successfully (with lowest performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74% for discharge) for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates. Results showed that the HYPE model reproduced reasonably well discharge and IN daily loads (with lowest NSE = 0.64 for IN-load). In addition, the HYPE model was evaluated successfully to predict the discharge and IN concentrations for the period 2004-2012, where detailed input data in terms of crops management (field-specific survey) have been considered. Land use and crop rotations scenarios, with high hypothetical percentage of acceptance by the farmers, revealed that continuous conversion of agricultural land into bioenergy crops, will most likely, lead to an enrichment of in-stream nitrogen, especially after spring storms.

  11. Comparative nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and biomass production potentials of some grain legumes species grown in the field in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana

    Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Fosu, M.; Tibo, I.; Sumaila, I.

    2007-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted in the experimental field of Savannah Agricultural Research Institute at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana to assess the nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and biomass production potentials of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), devil-bean (Crotalaria retusa), Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white types) and Canavalia ensiformis with maize (Dorke SR) as the reference crop using the total nitrogen difference (TND) method. Plants were fertilized with 40 kg P/ha and 30 kg K/ha at 2 weeks after planting and grown for 55 days after which they were harvested. The harvested biomass (separated into roots, stems and leaves) of each crop was oven-dried at 70 0 C for 48 h to a constant weight. Cowpea and devil-bean produced approximately 5 and 6 t/ha biomass whereas Mucuna and Canavalia yielded about 2 t/ha biomass each. Although cowpea had the least number of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal (AMF) spores in its rhizosphere, its roots were the most heavily colonized (34%) and M. pruriens recording below 5% colonization. Apart from C. ensiformis, the test legumes derived over 50% of their total accumulated N from the atmosphere with cowpea being the most efficient (90% Ndfa). Both N and P accumulations were significantly higher in cowpea than the other legumes due to increased N concentration and dry matter accumulation, respectively. In all the legumes, there was a direct positive correlation between the extent of mycorrhiza formation, biological N fixation and total N uptake. It could, therefore, be concluded that the extensive mycorrhiza formation in cowpea and its high N 2 -fixing potential resulted in a high shoot N and P uptake leading to a comparatively better growth enhancement. Cowpea could, therefore, be the grain legume for consideration in the selection of a suitable legume pre-crop to cereals for the amelioration of the low fertility of the degraded soils of the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana, and also as

  12. Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants

    Rattin Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. Plants of hybrid Monte Carlo were grown in 4.5 L bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. A nutrient solution containing, in mmol L-1: KNO3, 4.0; K2SO4, 0.9; Ca(NO32, 3.75; KH2PO4, 1.5; MgSO4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 10³, was used as reference. Microelements were added by a commercial mixture. The T3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments T1, T2, T4 and T5 quantities of all nutrients from T3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. In each treatment, the volume of 1 L of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. Periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and N concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. Five dilution curves were fitted from data of N concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. A general relationship was adjusted between actual N concentration in shoot (Nt and in the fifth leaf (Nf: Nt = 1.287 Nf (R² = 0.80. This relationship could be used to estimate the N status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (NNI, from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.

  13. Effects of the addition of different nitrogen sources in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar concentration.

    Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of the addition of different nitrogen sources at high sugar concentration in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were performed at high sugar concentration (170 g l(-1)) using Agave tequilana Weber blue variety with and without added nitrogen from different sources (ammonium sulfate; glutamic acid; a mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids) during the exponential phase of growth. All the additions increased the fermentation rate and alcohol efficiency. The level of synthesis of volatile compounds depended on the source added. The concentration of amyl alcohols and isobutanol were decreased while propanol and acetaldehyde concentration increased. The most efficient nitrogen sources for fermentation rate were ammonium sulfate and the mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids. The level of volatile compounds produced depended upon types of nitrogen. The synthesis of some volatile compounds increased while others decreased with nitrogen addition. The addition of nitrogen could be a strategy for improving the fermentation rate and efficiency in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar Agave tequilana concentration. Furthermore, the sensory quality of the final product may change because the synthesis of the volatile compounds is modified.

  14. On the determination of the carrier concentration in large-grain polycrystalline InP, GaAs, and GaP by Hall effect measurements

    Siegel, W.; Kuehnel, G.; Schneider, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Hall and conductivity measurements are performed in a wide temperature region on large-grain polycrystalline samples of n-InP, n- and p-GaAs as well as n- and p-GaP. The feasibility of Hall measurements at a given temperature depends mainly on the height PHI/sub B/ of the grain boundary potential barriers and on the average grain size. Measurements at room temperature are possible on large-grain material (average grain size 0.2 to 1 mm) for PHI/sub B/ <= 0.4 eV. For greater barrier heights elevated temperatures are necessary. If the Hall coefficient is measurable than it yields an effective carrier concentration for the polycrystalline sample which agrees well with the carrier concentration in the bulk of the grains. (author)

  15. Whole-plant dynamic system of nitrogen use for vegetative growth and grain filling in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. as revealed through the production of 350 grains from a germinated seed over 150 days: a review and synthesis

    Tadakatsu Yoneyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7 ‒ 10 leaves on 4 productive tillers (forming 5 panicles in total, using nitrogen (N taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and 15N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1 During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2 A large fraction (as much as 80% of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco. (3 Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids, including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with amino acid transporters playing a role in transferring these amino acids across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, amino acids such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50

  16. Nitrogen

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  17. Bubble growth as a means to measure dissolved nitrogen concentration in aerated water

    Ando, Keita; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the amount of dissolved gases in water is important, for example, to food processing; it is essential to quantitatively evaluate dissolved gas concentration. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) can be measured by commercial DO meters, but that of dissolved nitrogen (DN) cannot be obtained easily. Here, we propose a means to measure DN concentration based on Epstein-Plesset-type analysis of bubble growth under dissolved gas supersaturation. DO supersaturation in water is produced by oxygen microbubble aeration. The diffusion-driven growth of bubbles nucleated at glass surfaces in contact with the aerated water is first observed. The observed growth is then compared to the extended Epstein-Plesset theory that considers Fick's mass transfer of both DO and DN across bubble interfaces; in this comparison, the unknown DN concentration is treated as a fitting parameter. Comparisons between the experiment and the theory suggest, as expected, that DN can be effectively purged by oxygen microbubble aeration. This study was supported in part by the Mizuho Foundation for the Promotion of Science and by a MEXT Grant-in-Aid for the Program for Leading Graduate Schools.

  18. Variation of dissolved organic nitrogen concentration during the ultrasonic pretreatment to Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Liu, Cheng; Wang, Jie; Cao, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Bi, Hongkai

    2016-03-01

    Algae cells were the main sources of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in raw water with plenty of algae, and ultrasonic pretreatment was one of the algae-controlling methods through the damage of algae cells. However, the variation of DON concentration during the ultrasonic treatment process was not confirmed. Variation of DON concentration during the processes of low frequency ultrasound treatment of Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated. In addition, the effect of sonication on the metabolite concentration, algae cellar activity and the subsequent coagulation performance were discussed. The results showed that after a long duration of ultrasonic (60 s), nearly 90% of the algal cells were damaged and the maximum concentration of DON attained more than 3 mg/L. In order to control the leakage extent of DON, the sonication time should be less than 30 s with power intensity of more than 1.0 W/cm(3). In the mean time, ultrasonic treatment could inhibit the reactivation and the proliferation of algal, keep the algae cell wall integrity and enhance coagulation effectively under the same condition. However, ultrasound frequency had little effect on DON at the frequency range used in this study (20-150 kHz). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Front Range sources on reactive nitrogen concentrations and deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Katherine B. Benedict

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human influenced atmospheric reactive nitrogen (RN is impacting ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO. Due to ROMO’s protected status as a Class 1 area, these changes are concerning, and improving our understanding of the contributions of different types of RN and their sources is important for reducing impacts in ROMO. In July–August 2014 the most comprehensive measurements (to date of RN were made in ROMO during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ. Measurements included peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, C1–C5 alkyl nitrates, and high-time resolution NOx, NOy, and ammonia. A limited set of measurements was extended through October. Co-located measurements of a suite of volatile organic compounds provide information on source types impacting ROMO. Specifically, we use ethane as a tracer of oil and gas operations and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4 as an urban tracer to investigate their relationship with RN species and transport patterns. Results of this analysis suggest elevated RN concentrations are associated with emissions from oil and gas operations, which are frequently co-located with agricultural production and livestock feeding areas in the region, and from urban areas. There also are periods where RN at ROMO is impacted by long-range transport. We present an atmospheric RN budget and a nitrogen deposition budget with dry and wet components. Total deposition for the period (7/1–9/30 was estimated at 1.58 kg N/ha, with 87% from wet deposition during this period of above average precipitation. Ammonium wet deposition was the dominant contributor to total nitrogen deposition followed by nitrate wet deposition and total dry deposition. Ammonia was estimated to be the largest contributor to dry deposition followed by nitric acid and PAN (other species included alkyl nitrates, ammonium and nitrate. All three species are challenging to measure routinely, especially at high time resolution.

  20. Does application of the Rosiwal principle to lunar soils require that concentrations of solar-wind-implanted species be grain-size independent

    Becker, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    A reconsideration of the application of the Rosiwal Principle to lunar soils indicates a flaw in arguments put forth previously by Criswell. Specifically, by introducing a boundary condition which must exist at the lunar surface, it is shown that concentrations of solar-wind-implanted species showing a dependence on grain size may be able to develop in soils at concentration levels below those required for saturation of grain surfaces. As a result, observed grain-size-dependent concentrations of solar-wind species in lunar soils do not necessarily require the exposure time scales or solar-wind fluxes deduced from the arguments of Criswell. (Auth.)

  1. Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox. Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1 with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC.

  2. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism in steers as affected by feed intake and dietary urea concentration

    Firkins, J.L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Mulvaney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four multiple-cannulated steers (340 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were fed a diet of 50% ground hay and 50% concentrate at two intakes (1.4 and 2.1% of BW), with urea and 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate infused continuously into the rumen at .4 or 1.2% of diet DM. Ratios of purines and diaminopimelic acid-N to N in fluid-associated and particulate-associated bacteria and in protozoa were similar among treatments but were lower for protozoa than for bacteria. Diaminopimelic acid-N:N was higher for fluid-associated vs. particulate-associated bacteria. Enrichment of 15 N was similar between bacteria among treatments and was 30% lower for protozoa. Turnover rates of 15 N in bacteria, NH 3 N, and non-HN 3 N pools were faster for steers infused with 1.2 than those infused with .4% urea, indicating less efficient usage of ammonia with higher urea. A method is described to estimate the proportion of duodenal nitrogen comprising bacterial and protozoal nitrogen

  3. Biological nitrogen and carbon removal in a gravity flow biomass concentrator reactor for municipal sewage treatment.

    Scott, Daniel; Hidaka, Taira; Campo, Pablo; Kleiner, Eric; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2013-01-01

    A novel membrane system, the Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR), was evaluated as an alternative technology for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Because the BCR is equipped with a membrane whose average poresize is 20 μm (18-28 μm), the reactor requires low-pressure differential to operate (gravity). The effectiveness of this system was evaluated for the removal of carbon and nitrogen using two identical BCRs, identified as conventional and hybrid, that were operated in parallel. The conventional reactor was operated under full aerobic conditions (i.e., organic carbon and ammonia oxidation), while the hybrid reactor incorporated an anoxic zone for nitrate reduction as well as an aerobic zone for organic carbon and ammonia oxidation. Both reactors were fed synthetic wastewater at a flow rate of 71 L d(-1), which resulted in a hydraulic retention time of 9 h. In the case of the hybrid reactor, the recycle flow from the aerobic zone to the anoxic zone was twice the feed flow rate. Reactor performance was evaluated under two solids retention times (6 and 15 d). Under these conditions, the BCRs achieved nearly 100% mixed liquor solids separation with a hydraulic head differential of less than 2.5 cm. The COD removal efficiency was over 90%. Essentially complete nitrification was achieved in both systems, and nitrogen removal in the hybrid reactor was close to the expected value (67%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Struvite Crystallization of Anaerobic Digestive Fluid of Swine Manure Containing Highly Concentrated Nitrogen

    Eun Young Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimal operation factors for struvite crystallization for removing and recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestive fluid of swine manure containing highly concentrated nitrogen was determined. Every experiment for the struvite crystallization reaction was conducted by placing 1,000 mL of digestion fluid in a 2,000 mL Erlenmeyer flask at various temperatures, pH, and mixing speed. Except for special circumstances, the digestion fluid was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 10 min and then the supernatant was used for the experiment at room temperature and 100 rpm. The optimal mole ratio of PO43−:Mg2+ was 1:1.5, and the pH effect ranging from 9 to 11 was similar, when mixed for 1 hour. Under this condition, the removal efficiency of NH4+-N and PO43−-P was 40% and 88.6%, respectively. X-shaped crystal was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, struvite crystal structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis.

  5. Relationships between net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen concentrations in a loblobby pine forest ecosystem grown in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Springer, C. J.; Thomas, R. B.; Delucia, E. H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on the relationship between light-saturated net photosynthesis and area-based foliar nitrogen concentration in the canopy of a loblobby pine forest at the Duke Forest FACE experiment was examined. Two overstory and four understory tree species were examined at their growth carbon dioxide concentrations during the early summer and late summer of 1999, 2001 and 2002. Light-saturated net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen relationship were compared to determine if the stimulatory effects of elevated carbon dioxide on net photosynthesis had declined. Results at all three sample times showed no difference in either the slopes, or in the y-intercepts of the net photosynthesis-foliar nitrogen relationship when measured at common carbon dioxide concentrations. Net photosynthesis was also unaffected by growth in elevated carbon dioxide, indicating that these overstory and understory trees continued to show strong stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide. 46 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, and growth of young spruce trees (Picea abies)

    Thomas, V.F.D.; Braun, S.; Flueckiger, W.

    2005-01-01

    Spruce saplings were grown under different nitrogen fertilization regimes in eight chamberless fumigation systems, which were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O 3 ). After the third growing season trees were harvested for biomass and non-structural carbohydrate analysis. Nitrogen had an overall positive effect on the investigated plant parameters, resulting in increased shoot elongation, biomass production, fine root soluble carbohydrate concentrations, and also slightly increased starch concentrations of stems and roots. Only needle starch concentrations and fine root sugar alcohol concentrations were decreased. Ozone fumigation resulted in needle discolorations and affected most parameters negatively, including decreased shoot elongation and decreased starch concentrations in roots, stems, and needles. In fine roots, however, soluble carbohydrate concentrations remained unaffected or increased by ozone fumigation. The only significant interaction was an antagonistic effect on root starch concentrations, where higher nitrogen levels alleviated the negative impact of ozone. - Simultaneous ozone fumigation and nitrogen fertilization have no synergistic impacts on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, or growth of Picea abies saplings

  7. CHEMISTRY OF FOG WATERS IN CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY - PART 3: CONCENTRATIONS AND SPECIATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN. (R825433)

    Although organic nitrogen (ON) has been found to be a ubiquitous and significant component in wet and dry deposition, almost nothing is known about its concentration or composition in fog waters. To address this gap, we have investigated the concentration and composition of ON...

  8. An empirical model for predicting urban roadside nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the UK

    Stedman, J.R.; Goodwin, J.W.L.; King, K.; Murrells, T.P.; Bush, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    An annual mean concentration of 40μgm -3 has been proposed as a limit value within the European Union Air Quality Directives and as a provisional objective within the UK National Air Quality Strategy for 2010 and 2005, respectively. Emissions reduction measures resulting from current national and international policies are likely to deliver significant reductions in emissions of oxides of nitrogen from road traffic in the near future. It is likely that there will still be exceedances of this target value in 2005 and in 2009 if national measures are considered in isolation, particularly at the roadside. It is envisaged that this 'policy gap' will be addressed by implementing local air quality management to reduce concentrations in locations that are at risk of exceeding the objective. Maps of estimated annual mean NO 2 concentrations in both urban background and roadside locations are a valuable resource for the development of UK air quality policy and for the identification of locations at which local air quality management measures may be required. Maps of annual mean NO 2 concentrations at both background and roadside locations for 1998 have been calculated using modelling methods, which make use of four mathematically straightforward, empirically derived linear relationships. Maps of projected concentrations in 2005 and 2009 have also been calculated using an illustrative emissions scenario. For this emissions scenario, annual mean urban background NO 2 concentrations in 2005 are likely to be below 40μgm -3 , in all areas except for inner London, where current national and international policies are expected to lead to concentrations in the range 40-41μgm -3 . Reductions in NO x emissions between 2005 and 2009 are expected to reduce background concentrations to the extent that our modelling results indicate that 40μgm -3 is unlikely to be exceeded in background locations by 2009. Roadside NO 2 concentrations in urban areas in 2005 and 2009 are expected to be

  9. Technical Note: Comparison between a direct and the standard, indirect method for dissolved organic nitrogen determination in freshwater environments with high dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations

    Graeber, Daniel; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Research on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in aquatic systems with high dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, the sum of NO3–, NO2– and NH4+) concentrations is often hampered by high uncertainties regarding the determined DON concentration. The reason is that DON is determined indirectly...... accuracy at high DIN : TDN ratios, we investigated the DON measurement accuracy of this standard approach according to the DIN : TDN ratio and compared it to the direct measurement of DON by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) for freshwater systems. For this, we used standard compounds and natural samples...... separation of DON from DIN. For SEC, DON recovery rates were 91–108% for five pure standard compounds and 89–103% for two standard compounds, enriched with DIN. Moreover, SEC resulted in 93–108% recovery rates for DON concentrations of natural samples at a DIN : TDN ratio of 0.8 and the technique...

  10. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    Esperanza Gil-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2 ≥ 0.89. It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results. Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat

  11. The effect of cold work on grain boundary precipitation and sensitization in nitrogen added type 316L stainless steels

    Seo, Moo Hong; Chun, Byong Sun; Oh, Yong Jun; Ryu, Woo Seog; Hong, Jun Hwa

    1998-01-01

    The precipitation and sensitization behavior of nitrogen added type 316L Stainless Steels (SS) were investigated by using specimens cold worked for 0∼40%. The alloys had a variation in nitrogen content from 0.04 to 0.15%. To quantify the degree of sensitization, Double-Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (DL-EPR) test was performed in a 0.1M H 2 SO 4 + 0.01M KSCN solution at 30 .deg. C. The addition of nitrogen increased sensitization resistance by retarding the onset of M 23 C 6 precipitation and shifted Time-Temperature-Sensitization(TTS) curve to higher temperature and longer time range. Cold work accelerated the M 23 C 6 precipitation and sensitization kinetic due to the increase in dislocation density. However, the acceleration of sensitization was found to depend on the added nitrogen content in the alloys. The alloys with high nitrogen(>0.1%N) content exhibited higher acceleration of the sensitization as a function of the cold work than that with low nitrogen content. From the microstructural analysis, this was found to be attributed to the development of intensive slip bands during cold work and retardation of dislocation annihilation during subsequent aging in the alloys with high nitrogen content

  12. Chronic disease associated with long-term concentrations of nitrogen dioxide

    Abbey, D.E.; Colome, S.D.; Mills, P.K.; Burchette, R.; Beeson, W.L.; Tian, Y. (Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A prospective epidemiologic cohort study of 6,000 residentially stable and non-smoking Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) in California was conducted to evaluate long-term cumulative levels of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in association with several chronic diseases. These diseases included respiratory symptoms, cancer, myocardial infarction (MI), and all natural causes mortality. Cumulative ambient concentrations of NO2 were estimated for each study subject using monthly interpolations from fixed site monitoring stations and applying these estimates to the monthly residence and work place zip code histories of study participants. In addition, a personal NO2 exposure study on a randomly selected sample of 650 people in southern California was conducted to predict total personal NO2 exposure using household and lifestyle characteristics and ambient NO2 concentrations. It was found that good predictability could be obtained (correlation coefficient between predicted and observed values = 0.79) from a model predicting personal NO2. The resulting regression equations from the personal NO2 exposure study were applied to the epidemiologic study cohort to adjust ambient concentrations of NO2.

  13. Modeling of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) concentrations resulting from ships at berth.

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A; Elkamel, Ali; Al Balushi, Abdullah S; Al-Damkhi, Ali M; Siddiqui, Rafiq A

    2008-12-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions from ships (marine vessels) contribute to poor air quality that negatively impacts public health and communities in coastal areas and far inland. These emissions often excessively harm human health, environment, wildlife habituates, and quality of life of communities and indigenous of people who live near ports. This study was conducted to assess the impact of NO(x) emissions origination from ships at berth on a nearby community. It was undertaken at Said Bin Sultan Naval base in Wullayat Al-Mussana (Sultanate of Oman) during the year 2005. The Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST) model was adopted to determine the dispersion of NO(x) into port and beyond into surrounding urban areas. The hourly and monthly contours (isopleths) of NO(x) concentrations in and around the port were plotted. The results were analyzed to determine the affected area and the level of NO(x) concentrations. The highest concentration points in the studied area were also identified. The isopleths of NO(x) indicated that most shipping emissions of NO(x) occur at the port can be transported over land. The output results can help to derive advice of recommendations ships operators and environmentalists to take the correct decision to prevent workers and surrounded environment from pollution.

  14. Inter-comparison of interpolated background nitrogen dioxide concentrations across Greater Manchester, UK

    Lindley, S. J.; Walsh, T.

    There are many modelling methods dedicated to the estimation of spatial patterns in pollutant concentrations, each with their distinctive advantages and disadvantages. The derivation of a surface of air quality values from monitoring data alone requires the conversion of point-based data from a limited number of monitoring stations to a continuous surface using interpolation. Since interpolation techniques involve the estimation of data at un-sampled points based on calculated relationships between data measured at a number of known sample points, they are subject to some uncertainty, both in terms of the values estimated and their spatial distribution. These uncertainties, which are incorporated into many empirical and semi-empirical mapping methodologies, could be recognised in any further usage of the data and also in the assessment of the extent of an exceedence of an air quality standard and the degree of exposure this may represent. There is a wide range of available interpolation techniques and the differences in the characteristics of these result in variations in the output surfaces estimated from the same set of input points. The work presented in this paper provides an examination of uncertainties through the application of a number of interpolation techniques available in standard GIS packages to a case study nitrogen dioxide data set for the Greater Manchester conurbation in northern England. The implications of the use of different techniques are discussed through application to hourly concentrations during an air quality episode and annual average concentrations in 2001. Patterns of concentrations demonstrate considerable differences in the estimated spatial pattern of maxima as the combined effects of chemical processes, topography and meteorology. In the case of air quality episodes, the considerable spatial variability of concentrations results in large uncertainties in the surfaces produced but these uncertainties vary widely from area to area

  15. Growth and foliar nitrogen concentrations of interplanted native woody legumes and pecan

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; Kenneth L. Hunt

    2008-01-01

    The interplanting and underplanting of nodulated nitrogen-fixing plants in tree plantings can increase early growth and foliage nitrogen content of hardwoods, especially black walnut and pecan. Recent studies have demonstrated that some non-nodulated woody legumes may be capable of fixing significant levels of atmospheric nitrogen. The following nine nurse crop...

  16. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  17. Correlation between the nitrogen concentration of two epiphytic lichens and the traffic density in an urban area

    Gombert, S.; Asta, J.; Seaward, M.R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen concentrations of the lichen Physcia adscendens are related to traffic exposure. - A field experiment was carried out in the urban environment of the Grenoble area using two epiphytic lichens: the nitrophytic Physcia adscendens and the acidiphytic Hypogymnia physodes. Two complementary studies characterized this experiment. Firstly, a sampling of the two lichens in 48 sites randomly located throughout the Grenoble area indicated that roads (size and proximity to sampling sites) influenced the nitrogen concentrations of P. adscendens, but not those of H. physodes. Secondly, to study more accurately the influence of roads, a traffic index was calculated and applied along two transects located perpendicularly to urban motorways. Significant positive correlations were found between this traffic index and the total nitrogen concentration of P. adscendens

  18. Nitrogen fertilisation increases biogenic amines and amino acid concentrations in Vitis vinifera var. Riesling musts and wines.

    Smit, Inga; Pfliehinger, Marco; Binner, Antonie; Großmann, Manfred; Horst, Walter J; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2014-08-01

    Wines rich in biogenic amines can cause adverse health effects to the consumer. Being nitrogen-containing substances, the amount of amines in wines might be strongly influenced by the rate of nitrogen fertiliser application during grape production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation in the vineyard on the formation of biogenic amines in musts and wines. In a field experiment which compared unfertilised and fertilised (60 and 150 kg N ha(-1)) vines over two separate years, the total amine concentrations in must and wine increased. The latter was due to an increase of individual amines such as ethylamine, histamine, isopentylamine, phenylethylamine and spermidine in the musts and wines with the nitrogen application. Furthermore, the fermentation process increased the concentration of histamine and ethylamine in most of the treatments, while spermidine, spermine and isopentylamine concentrations generally decreased. Throughout both vintages, the concentrations of tyramine and histamine of the investigated musts and wines never reached detrimental levels to the health of non-allergenic people. Nitrogen fertilisation has a significant effect on amines formation in musts and wines. Furthermore, during fermentation, ethylamine and histamine increased while other amines were presumably serving as N sources during fermentation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    Xiaochuang Cao

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N, which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N. On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10. The compositional

  20. Modelling of in-stream nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations using different sampling strategies for calibration data

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Jiang, Sanyuan; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    It is known that a good evaluation and prediction of surface water pollution is mainly limited by the monitoring strategy and the capability of the hydrological water quality model to reproduce the internal processes. To this end, a compromise sampling frequency, which can reflect the dynamical behaviour of leached nutrient fluxes responding to changes in land use, agriculture practices and point sources, and appropriate process-based water quality model are required. The objective of this study was to test the identification of hydrological water quality model parameters (nitrogen and phosphorus) under two different monitoring strategies: (1) regular grab-sampling approach and (2) regular grab-sampling with additional monitoring during the hydrological events using automatic samplers. First, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was successfully calibrated (1994-1998) for discharge (NSE = 0.86), nitrate-N (lowest NSE for nitrate-N load = 0.69), particulate phosphorus and soluble phosphorus in the Selke catchment (463 km2, central Germany) for the period 1994-1998 using regular grab-sampling approach (biweekly to monthly for nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations). Second, the model was successfully validated during the period 1999-2010 for discharge, nitrate-N, particulate-phosphorus and soluble-phosphorus (lowest NSE for soluble phosphorus load = 0.54). Results, showed that when additional sampling during the events with random grab-sampling approach was used (period 2011-2013), the hydrological model could reproduce only the nitrate-N and soluble phosphorus concentrations reasonably well. However, when additional sampling during the hydrological events was considered, the HYPE model could not represent the measured particulate phosphorus. This reflects the importance of suspended sediment during the hydrological events increasing the concentrations of particulate phosphorus. The HYPE model could

  1. The concentration ratio of alkaline earth elements calcium, barium and strontium in grains of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat

    Maksimović Ivana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though calcium (Ca, strontium (Sr and barium (Ba belong to the same group of the periodic table of elements, and thus have similar chemical features, their importance for plants differs greatly. Since plants do not have the ability to completely dis­criminate between essential (e.g. Ca and non-essential elements (e.g. Sr and Ba, they read­ily take all of them up from soil solution, which is reflected in the ratios of concentrations of those elements in plant tissues, and it influences their nutritive characteristics. The ability of plant species and genotypes to take up and accumulate chemical elements in their different tissues is related to their genetic background. However, differences in chemical composition are the least reflected in their reproductive parts. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate ratios of concentrations of Ca, Sr and Ba in the whole grain of diploid and tetraploid wheat - ancestors of common wheat, as well as in hexaploid commercial cultivars, grown in the field, at the same location, over a period of three years. The investigated genotypes accumulated Ca, Sr and Ba at different levels, which is reflected in the ratio of their concentrations in the grain. The lowest ratio was established between Ba and Sr, followed by Ca and Ba, while the highest ratio was between Ca and Sr. Moreover, the results have shown that the year of study, genotype and the combination highly significantly affected the ratio of the concentration Ca:Sr, Ca:Ba, and Ba:Sr.

  2. Temporal fluctuations in grain size, organic materials and iron concentrations in intertidal surface sediment of San Francisco Bay

    Thomson-Becker, E. A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of the oxidized surface sediment in an estuary fluctuate temporally in response to physical forces and apparently-fluctuating inputs. These characteristics, which include grain size and concentrations of organic materials and iron, will influence both trace-metal geochemistry and bioavailability. Temporal trends in the abundance of fine particles, total organic carbon content (TOC), absorbance of extractable organic material (EOM), and concentration of extractable iron in the sediment of San Francisco Bay were assessed using data sets containing approximately monthly samples for periods of two to seven years. Changes in wind velocity and runoff result in monthly changes in the abundance of fine particles in the intertidal zone. Fine-grained particles are most abundant in the late fall/early winter when runoff is elevated and wind velocities are low; particles are coarser in the summer when runoff is low and wind velocities are consistently high. Throughout the bay, TOC is linearly related to fine particle abundance (r = 0.61). Temporal variability occurs in this relationship, as particles are poor in TOC relative to percent of fine particles in the early rainy season. Iron-poor particles also appear to enter the estuary during high runoff periods; while iron is enriched on particle surfaces in the summer. Concentrations of extractable iron and absorbance of EOM vary strongly from year to year. Highest absorbances of EOM occurred in the first year following the drought in 1976-77, and in 1982 and 1983 when river discharge was unusually high. Extractable-iron concentrations were also highest in 1976-77, but were very low in 1982 and 1983. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  3. Effect of Abiotic Stresses on the Nondestructive Estimation of Rice Leaf Nitrogen Concentration

    Stephan M. Haefele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision support tools for non-destructive estimation of rice crop nitrogen (N status (e.g., chlorophyll meter [SPAD] or leaf color chart [LCC] are an established technology for improved N management in irrigated systems, but their value in rainfed environments with frequent abiotic stresses remains untested. Therefore, we studied the effect of drought, salinity, phosphorus (P deficiency, and sulfur (S deficiency on leaf N estimates derived from SPAD and LCC measurements in a greenhouse experiment. Linear relations between chlorophyll concentration and leaf N concentration based on dry weight (Ndw between SPAD values adjusted for leaf thickness and Ndw and between LCC scores adjusted for leaf thickness and Ndw could be confirmed for all treatments and varieties used. Leaf spectral reflectance measurements did not show a stress-dependent change in the reflectance pattern, indicating that no specific element of the photosynthetic complex was affected by the stresses and at the stress level applied. We concluded that SPAD and LCC are potentially useful tools for improved N management in moderately unfavorable rice environments. However, calibration for the most common rice varieties in the target region is recommended to increase the precision of the leaf N estimates.

  4. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M.; Kleinsasser, N.

    2010-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO 2 in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO 2 , 0.1 ppm NO 2 , 1 ppm NO 2 , 10 ppm NO 2 and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO 2 in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO 2 in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  5. Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Claire Barbet-Massin

    Full Text Available The need for medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial uses creates an opportunity for farmers to produce alternative crops. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a perennial shrub originating from Paraguay, is of increasing interest as a source of zero-calorie natural sweeteners: the steviol glycosides (SVglys. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of nitrogen (N supply for leaf yield and for SVgly concentrations in leaves, which are the two major components of S. rebaudiana productivity. In this regard, the relationship between leaf N concentration, CO2 assimilation, leaf production and SVgly accumulation was investigated. The experiments were conducted consecutively in growth-chamber (CC: controlled conditions, in greenhouse (SCC: semi-controlled conditions and in field conditions (FC on two genotypes. In CC and SCC, three levels of N fertilization were applied. Plants were grown on four locations in the FC experiment. Both N supply (CC and SCC and location (FC had a significant effect on N content in leaves. When light was not limiting (SCC and FC N content in leaves was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation rate and biomass accumulation. Irrespective of the growth conditions, N content in leaves was negatively correlated with SVgly content. However, increased SVgly content was correlated with a decreased ratio of rebaudioside A over stevioside. The evidence that the increased SVgly accumulation compensates for the negative effect on biomass production suggests that adequate SVgly productivity per plant may be achieved with relatively low fertilization.

  6. Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Barbet-Massin, Claire; Giuliano, Simon; Alletto, Lionel; Daydé, Jean; Berger, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The need for medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial uses creates an opportunity for farmers to produce alternative crops. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a perennial shrub originating from Paraguay, is of increasing interest as a source of zero-calorie natural sweeteners: the steviol glycosides (SVglys). The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of nitrogen (N) supply for leaf yield and for SVgly concentrations in leaves, which are the two major components of S. rebaudiana productivity. In this regard, the relationship between leaf N concentration, CO2 assimilation, leaf production and SVgly accumulation was investigated. The experiments were conducted consecutively in growth-chamber (CC: controlled conditions), in greenhouse (SCC: semi-controlled conditions) and in field conditions (FC) on two genotypes. In CC and SCC, three levels of N fertilization were applied. Plants were grown on four locations in the FC experiment. Both N supply (CC and SCC) and location (FC) had a significant effect on N content in leaves. When light was not limiting (SCC and FC) N content in leaves was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation rate and biomass accumulation. Irrespective of the growth conditions, N content in leaves was negatively correlated with SVgly content. However, increased SVgly content was correlated with a decreased ratio of rebaudioside A over stevioside. The evidence that the increased SVgly accumulation compensates for the negative effect on biomass production suggests that adequate SVgly productivity per plant may be achieved with relatively low fertilization. PMID:26192921

  7. Wood nitrogen concentrations in tropical trees: phylogenetic patterns and ecological correlates.

    Martin, Adam R; Erickson, David L; Kress, W John; Thomas, Sean C

    2014-11-01

    In tropical and temperate trees, wood chemical traits are hypothesized to covary with species' life-history strategy along a 'wood economics spectrum' (WES), but evidence supporting these expected patterns remains scarce. Due to its role in nutrient storage, we hypothesize that wood nitrogen (N) concentration will covary along the WES, being higher in slow-growing species with high wood density (WD), and lower in fast-growing species with low WD. In order to test this hypothesis we quantified wood N concentrations in 59 Panamanian hardwood species, and used this dataset to examine ecological correlates and phylogenetic patterns of wood N. Wood N varied > 14-fold among species between 0.04 and 0.59%; closely related species were more similar in wood N than expected by chance. Wood N was positively correlated with WD, and negatively correlated with log-transformed relative growth rates, although these relationships were relatively weak. We found evidence for co-evolution between wood N and both WD and log-transformed mortality rates. Our study provides evidence that wood N covaries with tree life-history parameters, and that these patterns consistently co-evolve in tropical hardwoods. These results provide some support for the hypothesized WES, and suggest that wood is an increasingly important N pool through tropical forest succession. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. NITROGEN ISOTOPES IN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH CARBON STARS AND PRESOLAR SiC GRAINS: A CHALLENGE FOR STELLAR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    Hedrosa, R. P.; Abia, C.; Domínguez, I.; Palmerini, S.; Busso, M.; Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.; Plez, B.

    2013-01-01

    Isotopic ratios of C, N, Si, and trace heavy elements in presolar SiC grains from meteorites provide crucial constraints to nucleosynthesis. A long-debated issue is the origin of the so-called A+B grains, as of yet no stellar progenitor thus far has been clearly identified on observational grounds. We report the first spectroscopic measurements of 14 N/ 15 N ratios in Galactic carbon stars of different spectral types and show that J- and some SC-type stars might produce A+B grains, even for 15 N enrichments previously attributed to novae. We also show that most mainstream grains are compatible with the composition of N-type stars, but in some cases might also descend from SC stars. From a theoretical point of view, no astrophysical scenario can explain the C and N isotopic ratios of SC-, J-, and N-type carbon stars together, as well as those of many grains produced by them. This poses urgent questions to stellar physics.

  9. Effects of Elevated CO2 Concentration on the Biomasses and Nitrogen Concentrations in the Organs of Sainfoin(Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.)

    ZHOU Zheng-chao; SHANGGUAN Zhou-ping

    2009-01-01

    In forage grasses,the nitrogen concentration is directly related to the nutritional value.The studies examined the hypothesis that global elevation of CO2 concentration probably affects the biomass,nitrogen(N)concentration,and allocation and distribution patterns in the organs of forage grasses.While sainfoin(Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.)seedlings grew on a low nutrient soil in closed chambers for 90 days,they were exposed to two CO2 concentrations(ambient or ambient+350μmol mol-1 CO2)without adding nutrients to them.After 90 days exposure to CO2,the biomasses of leaves,stems,and roots,and N concentrations and contents of different parts were measured.Compared with the ambient CO2 concentration,the elevated CO2 concentration increased the total dry matter by 25.07%,mainly due to the root and leaf having positive response to the elevated CO2 concentration.However,the elevated CO2 concentration did not change the proportions of the dry matters in different parts and the total plants compared with the ambient CO2 concentration.The elevated CO2 concentration lowered the N concentrations of the plant parts.Because the dry matter was higher,the elevated CO2 concentration had no effect on the N content in the plants compared to the ambient CO2 concentration.The elevated CO2 concentration promoted N allocations of the different parts significantly and increased N allocation of the underground part.The results have confirmed the previous suggestions that the elevated CO2 concentration stimulates plant biomass production and decreases the N concentrations of the plant parts.

  10. Concentrations, Deposition, and Effects of Nitrogenous Pollutants in Selected California Ecosystems

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N in California ecosystems is ecologically significant and highly variable, ranging from about 1 to 45 kg/ha/year. The lowest ambient concentrations and deposition values are found in the eastern and northern parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the highest in parts of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains that are most exposed to the Los Angeles air pollution plume. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, N is deposited mostly in precipitation, although dry deposition may also provide substantial amounts of N. On the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the majority of airborne N is in reduced forms as ammonia (NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+ from agricultural activities in the California Central Valley. In southern California, most of the N air pollution is in oxidized forms as nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitric acid (HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3– resulting from fossil fuel combustion and subsequent complex photochemical reactions. In southern California, dry deposition of gases and particles provides most (up to 95% of the atmospheric N to forests and other ecosystems. In the mixed-conifer forest zone, elevated deposition of N may initially benefit growth of vegetation, but chronic effects may be expressed as deterioration of forest health and sustainability. HNO3 vapor alone has a potential for toxic effects causing damage of foliar surfaces of pines and oaks. In addition, dry deposition of predominantly HNO3 has lead to changes in vegetation composition and contamination of ground- and stream water where terrestrial N loading is high. Long-term, complex interactions between N deposition and other environmental stresses such as elevated ozone (O3, drought, insect infestations, fire suppression, or intensive land management practices may affect water quality and sustainability of California forests and other ecosystems.

  11. Effect of nitrogen concentration and temperature on the critical resolved shear stress and strain rate sensitivity of vanadium

    Rehbein, D.K.

    1980-08-01

    The critical resolved shear stress and strain rate sensitivity were measured over the temperature range from 77 to 400 0 K for vanadium-nitrogen alloys containing from 0.0004 to 0.184 atom percent nitrogen. These properties were found to be strongly dependent on both the nitrogen concentration and temperature. The following observations were seen in this investigation: the overall behavior of the alloys for the temperature and concentration range studied follows a form similar to that predicted; the concentration dependence of the critical resolved shear stress after subtracting the hardening due to the pure vanadium lattice obeys Labusch's c/sup 2/3/ relationship above 200 0 K and Fleischer's c/sup 1/2/ relationship below 200 0 K; the theoretical predictions of Fleischer's model for the temperature dependence of the critical resolved shear stress are in marked disagreement with the behavior found; and the strain rate sensitivity, par. delta tau/par. deltaln γ, exhibits a peak at approximately 100 0 K that decreases in height as the nitrogen concentration increases. A similar peak has been observed in niobium by other investigators but the effect of concentration on the peak height is quite different

  12. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study

    Spengler John D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Methods Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008 and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Results Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32, the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p Conclusion Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the airport terminal.

  13. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study.

    Adamkiewicz, Gary; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steven J; Spengler, John D; Levy, Jonathan I

    2010-11-17

    There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment) to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR) modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008) and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs) of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32), the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p GIS variables, and the regression model structure was robust to various model-building approaches. Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the airport terminal.

  14. Cow and herd variation in milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cattle.

    Aguilar, M; Hanigan, M D; Tucker, H A; Jones, B L; Garbade, S K; McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C; Knowlton, K F; James, R E

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is correlated with N balance, N intake, and dietary N content, and thus is a good indicator of proper feeding management with respect to protein. It is commonly used to monitor feeding programs to achieve environmental goals; however, genetic diversity also exists among cows. It was hypothesized that phenotypic diversity among cows could bias feed management decisions when monitoring tools do not consider genetic diversity associated with MUN. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of cow and herd variation on MUN. Data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial were subjected to multivariate regression analyses using a mixed model. Analyses of the research trial data showed that MUN concentrations could be predicted equally well from diet composition, milk yield, and milk components regardless of whether dry matter intake was included in the regression model. This indicated that cow and herd variation could be accurately estimated from field trial data when feed intake was not known. Milk urea N was correlated with dietary protein and neutral detergent fiber content, milk yield, milk protein content, and days in milk for both data sets. Cow was a highly significant determinant of MUN regardless of the data set used, and herd trended to significance for the field trial data. When all other variables were held constant, a percentage unit change in dietary protein concentration resulted in a 1.1mg/dL change in MUN. Least squares means estimates of MUN concentrations across herds ranged from a low of 13.6 mg/dL to a high of 17.3 mg/dL. If the observed MUN for the high herd were caused solely by high crude protein feeding, then the herd would have to reduce dietary protein to a concentration of 12.8% of dry matter to achieve a MUN concentration of 12 mg/dL, likely resulting in lost milk production. If the observed phenotypic variation is due to genetic differences among cows, genetic choices could result in

  15. Pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen concentration and reproductive performance of Bonsmara heifers within different management systems.

    Tshuma, Takula; Holm, Dietmar Erik; Fosgate, Geoffrey Theodore; Lourens, Dirk Cornelius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the association between pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and reproductive performance of beef heifers within different management systems in South Africa. Bonsmara heifers (n = 369) from five herds with different estimated levels of nitrogen intake during the month prior to the commencement of the breeding season were sampled in November and December 2010 to determine BUN concentrations. Body mass, age, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive tract score (RTS) were recorded at study enrolment. Trans-rectal ultrasound and/or palpation was performed 4-8 weeks after a 3-month breeding season to estimate the stage of pregnancy. Days to pregnancy (DTP) was defined as the number of days from the start of the breeding season until the estimated conception date. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards survival analysis were performed to estimate the association of pre-breeding BUN concentration with subsequent pregnancy and DTP, respectively. After stratifying for herd and adjusting for age, heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration took longer to become pregnant when compared to those with relatively lower BUN concentration (P = 0.011). In the herd with the highest estimated nitrogen intake (n = 143), heifers with relatively higher BUN were less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.013) and if they did, it was only later during the breeding season (P = 0.017), after adjusting for body mass. These associations were not present in the herd (n = 106) with the lowest estimated nitrogen intake (P > 0.500). It is concluded that Bonsmara heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration, might be at a disadvantage because of this negative impact on reproductive performance, particularly when the production system includes high levels of nitrogen intake.

  16. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    Chukbar, B. K., E-mail: bchukbar@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm{sup –3} in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found.

  17. Changes in Enzyme Activities Involved in Starch Synthesis and Hormone Concentrations in Superior and Inferior Spikelets and Their Association with Grain Filling of Super Rice

    Jing FU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The changes in activities of key enzymes involved in sucrose-to-starch conversion and concentrations of hormones in superior and inferior spikelets of super rice were investigated and their association with grain filling was analyzed. Four super rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu, IIyou 084, Huaidao 9 and Wujing 15, and two high-yielding and elite check cultivars, Shanyou 63 and Yangfujing 8, were used. The activities of sucrose synthase (SuSase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase, starch synthase (StSase and starch branching enzyme (SBE, and the concentrations of zeatin + zeatin riboside (Z + ZR, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA in superior and inferior spikelets were determined during the grain filling period and their relationships with grain filling rate were analyzed. Maximum grain filling rate, the time reaching the maximum grain-filling rate, mean grain filling rate and brown rice weight for superior spikelets showed a slight difference between the super and check rice cultivars, but were significantly lower in the super rice than in the check rice for inferior spikelets. Changes of enzyme activities and hormone concentrations in grains exhibited single peak curves during the grain filling period. The peak values and the mean activities of SuSase, AGPase, StSase and SBE were lower in inferior spikelets than in superior ones, as well as the peak values and the mean concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA. However, the peak value and the mean concentration of ABA were significantly higher in inferior spikelets than in superior ones and greater in the super rice than in the check rice. The grain filling rate was positively and significantly correlated with the activities of SuSase, AGPase and StSase and the concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA. The results suggested that the low activities of SuSase, AGPase and StSase and the low concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA might be important physiological reasons for the slow grain

  18. Indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide from burning solid fuels for cooking and heating in Yunnan Province, China

    Seow, Wei Jie; Downward, George S; Wei, Hu; Rothman, Nathaniel; Reiss, Boris; Xu, Jun; Bassig, Bryan A; Li, Jihua; He, Jun; Hosgood, H Dean; Wu, Guoping; Chapman, Robert S; Tian, Linwei; Wei, Fusheng; Caporaso, Neil E; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese national pollution census has indicated that the domestic burning of solid fuels is an important contributor to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) emissions in China. To characterize indoor NO2 and SO2 air concentrations in relation to solid fuel use and stove ventilation

  19. The effect of grain size and surface area on organic matter, lignin and carbohydrate concentration, and molecular compositions in Peru Margin sediments

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Tsamakis, Elizabeth; Keil, Richard G.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Hedges, John I.

    1997-03-01

    A C-rich sediment sample from the Peru Margin was sorted into nine hydrodynamically-determined grain size fractions to explore the effect of grain size distribution and sediment surface area on organic matter content and composition. The neutral monomeric carbohydrate composition, lignin oxidation product yields, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen contents were determined independently for each size fraction, in addition to sediment surface area and abundance of biogenic opal. The percent organic carbon and percent total nitrogen were strongly related to surface area in these sediments. In turn, the distribution of surface area closely followed mass distribution among the textural size classes, suggesting hydrodynamic controls on grain size also control organic carbon content. Nevertheless, organic compositional distinctions were observed between textural size classes. Total neutral carbohydrate yields in the Peru Margin sediments were found to closely parallel trends in total organic carbon, increasing in abundance among grain size fractions in proportion to sediment surface area. Coincident with the increases in absolute abundance, rhamnose and mannose increased as a fraction of the total carbohydrate yield in concert with surface area, indicating these monomers were preferentially represented in carbohydrates associated with surfaces. Lignin oxidation product yields varied with surface area when normalized to organic carbon, suggesting that the terrestrially-derived component may be diluted by sorption of marine derived material. Lignin-based parameters suggest a separate source for terrestrially derived material associated with sand-size material as opposed to that associated with silts and clays.

  20. Self-reported whole-grain intake and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations in combination in relation to the incidence of colorectal cancer

    Knudsen, Markus Dines; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    -grain consumption (HELGA, 1992-1998). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations alone and Howe's score with ranks were inversely associated with the incidence of distal colon cancer when the highest quartile...... (colon, proximal, distal or rectum cancer) when using an FFQ as the measure/exposure variable for whole-grain intake. The results suggest that assessing whole-grain intake using a combination of FFQs and biomarkers slightly increases the precision in estimating the risk of colon or rectal cancer......Self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have occasionally been used to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer, but the results from those studies have been inconsistent. We investigated this association using intakes of whole grains...

  1. Nitrogen Concentrations and Isotopic Compositions of Seafloor-Altered Terrestrial Basaltic Glass: Implications for Astrobiology

    Banerjee, N.R.; Izawa, M.R.M.; Kobayashi, K.; Lazzeri, K.; Ranieri, L.A.; Nakamura, E.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Observed enrichments of N (and the δ15N of this N) in volcanic glasses altered on Earth's modern and ancient seafloor are relevant in considerations of modern global N subduction fluxes and ancient life on Earth, and similarly altered glasses on Mars and other extraterrestrial bodies could serve as valuable tracers of biogeochemical processes. Palagonitized glasses and whole-rock samples of volcanic rocks on the modern seafloor (ODP Site 1256D) contain 3–18 ppm N with δ15Nair values of up to +4.5‰. Variably altered glasses from Mesozoic ophiolites (Troodos, Cyprus; Stonyford volcanics, USA) contain 2–53 ppm N with δ15N of −6.3 to +7‰. All of the more altered glasses have N concentrations higher than those of fresh volcanic glass (for MORB, smectite, illite) in both the palagonitized cracks and the microtubules. These phyllosilicates (particularly illite), and possibly also zeolites, are the likely hosts for N in these glasses. Key Words: Nitrogen—Nitrogen isotope—Palagonite—Volcanic glass—Mars. Astrobiology 18, 330–342. PMID:29106312

  2. Terricolous alpine lichens are sensitive to both load and concentration of applied nitrogen and have potential as bioindicators of nitrogen deposition

    Britton, Andrea J.; Fisher, Julia M.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of applied nitrogen (N) concentration and load on thallus chemistry and growth of five terricolous alpine lichen species was investigated in a three-month N addition study. Thallus N content was influenced by both concentration and load; but the relative importance of these parameters varied between species. Growth was most affected by concentration. Thresholds for effects observed in this study support a low critical load for terricolous lichen communities ( -1 y -1 ) and suggest that concentrations of N currently encountered in UK cloudwater may have detrimental effects on the growth of sensitive species. The significance of N concentration effects on sensitive species also highlights the need to avoid artificially high concentrations when designing N addition experiments. Given the sensitivity of some species to extremely low loads and concentrations of N we suggest that terricolous lichens have potential as indicators of deposition and impact in northern and alpine ecosystems. - Terricolous lichen species' N content responds to both applied N concentration and load while applied N concentration has greatest effects on growth.

  3. Terricolous alpine lichens are sensitive to both load and concentration of applied nitrogen and have potential as bioindicators of nitrogen deposition

    Britton, Andrea J., E-mail: a.britton@macaulay.ac.u [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Fisher, Julia M. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The influence of applied nitrogen (N) concentration and load on thallus chemistry and growth of five terricolous alpine lichen species was investigated in a three-month N addition study. Thallus N content was influenced by both concentration and load; but the relative importance of these parameters varied between species. Growth was most affected by concentration. Thresholds for effects observed in this study support a low critical load for terricolous lichen communities (<7.5 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}) and suggest that concentrations of N currently encountered in UK cloudwater may have detrimental effects on the growth of sensitive species. The significance of N concentration effects on sensitive species also highlights the need to avoid artificially high concentrations when designing N addition experiments. Given the sensitivity of some species to extremely low loads and concentrations of N we suggest that terricolous lichens have potential as indicators of deposition and impact in northern and alpine ecosystems. - Terricolous lichen species' N content responds to both applied N concentration and load while applied N concentration has greatest effects on growth.

  4. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  5. Nitrogen removal capacity and bacterial community dynamics of a Canon biofilter system at different organic matter concentrations.

    García-Ruiz, María J; Maza-Márquez, Paula; González-López, Jesús; Osorio, Francisco

    2018-02-01

    Three Canon bench-scale bioreactors with a volume of 2 L operating in parallel were configured as submerged biofilters. In the present study we investigated the effects of a high ammonium concentration (320 mgNH 4 + · L -1 ) and different concentrations of organic matter (0, 100 and 400 mgCOD·L -1 ) on the nitrogen removal capacity and the bacterial community structure. After 60 days, the Canon biofilters operated properly under concentrations of 0 and 100 mgCOD·L -1 of organic matter, with nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 85%. However, a higher concentration of organic matter (400 mgCOD·L -1 ) produced a partial inhibition of nitrogen removal (68.1% efficiency). The addition of higher concentrations of organic matter a modified the bacterial community structure in the Canon biofilter, increasing the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria related to the genera of Thauera, Longilinea, Ornatilinea, Thermomarinilinea, unclassified Chlorobiales and Denitratisoma. However, heterotrophic bacteria co-exist with Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Scalindua. Thus, our study confirms the co-existence of different microbial activities (AOB, Anammox and denitrification) and the adaptation of a fixed-biofilm system to different concentrations of organic matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Response of Algae to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration and Quantity of Pumping Water in Pumped Storage Reservoir].

    Wan, You-peng; Yin, Kui-hao; Peng, Sheng-hua

    2015-06-01

    Taking a pumped storage reservoir located in southern China as the research object, the paper established a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and eutrophication model of the reservoir employing EFDC (environmental fluid dynamics code) model, calibrated and verified the model using long-term hydraulic and water quality data. Based on the model results, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the algae growth were analyzed, and the response of algae to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and quantity of pumping water was also calculated. The results showed that the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations had little limit on algae growth rate in the reservoir. In the nutrients reduction scenarios, reducing phosphorus would gain greater algae biomass reduction than reducing nitrogen. When reducing 60 percent of nitrogen, the algae biomass did not decrease, while 12.4 percent of algae biomass reduction could be gained with the same reduction ratio of phosphorus. When the reduction ratio went to 90 percent, the algae biomass decreased by 17.9 percent and 35.1 percent for nitrogen and phosphorus reduction, respectively. In the pumping water quantity regulation scenarios, the algae biomass decreased with the increasing pumping water quantity when the pumping water quantity was greater than 20 percent of the current value; when it was less than 20 percent, the algae biomass increased with the increasing pumping water quantity. The algae biomass decreased by 25.7 percent when the pumping water quantity was doubled, and increased by 38.8 percent when it decreased to 20 percent. The study could play an important role in supporting eutrophication controlling in water source area.

  7. Effect of shading from jointing to maturity on high molecular weight glutenin subunit accumulation and glutenin macropolymer concentration in grain of winter wheat

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Li, H.

    2012-01-01

    the accumulation and concentration of HMW-GS in the grains. Consequently, S1 reduced falling number and SDS-sedimentation volume, while shortened dough development time (DDT) and dough stability time (DST). In contrast, S2 and S3 increased falling number, wet-gluten concentration and SDS-sedimentation volume......, and lengthened the DDT and DST. In addition, the fluctuations in accumulations of HMW-GS and GMP and most quality traits because of shading in Yangmai 158 were less than Yangmai 11. The interrelations between HMW-GS accumulation, GMP concentration and quality of grain and dough were further discussed....

  8. Advanced Mechanical Properties of a Powder Metallurgy Ti-Al-N Alloy Doped with Ultrahigh Nitrogen Concentration

    Shen, J.; Chen, B.; Umeda, J.; Kondoh, K.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys are recognized for their attractive properties. However, high-performance Ti alloys are often alloyed with rare or noble-metal elements. In the present study, Ti alloys doped with only ubiquitous elements were produced via powder metallurgy. The experimental results showed that pure Ti with 1.5 wt.% AlN incorporated exhibited excellent tensile properties, superior to similarly extruded Ti-6Al-4V. Further analysis revealed that its remarkably advanced strength could primarily be attributed to nitrogen solid-solution strengthening, accounting for nearly 80% of the strength increase of the material. In addition, despite the ultrahigh nitrogen concentration up to 0.809 wt.%, the Ti-1.5AlN sample showed elongation to failure of 10%. This result exceeds the well-known limitation for nitrogen (over 0.45 wt.%) that causes embrittlement of Ti alloys.

  9. The Dose–Response Association between Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Serum Interleukin-6 Concentrations

    Jennifer L. Perret

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is an integral part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and air pollution is associated with cardiorespiratory mortality, yet the interrelationships are not fully defined. We examined associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO2 exposure (as a marker of traffic-related air pollution and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and investigated effect modification and mediation by post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (post-BD-AO and cardiovascular risk. Data from middle-aged participants in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS, n = 1389 were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression, using serum interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as the outcome. Mean annual NO2 exposure was estimated at residential addresses using a validated satellite-based land-use regression model. Post-BD-AO was defined by post-BD forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, and cardiovascular risk by a history of either cerebrovascular or ischaemic heart disease. We found a positive association with increasing serum IL-6 concentration (geometric mean 1.20 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.3, p = 0.001 per quartile increase in NO2. This was predominantly a direct relationship, with little evidence for either effect modification or mediation via post-BD-AO, or for the small subgroup who reported cardiovascular events. However, there was some evidence consistent with serum IL-6 being on the causal pathway between NO2 and cardiovascular risk. These findings raise the possibility that the interplay between air pollution and systemic inflammation may differ between post-BD airflow obstruction and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Effect of Nitrogen Form and pH of Nutrient Solution on the Shoot Concentration of Phosphorus, Nitrate, and Nitrogen of Spinach in Hydroponic Culture

    N. Najafi; M. Parsazadeh

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on the shoot concentration of P, nitrate, organic N + inorganic ammonium, and total N of spinach, a factorial experiment was conducted with two factors including pH of nutrient solution in three levels (4.5, 6.5 and 8.0) and nitrate to ammonium ratio of nutrient solution in five levels (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100). This factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four replicatio...

  11. Self-reported whole-grain intake and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations in combination in relation to the incidence of colorectal cancer.

    Knudsen, Markus Dines; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Dragsted, Lars O; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Aman, Per; Nilsson, Lena M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-05-15

    Self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have occasionally been used to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer, but the results from those studies have been inconsistent. We investigated this association using intakes of whole grains and whole-grain products measured via FFQs and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, both separately and in combination (Howe's score with ranks). We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort from a research project on Nordic health and whole-grain consumption (HELGA, 1992-1998). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations alone and Howe's score with ranks were inversely associated with the incidence of distal colon cancer when the highest quartile was compared with the lowest (for alkylresorcinol concentrations, incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.92; for Howe's score with ranks, incidence rate ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.86). No association was observed between whole-grain intake and any colorectal cancer (colon, proximal, distal or rectum cancer) when using an FFQ as the measure/exposure variable for whole-grain intake. The results suggest that assessing whole-grain intake using a combination of FFQs and biomarkers slightly increases the precision in estimating the risk of colon or rectal cancer by reducing the impact of misclassification, thereby increasing the statistical power of the study.

  12. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  13. Blue-green fluorescence and visible-infrared reflectance of corn (Zea mays L.) grain for in situ field detection of nitrogen supply

    McMurtrey, J.E. III; Chappelle, E.W.; Kim, M.S.; Corp, L.A.; Daughtry, C.S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The sensing of spectral attributes of corn (Zea mays L.) grain from site specific areas of the field during the harvest process may be useful in managing agronomic inputs and production practices on those areas of the field in subsequent growing seasons. Eight levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn at Beltsville, Maryland. These N treatments produced a range of chlorophyll levels, biomass and physiological condition in the live plant canopies. After harvest, spectra were obtained in the laboratory on whole grain samples. Fluorescence emissions were acquired from 400 to 600 nm and percent reflectance were measured in the visible (VIS) near infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) regions from 400 nm to 2400 nm. A ultraviolet (UV) excitation band centered at 385 nm was the most effective in producing fluorescence emission differences in the blue-green region of the fluorescence spectrum with maxima centered from 430-470nm in the blue and with an intense shoulder centered at around 530-560 nm in the green region. Reflectance showed the most spectral differences in the NIR and MIR (970-2330 nm) regions

  14. Effects of climate, CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and stand age changes on the carbon budget of China's forests

    Zhang, C.; Ju, W.; Zhang, F.; Mao, D.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Forests play an irreplaceable role in the Earth's terrestrial carbon budget which retard the atmospheric CO2 buildup. Understanding the factors controlling forest carbon budget is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and stand age changes on carbon budget, however, remains unclear for China's forests. In this study, we quantify individual contribution of these drivers to the trends of forest carbon budget in China from 1901 to 2012 by integrating national datasets, the updated Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Cycle (InTEC) model and factorial simulations. Results showed that the average carbon sink in China's forests from 1982 to 2012 was 186.9 Tg C yr-1 with 68% (127.6 Tg C yr-1) of the sink in living biomass because of the integrated effects of climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and stand age factors. Compared with the simulation of all factors combined, the estimated carbon sink during 1901-2012 would be reduced by 41.8 Tg C yr-1 if climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition factors were omitted, and reduced by 25.0 Tg C yr-1 if stand age factor was omitted. In most decades, these factors increased forest carbon sinks with the largest of 101.3, 62.9, and 44.0 Tg C yr-1 from 2000 to 2012 contributed by stand age, CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition, respectively. During 1901-2012, climate change, CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition and stand age contributed -13.3, 21.4, 15.4 and 25.0 Tg C yr-1 to the averaged carbon sink of China's forests, respectively. Our study also showed diverse regional patterns of forest carbon budget related to the importance of driving factors. Stand age effect was the largest in most regions, but the effects of CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition were dominant in southern China.

  15. Laser surface processing with controlled nitrogen-argon concentration levels for regulated surface life time

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2018-03-01

    Laser surface modification can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of a material, such as hardness, toughness, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance. Surface nitriding is a widely used thermochemical method of surface modification, in which nitrogen is introduced into a metal or other material at an elevated temperature within a furnace. It is used on parts where there is a need for increased wear resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue life, and hardness. Laser nitriding is a novel method of nitriding where the surface is heated locally by a laser, either in an atmosphere of nitrogen or with a jet of nitrogen delivered to the laser heated site. It combines the benefits of laser modification with those of nitriding. Recent work on high toughness tool steel samples has shown promising results due to the increased nitrogen gas impingement onto the laser heated region. Increased surface activity and nitrogen adsorption was achieved which resulted in a deeper and harder surface compared to conventional hardening methods. In this work, the effects of the laser power, pulse repetition frequency, and overlap percentage on laser surface treatment of 316 L SST steel samples with an argon-nitrogen jet will be presented. Resulting microstructure, phase type, microhardness, and wear resistance are presented.

  16. Nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations and urinary orotic acid excretion during long-term fasting in cats.

    Biourge, V; Groff, J M; Fisher, C; Bee, D; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the changes in nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations, urinary orotic acid excretion and body weight during long-term fasting in adult obese cats. Results from eight cats that fasted rather than eat an unpalatable diet are reported. After 5 to 6 wk of weight loss, six of the eight cats developed signs of hepatic lipidosis, and the livers of all cats were severely infiltrated with lipids. Cats lost (mean +/- SE) 33.2 +/- 1.4% of their pre-fasting body weight. Mean nitrogen balance (+/- SE) was -547 +/- 54 mg.d-1.kg-2/3 for the first week, and then the net nitrogen losses decreased to a plateau (-303 +/- 52 mg.d-1.kg-2/3) after 4 wk. Fasting was associated with a decrease in plasma concentration of essential amino acids. When plasma amino acid concentrations were considered individually, concentrations of alanine, methionine, taurine, citrulline, arginine and tryptophan decreased the most (> or = 50%), whereas concentrations of glutamine, glutamate and ornithine significantly increased. Orotic acid was not detected in the urine during the fast. After 1 wk of fasting, obese cats had reduced nitrogen excretion, but not to the same extent as has been shown in obese humans or obese rats. It is suggested that the availability of several amino acids may become limiting for liver protein synthesis during fasting and that these deficiencies may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis. Orotic acid was not linked to hepatic lipidosis caused by fasting in cats.

  17. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  18. Determination of Microbial Nitrogen Production by Using Urinary Allantoin and Blood Metabolite Concentrate in Growing Brahman Cattle Fed the Different Proportion of Roughage and Concentrate in Diets

    Suthikrai, Wanvipa; Usawang, Sungwon; Kijsamrej, Suriya; Sophon, Sunpetch; Jetana, Thongsuk

    2003-06-01

    Determination of microbial nitrogen synthesis by using urinary allantoin and blood metabolite for evaluating the efficiency of feed utilization, in this study was conducted by using four Brahman bulls (about 1 year old). Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 fixed diets of four combinations of pineapple fibre (P) and concentrate (C) in the proportions, on dry matter basis of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.04(P60:C40), 0.4:0.6(P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The experiment was designed as a 4x4 Latin square design The Results showed that increasing in the proportion of concentrate linearly increased the rumen microbial nitrogen production (p<0.001), the concentrations of Insulin and urea-N in plasma and the concentration of urea-N in the urine, but not affected on the concentrations of glucose and creatinine in plasma. In conclusion, the using of allantoin urinary associated with blood metabolite can evaluate the accuracy in evaluation of feed utilization in Brahman cattle

  19. Effects of concentrated arabinoxylan and β-glucan compared with refined wheat and whole grain rye on glucose and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    Hartvigsen, M L; Gregersen, S; Lærke, H N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several studies emphasise that arabinoxylan and β-glucan have more beneficial effects on glucose metabolism than low-dietary fibre (DF) meals. Less attention has been paid to the effects of concentrated DF compared with whole grain. We compared the effects of DF and whole...... grain on glucose, hormone responses and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over intervention study. The test breads provided 50 g of digestible carbohydrate: wheat bread with concentrated...

  20. Physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size using multi-frequency arrays of acoustic-doppler profilers

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.; Griffiths, Ronald; Dean, David

    2014-01-01

    As the result of a 12-year program of sediment-transport research and field testing on the Colorado River (6 stations in UT and AZ), Yampa River (2 stations in CO), Little Snake River (1 station in CO), Green River (1 station in CO and 2 stations in UT), and Rio Grande (2 stations in TX), we have developed a physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size at 15-minute intervals using multifrequency arrays of acoustic-Doppler profilers. This multi-frequency method is able to achieve much higher accuracies than single-frequency acoustic methods because it allows removal of the influence of changes in grain size on acoustic backscatter. The method proceeds as follows. (1) Acoustic attenuation at each frequency is related to the concentration of silt and clay with a known grain-size distribution in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (2) The combination of acoustic backscatter and attenuation at each frequency is uniquely related to the concentration of sand (with a known reference grain-size distribution) and the concentration of silt and clay (with a known reference grain-size distribution) in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (3) Comparison of the suspended-sand concentrations measured at each frequency using this approach then allows theory-based calculation of the median grain size of the suspended sand and final correction of the suspended-sand concentration to compensate for the influence of changing grain size on backscatter. Although this method of measuring suspended-sediment concentration is somewhat less accurate than using conventional samplers in either the EDI or EWI methods, it is much more accurate than estimating suspended-sediment concentrations using calibrated pump measurements or single-frequency acoustics. Though the EDI and EWI methods provide the most accurate measurements of suspended-sediment concentration, these measurements are labor-intensive, expensive, and

  1. Using nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens to spatially assess the relative contribution of atmospheric nitrogen sources in complex landscapes.

    Pinho, P; Barros, C; Augusto, S; Pereira, M J; Máguas, C; Branquinho, C

    2017-11-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators. Our aim was to rank land-cover types according to the amount and form of emitted atmospheric Nr in a complex landscape with multiple sources of N. To do so, we measured and mapped nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichen thalli, which we then related to land-cover data. Results suggested that, at the landscape scale, intensive agriculture and urban areas were the most important sources of Nr to the atmosphere. Additionally, the ocean greatly influences Nr in land, by providing air with low Nr concentration and a unique isotopic composition. These results have important consequences for managing air pollution at the regional level, as they provide critical information for modeling Nr emission and deposition across regional as well as continental scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional value of winter forage and grains under grazing and split nitrogen fertilization

    Loreno Egidio Taffarel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional values of winter forage and grains were evaluated. This study was conducted from April 24, 2012 to November 7, 2013 in the Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazil. Pastures under one grazing and non-grazing conditions were evaluated under 120 kg N ha-1 fertilization split into two 60 kg N ha-1 treatments. Two pastures received 40 kg N ha-1 three times. IPR 126 oat, BRS Tarumã wheat, and IPR 111 triticale were the test crops. Topdressing with 40 or 60 kg N ha-1 did not change morphological characteristics until 60 d after sowing. Pastures under non-grazing that received 120 kg N ha-1 treatments were taller than the controls, whereas those under grazing that received 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 presented with higher leaf production than did the controls. Total average dry matter (DM production in 2012 and 2013 was, respectively, 5,275 kg ha-1 and 6,270 kg ha-1 for oat, 3,166 kg ha-1 and 7,423 kg ha-1 for wheat, and 4,552 kg ha-1 and 7,603 kg ha-1 for triticale. Split N fertilization did not cause differences in the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF in the forage. Nevertheless, increases in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD were observed in oat and wheat receiving 60 kg N ha-1 during the first graze. IVDMD did not change in oat, wheat, and triticale forages receiving 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 during the second graze. Grazing did not affect the nutritional values of wheat and triticale grains, but reduced those of oat. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that grazing lengthens the crop cycles, and so allow the staggered sowing of summer crops.

  3. Redistribution of metabolic fluxes in Chlorella protothecoides by variation of media nitrogen concentration

    Saratram Gopalakrishnan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Elementary Metabolite Unit (EMU algorithm was employed to calculate intracellular fluxes for Chlorella protothecoides using previously generated growth and mass spec data. While the flux through glycolysis remained relatively constant, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP flux increased from 3% to 20% of the glucose uptake during nitrogen-limited growth. The TCA cycle flux decreased from 94% to 38% during nitrogen-limited growth while the flux of acetyl-CoA into lipids increased from 58% to 109% of the glucose uptake, increasing total lipid accumulation. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase activity was higher during nitrogen-sufficient growth. The glyoxylate shunt was found to be partially active in both cases, indicating the nutrient nature has an impact on flux distribution. It was found that the total NADPH supply within the cell remained almost constant under both conditions. In summary, algal cells substantially reorganize their metabolism during the switch from carbon-limited (nitrogen-sufficient to nitrogen-limited (carbon-sufficient growth. Keywords: Microalgae, Biofuels, Chlorella, MFA, EMU algorithm

  4. Effects of Sowing Date, Planting Pattern and Nitrogen Levels on Leaf and Flower Essential Oil, Yield and Component Yield Grain of Buckwheat (Fagopyroum esculentum Moench

    M. R Sobhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Buckwheat which has been scientifically named Fagopyrum esculentum can be considered as a yearling broad-leaved plant belonging to the family of Polygonaceae which is known as false Cereal. Its seeds are in use as a nutritional and medicinal product that is due to the rutin content of them. As the population is rapidly increasing worldwide, a solution must be found to supply necessary food. What agriculture science is responsible for is to produce more products with better quality in order to meet this increasing population’s needs so that food poverty and starvation are more likely to be removed and keep food safety. Considering the fact that buckwheat is of a variety of medical, industrial and food applications and in our country and some other ones, it has not been seriously cultivated, this plant must be used as a new plant and it should be extensively applied in multiple planting systems (summer planting for commercial goals through producing seeds while its nutritional value is more than grain and it can be regarded as a rich source of high quality protein, amino acid necessary for lysine, high starch percent, minerals and vitamins for different applications involving cake flour, frumenty and soup and improving the optimal rate of rutin as a secondary metabolite having effective medical features concerning our country’s climatic conditions. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of sowing date, planting patterns and nitrogen on leaf and flower rutin, yield and yield component of Buckwheat plant, a field study was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in Agricultural Research Institute of Arak, Iran. The experimental design was regarded as the randomized complete block design in the form of split plot factorial with three replications. Planting treatments as the fundamental elements may be implemented at two levels including the mounds with the width of 50 cm associated with two planting rows regarding the

  5. Pathway and mechanism of nitrogen transformation during composting: Functional enzymes and genes under different concentrations of PVP-AgNPs.

    Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Lihua; Dong, Haoran; Chen, Yaoning; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhu, Yuan; Yuan, Yujie; Xie, Yankai; Fang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) were applied at different concentrations to reduce total nitrogen (TN) losses and the mechanisms of nitrogen bio-transformation were investigated in terms of the nitrogen functional enzymes and genes. Results showed that mineral N in pile 3 which was treated with AgNPs at a concentration of 10 mg/kg compost was the highest (6.58 g/kg dry weight (DW) compost) and the TN loss (47.07%) was the lowest at the end of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that TN loss was significantly correlated with amoA abundance. High throughput sequencing showed that the dominant family of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was Nitrosomonadaceae, and the number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) reduced after the beginning of composting when compared with day 1. In summary, treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 10 mg/kg compost was considerable to reduce TN losses and reserve more mineral N during composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of an Sbr process for nitrogen removal from concentrated wastewater via nitrite

    Longhi, L.; Basilico, D.; Meloni, A.; Canziani, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of an experimentation carried out on a pilot-scale Sbr for nitrogen removal via nitridation-denitration are reported. The experimentation was carried out in the period July October 2007 and was aimed at achieving design data for the upgrade of a full scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), following the new regulations issued by Lombardy Regional Authority for the discharge of effluents into sensitive areas. One aspect that has been considered in the upgrade is nitrogen removal from the supernatant coming from anaerobic sludge digestion. The experimental results provided sound design data based on real biological activity measurements and operational process parameters such as oxygen and organic carbon requirements. [it

  7. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  8. Impact of nitrogen concentration on validamycin A production and related gene transcription in fermentation of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008.

    Wei, Zhen-Hua; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-09-01

    Validamycin A (VAL-A) is an important and widely used agricultural antibiotic. In this study, statistical screening designs were applied to identify significant medium variables for VAL-A production and to find their optimal levels. The optimized medium caused 70% enhancement of VAL-A production. The difference between optimized medium and original medium suggested that low nitrogen source level might attribute to the enhancement of VAL-A production. The addition of different nitrogen sources to the optimized medium inhibited VAL-A production, which confirmed the importance of nitrogen concentration for VAL-A production. Furthermore, differences in structural gene transcription and enzyme activity between the two media were assayed. The results showed that lower nitrogen level in the optimized medium could regulate VAL-A production in gene transcriptional level. Our previous study indicated that the transcription of VAL-A structural genes could be enhanced at elevated temperature. In this work, the increased fermentation temperature from 37 to 42 °C with the optimized medium enhanced VAL-A production by 39%, which testified to the importance of structural gene transcription in VAL-A production. The information is useful for further VAL-A production enhancement.

  9. Determination of the nitrogen concentration in epitaxial layers of GaAs /SUB 1-x/ p /SUB x/ by the optical method

    Lupal, M.V.; Klot, B; Nikhter, K.; Pikhtin, A.N.; Trapp, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper determines the dependence of the cross section for absorption in the A /SUB N/ line of a bound exciton on the nitrogen content in the solid solution GaAs /SUB 1-x/ P /SUB x/ by comparing the results of optical measurements with the data from secondary ionic mass spectrometry, and these results are used to study the effect of technological factors on the nitrogen concentration epitaxial layers obtained by the gas-transport method. Doping was carried out with nitrogen by injecting ammonia into the reactor zone; the partial pressure of the ammonia was varied from 1 to 25 kPa. Aside from nitrogen, the authors doped the layers with shallow donor Te. It is established that the solubility of nitrogen in the solid solution decreases as the arsenic content increases when the convenient optical method for determining the nitrogen concentration in epitaxial GaAs /SUB 1-x/ P /SUB x/ layers is used

  10. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  11. Eco-functional intensification by cereal-grain legume intercropping in organic farming systems for increased yields, reduced weeds and improved grain protein concentration

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Étienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Intercropping, i.e., simultaneously growing two (or more) species in the same field for a significant period of time but without necessarily concomitant sowing or harvest, is a practice aimed at eco-functional intensification. This chapter integrates a comprehensive amount of original data from...... field experiments conducted since 2001 on spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops in experimental and farm contexts in France and Denmark, in an attempt to generalise the findings and draw up common guidelines. We have shown that intercrops appear to be a useful agronomic solution for organic......, structure and manuring strategies. Consequently, it should be emphasized that: (i) the species and varietal traits suited to intercropping and organic farming will make it necessary to reconsider the varietal selection criteria; (ii) further mechanistic understanding of the behaviour of intercropping...

  12. Stability Performance of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-Phenotyped Kernel Minerals Concentration and Grain Yield in Maize in Different Agro-Climatic Zones.

    Mallikarjuna, Mallana Gowdra; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Hossain, Firoz; Bhat, Jayant S; Jha, Shailendra K; Rathore, Abhishek; Agrawal, Pawan Kumar; Pattanayak, Arunava; Reddy, Sokka S; Gularia, Satish Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru; Manjaiah, Kanchikeri Math; Gupta, Hari Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency of iron and zinc causes micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger, which severely affects ~25% of global population. Genetic biofortification of maize has emerged as cost effective and sustainable approach in addressing malnourishment of iron and zinc deficiency. Therefore, understanding the genetic variation and stability of kernel micronutrients and grain yield of the maize inbreds is a prerequisite in breeding micronutrient-rich high yielding hybrids to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. We report here, the genetic variability and stability of the kernel micronutrients concentration and grain yield in a set of 50 maize inbred panel selected from the national and the international centres that were raised at six different maize growing regions of India. Phenotyping of kernels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) revealed considerable variability for kernel minerals concentration (iron: 18.88 to 47.65 mg kg(-1); zinc: 5.41 to 30.85 mg kg(-1); manganese: 3.30 to 17.73 mg kg(-1); copper: 0.53 to 5.48 mg kg(-1)) and grain yield (826.6 to 5413 kg ha(-1)). Significant positive correlation was observed between kernel iron and zinc within (r = 0.37 to r = 0.52, p kernel minerals concentration and grain yield. Most of the variation was contributed by genotype main effect for kernel iron (39.6%), manganese (41.34%) and copper (41.12%), and environment main effects for both kernel zinc (40.5%) and grain yield (37.0%). Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot identified several mega environments for kernel minerals and grain yield. Comparison of stability parameters revealed AMMI stability value (ASV) as the better representative of the AMMI stability parameters. Dynamic stability parameter GGE distance (GGED) showed strong and positive correlation with both mean kernel concentrations and grain yield. Inbreds (CM-501, SKV-775, HUZM-185) identified from the present investigation will be useful in

  13. Stability Performance of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-Phenotyped Kernel Minerals Concentration and Grain Yield in Maize in Different Agro-Climatic Zones.

    Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna

    Full Text Available Deficiency of iron and zinc causes micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger, which severely affects ~25% of global population. Genetic biofortification of maize has emerged as cost effective and sustainable approach in addressing malnourishment of iron and zinc deficiency. Therefore, understanding the genetic variation and stability of kernel micronutrients and grain yield of the maize inbreds is a prerequisite in breeding micronutrient-rich high yielding hybrids to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. We report here, the genetic variability and stability of the kernel micronutrients concentration and grain yield in a set of 50 maize inbred panel selected from the national and the international centres that were raised at six different maize growing regions of India. Phenotyping of kernels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS revealed considerable variability for kernel minerals concentration (iron: 18.88 to 47.65 mg kg(-1; zinc: 5.41 to 30.85 mg kg(-1; manganese: 3.30 to 17.73 mg kg(-1; copper: 0.53 to 5.48 mg kg(-1 and grain yield (826.6 to 5413 kg ha(-1. Significant positive correlation was observed between kernel iron and zinc within (r = 0.37 to r = 0.52, p < 0.05 and across locations (r = 0.44, p < 0.01. Variance components of the additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI model showed significant genotype and genotype × environment interaction for kernel minerals concentration and grain yield. Most of the variation was contributed by genotype main effect for kernel iron (39.6%, manganese (41.34% and copper (41.12%, and environment main effects for both kernel zinc (40.5% and grain yield (37.0%. Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE biplot identified several mega environments for kernel minerals and grain yield. Comparison of stability parameters revealed AMMI stability value (ASV as the better representative of the AMMI stability parameters. Dynamic stability

  14. Effect of late-season nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and on flour rheological quality and stability in common wheat, under different production situations

    Massimo Blandino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for a high and homogeneous technological quality of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. points out the necessity of improving wheat with by a higher protein (GPC and gluten content, strength of dough (W and dough stability. Among the current crop practices, late-season nitrogen (N fertilization, from heading to flowering, is generally considered the practice that has the most effects on the storage proteins and technological quality of the grain. In order to explore the influence late-season N application can have on the dough properties and on the formation of homogeneous lots in more detail, a research was set up between 2007 and 2013, over 6 growing seasons at different sites in North West Italy using the Bologna cultivar in each of the trials. Three different late-season N fertilization strategies were compared: T1, control without a late distribution of N; T2, foliar N fertilization at flowering; T3, top-dress granular soil fertilization at the beginning of heading. A randomized complete block experimental design with four replicates was adopted. The grain yield, GPC, W and P/L indexes were analyzed. Moreover, the rheological and enzymatic properties of the samples were studied using a Mixolab® analyser (Chòpin Technologies, Paris, France. Grain yield was found to be unaffected by the fertilization treatments, while the late N application (T2, T3 significantly increased GPC. Only the granular N fertilization (T3 increased the W index compared to T1, while the P/L index was not affected by any of the fertilization strategies. Furthermore, the T3 strategy was always more effective in reducing the variability of the W index than the T2 and the T1 strategies. Water absorption and dough development time were higher in T3, than in T1, while intermediate results were reached for T2. The effect of late-season N fertilization was also significant on the starch behaviour of the dough, as an increase in starch gelatinization and

  15. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    /63, Tissue (Sandy loam, electrical conductivity (ECe (1 dS m-1, Silt (23.1%, Clay (5.5%, Organic matter (0.5%, Olsen phosphorus (P (5.35 mg kg-1, Ammonium acetate-extractable K (100 mg kg-1 were determined. Nitrogen treatments 3 weeks after planting, dissolved in irrigation water was added to pots. Salinity, after the establishment of the plant (5 weeks after planting, divided into two equal parts and one-week interval dissolved with irrigation water was added to the pot. as well acid gibberellic treatments, as spray after salt treatment was applied at three times and at intervals of one week. Results and discussion: The results showed that the salinity content of carotenoid and Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters significantly reduced but with increasing acid gibberellic and nitrogen application, mentioned parameters were significantly increased, compared to controls. The ability of photosynthesis improved and increased productivity. Mozafari et al studied the pistachio, reported that with increasing salinity from zero to 150 and 300 mM NaCl, carotenoids decreased more than 16% and 22% compared to control respectively. Carotenoids play a most important role in light, protecting plants against stress condition. Salinity application increased leaf proline, but with application of 150 mg nitrogen and 500 mg per liter foliar application of acid gibberellics, this parameter increased by 55 and 26 percent, respectively. Also, combined use of these two treatments increased proline content by 79 percent compared to control. The researchers stated that the increasing gibberellin concentration caused leaf proline increased, so spraying 100 and 200 mg per liter gibberellin significantly increased leaf proline compared with the non-application of gibberellin. The results also showed with increasing salinity increased iron, manganese and zinc concentrations shoots and roots and decreased copper concentrations, but using 150 mg of nitrogen and acid gibberellic consumption concentrations

  16. Radiation and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level by wheat and oilseed rape during the critical period for grain number definition

    Dreccer, M.F.; Schapendonk, H.C.M.; Oijen, M. van; Pot, C.S.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the critical period for grain number definition, the amount of biomass produced per unit absorbed radiation is more sensitive to nitrogen (N) supply in oilseed rape than in wheat, and reaches a higher value at high N. This response was investigated by combining experimental and modelling work. Oilseed rape and wheat were grown at three levels of N supply, combined with two levels of plant density at high N supply. Canopy photosynthesis and daytime radiation use efficiency (RUE A ) were calculated with a model based on observed N-dependent leaf photosynthesis and observed canopy vertical distribution of light and leaf N. In oilseed rape, RUE A was higher than in wheat and, in contrast to wheat, the sensitivity to canopy leaf N content increased from the start to the end of the critical period. These results were partly explained by the higher leaf photosynthesis in oilseed rape vs wheat. In addition, oilseed rape leaves were increasingly shaded by the inflorescence. Thus, RUE A increased because more leaves were operating at non-saturating light levels. In both species, the vertical distribution of leaf N was close to that optimising canopy photosynthesis. The results are discussed in relation to possibilities for improvement of N productivity in these crops. (author)

  17. Nitrogen-corrected True Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility of Chinese Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters

    F. Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn and true amino acids digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS produced in China. Twenty five sources of corn DDGS was collected from 8 provinces of China. A precision-fed rooster assay was used to determine TMEn and amino acids digestibility with 35 adult cecectomized roosters, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (30 g. The average content of ash, crude protein, total amino acid, ether extract, crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber were 4.81, 27.91, 22.51, 15.22, 6.35 and 37.58%, respectively. TMEn of DDGS ranged from 1,779 to 3,071 kcal/kg and averaged 2,517 kcal/kg. Coefficient of variation for non-amino acid crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and TMEn were 55.0, 15.7, 15.9 and 17.1%, respectively. The average true amino acid digestibility was 77.32%. Stepwise regression analysis obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = −2,995.6+0.88×gross energy+49.63×a* (BIC = 248.8; RMSE = 190.8; p0.05. These results suggest that corn DDGS produced in China has a large variation in chemical composition, and gross energy and a* value can be used to generate TMEn predict equation.

  18. Improving yield and nitrogen fixation of grain legumes in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    1998-07-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a Co-ordinated Research Project on The Use of Isotopes in Studies to Improve Yield and N 2 Fixation of Grain Legumes with the Aim of Increasing Food Production and Saving N-fertilizer in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics of Asia that was operational from 1990 to 1995. This Project was underpinned by extensive experience in the use of 15 N-labelled fertilizer in quantifying N 2 fixation by food and pasture legumes; the isotope-dilution technique, recognized as the most accurate mode of quantifying fixation, was developed at the IAEA and has been used profitably for over 20 years in co-ordinated research projects that were focused on aspects relevant to the sustainability of agriculture in developing countries in which food security is most under threat. This effort to improve N 2 fixation by food legumes in Asia, and in so doing to increase productivity of cereal-based farming systems as a whole, was timely in terms of regional needs. It was complemented by an overlapping Co-ordinated Research Project entitled ''The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques in Management of Nitrogen Fixation by trees for Enhancing Soil Fertility and Soil Conservation in Fragile Tropical Soils''. The project involved scientists from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam

  19. Simultaneous effect of nitrate (NO3- concentration, carbon dioxide (CO2 supply and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipids, carbohydrates and proteins accumulation in Nannochloropsis oculata

    Aarón Millán-Oropeza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from microalgae is a promising technology. Nutrient limitation and the addition of CO2 are two strategies to increase lipid content in microalgae. There are two different types of nitrogen limitation, progressive and abrupt limitation. In this work, the simultaneous effect of initial nitrate concentration, addition of CO2, and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipid, protein and carbohydrates accumulation were analyzed. An experimental design was established in which initial nitrogen concentration, culture time and CO2 aeration as independent numerical variables with three levels were considered. Nitrogen limitation was taken into account as a categorical independent variable. For the experimental design, all the experiments were performed with progressive nitrogen limitation. The dependent response variables were biomass, lipid production, carbohydrates and proteins. Subsequently, comparison of both types of limitation i.e. progressive and abrupt limitation, was performed. Nitrogen limitation in a progressive mode exerted a greater effect on lipid accumulation. Culture time, nitrogen limitation and the interaction of initial nitrate concentration with nitrogen limitation had higher influences on lipids and biomass production. The highest lipid production and productivity were at 582 mgL-1 (49.7 % lipid, dry weight basis and 41.5 mgL-1d-1, respectively; under the following conditions: 250 mgL-1 of initial nitrate concentration, CO2 supply of 4% (v/v, 12 d of culturing and 2 d in state of nitrogen starvation induced by progressive limitation. This work presents a novel way to perform simultaneous analysis of the effect of the initial concentration of nitrate, nitrogen limitation, and CO2 supply on growth and lipid production of Nannochloropsis oculata, with the aim to produce potential biofuels feedstock.

  20. Back-trajectory-based source apportionment of airborne sulfur and nitrogen concentrations at Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA

    Gebhart, Kristi A.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Malm, William C.; Barna, Michael G.; Rodriguez, Marco A.; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Study (RoMANS), conducted during the spring and summer of 2006, was designed to assess the sources of nitrogen and sulfur species that contribute to wet and dry deposition and visibility impairment at Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado. Several source apportionment methods were utilized for RoMANS, including the Trajectory Mass Balance (TrMB) Model, a receptor-based method in which the hourly measured concentrations are the dependent variables and the residence times of back trajectories in several source regions are the independent variables. The regression coefficients are estimates of the mean emissions, dispersion, chemical transformation, and deposition between the source areas and the receptors. For RoMANS, a new ensemble technique was employed in which input parameters were varied to explore the range, variability, and model sensitivity of source attribution results and statistical measures of model fit over thousands of trials for each set of concentration measurements. Results showed that carefully chosen source regions dramatically improved the ability of TrMB to reproduce temporal patterns in the measured concentrations, and source attribution results were also very sensitive to source region choices. Conversely, attributions were relatively insensitive to trajectory start height, trajectory length, minimum endpoints per source area, and maximum endpoint height, as long as the trajectories were long enough to reach contributing source areas and were not overly restricted in height or horizontal location. Source attribution results estimated that more than half the ammonia and 30-45% of sulfur dioxide and other nitrogen-containing species at the RoMANS core site were from sources within the state of Colorado. Approximately a quarter to a third of the sulfate was from within Colorado.

  1. EFFECT OF NITROGEN SOURCE AND INITIAL SUGAR CONCENTRATION ON LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE USING L.DELBRUECKII

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation. The lactic acid is utilised in food technology as pH regulator, microbial preservative, buffering agent and in the chemical industry. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were carried out in batch fermentation at anaerobic condition with stirring speed: 50 rpm, temperature: 40 oC, pH: 6.0, and inoculum size: 5%. Effect of nitrogen source and initial sugar concentration were studied. The effect of nitrogen source on lactic acid production shows that the yeast extract is highest yield , followed by urea , corn steep liquor, malt sprout and ammonium sulphates with the yield of 78.52; 26.68; 19.14; 14.10 and 5.6 %, respectively. The highest yield of initial sugar concentration on lactic acid production obtained was 78.52 % (54.97 g/l at 70 g/l, if the concentration of sugar was increased to 110 g/l , the lactic acid production or yield decrease to51.53 g/l or 54.24%.

  2. H. guilliermondii impacts growth kinetics and metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae: the role of initial nitrogen concentration.

    Lage, Patrícia; Barbosa, Catarina; Mateus, Beatriz; Vasconcelos, Isabel; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2014-02-17

    Non-Saccharomyces yeasts include different species which comprise an ecologically and biochemically diverse group capable of altering fermentation dynamics and wine composition and flavour. In this study, single- and mixed-culture of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to ferment natural grape-juice, under two nitrogen regimes. In single-culture the strain H. guilliermondii failed to complete total sugar breakdown even though the nitrogen available has not been a limiting factor of its growth or fermentative activity. In mixed-culture, that strain negatively interfered with the growth and fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae, resulting in lower fermentation rate and longer fermentation length, irrespective of the initial nitrogen concentration. The impact of co-inoculation on the volatile compounds profile was more evident in the wines obtained from DAP-supplemented musts, characterised by increased levels of ethyl and acetate esters, associated with fruity and floral character of wines. Moreover, the levels of fatty acids and sulphur compounds which are responsible for unpleasant odours that depreciate wine sensory quality were significantly lower. Accordingly, data obtained suggests that the strain H. guilliermondii has potential to be used as adjunct of S. cerevisiae in wine industry, although possible interactions with S. cerevisiae still need to be elucidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in nitrogen concentrations and load in 48 minor streams draining intensively farmed Danish catchments, 1990-2014. How can the observed trend be explained?

    Windolf, Jørgen; Børgesen, Christen; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Kronvang, Brian; Larsen, Søren E.; Tornbjerg, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The total land-based nitrogen load to Danish coastal waters has decreased by 50% since 1990 through a reduction of the outlet of nitrogen from sewage point sources and diffuse sources. On a national scale nitrogen load from diffuse sources, has been reduced by 43% , mainly due to limitation of the amount of N input to different crops, rules for timing and application of manure, mandatory demands for catch crops and restoration of wetlands. The latter increasing the nitrogen retention capacity in surface waters. However, on a local scale huge variations exist in the reduction of the diffuse nitrogen load. Since 1990, an important part of the Danish national monitoring program on the aquatic environment (NOVANA) has been directed at quantifying the nitrogen concentrations and load in 48 minor streams draining small intensively farmed catchments. The 48 catchments have a mean size of 18 km2, farmed area constitutes more than 60% of the catchment area and the catchments have no significant outlets of sewage to the streams. The statistical trend results (based on a seasonal Mann-Kendall) from these 48 streams show a 9-65% reduction in the diffuse nitrogen load (mean: 48%). The large differences in trends in the diffuse N load are related to differences in catchment-specific variables such as nitrogen surpluses, nitrogen leaching from the root zone, hydrogeology and nitrogen retention in ground and surface waters.

  4. Detection of quantitative trait loci controlling grain zinc concentration using Australian wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, a potential genetic resource for biofortification of rice.

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Iwata, Masahide; Taniko, Kenta; Monden, Gotaro; Miyazaki, Naoya; Orn, Chhourn; Tsujimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Shusaku; Ma, Jian Feng; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the essential mineral elements for both plants and humans. Zn deficiency in human is one of the major causes of hidden hunger, a serious health problem observed in many developing countries. Therefore, increasing Zn concentration in edible part is an important issue for improving human Zn nutrition. Here, we found that an Australian wild rice O. meridionalis showed higher grain Zn concentrations compared with cultivated and other wild rice species. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was then performed to identify the genomic regions controlling grain Zn levels using backcross recombinant inbred lines derived from O. sativa 'Nipponbare' and O. meridionalis W1627. Four QTLs responsible for high grain Zn were detected on chromosomes 2, 9, and 10. The QTL on the chromosome 9 (named qGZn9), which showed the largest effect on grain Zn concentration was confirmed with the introgression line, which had a W1627 chromosomal segment covering the qGZn9 region in the genetic background of O. sativa 'Nipponbare'. Fine mapping of this QTL resulted in identification of two tightly linked loci, qGZn9a and qGZn9b. The candidate regions of qGZn9a and qGZn9b were estimated to be 190 and 950 kb, respectively. Furthermore, we also found that plants having a wild chromosomal segment covering qGZn9a, but not qGZn9b, is associated with fertility reduction. qGZn9b, therefore, provides a valuable allele for breeding rice with high Zn in the grains.

  5. Detection of quantitative trait loci controlling grain zinc concentration using Australian wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, a potential genetic resource for biofortification of rice.

    Ryo Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is one of the essential mineral elements for both plants and humans. Zn deficiency in human is one of the major causes of hidden hunger, a serious health problem observed in many developing countries. Therefore, increasing Zn concentration in edible part is an important issue for improving human Zn nutrition. Here, we found that an Australian wild rice O. meridionalis showed higher grain Zn concentrations compared with cultivated and other wild rice species. The quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis was then performed to identify the genomic regions controlling grain Zn levels using backcross recombinant inbred lines derived from O. sativa 'Nipponbare' and O. meridionalis W1627. Four QTLs responsible for high grain Zn were detected on chromosomes 2, 9, and 10. The QTL on the chromosome 9 (named qGZn9, which showed the largest effect on grain Zn concentration was confirmed with the introgression line, which had a W1627 chromosomal segment covering the qGZn9 region in the genetic background of O. sativa 'Nipponbare'. Fine mapping of this QTL resulted in identification of two tightly linked loci, qGZn9a and qGZn9b. The candidate regions of qGZn9a and qGZn9b were estimated to be 190 and 950 kb, respectively. Furthermore, we also found that plants having a wild chromosomal segment covering qGZn9a, but not qGZn9b, is associated with fertility reduction. qGZn9b, therefore, provides a valuable allele for breeding rice with high Zn in the grains.

  6. Investigating concentration distributions of arsenic, gold and antimony in grain-size fractions of gold ore using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Nyarku, M.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Osae, S.

    2010-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to quantify concentrations of arsenic (As), gold (Au) and antimony (Sb) in grain-size fractions of a gold ore. The ore, which was taken from the Ahafo project site of Newmont Ghana Gold Ltd., was fractionated into 14 grain-size fractions using state-of-the-art analytical sieve machine. The minimum sieve mesh size used was 36 μm and grains >2000 μm were not considered for analysis. Result of the sieving was analysed with easysieve (registered) software. The<36 μm subfraction was found to be the optimum, hosting bulk of all three elements. Arsenic was found to be highly concentrated in<36-100 μm size fractions and erratically distributed in from 150 μm fraction and above. For gold, with the exception of the subfraction <36 μm which had exceptionally high concentration, the element was found to be approximately equally distributed in all the size fractions but slightly 'played out' in 150-400 μm size fractions. Antimony occurrence in the sample was relatively high in <36 μm size fraction followed by 600, 800, 400 and 36 μm size fractions in that order. Gold content in the sample was comparatively far greater than arsenic and antimony; this is indicative of level of gold mineralization in the concession where the sample ore was taken. The concentration of gold in the composite sample was in the range 564-8420 ppm as compared to 14.33-186.92 ppm for arsenic and 1.09-9.48 ppm for antimony. Elemental concentrations were correlated with each other and with grain-size fractions and the relationships between these descriptive parameters were established.

  7. Response of dissolved carbon and nitrogen concentrations to moderate nutrient additions in a tropical montane forest of south Ecuador

    Velescu, Andre; Valarezo, Carlos; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    In the past two decades, the tropical montane rain forests in south Ecuador experienced increasing deposition of reactive nitrogen mainly originating from Amazonian forest fires, while Saharan dust inputs episodically increased deposition of base metals. Increasing air temperature and unevenly distributed rainfall have allowed for longer dry spells in a perhumid ecosystem. This might have favored mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by microorganisms and increased nutrient release from the organic layer. Environmental change is expected to impact the functioning of this ecosystem belonging to the biodiversity hotspots of the Earth. In 2007, we established a nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX) to understand the response of the ecosystem to moderately increased nutrient inputs. Since 2008, we have continuously applied 50 kg ha-1 a-1 of nitrogen (N), 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of phosphorus (P), 50 kg + 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of N and P and 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of calcium (Ca) in a randomized block design at 2000 m a.s.l. in a natural forest on the Amazonia-exposed slopes of the south Ecuadorian Andes. Nitrogen concentrations in throughfall increased following N+P additions, while separate N amendments only increased nitrate concentrations. Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations showed high seasonal variations in litter leachate and decreased significantly in the P and N+P treatments, but not in the N treatment. Thus, P availability plays a key role in the mineralization of DOM. TOC/DON ratios were narrower in throughfall than in litter leachate but their temporal course did not respond to nutrient amendments. Our results revealed an initially fast, positive response of the C and N cycling to nutrient additions which declined with time. TOC and DON cycling only change if N and P supply are improved concurrently, while NO3-N leaching increases only if N is separately added. This indicates co-limitation of the microorganisms by N and P

  8. Response of dissolved carbon and nitrogen concentrations to moderate nutrient additions in a tropical montane forest of south Ecuador

    Andre eVelescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, the tropical montane rain forests in south Ecuador experienced increasing deposition of reactive nitrogen mainly originating from Amazonian forest fires, while Saharan dust inputs episodically increased deposition of base metals. Increasing air temperature and unevenly distributed rainfall have allowed for longer dry spells in a perhumid ecosystem. This might have favored mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM by microorganisms and increased nutrient release from the organic layer. Environmental change is expected to impact the functioning of this ecosystem belonging to the biodiversity hotspots of the Earth.In 2007, we established a nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX to understand the response of the ecosystem to moderately increased nutrient inputs. Since 2008, we have continuously applied 50 kg ha-1 a-1 of nitrogen (N, 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of phosphorus (P, 50 kg + 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of N and P and 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of calcium (Ca in a randomized block design at 2000 m a.s.l. in a natural forest on the Amazonia-exposed slopes of the south Ecuadorian Andes.Nitrogen concentrations in throughfall increased following N+P additions, while separate N amendments only increased nitrate concentrations. Total organic carbon (TOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON concentrations showed high seasonal variations in litter leachate and decreased significantly in the P and N+P treatments, but not in the N treatment. Thus, P availability plays a key role in the mineralization of DOM. TOC/DON ratios were narrower in throughfall than in litter leachate but their temporal course did not respond to nutrient amendments.Our results revealed an initially fast, positive response of the C and N cycling to nutrient additions which declined with time. TOC and DON cycling only change if N and P supply are improved concurrently, while NO3-N leaching increases only if N is separately added. This indicates co-limitation of the microorganisms by N

  9. A model study of the effects of intermittent loss on odd nitrogen concentrations in the lower troposphere

    Stewart, R. W.; Hameed, S.; Matloff, G.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent box model of the lower troposphere which includes a description of photochemical and physical processes has been developed. This model has been applied to the calculation of nitric acid and NO(x)(NO + NO2) concentrations over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Nitric acid concentrations and the HNO3/NO(x) ratio are found to be highly variable under the assumptions regarding the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation employed in this model. The chemistry of odd nitrogen compounds during the night is potentially important in establishing the level of nitric acid in the lower troposphere. These calculations also indicate that relatively large errors may occur when the continuity equation describing nitric acid variations is averaged over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Interpretation of simultaneous measurements of HNO3 and NO(x) will require some knowledge of the history of the observed air mass and may require an improved understanding of nighttime odd nitrogen chemistry.

  10. Effect of nitrogen source concentration on curdlan production by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 grown on prairie cordgrass hydrolysates.

    West, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen source concentration on the production of the polysaccharide curdlan by the bacterium Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 from hydrolysates of prairie cordgrass was examined. The highest curdlan concentrations were produced by ATCC 31749 when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and the nitrogen source ammonium phosphate (2.2 mM) or on a medium containing a complete hydrolysate and 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate. The latter medium sustained a higher level of bacterial curdlan production than the former medium after 144 hr. Biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and 2.2 or 8.7 mM ammonium phosphate. On the medium containing the complete hydrolysate, biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was present. Bacterial biomass production after 144 hr was greater on the complete hydrolysate medium compared to the solids-only hydrolysate medium. Curdlan yield produced by ATCC 31749 after 144 hr from the complete hydrolysate medium containing 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was higher than from the solids-only hydrolysate medium containing 2.2 mM ammonium phosphate.

  11. Estimating concentrations of fine-grained and total suspended sediment from close-range remote sensing imagery

    Mosbrucker, Adam; Spicer, Kurt R.; Christianson, Tami; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    data range among sensors. Of greatest interest to many programs is a hysteresis in the relationship between turbidity and SSC, attributed to temporal variation of particle size distribution (Landers and Sturm, 2013; Uhrich et al., 2014). This phenomenon causes increased uncertainty in regression-estimated values of SSC, due to changes in nephelometric reflectance off the varying grain sizes in suspension (Uhrich et al., 2014). Here, we assess the feasibility and application of close-range remote sensing to quantify SSC and particle size distribution of a disturbed, and highly-turbid, river system. We use a consumer-grade digital camera to acquire imagery of the river surface and a depth-integrating sampler to collect concurrent suspended-sediment samples. We then develop two empirical linear regression models to relate image spectral information to concentrations of fine sediment (clay to silt) and total suspended sediment. Before presenting our regression model development, we briefly summarize each data-acquisition method.

  12. Modelling horizontal and vertical concentration profiles of ozone and oxides of nitrogen within high-latitude urban areas

    Nicholson, J.P.; Weston, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Urban ozone concentrations are determined by the balance between ozone destruction, chemical production and supply through advection and turbulent down-mixing from higher levels. At high latitudes, low levels of solar insolation and high horizontal advection speeds reduce the photochemical production and the spatial ozone concentration patterns are largely determined by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide and dry deposition to the surface. A Lagrangian column model has been developed to simulate the mean (monthly and annual) three-dimensional structure in ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) concentrations in the boundary-layer within and immediately around an urban area. The short-time-scale photochemical processes of ozone and NO x , as well as emissions and deposition to the ground, are simulated. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1x1km and high resolution in the vertical. It has been applied over a 100x100km domain containing the city of Edinburgh (at latitude 56 o N) to simulate the city-scale processes of pollutants. Results are presented, using averaged wind-flow frequencies and appropriate stability conditions, to show the extent of the depletion of ozone by city emissions. The long-term average spatial patterns in the surface ozone and NO x concentrations over the model domain are reproduced quantitatively. The model shows the average surface ozone concentrations in the urban area to be lower than the surrounding rural areas by typically 50% and that the areas experiencing a 20% ozone depletion are generally restricted to within the urban area. The depletion of the ozone concentration to less than 50% of the rural surface values extends only 20m vertically above the urban area. A series of monitoring sites for ozone, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on a north-south transect through the city - from an urban, through a semi-rural, to a remote rural location - allows the comparison of modelled with observed data for the mean diurnal cycle of ozone

  13. Synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the growth and nutrient uptake of a freshwater Chlorella vulgaris.

    Alketife, Ahmed M; Judd, Simon; Znad, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris (CCAP 211/11B, CS-42) and nutrient removal have been investigated under different concentrations of N (0-56 mg/L) and P (0-19 mg/L). The study showed that N/P ratio has a crucial effect on the biomass growth and nutrient removal. When N/P=10, a complete P and N removal was achieved at the end of cultivation with specific growth rate (SGR) of 1 d -1 and biomass concentration of 1.58 g/L. It was also observed that when the N content <2.5 mg/L, the SGR significantly reduced from 1.04 to 0.23 d -1 and the maximum biomass produced was decreased more than three-fold to 0.5 g/L. The Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface method were used to study the effects of the initial concentrations (P, N and C) on P and N removal efficiencies. The optimized P, N and C concentrations supporting 100% removal of both P and N at an SGR of 0.95 were 7, 55 and 10 mg/L respectively, with desirability value of 0.94. The results and analysis obtained could be very useful when applying the microalgae for efficient wastewater treatment and nutrient removal.

  14. Potential Pasture Nitrogen Concentrations and Uptake from Autumn or Spring Applied Cow Urine and DCD under Field Conditions

    Moir, Jim; Cameron, Keith; Di, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling and losses in grazed grassland are strongly driven by urine N deposition by grazing ruminants. The objective of this study was to quantify pasture N concentrations, yield and N uptake following autumn and spring deposition of cow urine and the effects of fine particle suspension (FPS) dicyandiamide (DCD). A field plot study was conducted on the Lincoln University dairy farm, Canterbury, New Zealand from May 2003 to May 2005. FPS DCD was applied to grazed pasture plots at 10 kg·ha−1 in autumn and spring in addition to applied cow urine at a N loading rate of 1000 kg·N·ha−1, with non-urine control plots. Pasture N ranged between 1.9 and 4.8% with higher concentrations from urine. Results indicated that urine consistently increased N concentrations for around 220 days post deposition (mid December/early summer) at which point concentrations dropped to background levels. In urine patches, pasture yield and annual N uptake were dramatically increased on average by 51% for autumn and 28% for spring applied urine, in both years, when DCD was applied. This field experiment provides strong evidence that annual pasture N uptake is more strongly influenced by high urine N deposition than pasture N concentrations. FPS DCD has the potential to result in very high N uptake in urine patches, even when they are autumn deposited. PMID:27304974

  15. Response of Sphagnum mosses to increased CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition

    Jauhiainen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the effects of different CO 2 concentration and N deposition rates on Sphagna adapted to grow along a nutrient availability gradient (i.e. ombrotrophy-mesotrophy-eutrophy). The study investigated: (i) the effects of various longterm CO 2 concentrations on the rate of net photosynthesis in Sphagna, (ii) the effects of the CO 2 and N treatments on the moss density, shoot dry masses, length increment and dry mass production in Sphagna, (iii) the concentrations of the major nutrients in Sphagna after prolonged exposure to the CO 2 and N treatments, and (iv) species dependent differences in potential NH 4 + and NO 3 - uptake rates. The internal nutrient concentration of the capitulum and the production of biomass were effected less by the elevated CO 2 concentrations because the availability of N was a controlling factor. In addition responses to the N treatments were related to ecological differences between the Sphagna species. Species with a high tolerance of N availability were able to acclimatise to the increased N deposition rates. The data suggests a high nutrient status is less significant than the adaptation of the Sphagna to their ecological niche (e.g. low tolerance of meso-eutrophic S. warnstorfii to high N deposition rate). At the highest N deposition rate the ombrotrophic S. fuscum had the highest increase in tissue N concentration among the Sphagna studied. S. fuscum almost died at the highest N deposition rate because of the damaging effects of N to the plant's metabolism. Ombrotrophic hummock species such as S. fuscum, were also found to have the highest potential N uptake rate (on density of dry mass basis) compared to lawn species. The rate of net photosynthesis was initially increased with elevated CO 2 concentrations, but photosynthesis was down regulated with prolonged exposure to CO 2 . The water use efficiency in Sphagna appeared not to be coupled with exposure to the long-term CO 2 concentration. The

  16. Response of Sphagnum mosses to increased CO{sub 2} concentration and nitrogen deposition

    Jauhiainen, J.

    1998-12-31

    The main objective of this work was to study the effects of different CO{sub 2} concentration and N deposition rates on Sphagna adapted to grow along a nutrient availability gradient (i.e. ombrotrophy-mesotrophy-eutrophy). The study investigated: (i) the effects of various longterm CO{sub 2} concentrations on the rate of net photosynthesis in Sphagna, (ii) the effects of the CO{sub 2} and N treatments on the moss density, shoot dry masses, length increment and dry mass production in Sphagna, (iii) the concentrations of the major nutrients in Sphagna after prolonged exposure to the CO{sub 2} and N treatments, and (iv) species dependent differences in potential NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake rates. The internal nutrient concentration of the capitulum and the production of biomass were effected less by the elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations because the availability of N was a controlling factor. In addition responses to the N treatments were related to ecological differences between the Sphagna species. Species with a high tolerance of N availability were able to acclimatise to the increased N deposition rates. The data suggests a high nutrient status is less significant than the adaptation of the Sphagna to their ecological niche (e.g. low tolerance of meso-eutrophic S. warnstorfii to high N deposition rate). At the highest N deposition rate the ombrotrophic S. fuscum had the highest increase in tissue N concentration among the Sphagna studied. S. fuscum almost died at the highest N deposition rate because of the damaging effects of N to the plant`s metabolism. Ombrotrophic hummock species such as S. fuscum, were also found to have the highest potential N uptake rate (on density of dry mass basis) compared to lawn species. The rate of net photosynthesis was initially increased with elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, but photosynthesis was down regulated with prolonged exposure to CO{sub 2}. The water use efficiency in Sphagna appeared not to be coupled

  17. Interactive Effects of CO2 Concentration and Water Regime on Stable Isotope Signatures, Nitrogen Assimilation and Growth in Sweet Pepper

    María D. Serret

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet pepper is among the most widely cultivated horticultural crops in the Mediterranean basin, being frequently grown hydroponically under cover in combination with CO2 fertilization and water conditions ranging from optimal to suboptimal. The aim of this study is to develop a simple model, based on the analysis of plant stable isotopes in their natural abundance, gas exchange traits and N concentration, to assess sweet pepper growth. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for near 6 weeks. Two [CO2] (400 and 800 μmol mol−1, three water regimes (control and mild and moderate water stress and four genotypes were assayed. For each combination of genotype, [CO2] and water regime five plants were evaluated. Water stress applied caused significant decreases in water potential, net assimilation, stomatal conductance, intercellular to atmospheric [CO2], and significant increases in water use efficiency, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon isotope composition, while the relative water content, the osmotic potential and the content of anthocyanins did change not under stress compared to control conditions support this statement. Nevertheless, water regime affects plant growth via nitrogen assimilation, which is associated with the transpiration stream, particularly at high [CO2], while the lower N concentration caused by rising [CO2] is not associated with stomatal closure. The stable isotope composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen (δ13C, δ18O, and δ15N in plant matter are affected not only by water regime but also by rising [CO2]. Thus, δ18O increased probably as response to decreases in transpiration, while the increase in δ15N may reflect not only a lower stomatal conductance but a higher nitrogen demand in leaves or shifts in nitrogen metabolism associated with decreases in photorespiration. The way that δ13C explains differences in plant growth across water regimes within a given [CO2], seems to be mediated through its direct

  18. Nitrogen concentrations in a small Mediterranean stream: 1. Nitrate 2. Ammonium

    A. Butturini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of storm frequency as well as the groundwater and hyporheic inputs on nitrate (NO3-N and ammonium (NH4-N levels in stream water were studied in a small perennial Mediterranean catchment, Riera Major, in northeast Spain. NO3-N concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 1.9 mg l-1. Discharge explained 47% of the annual NO3-N concentration variance, but this percentage increased to 97% when single floods were analysed. The rate of change in nitrate concentration with respect to flow, ΔNO3-N/ΔQ, ranged widely from 0 to 20 μg NO3-N s l-2. The ΔNO3-N/ΔQ values fitted to a non linear model with respect to the storm flow magnitude (ΔQ (r2=0.48, d.f.=22, P3-N/ΔQ occurred at intermediate ΔQ values, whereas low ΔNO3-N/ΔQ values occurred during severe storms (ΔQ > 400 l s-1. N3-N concentrations exhibit anticlockwise hysteresis patterns with changing flow and the patterns observed for autumnal and winter storms indicated that groundwater was the main N3-N source for stream and hyporheic water. At baseflow, NO3-N concentration in groundwater was higher (t=4.75, d.f.=29, P>0.001 and co-varied with concentrations in the stream (r=0.91, d.f.=28, P3-N concentration in hyporheic water was identical to that in stream water. The role of the hyporheic zone as source or sink for ammonium was studied hyporheic was studied comparing its concentrations in stream and hyporheic zone before and after a major storm occurred in October 1994 that removed particulate organic matter stored in sediments. Results showed high ammonium concentrations (75±28 s.d. μg NH4-N l-1 before the storm flow in the hyporheic zone. After the storm, the ammonium concentration in the hyporheic dropped by 80% (13.6±8 μg N4-N l-1 and approached to the level found in stream water (11±8 μg NH4-N l-1 indicating that indisturbed hyporheic sediments act as a source for ammonium. After the storm, the ammonium concentrations in the stream, hyporheic and groundwater zones were very

  19. Combined Effects of Nitrogen Concentration and Seasonal Changes on the Production of Lipids in Nannochloropsis oculata

    Martin Olofsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Instead of sole nutrient starvation to boost algal lipid production, we addressed nutrient limitation at two different seasons (autumn and spring during outdoor cultivation in flat panel photobioreactors. Lipid accumulation, biomass and lipid productivity and changes in fatty acid composition of Nannochloropsis oculata were investigated under nitrogen (N limitation (nitrate:phosphate N:P 5, N:P 2.5 molar ratio. N. oculata was able to maintain a high biomass productivity under N-limitation compared to N-sufficiency (N:P 20 at both seasons, which in spring resulted in nearly double lipid productivity under N-limited conditions (0.21 g L−1 day−1 compared to N-sufficiency (0.11 g L−1 day−1. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased from 76% to nearly 90% of total fatty acids in N-limited cultures. Higher biomass and lipid productivity in spring could, partly, be explained by higher irradiance, partly by greater harvesting rate (~30%. Our results indicate the potential for the production of algal high value products (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acids during both N-sufficiency and N-limitation. To meet the sustainability challenges of algal biomass production, we propose a dual-system process: Closed photobioreactors producing biomass for high value products and inoculum for larger raceway ponds recycling waste/exhaust streams to produce bulk chemicals for fuel, feed and industrial material.

  20. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  1. Effects of land use on the concentration and emission of nitrous oxide in nitrogen-enriched rivers.

    Yang, Libiao; Lei, Kun

    2018-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction. Nitrogen-enriched rivers are significant sources of atmospheric N 2 O. This study conducted a one-year field campaign in seven N-enriched rivers draining urban, rural, and agricultural land to determine the link between the production, concentrations, and emissions of N 2 O and land use. Estimated N 2 O fluxes varied between 1.30 and 1164.38 μg N 2 O-N m -2 h -1 with a mean value of 154.90 μg N 2 O-N m -2 h -1 , indicating that rivers were the net sources of atmospheric N 2 O. Concentrations of N 2 O ranged between 0.23 and 29.21 μg N 2 O-N L -1 with an overall mean value of 3.81 μg N 2 O-N L -1 . Concentrations of ammonium and nitrate in urban and rural rivers were high in the cold season. The concentrations were also high in agricultural rivers in the wet season. N 2 O concentrations and emissions in rural and urban rivers followed a similar pattern to ammonium and a similar pattern to nitrate in agricultural rivers. A strong link between the concentrations and emissions of N 2 O and land use was observed. N 2 O concentrations in and emissions from the rivers draining the urban and rural areas were significantly higher than the rivers draining the agricultural areas (P Nitrate-N and NO 3- -O isotope data and linear regression of N 2 O and river water variables strongly indicated that dissolved N 2 O was mainly derived from nitrification in agricultural rivers and denitrification in rural and urban rivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and mercury concentration in the scalp hair of residents from Taiji, a whaling town

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed δ 13 C, δ 15 N and Hg in hair from Japanese whale meat-eaters and non-eaters. ► The δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in whale meat-eaters were higher than those in non-eaters. ► The Hg concentration in whale meat-eaters was higher than that in non-eaters. ► A positive correlation was seen between δ 15 N and Hg in whale meat-eaters. ► Consumption of whale meat may increase δ 15 N, δ 13 C and Hg in the scalp hair. -- Abstract: We analyzed stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) as well as mercury (Hg) concentration in the scalp hair of Japanese who consumed whale meat and those who did not, and investigated the relationships among the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and Hg concentration. The average δ 15 N and δ 13 C values of whale meat-eaters (10.11‰ and −18.5‰) were significantly higher than those of non-eaters (9.28‰ and −18.9‰), respectively. The average Hg concentration of whale meat-eaters (20.6 μg/g) was significantly higher than that of non-eaters (2.20 μg/g). Significant positive correlations were found between the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration in the hair of whale meat-eaters, while the correlation between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration was not statistically significant in the non-eaters. The consumption of whale meat may increase Hg concentration as well as δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in scalp hair

  3. Effects of structural and textural grain characteristics on leaching of sulphide minerals from a polymetallic concentrate by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of structural and textural characteristics of sulfide minerals on their leaching from a polymetallic concentrate by sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate solution is presented. The starting material was Pb–Zn–Cu sulphide polymetallic concentrate enriched during the flotation of a polymetallic ore in the "Rudnik" flotation plant (Rudnik – Serbia. Leaching experiments were carried out in a closed glass reactor, which provides stable hermetic conditions and allows heating at constant temperature. Chemical, XRD, qualitative and quantitative microscopic and SEM/EDX analyses were used to characterizes samples of the polymetallic concentrate and leach residue. It was determined that chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite and quartz were present in the polymetallic concentrate. The content of sulphide minerals was 69.5%, of which 60.9% occurred as liberated grains: 88.3% of chalcopyrite, 59.3% of sphalerite, 25.1% of galena and 51.6% of pirrhotite. The rest of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and pirrhotite grains were in the forms of inclusions, impregnations, and simple and complex intergrowths. During the leaching process by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution, it was shown previously that the leaching rate of sulphide minerals decreased with time while a part of the sulphide minerals remained in the leach residue. After leaching at 80°C for 120 min, the yields were 69.8, 82.7 and 67.1% for Cu, Zn and Fe, respectively. Lead, in the form of insoluble anglesite, remained in the leach residue. In addition to the anglesite, unleached sulfide minerals and quartz, elemental sulfur was found in the solid residue. The content of sulphide minerals was 35% of which 33.7% minerals occur independently. In specific, 54.7% of chalcopyrite, 31.9% of sphalerite, 8.2% of galena and 37.6% of pyrrhotite appear as separate grains with highly corroded surfaces. Therefore, the structural assembly of sulphide grains in the

  4. Sources and concentrations of indoor nitrogen dioxide in Hamburg (west Germany) and Erfurt (east Germany)

    Cyrys, J.; Woelke, G.; Wichmann, H.E.; Heinrich, J.; Richter, K.

    2000-01-01

    Here we report indoor and outdoor concentrations of NO 2 for Erfurt and Hamburg and assess the contribution of the most important indoor sources (e.g. the presence of gas cooking ranges, smoking) and outdoor sources (traffic exhaust emissions). We examined the relative contribution of the different sources of NO 2 to the total indoor NO 2 levels in Erfurt and Hamburg. NO 2 indoor concentrations in Hamburg were slightly higher than those in Erfurt (i.e. living room: 15 μg m -3 for Erfurt and 17 μg m -3 for Hamburg). A linear regression model including the variables, place of residence, season and outdoor NO 2 levels, location of the home within the city, housing and occupant characteristics accounted for 38% of the NO 2 variance. The most important predictors of indoor NO 2 concentrations were gas in cooking followed by other characteristics, such as ventilation or outdoor NO 2 level. Residences in which gas was used for cooking, or in which occupants smoked, had substantially higher indoor NO 2 concentrations (41 or 18% increase, respectively). An increase in the outdoor NO 2 concentration from the 25th to the 75th-percentile (17 μg m -3 ) was associated with a 33% increase in the living room NO 2 concentration. Multiple regression analysis for both cities separately illustrated that use of gas for cooking was the major indoor source of NO 2 . This variable caused a similar increase in the indoor NO 2 levels in each city (43% in Erfurt and 47% in Hamburg). However, outdoor sources of NO 2 (motor vehicle traffic) contributed more to indoor NO 2 levels in Hamburg than in Erfurt

  5. Growth Kinetics of Diazotrophic Bacillus sphaericus UPMB10 Cultured Using Different Types and Concentrations of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources

    Ooi, T. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth kinetics of newly isolated diazotrophic Bacillus sphaericus UPMB10 grown in various carbon (lactate, acetate, glycerol, malate, fructose, xylose and sucrose and nitrogen (glutamate, yeast extract, arginine, hystadine, glycine, polypeptone, tryptophan, lysine, NH4Cl and urea sources was investigated using 2 L stirred tank fermenter. The highest growth was obtained in a medium containing lactate as a carbon source, which gave the highest maximum cell concentration of 2.30 g/L, which is corresponding to maximum viable cell count of 4.60 x 10^9 cfu/mL. However, the highest cell yield (1.06 g cell/g carbon consumed was obtained in cultivation using glycerol though slightly lower maximum viable cell count was obtained (3.22 x 10^9 cfu/mL. In addition, cost for the production of live cell using glycerol was about 15 times lower than the cost using lactate. Growth performance of this bacterium when yeast extract was used as a nitrogen source was comparable to the use of pure amino acid. The medium containing 1.8 g/L glycerol and 2 g/L yeast extract was suggested as optimal for growth of this bacterium, which gave carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N of 10:1. The maximum viable cell count obtained in cultivation using optimised medium in 2 L stirred tank fermenter was 3.34 x 10^9 cfu/mL and the cells maintained its capacity for N2 fixation at 18 nmol C2H2/h.mL.

  6. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of external nitrate concentration

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Granato, T. C.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic cultures containing 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- was measured daily during a 24-d period of vegetative development to determine if amplitude of maximum and minimum rates of net NO3- uptake are responsive to external concentrations of NO3-. Removal of NO3- from the replenished solutions during each 24-h period was determined by ion chromatography. Neither dry matter accumulation nor the periodicity of oscillations in net uptake rate was altered by the external NO3- concentrations. The maxima of the oscillations in net uptake rate, however, increased nearly 3-fold in response to external NO3- concentrations. The maxima and minima, respectively, changed from 4.0 and 0.6 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 0.5 mol m-3 NO3- to 15.2 and -2.7 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 10.0 mol m-3 NO3-. The negative values for minimum net uptake rate from 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- solutions show that net efflux was occurring and indicate that the magnitude of the efflux component of net uptake was responsive to external concentration of NO3-.

  7. Root respiration in North American forests: Effects of nitrogen concentration and temperature across biomes

    A.J. Burton; K.S. Pregitzer; R.W. Ruess; R.L. Hendrick; Mike F. Allen

    2002-01-01

    Root respiration rates have been shown to be correlated with temperature and root N concentration in studies of individual forest types or species, but it is not known how universal these relationships are across forest species adapted to widely different climatic and edaphic conditions. In order to test for broad, cross-species relationships, we measured fine root...

  8. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  9. Atmospheric reactive nitrogen concentrations at ten sites with contrasting land use in an arid region of central Asia

    K. H. Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of reactive nitrogen (Nr species from 2009 to 2011 are reported for ten sites in Xinjiang, China, an arid region of central Asia. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4+ and pNO3 showed large spatial and seasonal variation and averaged 7.71, 9.68, 1.81 and 1.13 μg N m−3, and PM10 concentrations averaged 249.2 μg m−3 across all sites. Lower NH3 concentrations and higher NO2, pNH4+ and pNO3 concentrations were found in winter, reflecting serious air pollution due to domestic heating in winter and other anthropogenic sources such as increased emissions from motor traffic and industry. The increasing order of total concentrations of Nr species was alpine grassland; desert, desert-oasis ecotone; desert in an oasis; farmland; suburban and urban ecosystems. Lower ratios of secondary particles (NH4+ and NO3 were found in the desert and desert-oasis ecotone, while urban and suburban areas had higher ratios, which implied that anthropogenic activities have greatly influenced local air quality and must be controlled.

  10. [Effects of nitrogen deposition on the concentration and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter in soil solution in a young Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation.

    Yuan, Xiao Chun; Chen, Yue Min; Yuan, Shuo; Zheng, Wei; Si, You Tao; Yuan, Zhi Peng; Lin, Wei Sheng; Yang, Yu Sheng

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of nitrogen deposition on the concentration and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the forest soil solution from the subtropical Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation, using negative pressure sampling method, the dynamics of DOM in soil solutions from 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil layer was monitored for two years and the spectroscopic features of DOM were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen deposition significantly reduced the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and increased the aromatic index (AI) and the humic index (HIX), but had no significant effect on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentration in both soil layers. There was obvious seasonal variation in DOM concentration of the soil solution, which was prominently higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter.Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrometry indicated that the DOM in forest soil solution had absorption peaks in the similar position of six regions, being the highest in wave number of 1145-1149 cm -1 . Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that DOM was mainly consisted of protein-like substances (Ex/Em=230 nm/300 nm) and microbial degradation products (Ex/Em=275 nm/300 nm). The availability of protein-like substances from 0-15 cm soil layer was reduced in the nitrogen treatments. Nitrogen deposition significantly reduced the concentration of DOC in soil solution, maybe largely by reducing soil pH, inhibiting soil carbon mineralization and stimulating plant growth. In particular, the decline of DOC concentration in the surface layer was due to the production inhibition of the protein-like substances and carboxylic acids. Short-term nitrogen deposition might be beneficial to the maintenance of soil fertility, while the long-term accumulation of nitrogen deposition might lead to the hard utilization of soil nutrients.

  11. Diagnostic of N2(A) concentration in high velocity nitrogen afterglow at atmospheric pressure

    Pointu, Anne-Marie; Mintusov, Evgeny

    2009-10-01

    An optical emission diagnostic was used to measure N2(A) concentration in a high velocity (1000 cm/s) N2 flowing afterglow of corona discharge at atmospheric pressure, used for biological decontamination. Introducing impurities of NO (measured at different axial distances and for different values of NO injected flow. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that N2(A) creation comes from N+N+N2 atom recombination with a global rate around 2e-33 cm^6/s, a result which agrees with literature, as well as N2(A) loss mechanisms were confirmed to go via quenching with O and N atoms. The order of magnitude of obtained N2(A) concentration, about 1e11 cm-3, coincides with the results of direct measurement (by Vegard-Kaplan band), using a spectrometer of better resolution.

  12. Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone

    Nelson, Bruce K.; Deniro, Michael J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; De Paolo, Donald J.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-09-01

    Paleodietary analysis based on variations in the trace element and stable isotopic composition of inorganic and organic phases in fossil bone depends on the assumption that measured values reflect in vivo values. To test for postmortem alteration, we measured 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 18O /16O and 15N /14N ratios and Sr concentrations in modern and prehistoric (610 to 5470 yr old) bones of animals with marine or terrestrial diets from Greenland. Bones from modern terrestrial feeders have substantially lower Sr concentrations and more radiogenic 87Sr /86Sr ratios than those from modern marine feeders. This contrast was not preserved in the prehistoric samples, which showed almost complete overlap for both Sr concentration and isotopic composition in bones from the two types of animals. Leaching experiments, X-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicate that alteration of the Sr concentration and isotopic composition in prehistoric bone probably results from nearly complete exchange with groundwater. Oxygen isotope ratios in fossil apatite carbonate also failed to preserve the original discrimination between modern terrestrial and marine feeders. The C isotope ratio of apatite carbonate did not discriminate between animals with marine or terrestrial diets in the modern samples. Even so, the ranges of apatite δ 13C values in prehistoric bone are more scattered than in modern samples for both groups, suggesting alteration had occurred. δ 13C and δ 15N values of collagen in modern bone are distinctly different for the two feeding types, and this distinction is preserved in most of the prehistoric samples. Our results suggest that postmortem alteration of dietary tracers in the inorganic phases of bone may be a problem at all archaeological sites and must be evaluated in each case. While collagen analyzed in this study was resistant to alteration, evaluation of the possibility of diagenetic alteration of its isotopic composition in bones from other

  13. Effects of Hyporheic Water Fluxes and Sediment Grain Size on the Concentration and Diffusive Flux of Heavy Metals in the Streambed.

    Liu, Qi; Song, Jinxi; Zhang, Guotao; Wang, Weize; Guo, Weiqiang; Tang, Bin; Kong, Feihe; Huo, Aidi

    2017-09-06

    The hyporheic zone regulates physicochemical processes in surface-groundwater systems and can be an important source of heavy metals in fluvial systems. This study assesses the pore water concentrations and diffusive fluxes of heavy metals with respect to the vertical water exchange flux (VWEF) and sediment grain size. Water and sediment samples were collected on August 2016 from upstream Site 1 and downstream Site 2 along the Juehe River in Shaanxi Province, China. Streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) and the VWEF were estimated via the standpipe permeameter test method and Darcy's law. The heavy metal concentrations in the pore water were measured and the diffusive fluxes were calculated using Fick's first law. The VWEF patterns were dominated by upward flow, and Site 1 featured higher values of Kv and VWEF. Higher Cu and Zn concentrations occurred near the channel centre with coarse sand and gravel and greater upward VWEFs because coarser sediment and greater upward VWEFs cause stronger metal desorption capacity. Additionally, Cu and Zn at the two sites generally diffused from pore water to surface water, potentially due to the upward VWEF. The VWEF and sediment grain size are likely crucial factors influencing the heavy metal concentrations and diffusive fluxes.

  14. Uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by rice using 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizer

    Reddy, K.R.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Data from five field experiments using labelled nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine the relative effects of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on rice yield. Yield of grain was closely correlated with total aboveground nitrogen uptake (soil + fertilizer), less closely correlated with soil nitrogen uptake and not significantly correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake. When yield increase rather than yield was correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake, the correlation coefficient was statistically significant. (orig.)

  15. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Zhenhua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  16. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana. PMID:28194424

  17. [Concentrations and Component Profiles PAHs in Surface Soils and Wheat Grains from the Cornfields Close to the Steel Smelting Industry in Handan, Hebei Province].

    Wu, Di; Wang, Yi-long; Liu, Wei-jian; Chen, Yuan-chen; Fu, Xiao-fang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wen-xin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, paired surface soil and mature wheat grain samples were collected in the cornfields near the large Handan Steel Manufacturer; and the total concentrations and compositional profiles of the parent PAHs were measured, then the spatial distribution characteristics and correlation with total organic carbon fractions in soil were determined. Accordingly, a preliminary source identification was performed, and the association between PAHs in surface soil and wheat grain was briefly discussed. The median concentration of total PAHs in surface soils from the cornfields of Handan was 398.9 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 123.4 ng x g(-1) to 1626.4 ng x g(-1), where around 18% and 10% of all the studied soil samples were over the corresponding quality criteria for total PAHs and B [a] P in soils, respectively. The MMW and HMW species were the main components in the compositional profiles of surface soils. Based on the specific isomeric ratios of PAHs species, coal/biomass combustion and transportation fuel (tail gas) were the dominant mixed sources for the local PAHs emission. The fractions of surface soil TOC had significant positive correlations with the total PAHs and also with the individual components with different rings. In addition, the median concentration of total PAHs in wheat grains collected in the cornfields near the Handan Steel Manufacture was 27.0 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 19.0-34.0 ng x g(-1)). The levels in wheat grains were not high, and lower than the related hygienic standards of food proposed by EU and China. The LMW and MMW PAHs with 2 to 4 rings occupied a larger proportion, more than 84% of the total PAHs, which was largely different from the component profiles in surface soils. This situation suggested that the local sources of PAHs in wheat grains may originate not only from surface soil via root absorption and internal transportation, but also from ambient air through dry and wet deposition on the leaf surface (stoma).

  18. Exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds: concentrations and fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate above a spruce canopy

    V. Wolff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Total ammonium (tot-NH4+ and total nitrate (tot-NO3 provide chemically conservative quantities in the measurement of surface exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds ammonia (NH3, particulate ammonium (NH4+, nitric acid (HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3, using the aerodynamic gradient method. Total fluxes were derived from concentration differences of total ammonium (NH3 and NH4+ and total nitrate (HNO3 and NO3 measured at two levels. Gaseous species and related particulate compounds were measured selectively, simultaneously and continuously above a spruce forest canopy in south-eastern Germany in summer 2007. Measurements were performed using a wet-chemical two-point gradient instrument, the GRAEGOR. Median concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3 were 0.57, 0.12, 0.76, and 0.48 μg m−3, respectively. Total ammonium and total nitrate fluxes showed large variations depending on meteorological conditions, with concentrations close to zero under humid and cool conditions and higher concentrations under dry conditions. Mean fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate in September 2007 were directed towards the forest canopy and were −65.77 ng m−2 s−1 and −41.02 ng m−2 s−1 (in terms of nitrogen, respectively. Their deposition was controlled by aerodynamic resistances only, with very little influence of surface resistances. Including measurements of wet deposition and findings of former studies on occult deposition (fog water interception at the study site, the total N deposition in September 2007 was estimated to 5.86 kg ha−1.

  19. Modelling deposition and air concentration of reduced nitrogen in Poland and sensitivity to variability in annual meteorology.

    Kryza, Maciej; Dore, Anthony J; Błaś, Marek; Sobik, Mieczysław

    2011-04-01

    The relative contribution of reduced nitrogen to acid and eutrophic deposition in Europe has increased recently as a result of European policies which have been successful in reducing SO(2) and NO(x) emissions but have had smaller impacts on ammonia (NH(3)) emissions. In this paper the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME) model was used to calculate the spatial patterns of annual average ammonia and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) air concentrations and reduced nitrogen (NH(x)) dry and wet deposition with a 5 km × 5 km grid for years 2002-2005. The modelled air concentrations of NH(3) and dry deposition of NH(x) show similar spatial patterns for all years considered. The largest year to year changes were found for wet deposition, which vary considerably with precipitation amount. The FRAME modelled air concentrations and wet deposition are in reasonable agreement with available measurements (Pearson's correlation coefficients above 0.6 for years 2002-2005), and with spatial patterns of concentrations and deposition of NH(x) reported with the EMEP results, but show larger spatial gradients. The error statistics show that the FRAME model results are in better agreement with measurements if compared with EMEP estimates. The differences in deposition budgets calculated with FRAME and EMEP do not exceed 17% for wet and 6% for dry deposition, with FRAME estimates higher than for EMEP wet deposition for modelled period and lower or equal for dry deposition. The FRAME estimates of wet deposition budget are lower than the measurement-based values reported by the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection of Poland, with the differences by approximately 3%. Up to 93% of dry and 53% of wet deposition of NH(x) in Poland originates from national sources. Over the western part of Poland and mountainous areas in the south, transboundary transport can contribute over 80% of total (dry + wet) NH(x) deposition. The spatial pattern of the relative contribution of

  20. pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 expression enhances nitrogen uptake efficiency and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Chen, Jingguang; Fan, Xiaoru; Qian, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yong; Song, Miaoquan; Liu, Yu; Xu, Guohua; Fan, Xiaorong

    2017-10-01

    The nitrate (NO3-) transporter has been selected as an important gene maker in the process of environmental adoption in rice cultivars. In this work, we transferred another native OsNAR2.1 promoter with driving OsNAR2.1 gene into rice plants. The transgenic lines with exogenous pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 constructs showed enhanced OsNAR2.1 expression level, compared with wild type (WT), and 15 N influx in roots increased 21%-32% in response to 0.2 mm and 2.5 mm 15NO3- and 1.25 mm 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 . Under these three N conditions, the biomass of the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 transgenic lines increased 143%, 129% and 51%, and total N content increased 161%, 242% and 69%, respectively, compared to WT. Furthermore in field experiments we found the grain yield, agricultural nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE), and dry matter transfer of pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 plants increased by about 21%, 22% and 21%, compared to WT. We also compared the phenotypes of pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 and pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 transgenic lines in the field, found that postanthesis N uptake differed significantly between them, and in comparison with the WT. Postanthesis N uptake (PANU) increased approximately 39% and 85%, in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 and pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 transgenic lines, respectively, possibly because OsNRT2.1 expression was less in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 lines than in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines during the late growth stage. These results show that rice NO 3 - uptake, yield and NUE were improved by increased OsNAR2.1 expression via its native promoter. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Groundwater Depth Affects Phosphorus But Not Carbon and Nitrogen Concentrations of a Desert Phreatophyte in Northwest China.

    Zhang, Bo; Gao, Xiaopeng; Li, Lei; Lu, Yan; Shareef, Muhammad; Huang, Caibian; Liu, Guojun; Gui, Dongwei; Zeng, Fanjiang

    2018-01-01

    Ecological stoichiometry is an important aspect in the analysis of the changes in ecological system composition, structure, and function and understanding of plant adaptation in habitats. Leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations in desert phreatophytes can be affected by different depths of groundwater through its effect on the adsorption and utilization of nutrient and plant biomass. We examined the biomass, soil organic C, available (mineral) N, and available P, and leaf C, N, and P concentrations of Alhagi sparsifolia grown at varying groundwater depths of 2.5, 4.5, and 11.0 m in 2015 and 2016 growing seasons in a desert-oasis ecotone in northwest China. The biomass of A. sparsifolia and the C, N, and P concentrations in soil and A. sparsifolia showed different responses to various groundwater depths. The leaf P concentration of A. sparsifolia was lower at 4.5 m than at 2.5 and 11.0 m likely because of a biomass dilution effect. By contrast, leaf C and N concentrations were generally unaffected by groundwater depth, thereby confirming that C and N accumulations in A. sparsifolia were predominantly determined by C fixation through the photosynthesis and biological fixation of atmospheric N 2 , respectively. Soil C, N, and P concentrations at 4.5 m were significantly lower than those at 11.0 m. Leaf P concentration was significantly and positively correlated with soil N concentration at all of the groundwater depths. The C:N and C:P mass ratios of A. sparsifolia at 4.5 m were higher than those at the other groundwater depths, suggesting a defensive life history strategy. Conversely, A. sparsifolia likely adopted a competitive strategy at 2.5 and 11.0 m as indicated by the low C:N and C:P mass ratios. To our knowledge, this study is the first to elucidate the variation in the C, N, and P stoichiometry of a desert phreatophyte at different groundwater depths in an arid ecosystem.

  2. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  3. Highly concentrated, stable nitrogen-doped graphene for supercapacitors: Simultaneous doping and reduction

    Jiang Baojiang [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin (China); Tian Chungui; Wang Lei; Sun Li; Chen Chen; Nong Xiaozhen [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin (China); Qiao Yingjie, E-mail: qiaoyingjie@hrbeu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Fu Honggang, E-mail: fuhg@vip.sina.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin (China)

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we developed a concentrated ammonia-assisted hydrothermal method to obtain N-doped graphene sheets by simultaneous N-doping and reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the surface chemistry and the structure of N-doped graphene sheets were also investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of N-doped graphene reveals that the highest doping level of 7.2% N is achieved at 180 Degree-Sign C for 12 h. N binding configurations of sample consist of pyridine N, quaternary N, and pyridine-N oxides. N doping is accompanied by the reduction of GO with decreases in oxygen levels from 34.8% in GO down to 8.5% in that of N-doped graphene. Meanwhile, the sample exhibits excellent N-doped thermal stability. Electrical measurements demonstrate that products have higher capacitive performance than that of pure graphene, the maximum specific capacitance of 144.6 F/g can be obtained which ascribe the pseudocapacitive effect from the N-doping. The samples also show excellent long-term cycle stability of capacitive performance.

  4. Highly concentrated, stable nitrogen-doped graphene for supercapacitors: Simultaneous doping and reduction

    Jiang, Baojiang; Tian, Chungui; Wang, Lei; Sun, Li; Chen, Chen; Nong, Xiaozhen; Qiao, Yingjie; Fu, Honggang

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we developed a concentrated ammonia-assisted hydrothermal method to obtain N-doped graphene sheets by simultaneous N-doping and reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the surface chemistry and the structure of N-doped graphene sheets were also investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of N-doped graphene reveals that the highest doping level of 7.2% N is achieved at 180 °C for 12 h. N binding configurations of sample consist of pyridine N, quaternary N, and pyridine-N oxides. N doping is accompanied by the reduction of GO with decreases in oxygen levels from 34.8% in GO down to 8.5% in that of N-doped graphene. Meanwhile, the sample exhibits excellent N-doped thermal stability. Electrical measurements demonstrate that products have higher capacitive performance than that of pure graphene, the maximum specific capacitance of 144.6 F/g can be obtained which ascribe the pseudocapacitive effect from the N-doping. The samples also show excellent long-term cycle stability of capacitive performance.

  5. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter.

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kayaalp, Ahmet S; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wylie, Jason; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and this study investigated the effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during aerobic period and influent solids on biological P and N removal in sequencing batch reactors (SRBs) using municipal wastewaters. Increasing cycle length from 3 to 6 h increased P removal efficiency, which was attributed to larger portion of N being removed via nitrite pathway and more biodegradable organic C becoming available for EBPR. Further increasing cycle length from 6 to 8 h decreased P removal efficiencies as the demand for biodegradable organic C for denitrification increased as a result of complete nitrification. Decreasing DO concentration in the aerobic period from 2 to 0.8 mg L(-1) increased P removal efficiency but decreased nitrification rates possibly due to oxygen limitation. Further, sedimented wastewater was proved to be a better influent stream than non-sedimented wastewater possibility due to the detrimental effect of particulate matter on biological nutrient removal.

  6. Estimation of daily protein intake based on spot urine urea nitrogen concentration in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Kanno, Hiroko; Kanda, Eiichiro; Sato, Asako; Sakamoto, Kaori; Kanno, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5). After patient randomization into 2 datasets for the development and validation of models, bootstrapping was used to develop protein intake estimation models. The parameters for the candidate multivariate regression models were male gender, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin level, spot urinary UN and creatinine level, and spot urinary UN/creatinine levels. The final model contained BMI and spot urinary UN level. The final model was selected because of the higher correlation between the predicted and measured protein intakes r = 0.558 (95 % confidence interval 0.400, 0.683), and the smaller distribution of the difference between the measured and predicted protein intakes than those of the other models. The results suggest that UN concentration in spot urine may be used to estimate daily protein intake and that a prediction formula would be useful for nutritional control in CKD patients.

  7. New and conventional evaporative systems in concentrating nitrogen samples prior to isotope-ratio analysis

    Lober, R.W.; Reeder, J.D.; Porter, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to quantify and compare the efficiencies of various evaporative systems used in evaporating 15 N samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Two new forced-air systems were designed and compared with a conventional forced-air system and with an open-air dry bath technique for effectiveness in preventing atmospheric contamination of evaporating samples. The forced-air evaporative systems significantly reduced the time needed to evaporate samples as compared to the open-air dry bath technique; samples were evaporated to dryness in 2.5 h with the forced-air systems as compared to 8 to 10 h on the open-air dry bath. The effectiveness of a given forced-air system to prevent atmospheric contamination of evaporating samples was significantly affected by the flow rate of the air stream flowing over the samples. The average atmospheric contaminant N found in samples evaporated on the open-air dry bath was 0.3 μ N, indicating very low concentrations of atmospheric NH 3 during this study. However, in previous studies the authors have experienced significant contamination of 15 N samples evaporated on an open-air dry bath because the level of contaminant N in the laboratory atmosphere varied and could not be adequately controlled. Average cross-contaminant levels of 0.28, 0.20, and 1.01 μ of N were measured between samples evaporated on the open-air dry bath, the newly-designed forced-air system, and the conventional forced-air system, respectively. The cross-contamination level is significantly higher on the conventional forced-air system than on the other two systems, and could significantly alter the atom % 15 N of high-enriched, low [N] evaporating samples

  8. Changes in the salinity tolerance of sweet pepper plants as affected by nitrogen form and high CO2 concentration.

    Piñero, María C; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2016-08-01

    The assimilation and availability of nitrogen in its different forms can significantly affect the response of primary productivity under the current atmospheric alteration and soil degradation. An elevated CO2 concentration (e[CO2]) triggers changes in the efficiency and efficacy of photosynthetic processes, water use and product yield, the plant response to stress being altered with respect to ambient CO2 conditions (a[CO2]). Additionally, NH4(+) has been related to improved plant responses to stress, considering both energy efficiency in N-assimilation and the overcoming of the inhibition of photorespiration at e[CO2]. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the response of sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) receiving an additional supply of NH4(+) (90/10 NO3(-)/NH4(+)) to salinity stress (60mM NaCl) under a[CO2] (400μmolmol(-1)) or e[CO2] (800μmolmol(-1)). Salt-stressed plants grown at e[CO2] showed DW accumulation similar to that of the non-stressed plants at a[CO2]. The supply of NH4(+) reduced growth at e[CO2] when salinity was imposed. Moreover, NH4(+) differentially affected the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency and the leaf Cl(-), K(+), and Na(+) concentrations, but the extent of the effects was influenced by the [CO2]. An antioxidant-related response was prompted by salinity, the total phenolics and proline concentrations being reduced by NH4(+) at e[CO2]. Our results show that the effect of NH4(+) on plant salinity tolerance should be globally re-evaluated as e[CO2] can significantly alter the response, when compared with previous studies at a[CO2]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen......Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...

  10. Performances of Water Management, Foliage Dressing, and Variation Screening in Controlling the Accumulation of As and Cd and Maintaining the Concentrations of Essential Elements in the Grains of Rice Plant

    Lei Lei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to understand why and how the technologies of variety screening, foliar dressing, and water management can reduce As/Cd accumulation and affect the concentrations of essential elements in different rice plants. In Trial I (variety screening, the grain As and Cd concentrations in Zhongguyou1361 variety (P3 were both lower than their individual National Food Hygiene Standard of China (NFHSC under insufficient field drying condition. The P3 also had a relatively high yield and high essential element contents among 15 selected rice varieties. In Trial II (foliar dressing, selenite foliar spray showed a better ability than silicate to reduce the grain As content in Guangliangyou1128 variety (P1. However, spraying Se and Si onto the Fengliangyou1 variety (P2 both showed a limited effect on the grain As and Cd contents, suggesting a different effect of Se on grain As content in various rice varieties. The insufficient field drying in Trial II resulted in the grain Cd content being lower but the grain As content being higher than their individual NFHSC in both P1 and Fengliangyou1 (P2 varieties. Se or Si did not affect the yields and the grain contents of most essential elements in P1 and P2. In Trial III (water management, increasing field drying time enhanced the Cd content but reduced the As content in the grains of P1, P2, and P3, and maintained their yields. Similar to the results of Trial II, the changes in soil pH, organic matter concentration and elemental available concentrations could hardly be used to explain why the contents of corresponding essential elements kept approximately constant in the grains of different rice varieties. Foliar dressing with selenite combined with water regulation can simultaneously reduce the As and Cd contents, and maintain the yields and the essential element contents in the grains of rice plants cultivated in As− and Cd− contaminated soil.

  11. Concentration levels and spatial distribution of sulphur and metals in fine-grained sediments in western Finland

    M. ÅSTRÖM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the coastal plains of Finland, widespread Holocene marine and lacustrine sediments have developed into acid sulphate soil as a result of extensive artificial drainage for agricultural purposes. This has caused a variety of environmental problems. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration levels and spatial distribution of sulphur, carbon and metals [titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese (Mn, iron, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn] in these sediments, in order to increase the geochemical understanding of the parent materials from which acid sulphate soil develops. Sediment samples were collected at 317 sites from a depth of 1.5–3 m. While the sediments have high S (sulphide concentrations (median = 0.54% and thus a strong acidification potential, they carry transition metals mainly in smallsized silicates close to “background concentrations” far below contamination limits. The previously documented extensive release of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn from oxidised and acidified layers of these sediments (i.e. acid sulphate soil is thus not explained by anomalously high natural or anthropogenic metal concentrations of the soils/sediments, but by an inherent highly mobile metal pool. Spatial-distribution maps highlight areas of elevated S and Mn concentrations, where it is likely that ditching and subsequent oxidation will result in an exceptionally large release of protons and Mn respectively.;

  12. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and increased nitrogen deposition on growth and chemical composition of ombrotrophic Sphagnum balticum and oligo-mesotrophic Sphagnum papillosum

    Van der Heijden, E; Jauhiainen, J; Silvola, J; Vasander, H; Kuiper, PJC

    2000-01-01

    The ombrotrophic Sphagnum balticum (Russ.) C. Jens. and the oligo-mesotrophic Sphagnum papillosum Lindb. were grown at ambient (360 mu l l(-1)) and at elevated (720 mu l l(-1)) atmospheric CO2 concentrations and at different nitrogen deposition rates, varying between 0 and 30kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), The

  13. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  14. Meta-analyzing ownership concentration and firm performance in Asia: Towards a more fine-grained understanding

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey); M. van Essen (Marc); J. van Oosterhout (Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe present a meta-analysis of the relationship between concentrated ownership and firm financial performance in Asia. At the cross-national level of analysis, we find a small but significant positive association between both variables. This finding suggests that in regions with less than

  15. On the water-soluble organic nitrogen concentration and mass size distribution during the fog season in the Po Valley, Italy.

    Montero-Martínez, Guillermo; Rinaldi, Matteo; Gilardoni, Stefania; Giulianelli, Lara; Paglione, Marco; Decesari, Stefano; Fuzzi, Sandro; Facchini, Maria Cristina

    2014-07-01

    The study of organic nitrogen gained importance in recent decades due to its links with acid rain, pollution, and eutrophication. In this study, aerosol and fog water samples collected from two sites in Italy during November 2011 were analyzed to characterize their organic nitrogen content. Organic nitrogen contributed 19-25% of the total soluble nitrogen in the aerosol and around 13% in fog water. The largest water soluble organic nitrogen concentrations in the PM1.2 fraction occurred during the diurnal period with mean values of 2.03 and 2.16 μg-N m(-3) (154 and 145 nmol-N m(-3)) at Bologna and San Pietro Capofiume (SPC), respectively. The mean PM10 WSON concentration during diurnal periods at SPC was 2.30 μg-N m(-3) (164 nmol-N m(-3)) while it was 1.34 and 0.82 μg-N m(-3) (95.7 and 58.5 nmol-N m(-3)) in the night and fog water samples, respectively. Aerosol mass distribution profiles obtained during fog changed significantly with respect to those estimated in periods without fog periods due to fog scavenging, which proved to be over 80% efficient. Linear correlations suggested secondary processes related to combustion and, to a lesser extent, biomass burning, as plausible sources of WSON. Regarding the inorganic nitrogen fraction, the results showed that ammonium was the largest soluble inorganic nitrogen component in the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrogen metabolism in plants using 15N as tracer. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of isotopes in fertilizer efficiency studies on grain legumes

    Pate, J.; Atkins, C.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques are described for studying the economy of carbon and nitrogen in annual nodulated legumes. Budgets for utilization of net photosynthate are constructed for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), including expenditure in respiration and dry matter accumulation of plant parts, carbon consumption in growth, respiration and export of fixed nitrogen by nodules, and the provision of recent photosynthate and earlier-fixed carbon to fruits. Sources of nitrogen to fruits are defined, and efficiencies of conversion of net photosynthate to protein of above-ground vegetative parts and of seeds are computed. Consideration is given to the timing of events associated with loss of symbiotic activity after flowering. Literature giving estimates of the respiratory requirements of nitrogen fixation by nodules is reviewed. Rates of respiration of nodules of cowpea, white lupin and pea (Pisum sativum L.) are assessed from a theoretical viewpoint, basing the estimates on ATP requirements for assimilation of N 2 into nitrogenous solutes, and published values for respiration costs in plant tissues. Expressed as CO 2 output per unit of nitrogen assimilated, these estimates greatly exceed the experimentally-observed CO 2 efflux of nodules of the species. This discrepancy is examined in relation to the capacity of nodules to fix CO 2 and the uncertainty of the in vivo requirement of nitrogenase for ATP

  17. Carbon Concentration and Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio Influence Submerged-Culture Conidiation by the Potential Bioherbicide Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 13737

    Jackson, Mark A.; Bothast, Rodney J.

    1990-01-01

    We assessed the influence of various carbon concentrations and carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios on Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 13737 conidium formation in submerged cultures grown in a basal salts medium containing various amounts of glucose and Casamino Acids. Under the nutritional conditions tested, the highest conidium concentrations were produced in media with carbon concentrations of 4.0 to 15.3 g/liter. High carbon concentrations (20.4 to 40.8 g/liter) inhibited sporulation and enhanced the formation of microsclerotiumlike hyphal masses. At all the carbon concentrations tested, a culture grown in a medium with a C:N ratio of 15:1 produced more conidia than cultures grown in media with C:N ratios of 40:1 or 5:1. While glucose exhaustion was often coincident with conidium formation, cultures containing residual glucose sporulated and those with high carbon concentrations (>25 g/liter) exhausted glucose without sporulation. Nitrogen source studies showed that the levels of C. truncatum NRRL 13737 conidiation were similar for all protein hydrolysates tested. Reduced conidiation occurred when amino acid and inorganic nitrogen sources were used. Of the nine carbon sources evaluated, acetate as the sole carbon source resulted in the lowest level of sporulation. Images PMID:16348348

  18. Interactions between elevated CO2 concentration, nitrogen and water : effects on growth and water use of six perennial plant species

    Arp, W.J.; Mierlo, J.E.M.; Berendse, F.; Snijders, W.

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments are described in which plants of six species were grown for one full season in greenhouse compartments with 350 or 560 mol mol1 CO2. In the first experiment two levels of nitrogen supply were applied to study the interaction between CO2 and nitrogen. In the second experiment two

  19. Relationship of bifenthrin sediment concentrations to grain size and total organic carbon in California waterbodies: implications for ecological risk.

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D

    2014-12-01

    A summary analysis of data sets from six California waterbodies was conducted to determine the relationship of bifenthrin sediment concentrations to: % sand/gravel; % silt; % clay; % silt/clay and % total organic carbon (TOC). The relationship of TOC to % sand/gravel, % silt, % clay, and % silt/clay was also analyzed. Statistically significant and meaningful direct relationships were reported between bifenthrin and % TOC, % silt, % clay and % silt/clay while a significant and meaningful inverse relationship was reported between bifenthrin and % sand/gravel. A significant and meaningful inverse relationship was reported between % TOC and % sand/gravel, while a significant and meaningful direct relationship was reported between % TOC and % silt, % clay and % silt/clay. Significant bifenthrin sediment concentrations would not be expected in non-depositional (sand/gravel) areas which have been reported to be dominant in various streams in California's Central Valley and are also the preferred habitat for many benthic macroinvertebrate taxa.

  20. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    Ghose-Hajra, M.; McCorquodale, A.; Mattson, G.; Jerolleman, D.; Filostrat, J.

    2015-03-01

    Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana's coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana's disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  1. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    M. Ghose-Hajra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana’s coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana’s disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  2. Mercury concentrations and pools in four Sierra Nevada forest sites, and relationships to organic carbon and nitrogen

    D. Obrist

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data on mercury (Hg concentrations, stochiometric relations to carbon (C and nitrogen (N, and Hg pool sizes in four Sierra Nevada forest sites of similar exposure and precipitation regimes, and hence similar atmospheric deposition, to evaluate how ecosystem parameters control Hg retention in ecosystems. In all four sites, the largest amounts of Hg reside in soils which account for 94–98% of ecosystem pools. Hg concentrations and Hg/C ratios increase in the following order: Green Needles/Leavesr2=0.58 and N and C (r2=0.64 in decomposing litter, but a positive correlation between litter Hg and N (r2=0.70. These inverse relations may reflect preferential retention of N and Hg over C during decomposition, or may be due to older age of decomposed litter layers which are exposed to longer-term atmospheric Hg deposition in the field. The results indicate that litter Hg levels depend on decomposition stage and may not follow generally observed positive relationships between Hg and organic C.

    Mineral soil layers show strong positive correlations of Hg to C across all sites and soil horizons (r2=0.83, but Hg concentrations are even more closely related to N with a similar slope to that observed in litter (r2=0.92. Soil N levels alone explain over 90% of Hg pool sizes across the four Sierra Nevada forest sites. This suggests that soil organic N and C groups provide sorption sites for Hg to retain atmospheric deposition. However, the patterns could be due to indirect relationships where high soil N and C levels reflect high ecosystem productivity which leads to corresponding high atmospheric Hg deposition inputs via leaf litterfall and plant senescence. Our results also show that two of the sites previously affected by

  3. [Effects of short-term elevated CO2 concentration and drought stress on the rhizosphere effects of soil carbon, nitrogen and microbes of Bothriochloa ischaemum.

    Xiao, Lie; Liu, Guo Bin; Li, Peng; Xue, Sha

    2017-10-01

    A water control pot experiment was conducted in climate controlled chambers to study soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial community structure and their rhizosphere effects in the rhizosphere and non rhizosphere soil of Bothriochloa ischaemum at elevated CO2 concentrations (800 μmol·mol -1 ) under three water regimes, i.e., well watered (75%-80% of field capacity, FC), moderate drought stress (55%-60% of FC), and severe drought stress (35%-40% of FC). The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration and drought stress did not have significant impacts on the content of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere and bulk soils or their rhizosphere effects. Elevated CO2 concentration significantly decreased dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in the rhizosphere soil under moderate drought stress, increased DOC/DON, and significantly increased the negative rhizosphere effect of DON and positive rhizosphere effect of DOC/DON. Drought stress and elevated CO2 concentration did not have significant impacts on the rhizosphere effect of total and bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Drought stress under elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the G + /G - PLFA in the rhizosphere soil and decreased the G + /G - PLFA in the bulk soil, so its rhizosphere effect significantly increased, indicating that the soil microbial community changed from chemoautotroph microbes to heterotrophic microbes.

  4. Profile of Rumen Fermentation and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentration of Kacang Goat Fed Total Mixed Ration Vs. Roughage

    Adiwinarti, R.; Kustantinah; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Rusman; Indarto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Kacang goat is usually reared traditionally fed natural grass and having inferior performance. Many researches had been done to improve the performance. Total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) could increase the performance of Kacang goat, but the profile of rumen fermentation has not been published. Therefore, this study investigated the profile of rumen fermentation and blood urea Nitrogen concentration (BUN) in Kacang goat fed natural grass (roughage) and TMR. Twelve yearling Kacang buck, 15.2-19.6 kg were arranged in completely randomized design. The treatments were NG (natural grass), FM (TMR containing FM), and SBM (TMR containing SBM). The TMR were formulated containing 15% crude protein and 56-58% TDN. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Rumen pH 6 hours after feeding of NG (7.4) was higher (P<0.01) than that of FM (6.2) and SBM (6.4). This lowering pH of TMR was caused by increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA). The VFA total of FM (129.7 mmol/l) and SBM (153.1 mmol/l) were higher than that of NG (86.4 mmol/l). At 3 and 6 hours after feeding, ammonia in the rumen of SBM was higher than that of NG and FM, indicating higher degraded protein. The BUN at 3 hours after feeding of SBM was higher than that of NG. It can be concluded that protein in SBM was degraded higher than others and the lower pH in rumen of TMR goats was caused by higher VFA produced by TMR goats compared to NG goats.

  5. Concentrations of oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice bran and their relationships to total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and whole grain color.

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; McClung, Anna M; Bergman, Christine J

    2016-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins, a flavonoids subgroup, are proposed to have chronic disease modulation properties. With the eventual goal of enhancing rice phytonutrient concentrations, we investigated the genotypic variation of the concentrations of individual oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice brans. A 4.3-fold variation in total proanthocyanidins (sum of oligomers and polymers) in the extractable fraction was found and the concentration was highly correlated with total phenolics, total flavonoids and antiradical capacity. Variation in the proportion of oligomers and polymers existed, with monomers to trimers, 4-6mers, 7-10mers and polymers accounting for 7, 18, 26.5 and 48.7%, respectively, of the total. The redness value a(∗) of whole grain rice measured in CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) color space was negatively and positively correlated with extractable and non-extractable proanthocyanidins, respectively. The variation found indicates it is possible to select rice with bran containing high levels of total proanthocyanidins and specific degree of polymerization profiles. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A Bayesian changepoint-threshold model to examine the effect of TMDL implementation on the flow-nitrogen concentration relationship in the Neuse River basin.

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Qian, Song S; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2011-01-01

    In-stream nutrient concentrations are well known to exhibit a strong relationship with river flow. The use of flow measurements to predict nutrient concentrations and subsequently nutrient loads is common in water quality modeling. Nevertheless, most adopted models assume that the relationship between flow and concentration is fixed across time as well as across different flow regimes. In this study, we developed a Bayesian changepoint-threshold model that relaxes these constraints and allows for the identification and quantification of any changes in the underlying flow-concentration relationship across time. The results from our study support the occurrence of a changepoint in time around the year 1999, which coincided with the period of implementing nitrogen control measures as part of the TMDL program developed for the Neuse Estuary in North Carolina. The occurrence of the changepoint challenges the underlying assumption of temporal invariance in the flow-concentrations relationship. The model results also point towards a transition in the river nitrogen delivery system from a point source dominated loading system towards a more complicated nonlinear system, where non-point source nutrient delivery plays a major role. Moreover, we use the developed model to assess the effectiveness of the nitrogen reduction measures in achieving a 30% drop in loading. The results indicate that while there is a strong evidence of a load reduction, there still remains a high level of uncertainty associated with the mean nitrogen load reduction. We show that the level of uncertainty around the estimated load reduction is not random but is flow related. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultraviolet-B radiation and nitrogen affect nutrient concentrations and the amount of nutrients acquired by above-ground organs of maize.

    Correia, Carlos M; Coutinho, João F; Bacelar, Eunice A; Gonçalves, Berta M; Björn, Lars Olof; Moutinho Pereira, José

    2012-01-01

    UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  8. Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize

    Carlos M. Correia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  9. Plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations after whole blood administration via the gastrointestinal tract in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Sheldon, Julie; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E

    2007-06-01

    To determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (Pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ml/kg. No significant difference in plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid was seen 4-6 hours after gavage. The findings did not support or rule out the presence of gastrointestinal blood in pigeons as a model for hemorrhage in noncarnivorous avian species.

  10. The meteorology and chemistry of high nitrogen oxide concentrations in the stable boundary layer at the South Pole

    Neff, William; Crawford, Jim; Buhr, Marty; Nicovich, John; Chen, Gao; Davis, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    Four summer seasons of nitrogen oxide (NO) concentrations were obtained at the South Pole (SP) during the Sulfur Chemistry in the Antarctic Troposphere (ISCAT) program (1998 and 2000) and the Antarctic Tropospheric Chemistry Investigation (ANTCI) in (2003, 2005, 2006-2007). Together, analyses of the data collected from these studies provide insight into the large- to small-scale meteorology that sets the stage for extremes in NO and the significant variability that occurs day to day, within seasons, and year to year. In addition, these observations reveal the interplay between physical and chemical processes at work in the stable boundary layer of the high Antarctic plateau. We found a systematic evolution of the large-scale wind system over the ice sheet from winter to summer that controls the surface boundary layer and its effect on NO: initially in early spring (Days 280-310) the transport of warm air and clouds over West Antarctica dominates the environment over the SP; in late spring (Days 310-340), the winds at 300 hPa exhibit a bimodal behavior alternating between northwest and southeast quadrants, which is of significance to NO; in early summer (Days 340-375), the flow aloft is dominated by winds from the Weddell Sea; and finally, during late spring, winds aloft from the southeast are strongly associated with clear skies, shallow stable boundary layers, and light surface winds from the east - it is under these conditions that the highest NO occurs. Examination of the winds at 300 hPa from 1961 to 2013 shows that this seasonal pattern has not changed significantly, although the last twenty years have seen an increasing trend in easterly surface winds at the SP. What has also changed is the persistence of the ozone hole, often into early summer. With lower total ozone column density and higher sun elevation, the highest actinic flux responsible for the photolysis of snow nitrate now occurs in late spring under the shallow boundary layer conditions optimum for

  11. Giant grains

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  12. Anatomy of a turbidity current: Concentration and grain size structure of a deep-sea flow revealed by multiple-frequency acoustic profilers

    Simmons, S.; Parsons, D. R.; Paull, C. K.; Barry, J.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gwiazda, R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Maier, K. L.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents are responsible for transporting large volumes of sediment to the deep ocean, yet remain poorly understood due to the limited number of field observations of these episodic, high energy events. As part of the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment high resolution, sub-minute acoustic velocity and backscatter profiles were acquired with downward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) distributed along the canyon on moorings at depths ranging from 270 to 1,900 m over a period of 18 months. Additionally, three upward-looking ADCPs on different frequencies (300, 600 and 1200 kHz) profiled the water column above a seafloor instrument node (SIN) at 1850 m water depth. Traps on the moorings collected sediment carried by the flows at different heights above the seafloor and sediment cores were taken to determine the depositional record produced by the flows. Several sediment-laden turbidity flows were observed during the experiment, three of which ran out for more than 50 km to water depths of greater than 1,900 m and were observed on all of the moorings. Flow speeds of up to 6 m/s were observed and individual moorings, anchored by railroad wheels, moved up to 7.8 km down-canyon during these powerful events. We present results based on a novel analysis of the multiple-frequency acoustic data acquired by the ADCPs at the SIN integrated with grain size data from the sediment traps, close to the deepest mooring in the array where the flow thickened to the 70 m height of the ADCP above the bed. The analysis allows, for the first time, retrieval of the suspended sediment concentration and vertical distribution of grain size structure within a turbidity in spectacular detail. The details of the stratification and flow dynamics will be used to re-evaluate and discuss our existing models for these deep-sea flows.

  13. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation are not affected by superoptimal concentration of ammonium in flowing solution culture with pH control

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While it is known that superoptimal concentrations of the nitrate (NO3-) ion in solution culture do not increase NO3- uptake or dry matter accumulation, the same is not known for the ammonium (NH4+) ion. An experiment was conducted utilizing flowing solution culture with pH control to investigate the influence of superoptimal NH4+ concentrations on dry matter, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) accumulation by nonnodulated soybean plants. Increasing the NH4+ concentration in solution from 1 to 10 mM did not affect dry matter or N accumulation. Accumulations of K, Ca, and Mg were slightly decreased with increased NH4+ concentration. The NH4+ uptake system, which is saturated at less than 1mM NH4+, is able to regulate uptake of NH4+ at concentrations as high as 10 mM.

  14. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of oxidised sulfur and nitrogen species at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 1993-1998

    Ayers, G.P.; Gillett, R.W.; Manins, P.C. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Peng Leong Chow; Fook Lim Sze [Malaysian Meteorological Service, Petaling Jaya (Malaysia); Kong Cheah Wai [Tenaga Nasional R and D Berhad, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2000-02-01

    Wet-only rainwater composition, acid-precursor gas mixing ratios and aerosol loading were determined from weekly-averaged samples at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, over the five year period from March 1993 to March 1998. Annual deposition fluxes of acidic sulfur and nitrogen species estimated from these data show this site to be heavily impacted by acidic deposition, with total oxidised sulfur plus nitrogen deposition in the range 277-480 meq m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Average contributions were 56% as sulfur species, 44% as nitrogen species, with wet deposition in this region of high rainfall accounting for 67% of total deposition. Thus total acid deposition fluxes were equivalent to levels that provided motivation for emissions reduction programs in both Europe and North America. The possibility of adverse environmental effects in Malaysia caused by acid deposition therefore merits serious consideration and assessment.

  15. Achieving low effluent NO3-N and TN concentrations in low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio without using external carbon source

    Cao, Jiashun; Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Xue, Zhaoxia; Otache, Y. Martins; Feng, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Two mathematical models were used to optimize the performance of a full-scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated treatment plant, a plug-flow bioreactors operated in a 3-stage phoredox process configuration, anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2/O). The ASM2d implemented on the platform of WEST2011 software and the BioWin activated sludge/anaerobic digestion (AS/AD) models were used in this study with the aim of consistently achieving the designed effluent criteria at a low operational cost. Four ASM2d parameters (the reduction factor for denitrification , the maximum growth rate of heterotrophs (µH), the rate constant for stored polyphosphates in PAOs ( q pp), and the hydrolysis rate constant ( k h)) were adjusted. Whereas three BioWin parameters (aerobic decay rate ( b H), heterotrophic dissolved oxygen (DO) half saturation ( K OA), and Y P/acetic) were adjusted. Calibration of the two models was successful; both models have average relative deviations (ARD) less than 10% for all the output variables. Low effluent concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were achieved in a full-scale BNR treatment plant having low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio (COD/TKN). The effluent total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were improved by 50% and energy consumption was reduced by approximately 25%, which was accomplished by converting the two-pass aerobic compartment of the plug-flow bioreactor to anoxic reactors and being operated in an alternating mode. Findings in this work are helpful in improving the operation of wastewater treatment plant while eliminating the cost of external carbon source and reducing energy consumption.

  16. Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize

    Correia, Carlos M.; Coutinho, João F.; Bacelar, Eunice A.; Gonçalves, Berta M.; Björn, Lars Olof; Moutinho Pereira, José

    2012-01-01

    UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn con...

  17. Characterization of 140 Japanese and world rice collections cultivated in Nihonmatsu-city in Fukushima in terms of radiocesium activity concentrations in seed grains and straws to explore rice cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation

    Katsuhiro Kojima; Djedidi Salem

    2017-01-01

    We studied varietal difference in radiocesium accumulation by using Japanese and World rice collection for future development of low accumulation varieties. As a result, the radiocesium activity concentration varied by 12- and 22-fold in seed grains and straws, respectively. When we examined the seed grain to straw ratio of radiocesium activity concentration, paddy rice cultivars of Japonica sub-species showed a lower result than Indica and Javanica paddy rice cultivars. These observations suggest that the Japonica paddy rice cultivars may have the property of repressing radioactive cesium translocation to edible parts. (author)

  18. The spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in a sand aquifer influenced by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: a case study on St. George Island, Florida.

    Corbet, D Reide; Dillon, Kevin; Burnett, William; Schaefer, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater from a shallow freshwater lens on St. George Island, a barrier island located in the Panhandle of Florida, eventually discharges into Apalachicola Bay or the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient concentrations in groundwaters were monitored downfield from three onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) on the island. Estimates of natural groundwater nutrient concentrations were obtained from an adjacent uninhabited island. Silicate, which was significantly higher in the imported drinking water relative to the surficial aquifer on St. George Island (12.2+/-1.9 mg Si l(-1) and 2.9+/-0.2 mg Si l(-1), respectively), was used as a natural conservative tracer. Our observations showed that nitrogen concentrations were attenuated to a greater extent than that of phosphorus relative to the conservative tracer. At the current setback distance (23 m), both nitrogen and phosphate concentrations are still elevated above natural levels by as much as 2 and 7 times, respectively. Increasing the setback distance to 50 m and raising the drainfields 1 m above the ground surface could reduce nutrient levels to natural concentrations (1.1+/-0.1 mg N l(-1), 0.20+/-0.02 mg P l(-1)).

  19. Aberrant Meiotic Modulation Partially Contributes to the Lower Germination Rate of Pollen Grains in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Low Nitrogen Supply.

    Zheng, Hongyan; Wu, Huamao; Pan, Xiaoying; Jin, Weiwei; Li, Xuexian

    2017-02-01

    Pollen germination is an essential step towards successful pollination during maize reproduction. How low niutrogen (N) affects pollen germination remains an interesting biological question to be addressed. We found that only low N resulted in a significantly lower germination rate of pollen grains after 4 weeks of low N, phosphorus or potassium treatment in maize production. Importantly, cytological analysis showed 7-fold more micronuclei in male meiocytes under the low N treatment than in the control, indicating that the lower germination rate of pollen grains was partially due to numerous chromosome loss events resulting from preceding meiosis. The appearance of 10 bivalents in the control and low N cells at diakinesis suggested that chromosome pairing and recombination in meiosis I was not affected by low N. Further gene expression analysis revealed dramatic down-regulation of Nuclear Division Cycle 80 (Ndc80) and Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (Rcc1-1) expression and up-regulation of Cell Division Cycle 20 (Cdc20-1) expression, although no significant difference in the expression level of kinetochore foundation proteins Centromeric Histone H3 (Cenh3) and Centromere Protein C (Cenpc) and cohesion regulators Recombination 8 (Rec8) and Shugoshin (Sgo1) was observed. Aberrant modulation of three key meiotic regulators presumably resulted in a high likelihood of erroneous chromosome segregation, as testified by pronounced lagging chromosomes at anaphase I or cell cycle disruption at meiosis II. Thus, we proposed a cytogenetic mechanism whereby low N affects male meiosis and causes a higher chromosome loss frequency and eventually a lower germination rate of pollen grains in a staple crop plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Legacy effects of diversity in space and time driven by winter cover crop biomass and nitrogen concentration

    Barel, Janna M.; Kuyper, Thomas W.; de Boer, Wietse; Douma, Jacob C.; De Deyn, Gerlinde B.

    2018-01-01

    * Plant diversity can increase nitrogen cycling and decrease soil-borne pests, which are feedback mechanisms influencing subsequent plant growth. The relative strength of these mechanisms is unclear, as is the influence of preceding plant quantity and quality. Here, we studied how plant diversity in

  1. Legacy effects of diversity in space and time driven by winter cover crop biomass and nitrogen concentration

    Barel, J.M.; Kuijper, T.W.M.; Boer, de W.; Douma, Bob; Deyn, de G.B.

    2018-01-01

    1. Plant diversity can increase nitrogen cycling and decrease soil-borne pests, which are feedback mechanisms influencing subsequent plant growth. The relative strength of these mechanisms is unclear, as is the influence of preceding plant quantity and quality. Here, we studied how plant diversity

  2. Data from: Legacy effects of diversity in space and time driven by winter cover crop biomass and nitrogen concentration

    Barel, J.M.; Kuijper, T.W.M.; Boer, de W.; Douma, J.C.; Deyn, de G.B.

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity can increase nitrogen cycling and decrease soil-borne pests, which are feedback mechanisms influencing subsequent plant growth. The relative strength of these mechanisms is unclear, as is the influence of preceding plant quantity and quality. Here, we studied how plant diversity in

  3. Changes in nitrogen mineralization, tissue nutrient concentrations and biomass compartmentation after cessation of fertiliser application to mown grassland.

    Olff, H.; Berendse, F.; Visser, de W.

    1994-01-01

    1 Nitrogen mineralization was studied in four grasslands (fields A-D), which had not been fertilized for 2, 6, 19 and 45 years, respectively, thereby forming a chrono-sequence. Fertilizer application was stopped in these fields in order to restore former species-rich communities characteristic of

  4. Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 1990–2011

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Annual concentration, flux, and yield for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride for 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain were estimated for 1990 through 2011 using a weighted regression method based on time, tributary streamflows (discharges), and seasonal factors. The weighted regression method generated two series of daily estimates of flux and concentration during the period of record: one based on observed discharges and a second based on a flow-normalization procedure that removes random variation due to year-to-year climate-driven effects. The flownormalized estimate for a given date is similar to an average estimate of concentration or flux that would be made if all of the observed discharges for that date were equally likely to have occurred. The flux bias statistic showed that 68 of the 72 flux regression models were minimally biased. Temporal trends in the concentrations and fluxes were determined by calculating percent changes in flow-normalized annual fluxes for the full period of analysis (1990 through 2010) and for the decades 1990–2000 and 2000–2010. Basinwide, flow-normalized total phosphorus flux decreased by 42 metric tons per year (t/yr) between 1990 and 2010. This net result reflects a basinwide decrease in flux of 21 metric tons (t) between 1990 and 2000, followed by a decrease of 20 t between 2000 and 2010; both results were largely influenced by flux patterns in the large tributaries on the eastern side of the basin. A comparison of results for total phosphorus for the two separate decades of analysis found that more tributaries had decreasing concentrations and flux rates in the second decade than the first. An overall reduction in dissolved phosphorus flux of 0.7 t/yr was seen in the Lake Champlain Basin during the full period of analysis. That very small net change in flux reflects substantial reductions between 1990 and 2000 from eastern tributaries, especially in Otter Creek and the LaPlatte and Winooski

  5. Aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos do grão de trigo influenciados por nitrogênio e lâminas de água Quantitative and qualitative aspects of wheat grains influenced by nitrogen and water depth

    Ana P. M. Boschini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes lâminas de água e doses de nitrogênio e a interação dos dois fatores sobre a produtividade e qualidade de grãos do trigo BRS 254 instalou-se, em 2009, um experimento em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram estabelecidas cinco doses de nitrogênio (N: 20, 50, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 e nas subparcelas as lâminas de água: 120; 264; 342 e 392 mm. A produtividade média e a maioria de seus componentes diferiram significativamente em função da lâmina de água e da dose de N; a exceção foi o número de espiguetas por espiga, não influenciado por nitrogênio. A produtividade mínima e máxima observada foi de 1.136 e 5.209 kg ha-1, respectivamente, para 120 mm e 50 kg ha-1 de N e 392 mm e 200 kg ha-1 de N. O teor de proteína bruta foi influenciado significativamente pela interação lâmina de água e dose de nitrogênio. A massa do hectolitro, a energia de deformação da massa e o número de queda, foram influenciados significativamente apenas por lâmina de água. Lâminas menores que 365 mm proporcionaram massa do hectolitro abaixo de 78 kg hL-1. Por outro lado, lâminas de água maiores que 340 mm proporcionaram número de queda abaixo de 250 s, sugerindo cautela no manejo da água em agrossistemas de trigo.A field experiment was carried out in a Red-Yellow Latosol in 2009 in order to assess the effects of different doses of nitrogen fertilization and water depth and their interaction on the grain yield and quality of wheat BRS 254. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with split plot on water level and four replications. Nitrogen doses in the plot were: 20, 50, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1. In the split plot water depths were: 120, 264, 342 and 392 mm. Mean yield and the majority of its components differed significantly with water depth and nitrogen dose

  6. Evaluation of between-cow variation in milk urea and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentrations and the association with nitrogen utilization and diet digestibility in lactating cows.

    Huhtanen, P; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Krizsan, S J; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of milk urea N (MUN) are influenced by dietary crude protein concentration and intake and could therefore be used as a biomarker of the efficiency of N utilization for milk production (milk N/N intake; MNE) in lactating cows. In the present investigation, data from milk-production trials (production data set; n=1,804 cow/period observations from 21 change-over studies) and metabolic studies involving measurements of nutrient flow at the omasum in lactating cows (flow data set; n=450 cow/period observations from 29 studies) were used to evaluate the influence of between-cow variation on the relationship of MUN with MNE, urinary N (UN) output, and diet digestibility. All measurements were made on cows fed diets based on grass silage supplemented with a range of protein supplements. Data were analyzed by mixed-model regression analysis with diet within experiment and period within experiment as random effects, allowing the effect of diet and period to be excluded. Between-cow coefficient of variation in MUN concentration and MNE was 0.13 and 0.07 in the production data set and 0.11 and 0.08 in the flow data set, respectively. Based on residual variance, the best model for predicting MNE developed from the production data set was MNE (g/kg)=238 + 7.0 × milk yield (MY; kg/d) - 0.064 × MY(2) - 2.7 × MUN (mg/dL) - 0.10 body weight (kg). For the flow data set, including both MUN and rumen ammonia N concentration with MY in the model accounted for more variation in MNE than when either term was used with MY alone. The best model for predicting UN excretion developed from the production data set (n=443) was UN (g/d)=-29 + 4.3 × dry matter intake (kg/d) + 4.3 × MUN + 0.14 × body weight. Between-cow variation had a smaller influence on the association of MUN with MNE and UN output than published estimates of these relationships based on treatment means, in which differences in MUN generally arise from variation in dietary crude protein concentration. For

  7. CO2 dose–response functions for wheat grain, protein and mineral yield based on FACE and open-top chamber experiments

    Pleijel, Håkan; Högy, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Data from three Swedish open-top chamber and four German FACE experiments were combined to derive response functions for elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) effects on Cd, Zn, Mn, protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number of wheat. Grain yield and grain number were increased by ∼6% and ∼7%, respectively, per 100 ppm CO 2 ; the former effect was linked to plant nitrogen status. Grain mass was not influenced by eCO 2 , whereas Cd concentration was reduced. Unlike Zn, Mn and protein, effects on Cd yield were not related to effects on grain yield. Yields of Mn, Zn and (weakly) protein were positively affected by eCO 2 . For protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number, the results were consistent among the FACE and OTC experiments. A key conclusion was that yields of essential nutrients were enhanced (Mn > Zn > protein), although less than grain yield, which would not be expected from a simple dilution model. - Highlights: • Grain yield and grain number were positively affected by 6–7% per 100 ppm CO 2 . • Yield stimulation by CO 2 was influenced by plant nitrogen status. • Cd concentration was reduced by elevated CO 2 . • Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated by CO 2 , but less than grain yield. • A simple dilution model did not explain effects on Zn, Mn and protein. - Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated less by elevated CO 2 than grain yield, while Cd yield and grain mass were unaffected, in wheat exposed in FACE and open-top chambers

  8. Effects of grain source, grain processing, and protein degradability on rumen kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in Boer kids.

    Brassard, M-E; Chouinard, P Y; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R; Martineau, R; Cinq-Mars, D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen would be optimized when dietary carbohydrates and proteins have synchronized rates and extent of degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying ruminal degradation rate of energy and nitrogen sources on intake, nitrogen balance, microbial protein yield, and kinetics of nutrients in the rumen of growing kids. Eight Boer goats (38.2 ± 3.0 kg) were used. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot Latin square design with grain sources (barley or corn) forming the main plots (squares). Grain processing methods and levels of protein degradability formed the subplots in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 dietary treatments. The grain processing method was rolling for barley and cracking for corn. Levels of protein degradability were obtained by feeding untreated soybean meal (SBM) or heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, consisting of a 10-d adaptation period, a 7-d digestibility determination period, and a 4-d rumen evacuation and sampling period. Kids fed with corn had higher purine derivatives (PD) excretion when coupled with SBM compared with HSBM and the opposite occurred with barley-fed kids ( ≤ 0.01). Unprocessed grain offered with SBM led to higher PD excretion than with HSBM whereas protein degradability had no effect when processed grain was fed ( ≤ 0.03). Results of the current experiment with high-concentrate diets showed that microbial N synthesis could be maximized in goat kids by combining slowly fermented grains (corn or unprocessed grains) with a highly degradable protein supplement (SBM). With barley, a more rapidly fermented grain, a greater microbial N synthesis was observed when supplementing a low-degradable protein (HSBM).

  9. Nitrogen concentrations and loads for the Connecticut River at Middle Haddam, Connecticut, computed with the use of autosampling and continuous measurements of water quality for water years 2009 to 2014

    Mullaney, John R.; Martin, Joseph W.; Morrison, Jonathan

    2018-03-20

    The daily and annual loads of nitrate plus nitrite and total nitrogen for the Connecticut River at Middle Haddam, Connecticut, were determined for water years 2009 to 2014. The analysis was done with a combination of methods, which included a predefined rating curve method for nitrate plus nitrite and total nitrogen for water years 2009 to 2011 and a custom rating curve method that included sensor measurements of nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen concentration and turbidity along with mean daily flow to determine total nitrogen loads for water years 2011 to 2014. Instantaneous concentrations of total nitrogen were estimated through the use of a regression model based on sensor measurements at 15-minute intervals of nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen and turbidity for water years 2011 to 2014.Annual total nitrogen loads at the Connecticut River at Middle Haddam ranged from 12,900 to 19,200 metric tons, of which about 42 to 49 percent was in the form of nitrate plus nitrite. The mean 95-percent prediction intervals on daily total nitrogen load estimates were smaller from the custom model, which used sensor data, than those calculated by the predefined model.Annual total nitrogen load estimates at the Connecticut River at Middle Haddam were compared with the upstream load estimates at the Connecticut River at Thompsonville, Conn. Annual gains in total nitrogen loads between the two stations ranged from 3,430 to 6,660 metric tons. These increases between the two stations were attributed to the effects of increased urbanization and to combined annual discharges of 1,540 to 2,090 metric tons of nitrogen from 24 wastewater treatment facilities in the drainage area between the two stations. The contribution of total nitrogen from wastewater discharge between the two stations had declined substantially before the beginning of this study and accounted for from 31 to 52 percent of the gain in nitrogen load between the Thompsonville and Middle Haddam sites.

  10. Changes in carbon and nitrogen allocation, growth and grain yield induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to a period of water deficit

    Zhou, Qin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Jiang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting agricultural crop production. One of the effective ways to increase drought resistance in plants could be to optimize the exploitation of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hypothesizing that alleviation of water deficits by AMF in wheat...... will help maintain photosynthetic carbon-use, we studied the role of AMF on gas-exchange, light-use efficiencies, carbon/nitrogen ratios and growth and yield parameters in the contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Vinjett’ and ‘1110’ grown with/without AMF symbiosis. Water deficits applied...... at the floret initiation stage significantly decreased rates of photosynthetic carbon gain, transpiration and stomatal conductance in the two wheat cultivars. AMF increased the rates of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance under drought conditions. Water deficits decreased electron transport...

  11. [Influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and leaf nitrogen partition in process of photosynthetic carbon cycle in Musa paradisiaca].

    Sun, G; Zhao, P; Zeng, X; Peng, S

    2001-06-01

    The photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves of Musa paradisiaca grown under elevated CO2 concentration (700 +/- 56 microliters.L-1) for one week was 5.14 +/- 0.32 mumol.m-2.s-1, 22.1% higher than that under ambient CO2 concentration, while under elevated CO2 concentration for 8 week, the Pn decreased by 18.1%. It can be inferred that the photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 concentration and the Pn inhibition occurred in leaves of M. paradisiaca. The respiration rate in light (Rd) was lower in leaves under higher CO2 concentration, compared with that under ambient CO2 concentration. If the respiration in light was not included, the difference in CO2 compensation point for the leaves of both plants was not significant. Under higher CO2 concentration for 8 weeks, the maximum carboxylation rate(Vcmax) and electron transportation rate (J) in leaves decreased respectively by 30.5% and 14.8%, compared with that under ambient CO2 concentration. The calculated apparent quantum yield (alpha) in leaves under elevated CO2 concentration according to the initial slope of Pn/PAR was reduced to 0.014 +/- 0.010 molCO2.mol-1 quanta, compared with the value of 0.025 +/- 0.005 molCO2.mol-1 quanta in the control. The efficiency of light energy conversion also decreased from 0.203 to 0.136 electrons.quanta-1 in plants under elevated CO2 concentration. A lower partitioning coefficient for leaf nitrogen in Rubisco, bioenergetics and thylakoid light-harvesting components was observed in plants under higher CO2 concentration. The results indicated that the multi-process of photosynthesis was suppressed significantly by a long-term (8 weeks) higher CO2 concentration incubation.

  12. Effect of Residue Nitrogen Concentration and Time Duration on Carbon Mineralization Rate of Alfalfa Residues in Regions with Different Climatic Conditions

    saeid shafiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Various factors like climatic conditions, vegetation, soil properties, topography, time, plant residue quality and crop management strategies affect the decomposition rate of organic carbon (OC and its residence time in soil. Plant residue management concerns nutrients recycling, carbon recycling in ecosystems and the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Plant residue decomposition is a fundamental process in recycling of organic matter and elements in most ecosystems. Soil management, particularly plant residue management, changes soil organic matter both qualitatively and quantitatively. Soil respiration and carbon loss are affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation. In natural agro-ecosystems, residue contains different concentrations of nitrogen. It is important to understand the rate and processes involved in plant residue decomposition, as these residues continue to be added to the soil under different weather conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Material and methods Organic carbon mineralization of alfalfa residue with different nitrogen concentrations was assessed in different climatic conditions using split-plot experiments over time and the effects of climate was determined using composite analysis. The climatic conditions were classified as warm-arid (Jiroft, temperate arid (Narab and cold semi-arid (Sardouiyeh using cluster analysis and the nitrogen (N concentrations of alfalfa residue were low, medium and high. The alfalfa residue incubated for four different time periods (2, 4, 6 and 8 months. The dynamics of organic carbon in different regions measured using litter bags (20×10 cm containing 20 g alfalfa residue of 2-10 mm length which were placed on the soil surface. Results and discussion The results of this study showed that in a warm-arid (Jiroft, carbon loss and the carbon decomposition rate constant were low in a cold semi

  13. Slow-release nitrogen fertilizers can improve yield and reduce Cd concentration in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Cd-contaminated soil.

    Zhang, Ran-Ran; Liu, Yue; Xue, Wan-Lei; Chen, Rong-Xin; Du, Shao-Ting; Jin, Chong-Wei

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution in vegetable crops has become a serious problem in recent years. Owing to the limited availability of arable land resources, large areas of Cd-contaminated lands are inevitably being used for the production of vegetables, posing great risks to human health via the food chain. However, strategies to improve yield and reduce Cd concentration in crops grown in contaminated soils are being developed. In the present study, using pot experiments, we investigated the effects of two slow-release nitrogen fertilizers (SRNFs), resin-coated ammonium nitrate (Osmocote 313s ), and resin-coated urea (urea 620 ), on the growth and Cd concentration of the Cd-contaminated pakchoi. The results showed that pakchoi grown in soil containing 5 mg kg -1 of Cd-induced oxidative stress (indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), H 2 O 2 , and O 2 ·- ) and photosynthesis inhibition, which in turn was restored with the application of SRNFs. However, pakchoi grown in Cd-contaminated soil supplied with Osmocote 313s and urea 620 showed 103 and 203 % increase in fresh weight and 51-55 % and 44-56 % decrease in Cd concentration, respectively, as compared with their controls (pakchoi treated with instant soluble nitrogen fertilizers). On the basis of an increase in their tolerance index (47-238 %) and a decrease in their translocation factor (7.5-21.6 %), we inferred that the plants treated with SRNFs have a stronger tolerance to Cd and a lower efficiency of Cd translocation to edible parts than those treated with instant soluble nitrogen fertilizers. Therefore, in terms of both crop production and food safety, application of SRNFs could be an effective strategy for improving both biomass production and quality in pakchoi grown under Cd stress.

  14. Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Yang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Zhu, Q; Wang, W

    2001-09-01

    Lodging-resistant rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars usually show slow grain filling when nitrogen is applied in large amounts. This study investigated the possibility that a hormonal change may mediate the effect of water deficit that enhances whole plant senescence and speeds up grain filling. Two rice cultivars showing high lodging resistance and slow grain filling were field grown and applied with either normal or high amount nitrogen (HN) at heading. Well-watered and water-stressed (WS) treatments were imposed 9 days post anthesis to maturity. Results showed that WS increased partitioning of fixed (14)CO(2) into grains, accelerated the grain filling rate but shortened the grain filling period, whereas the HN did the opposite way. Cytokinin (zeatin + zeatin riboside) and indole-3-acetic acid contents in the grains transiently increased at early filling stage and WS treatments hastened their declines at the late grain filling stage. Gibberellins (GAs; GA(1) + GA(4)) in the grains were also high at early grain filling but HN enhanced, whereas WS substantially reduced, its accumulation. Opposite to GAs, abscisic acid (ABA) in the grains was low at early grain filling but WS remarkably enhanced its accumulation. The peak values of ABA were significantly correlated with the maximum grain filling rates (r = 0.92**, P water stress during grain filling, especially a decrease in GAs and an increase in ABA, enhances the remobilization of prestored carbon to the grains and accelerates the grain filling rate.

  15. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G. [Edinburgh Univ., Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Grayston, S. J. [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Plant-Soil Interaction Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G.; Grayston, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  17. Relation between kinetic of alcoholic fermentation and must nitrogen content. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on Vitis vinifera cv Muscadelle with permanent grass cover. Nature and concentration levels of some amino acids of musts

    Corine Larchevêque

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment concerning the introduction of nitrogen fertilization on permanent grass cover was undertaken in 1995. This was done in order to determine both the role and the influence of nitrogen on the fermentability of must. Located in the Sainte-Foy La Grande area, the plot studied has a deep silty soil. The cultivar Muscadelle was grafted on the 3309 C rootstock. Four tests with several N-fertilizations were compared : 1 (no-tillage and 0 kg N/ha/year, 2 (permanent grass cover without N-fertilization, 3 (permanent grass cover and 30 kg N/ha/year and 4 (permanent grass cover and 60 kg N/ha/year. Nitrogen was added at springtime, on the total interrow area as weIl as on the narrow strip around the vines. The grass cover (with or without N-fertilization had a great effect on yield : it decreased the latter by about 38 percent compared to the no-tillage trial. Moreover, the total acidity values were lower for the musts in trials 2,3 and 4 than in the control 1. Inversely, the initial sugar values were greater in the grass cover trials. The duration of alcoholic fermentation was very different with the no-tillage test and the others : 17 days were necessary for the first, and 42 to 50 for the other musts. This parameter was quite cIosely correlated to the content of nitrogen composites in the must and more particularly to amino acids. The global amino acid contents of must and wine were higher in test 1 than in the others. It is noteworthy that numerous kinds of amino acids were present but it seems likely that some of them were very important by virtue of their nature or their concentration levels. Among the principal amino acids, proline represented at least 20 percent of the global amino acids content for musts 2 and 4, and 14 to 19 percent for musts 3 and 1. Arginine was present only in the must of the grass-cover trials. Proline, arginine, alanine, asparagine/glutamine and aspartic acid represented about 50 to 60 percent of the global amino

  18. Evaluating residues from batai trees (Paraserianthes falcataria) as alternative sources of nitrogen for grain corn (zeas mays l.) in the humid tropics

    Zaharah, A.R.; Chintu, R.; Ghizan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of chemical fertilizers for mitigating N deficiency is unsustainable in many tropical areas because of economic constraints and possible deleterious effects on environmental quality. Although organic inputs such as green manures and litter from legumes have shown some potential for improving soil N status, the synchrony of N release from these residues with crop demand needs to be seriously addressed. The potential of above- and below-ground residues of Batai (Paraserianthes falcataria) to improve soil N availability and uptake by corn in an Ultisol (Bungor series) was evaluated under field and controlled conditions. The effect of residue quality on the kinetics of N release and accumulation in the soil was studied in field and laboratory incubation studies, whilst N uptake by grain corn was quantified using direct and indirect 1 5 N isotope labeling techniques. Treatments consist of fresh leaves, roots and 1:1 mixture of roots and leaves of Batai. Residue quality in terms of lignin + polyphenol-to-N ratio, and N mineralization was in the order roots 3 -N leaching occurred between 30 and 60 days after treatment (DAT). Significant amounts of Ca, Mg and K were also leached beyond 20 cm after 60 days. Both 15 N-labeling methods showed that N recovery in corn was much higher in the root than the leaf treatments. However, integrating Batai residues with an inorganic N source could be a more effective management strategy for improving N use efficiency and mitigating soil acidity. (Author)

  19. Reference Ranges of Serum Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine Concentration and Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Kidneys in Term Healthy Newborns in the Neonatal Period

    Şebnem Kader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute kidney injury is an important problem in neonates. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study to determine normal serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine reference ranges and ranges of ultrasonographic measurement of kidneys in healthy term newborns. Study Design: Blood samples were collected from total 357 healthy newborns at birth (n=45, 1st (n=30, 3rd (n=61, 7th (n=34, 10th (n=132, 14th (n=36, and 28th (n=19 days of life. Renal ultrasonographic was performed by the same two radiologists on 81 newborns aged 10 days. Results: Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations have reached to the highest level at the first day of life and have returned to cord level at the third day of life. There were gradually decrease in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels after the first day of life. There were significant difference in both right and left renal length, width, and volumes in terms of gender and these parameters were statistically higher in boys than girls (p<0.05. Birth weight of the boys (3548±539g was statistically higher than girls (3307±405 g (p=0.028. There was a positive correlation between birth weight and right (r=0.38, p=0.000 and left kidney volumes (r=0.44, p=0.000. Conclusion: Our findings showed that measured blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels changed in accordance with postnatal days and there was a positive correlation between kidney volume and birth weight of newborns. We concluded that these findings are important for evaluation of acute kidney injury and for screening of for urinary tract anomalies in neonates

  20. Nitrogen and micronutrients on grain yield of cowpea inoculatedNitrogênio e micronutrientes na produção de grãos de feijão-caupi inoculado

    José Ferreira Lustosa Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the effect of nitrogen and micronutrients addition on nodulation and on the productivity of cowpea inoculated with strain INPA 03 11B. The study was carried out in the experimental area of Universidade Federal do Piauí, Bom Jesus, PI. The experiment was a complete randomized block, with four replications and a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen doses (0, 35, 70, 105, 140 kg ha¹, associated with and without foliar micronutrients application (300 g ha¹ boric acid; 500 g ha¹ copper sulphate, manganese sulphate, zinc sulphate and 60 g ha¹ ammonium molibdate. Nodulation, shoot, root and total dry mass, relative efficiency, components of yield and crop productivity, besides N accumulation in shoot and grains were evaluated. Fresh and dry mass of nodules reduced linearly with the increase of N doses. Yield components were not affected by nitrogen and micronutrients fertilization. The application of micronutrients in the absence of nitrogen promoted an increase of 12.4% in grain yield of cowpea inoculated.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da adubação nitrogenada e aplicação de micronutrientes na nodulação e produtividade do feijão-caupi inoculado com a cepa INPA 03 11B. O estudo foi conduzido na área experimental da Universidade Federal do Piauí, Bom Jesus, PI. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco doses de nitrogênio (0, 35, 70, 105, 140 kg ha-1, associadas ou não a aplicação foliar de micronutrientes (300 g ha-1 de ácido bórico; 500 g ha- 1de sulfato de cobre, sulfato de manganês e sulfato de zinco e 60 g ha-1 de molibdato de amônio. Avaliaram-se a nodulação, a massa seca da parte aérea, da raiz e total, eficiência relativa, componentes da produção, produtividade da cultura e acúmulo de N na parte aérea e nos grãos. As

  1. Concentration, composition, bioavailability, and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential of particulate and dissolved organic nitrogen in wastewater effluents: A comparative study

    Hu, Haidong; Ma, Haijun; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jinju; Xu, Ke; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Yingying; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater-derived organic nitrogen (org-N) can act as both nutrients and carcinogenic nitrogenous disinfection byproduct precursors. In this study, the concentration, composition, bioavailability, and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants were characterized and compared with that of effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The average effluent PON and DON concentrations ranged from 0.09 to 0.55 mg N/L and from 0.91 to 1.88 mg N/L, respectively. According to principal component analysis, org-N composition and characterization differed in PON and DON samples (n = 20). Compared with DON, PON tended to be enriched in protein and nucleic acids, and showed a more proteinaceous character. Composition of org-N functional groups estimated from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy N 1s spectra indicate no significant differences in the molecular weight distribution of the protein-like materials between PON and DON. Moreover, PON exhibited a significantly higher bioavailability (61.0 ± 13.3%) compared to DON (38.5 ± 12.4%, p < 0.05, t-test) and a significantly higher NDMA yields (791.4 ± 404.0 ng/mg-N) compared to DON (374.8 ± 62.5 ng/mg-N, p < 0.05, t-test). Accordingly, PON contributed to approximately 12.3–41.7% of the total bioavailable org-N and 22.0–38.4% of the total NDMA precursors in wastewater effluents. Thus, the potential adverse effects of PON on wastewater discharge and reuse applications should not be overlooked, even though it only accounted for 7.4–26.8% of the total effluent org-N. - Highlights: • The concentration, composition, bioavailability, and NDMA FP of PON and DON in wastewater effluents are compared. • PON is enriched in protein and nucleic acids. • PON is more bioavailable and shows higher NDMA yields compared to DON. • PON contributes12–42% of total bioavailable org-N and 22–38% of total NDMA precursors.

  2. Concentration, composition, bioavailability, and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential of particulate and dissolved organic nitrogen in wastewater effluents: A comparative study

    Hu, Haidong; Ma, Haijun; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jinju; Xu, Ke; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Yingying; Ren, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqren@nju.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater-derived organic nitrogen (org-N) can act as both nutrients and carcinogenic nitrogenous disinfection byproduct precursors. In this study, the concentration, composition, bioavailability, and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants were characterized and compared with that of effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The average effluent PON and DON concentrations ranged from 0.09 to 0.55 mg N/L and from 0.91 to 1.88 mg N/L, respectively. According to principal component analysis, org-N composition and characterization differed in PON and DON samples (n = 20). Compared with DON, PON tended to be enriched in protein and nucleic acids, and showed a more proteinaceous character. Composition of org-N functional groups estimated from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy N 1s spectra indicate no significant differences in the molecular weight distribution of the protein-like materials between PON and DON. Moreover, PON exhibited a significantly higher bioavailability (61.0 ± 13.3%) compared to DON (38.5 ± 12.4%, p < 0.05, t-test) and a significantly higher NDMA yields (791.4 ± 404.0 ng/mg-N) compared to DON (374.8 ± 62.5 ng/mg-N, p < 0.05, t-test). Accordingly, PON contributed to approximately 12.3–41.7% of the total bioavailable org-N and 22.0–38.4% of the total NDMA precursors in wastewater effluents. Thus, the potential adverse effects of PON on wastewater discharge and reuse applications should not be overlooked, even though it only accounted for 7.4–26.8% of the total effluent org-N. - Highlights: • The concentration, composition, bioavailability, and NDMA FP of PON and DON in wastewater effluents are compared. • PON is enriched in protein and nucleic acids. • PON is more bioavailable and shows higher NDMA yields compared to DON. • PON contributes12–42% of total bioavailable org-N and 22–38% of total NDMA precursors.

  3. Biochemical studies on the production of biofuel (bioethanol) from potato peels wastes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects of fermentation periods and nitrogen source concentration

    Sheikh, Ryan A.; Al-Bar, Omar A.; Soliman, Youssri M. Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an interesting micro-organism with good prospects in the future of yeast bioethanol production. In this study, both commercial and genetically modified S. cerevisiae were obtained from the local shops in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia and the Microbial Biotechnology Department - National Research Center (Dokki - Egypt) respectively, and incubated at 25 °C before being acclimatized for the conditions of this research. In this work, the impact of two different biochemical conditions (fermentation periods and nitrogen source concentration) on the growth, carbohydrates yields, and mainly bioethanol productivity from potato peels wastes (PPW) were studied in both species. PPW were used as a solo carbon source in this study with HCl acidic pre-treatment method. When studying the impact of fermentation periods, the best fermentation periods were found to be between the third and the fourth day. Additionally, the optimal nitrogen source concentration added to the fermentation medium was 2 g/L. This study concludes with some suggestions for future work in an attempt to reach commercial production of bioethanol at the lowest possible costs

  4. Study the concentration of macroelements in forage mays (Zea mays L. (SC 704 as effected by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and Azotobacter chroococcum under different levels of nitrogen

    M. Amirabadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and phosphorus are two necessary macronutrients for plant growth and yield. These two elements now will be added to soil by chemical fertilizers. This research has been carried out based on randomized completely block design with three replications at Markazi Provience Agricultural Research Station, Iran, during growing season of 2004-2005 to evaluate the effects of Azotobacter chroococcum and Mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices as biofertilizers and urea as chemical fertilizers on concentrations of N, P, K, Na, Ca and crude protein (% in corn (Zea mays L. shoot tissues and dry matter of corn. Azotobacter chroococcum used as two levels (inoculated and uninoculated, mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices in two levels (inoculated and uninoculated and urea in four levels (0, 75, 150 and 300 kg.ha-1. Results showed that Azotobacter chroococcum affected significantly all studied criteria except of K shoot concentration, but mycorrhizan (Glomus intraradices only had a increasing significantly effect on N, K, Na and Crude protein. The interaction between Azotobacter chroococcum and Mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices had the most increasing effect on dry matter, N, Na and Crude protein. Therefore, based on our results it can be concluded that in order to prevent polluting the agricultural soil, environmental and other water supplies from nitrogen chemical fertilizers, application of Azotobacter chroococcum or combined with mycorrhizal fungi with 150 kg.ha-1 Urea is recommended.

  5. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  6. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to

  7. Glutamine Synthetases GLN1;2 and GLN2 in Relation to Arabidopsis Growth Response to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Varying Nitrogen Forms

    Vurrakula, Swathi

    content while diluting nitrogen concentrations. Such a reduction in nitrogen concentration will affect plant response to stress and seed/grain yield. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the central nitrogen-assimilatory enzyme, performing primary and secondary nitrogen assimilation, in response to environmental....... Plants grown under elevated CO2 absorbed ammonia from the atmosphere, except with a high ammonium supply. GLN1;2 had a non-redundant role in determining vegetative growth and ammonium tolerance in response to elevated CO2. Under elevated CO2, GLN1;2 was compensable by GLN2 in assimilating nitrate...

  8. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Rahul M. Phuke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01 indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc.

  9. Nitrogen and potassium concentrations in the nutrients solution for melon plants growing in coconut fiber without drainage.

    Gratieri, Luiz Augusto; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; Barbosa, José Carlos; Pavani, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The "Bonus no. 2" was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L(-1)) and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L(-1)). The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO₃ and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE) of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L(-1)) and K (10 mmol L(-1)) resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g) and the second (951 g) fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm(-2)).

  10. Nitrogen and Potassium Concentrations in the Nutrients Solution for Melon Plants Growing in Coconut Fiber without Drainage

    Luiz Augusto Gratieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The “Bonus no. 2” was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L−1 and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L−1. The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO3 and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L−1 and K (10 mmol L−1 resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g and the second (951 g fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm−2.

  11. Interstellar grains

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  12. The influence of nitrogen - urea fertilization to leaves and chloride chlorocholine on the accumulation Cs-137 in spring wheat crops

    Hrynczuk, B.; Weber, R.

    1998-01-01

    In pot experiments were studied effects of using nitrogen urea solution to leaves and use chloride chlorocholine on the Cs-137 accumulation in spring wheat crops. The Cs-137 contamination was conducted from soil and through leaves. It has been found that use nitrogen fertilization as urea solution spray and in addition use chloride chlorocholine caused an increase of Cs-137 concentration in grain from the contaminated soil. Accumulation of Cs-137 in spring wheat grain is 2-4 times higher coming from the contaminated leaves in blooming phase in comparison to the grain of plants contaminated in spread phase. The urea solution fertilization used on leaves and addition chloride chlorocholine did not influence the Cs-137 accumulation in grain when the plants were contaminated in the early growing phase. The Cs-137 contamination brought on the plants after using chloride chlorocholine in subsequent growing phases passed early into spring wheat grain. (author)

  13. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system, and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households. As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally located ambient monitor. The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM 2.5 was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO 2 with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50 m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO 2 and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in the

  14. Cryopreserving turkey semen in straws and nitrogen vapour using DMSO or DMA: effects of cryoprotectant concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on post-thaw semen quality.

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Miranda, M; Zaniboni, L; Manchisi, A; Cerolini, S

    2016-04-01

    1. This study was designed to identify a suitable protocol for freezing turkey semen in straws exposed to nitrogen vapour by examining the effects of dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant (CPA), CPA concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on in vitro post-thaw semen quality. 2. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:1 (v:v) with a freezing extender composed of Tselutin diluent containing DMA or DMSO to give final concentrations of 8% or 18% DMA and 4% or 10% DMSO. The semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen (LN2) surface (1, 5 and 10 cm) for 10 min. Semen samples were thawed at 4°C for 5 min or at 50°C for 10 s. After thawing, sperm motility, viability and osmotic tolerance were determined. 3. Cryosurvival of turkey sperm was affected by DMSO concentration. Freezing rate affected the motility of sperm cryopreserved using both CPAs, while thawing rates showed an effect on the motility of sperm cryopreserved using DMA and on the viability of sperm cryopreserved using DMSO. Significant interactions between freezing rate × thawing rate on sperm viability in the DMA protocol were found. 4. The most effective freezing protocol was the use of 18% DMA or 10% DMSO with freezing 10 cm above the LN2 surface and a thawing temperature of 50°C. An efficient protocol for turkey semen would improve prospects for sperm cryobanks and the commercial use of frozen turkey semen.

  15. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against changes in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value in x-irradiated mice

    Rousdhy, H.; Pierotti, T.; Polverelli, M.

    1969-01-01

    Radioprotective properties of imidazole and benzimidazole have been proved in previous works. In this study, authors try to demonstrate radioprotective action of these compounds in comparison with cysteamine upon the hematopoietic system after lethal X-irradiation. Results show: no drastic variations of hematologic constants (hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value) after intraperitoneal injection of radioprotective compounds apart certain apparent reactions with the heterocyclic compounds; the better radioprotective action of benzimidazole. Twenty five days after irradiation, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of radio protected mice return to normal values. (author) [fr

  16. Atmospheric transport of urban-derived NHx: Evidence from nitrogen concentration and δ15N in epilithic mosses at Guiyang, SW China

    Liu Xueyan; Xiao Huayun; Liu Congqiang; Li Youyi; Xiao Hongwei

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration and δ 15 N in 175 epilithic moss samples were investigated along four directions from urban to rural sites in Guiyang, SW China. The spatial variations of moss N concentration and δ 15 N revealed that atmospheric N deposition is dominated by NH x -N from two major sources (urban sewage NH 3 and agricultural NH 3 ), the deposition of urban-derived NH x followed a point source pattern characterized by an exponential decline with distance from the urban center, while the agricultural-derived NH x was shown to be a non-point source. The relationship between moss N concentration and distance (y = 1.5e -0.13x + 1.26) indicated that the maximum transporting distance of urban-derived NH x averaged 41 km from the urban center, and it could be determined from the relationship between moss δ 15 N and distance [y = 2.54 ln(x) - 12.227] that urban-derived NH x was proportionally lower than agricultural-derived NH x in N deposition at sites beyond 17.2 km from the urban center. Consequently, the variation of urban-derived NH x with distance from the urban center could be modeled as y = 56.272e -0.116x - 0.481 in the Guiyang area. - Tissue N concentration and δ 15 N in epilithic mosses may be indicators for atmospheric transport of urban-derived NH x

  17. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress

    hashem aram

    2016-02-01

    Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day, plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9 and MSTATC (version 2.10 software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01. With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium

  18. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and metal concentration in food webs from a mining-impacted coastal lagoon

    Marin-Guirao, Lazaro; Lloret, Javier; Marin, Arnaldo

    2008-01-01

    Two food webs from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, differing in the distance from the desert-stream through which mining wastes were discharged, were examined by reference to essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Pb and Cd) metal concentrations and stable isotopes content (C and N). The partial extraction technique applied, which reflects the availability of metals to organisms after sediment ingestion, showed higher bioavailable metal concentrations in sediments from the station influenced by the mining discharges, in agreement with the higher metal concentrations observed in organisms, which in many cases exceeded the regulatory limits established in Spanish legislation concerning seafood. Spatial differences in essential metal concentrations in the fauna suggest that several organisms are exposed to metal levels above their regulation capacity. Differences in isotopic composition were found between both food webs, the wadi-influenced station showing higher δ 15 N values and lower δ 13 C levels, due to the discharge of urban waste waters and by the entrance of freshwater and allochthonous marsh plants. The linear-regressions between trophic levels (as indicated by δ 15 N) and the metal content indicated that biomagnification does not occur. In the case of invertebrates, since the 'handle strategy' of the species and the physiological requirements of the organisms, among other factors, determine the final concentration of a specific element, no clear relationships between trophic level and the metal content are to be expected. For their part, fish communities did not show clear patterns in the case of any of the analyzed metals, probably because most fish species have similar metal requirements, and because biological factors also intervened. Finally, since the study deals with metals, assumptions concerning trophic transfer factors calculation may not be suitable since the metal burden originates not only from the prey but also from adsorption over the body

  19. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and metal concentration in food webs from a mining-impacted coastal lagoon

    Marin-Guirao, Lazaro [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100-Murcia (Spain)], E-mail: lamarin@um.es; Lloret, Javier; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100-Murcia (Spain)

    2008-04-01

    Two food webs from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, differing in the distance from the desert-stream through which mining wastes were discharged, were examined by reference to essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Pb and Cd) metal concentrations and stable isotopes content (C and N). The partial extraction technique applied, which reflects the availability of metals to organisms after sediment ingestion, showed higher bioavailable metal concentrations in sediments from the station influenced by the mining discharges, in agreement with the higher metal concentrations observed in organisms, which in many cases exceeded the regulatory limits established in Spanish legislation concerning seafood. Spatial differences in essential metal concentrations in the fauna suggest that several organisms are exposed to metal levels above their regulation capacity. Differences in isotopic composition were found between both food webs, the wadi-influenced station showing higher {delta}{sup 15}N values and lower {delta}{sup 13}C levels, due to the discharge of urban waste waters and by the entrance of freshwater and allochthonous marsh plants. The linear-regressions between trophic levels (as indicated by {delta}{sup 15}N) and the metal content indicated that biomagnification does not occur. In the case of invertebrates, since the 'handle strategy' of the species and the physiological requirements of the organisms, among other factors, determine the final concentration of a specific element, no clear relationships between trophic level and the metal content are to be expected. For their part, fish communities did not show clear patterns in the case of any of the analyzed metals, probably because most fish species have similar metal requirements, and because biological factors also intervened. Finally, since the study deals with metals, assumptions concerning trophic transfer factors calculation may not be suitable since the metal burden originates not only from the prey but

  20. FUSION OF OPTICAL DATA AND SAR DATA FOR THE ESTIMATION OF NITROGEN CONCENTRATION IN PEARL RIVER ESTUARY HONG KONG SEAS, CHINA

    X. Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of nitrogen concentration in the ocean is fundamental for the study of oceanic biogeochemical processes. The objective of this research is to estimate total inorganic nitrogen (TIN by integrating optical parameters from HJ-1 CCD image and polarization parameters from RADARSAT-2 quad-polarization image. The situ data and HJ-1 CCD, RADARSAT-2 image were acquired from Pearl River Estuary Hong Kong Seas, China in August, 2010. The four sensitive parameters, reflectance of Band 4, NDSI (Normalized Difference Spectral Index, the backscattering coefficient of HV and VH were derived as input variables to assess the TIN. A multiple regression model was established between four input variables and TIN. The result showed that the fusion of optical data and SAR data was proved to be successful in estimating TIN in sea surface, with the correlation coefficient (R2 between measured TIN and predicated TIN of 0.774, and the root mean square error (RMSE of 0.063. The optical data in combination with SAR data is promising for detecting biochemical component in sea surface.

  1. High soil solution carbon and nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 years of rewetting

    Frank, S.; Tiemeyer, B.; Gelbrecht, J.; Freibauer, A.

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic drainage of peatlands releases additional greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and dissolved carbon (C) and nutrients to downstream ecosystems. Rewetting drained peatlands offers a possibility to reduce nitrogen (N) and C losses. In this study, we investigate the impact of drainage and rewetting on the cycling of dissolved C and N as well as on dissolved gases, over a period of 1 year and a period of 4 months. We chose four sites within one Atlantic bog complex: a near-natural site, two drained grasslands with different mean groundwater levels and a former peat cutting area rewetted 10 years ago. Our results clearly indicate that long-term drainage has increased the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to the near-natural site. DON and ammonium contributed the most to the total dissolved nitrogen. Nitrate concentrations below the mean groundwater table were negligible. The concentrations of DOC and N species increased with drainage depth. In the deeply-drained grassland, with a mean annual water table of 45 cm below surface, DOC concentrations were twice as high as in the partially rewetted grassland with a mean annual water table of 28 cm below surface. The deeply drained grassland had some of the highest-ever observed DOC concentrations of 195.8 ± 77.3 mg L-1 with maximum values of >400 mg L-1. In general, dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the drained sites was enriched in aromatic moieties and showed a higher degradation status (lower DOC to DON ratio) compared to the near-natural site. At the drained sites, the C to N ratios of the uppermost peat layer were the same as of DOM in the peat profile. This suggests that the uppermost degraded peat layer is the main source of DOM. Nearly constant DOM quality through the profile furthermore indicated that DOM moving downwards through the drained sites remained largely biogeochemically unchanged. Unlike DOM concentration, DOM

  2. A study on modeling nitrogen dioxide concentrations using land-use regression and conventionally used exposure assessment methods

    Choi, Giehae; Bell, Michelle L.; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2017-04-01

    The land-use regression (LUR) approach to estimate the levels of ambient air pollutants is becoming popular due to its high validity in predicting small-area variations. However, only a few studies have been conducted in Asian countries, and much less research has been conducted on comparing the performances and applied estimates of different exposure assessments including LUR. The main objectives of the current study were to conduct nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure assessment with four methods including LUR in the Republic of Korea, to compare the model performances, and to estimate the empirical NO2 exposures of a cohort. The study population was defined as the year 2010 participants of a government-supported cohort established for bio-monitoring in Ulsan, Republic of Korea. The annual ambient NO2 exposures of the 969 study participants were estimated with LUR, nearest station, inverse distance weighting, and ordinary kriging. Modeling was based on the annual NO2 average, traffic-related data, land-use data, and altitude of the 13 regularly monitored stations. The final LUR model indicated that area of transportation, distance to residential area, and area of wetland were important predictors of NO2. The LUR model explained 85.8% of the variation observed in the 13 monitoring stations of the year 2009. The LUR model outperformed the others based on leave-one out cross-validation comparing the correlations and root-mean square error. All NO2 estimates ranged from 11.3-18.0 ppb, with that of LUR having the widest range. The NO2 exposure levels of the residents differed by demographics. However, the average was below the national annual guidelines of the Republic of Korea (30 ppb). The LUR models showed high performances in an industrial city in the Republic of Korea, despite the small sample size and limited data. Our findings suggest that the LUR method may be useful in similar settings in Asian countries where the target region is small and availability of data is

  3. Does nitrogen fertilization history affects short-term microbial responses and chemical properties of soils submitted to different glyphosate concentrations?

    Elodie Nivelle

    Full Text Available The use of nitrogen (N fertilizer and glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide, with agriculture holding the largest market share. The agronomic and socioeconomic utilities of glyphosate are well established; however, our knowledge of the potential effects of glyphosate applied in the presence or absence of long-term N fertilization on microbial functional activities and the availability of soil nutrients remains limited. Using an ex situ approach with soils that did (N+ or did not (N0 receive synthetic N fertilization for 6 years, we assessed the impact of different rates (no glyphosate, CK; field rate, FR; 100 × field rate, 100FR of glyphosate application on biological and chemical parameters. We observed that, after immediate application (1 day, the highest dose of glyphosate (100FR negatively affected the alkaline phosphatase (AlP activity in soils without N fertilization history and decreased the cation exchange capacity (CEC in N0 compared to CK and FR treatments with N+. Conversely, the 100FR application increased nitrate (NO3- and available phosphorus (PO43- regardless of N fertilization history. Then, after 8 and 15 days, the N+\\100FR and N+\\FR treatments exhibited the lowest values for dehydrogenase (DH and AlP activities, respectively, while urease (URE activity was mainly affected by N fertilization. After 15 days and irrespective of N fertilization history, the FR glyphosate application negatively affected the degradation of carbon substrates by microbial communities (expressed as the average well color development, AWCD. By contrast, the 100FR treatment positively affected AWCD, increasing PO43- by 5 and 16% and NO3- by 126 and 119% in the N+ and N0 treatments, respectively. In addition, the 100FR treatment resulted in an increase in the average net nitrification rate. Principal component analysis revealed that the 100FR glyphosate treatment selected microbial communities that were able to metabolize amine substrates

  4. Variation in concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and macropolymers in wheat grains of a recombinant inbred lines population and in two contrasting eco-sites in China

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    to be significantly correlated with the GMP concentration. CONCLUSION: Concentrations of HMW-GS andGMPare largely affected by the eco-sites and the composition ofHMW-GS, whilst not by the presence of 6 VS·6AL chromosome segment translocation. The 6 VS·6AL translocation is suggested as potential donor for breeding...... wheat cultivars for high resistence to powdery mildew and yellow rust with less risk of undesirable effects on grain quality. c 2012 Society of Chemical Industry Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article....

  5. The effect of temperate or tropical pasture grazing state and grain-based concentrate allocation on dairy cattle production and behavior.

    Clark, C E F; Kaur, R; Millapan, L O; Golder, H M; Thomson, P C; Horadagoda, A; Islam, M R; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2018-06-01

    Grain-based concentrate (GBC) supplement is of high cost to dairy farmers as a feed source as opposed to grazed pasture. Milk production response to GBC is affected by the composition and nutritive value of the remainder of the diet, animal factors, and interactions between forage type and level of GBC. In grazing systems, dairy cattle encounter contrasting pasture states, primarily because the social structure of the herd affects the timing of when each animal accesses a paddock after milking as a result of a relatively consistent cow milking order. However, the effect of feed management, namely pasture state and GBC allocation, on dairy cattle production and behavior is unknown. We examined the effect of varying GBC allocation for dairy cattle grazing differing states of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum, a tropical pasture species; experiment 1) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L., a temperate pasture species; experiment 2) on dry matter intake, milk production and composition, and grazing behavior. For each experiment, 90 lactating dairy cattle were randomly allocated to 2 consistent (fresh-fresh and depleted-depleted) and 2 inconsistent (fresh-depleted and depleted-fresh pasture state treatments (defined as sequences of pasture state allocation for the morning and afternoon grazing events) and 3 GBC treatments [2.7, 5.4, and 8.1 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day], giving 12 treatment combinations for each experiment. The duration of each experiment was 14 d, with the first 7 d used as adaptation to treatment. In each experiment, 3 cattle were selected from each of the 12 pasture type × GBC treatment groups within the experimental herd to determine herbage intake and total DM digestibility using the n-alkanes method (n = 36). There was no interaction between kikuyu grass or ryegrass pasture state and GBC level for intake, digestibility, or milk yield or components. Dairy cattle offered fresh-fresh and depleted-fresh ryegrass produced 9% more milk

  6. Methanol-Tolerant Platinum-Palladium Catalyst Supported on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber for High Concentration Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Kim, Jiyoung; Jang, Jin-Sung; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Byungrok; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Jung, Doo-Hwan

    2016-08-15

    Pt-Pd catalyst supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (N-CNF) was prepared and evaluated as a cathode electrode of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The N-CNF, which was directly synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition from acetonitrile at 640 °C, was verified as having a change of electrochemical surface properties such as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities and the electrochemical double layer compared with common carbon black (CB). To attain the competitive oxygen reduction reaction activity with methanol tolerance, the Pt and Pd metals were supported on the CB or the N-CNF. The physical and electrochemical characteristics of the N-CNF-supported Pt-Pd catalyst were examined and compared with catalyst supported on the CB. In addition, DMFC single cells using these catalysts as the cathode electrode were applied to obtain I-V polarization curves and constant current operating performances with high-concentration methanol as the fuel. Pt-Pd catalysts had obvious ORR activity even in the presence of methanol. The higher power density was obtained at all the methanol concentrations when it applied to the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the DMFC. When the N-CNF is used as the catalyst support material, a better performance with high-concentration methanol is expected.

  7. Methanol-Tolerant Platinum-Palladium Catalyst Supported on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber for High Concentration Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Jiyoung Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pt-Pd catalyst supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (N-CNF was prepared and evaluated as a cathode electrode of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The N-CNF, which was directly synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition from acetonitrile at 640 °C, was verified as having a change of electrochemical surface properties such as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR activities and the electrochemical double layer compared with common carbon black (CB. To attain the competitive oxygen reduction reaction activity with methanol tolerance, the Pt and Pd metals were supported on the CB or the N-CNF. The physical and electrochemical characteristics of the N-CNF–supported Pt-Pd catalyst were examined and compared with catalyst supported on the CB. In addition, DMFC single cells using these catalysts as the cathode electrode were applied to obtain I-V polarization curves and constant current operating performances with high-concentration methanol as the fuel. Pt-Pd catalysts had obvious ORR activity even in the presence of methanol. The higher power density was obtained at all the methanol concentrations when it applied to the membrane electrode assembly (MEA of the DMFC. When the N-CNF is used as the catalyst support material, a better performance with high-concentration methanol is expected.

  8. Comparison of atmospheric concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds, chloride and base cations at Ahtari and Hyytiala, Finland

    Ruoho-Airola, T. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Seven-year (2003-2009) time series of atmospheric SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}-, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations as well as four-year time series of atmospheric Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} concentrations from Ahtari and Hyytiala background stations in southern Finland, located within 85 km of each other were compared. At Ahtari the air sampler was located in a clearing within a young forest, while at Hyytiala it was within dense forest stands. Pearson's correlations between the time series were very strong (r{sub P} {>=} 0.9) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup -} and Ca{sup 2+}, strong (r{sub P} > 0.8) for Na{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} and week (r{sub P} = 0.65) for K{sup +}. The concentrations recorded at Hyytiala were on average 0.8-1.0 times those at Ahtari, although for K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} the ratios were higher. The GLS-ARMA method used takes into account the seasonal behaviour and serial correlation in the air quality time series, which revealed similar seasonal and temporal behaviour for S and N compounds and Cl- at both stations. As a result of the dense seasonalization of the time series, the part of the data heavily influenced by local agricultural sources could be identified. This enables elimination of the minimal part of the data affected and the use of the remaining data for further studies on a more regional level. (orig.)

  9. National-scale exposure prediction for long-term concentrations of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in South Korea.

    Kim, Sun-Young; Song, Insang

    2017-07-01

    The limited spatial coverage of the air pollution data available from regulatory air quality monitoring networks hampers national-scale epidemiological studies of air pollution. The present study aimed to develop a national-scale exposure prediction model for estimating annual average concentrations of PM 10 and NO 2 at residences in South Korea using regulatory monitoring data for 2010. Using hourly measurements of PM 10 and NO 2 at 277 regulatory monitoring sites, we calculated the annual average concentrations at each site. We also computed 322 geographic variables in order to represent plausible local and regional pollution sources. Using these data, we developed universal kriging models, including three summary predictors estimated by partial least squares (PLS). The model performance was evaluated with fivefold cross-validation. In sensitivity analyses, we compared our approach with two alternative approaches, which added regional interactions and replaced the PLS predictors with up to ten selected variables. Finally, we predicted the annual average concentrations of PM 10 and NO 2 at 83,463 centroids of residential census output areas in South Korea to investigate the population exposure to these pollutants and to compare the exposure levels between monitored and unmonitored areas. The means of the annual average concentrations of PM 10 and NO 2 for 2010, across regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea, were 51.63 μg/m3 (SD = 8.58) and 25.64 ppb (11.05), respectively. The universal kriging exposure prediction models yielded cross-validated R 2 s of 0.45 and 0.82 for PM 10 and NO 2 , respectively. Compared to our model, the two alternative approaches gave consistent or worse performances. Population exposure levels in unmonitored areas were lower than in monitored areas. This is the first study that focused on developing a national-scale point wise exposure prediction approach in South Korea, which will allow national exposure assessments and

  10. Pan-Arctic concentrations of mercury and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) in marine zooplankton

    Pomerleau, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.pomerleau@umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Kivioq 2, Nuuk 3900, Greenland (Denmark); Stern, Gary A.; Pućko, Monika [Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Foster, Karen L. [Foster Environmental, Peterborough, ON K9J 8L2 (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2 (Canada); Fortier, Louis [Québec-Océan, Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2016-05-01

    Zooplankton play a central role in marine food webs, dictating the quantity and quality of energy available to upper trophic levels. They act as “keystone” species in transfer of mercury (Hg) up through the marine food chain. Here, we present the first Pan-Arctic overview of total and monomethylmercury concentrations (THg and MMHg) and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) in selected zooplankton species by assembling data collected between 1998 and 2012 from six arctic regions (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea, southeastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Hudson Bay and northern Baffin Bay). MMHg concentrations in Calanus spp., Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp. were found to increase with higher δ{sup 15}N and lower δ{sup 13}C. The southern Beaufort Sea exhibited both the highest THg and MMHg concentrations. Biomagnification of MMHg between Calanus spp. and two of its known predators, Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp., was greatest in the southern Beaufort Sea. Our results show large geographical variations in Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures for individual species related to regional ecosystem features, such as varying water masses and freshwater inputs, and highlight the increased exposure to Hg in the marine food chain of the southern Beaufort Sea. - Highlights: • Assessment of Pan-Arctic variability in zooplankton Hg concentrations • Increased exposure to Hg in the marine food chain of the southern Beaufort Sea • Zooplankton plays a central role in the Hg pathway within Arctic marine food webs.

  11. Validation of Reported Whole-Grain Intake from a Web-Based Dietary Record against Plasma Alkylresorcinol Concentrations in 8- to 11-Year-Olds Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; W. Andersen, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    meal × 3 mo crossover trial. Reported WG intake and plasma AR concentrations were compared when children ate their usual bread-based lunch (UBL) and when served a hot lunch meal (HLM). Correlations and cross-classification were used to rank subjects according to intake. The intraclass correlation......BACKGROUND: Whole-grain (WG) intake is important for human health, but accurate intake estimation is challenging. Use of a biomarker for WG intake provides a possible way to validate dietary assessment methods. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to validate WG intake from 2 diets reported by children, using...... plasma alkylresorcinol (AR) concentrations, and to investigate the 3-mo reproducibility of AR concentrations and reported WG intake. METHODS: AR concentrations were analyzed in fasting blood plasma samples, and WG intake was estimated in a 7-d web-based diary by 750 participants aged 8-11 y in a 2 school...

  12. Positive and negative effects of nitrogen compounds on plants in the vicinity of a fertilizer factory

    Scholl, G

    1975-05-01

    At a distance of 300 m from a fertilizer plant, various grains and fodder plants, as well as spinach, string beans, and peas, were grown consecutively over a period of several years to determine the effects of various concentrations of nitrogen compounds emitted by a fertilizer plant on the cultivations. Injuries that were similar to those observed in fumigation experiments with nitrogen dioxide were observed in the leaves of the experimental plants. In relatively high concentrations, pollutants containing nitrogen were as toxic as sulfur dioxide. Lower concentrations had a positive stimulatory effect and increased vegetative growth. Legumes were the most sensitive to nitrogen pollutants. Production of chlorophyll was reduced in lupine and Alexandrine clover, although no visible injuries were observed. Nodule development of the lupine was significantly restricted. The contamination of food and fodder plants by nitrates was significant and was found to present a real danger to humans through the food chain.

  13. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows.

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and

  14. Climate control on sulphate and nitrate concentrations in alpine streams of Northern Italy along a nitrogen saturation gradient

    M. Rogora

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of meteorology, hydrology and atmospheric deposition on the temporal pattern of SO4 and NO3 concentrations was investigated for three streams draining alpine catchments in Northern Italy.

    The study sites lie on a gradient of atmospheric fluxes of SO4 and NO3 (from about 50 to 80 meq m−2 y−1, and from 40 to 90 meq m−2 y−1, respectively. As a consequence of the increasing N input, the three catchments are also representative of aggrading levels of N saturation. Different methods of statistical analysis were applied to monthly data for the period 1997–2005 to identify which variables (temperature, precipitation, hydrology, SO4 and NO3 deposition were the main predictors of water chemistry and its change in time. Hydrological changes and snow cover proved to be the main confounding factors in the response to atmospheric deposition in the River Masino catchment. Its particular characteristics (small catchment area, rapid flushing during runoff and thin soil cover meant that this site responded without a significant delay to SO4 deposition decrease. It also showed a clear seasonal pattern of NO3 concentration, in response to hydrology and biological uptake in the growing season.

    The selected driving variables failed to model the water chemistry at the other study sites. Nevertheless, temperature, especially extreme values, turned out to be important in both SO4 and NO3 export from the catchments. This result might be largely explained by the effect of warm periods on temperature-dependent processes such as mineralization, nitrification and S desorption.

    Our findings suggest that surface waters in the alpine area will be extremely sensitive to a climate warming scenario: higher temperatures and increasing frequency of drought could exacerbate the effects

  15. Quantifying sediment source contributions in coastal catchments impacted by the Fukushima nuclear accident with carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Huon Huon, Sylvain; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accidental release of radioactive contaminants resulted in the significant fallout of radiocesium over several coastal catchments in the Fukushima Prefecture. Radiocesium, considered to be the greatest risk to the short and long term health of the local community, is rapidly bound to fine soil particles and thus is mobilized and transported during soil erosion and runoff processes. As there has been a broad-scale decontamination of rice paddy fields and rural residential areas in the contaminated region, one important long term question is whether there is, or may be, a downstream transfer of radiocesium from forests that covered over 65% of the most contaminated region. Accordingly, carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios are used to determine the relative contributions of forests and rice paddies to transported sediment in three contaminated coastal catchments. Samples were taken from the three main identified sources: cultivated soils (rice paddies and fields, n=30), forest soils (n=45), and subsoils (channel bank and decontaminated soils, n = 25). Lag deposit sediment samples were obtained from five sampling campaigns that targeted the main hydrological events from October 2011 to October 2014. In total, 86 samples of deposited sediment were analyzed for particulate organic matter elemental concentrations and isotope ratios, 24 from the Mano catchment, 44 from the Niida catchment, and 18 from the Ota catchment. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to examine the source discrimination potential of this tracing suite and select the appropriate tracers for modelling. The discriminant tracers were modelled with a concentration-dependent distribution mixing model. Preliminary results indicate that cultivated sources (predominantly rice paddies) contribute disproportionately more sediment per unit area than forested regions in these contaminated catchments. Future research will examine if there are

  16. Controle genético do teor proteico nos grãos e de caracteres agronômicos em milho cultivado com diferentes níveis de adubação nitrogenada Genetic control of grain protein content and of agronomic traits in maize cultivated at different levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Luíce Gomes Bueno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o controle genético do teor de proteína em grãos e caracteres agronômicos milho (Zea mays cultivado com diferentes níveis de adubação nitrogenada. Foram avaliados nove genitores de milho e seus híbridos, em dialelo completo, com dois níveis de adubação nitrogenada. Os caracteres avaliados foram: índice relativo de clorofila, altura de plantas, altura de espigas, produção de espigas, produção de grãos, coloração de grãos, massa de cem grãos, densidade de grãos, teor de nitrogênio nas folhas e teor de proteína nos grãos. A elevação da adubação nitrogenada promoveu aumento nos caracteres índice relativo de clorofila, altura de espigas e teor de proteínas nos grãos. Apenas a variável produção de grãos apresentou controle genético distinto nos diferentes níveis de nitrogênio. A análise dialélica mostrou significância dos efeitos dos genótipos sobre todos os caracteres, com exceção da produção de espigas e de grãos, e foi possível observar significância da heterose na maioria das variáveis. Para o teor de proteínas nos grãos, não houve significância da capacidade específica de combinação, e a capacidade geral de combinação dos genótipos teve efeito mais importante na manifestação desse caráter.The objective of this work was to determine the genetic control grain protein content and of the agronomic traits of corn (Zea mays at different levels of nitrogen fertilization. Nine parent populations and their hybrids were evaluated in a complete diallel mating design, with two levels of nitrogen fertilization. The variables evaluated were: relative chlorophyll index, plant height, ear height, ear production, grain yield, grain color, mass of 100 grains, density of grains, nitrogen content in the leaves and grain protein content. Increasing levels of nitrogen fertilization increased the relative chlorophyll index, ear height and grain protein content

  17. Concentrations of oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice bran and their relationships to total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and whole grain color

    Proanthocyanidins, a flavonoids subgroup, are proposed to have chronic disease modulation properties. With the eventual goal of enhancing rice phytonutrient concentrations, we investigated the genotypic variation of the concentrations of individual oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in dark...

  18. Microwave Synthesis of Fe2 O3 and ZnO Nanoparticles and Evaluation Its Application on Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their Relationships to Grain Yield

    Shahab Khaghani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fe2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a fast microwave method. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction  and scanning electron microscopy. The goal of bio-fortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. The micronutrients magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu, boron (B and calcium (Ca are essential for plants and the humans and animals that consume plants. Increasing the micronutrient density of staple crops, will greatly improve human nutrition on a global scale. In order to investigate the effect of Iron and Zinc on nutrient uptake of two line of wheat. The experimental design used for this research was a factorial experiment under complete randomized block design with three replications and two variety of wheat including Roshan back cross (V1 and C-78-14 line (V2, three levels of Iron from Fe-EDDHA (Sequestrene138 including no application (F0, Fe sulphate (F1 and Nano Fe2O3 (F2 and three Levels of  Zinc as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 including no application (Z0, 25 kg/ha-1 (Z1 and 50 kg/ha-1 (Z2 were used. The result is showed that application of nanoparticles increased the study of parameters such as magnesium, manganese, copper, boron and calcium. Highest levels of grain yield with 5.13 ton/ha-1 was obtained in C-78-14 variety.

  19. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  20. Empirical Estimation of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Concentration of Urban Water Bodies in China Using High Resolution IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    Jiaming Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Measuring total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP is important in managing heavy polluted urban waters in China. This study uses high spatial resolution IKONOS imagery with four multispectral bands, which roughly correspond to Landsat/TM bands 1–4, to determine TN and TP in small urban rivers and lakes in China. By using Lake Cihu and the lower reaches of Wen-Rui Tang (WRT River as examples, this paper develops both multiple linear regressions (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN models to estimate TN and TP concentrations from high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery and in situ water samples collected concurrently with overpassing satellite. The measured and estimated values of both MLR and ANN models are in good agreement (R2 > 0.85 and RMSE < 2.50. The empirical equations selected by MLR are more straightforward, whereas the estimated accuracy using ANN model is better (R2 > 0.86 and RMSE < 0.89. Results validate the potential of using high resolution IKONOS multispectral imagery to study the chemical states of small-sized urban water bodies. The spatial distribution maps of TN and TP concentrations generated by the ANN model can inform the decision makers of variations in water quality in Lake Cihu and lower reaches of WRT River. The approaches and equations developed in this study could be applied to other urban water bodies for water quality monitoring.

  1. Prediction of purine derivatives, creatinine and total nitrogen concentrations in urine by FT-Near-lnfrared Reflectance spectroscopy (FT-NIR)

    Susmel, P.; Piani, B.; Toso, B.; Stefanon, B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an alternative method for the determination of purine derivatives (PD, which include allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine), creatinine and total nitrogen (N) concentrations in urine. About 180 urine samples from cattle, buffaloes and rabbit were collected and analyzed for PD by HPLC, creatinine by spectrophotometry and N by Kjeldahl method. The urine samples were then analyzed by Fourier Transformed Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (FT-NIR) to find conformity between this technique and the HPLC and colorimetric methods. FT-NIR can predict allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, creatinine, total N and sum of N in both allantoin and uric acid with a satisfactory level of accuracy: the determination coefficient (r 2 ) of validation ranged from 0.888% for uric acid to 0.982% for total N. The coefficients of determination for allantoin, creatinine and sum of N in both allantoin and uric acid were 0.92, 0.894 and 0.90%, respectively. Hypoxanthine and xanthine in urine samples were not detectable by NIRS, probably because of their low concentrations, and therefore they were not considered for instrumental calibration. (author)

  2. Grain dust and the lungs.

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  3. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  4. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  5. Nitrogen utilization and digestibility of amino acids by lambs fed a high-concentrate diet with limestone or magnesium oxide.

    Christiansen, M L; Webb, K E

    1990-07-01

    Effects were evaluated of high dietary levels of magnesium oxide (MgO) or limestone on DM, OM and CP digestibility, N balance and intestinal absorption of amino acids by lambs fed a high concentrate diet. Twelve wether lambs equipped with abomasal and ileal cannulas were blocked by weight and breeding and allotted to treatments in a randomized block design in two consecutive trials. Diets were control (800 g), control plus 1.5% MgO (812 g), control plus 1.5% limestone (812 g) and control plus 3.0% limestone (824 g) fed in two equal portions at 12-h intervals. Ruminal fluid pH differences were small. The pH of ileal digesta was greater (P less than .05) with MgO than with limestone (8.23 vs 7.73). Fecal pH was higher (P less than .01) for lambs fed all mineral treatments (avg 8.75) than for lambs fed the control (7.61) and was higher (P less than .01) when MgO (9.53) rather than limestone (8.36) was fed. Ruminal NH3N was lower (P less than .01) when lambs were fed MgO (11.9 mg/dl) compared with limestone (avg 31.2 mg/dl). Preintestinal DM digestibility was greatest (P less than .10) with limestone (avg 49.5%) feeding compared with feeding MgO (31.2%) or the control (35.4%). About 41.5% more essential (P less than .05) and 48% more nonessential (P less than .03) amino acids reached the small intestine when MgO was fed than when limestone was fed. Partial digestibility of amino acids in the small intestine was reduced (P less than .03) an average of 5 percentage units when MgO or limestone was fed. Feeding high levels of MgO or limestone to lambs did not improve the overall digestibility of DM, OM or CP. In fact, feeding high levels of MgO or limestone appeared to be detrimental, reducing intestinal absorption of amino acids.

  6. Nitrogen oxides emission of mobile equipment in the port of Rotterdam. Consequences for nitrogen dioxide concentration, nitrogen deposition and a deduction of emission factors for container and bulk businesses; Stikstofoxidenemissies van mobiele werktuigen in de Rotterdamse haven. Gevolgen voor stikstofdioxide concentratie, stikstofdepositie, en een afleiding van emissiefactoren voor container- en droge bulk bedrijven

    Okkerse, W J.H.; De Gier, C W

    2011-08-15

    In container terminals, dry bulk businesses and construction sites in the port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, large masses of goods are transported by means of diesel-fuelled equipment every year. The combustion of diesel in this equipment results in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter. This study has calculated the amounts of NOx emissions of the involved businesses based on detailed data on the composition of the equipment fleet of six representative storage and transshipment businesses. The resulting contribution to nitrogen oxide concentration at ground level and the nitrogen deposition have been calculated with the OPS model (Operational Priority Substances) [Dutch] Bij containerterminals, droge bulk bedrijven en bouwplaatsen in de Rotterdamse haven wordt jaarlijks een grote massa aan goederen getransporteerd met behulp van dieselaangedreven apparatuur. De verbranding van diesel in deze apparatuur zorgt voor de emissie van stikstofoxiden (NOx) en stof. In dit onderzoek zijn de NOx emissies van de betrokken bedrijven berekend op basis van gedetailleerde gegevens over de samenstelling van het werktuigenpark van zes representatieve op- en overslagbedrijven. De resulterende bijdrage aan de stikstofdioxide (NO2) concentratie op leefniveau en de stikstofdepositie is berekend met het OPS-model (Operationele Prioritaire Stoffen)

  7. Nitrogen fate and Transport in Diverse Agricultural Watersheds

    Essaid, H.; McCarthy, K. A.; Baker, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen mass budgets have been estimated for ten agricultural watersheds located in a range of hydrologic settings in order to understand the factors controlling the fate of nitrogen applied at the surface. The watersheds, study areas of the Agricultural Chemical Sources, Transport and Fate study of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, are located in Indiana (IN), Iowa (IA), Maryland (MD), Nebraska (NE), Mississippi (MS) and Washington (WA). They range in size from 7 to 1254 km2, with four of the watersheds nested within larger watersheds. Surface water outflow (normalized to watershed area) ranged from 4 to 83 cm/yr. Crops planted include corn, soybean, small grains, rice, cotton, orchards and vegetables. “Surplus nitrogen” was determined for each watershed by subtracting estimates of crop uptake and volatilization from estimates of nitrogen input from atmospheric deposition, plant fixation, and fertilizer and manure applications for the period from 1987 to 2004. This surplus nitrogen is transported though the watershed via surface and subsurface flow paths, while simultaneously undergoing transformations (such as denitrification and in-stream processing) that result in less export of nitrogen from the watershed. Surface-water discharge and concentration data were used to estimate the export of nitrogen from the watersheds (groundwater outflow from the watersheds was minimal). Subtracting nitrogen export from surplus nitrogen provides an estimate of the net amount of nitrogen removal occurring during internal watershed transport. Watershed average nitrogen surplus ranged from 6 to 49 kg-N/ha. The more permeable and/or greater water flux watersheds (MD, NE, and WA) tended to have larger surplus nitrogen, possibly due to less crop uptake caused by greater leaching and runoff of nitrogen. Almost all of the surplus nitrogen in the low permeability (MS) and tile drained watersheds (IA, IN) was exported from the watershed with

  8. Anthropogenic impacts on mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in fish muscle tissue of the Truckee River watershed, Nevada, USA

    Sexauer Gustin, Mae; Saito, Laurel; Peacock, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The lower Truckee River originates at Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada (NV), USA and ends in the terminal water body, Pyramid Lake, NV. The river has minimal anthropogenic inputs of contaminants until it encounters the cities of Reno and Sparks, NV, and receives inflows from Steamboat Creek (SBC). SBC originates at Washoe Lake, NV, where there were approximately six mills that used mercury for gold and silver amalgamation in the late 1800s. Since then, mercury has been distributed down the creek to the Truckee River. In addition, SBC receives agricultural and urban nonpoint source pollution, and treated effluent from the Reno-Sparks water reclamation facility. Fish muscle tissue was collected from different species in SBC and the Truckee River and analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes. Nitrogen (?δ 15 N) and carbon (?δ 13 C) isotopic values in these tissues provide insight as to fish food resources and help to explain their relative Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations, and ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C values in fish muscle from the Truckee River, collected below the SBC confluence, were significantly different than that found in fish collected upstream. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue collected below the confluence for all but three fish sampled were significantly greater (0.1 to 0.65 μg/g wet wt.) than that measured in the tissue collected above the confluence (0.02 to 0.1 μg/g). ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C isotopic values of fish muscle collected from the river below the confluence were higher and lower, respectively, than that measured in fish collected up river, most likely reflecting wastewater inputs. The impact of SBC inputs on muscle tissue isotope values declined down river whereas the impact due to Hg inputs showed the opposite trend

  9. Modelling global nitrogen export to ground and surface water from natural ecosystems: impact of N deposition, climate, and CO2 concentration

    Braakhekke, Maarten; Rebel, Karin; Dekker, Stefan; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc; Smith, Ben; Wassen, Martin

    2015-04-01

    For large regions in the world strong increases in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are predicted as a result of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and food production. This will cause many previously N limited ecosystems to become N saturated, leading to increased export to ground and surface water and negative impacts on the environment and human health. However, precise N export fluxes are difficult to predict. Due to its strong link to carbon, N in vegetation and soil is also determined by productivity, as affected by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature, and denitrification. Furthermore, the N concentration of water delivered to streams depends strongly on local hydrological conditions. We aim to study how N delivery to ground and surface water is affected by changes in environmental factors. To this end we are developing a global dynamic modelling system that integrates representations of N cycling in vegetation and soil, and N delivery to ground and surface water. This will be achieved by coupling the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, which includes representations of N cycling, as well as croplands and pasture, to the global water balance model PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface runoff, interflow, groundwater recharge, and baseflow. This coupling will allow us to trace N across different systems and estimate the input of N into the riverine system which can be used as input for river biogeochemical models. We will present large scale estimates of N leaching and transport to ground and surface water for natural ecosystems in different biomes, based on a loose coupling of the two models. Furthermore, by means of a factorial model experiment we will explore how these fluxes are influenced by N deposition, temperature, and CO2 concentration.

  10. Effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on transpiration of a wheat field in consideration of water and nitrogen limitation; Die Wirkung von erhoehten atmosphaerischen CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen auf die Transpiration eines Weizenbestandes unter Beruecksichtigung von Wasser- und Stickstofflimitierung

    Grossman-Clarke, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary responses of C{sub 3}-plants to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are an increase in the net assimilation rate, leading to greater biomass, and an associated decrease in the transpiration rate per unit leaf area due to CO{sub 2}-induced stomatal closure. The question has therefore arisen: does canopy transpiration increase because of the greater biomass, or decrease because of the stomatal closure? The direct impact of an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration of 550 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} on the seasonal course of canopy transpiration of a spring wheat crop was investigated by means of the simulation model DEMETER for production under unlimited water and nutrient supply, production under limited water but unlimited nutrient supply and the production under unlimited water but limited nitrogen supply. Independent data of the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment wheat experiments in Arizona, USA (1993-96) were used to test if the model is able to make reasonable predictions of water use and productivity of the spring wheat crop using only parameters derived from the literature. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and energy fluxes between the plant and the atmosphere was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat crop growth model. Temporal changes of the model parameters were considered by describing them as dependent on the changing leaf nitrogen content. Comparison of the simulation and experimental results showed that the applicability of the model approach was limited after anthesis by asynchronous changes in mesophyll and stomatal conductance. Therefore a new model approach was developed describing the interaction between assimilation rate and stomatal conductance during grain filling. The simulation results revealed only small differences in the cumulative sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation between elevated CO{sub 2} and control conditions. For potential growth conditions the model

  11. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes. PMID:23555754

  12. Temporal changes in nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations with comparisons to conservation practices and agricultural activities in the Lower Grand River, Missouri and Iowa, and selected watersheds, 1969–2015

    Krempa, Heather M.; Flickinger, Allison K.

    2017-08-01

    This report presents the results of a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri Department of Natural Resources to estimate total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations at monitoring sites within and near the Lower Grand River hydrological unit. The primary objectives of the study were to quantify temporal changes in TN and TP concentrations and compare those concentrations to conservation practices and agricultural activities. Despite increases in funding during 2011–15 for conservation practices in the Lower Grand River from the Mississippi River Basin Healthy Watersheds Initiative, decreases in flow-normalized TN and TP concentrations during this time at the long-term Grand River site were less than at other long-term sites, which did not receive funding from the Mississippi River Basin Healthy Watersheds Initiative. The relative differences in the magnitude of flow-normalized TN and TP concentrations among long-term sites are directly related to the amount of agricultural land use within the watershed. Significant relations were determined between nitrogen from cattle manure and flow-normalized TN concentrations at selected long-term sites, indicating livestock manure may be a substantial source of nitrogen within the selected long-term site watersheds. Relations between flow-normalized TN and TP concentrations with Conservation Reserve Program acres and with nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer indicate that changes in these factors alone did not have a substantial effect on stream TN and TP concentrations; other landscape activities, runoff, within-bank nutrients that are suspended during higher streamflows, or a combination of these have had a greater effect on stream TN and TP concentrations; or there is a lag time that is obscuring relations. Temporal changes in flow-adjusted TN and TP concentrations were not substantial at Lower Grand River Mississippi River Basin Healthy Watersheds Initiative sites

  13. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As

    2014-01-01

    concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries...

  14. Comparing Broad-Band and Red Edge-Based Spectral Vegetation Indices to Estimate Nitrogen Concentration of Crops Using Casi Data

    Wang, Yanjie; Liao, Qinhong; Yang, Guijun; Feng, Haikuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Yue, Jibo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, many spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) have been proposed to estimate the leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) of crops. However, most of these indices were based on the field hyperspectral reflectance. To test whether they can be used in aerial remote platform effectively, in this work a comparison of the sensitivity between several broad-band and red edge-based SVIs to LNC is investigated over different crop types. By using data from experimental LNC values over 4 different crop types and image data acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) sensor, the extensive dataset allowed us to evaluate broad-band and red edge-based SVIs. The result indicated that NDVI performed the best among the selected SVIs while red edge-based SVIs didn't show the potential for estimating the LNC based on the CASI data due to the spectral resolution. In order to search for the optimal SVIs, the band combination algorithm has been used in this work. The best linear correlation against the experimental LNC dataset was obtained by combining the 626.20nm and 569.00nm wavebands. These wavelengths correspond to the maximal chlorophyll absorption and reflection position region, respectively, and are known to be sensitive to the physiological status of the plant. Then this linear relationship was applied to the CASI image for generating an LNC map, which can guide farmers in the accurate application of their N fertilization strategies.

  15. Non-Destructive Evaluation of the Leaf Nitrogen Concentration by In-Field Visible/Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Pear Orchards

    Jie Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive and timely determination of leaf nitrogen (N concentration is urgently needed for N management in pear orchards. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a commercial pear orchard with five N application rates: 0 (N0, 165 (N1, 330 (N2, 660 (N3, and 990 (N4 kg·N·ha−1. The mid-portion leaves on the year’s shoot were selected for the spectral measurement first and then N concentration determination in the laboratory at 50 and 80 days after full bloom (DAB. Three methods of in-field spectral measurement (25° bare fibre under solar conditions, black background attached to plant probe, and white background attached to plant probe were compared. We also investigated the modelling performances of four chemometric techniques (principal components regression, PCR; partial least squares regression, PLSR; stepwise multiple linear regression, SMLR; and back propagation neural network, BPNN and three vegetation indices (difference spectral index, normalized difference spectral index, and ratio spectral index. Due to the low correlation of reflectance obtained by the 25° field of view method, all of the modelling was performed on two spectral datasets—both acquired by a plant probe. Results showed that the best modelling and prediction accuracy were found in the model established by PLSR and spectra measured with a black background. The randomly-separated subsets of calibration (n = 1000 and validation (n = 420 of this model resulted in high R2 values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively, as well as a low mean relative error (<6%. Furthermore, a higher coefficient of determination between the leaf N concentration and fruit yield was found at 50 DAB samplings in both 2015 (R2 = 0.77 and 2014 (R2 = 0.59. Thus, the leaf N concentration was suggested to be determined at 50 DAB by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy and the threshold should be 24–27 g/kg.

  16. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    B. I. Castro-Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis in substitution for dry-rolled (DR corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01, but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01. Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02 duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04 as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06 and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08. However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg, reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs.

  17. Biological role in the transformation of platinum-group mineral grains

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M.; Shar, Sahar S.; Etschmann, Barbara; Bottrill, Ralph; Southam, Gordon; Ta, Christine; Kilburn, Matthew; Oberthür, Thomas; Ball, Andrew S.; Brugger, Joël

    2016-04-01

    Platinum-group elements are strategically important metals. Finding new deposits is becoming increasingly difficult owing to our limited understanding of the processes that affect their mobility in surface environments. Microorganisms have been shown to promote the mobility of metals around ore deposits. Here we show that microorganisms influence the mobility of platinum-group elements in mineral grains collected from Brazil, Australia and Colombia. Scanning electron microscopy showed biofilms covering the platinum-group mineral grains. The biofilms contained abundant platinum-group element nanoparticles and microcrystalline aggregates, and were dominated by Proteobacteria, many of which were closely related to known metal-resistant species. Some platinum-group mineral grains contained carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium and iodine, suggesting the grains may be biogenic in origin. Molecular analyses show that Brazilian platinum-palladium grains hosted specific bacterial communities, which were different in composition from communities associated with gold grains, or communities in surrounding soils and sediments. Nano-phase metallic platinum accumulated when a metallophillic bacterium was incubated with a percolating platinum-containing medium, suggesting that biofilms can cause the precipitation of mobile platinum complexes. We conclude that biofilms are capable of forming or transforming platinum-group mineral grains, and may play an important role for platinum-group element dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments.

  18. Nitrogen trading tool

    The nitrogen cycle is impacted by human activities, including those that increase the use of nitrogen in agricultural systems, and this impact can be seen in effects such as increased nitrate (NO3) levels in groundwater or surface water resources, increased concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) in th...

  19. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  20. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Jongmanns, M.; Kumm, M.; Wurm, G.; Wolf, D. E.; Teiser, J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced) particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  1. The effect of elevated cadmium content in soil on the uptake of nitrogen by plants

    Ciecko, Z.; Kalembasa, S.; Wyszkowski, M.; Rolka, E. [University of Warmia & Mazury Olsztyn, Olsztyn (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg Cd/kg of soil) contamination in soil with the application of different substances (compost, brown coal, lime and bentonite) on the intake of nitrogen by some plants. The correlations between the nitrogen content in the plants and the cadmium concentration in the soil, as well as the plant yield and the content of micro- and macroelements in the plants were determined. Plant species and cadmium dose determined the effects of soil contamination with cadmium on the content of nitrogen. Large doses of cadmium caused an increase in nitrogen content in the Avena sativa straw and roots and in the Zea mays roots. Soil contamination with cadmium resulted in a decrease of nitrogen content in the Avena sativa grain, in above-ground parts and roots of the Lupinus luteus, in the above-ground parts of the Zea mays and in the above-ground parts and roots of Phacelia tanacaetifolia. Among the experimental different substances, the application of bentonite had the strongest and a usually negative effect on the nitrogen content in plants. The greatest effect of bentonite was on Avena sativa grain, above-ground parts Zea mays and Lupinus luteus and Phacelia tanacaetifolia. The content of nitrogen in the plants was generally positively correlated with the content of the macroelements and some of the microelements, regardless of the substances added to the soil.

  2. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  3. BIOCHAR AS SOIL CONDITIONER IN THE SUCCESSION OF UPLAND RICE AND COWPEA FERTILIZED WITH NITROGEN

    NEYTON DE OLIVEIRA MIRANDA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of biochar and nitrogen application on yields of upland rice and cowpea and on soil fertility were determined in a greenhouse in Macaíba, RN, Brazil. The trial consisted of the succession of two crops in a completely randomized design and a factorial scheme, with four replicates. Initially, four doses of biochar and four doses of nitrogen were tested for cultivation of rice. Subsequently, four doses of biochar and two doses of nitrogen were tested in half of the pots maintained for planting cowpea. Soil was sampled after rice harvest for half of the pots and at end of the trial for the remaining pots. We evaluated the following parameters: mass of hundred grains of rice, dry shoot mass, panicle number, number of filled spikelets and of empty spikelets, and grain production. Determinations for cowpea were: pod number per pot, grain number per pod, and grain production per pot. Measured soil parameters were: pH, contents of organic carbon, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable sodium percentage. Biochar addition did not influence yield components of upland rice and cowpea, but resulted in increased soil N retention, which influenced rice dry shoot mass, spikelets sterility, panicle number, and grain mass. Biochar also promoted increased soil pH, potassium content, and exchangeable sodium percentage and decreased calcium and magnesium concentrations.

  4. VISIBE AND INFRARED SPECTRAL CHARACTERISATION OF CHINESE CABBAGE (BRASSICA RAPA L. SUBSPECIES CHINENSIS, GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN, POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS

    B. B. Mokoatsi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to intensify research efforts on improving productivity of indigenous vegetables in South Africa. One research avenue is operationalizing remote sensing techniques to monitor crop health status. This study aimed at characterising the spectral properties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica Rapa L. subspecies Chinensis grown under varying fertilizer treatments: nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 75 kg/ha, 125 kg/ha, 175 kg/ha and 225 kg/ha, phosphorus (0 kg/ha, 9.4 kg/ha, 15.6, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha and potassium (0 kg/ha, 9.4  kg/ha, 15.6 kg/ha, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha. Visible and infrared spectral measurements were taken from a total of 60 samples inside the laboratory. Contiguous spectral regions were plotted to show spectral profiles of the different fertilizer treatments and then classified using gradient boosting and random forest classifiers. ANOVA revealed the potential of spectral reflectance data in discriminating different fertiliser treatments from crops. There was also a significant difference between the capabilities of the two classifiers. Gradient boost model (GBM yielded higher classification accuracies than random forest (RF. The important variables identified by each model improved the classification accuracy. Overall, the results indicate a potential for the use of spectroscopy in monitoring food quality parameters, thereby reducing the cost of traditional methods. Further research into advanced statistical analysis techniques is needed to improve the accuracy with which fertiliser concentrations in crops could be quantified. The random forest model particularly requires improvements.

  5. Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration, Elevated Temperature and No Nitrogen Fertilization on Methanogenic Archaeal and Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structures in Paddy Soil.

    Liu, Dongyan; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-09-29

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) enhance the production and emission of methane in paddy fields. In the present study, the effects of elevated [CO2], elevated temperature (ET), and no nitrogen fertilization (LN) on methanogenic archaeal and methane-oxidizing bacterial community structures in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental paddy field were investigated by PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR. Soil samples were collected from the upper and lower soil layers at the rice panicle initiation (PI) and mid-ripening (MR) stages. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was not markedly affected by the elevated [CO2], ET, or LN condition. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was also not affected by elevated [CO2] or ET, but was significantly increased at the rice PI stage and significantly decreased by LN in the lower soil layer. In contrast, the composition of the methane-oxidizing bacterial community was affected by rice-growing stages in the upper soil layer. The abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was significantly decreased by elevated [CO2] and LN in both soil layers at the rice MR stage and by ET in the upper soil layer. The ratio of mcrA/pmoA genes correlated with methane emission from ambient and FACE paddy plots at the PI stage. These results indicate that the decrease observed in the abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was related to increased methane emission from the paddy field under the elevated [CO2], ET, and LN conditions.

  6. Increasing CO2 differentially affects essential and non-essential amino acid concentration of rice grains grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Wu, Huibin; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Zhongqi; Tang, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Environmental pollution by both ambient CO2 and heavy metals has been steadily increasing, but we do not know how fluctuating CO2 concentrations influence plant nutrients under high Cd pollution, especially in crops. Here, we studied the effects of elevated CO2 and Cd accumulation on proteins and amino acids in rice under Cd stress. In this pot experiment, we analyzed the amino-acid profile of 20 rice cultivars that accumulate Cd differently; the plants were grown in Cd-containing soils under ambient conditions and elevated CO2 levels. We found that although Cd concentrations appeared to be higher in most cultivars under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2, the effect was significant only in seven cultivars. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated CO2 strongly decreased rice protein and amino acid profiles, including essential and non-essential amino acids. Under elevated CO2, the ratios of specific amino acids were either higher or lower than the optimal ratios provided by FAO/WHO, suggesting that CO2 may flatten the overall amino-acid profile, leading to an excess in some amino acids and deficiencies in others when the rice is consumed. Thus, Cd-tainted rice limits the concentration of essential amino acids in rice-based diets, and the combination with elevated CO2 further exacerbates the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation of heavy metal and micro and macro element concentrations of bread and durum wheats and their relationship in grain of Turkish wheat cultivars.

    Harmankaya, Mustafa; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gezgin, Sait

    2012-09-01

    The 64 varieties displayed a large variation for all mineral elements, investigated Fe, Mn and Zn, ranging from 24.2 to 43.1 mg/kg, 27.6 to 64.8 mg/kg and 10.4 to 38.2 mg/kg, respectively. The mean Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S concentrations in wheat rain varieties amounted to 378, 4,266, 1,183, 317, 3,513 and 1,542 mg/kg, respectively. Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S contents of wheat varieties changed at the levels between 266 and 531 mg/kg, 3,029 and 5,566 mg/kg, 972 and 1,525 mg/kg, 277 and 368 mg/kg, 2,422 and 4,610 mg/kg and 1,241 to 2,052 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn of durum wheat samples were found at high levels. The mean Al, Cr, Mo, Ni, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in durum wheat varieties amounted to 10.93, 0.47, 0.72, 0.72, 5.37, 34.9, 37.28 and 20.88 mg/kg, respectively.

  8. Effect of Different Fertilization Systems (Chemical, Biological and Integrated( on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration, Biochemical Attributes and Sepals Dry Weight of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    roghayeh mohammadpour vashvaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a subtropical medicinal plant belongs to the Malvaceae family. Roselle sepals are valuable due to its therapeutic properties and culinary uses. During past decades rising cost of chemical inputs and overusing them in conventional farming have caused various environmental issues such as soil and water resources contamination, reduction in food quality production, decreasing soil fertility and biological imbalance in the soil that they impose irreparable damage to ecosystems. Sustainable agriculture which is based on the use of bio-fertilizers with the aim of eliminating or considerably reducing the use of chemical inputs is the optimal solution to overcome these problems. Abo-Baker and Gehan (2011 in their study on the effect of bio-fertilizers in combination with different rates of chemical fertilizers on growth characters, yield component and chemical constituents of roselle demonstrated that the inoculation with the mixture of bio-fertilizers combined with 50 or 100% chemical fertilizers improved, in most cases, growth characters and increased sepal yield or at least did not differ significantly from the control (full recommended dose of NPK alone. These researchers stated that applying 50% of the recommended dose of NPK plus the mixture of bio-fertilizer can save half of the quantity of chemical fertilizers, decrease the production cost and obtain high quality product. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of bio-fertilizers in combination with different doses of chemical fertilizers on the element concentrations, biochemical properties and yield of roselle to find the appropriate integration of them. Material and Methods This experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, at the Research Station, University of Zabol, during growing season of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Experimental treatments were plant nutrition with NPK (220, 130

  9. Nitrogen in rock: Occurrences and biogeochemical implications

    Holloway, J.M.; Dahlgren, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of bedrock in global nitrogen cycling and potential for increased ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts in terrains with elevated background nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen-bearing rocks are globally distributed and comprise a potentially large pool of nitrogen in nutrient cycling that is frequently neglected because of a lack of routine analytical methods for quantification. Nitrogen in rock originates as organically bound nitrogen associated with sediment, or in thermal waters representing a mixture of sedimentary, mantle, and meteoric sources of nitrogen. Rock nitrogen concentrations range from trace levels (>200 mg N kg -1) in granites to ecologically significant concentrations exceeding 1000 mg N kg -1 in some sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks. Nitrate deposits accumulated in arid and semi-arid regions are also a large potential pool. Nitrogen in rock has a potentially significant impact on localized nitrogen cycles. Elevated nitrogen concentrations in water and soil have been attributed to weathering of bedrock nitrogen. In some environments, nitrogen released from bedrock may contribute to nitrogen saturation of terrestrial ecosystems (more nitrogen available than required by biota). Nitrogen saturation results in leaching of nitrate to surface and groundwaters, and, where soils are formed from ammonium-rich bedrock, the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate may result in soil acidification, inhibiting revegetation in certain ecosystems. Collectively, studies presented in this article reveal that geologic nitrogen may be a large and reactive pool with potential for amplification of human impacts on nitrogen cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Phloem Transport Of Arsenic Species From Flag Leaf To Grain During Grain Filling

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was ...

  11. Cooking methods employing natural anti-oxidant food additives effectively reduced concentration of nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids in contaminated food grains.

    Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Wong, Yee-Lam; Chan, K K Jason; Chan, Ho Wai; Chan, Wan

    2018-10-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that aristolochic acids (AA) produced naturally by a common weed Aristolochia clematitis in the cultivation fields is contaminating the food products in Balkan Peninsula and acting as the etiological agent in the development of Balkan endemic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the combined use of natural anti-oxidative "food additives" and different cooking methods to find a solution for the widespread contamination of AA in food products. The results indicated that the addition of healthy dietary supplements (such as cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, citric acid and magnesium) during cooking, is a highly efficient method in lowering the concentration of AA in the final food products. Because previous observation indicated one of the toxicological mechanisms by which AA exert its toxicity is to induce oxidative stress in internal organs, it is anticipated that these added anti-oxidants will also help to attenuate the nephrotoxicity of AA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer and concentrations at street-level of nitrogen dioxide and ultrafine particles.

    Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Valois, Marie-France; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Villeneuve, Paul J; Crouse, Daniel; Parent, Marie-Élise

    2017-10-01

    There is scant information as to whether traffic-related air pollution is associated with the incidence of breast cancer. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ultrafine particles (UFPs, variations in traffic-related air pollution and may also be associated with incidence. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of street-level concentrations of NO 2 and UFPs and incident postmenopausal breast cancer in Montreal, Canada. Incident cases were identified between 2008 and 2011 from all but one hospital that treated breast cancer in the Montreal area. Population controls were identified from provincial electoral lists of Montreal residents and frequency-matched to cases using 5-year age groups. Concentrations of NO 2 and UFPs were estimated using two separate land-use regression models. Exposures were assigned to residential locations at the time of recruitment, and we identified residential histories of women who had lived in these residences for 10 years or more. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for individual-level and ecological covariates. We assessed the functional form of NO 2 and UFP exposures using natural cubic splines. We found that the functional form of the response functions between incident postmenopausal breast cancer and concentrations of NO 2 and UFPs were consistent with linearity. For NO 2 , we found increasing risks of breast cancer for all subjects combined and stronger associations when analyses were restricted to those women who had lived at their current address for 10 years or more. Specifically, the OR, adjusted for personal covariates, per increase in the interquartile range (IQR=3.75 ppb) of NO 2 was 1.08 (95%CI: 0.92-1.27). For women living in their homes for 10 years or more, the adjusted OR was 1.17 (95%CI: 0.93-1.46; IQR=3.84 ppb); for those not living at that home 10 years before the study, it was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.64, 1.36; IQR=3.65 ppb). For UFPs, the ORs were

  13. Genetic variations in the dynamics of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation and translocation in new T. aestivum L. varieties. I. Dynamics of dry matter accumulation. Grain yield and structural elements of yield

    Kostadin, K.; Nonkova, M.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The genotype peculiarities in the translocation dynamics of dry matter in relation to wheat yield were studied under vegetation-laboratory and field conditions. The new wheat varieties Enola, Karat and Svilena created at the Institute for Wheat and Sunflower 'Dobroudja' have a high production potential due to their high intensity of dry matter accumulation in grain during the second half of maturation. It was established that in the standard variety Pliska the intensity of dry matter accumulation in reproductive parts was higher during heading-grain filling and then sharply decreased during maturation. This variety was characterized with high translocation of vegetation mass eventually leading to grain yield decrease. Significant genotype variations were established in the vegetation mass translocation in the respective parts during the stages of development. The contribution of the individual organs concerning carbohydrate reutilization to grain was mainly due to stems. An especially important peculiarity of the leaves of cv. Svilena was established: they ensured over 30 of grain yield at optimal nutrition. The complex evaluation of the new varieties revealed their high plasticity, the cultivar Karat showing the best characteristics. Refs. 13 (author)

  14. Limitation of multi-elemental fingerprinting of wheat grains: Effect of cultivar, sowing date, and nutrient management

    Suarez-Tapia, Alfonso; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2017-01-01

    Multi-element fingerprinting demonstrates some potential for tracing the origin of agricultural products but not for discriminating among crop cultivars and nutrient management (source, rate). With principal component analysis (PCA) and univariate statistics, we examined 19 elements in grains from...... two winter wheat cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) grown with different rates of animal manure (AM) or mineral fertilisers (NPK) in a long-term field experiment and two sowing dates (early, timely). Nitrogen, Cd and Mn related to NPK, and Mo and Na to AM. Barium, Fe, and P reflected nutrient rate......; these elements increased with nutrient rate regardless of source. Unmanured grains were enriched in Cu. Mariboss was characterized by higher concentrations of Sr, Ba and Sc compared to Hereford with Sr in grain as the main separator. Univariate statistics showed higher concentrations of N, P, Mg, Ba, Cu, Mo...

  15. Consorciação de plantas de cobertura antecedendo o milho em plantio direto: II - Nitrogênio acumulado pelo milho e produtividade de grãos Cover crop mixtures preceding no-till corn: II - Nitrogen accumulation by corn and grain yield

    S. J. Giacomini

    2004-08-01

    possível atingir uma produtividade de grãos de milho equivalente àquela da ervilhaca solteira e a 70 % daquela obtida com o uso de 180 kg ha-1 de N-uréia no pousio.No-tillage has been increasingly adopted by farmers in South Brazil and it has increased the interest for the mixtures of cover crops in the autumn/winter as source of nitrogen to the corn in succession. A field experiment was carried out on a typic Hapludalf at the experimental area of the Soil Science Department, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1998/99 and 1999/00 to evaluate the effect of single crop and mixtures of black oat (BO (Avena strigosa Schieb, common vetch (CV (Vicia sativa L. and oilseed radish (OR (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. on N accumulation and grain yield by corn. The experiment was set in a complete randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were: 100 % BO (80 kg ha-1 of seeds, 100 % CV (80 kg ha-1, 100 % OR (14 kg ha-1, 15 % BO + 85 % CV, 30 % BO + 70 % CV, 45 % BO + 55 % CV, 15 % BO + 85 % OR and 30 % BO + 70 % OR. Two additional plots under winter fallow were also used for comparison. Other control treatments were corn cultivated without N fertilizer in one plot and fertilized with 180 kg ha-1 of N-urea in another one. Corn grain yield, dry matter and total N concentration in corn biomass was evaluated at different crop stages. The amount of N accumulated by corn and the grain yield in succession of oat + vetch mixtures were not different from the single vetch, and were proportional to the N amount in the vetch biomass of the crop mixtures. Vetch and oilseed radish as single crop or in mixtures with black oat provided a higher corn grain yield than after fallow and single oat. Results of this study indicated that oat + vetch mixtures, up to a maximum proportion of 30 % of oat, attained a productivity of corn grain equivalent to the single vetch and 70 % of that obtained with the use of 180 kg ha-1

  16. Grain alcohol study: summary

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  17. Grain alcohol study: summary

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  18. Grain boundary corrosion of copper canister material

    Fennell, P.A.H.; Graham, A.J.; Smart, N.R.; Sofield, C.J.

    2001-03-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues in Sweden is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will then be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast inner container fitted inside a corrosion-resistant copper canister. During fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities within the copper at the new grain boundaries. The work described in this report was undertaken to determine whether there is any possibility of enhanced corrosion at grain boundaries within the copper canister. The potential for grain boundary corrosion was investigated by exposing copper specimens, which had undergone different heat treatments and hence had different grain sizes, to aerated artificial bentonite-equilibrated groundwater with two concentrations of chloride, for increasing periods of time. The degree of grain boundary corrosion was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. AFM showed no increase in grain boundary 'ditching' for low chloride groundwater. In high chloride groundwater the surface was covered uniformly with a fine-grained oxide. No increases in oxide thickness were observed. No significant grain boundary attack was observed using optical microscopy either. The work suggests that in aerated artificial groundwaters containing chloride ions, grain boundary corrosion of copper is unlikely to adversely affect SKB's copper canisters

  19. The effect of environmental conditions on the content of selected micronutrients in spelt grain

    Knapowski Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of application of small amounts of nitrogen to the soil together with foliar application of micronutrients on the content of copper, manganese and zinc in the grain of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.. The study was based on a two-factor field experiment conducted in 2009–2011 on very good rye complex soil. Nitrogen was applied in the form of ammonium nitrate (34% N, and manganese and copper were applied to the leaves in the form of the fertilisers Adob Mn (1.5 l∙ha−1 and Adob Cu (1.0 l∙ha−1, respectively. The results indicated that the nitrogen fertilisation, the foliar application of micronutrients and the interaction of these factors significantly determined the contents of copper, manganese and zinc in the grain. The highest content of Cu and Mn in the material was obtained following the application of 50 kg N·ha−1, and an increase in nitrogen application (to 50 kg·ha−1 caused a decrease in the content of zinc in the grain. Foliar application of Cu, Mn and both elements together resulted in significant changes in the concentrations of Cu, Mn and Zn in the plant material as compared to treatment without the application of micronutrients. The mineral fertilisers at the rates applied had a beneficial effect on the chemical composition of the grain, and thus on its quality, and this was achieved with substantially lower consumption of agrochemicals than that in the case of agrotechnical procedures for traditional cereals. It can, therefore, be concluded that this practice is environment friendly and can significantly reduce the negative impact of agricultural activity.

  20. Enhancing biological nitrogen fixation

    Danso, S.K.A.; Eskew, D.L. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    Several co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) conducted by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have concentrated on finding the most efficient way of applying nitrogen fertilizers to various crops, using nitrogen-15 (/sup 15/N) as a tracer. The findings of these studies have been adopted in many countries around the world, resulting in savings of nitrogen fertilizers worth many millions of dollars every year. More recently, the Section's CRPs have focused on enhancing the natural process of biological di-nitrogen fixation. The /sup 15/N isotope technique has proven to be very valuable in studies of