Conclusion: Clinical advisers for nursing specialty graduate students in our survey were generally inexperienced with regarding to training and culturing nursing graduate students. These advisers were prepared for core teaching competency, but were not qualified to conduct scientific research. Based on these results, it would be beneficial to provide the clinical advisers more training on teaching cognition for graduate students and improve their competency to perform scientific research.
Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Flynn, Eleanor; Delany, Clare
In Australia, international medical graduates (IMGs) play a crucial role in addressing workforce shortages in healthcare. Their ability to deliver safe and effective healthcare in an unfamiliar cultural setting is intrinsically tied to effective communication. Hospital-based medical clinical educators, who play an important role in providing communication training to IMGs, would benefit from practical resources and an understanding of the relevant pedagogies to address these issues in their teaching. This paper examines the nature of an interdisciplinary collaboration to develop multimedia resources for teaching clinical and ethical communication to IMGs. We describe the processes and dynamics of the collaboration, and outline the methodologies from applied linguistics, medical education, and health ethics that we drew upon. The multimedia consist of three video clips of challenging communication scenarios as well as experienced IMGs talking about communication and ethics. The multimedia are supported by teaching guidelines that address relevant disciplinary concerns of the three areas of collaboration. In the paper's discussion we point out the pre-conditions that facilitated the interdisciplinary collaboration. We propose that such collaborative approaches between the disciplines and participants can provide new perspectives to address the multifaceted challenges of clinical teaching and practice.
Day, Cristi; Barker, Connie; Bell, Eva; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Flournoy, Deborah
Objective evaluation of distance-based family nurse practitioner (FNP) students can be challenging. One FNP program piloted a teaching innovation, the video-enhanced objective structured clinical examination (VE-OSCE) or "flip" of the traditional face-to-face OSCE, to assess student clinical performance in a controlled online environment using a teleconferencing platform. This project sought to assess the VE-OSCE design, implementation, and ability to identify FNP student learning needs.
Lee-Hsieh, Jane; O'Brien, Anthony; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lee, Yea-Wen; Kao, Yu-Hsiu
Few studies have examined the perceptions of clinical teaching behaviors among both nurse preceptors and preceptees. To develop a Clinical Teaching Behavior Inventory (CTBI) for nurse preceptors' self-evaluation, and for new graduate nurse preceptee evaluation of preceptor clinical teaching behaviors and to test the validity and reliability of the CTBI. This study used mixed research techniques in five phases. Phase I: based on a literature review, the researchers developed an instrument to measure clinical teaching behaviors. Phase II: 17 focus group interviews were conducted with 63 preceptors and 24 new graduate nurses from five hospitals across Taiwan. Clinical teaching behavior themes were extracted from the focus group data and integrated into the domains and items of the CTBI. Phase III: two rounds of an expert Delphi study were conducted to determine the content validity of the instrument. Phase IV: a total of 290 nurse preceptors and 260 new graduate nurses were recruited voluntarily in the same five hospitals in Taiwan. Of these, 521 completed questionnaires to test the construct validity of CTBI by using confirmatory factory analysis. Phase V: the internal consistency and reliability of the instrument were tested. CTBI consists of 23 items in six domains: (1) 'Committing to Teaching'; (2) 'Building a Learning Atmosphere'; (3) 'Using Appropriate Teaching Strategies'; (4) 'Guiding Inter-professional Communication'; (5) 'Providing Feedback and Evaluation'; and (6) 'Showing Concern and Support'. The confirmatory factor analysis yielded a good fit and reliable scores for the CTBI-23 model. The CTBI-23 is a valid and reliable instrument for identifying the clinical teaching behaviors of a preceptor as perceived by preceptors and new graduate preceptees. The CTBI-23 depicts clinical teaching behaviors of nurse preceptors in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhatia, Kriti; Takayesu, James Kimo; Nadel, Eric S
Mentorship fosters career development and growth. During residency training, mentorship should support clinical development along with intellectual and academic interests. Reported resident mentoring programmes do not typically include clinical components. We designed a programme that combines academic development with clinical feedback and assessment in a four-year emergency medicine residency programme. Incoming interns were assigned an advisor. At the conclusion of the intern year, residents actively participated in selecting a mentor for the duration of residency. The programme consisted of quarterly meetings, direct clinical observation and specific competency assessment, assistance with lecture preparation, real-time feedback on presentations, simulation coaching sessions, and discussions related to career development. Faculty participation was recognized as a valuable component of the annual review process. Residents were surveyed about the overall programme and individual components. Over 88 % of the respondents said that the programme was valuable and should be continued. Senior residents most valued the quarterly meetings and presentation help and feedback. Junior residents strongly valued the clinical observation and simulation sessions. A comprehensive mentorship programme integrating clinical, professional and academic development provides residents individualized feedback and coaching and is valued by trainees. Individualized assessment of clinical competencies can be conducted through such a programme.
A near-peer teaching program designed, developed and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates for final year medical students sitting the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE
Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Medical Council states that teaching doctors and students is important for the care of patients. Our aim was to deliver a structured teaching program to final year medical students, evaluate the efficacy of teaching given by junior doctors and review the pertinent literature. Methods We developed a revision package for final year medical students sitting the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. The package was created and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates and consisted of lectures and small group seminars covering the core areas of medicine and surgery, with a focus on specific OSCE station examples. Students were asked to complete a feedback questionnaire during and immediately after the program. Results One hundred and eighteen completed feedback questionnaires were analysed. All participants stated that the content covered was relevant to their revision. 73.2% stated that junior doctors delivered teaching that is comparable to that of consultant - led teaching. 97.9% stated the revision course had a positive influence on their learning. Conclusions Our study showed that recent medical graduates are able to create and deliver a structured, formal revision program and provide a unique perspective to exam preparation that was very well received by our student cohort. The role of junior doctors teaching medical students in a formal structured environment is very valuable and should be encouraged.
Patterson, Emma E B; Boyd, Leanne; Mnatzaganian, George
Clinical Placements are an essential component of bridging the gap between academic theory and nursing practice. There are multiple clinical models designed to ease the transition from student to professional, yet there has been little exploration of such models and their impact on graduates' perceptions of work-readiness. This cross sectional study examined perceptions of work-readiness of new graduate nurses who attended one of the following clinical teaching models: the University Fellowship Program (UFP), the Traditional Multi-facility Clinical Model (TMCPM), and the Mixed Program (MP). Three groups of first year graduate nurses (UFP, TMCPM, and MP) were compared using the Work-readiness Scale, a validated and reliable tool, which assessed nurses' perceptions of work-readiness in four domains: organizational acumen, personal work characteristics, social intelligence, and work competence. A multivariable Generalized Estimating Equations regression investigated socio-demographic and teaching-modelrelated factors associated with work-readiness. Of 43 nurses approached, 28 completed the survey (65% response rate) of whom 6 were UFP attendants, 8 attended the TMCPM and 14 the MP. Those who had attended the UFP scored higher than the other two in all four domains; however, the crude between-group comparisons did not yield statistically significant results. Only after accounting for age, gender, teaching setting and prior work experience, the multivariable model showed that undertaking the UFP was likely to increase perceptions of work-readiness by 1.4 points (95% CI 0.11-2.69), P=0.03). The UFP was superior to the other two placement models. The study suggests that the UFP may enhance graduate nurses' perceptions of work readiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Snieder, Roel; Larner, Ken; Boyd, Tom
Graduate students traditionally learn the trade of research by working under the supervision of an advisor, much as in the medieval practice of apprenticeship. In practice, however, this model generally falls short in teaching students the broad professional skills needed to be a well-rounded researcher. While a large majority of graduate students considers professional training to be of great relevance, most graduate programs focus exclusively on disciplinary training as opposed to skills such as written and oral communication, conflict resolution, leadership, performing literature searches, teamwork, ethics, and client-interaction. Over the past decade, we have developed and taught the graduate course "The Art of Science", which addresses such topics; we summarize the topics covered in the course here. In order to coordinate development of professional training, the Center for Professional Education has been founded at the Colorado School of Mines. After giving an overview of the Center's program, we sketch the challenges and opportunities in offering professional education to graduate students. Offering professional education helps create better-prepared graduates. We owe it to our students to provide them with such preparation.
Puncreobutr, Vichian; Malee; Somjate
The objective of this research was to study the level of work integrated learning (WIL), and the competency of the teaching profession based on the standards of knowledge of the graduates at St. Theresa International College. The study group consisted of 115 graduates pursuing Graduate Diploma in Teaching Profession Program. The questionnaire was…
Cameron, D A; Binnie, V I; Sherriff, A; Bissell, V
This study describes a pilot project in which peer assisted learning (PAL) is used to teach dental clinical skills. A cluster randomised controlled trial compared opinions of Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students from peer-led groups versus staff-led groups in a clinical (impression taking) and a pre-clinical (handpiece skills) task. BDS5 (peer tutors) in their final year delivered teaching to BDS1 (tutees) for each task. Quantitative data from tutees and the peer tutors was gathered from questionnaires, along with open written comments. PAL was well received by both tutees and peer tutors. BDS1 tutees rated BDS5 peer tutors highly for delivery of information, and level of feedback. The tutees considered peer tutors more approachable and less intimidating than staff. Peer tutors reported their own knowledge had increased as a result of teaching. In a summative OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) four months following the teaching, no statistical significant difference between the performance of peer-led and staff-led groups was found at stations related to the subject matter in question. It is argued that PAL, as well as being a useful method of delivering subject-specific teaching, is able to contribute to the development of graduate attributes.
Curry, Saundra E
There are many reasons for evaluating our approach and improving our teaching of America's future doctors, whether they become anesthesiologists (recruitment) or participate in patient management in the perioperative period (general patient care). Teaching medical students the seminal aspects of any medical specialty is a continual challenge. Although no definitive curricula or single clinical approach has been defined, certain key features can be ascertained from clinical experience and the literature. A survey was conducted among US anesthesiology teaching programs regarding the teaching content and approaches currently used to teach US medical students clinical anesthesia. Using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education website that lists 133 accredited anesthesiology programs, residency directors were contacted via e-mail. Based on those responses and follow-up phone calls, teaching representatives from 125 anesthesiology departments were identified and asked via e-mail to complete a survey. The survey was returned by 85 programs, yielding a response rate of 68% of individuals contacted and 63% of all departments. Ninety-one percent of the responding departments teach medical students, most in the final 2 years of medical school. Medical student exposure to clinical anesthesia occurred as elective only at 42% of the institutions, was requirement only at 16% of responding institutions, and the remainder had both elective and required courses. Anesthesiology faculty at 43% of the responding institutions reported teaching in the preclinical years of medical school, primarily in the departments of pharmacology and physiology. Forty-five percent of programs reported interdisciplinary teaching with other departments teaching classes such as gross anatomy. There is little exposure of anesthesiology faculty to medical students in other general courses. Teaching in the operating room is the primary teaching method in the clinical years. Students are
de Assis, Aisllan Diego; da Silva, Priscila Patrícia; Claudino, Talita Xavier; de Oliveira, Alice Guimarães Bottaro
The centers of psychosocial care (CAPS, acronym in Portuguese) are strategic devices for mental health care currently available in Brazil. Nurses are professionals required to compose the minimum staff of this device, which values the group activities involving users. This study presents a report of the experience of nursing undergraduates from Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT) on their conducting waiting-room group sessions with relatives of users of a CAPS from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso state. This experience is justified by the fact that nursing students have few opportunities to develop group approach abilities during their graduation course, which focuses mainly on clinical individual care. The aim of the experience was to provide theoretical-practical learning of all the work stages of group work: recognizing the need and possibility of conducting the activity, planning, coordination and group evaluation. The results confirm the need and possibility of performing group experiences in mental health care and in nursing education.
Hall, Robert N., Ed.
The theme of this issue of "The ACA Bulletin" is the education of speech undergraduates and graduates for careers other than teaching. Included in this issue are such articles as "Employment of Speach Communication Graduates: A Rewiew of Problems and Prospects" by Robert Hall; "Employer Images of Speech Communication Majors: A Question of…
Harris, Dik; McEwen, Laura April
This article describes the design and implementation of a workshop on teaching and learning for graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in a Faculty of Science at a major Canadian research-intensive university. The approach borrows heavily from an existing successful workshop for faculty but is tailored specifically to the needs of GTAs in science in…
Dechenne, Sue Ellen
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are important in the teaching of undergraduate students (Golde & Dore, 2001). However, they are often poorly prepared for teaching (Luft, Kurdziel, Roehrig, & Turner, 2004). This dissertation addresses teaching effectiveness in three related manuscripts: (1) A position paper that summarizes the current research on and develops a model of GTA teaching effectiveness. (2) An adaptation and validation of two instruments; GTA perception of teaching training and STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy. (3) A model test of factors that predict STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy. Together these three papers address key questions in the understanding of teaching effectiveness in STEM GTAs including: (a) What is our current knowledge of factors that affect the teaching effectiveness of GTAs? (b) Given that teaching self-efficacy is strongly linked to teaching performance, how can we measure STEM GTAs teaching self-efficacy? (c) Is there a better way to measure GTA teaching training than currently exists? (d) What factors predict STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy? An original model for GTA teaching effectiveness was developed from a thorough search of the GTA teaching literature. The two instruments---perception of training and teaching self-efficacy---were tested through self-report surveys using STEM GTAs from six different universities including Oregon State University (OSU). The data was analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Using GTAs from the OSU colleges of science and engineering, the model of sources of STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy was tested by administering self-report surveys and analyzed by using OLS regression analysis. Language and cultural proficiency, departmental teaching climate, teaching self-efficacy, GTA training, and teaching experience affect GTA teaching effectiveness. GTA teaching self-efficacy is a second-order factor combined from self
Weyrich, Laura S; Harvill, Eric T
Limited time dedicated to each training areas, irrelevant case-studies, and ethics "checklists" have resulted in bare-bones Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training for present biomedical graduate student researchers. Here, we argue that science graduate students be taught classical ethical theory, such as virtue ethics, consequentialist theory, and deontological theory, to provide a basic framework to guide researchers through ethically complex situations and examine the applicability, implications, and societal ramifications of their research. Using a relevant biomedical research example to illustrate this point, we argue that proper ethics training for graduate student researchers not only will enhance current RCR training, but train more creative, responsible scientists.
At the authors' public liberal arts institution, biology masters students are required to enroll in BIOL 5050: Teaching Techniques. Course topics include designing effective lectures, assessment, classroom management, diversity in the classroom, and active learning strategies. The impact of this type of training on graduate students' attitudes and…
Schiller, Catharine J
To provide guidance to educators who use the Wilson (1963) concept analysis method, as modified by Walker and Avant (2011), in their graduate nursing curriculum BACKGROUND: While graduate nursing curricula often include a concept analysis assignment, there is a paucity of literature to assist educators in guiding students through this challenging process. This article details one way for educators to assist graduate nursing students in learning how to undertake each step of the Wilson (1963) concept analysis method, as modified by Walker and Avant (2011). Wilson (1963) concept analysis method, as modified by Walker and Avant (2011). Using examples, this article walks the reader through the Walker and Avant (2011) concept analysis process and addresses those issues commonly encountered by educators during this process. This article presented one way of walking students through a Walker and Avant (2011) concept analysis. Having clear information about the steps involved in developing a concept analysis will make it easier for educators to incorporate it into their graduate nursing curriculum and to effectively guide students on their journey through this process. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Feldon, David F; Peugh, James; Timmerman, Briana E; Maher, Michelle A; Hurst, Melissa; Strickland, Denise; Gilmore, Joanna A; Stiegelmeyer, Cindy
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduate students are often encouraged to maximize their engagement with supervised research and minimize teaching obligations. However, the process of teaching students engaged in inquiry provides practice in the application of important research skills. Using a performance rubric, we compared the quality of methodological skills demonstrated in written research proposals for two groups of early career graduate students (those with both teaching and research responsibilities and those with only research responsibilities) at the beginning and end of an academic year. After statistically controlling for preexisting differences between groups, students who both taught and conducted research demonstrate significantly greater improvement in their abilities to generate testable hypotheses and design valid experiments. These results indicate that teaching experience can contribute substantially to the improvement of essential research skills.
Ryker, Katherine; McConnell, David
This study examines the implementation of teaching strategies by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in inquiry-based introductory geology labs at a large research university. We assess the degree of inquiry present in each Physical Geology lab and compare and contrast the instructional practices of new and experienced GTAs teaching these labs. We…
Justice, Nicola; Zieffler, Andrew; Garfield, Joan
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are responsible for the instruction of many statistics courses offered at the university level, yet little is known about these students' preparation for teaching, their beliefs about how introductory statistics should be taught, or the pedagogical practices of the courses they teach. An online survey to examine…
White, Peter J. T.; Syncox, David; Heppleston, Audrey; Isaac, Siara; Alters, Brian
Teaching competence is an important skill for graduate students to acquire and is often considered a precursor to an academic career. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a multi-day teaching workshop on graduate teaching philosophies by surveying 200 graduate students, 79 of whom had taken the workshops and 121 who had not. We found no…
Ghiabi, Edmond; Taylor, K Lynn
This project aimed at documenting the surgical training curricula offered by North American graduate periodontics programs. A survey consisting of questions on teaching methods employed and the content of the surgical training program was mailed to directors of all fifty-eight graduate periodontics programs in Canada and the United States. The chi-square test was used to assess whether the residents' clinical experience was significantly (Pperiodontal plastic procedures, hard tissue grafts, and implants. Furthermore, residents in programs offering a structured preclinical component performed significantly more procedures (P=0.012) using lasers than those in programs not offering a structured preclinical program. Devising new and innovative teaching methods is a clear avenue for future development in North American graduate periodontics programs.
Engagement and deeper learning were enhanced by developing several innovative teaching strategies delivered in Research Methods workshops to Graduate Business Students. Focusing primarily on students adopting a creative approach to formulating a valid research question for undertaking a dissertation successfully. These techniques are applicable to most subject domains to ensure student engagement. Addressing the various multiple intelligences and learning styles existing within groups while...
Hiebert, James; Berk, Dawn; Miller, Emily
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relationships between mathematics teacher preparation and graduates' analyses of classroom teaching. Fifty-three graduates from an elementary teacher preparation program completed 4 video-based, analysis-of-teaching tasks in the semester before graduation and then in each of the 3…
Cordner, Alissa; Klein, Peter T.; Baiocchi, Gianpaolo
This article describes an innovative collaboration between graduate students and a faculty member to co-design and co-teach a graduate-level workshop-style qualitative methods course. The goal of co-designing and co-teaching the course was to involve advanced graduate students in all aspects of designing a syllabus and leading class discussions in…
Bartholomew, Rex; Moeed, Azra; Anderson, Dayle
Initial teacher education (ITE) is being challenged internationally to prepare teachers with the understandings needed to teach an increasingly diverse student population. Science teachers need to prepare students with both conceptual and procedural understanding. The challenge is to prioritise a balance in ITE courses between theoretical…
DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Koziol, Natalie; Needham, Mark; Enochs, Larry
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have a large impact on undergraduate instruction but are often poorly prepared to teach. Teaching self-efficacy, an instructor’s belief in his or her ability to teach specific student populations a specific subject, is an important predictor of teaching skill and student achievement. A model of sources of teaching self-efficacy is developed from the GTA literature. This model indicates that teaching experience, departmental teaching climate (including peer and supervisor relationships), and GTA professional development (PD) can act as sources of teaching self-efficacy. The model is pilot tested with 128 GTAs from nine different STEM departments at a midsized research university. Structural equation modeling reveals that K–12 teaching experience, hours and perceived quality of GTA PD, and perception of the departmental facilitating environment are significant factors that explain 32% of the variance in the teaching self-efficacy of STEM GTAs. This model highlights the important contributions of the departmental environment and GTA PD in the development of teaching self-efficacy for STEM GTAs. PMID:26250562
DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Koziol, Natalie; Needham, Mark; Enochs, Larry
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have a large impact on undergraduate instruction but are often poorly prepared to teach. Teaching self-efficacy, an instructor's belief in his or her ability to teach specific student populations a specific subject, is an important predictor of teaching skill and student achievement. A model of sources of teaching self-efficacy is developed from the GTA literature. This model indicates that teaching experience, departmental teaching climate (including peer and supervisor relationships), and GTA professional development (PD) can act as sources of teaching self-efficacy. The model is pilot tested with 128 GTAs from nine different STEM departments at a midsized research university. Structural equation modeling reveals that K-12 teaching experience, hours and perceived quality of GTA PD, and perception of the departmental facilitating environment are significant factors that explain 32% of the variance in the teaching self-efficacy of STEM GTAs. This model highlights the important contributions of the departmental environment and GTA PD in the development of teaching self-efficacy for STEM GTAs. © 2015 S. E. DeChenne et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Bartholomew, Rex; Anderson, Dayle; Moeed, Azra
There has been recent concern over the variable quality of science teaching in New Zealand primary schools. One reason suggested has been the relatively low levels of science education components in initial teacher education (ITE) programmes. This paper follows a cohort of recent teacher graduates from a science education course in their ITE…
Gilmore, Joanna; Maher, Michelle A.; Feldon, David F.; Timmerman, Briana
Research indicates that modifying teachers' beliefs about learning and teaching (i.e. teaching orientation) may be a prerequisite to changing their teaching practices. This mixed methods study quantitized data from interviews with 65 graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields to assess…
Sayre, Jerry W; Toklu, Hale Z; Ye, Fan; Mazza, Joseph; Yale, Steven
Case reports and case series or case study research are descriptive studies that are prepared for illustrating novel, unusual, or atypical features identified in patients in medical practice, and they potentially generate new research questions. They are empirical inquiries or investigations of a patient or a group of patients in a natural, real-world clinical setting. Case study research is a method that focuses on the contextual analysis of a number of events or conditions and their relationships. There is disagreement among physicians on the value of case studies in the medical literature, particularly for educators focused on teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) for student learners in graduate medical education. Despite their limitations, case study research is a beneficial tool and learning experience in graduate medical education and among novice researchers. The preparation and presentation of case studies can help students and graduate medical education programs evaluate and apply the six American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies in the areas of medical knowledge, patient care, practice-based learning, professionalism, systems-based practice, and communication. A goal in graduate medical education should be to assist residents to expand their critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. These attributes are required in the teaching and practice of EBM. In this aspect, case studies provide a platform for developing clinical skills and problem-based learning methods. Hence, graduate medical education programs should encourage, assist, and support residents in the publication of clinical case studies; and clinical teachers should encourage graduate students to publish case reports during their graduate medical education.
Ackerman, S. A.; Crone, W.; Dunwoody, S. L.; Zenner, G.
One of the most important skills a student needs to develop during their graduate days is the skill of communicating their scientific work with a wide array of audiences. That facility will serve them across audiences, from scientific peers to students to neighbors and the general public. Increasingly, graduate students express a need for training in skills needed to manage diverse communicative environments. In response to that need we have created a course for graduate students in STEM-related fields which provides a structured framework and experiential learning about informal science education. This course seeks to familiarize students with concepts and processes important to communicating science successfully to a variety of audiences. A semester-long course, "Informal Science Education for Scientists: A Practicum," has been co-taught by a scientist/engineer and a social scientist/humanist over several years through the Delta Program in Research, Teaching, & Learning at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The course is project based and understanding audience is stressed throughout the class. Through development and exhibition of the group project, students experience front end, formative and summative evaluation methods. The disciplines of the participating students is broad, but includes students in the geosciences each year. After a brief description of the course and its evolution, we will present assessment and evaluation results from seven different iterations of the course showing significant gains in how informed students felt about evaluation as a tool to determine the effectiveness of their science outreach activities. Significant gains were found in the graduate students' perceptions that they were better qualified to explain a research topic to a lay audience, and in the students' confidence in using and understanding evaluation techniques to determine the effectiveness of communication strategies. There were also increases in the students
Dotters-Katz, Sarah; Hargett, Charles W; Zaas, Aimee K; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G
Graduate medical trainees have a critical role in the teaching of other trainees. Improving their teaching requires an understanding of their attitudes towards teaching and their motivation to teach. Both have been incompletely explored in this population. We aimed to better understand graduate medical trainees' attitudes towards teaching and motivation to teach in the clinical setting in order to inform modifications to resident-as-teacher (RAT) programmes and enhance teaching practices. We applied Q methodology, an established sorting method, to identify and quantify the factors that have an impact on trainees' engagement in teaching. We invited house officers at our institution to rank-order 47 statements regarding their attitudes to and motivation for teaching. Respondents explained their Q-sort rankings in writing and completed a demographic questionnaire. By-person factor analysis yielded groups of individuals with similar attitudes. One hundred and seven trainees completed the Q-sort. We found three primary groups of attitudes towards teaching in the clinical setting: enthusiasm, reluctance and rewarded. Enthusiastic teachers are committed and make time to teach. Teaching increases their job satisfaction. Reluctant teachers have enthusiasm but are earlier in training and feel limited by clinical workload and unprepared. Rewarded teachers feel teaching is worthwhile and derive satisfaction from the rewards and recognition they receive for teaching. This improved understanding of common attitudes shared by groups of residents will help curriculum designers create RAT programmes to further reinforce and encourage attitudes that promote teaching as well as improve trainees' motivation to teach. Designing RAT programmes that acknowledge the attitudes to and motivations for teaching should help develop effective teachers to improve educational outcomes. Directed efforts to enhance motivation for reluctant teachers and encourage more positive attitudes in rewarded
Judson, Thomas W.; Leingang, Matthew
Our investigation is concerned with new teachers developing their ability to understand student thinking. We conducted individual interviews with graduate students teaching calculus for the first time, interviewing a representative sample of graduate students before and after their first teaching assignment. The interviews were transcribed and…
Rots, Isabel; Aelterman, Antonia; Devos, Geert
In an era of recurring teacher shortages, Flanders struggles with a considerable proportion of teacher education graduates who do not enter the teaching profession. This study identifies the predictors of teacher education graduates' choice on job entry (teaching profession or not). A prospective research design with two data collection phases is…
Full Text Available Engagement and deeper learning were enhanced by developing several innovative teaching strategies delivered in Research Methods workshops to Graduate Business Students. Focusing primarily on students adopting a creative approach to formulating a valid research question for undertaking a dissertation successfully. These techniques are applicable to most subject domains to ensure student engagement. Addressing the various multiple intelligences and learning styles existing within groups while ensuring these sessions are student centred and conducive to a collaborative learning environment. Blogs, interactive tutorials, online videos, games and posters, are used to develop student’s cognitive and metacognitive abilities. Using novelty images appeals to a groups’ intellectual curiosity, acting as an interpretive device to explain the value of adopting a holistic rather than analytic approach towards a topic.
Caswell, T. E.; Goudge, T. A.; Jawin, E. R.; Robinson, F.
Since 2005, graduate students in the Brown University Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Studies have volunteered to teach science to second-grade students at Vartan Gregorian Elementary School in Providence, RI. Initially developed to bring science into classrooms where it was not explicitly included in the curriculum, the graduate student-run program today incorporates the Providence Public Schools Grade 2 science curriculum into weekly, interactive sessions that engage the students in hypothesis-driven science. We will describe the program structure, its integration into the Providence Public Schools curriculum, and 3 example lessons relevant to geology. Lessons are structured to develop the students' ability to share and incorporate others' ideas through written and oral communication. The volunteers explain the basics of the topic and engage the students with introductory questions. The students use this knowledge to develop a hypothesis about the upcoming experiment, recording it in their "Science Notebooks." The students record their observations during the demonstration and discuss the results as a group. The process culminates in the students using their own words to summarize what they learned. Activities of particular interest to educators in geoscience are called "Volcanoes!", "The "Liquid Race," and "Phases of the Moon." The "Volcanoes!" lesson explores explosive vs. effusive volcanism using two simulated volcanoes: one explosive, using Mentos and Diet Coke, and one effusive, using vinegar and baking soda (in model volcanoes that the students construct in teams). In "Liquid Race," which explores viscosity and can be integrated into the "Volcanoes!" lesson, the students connect viscosity to flow speed by racing liquids down a ramp. "Phases of the Moon" teaches the students why the Moon has phases, using ball and stick models, and the terminology of the lunar phases using cream-filled cookies (e.g., Oreos). These lessons, among many others
Gatlin, Todd Adam
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) play a prominent role in chemistry laboratory instruction at research based universities. They teach almost all undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses. However, their role in laboratory instruction has often been overlooked in educational research. Interest in chemistry GTAs has been placed on training and their perceived expectations, but less attention has been paid to their experiences or their potential benefits from teaching. This work was designed to investigate GTAs' experiences in and benefits from laboratory instructional environments. This dissertation includes three related studies on GTAs' experiences teaching in general chemistry laboratories. Qualitative methods were used for each study. First, phenomenological analysis was used to explore GTAs' experiences in an expository laboratory program. Post-teaching interviews were the primary data source. GTAs experiences were described in three dimensions: doing, knowing, and transferring. Gains available to GTAs revolved around general teaching skills. However, no gains specifically related to scientific development were found in this laboratory format. Case-study methods were used to explore and illustrate ways GTAs develop a GTA self-image---the way they see themselves as instructors. Two general chemistry laboratory programs that represent two very different instructional frameworks were chosen for the context of this study. The first program used a cooperative project-based approach. The second program used weekly, verification-type activities. End of the semester interviews were collected and served as the primary data source. A follow-up case study of a new cohort of GTAs in the cooperative problem-based laboratory was undertaken to investigate changes in GTAs' self-images over the course of one semester. Pre-semester and post-semester interviews served as the primary data source. Findings suggest that GTAs' construction of their self-image is shaped through the
Falk, Nancy L; Phillips, Kathleen M; Hymer, Regina; Acquaviva, Kimberly D; Schumann, Mary Jean
Graduate nurses are employed in clinical, research, educational, and policy roles. As leaders, they are expected to develop and sustain projects that support translating research to practice and policy. Funding to support initiatives is tight and requires innovative solutions to cover salaries, benefits, equipment purchases, and other program expenses. In an effort to teach grant writing while developing skilled leaders who are effective and competitive in securing funds, the George Washington University School of Nursing offers a graduate-level grant writing course. In the summer of 2011, a collaborative learning model was developed within the course. The joint approach was foundational to securing an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality grant to support development and implementation of a patient engagement project by the Nursing Alliance for Quality Care. This article describes the project and offers hints for those seeking to develop a collaborative educational experience that affords new leadership skills for RNs from all backgrounds. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Heins, Paul J.; Mackenzie, Richard S.
An adaptation of the inquiry method of teaching, which develops skills of information retrieval and reasoning through systematic questioning by the teacher, is proposed for instruction in clinical periodontics. (MSE)
Reeves, Todd D.; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Miller, Kristen R.; Ridgway, Judith; Gardner, Grant E.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Wischusen, E. William
Biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are significant contributors to the educational mission of universities, particularly in introductory courses, yet there is a lack of empirical data on how to best prepare them for their teaching roles. This essay proposes a conceptual framework for biology GTA teaching professional development (TPD)…
Jaffar, S.; Tayyab, A.; Shah, S.S.; Naseem, S.; Ghazanfar, H.
Background: Ophthalmological conditions are frequently encountered in almost all clinical specialties. Assessing the adequacy of ophthalmology teaching in undergraduate medical education is important in order to diagnose and manage different ophthalmological conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the comfort level of post graduate residents working in different clinical domains in managing common ophthalmic conditions. Methods: A cross sectional survey involving 277 post graduate residents was carried out over a period of six months in both private and public tertiary care hospital. A questionnaire containing two sections and 17 variables in total were distributed among Medical Residents of different specialties except ophthalmology residents. Participants of the study were selected through consecutive non probability sampling. Results: Mean hours of classroom based ophthalmology instruction during during undergraduate program was 59.38 hours (55.9) and mean hours of clinical based ophthalmology instruction during undergraduate program was 62.73 hours (60.8) 54 percentage were either not comfortable or somewhat comfortable in managing common ophthalmic condition. Conclusion: Teaching hours in under graduate program meet or exceed requisite criteria. However graduating doctors generally feel that the time spent does not provide them with the comfort and skill level required to care for patients with ocular presentations. (author)
Karazsia, Bryan T; Stavnezer, Amy Jo; Reeves, Jonathan W
Discussions of and recommendations for the training of clinical neuropsychologists exist at the doctoral, internship, and post-doctoral level. With few exceptions, the literature on undergraduate preparations in clinical neuropsychology is sparse and lacks empirical evidence. In the present study, graduate-level faculty and current trainees completed surveys about graduate school preparations. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for research methods, statistics, and assessment. Preferences for "goodness of fit" also emerged as important admissions factors. These results offer evidence for desirable undergraduate preparations for advanced study in clinical neuropsychology. Although undergraduate training in psychology is intentionally broad, results from this study suggest that students who desire advanced study in clinical neuropsychology need to tailor their experiences to be competitive in the application process. The findings have implications for prospective graduate students, faculty who train and mentor undergraduates, and faculty who serve on admissions committees.
Marshman, Emily; Sayer, Ryan; Henderson, Charles; Singh, Chandralekha
At large research universities, physics graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are often responsible for grading in courses at all levels. However, few studies have focused on TAs' grading practices in introductory and advanced physics courses. This study was designed to investigate whether physics graduate TAs grade students in introductory physics…
Parmin; Savitri, E. N.; Amalia, A. V.; Pratama, M. R.
This study aims to measure the performance of graduates in implementing conservation-based science teaching. The study employed a qualitative method by collecting the self-assessment data from alumni and the performance assessment from the headmasters of schools where the graduates are currently teaching. There are nine indicators of conservation insight examined in this study. The study concluded that the 78 alumni, who have become teachers when the study was conducted, perform well in implementing conservative science lessons.
Venne, Vickie L; Coleman, Darrell
They are the Millennials--Generation Y. Over the next few decades, they will be entering genetic counseling graduate training programs and the workforce. As a group, they are unlike previous youth generations in many ways, including the way they learn. Therefore, genetic counselors who teach and supervise need to understand the Millennials and explore new ways of teaching to ensure that the next cohort of genetic counselors has both skills and knowledge to represent our profession well. This paper will summarize the distinguishing traits of the Millennial generation as well as authentic learning and evolutionary scaffolding theories of learning that can enhance teaching and supervision. We will then use specific aspects of case preparation during clinical rotations to demonstrate how incorporating authentic learning theory into evolutionary scaffolding results in experiential evolutionary scaffolding, a method that potentially offers a more effective approach when teaching Millennials. We conclude with suggestions for future research.
Mackay, B J; Anderson, J; Harding, T
Technology is having a profound effect on education in the 21st century and nurse educators are being challenged to integrate technological innovation to assist students in their learning. This paper reports a study on the introduction of smart mobile technology to support student learning in the clinical environment. In a climate of collaborative inquiry, clinical lecturers and two researchers from the same department carried out a project in three phases: formation, implementation and analysis. Following the formation phase, six clinical lecturers adopted iPads to support their clinical teaching (implementation phase). At this time they also kept reflective journals. In the analysis phase a thematic analysis of the data from the journals and from a focus group found both enabling and constraining factors influenced the use of iPads by clinical lecturers. The themes categorised as enablers were: resources and technology; and, management and technology support. Those identified as barriers or constraining factors were: clinical staff engagement; and lecturer experience with technology. Student engagement and learning, and connectivity were both enabling and constraining factors. This paper concludes that the use of a mobile device such as an iPad can enhance teaching in clinical settings but that in order for such devices to be successfully integrated into clinical teaching consideration needs to be given to professional development needs, adequate resourcing and technology support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aspenlieder, Erin; Kloet, Marie Vander
What we hear at universities and in public conversations is that there is a crisis in graduate student education and employment. We are interested here in the (re)circulation of the discourses of crisis and responsibility. What do graduate students hear about their education, their career prospects, and their responsibilities? How does work in…
Lampley, Sandra A.; Gardner, Grant E.; Barlow, Angela T.
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are responsible for teaching the majority of biology undergraduate laboratory sections, although many feel underprepared to do so. This study explored the impact of biology GTA participation in a professional development model known as lesson study. Using a case study methodology with multiple qualitative data…
Linenberger, Kimberly; Slade, Michael C.; Addis, Elizabeth A.; Elliott, Emily R.; Mynhardt, Glené; Raker, Jeffrey R.
As part of a Howard Hughes Program for Innovation in Science Education grant at Iowa State University, a series of interdisciplinary graduate teaching assistant learning communities (TALC) were developed. The purpose of these communities was to create an environment to facilitate teaching assistants' pedagogical development and training to enhance…
Zhu, Wenzhong; Wu, Si; Guo, Tingting
GDUFS, as one of China's top three foreign language universities with the longest history in business English teaching, has accumulated over 20-year experiences in this discipline. This research reflects into its business English teaching practices based on its graduates' employment status in recent years, and concludes that the students of…
Osmani, Mohamad; Hindi, Nitham M.; Weerakkody, Vishanth
It is widely acknowledged that traditional teaching methods such as lectures, textbooks and case study techniques on their own are not adequate to improving the most in-demand employability skills for graduates. The aim of this article is to explore the potential impact that novel learning and teaching methods can have on improving the…
Jansen, Amanda; Berk, Dawn; Meikle, Erin
In this article, Amanda Jansen, Dawn Berk, and Erin Meikle investigate the impact of mathematics teacher education on teaching practices. In their study they interviewed six first-year teachers who graduated from the same elementary teacher education program and who were oriented toward teaching mathematics conceptually. They observed each teacher…
Henry Maia Peixoto
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the reactions of undergraduate and graduate students to the teaching procedures used in semipresential classes. This exploratory study was performed with a quantitative approach at a public university, with undergraduate and graduate students who had completed semipresential classes on health promotion education. Among the 19 evaluated teaching procedures, 15 (78.9% did not show any statistically significant differences between the two academic levels. The means and medians for most variables, for both undergraduate (78.9% and graduate (89.5% students, were above 7 in a scale ranging between 0 (awful and 10 (excellent. Therefore, it is concluded that both groups showed similar reactions to the teaching procedures and gave satisfactory opinions in this regard. Understanding these aspects can support designing class disciplines that use teaching procedures that are adequate to university students. Descriptors: Education, Distance; Education, Higher; Learning; Educational Measurement.
Barclift, Songhai C; Brown, Elizabeth J; Finnegan, Sean C; Cohen, Elena R; Klink, Kathleen
Background The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program is an Affordable Care Act funding initiative designed to expand primary care residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not require, training in underserved settings. Residents who train in underserved settings are more likely to go on to practice in similar settings, and graduates more often than not practice near where they have trained. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and quantify federally designated clinical continuity training sites of the THCGME program. Methods Geographic locations of the training sites were collected and characterized as Health Professional Shortage Area, Medically Underserved Area, Population, or rural areas, and were compared with the distribution of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-funded training positions. Results More than half of the teaching health centers (57%) are located in states that are in the 4 quintiles with the lowest CMS-funded resident-to-population ratio. Of the 109 training sites identified, more than 70% are located in federally designated high-need areas. Conclusions The THCGME program is a model that funds residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not explicitly require, that training take place in underserved settings. Because the majority of the 109 clinical training sites of the 60 funded programs in 2014-2015 are located in federally designated underserved locations, the THCGME program deserves further study as a model to improve primary care distribution into high-need communities.
Karazsia, Bryan T.; Smith, Lena
In the present study, faculty who teach in clinical and counseling doctor of philosophy (PhD) or doctor of psychology (PsyD) programs completed surveys regarding preferences for prospective student preparations to graduate programs. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for scientific methods, though…
Graduate education in the classroom traditionally focuses on disciplinary topics, with non-disciplinary skills only marginally discussed, if at all, between graduate student and adviser. Given the wide range of advisers with different types and quality of communication skill (or lack thereof), the professional coaching delivered to students often is restricted to just the technical aspects of research. Yet graduate students have a great need to receive professional training aimed at, among other things, helping their graduate career be more efficient, less frustrating and less needlessly time-consuming. We have addressed this gap in graduate education by developing the one-credit course ``The Art of Being a Scientist.'' This course covers a diverse range of topics of importance to being an effective and creative researcher. Topics covered include the following: What is science? Choosing a research topic, department, and adviser. The adviser and thesis committee. Making a work plan. Setting goals. Ethics of research. Using the scientific literature. Perfecting oral and written communication. Publishing papers and writing proposals. Managing time effectively. Planning a scientific career. Applying for jobs in academia or industry. In evaluations of the course, students invariably comment that they could have avoided significant problems in their graduate study and saved valuable time if they would have taken the course earlier on. This is an indication that the course not only useful for students, but also that it is best taken early in a their graduate career. The material covered in the course is captured in the book ``The Art of Being a Scientist: A Guide for Graduate Students and Their Mentors,'' published by Cambridge University Press; more information can be found at: www.mines.edu/~rsnieder/Art_of_Science.html From this website one can download a description of the curriculum used in the class, including homework exercises. Currently we are expanding of
Fenderson, Bruce A
Pathology is an essential course for many students in the biomedical sciences and allied health professions. These students learn the language of pathology and medicine, develop an appreciation for mechanisms of disease, and understand the close relationship between basic research and clinical medicine. We have developed 3 pathology courses to meet the needs of our undergraduates, graduate students, and allied health professionals. Through experience, we have settled on an approach to teaching pathology that takes into account the diverse educational backgrounds of these students. Educational resources such as assigned reading, online homework, lectures, and review sessions are carefully balanced to adjust course difficulty. Common features of our pathology curricula include a web-based computer laboratory and review sessions on the basis of selected pathology images and open-ended study questions. Lectures, computer-guided homework, and review sessions provide the core educational content for undergraduates. Graduate students, using the same computer program and review material, rely more heavily on assigned reading for core educational content. Our experience adapting a pathology curriculum to the needs of divergent groups of students suggests a general strategy for monitoring course difficulty. We hypothesize that course difficulty is proportional to the information density of specific learning resources (eg, lecture or textbook) multiplied by the weight of those learning resources placed on examinations. This formula allows educators to match the difficulty of a course with the educational needs of students, and provides a useful tool for longitudinal studies of curriculum reform.
Voldbjerg, Siri; Elgaard Sørensen, Erik; Grønkjær, Mette
Clinical-decision-making is of decisive importance to how evidence-based practice is put into practice. Schools of Nursing have a responsibility to teach and train nursing students to make clinical decisions within a frame of evidence-based practice. Clinical decision-making among nurses has been...... explored from numerous angles using a diversity of methodologies. Existing research has mainly focused on promoting and inhibiting factors for implementation of evidence-based practice and incorporation of research evidence in the clinical-decision. Little attention has been given to the nurses' behavior......, including the knowledge that actually informs the newly graduated nurses’ clinical decision. The aim of the study is to combine and synthesize results from qualitative research. Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach is used to conduct a metasynthesis of qualitative research that has studied...
Hanson, Jana M.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at 4-year colleges and universities in the USA. We examined whether eight good teaching practices (non-classroom interactions with faculty, prompt…
Hermens, Antoine; Clarke, Elizabeth
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of computer based business simulations in higher education as innovative tools of teaching and learning to enhance students' practical understanding of real business problems. Whether the integration of business simulation technologies will enable significant innovation in teaching and…
Hoessler, Carolyn; Godden, Lorraine
Graduate students teach within the complex higher education environment of financial constraint, greater student diversity, and growing graduate enrolment (e.g., Austin, 2003). Teaching roles offer financial support and skill development while multiplying responsibilities (Price, 2008). Across the national working papers and institutional reports,…
Kleinfelder, JoAnn; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A; Jordan, Timothy R; Price, Joy A
The leading cause of preventable death, in the most vulnerable segments of society, whom social workers often counsel, is cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study was to assess tobacco smoking cessation training in clinical social work programs. A valid 21-item questionnaire was sent to the entire population of 189 clinical graduate social work programs identified by the Council on Social Work Education. A three-wave mailing process was used to maximize the return rate. Directors from 112 clinical social work programs returned completed questionnaires (61 percent). The majority (91 percent) of directors reported having never thought about offering formal smoking cessation training, and only nine of the programs (8 percent) currently provided formal smoking cessation education. The three leading barriers to offering smoking cessation education were as follows: not a priority (60 percent), not enough time (55 percent), and not required by the accrediting body (41 percent). These findings indicate that clinical social work students are not receiving standardized smoking cessation education to assist in improving the well-being of their clients. The national accrediting body for graduate clinical social work programs should consider implementing guidelines for smoking cessation training in the curriculums.
Mohr, Lynn D; Coke, Lola A
Today's healthcare environment poses diverse and complex patient care challenges and requires a highly qualified and experienced nursing workforce. To mitigate these challenges are graduate nursing roles, each with a different set of competencies and expertise. With the availability of many different graduate nursing roles, both patients and healthcare professionals can be confused in understanding the benefit of each role. To gain the maximum benefit from each role, it is important that healthcare providers and administrators are able to distinguish the uniqueness of each role to best use the role and develop strategies for effective collaboration and interprofessional interaction. The purpose of this article was to define the role, educational preparation, role differences, and practice competencies for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS), nurse practitioner, clinical nurse leader, and nurse educator/staff development educator roles. A second purpose was to provide role clarity and demonstrate the unique value the CNS brings to the healthcare environment. Using evidence and reviewing role competencies established by varying organizations, each role is presented with similarities and differences among the roles discussed. In addition, collaboration among the identified roles was reviewed, and recommendations were provided for the new and practicing CNSs. Although there are some similarities among the graduate nursing roles such as in educational, licensing, and certification requirements, each role must be understood to gain the full role scope and benefit and glean the anticipated outcomes. Healthcare providers must be aware of the differences in graduate nursing roles, especially in comparing the CNS with other roles to avoid confusion that may lead to roles being underused with a limited job scope. The CNS provides a unique set of services at all system outcome levels and is an essential part of the healthcare team especially in the acute care setting.
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are responsible for instructing approximately 25% of introductory statistics courses in the United States (Blair, Kirkman, & Maxwell, 2013). Most research on GTA professional development focuses on structured activities (e.g., courses, workshops) that have been developed to improve GTAs' pedagogy and content knowledge. Few studies take into account the social contexts of GTAs' professional development. However, GTAs perceive their social interactions with other GTAs to be a vital part of their preparation and support for teaching (e.g., Staton & Darling, 1989). Communities of practice (CoPs) are one way to bring together the study of the social contexts and structured activities of GTA professional development. CoPs are defined as groups of practitioners who deepen their knowledge and expertise by interacting with each other on an ongoing basis (e.g., Lave & Wenger, 1991). Graduate students may participate in CoPs related to teaching in many ways, including attending courses or workshops, participating in weekly meetings, engaging in informal discussions about teaching, or participating in e-mail conversations related to teaching tasks. This study explored the relationship between statistics graduate students' experiences in CoPs and the extent to which they hold student-centered teaching beliefs. A framework for characterizing GTAs' experiences in CoPs was described and a theoretical model relating these characteristics to GTAs' beliefs was developed. To gather data to test the model, the Graduate Students' Experiences Teaching Statistics (GETS) Inventory was created. Items were written to collect information about GTAs' current teaching beliefs, teaching beliefs before entering their degree programs, characteristics of GTAs' experiences in CoPs, and demographic information. Using an online program, the GETS Inventory was administered to N =218 statistics graduate students representing 37 institutions in 24 different U.S. states
Flaherty, A.; O'Dwyer, A.; Mannix-McNamara, P.; Leahy, J. J.
Graduate students who fulfill teaching roles in the undergraduate laboratory play an important role in establishing a positive learning environment. A host of various graduate teacher training programmes have been developed, implemented and evaluated accordingly in order to enhance their teaching capability. In addition research has also…
Thangaratinam, Shakila; Barnfield, Gemma; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berit; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Horvath, Andrea R; Zanrei, Gianni; Kunz, Regina; Suter, Katja; Walczak, Jacek; Kaleta, Anna; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Gee, Harry; Mol, Ben W J; Khan, Khalid S
Evidence based medicine (EBM) is considered an integral part of medical training, but integration of teaching various EBM steps in everyday clinical practice is uncommon. Currently EBM is predominantly taught through theoretical courses, workshops and e-learning. However, clinical teachers lack confidence in teaching EBM in workplace and are often unsure of the existing opportunities for teaching EBM in the clinical setting. There is a need for continuing professional development (CPD) courses that train clinical trainers to teach EBM through on-the-job training by demonstration of applied EBM real time in clinical practice. We developed such a course to encourage clinically relevant teaching of EBM in post-graduate education in various clinical environments. We devised an e-learning course targeting trainers with EBM knowledge to impart educational methods needed to teach application of EBM teaching in commonly used clinical settings. The curriculum development group comprised experienced EBM teachers, clinical epidemiologists, clinicians and educationalists from institutions in seven European countries. The e-learning sessions were designed to allow participants (teachers) to undertake the course in the workplace during short breaks within clinical activities. An independent European steering committee provided input into the process. The curriculum defined specific learning objectives for teaching EBM by exploiting educational opportunities in six different clinical settings. The e-modules incorporated video clips that demonstrate practical and effective methods of EBM teaching in everyday clinical practice. The course encouraged focussed teaching activities embedded within a trainer's personal learning plan and documentation in a CPD portfolio for reflection. This curriculum will help senior clinicians to identify and make the best use of available opportunities in everyday practice in clinical situations to teach various steps of EBM and demonstrate their
Deehan, James; Danaia, Lena; McKinnon, David H.
The science achievement of primary students, both in Australia and abroad, has been the subject of intensive research in recent decades. Consequently, much research has been conducted to investigate primary science education. Within this literature, there is a striking juxtaposition between tertiary science teaching preparation programs and the experiences and outcomes of both teachers and students alike. Whilst many tertiary science teaching programs covary with positive outcomes for preservice teachers, reports of science at the primary school level continue to be problematic. This paper begins to explore this apparent contradiction by investigating the science teaching efficacy beliefs and experiences of a cohort of graduate primary teachers who had recently transitioned from preservice to inservice status. An opportunity sample of 82 primary teachers responded to the science teaching efficacy belief instrument A (STEBI-A), and 10 graduate teachers provided semi-structured interview data. The results showed that participants' prior science teaching efficacy belief growth, which occurred during their tertiary science education, had remained durable after they had completed their teaching degrees and began their careers. Qualitative data showed that their undergraduate science education had had a positive influence on their science teaching experiences. The participants' school science culture, however, had mixed influences on their science teaching. The findings presented within this paper have implications for the direction of research in primary science education, the design and assessment of preservice primary science curriculum subjects and the role of school contexts in the development of primary science teachers.
DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Ostrow, C Lynne
This article describes the authors' experiences during 3 years of using Microsoft Excel to teach graduate-level statistics, as part of the research core required by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing for all professional graduate nursing programs. The advantages to using this program instead of specialized statistical programs are ease of accessibility, increased transferability of skills, and reduced cost for students. The authors share their insight about realistic goals for teaching statistics to master's-level students and the resources that are available to faculty to help them to learn and use Excel in their courses. Several online sites that are excellent resources for both faculty and students are discussed. Detailed attention is given to an online course (Carnegie-Mellon University Open Learning Initiative, n.d.), which the authors have incorporated into their graduate-level research methods course.
Mansfield, Caroline; Wosnitza, Marold; Beltman, Susan
Teacher motivation is an important field of research, especially in countries where teacher retention and quality have become prominent concerns. This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the stage appropriate "goals for teaching" of graduating teacher education students. Generated from empirical data and grounded in…
This study examined the educational beliefs about teaching and learning of Chinese international and American-born graduate students in the disciplines of pure and applied sciences and mathematics at Auburn University by comparing their similarities and differences. The study reported (a) participants' demographic characteristics, (b) the dominant…
Femi, Sunday Akinwumi; Yemisi, Etomi Edwin
This study investigated effective teaching with the aid of ICT in Nigerian higher education institutions as a proposed solution to graduates' unemployability. The survey method was utilized for this study. Respondents were randomly selected from students and teachers of selected higher institutions in Nigeria. The findings reveal that, even though…
Hodgson, Yvonne; Varsavsky, Cristina; Matthews, Kelly E.
This study reports on science student perceptions of their skills (scientific knowledge, oral communication, scientific writing, quantitative skills, teamwork and ethical thinking) as they approach graduation. The focus is on which teaching activities and assessment tasks over the whole programme of study students thought utilised each of the six…
Vik, Gretchen N.
One interesting aspect of teaching students to use PowerPoint and similar graphics packages effectively is that graduate students who are already in the workforce often have bad presentation habits that they need to break. In this article, the author discusses ways of breaking these bad habits. Using storyboards is one way to keep students from…
Lander, Dorothy A.
Presents a theoretical framework for teaching and learning research literacies. Describes a classroom demonstration involving graduate student cohorts in appreciative inquiry into practitioners' ways of writing. Addresses the issues of human subjects, informed consent, and the ethics of representation. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)
Many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduate students travel through the academic career pipeline without ever learning how to teach effectively, an oversight that negatively affects the quality of undergraduate science education and cheats trainees of valuable professional development. This article argues that all STEM graduate students and postdoctoral fellows should undergo training in teaching to strengthen their resumes, polish their oral presentation skills, and improve STEM teaching at the undergraduate level. Though this may seem like a large undertaking, the author outlines a three-step process that allows busy scientists to fit pedagogical training into their research schedules in order to make a significant investment both in their academic career and in the continuing improvement of science education. Copyright © 2011.
Henry, B W; Haworth, J G; Hering, P
How medical students learn and develop the characteristics associated with good teaching in medicine is not well known. Information about this process can improve the academic preparation of medical students for teaching responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to determine how different experiences contributed to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of medical school graduates and students regarding medical teaching. A questionnaire was developed, addressing reliability and validity considerations, and given to first year residents and third year medical students (taught by those residents). Completed questionnaires were collected from 76 residents and 110 students (81% of the sample group). Item responses were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Most residents (n = 54; 71%) positively viewed opportunities they had to practice teaching when they were seniors. Residents rated three activities for learning to teach highest: (1) observing teachers as they teach; (2) reviewing the material to be taught; and (3) directly teaching students; representing both individual and participatory ways of learning. Residents' self ratings of teaching behaviours improved over time and this self assessment by the residents was validated by the students' responses. Comparison between residents' self ratings and students' views of typical resident teaching behaviours showed agreement on levels of competence, confidence, and motivation. The students rated characteristics of enthusiasm, organisation, and fulfilment lower (pteaching responsibilities positively and showed agreement on characteristics of good teaching that may be helpful indicators in the process of developing medical teachers.
Rogers, Kimberly Cervello; Steele, Michael D.
Graduate teaching assistants serve as instructors of record for numerous undergraduate courses every semester, including serving as teachers for mathematics content courses for elementary preservice teachers. In this study, we examine 6 teaching assistants' teaching practices in the context of a geometry content course for preservice teachers by…
Roden, Julie A; Jakob, Susanne; Roehrig, Casey; Brenner, Tamara J
In the past ten years, increasing evidence has demonstrated that scientific teaching and active learning improve student retention and learning gains in the sciences. Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), who play an important role in undergraduate education at many universities, require training in these methods to encourage implementation, long-term adoption, and advocacy. Here, we describe the design and evaluation of a two-day training workshop for first-year GTAs in the life sciences. This workshop combines instruction in current research and theory supporting teaching science through active learning as well as opportunities for participants to practice teaching and receive feedback from peers and mentors. Postworkshop assessments indicated that GTA participants' knowledge of key topics increased during the workshop. In follow-up evaluations, participants reported that the workshop helped them prepare for teaching. This workshop design can easily be adapted to a wide range of science disciplines. Overall, the workshop prepares graduate students to engage, include, and support undergraduates from a variety of backgrounds when teaching in the sciences. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Full Text Available Audience: This workshop is intended for faculty members in an emergency medicine (or other residency program, but is also appropriate for chief residents and medical student clerkship educators. Introduction: Faculty development sessions are required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and enhance the learning environment within residency programs. Resident as teacher sessions are important in helping residents transition from junior learners to supervisors of medical students and junior residents. Part I of this two-part workshop introduces learners to effective techniques to engaging learners with clinical and bedside teaching. Objectives: By the end of this workshop, the learner will: 1 describe and implement nine new clinical teaching techniques; 2 implement clinical teaching techniques specific to junior and senior resident learners. Methods: This educational session is uses several blended instructional methods, including team- based learning (modified, the flipped classroom, audience response systems, pause procedures.
Field, J C; Walmsley, A D; Paganelli, C; McLoughlin, J; Szep, S; Kavadella, A; Manzanares Cespedes, M C; Davies, J R; DeLap, E; Levy, G; Gallagher, J; Roger-Leroi, V; Cowpe, J G
It is often the case that good teachers just "intuitively" know how to teach. Whilst that may be true, there is now a greater need to understand the various processes that underpin both the ways in which a curriculum is delivered, and the way in which the students engage with learning; curricula need to be designed to meet the changing needs of our new graduates, providing new, and robust learning opportunities, and be communicated effectively to both staff and students. The aim of this document is to draw together robust and contemporaneous methods of teaching, learning and assessment that help to overcome some of the more traditional barriers within dental undergraduate programmes. The methods have been chosen to map specifically to The Graduating European Dentist, and should be considered in parallel with the benchmarking process that educators and institutions employ locally. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moraros, John; Islam, Adiba; Yu, Stan; Banow, Ryan; Schindelka, Barbara
Background Flipped Classroom is a model that?s quickly gaining recognition as a novel teaching approach among health science curricula. The purpose of this study was four-fold and aimed to compare Flipped Classroom effectiveness ratings with: 1) student socio-demographic characteristics, 2) student final grades, 3) student overall course satisfaction, and 4) course pre-Flipped Classroom effectiveness ratings. Methods The participants in the study consisted of 67 Masters-level graduate student...
Rance, Sharon; Sweet, Linda
Competency Standards in Australia articulate that the midwife must be able to contribute to the professional development of themselves and others. Few undergraduate health professional curricula currently incorporate content for the development of specific knowledge and skills required for clinical teaching. This project aimed to understand and enhance midwifery students' preparedness to assume their future clinical teaching responsibilities. Design-based research was used to implement an educational intervention aimed at developing clinical teaching skills through a peer education session between 1st and 3rd year students. The perspectives of 30 undergraduate midwifery students about their preparedness for their teaching role and the intervention were obtained through 3 focus groups. A thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Three themes were identified encompassing the research aims and objectives; 'Co-creating a culture for learning', 'reciprocal teaching and learning' and 'developing clinical teaching capacities'. The findings indicate that the midwifery students had a holistic understanding of their responsibilities in clinical teaching in the workplace. They were able to identify ways in which their teaching capacities were being developed through their clinical experiences and the curriculum, both intended and hidden. Despite limited educational activities for clinical teaching, the midwifery students made explicit connections of the relational interdependence of workplace-based experiences and their learning. Students were clearly able to identify ways in which their own learning experiences and the culture in which this learning is embedded, assists them to develop clinical teaching skills, ready to support the next generation of midwifery students. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This talk considers the role of graduate training from a broad perspective --- that of making professional physicists. Following Shulman's definition and characterization of 'professionals' , it may be observed that graduate student preparation in research follows a traditional and effective track of creating professionals. However, at the same time, other forms professional activity of physicists, notably teaching and educational practice, remain largely absent. This talk presents a model of the contextual nature of student learning that sheds light on why and how this division occurs. Given such attention to context, this talk then examines a graduate student program in physics that is designed to augment the traditional training of graduate students in order to more fully inform and prepare students for their future roles. Data are presented from a study of a local four-year implementation of the national Preparing Future Physics Faculty Program to document the structure, key features, and outcomes of the program. Results include a framework and general heuristics for successful implementation, and the impact of emphasizing education and physics education research. Among the findings, this graduate training program demonstrates one mechanism for infusing physics education research and its findings into the broader physics community.  Shulman. L.S., Professing the Liberal Arts, In Education and Democracy: Re-imagining Liberal Learning in America, edited by Robert Orrill. New York: College Board Publications, 1997
Perron, N Junod; Sommer, J; Hudelson, P; Demaurex, F; Luthy, C; Louis-Simonet, M; Nendaz, M; De Grave, W; Dolmans, D; van der Vleuten, C P M
Lack of faculty training is often cited as the main obstacle to post-graduate teaching in communication skills. To explore clinical supervisors' needs and perceptions regarding their role as communication skills trainers. Four focus group discussions were conducted with clinical supervisors from two in-patient and one out-patient medical services from the Geneva University Hospitals. Focus groups were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed in a thematic way using Maxqda software for qualitative data analysis. Clinical supervisors said that they frequently addressed communication issues with residents but tended to intervene as rescuers, clinicians or coaches rather than as formal instructors. They felt their own training did not prepare them to teach communication skills. Other barriers to teach communication skills include lack of time, competing demands, lack of interest and experience on the part of residents, and lack of institutional priority given to communication issues. Respondents expressed a desire for experiential and reflective training in a work-based setting and emphasised the need for a non-judgmental learning atmosphere. Results suggest that organisational priorities, culture and climate strongly influence the degree to which clinical supervisors may feel comfortable to teach communication skills to residents. Attention must be given to these contextual factors in the development of an effective communication skills teaching program for clinical supervisors.
Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Read, Quentin; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Miller, Kristen; Ferzli, Miriam
The inconsistency of professional development (PD) in teaching for graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) is a widespread problem in higher education. Although GTAs serve an important role in retention of undergraduate science majors and in promotion of scientific literacy in nonmajors, they often lack preparation and ongoing support for teaching. Given the recent national focus on instructional quality in introductory courses, our goal was to use an online survey to identify current practices of teaching PD for biology GTAs and compare these results with the last national survey on this topic. In responses from 71 participant institutions, 96% reported some mandatory teaching preparation for biology GTAs; however, 52% of these programs required 10 or fewer hours per year. Respondents wanted to change their programs to include more pedagogical information and teaching observations with feedback to their GTAs. Programmatic self-ratings of satisfaction with GTA PD were positively correlated with the number of topics discussed during PD. Although more schools are requiring GTA PD for teaching compared with the last national survey, the lack of program breadth at many schools warrants a national conversation with regard to recent calls for improving undergraduate instruction. PMID:26231562
Young, Kenneth J; Siordia, Lawrence
The purpose of this study was to track the graduates of the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic (LACC) radiology residency program, review their scholarly productivity, and report those involved in teaching and leadership positions. Former LACC residents' career information was identified through publicly available electronic documents including Web sites and social media. PubMed and the Index to Chiropractic Literature databases were searched for chiropractic graduate job surveys, and proportional comparisons were made between the career paths of LACC radiology residency graduates and those of non-residency-trained chiropractors. Of 47 former LACC residents, 28 (60%) have or previously had careers in tertiary (chiropractic) education; and 12 (26%) have attained a department chair position or higher at tertiary teaching institutions. Twenty-two (47%) have or previously had private radiology practices, whereas 11 (23%) have or previously had clinical chiropractic practices. Often, residency graduates hold or have held 2 of these positions at once; and one, all 3. Chapters or books were authored by 13 (28%). Radiology residency LACC graduates are professionally active, particularly in education, and demonstrate scholarly productivity.
Carr, Lincoln D.
Physics graduate programs tend to divide the degree into two parts: (1) theory, taught in classes, almost totally divorced from the lab setting; and (2) research, taught in a research group through hands-on lab experience and mentorship. As we come to understand from undergraduate physics education research that modifying our teaching can rather easily produce quantifiably better results, it is reasonable to ask if we can make similar improvements at the graduate level. In this talk I will present the results of beginning research instruction in the classroom in the very first semester of graduate school, in the most traditional of classes - classical mechanics. In this approach, students build their knowledge from hands-on projects. They get immediately certified and experienced in the machine shop and electronics lab. There are no formal lectures. Students develop and present their own problems, and teach and challenge each other in the classroom. In contrast to polished lectures, both the instructor and the students together learn from their many public mistakes. Students give conference-style presentations instead of exams. As a result, students not only excel in analytical skills, but they also learn to tie theory to measurement, identify statistical and systematic errors, simulate computationally and model theoretically, and design their own experiments. Funded by NSF.
This is an interpretive case study to examine the teaching of an experienced science faculty who had a strong interest in teaching undergraduate and graduate science courses and nature of science specifically. It was interested in how he transformed knowledge from his experience as a scientist and his ideas about nature of science into forms…
Akmanoglu, Nurgul; Yanardag, Mehmet; Batu, E. Sema
Teaching play skills is important for children with autism. The purpose of the present study was to compare effectiveness and efficiency of providing video modeling and graduated guidance together and video modeling alone for teaching role playing skills to children with autism. The study was conducted with four students. The study was conducted…
Reeves, Todd D.; Hake, Laura E.; Chen, Xinnian; Frederick, Jennifer; Rudenga, Kristin; Ludlow, Larry H.; O'Connor, Clare M.
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) play important instructional roles in introductory science courses, yet they often have little training in pedagogy. The most common form of teaching professional development (PD) for GTAs is a presemester workshop held at the course, department, or college level. In this study, we compare the effectiveness of…
Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga
To explore and describe key processes influencing the development of graduate nurse capabilities in clinical risk management (CRM). This study was undertaken using an exploratory descriptive case study method. Four sample units of analysis were used, notably: 2 cohorts of graduate nurses (n = 11) undertaking a 12-month graduate nurse transition program; key stakeholders (n = 34), that is, nurse unit managers, clinical teachers, preceptors, a quality manager, a librarian, and senior nurse administrators employed by the participating health service; patient outcome data; and pertinent literature. Data strongly suggested that graduate nurse capabilities in CRM were most influenced not by their supposed lack of clinical knowledge and skills but by their lack of corporate knowledge. The failure to provide new graduate nurses with pertinent information on CRM at the beginning of their employment and thereafter at pertinent intervals during the graduate nurse year program aslo hindered the development of their capabilities to manage clinical risk. Management and educational processes pertinent to informing and involving new graduate nurses in a hospital's local CRM program (including information about the organization's local policies and procedures) need to be implemented systematically at the very beginning of a new graduate's employment and thereafter throughout the remainder of the graduate nurse year.
Abdelaziz, Adel; Koshak, Emad
Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indicated to accommodate different learning styles. Conventional methods of clinical teaching, like training in ambulatory care settings, are prone to the factor of coincidence in having varieties of patient presentations. Accordingly, alternative methods of instruction are indicated to compensate for the deficiencies of these conventional methods. This paper presents an initiative that can be used to design a checklist as a blueprint to guide appropriate selection and implementation of teaching/learning and assessment methods in each of the educational courses and modules based on educational objectives. Three categories of instructional methods were identified, and within each a variety of methods were included. These categories are classroom-type settings, health services-based settings, and community service-based settings. Such categories have framed our triangular model of clinical teaching and assessment.
Prevost, Luanna B.; Vergara, Claudia E.; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Campa, Henry, III.
Higher education institutions prepare future faculty members for multiple roles, including teaching. However, teaching professional development programs for graduate students vary widely. We present evaluation data from a high engagement program for STEM doctoral students. We analyzed the impact on three cohorts of participants over three academic…
Flaherty, A.; O'Dwyer, A.; Mannix-McNamara, P.; Leahy, J. J.
Designing and evaluating teacher development programs for graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) who teach in the laboratory is a prominent feature of chemistry education research. However, few studies have investigated the impact of a GTA teacher development program on the verbal interactions between participating GTAs and students in the…
Mutambuki, Jacinta M.; Schwartz, Renee
This study investigated the implementation of best teaching practices by science graduate teaching assistants [GTAs] (3 chemists and 2 biologists) in five inquiry-based, interdisciplinary chemistry-biology experiments during a six-week professional development (PD) program, Engage PD. Additionally, we examined GTAs' experiences in implementing…
Scicluna Helen A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The University of New South Wales (UNSW Faculty of Medicine replaced its old content-based curriculum with an innovative new 6-year undergraduate entry outcomes-based integrated program in 2004. This paper is an initial evaluation of the perceived and assessed clinical capabilities of recent graduates of the new outcomes-based integrated medical program compared to benchmarks from traditional content-based or process-based programs. Method Self-perceived capability in a range of clinical tasks and assessment of medical education as preparation for hospital practice were evaluated in recent graduates after 3 months working as junior doctors. Responses of the 2009 graduates of the UNSW’s new outcomes-based integrated medical education program were compared to those of the 2007 graduates of UNSW’s previous content-based program, to published data from other Australian medical schools, and to hospital-based supervisor evaluations of their clinical competence. Results Three months into internship, graduates from UNSW’s new outcomes-based integrated program rated themselves to have good clinical and procedural skills, with ratings that indicated significantly greater capability than graduates of the previous UNSW content-based program. New program graduates rated themselves significantly more prepared for hospital practice in the confidence (reflective practice, prevention (social aspects of health, interpersonal skills (communication, and collaboration (teamwork subscales than old program students, and significantly better or equivalent to published benchmarks of graduates from other Australian medical schools. Clinical supervisors rated new program graduates highly capable for teamwork, reflective practice and communication. Conclusions Medical students from an outcomes-based integrated program graduate with excellent self-rated and supervisor-evaluated capabilities in a range of clinically-relevant outcomes. The program
Hall, Samuel; Lewis, Michael; Border, Scott; Powell, Matthew
Near-peer teaching involves students being taught by more senior students and draws on their similar knowledge base and shared experiences. It has been used previously for teaching gross anatomy, but has not yet been reported specifically for neuroanatomy. At the University of Southampton there is no formal neuroanatomy teaching during the clinical years, and so a near-peer teaching programme was developed to support students, learning in between attending their clinical attachments. A series of seven sessions were organised and delivered by two medical students throughout the 2010/11 academic year, and each session was evaluated by using participant feedback forms. Sixty feedback forms were returned by the students, giving an average rating for the overall quality of the sessions of 4.3 out of 5.0. There was an 18 per cent increase in the student's perceived level of knowledge (p peer teaching sessions. The most common feedback received from our students related to the availability of handouts and expressions of gratitude. The results from this teaching development support the use of near-peer teaching in neuroanatomy. In this article we provide some evidence to suggest that students feel more confident with neuroanatomy after attending these sessions, and describe some unique advantages of this teaching programme over sessions led by faculty staff. The wider benefits to both faculty staff and student teachers are also considered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tess, Anjala; Vidyarthi, Arpana; Yang, Julius; Myers, Jennifer S
Integrating the quality and safety mission of teaching hospitals and graduate medical education (GME) is a necessary step to provide the next generation of physicians with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to participate in health system improvement. Although many teaching hospital and health system leaders have made substantial efforts to improve the quality of patient care, few have fully included residents and fellows, who deliver a large portion of that care, in their efforts. Despite expectations related to the engagement of these trainees in health care quality improvement and patient safety outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in the Clinical Learning Environment Review program, a structure for approaching this integration has not been described.In this article, the authors present a framework that they hope will assist teaching hospitals in integrating residents and fellows into their quality and safety efforts and in fostering a positive clinical learning environment for education and patient care. The authors define the six essential elements of this framework-organizational culture, teaching hospital-GME alignment, infrastructure, curricular resources, faculty development, and interprofessional collaboration. They then describe the organizational characteristics required for each element and offer concrete strategies to achieve integration. This framework is meant to be a starting point for the development of robust national models of infrastructure, alignment, and collaboration between GME and health care quality and safety leaders at teaching hospitals.
Gazaway, Shena B; Anderson, Lori; Schumacher, Autumn; Alichnie, Chris
Nursing graduates acquire their nursing values by professional socialization. Mentoring is a crucial support mechanism for these novice nurses, yet little is known about the model C clinical nurse leader graduate and the effects of mentoring. This investigation examined how mentoring affected the development of professional nursing values in the model C clinical nurse leader graduate. A longitudinal design was used to survey model C clinical nurse leader graduates before and after graduation to determine how different types of mentoring relationships influenced professional values. Demographic surveys documented participant characteristics and the Nurses Professional Values Scale - Revised (NPVS-R) assessed professional nursing values. Mean NPVS-R scores increased after graduation for the formally mentored participants, while the NPVS-R scores decreased or remained unchanged for the other mentoring groups. However, no significant difference was found in NPVS-R scores over time (p = .092) or an interaction between the NPVS-R scores and type of mentoring relationships (p = .09). These results suggest that model C clinical nurse leader graduate participants experiencing formal mentoring may develop professional nursing values more than their colleagues. Formal mentoring relationships are powerful and should be used to promote professional values for model C clinical nurse leader graduates. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Davis, Stephanie; O'Ferrall, Ilse; Hoare, Samuel; Caroline, Bulsara; Mak, Donna B
This study explores how medical graduates and their workplace supervisors perceive the value of a structured clinical audit program (CAP) undertaken during medical school. Medical students at the University of Notre Dame Fremantle complete a structured clinical audit program in their final year of medical school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Notre Dame graduates (who had all completed the CAP), and seven workplace supervisors (quality and safety staff and clinical supervisors). Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Both graduates and workplace supervisors perceived the CAP to be valuable. A major theme was that the CAP made a contribution to individual graduate's medical practice, including improved knowledge in some areas of patient care as well as awareness of healthcare systems issues and preparedness to undertake scientifically rigorous quality improvement activities. Graduates perceived that as a result of the CAP, they were confident in undertaking a clinical audit after graduation. Workplace supervisors perceived the value of the CAP beyond an educational experience and felt that the audits undertaken by students improved quality and safety of patient care. It is vital that health professionals, including medical graduates, be able to carry out quality and safety activities in the workplace. This study provides evidence that completing a structured clinical audit during medical school prepares graduates to undertake quality and safety activities upon workplace entry. Other health professional faculties may be interested in incorporating a similar program in their curricula.
Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.
Full Text Available Background: Emotional intelligence (EI helps humans to perceive their own and others′ emotions. It helps to make better interpersonal communication that consequently leads to an increase in everyday performance and professional career. Teaching, particularly teaching in the clinical environment, is among the professions that need a high level of EI due to its relevance to human interactions. Materials and Methods: We adopted EI competencies with characteristics of a good clinical teacher. As a result, we extracted 12 strategies and then reviewed the literatures relevant to these strategies. Results: In the present article, 12 strategies that a clinical teacher should follow to use EI in her/his teaching were described. Conclusion: To apply EI in clinical settings, a teacher should consider all the factors that can bring about a more positive emotional environment and social interactions. These factors will increase students′ learning, improve patients′ care, and maintain her/his well-being. In addition, he/she will be able to evaluate her/his teaching to improve its effectiveness.
Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Wiechula, Rick
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore which knowledge sources newly graduated nurses' use in clinical decision-making and why and how they are used. BACKGROUND: In spite of an increased educational focus on skills and competencies within evidence based practice newly graduated nurses' ability to use...... approaches to strengthen the knowledgebase used in clinical decision-making. DESIGN AND METHODS: Ethnographic study using participant-observation and individual semi-structured interviews of nine Danish newly graduated nurses in medical and surgical hospital settings. RESULTS: Newly graduates use...... in clinical decision-making. If newly graduates are to be supported in an articulate and reflective use of a variety of sources, they have to be allocated to experienced nurses who model a reflective, articulate and balanced use of knowledge sources. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine (EBM is considered an integral part of medical training, but integration of teaching various EBM steps in everyday clinical practice is uncommon. Currently EBM is predominantly taught through theoretical courses, workshops and e-learning. However, clinical teachers lack confidence in teaching EBM in workplace and are often unsure of the existing opportunities for teaching EBM in the clinical setting. There is a need for continuing professional development (CPD courses that train clinical trainers to teach EBM through on-the-job training by demonstration of applied EBM real time in clinical practice. We developed such a course to encourage clinically relevant teaching of EBM in post-graduate education in various clinical environments. Methods We devised an e-learning course targeting trainers with EBM knowledge to impart educational methods needed to teach application of EBM teaching in commonly used clinical settings. The curriculum development group comprised experienced EBM teachers, clinical epidemiologists, clinicians and educationalists from institutions in seven European countries. The e-learning sessions were designed to allow participants (teachers to undertake the course in the workplace during short breaks within clinical activities. An independent European steering committee provided input into the process. Results The curriculum defined specific learning objectives for teaching EBM by exploiting educational opportunities in six different clinical settings. The e-modules incorporated video clips that demonstrate practical and effective methods of EBM teaching in everyday clinical practice. The course encouraged focussed teaching activities embedded within a trainer's personal learning plan and documentation in a CPD portfolio for reflection. Conclusion This curriculum will help senior clinicians to identify and make the best use of available opportunities in everyday practice in clinical
Hussein, Rafic; Everett, Bronwyn; Ramjan, Lucie M; Hu, Wendy; Salamonson, Yenna
Given the increasing complexity of acute care settings, high patient acuity and demanding workloads, new graduate nurses continue to require greater levels of support to manage rising patient clinical care needs. Little is known about how change in new graduate nurses' satisfaction with clinical supervision and the practice environment impacts on their transitioning experience and expectations during first year of practice. This study aimed to examine change in new graduate nurses' perceptions over the 12-month Transitional Support Program, and identify how organizational factors and elements of clinical supervision influenced their experiences. Using a convergent mixed methods design, a prospective survey with open-ended questions was administered to new graduate nurses' working in a tertiary level teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Nurses were surveyed at baseline (8-10 weeks) and follow-up (10-12 months) between May 2012 and August 2013. Two standardised instruments: the Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale (MCSS-26) and the Practice Environment Scale Australia (PES-AUS) were used. In addition to socio-demographic data, single -item measures were used to rate new graduate nurses' confidence, clinical capability and support received. Participants were also able to provide open-ended comments explaining their responses. Free-text responses to the open-ended questions were initially reviewed for emergent themes, then coded as either positive or negative aspects of these preliminary themes. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the quantitative data and the qualitative data was analysed using conventional content analysis (CCA). The study was approved by the relevant Human Research Ethics Committees. Eighty seven new graduate nurses completed the follow-up surveys, representing a 76% response rate. The median age was 23 years (Range: 20 to 53). No change was seen in new graduate nurses' satisfaction with clinical supervision (mean MCSS
Schussler, Elisabeth E; Read, Quentin; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Miller, Kristen; Ferzli, Miriam
The inconsistency of professional development (PD) in teaching for graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) is a widespread problem in higher education. Although GTAs serve an important role in retention of undergraduate science majors and in promotion of scientific literacy in nonmajors, they often lack preparation and ongoing support for teaching. Given the recent national focus on instructional quality in introductory courses, our goal was to use an online survey to identify current practices of teaching PD for biology GTAs and compare these results with the last national survey on this topic. In responses from 71 participant institutions, 96% reported some mandatory teaching preparation for biology GTAs; however, 52% of these programs required 10 or fewer hours per year. Respondents wanted to change their programs to include more pedagogical information and teaching observations with feedback to their GTAs. Programmatic self-ratings of satisfaction with GTA PD were positively correlated with the number of topics discussed during PD. Although more schools are requiring GTA PD for teaching compared with the last national survey, the lack of program breadth at many schools warrants a national conversation with regard to recent calls for improving undergraduate instruction. © 2015 E. E. Schussler et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Miller, David C; Montie, James E; Faerber, Gary J
We describe several traditional and novel techniques for teaching and evaluating the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core clinical competencies in a urology residency training program. The evolution and underpinnings of the ACGME Outcome Project were reviewed. Several publications related to the evaluation of clinical competencies as well as current assessment techniques at our institution were also analyzed. Several tools for the assessment of clinical competencies have been developed and refined in response to the ACGME Outcome project. Standardized patient encounters and expanded patient satisfaction surveys may prove useful with regard to assessing resident professionalism, patient care and communication skills. A feasible and possibly undervalued technique for evaluating a number of core competencies is the implementation of formal written appraisals of the nature and quality of resident performance at departmental conferences. The assessment of competency in practice based learning and systems based practice may be achieved through innovative exercises, such as practice guideline development, that assess the evidence for various urologic interventions as well as the financial and administrative aspects of such care. We describe several contemporary methods for teaching and evaluating the core clinical competencies in a urology training program. While the techniques described are neither comprehensive nor feasible for every program, they nevertheless provide an important starting point for a meaningful exchange of ideas in the urological graduate medical education community.
Harrell, Angela; Matthews, Eric
To determine whether a relationship exists between the number of clinical sites available in radiography programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology and the job placement rates of graduates. We performed a secondary analysis of data on job placement rates and the number of clinical sites available in 438 degree-granting radiography programs from January 2015 to March 2015. A weak, negative, nonsignificant correlation existed between the number of clinical sites and the job placement rate (Spearman's rho = -.113, n = 438, P = .018). The coefficient of determination was 1.28%.Discussion Research evaluating factors contributing to graduate employability is limited but indicates no need for radiography program administrators to adjust clinical site numbers solely on the basis of improving graduate employability. The number of clinical sites available in a radiography program is not related to the job placement rate of its graduates. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
Background The assessment of the performance of medical school graduates during their first postgraduate years provides an early indicator of the quality of the undergraduate curriculum and educational process. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical competency of medical graduates, as perceived by the graduates themselves and by the experts. Methods This is a hospital based cross-sectional study. It covered 105 medical graduates and 63 experts selected by convenient sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire covering the different areas of clinical competency constructed on a five-point Likert scale was used for data collection. Data processing and analysis were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16.0. The mean, frequency distribution, and percentage of the variables were calculated. A non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test was applied to verify whether the graduates' and experts' assessments were influenced by the graduates' variables such as age, gender, experience, type of hospital, specialty and location of work at a (p ≤ 0.05) level of significance. Results The overall mean scores for experts' and graduates' assessments were 3.40 and 3.63, respectively (p= 0.035). Almost 87% of the graduates perceived their competency as good and very good in comparison with only 67.7% by experts. Female and male graduates who rated themselves as very good were 33.8% and 25% respectively. More than 19% of the graduates in the age group > 30 years perceived their clinical competency as inadequate in contrast with only 6.2% of the graduates in the youngest age group. Experts rated 40% of the female graduates as inadequate versus 20% of males, (p= 0.04). More than 40% of the graduates in younger age group were rated by experts as inadequate, versus 9.7% of the higher age group >30 years (p = 0.03). Conclusion There was a wide discrepancy between the graduates' self-assessment and experts' assessment, particularly in the level
Reeves, Todd D; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Miller, Kristen R; Ridgway, Judith; Gardner, Grant E; Schussler, Elisabeth E; Wischusen, E William
Biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are significant contributors to the educational mission of universities, particularly in introductory courses, yet there is a lack of empirical data on how to best prepare them for their teaching roles. This essay proposes a conceptual framework for biology GTA teaching professional development (TPD) program evaluation and research with three overarching variable categories for consideration: outcome variables, contextual variables, and moderating variables. The framework's outcome variables go beyond GTA satisfaction and instead position GTA cognition, GTA teaching practice, and undergraduate learning outcomes as the foci of GTA TPD evaluation and research. For each GTA TPD outcome variable, key evaluation questions and example assessment instruments are introduced to demonstrate how the framework can be used to guide GTA TPD evaluation and research plans. A common conceptual framework is also essential to coordinating the collection and synthesis of empirical data on GTA TPD nationally. Thus, the proposed conceptual framework serves as both a guide for conducting GTA TPD evaluation at single institutions and as a means to coordinate research across institutions at a national level. © 2016 T. D. Reeves et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
D.F. Escoto et al
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, since 1980, there is a tendency among Programs Graduate(PG of specific area, such as Biochemistry, of inserting activities involving teaching /education alongside their area of expertise. In this context, various scientific events ofrelevance in the area have presented sessions dedicated to these matters in theirconferences and meetings. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the occurrenceof research lines or areas of concentration teaching/education in 16 PG. MATERIALSAND METHODS: We analyzed 35 courses and divided among doctoral, master’sacademic and professional. Data collection occurred through websites of programs. Theanalysis was performed from the indication of the concentration areas or lines of researchprograms presented in their virtual space. Later, they were classified into two categories:those with and those without research in teaching / education. RESULTS ANDDISCUSSION: After visiting all virtual spaces, the results obtained showed that only 3 PGhave research areas and/or areas of concentration in teaching/education. On 2 PG notfound sites were and other 2 PG nor its research nor their area of concentration. From thequantitative search of PG it was still possible to characterize each line found. Basically, theactivities focus on undergraduate education and the pursuit of new teachingmethodologies, only 1 of the PG aims at continuing formation of teachers of basiceducation. CONCLUSION: These activities contribute significantly to the impact andevaluation of the PG. Perceptibly, these spaces are scarce, however, with national policiesfor the dissemination and popularization of scientific production trend is that they areleveraged.
Mørcke, Anne Mette; Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads
of diagnoses, initiation of treatment, pharmacotherapy, handling of own emotions and structuring of own learning. Also, 40% stated that their clerkships had only had little value in preparing them for their foundation year. CONCLUSION: Overall, graduates felt well-prepared and characterized the education...
Deacon, Christopher; Hajek, Allyson; Schulz, Henry
Many post-secondary institutions provide training and resources to help GTAs fulfil their teaching roles. However, few programmes focus specifically on the teaching competencies required by GTAs who work with undergraduate students in laboratory settings where learning tends to be more active and inquiry based than in classroom settings. From a review of 8 GTA manuals, we identified 20 competencies and then surveyed faculty and lab coordinators (FIS) and GTAs from a Faculty of Science at a comprehensive Canadian university to identify which of those competencies are required of GTAs who work in undergraduate science labs. GTAs and FIS did not significantly differ in the competencies they view as required for GTAs to work effectively in undergraduate labs. But, when comparing the responses of GTAs and FIS to TA manuals, 'Clearly and effectively communicates ideas and information with students' was the only competency for which there was agreement on the level of requirement. We also examined GTAs' self-efficacy for each of the identified competencies and found no overall relationship between self-efficacy and demographic characteristics, including experience and training. Our results can be used to inform the design of training programmes specifically for GTAs who work in undergraduate science labs, for example, programmes should provide strategies for GTAs to obtain feedback which they can use to enhance their teaching skills. The goal of this study is to improve undergraduate lab instruction in faculties of science and to enhance the teaching experience of GTAs by better preparing them for their role.
Kim, Won J.
Reliable measurements for effective teaching are lacking. In contrast, some theories of leadership (particularly transformational leadership) have been tested and found to have efficacy in a variety of organizational settings. In this study, the full-range leadership theory, which includes transformational leadership, was applied to the…
Full Text Available Adel Abdelaziz,1,2 Emad Koshak3 1Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt; 3Dean and Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indicated to accommodate different learning styles. Conventional methods of clinical teaching, like training in ambulatory care settings, are prone to the factor of coincidence in having varieties of patient presentations. Accordingly, alternative methods of instruction are indicated to compensate for the deficiencies of these conventional methods. This paper presents an initiative that can be used to design a checklist as a blueprint to guide appropriate selection and implementation of teaching/learning and assessment methods in each of the educational courses and modules based on educational objectives. Three categories of instructional methods were identified, and within each a variety of methods were included. These categories are classroom-type settings, health services-based settings, and community service-based settings. Such categories have framed our triangular model of clinical teaching and assessment. Keywords: curriculum development, teaching, learning, assessment, apprenticeship, community-based settings, health service-based settings
of clinical decisions, based on transparent, articulate and reflective use of knowledge sources. Furthermore, it is implied that nurses are able to retrieve, asses, implement and evaluate research evidence. To meet these requirements, nursing educations around the world have organised curricula to educate...... graduated nurses do not work within a framework of evidence-based practice. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore which knowledge sources newly graduated nurses’ use in their clinical decision-making and why they use them in order to understand why newly graduated nurses use research and components...... within evidence-based practice to a limited extent. The thesis is based on a synthesis of findings from two studies. The aim of the first study was to explore which knowledge sources newly graduated nurses use in clinical decision making as reported within international qualitative research. The purpose...
Teasdale, R.; Ryker, K.; Bitting, K. S.
Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs) in the geosciences are responsible for teaching a large proportion of undergraduate students in many universities. Often, GTAs are primary instructors in small laboratory sections of large enrollment courses, putting them in the position of having a more personalized relationship with students, in what is often the most interactive portion of an introductory course. Anecdotally, geoscientists recognize that GTAs also have a broad range of responsibilities, but there is wide variation in the content and timing of the training they receive. Until now, no comprehensive survey has been conducted to capture and analyze this distribution in a systematic way. Data from a nationwide survey of 120 geoscientists is used here to characterize the ways GTAs are trained as well as respondents' priorities for GTA training. Respondents include faculty from PhD- and MS- granting institutions (81.4%) and MS-only granting institutions (18.5%). According to the survey, most GTAs teach laboratory sections (95.6%), and many teach lecture sections (38.9%). In many cases, GTAs support instructors during or outside of the "lecture" section (e.g. grading, 77.1%). Of GTAs who teach lecture or lab sections, most receive required training from their department or the university, commonly on a single day just before the start of the semester. GTA training typically includes logistical information (where to find materials, professionalism), but less than 40% of GTAs are required to participate in pedagogical training. In contrast, pedagogy was most often rated very important or important (74.2%) by survey respondents. The disconnect between the geoscience community's current practices in GTA training and our current values suggests that GTA training programs are needed, and that the community can benefit from reports on the success of existing programs and the dissemination of adaptable models for GTA pedagogical training.
Mørcke, Anne Mette; Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to assess the coherence between the undergraduate medical program at Aarhus University and the foundation year. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire survey included 503 doctors graduated from Aarhus University from the winter of 2007....../2008 to the summer of 2009. RESULTS: The response rate was 73%. Approximately 73% of the respondents were in their foundation year or their first year of specialist training and 83% generally felt well-prepared. Respondents found that most of the learning outcomes of the undergraduate medical curriculum at Aarhus...... of diagnoses, initiation of treatment, pharmacotherapy, handling of own emotions and structuring of own learning. Also, 40% stated that their clerkships had only had little value in preparing them for their foundation year. CONCLUSION: Overall, graduates felt well-prepared and characterized the education...
Becker, Erin A.; Easlon, Erin J.; Potter, Sarah C.; Guzman-Alvarez, Alberto; Spear, Jensen M.; Facciotti, Marc T.; Igo, Michele M.; Singer, Mitchell; Pagliarulo, Christopher
Evidence-based teaching is a highly complex skill, requiring repeated cycles of deliberate practice and feedback to master. Despite existing well-characterized frameworks for practice-based training in K–12 teacher education, the major principles of these frameworks have not yet been transferred to instructor development in higher educational contexts, including training of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). We sought to determine whether a practice-based training program could help GTAs learn and use evidence-based teaching methods in their classrooms. We implemented a weekly training program for introductory biology GTAs that included structured drills of techniques selected to enhance student practice, logic development, and accountability and reduce apprehension. These elements were selected based on their previous characterization as dimensions of active learning. GTAs received regular performance feedback based on classroom observations. To quantify use of target techniques and levels of student participation, we collected and coded 160 h of video footage. We investigated the relationship between frequency of GTA implementation of target techniques and student exam scores; however, we observed no significant relationship. Although GTAs adopted and used many of the target techniques with high frequency, techniques that enforced student participation were not stably adopted, and their use was unresponsive to formal feedback. We also found that techniques discussed in training, but not practiced, were not used at quantifiable frequencies, further supporting the importance of practice-based training for influencing instructional practices. PMID:29146664
Moraros, John; Islam, Adiba; Yu, Stan; Banow, Ryan; Schindelka, Barbara
Flipped Classroom is a model that's quickly gaining recognition as a novel teaching approach among health science curricula. The purpose of this study was four-fold and aimed to compare Flipped Classroom effectiveness ratings with: 1) student socio-demographic characteristics, 2) student final grades, 3) student overall course satisfaction, and 4) course pre-Flipped Classroom effectiveness ratings. The participants in the study consisted of 67 Masters-level graduate students in an introductory epidemiology class. Data was collected from students who completed surveys during three time points (beginning, middle and end) in each term. The Flipped Classroom was employed for the academic year 2012-2013 (two terms) using both pre-class activities and in-class activities. Among the 67 Masters-level graduate students, 80% found the Flipped Classroom model to be either somewhat effective or very effective (M = 4.1/5.0). International students rated the Flipped Classroom to be significantly more effective when compared to North American students (X(2) = 11.35, p Students' perceived effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom had no significant association to their academic performance in the course as measured by their final grades (r s = 0.70). However, students who found the Flipped Classroom to be effective were also more likely to be satisfied with their course experience. Additionally, it was found that the SEEQ variable scores for students enrolled in the Flipped Classroom were significantly higher than the ones for students enrolled prior to the implementation of the Flipped Classroom (p = 0.003). Overall, the format of the Flipped Classroom provided more opportunities for students to engage in critical thinking, independently facilitate their own learning, and more effectively interact with and learn from their peers. Additionally, the instructor was given more flexibility to cover a wider range and depth of material, provide in-class applied learning
, associate professor, RN, DipN, MscN, PhD. Nursing degree programmes are currently facing demands for elements such as promoting the links between theory and clinical practice; reducing student drop-out rates; and stimulating and meeting the needs of students and recent nursing graduates in relation......Presenters: Anita Lyngsø, associate professor, RN, DipN, MscN ; Helen Højgaard, assistant professor, RN, MscN ; Eva Nielsen, assistant professor, RN, MPed; Anne Garcia, assistant professor, RN, MscN ; Linda Lindholm, student; Kirsten Bjerg, Head of School of Nursing, RN, MPed.; Vibeke Lorentzen...... be regarded as a way of providing students and recent nursing graduates with professional and personal opportunities for development.In this symposium we will present the background to the model, its inception in 2008, and its structure and content. We will also present the experiences gained since the model...
McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R
The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (ppeer teaching (ppeer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about intraprofessional care.
Guided by a Foucauldian theorisation, this article explores Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) experiences of their work and subjectivity in a neoliberalised higher education environment. By drawing on a research project with GTAs from one UK university, the article argues that GTA work is increasingly shaped by neoliberal reforms. The GTAs…
Albright, Leif; Schnell, Lauren; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Sidener, Tina M.
Stimulus equivalence-based instruction (EBI) was used to teach four, 4-member classes representing functions of behavior to ten graduate students. The classes represented behavior maintained by attention (Class 1), escape (Class 2), access to tangibles (Class 3), and automatic reinforcement (Class 4). Stimuli within each class consisted of a…
Kainzbauer, Astrid; Hunt, Brian
In this paper we describe the efforts of foreign university teachers in graduate schools in Thailand as they incorporate cultural knowledge into their classroom teaching styles and methodology. Through in-depth semi-structured interviews we have gathered qualitative data on the teachers' concerns, mindsets and their proposed solutions. We build up…
Rahmanpour, Muhammad; Ahmadi, Mojtaba; Hatami, Mostafa; Mirzaee, Hamzeh
The present study seeks to evaluate executive strategies in graduate Curriculum of Isfahan University from the point of view of management and teaching-learning strategies. This study is an applied survey. The population comprised BA students and faculty members of the University of Isfahan. In order to do so, 141 professors and 278 students were…
HEISS, ANN M.; AND OTHERS
THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTAINS REFERENCES TO GENERAL GRADUATE EDUCATION AND TO EDUCATION FOR THE FOLLOWING PROFESSIONAL FIELDS--ARCHITECTURE, BUSINESS, CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, DENTISTRY, ENGINEERING, LAW, LIBRARY SCIENCE, MEDICINE, NURSING, SOCIAL WORK, TEACHING, AND THEOLOGY. (HW)
Intrator, Sam; Park, Soyoung; Lit, Ira
This case study is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." Established in 1989, Midtown West is a New York City public elementary school serving approximately 350 students from kindergarten through grade five. With the support of Tony Alvarado,…
The term 'tacit' is used to describe knowledge that is not necessarily understood in words. We frequently make use of such knowledge without conscious awareness that we are doing so. This article explores two different conceptions of tacit knowledge and considers their implications for the clinical teaching of dentistry. It recognises the communication barrier that clinical dependence on tacit knowledge creates between teacher and student. It identifies the ability to surface tacit clinical knowledge for the student as one of the most significant skills of the clinical teacher. Finally, the article examines the potential for conflict between the evidence-based practice paradigm, with its dependence on codified, explicit knowledge and the notion of clinical practice, which is at least partly experiential and tacit. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Preparing Graduate Students To Teach. A Guide to Programs That Improve Undergraduate Education and Develop Tomorrow's Faculty. From a Comprehensive National Survey of Teaching Assistant Training Programs and Practices.
Lambert, Leo M., Ed.; Tice, Stacey Lane, Ed.
This report describes and documents the state of affairs in preparing graduate students for college and university teaching responsibilities. Chapter 1 summarizes the results of a survey on teacher assistant training and publishing and provides a review of the centrality of the teaching assistantship in graduate education. The publication's two…
Gay, Simon; Bartlett, Maggie; McKinley, Robert
Keele Medical School's new curriculum includes a 5-week course to extend medical students' consultation skills beyond those historically required for competent inductive diagnosis. Clinical reasoning is a core skill for the practice of medicine, and is known to have implications for patient safety, yet historically it has not been explicitly taught. Rather, it has been assumed that these skills will be learned by accumulating a body of knowledge and by observing expert clinicians. This course aims to assist students to develop their own clinical reasoning skills and promote their greater understanding of, and potential to benefit from, the clinical reasoning skills of others. The course takes place in the fourth or penultimate year, and is integrated with students' clinical placements, giving them opportunities to practise and quickly embed their learning. This course emphasises that clinical reasoning extends beyond initial diagnosis into all other aspects of clinical practice, particularly clinical management. It offers students a variety of challenging and interesting opportunities to engage with clinical reasoning across a wide range of clinical practice. It addresses bias through metacognition and increased self-awareness, considers some of the complexities of prescribing and non-pharmacological interventions, and promotes pragmatic evidence-based practice, information management within the consultation and the maximising of patient adherence. This article describes clinical reasoning-based classroom and community teaching. Early evaluation suggests that students value the course and benefit from it. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Al-Dossary, Reem Nassar; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J
Nurse residency programs have been adopted by health care organizations to assist new graduate nurses with daily challenges such as intense working environments, increasing patient acuity, and complex technologies. Overall, nurse residency programs are proven beneficial in helping nurses transition from the student role to independent practitioners and bedside leaders. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of residency programs on leadership skills of new Saudi graduate nurses who completed a residency program compared to new Saudi graduate nurses who did not participate in residency programs. The study design was cross-sectional involving a convenience sample (n = 98) of new graduate nurses from three hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The Clinical Leadership Survey was used to measure the new graduate nurses' clinical leadership skills based on whether they completed a residency program or not. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine leadership skills in this sample of new Saudi graduate nurses. A significant difference was found between residents and nonresidents in their leadership skills (t = 10.48, P = .000). Specifically, residents were significantly more likely to show higher levels of leadership skills compared to their counterparts. Attending a residency program was associated with a significant increase in clinical leadership skills. The findings of this study indicate that there is a need to implement more residency programs in hospitals of Saudi Arabia. It is imperative that nurse managers and policy makers in Saudi Arabia consider these findings to improve nurses' leadership skills, which will in turn improve patient care. Further research should examine how residency programs influence new graduate nurses' transition from student to practitioner with regard to clinical leadership skills in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mackay, S.J.; Anderson, A.C.; Hogg, P.
Purpose: The standards of performance of healthcare professionals are now well defined and used to determine health professional curricula. Empirical research evidence exists in medicine and nursing which explores how well these curricula prepare their students for clinical practice but not in the radiography profession. This research aims to determine how well prepared newly qualified radiographers were for clinical practice and to identify strengths and weaknesses in their preparedness to inform curriculum development. Methods: A postal questionnaire and semi-structured interview were used to obtain data from newly qualified diagnostic radiographers and their work-based supervisors. The questionnaire assessed graduate preparedness against a number of items drawn from published documents which define UK radiographic practice. Statistical analysis, using ANOVA and Wilcoxon, examined differences between the groups' perception of preparedness. A sample of graduates and their work supervisors were interviewed to explore preparedness. Results: There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between; the preparedness scores of the graduates and supervisors, with supervisors rating the graduates higher than the graduates themselves; subscales of teamwork (p ≤ 0.05), personal attributes (p ≤ 0.05) and digital skills (p ≤ 0.01). No significant differences were found between graduates employed in their training hospital and those employed elsewhere. Interview data revealed perceived areas of graduate strength, weaknesses and areas for curriculum development. Suggestions for improvement to the methodology were identified for exploring preparedness in other health professional programmes. Conclusion: The graduates were well prepared for their role as a diagnostic radiographer. Some curriculum development is needed in specific areas and advice on methodological improvement is offered
Charles H. Carlin
Full Text Available In the present feasibility study, e-supervision was used to provide university liaison supervision to SLP graduate students enrolled in student teaching practica. Utilizing a mixed methodology approach, interview and survey data were compared in order to identify similarities and differences between face-to-face and e-supervision and guide future practice. Results showed e-supervised graduate students received adequate supervision, feedback, support, and communication. Further, e-supervision provided additional benefits to supervisors, children on the caseload, and universities. Despite the benefits, disadvantages emerged. Implications for future practice and limitations of the study were identified.
Katherine E. Bishop-Williams
Full Text Available Interdisciplinary (i.e., university-wide programming and disciplinary (i.e., programming open to participants from one college or department teaching development programs for graduate students have been used for many years in higher education. Currently, research on the benefits of these teaching models remains scant in terms of a contextualized understanding, and empirical studies are needed. The purpose of this study was to determine graduate students’ perspectives related to interdisciplinary and disciplinary teaching and learning experiences. Two online surveys were used: a quantitative survey and a qualitative follow-up survey. Three participatory focus groups were also conducted to allow for further in-depth exploration in both an interdisciplinary and disciplinary group setting that represented seven distinct colleges. Statistical and thematic analyses were conducted with survey responses, and thematic analyses were conducted on focus group data. Similar themes emerged from the survey and focus group data identifying perceived benefits of participation in either interdisciplinary or disciplinary teaching development. Respondents’ perceived benefits were related to: (a becoming a better teacher; (b social learning; and (c that while the perceived benefits of the models vary, the outcomes of both experiences are shared. The lived experiences of these graduate students expand the characterization of interdisciplinary and disciplinary programming. This study points to the need for graduate student programs—specifically teaching development offered by educational development units—to provide both interdisciplinary and disciplinary teaching development opportunities that achieve a blend of benefits for learners. Les programmes interdisciplinaires (c’est-à-dire les programmes offerts à l’échelle de l’université et disciplinaires (c’est-à-dire ceux qui sont ouverts aux participants d’un collège ou d’un département de
Lilly, Mary LuAnne; Hermanns, Melinda; Crawley, Bill
In psychiatric-mental health, creating an innovative strategy to help students learn content that may not be frequently seen in a clinical setting is challenging. Thus, simulation helps narrow this gap. Using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's model of evaluation to guide the current study, faculty contacted baccalaureate nursing program graduates who completed a psychiatric-mental health clinical simulation scenario featuring a hanging suicide and wrist cutting suicide attempt scenario in the "Behind the Door" series as part of the clinical component of their undergraduate psychiatric-mental health course. Eleven nurses responded to a survey regarding their post-graduate encounters with these types of clinical situations, and their perception of recall and application of knowledge and skills acquired during the simulation experience to the clinical situation. Nursing graduates' responses are expressed through three major themes: emotional, contextual/behavioral, and assessment outcomes. Data from the survey indicate that nursing graduates perceived the "Behind the Door" simulations as beneficial to nursing practice. This perception is important in evaluating knowledge transfer from a simulation experience as a student into application in nursing practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(10), 40-45.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Hatcher, Sherry L.; Shields, C. Comfort; Wierba, Elizabeth E.; Hatcher-Ross, Juliet L.; Hanley, Steven J.
This study examined extended influences of peer helping courses on graduates' self-reported experiences of interpersonal relationships, communication skills, and ongoing engagement with the training. The 109 participants included 49 college graduates who completed a peer counseling theory course, 47 graduated psychology concentrators who took a…
Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.
Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…
Ana Dulce Batista dos Santo
Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentar as estratégias de ensino-aprendizagem do processo de enfermagem utilizadas nos cursos de graduação e pós-graduação. Métodos: Revisão integrativa da literatura, utilizando as bases de dados CINAHL, LILACS e MEDLINE. A busca dos artigos foi realizada através dos descritores controlados Nursing Process; Education, Nursing; Teaching; Education, Nursing, Diploma Programs; Education, Graduate; utilizando o operador boleano AND. A amostra constitui-se de 8 artigos. Resultados: Várias estratégias de ensino-aprendizagem do processo de enfermagem são apontadas, a saber: ferramentas eletrônicas, estudos de caso escritos, aula expositiva e aulas teórico-prática para o ensino de graduação. Entretanto, destaca-se a ausência de estudos referentes ao ensino do processo de enfermagem em nível de pós-graduação. Conclusão: A utilização de metodologias inovadoras e ativas facilitam o processo de aprendizagem, enquanto a abordagem restrita a teoria é fator dificultador.
Full Text Available Information technology has a potential to be the answer to one of Africa’s most pressing problems- providing education to a number of geographically dispersed learners, who currently have to leave their countries for a number of years in order to pursue their studies elsewhere. The School of Nursing at the University of Natal launched an online graduate course in nursing education at the beginning of the year 2000 for the first time as part of a masters degree programme. A number of lessons have been learned from this experience. Firstly, it took too long to arrive at ‘closure’ on discussion of any one particular theme. There seemed to be a perpetual feeling of never “completing” teaching/learning tasks. Ordinarily, in a face-to-face (f2f classroom, a particular theme or topic is scheduled for a particular lecture period. More often than not, whether clarity and/or resolution has been attained, the discussion moves on to the next theme, or topic. This has not been easy to do in computer mediated communication (CMC. The students’ contributions, however, seemed more thought out and more focused than had been the case in the f2f classes. Secondly, the essentiality/importance of structure became apparent very early. After an initial tentative and slow start, once the students felt comfortable with the computer “classroom” , the bulletin board was flooded with messages, necessitating re-thinking the original structure.
Gwele, N S
Information technology has a potential to be the answer to one of Africa's most pressing problems-providing education to a number of geographically dispersed learners, who currently have to leave their countries for a number of years in order to pursue their studies elsewhere. The School of Nursing at the University of Natal launched an online graduate course in nursing education at the beginning of the year 2000 for the first time as part of a masters degree programme. A number of lessons have been learned from this experience. Firstly, it took too long to arrive at 'closure' on discussion of any one particular theme. There seemed to be a perpetual feeling of never "completing" teaching/learning tasks. Ordinarily, in a face-to-face (f2f) classroom, a particular theme or topic is scheduled for a particular lecture period. More often than not, whether clarity and/or resolution has been attained, the discussion moves on to the next theme, or topic. This has not been easy to do in computer mediated communication (CMC). The students' contributions, however, seemed more thought out and more focused than had been the case in the f2f classes. Secondly, the essentiality/importance of structure became apparent very early. After an initial tentative and slow start, once the students felt comfortable with the computer "classroom", the bulletin board was flooded with messages, necessitating re-thinking the original structure.
O'Neill, Geraldine; McNamara, Martin
A systematic approach to the training of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) is required to meet the challenges posed by growing numbers of undergraduate and graduate students. At University College Dublin, educational developers and academic staff across six schools collaborated on the design and phased implementation of context-specific GTA…
O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Kearns, Katherine; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine; Robinson, Jennifer Meta
This study examines and documents graduate pedagogy courses offered at a large Midwestern research university. Thirty-three graduate pedagogy course instructors from 32 departments (a majority of those offering courses) completed an online survey. We report on enrollment demographics, preparation of faculty to teach such a course, and how a…
Full Text Available Introduction: Improvement and promotion of the quality of clinical education requires continuous assessment of the current situation, and also identifying the strengths and weaknesses. Students' views and ideas as learner can help future planning. This study aims to identify the experiences of midwifery graduates about factors affecting their clinical learning. Methods: A qualitative study using phenomenology approach was conducted. Ten midwifery graduates were selected based on purposive sampling and then interviewed. Data were analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: The extracted conceptual codes were classified into several main concepts. There were two main themes factors facilitating learning and factors preventing learning, and seven sub themes performance of instructor, pre-clinical training, students satisfaction, lack of peripheral facilities, lack of coordination of educational planning and behaviors of health care personnel. Conclusion: Trained human resources and equipment for midwifery educational planning are needed to provide a supportive learning atmosphere and promote the quality of clinical learning.
Savio, E.O.; Rey, A.M.; Teran, M.A.; Fornaro, L.R.; Leon, A.S.
Radiopharmacy deals with the design preparation, quality control and dispensation of medicinal radioactive products used in Nuclear Medicine. In the context of the Hospital Radiopharmacy Unit the Radio pharmacist responsibilities also include radiation protection of personnel and patients, monitoring and advice in case of adverse effects after administration, involvement in clinical protocols and training of other members of the staff. In order to develop all these functions, knowledge in a variety of fields including radiation physics and biology, chemistry of radiopharmaceuticals, GMP, radiopharmacology, etc. is required. However, Radio pharmacists have traditionally got their expertise by a combination of informal training and self-education. Possibilities of formal education in Radiopharmacy are still very limited. Consequently, the Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy of Uruguay has started a pre graduate optional course of Radiopharmacy for advanced Pharmacy students and a post-graduate course for Hospital Pharmacy Specialization. Both subjects include theoretical and practical classes on handling and detection of radioactive substance, radioprotection, preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and clinical applications, together with seminars for discussion of relevant matters. At pre graduate level, the subject provides a basic training for a future professionals working in this field. For Hospital Pharmacists the pos graduate course supports the interpretation of clinical histories of patients that have undergone Nuclear Medicine procedures, and provides the necessary background to give suitable advice to patients, their family and health staff about radiation protection
Templer, D I; Tomeo, M E; Pointkowski, S R; Mitroff, D; Niederhauser, R N; Siscoe, K
Clinical psychologists who graduated from traditional programs and those who graduated from professional schools were compared on both scientifically and professionally oriented criteria of achievement and recognition. Upon controlling for year of graduation from a doctoral program, the professional school graduates were less likely to be APA fellows, less likely to be on the editorial board of specified research oriented journals in clinical psychology, less likely to have diplomate status in the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), less likely to have been president of state psychological associations, and less likely to have been APPIC internship directors.
Missen, Karen; McKenna, Lisa; Beauchamp, Alison; Larkins, Jo-Ann
The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of qualified nurses on the abilities of newly registered nursing graduates to perform a variety of clinical skills. Evidence from the literature suggests that undergraduate nursing programmes do not adequately prepare nursing students to be practice-ready on completion of their nursing courses. A descriptive quantitative design was used. Participants were recruited through the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation, Victorian branch. A brief explanation of the study and a link to the survey were promoted in their monthly e-newsletter. A total of 245 qualified nurses in the state of Victoria, Australia participated in this study. A survey tool of 51 clinical skills and open-ended questions was used, whereby participants were asked to rate new nursing graduates' abilities using a 5-point Likert scale. Overall participants rated new nursing graduates' abilities for undertaking clinical skills as good or very good in 35·3% of skills, 33·3% were rated as adequate and 31·4% rated as being performed poorly or very poorly. Of concern, essential clinical skills, such as critical thinking and problem solving, working independently and assessment procedures, were found to be poorly executed and affecting new registered nurses graduates' competence. The findings from this study can further serve as a reference for nursing education providers to enhance nursing curricula and work collaboratively with healthcare settings in preparing nurses to be competent, safe practitioners on completion of their studies. Identifying key areas in which new nursing graduates are not yet competent means that educational providers and educators from healthcare settings can focus on these skills in better preparing our nurses to be work ready. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Irby, David M
Clinical teachers in medicine face the daunting task of mastering the many domains of knowledge needed for practice and teaching. The breadth and complexity of this knowledge continue to increase, as does the difficulty of transforming the knowledge into concepts that are understandable to learners. Properly targeted faculty development has the potential to expedite the knowledge transformation process for clinical teachers. Based on my own research in clinical teaching and faculty development, as well as the work of others, I describe the unique forms of clinical teacher knowledge, the transformation of that knowledge for teaching purposes and implications for faculty development. The following forms of knowledge for clinical teaching in medicine need to be mastered and transformed: (i) knowledge of medicine and patients; (ii) knowledge of context; (iii) knowledge of pedagogy and learners, and (iv) knowledge integrated into teaching scripts. This knowledge is employed and conveyed through the parallel processes of clinical reasoning and clinical instructional reasoning. Faculty development can facilitate this knowledge transformation process by: (i) examining, deconstructing and practising new teaching scripts; (ii) focusing on foundational concepts; (iii) demonstrating knowledge-in-use, and (iv) creating a supportive organisational climate for clinical teaching. To become an excellent clinical teacher in medicine requires the transformation of multiple forms of knowledge for teaching purposes. These domains of knowledge allow clinical teachers to provide tailored instruction to learners at varying levels in the context of fast-paced and demanding clinical practice. Faculty development can facilitate this knowledge transformation process. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hoffman, James M.; Gammal, Roseann S.; Relling, Mary V.; Crews, Kristine R.
Purpose The structure and development of an innovative clinical pharmacogenetics post-graduate year 2 (PGY2) ASHP-accredited residency program is described. Summary The advent of the era of genomics has left practitioners wondering how to interpret the data obtained from sequencing and genotyping patients. In order to train the next leaders in the area of implementing pharmacogenetics, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital established the first accredited residency program in clinical pharmacogenetics. The 12-month long PGY2 residency was created in accordance with the ASHP standards for advanced practice residencies. The resident learns to optimize patient outcomes through the expert provision of evidence-based, patient-centered precision medicine as an integral part of an interdisciplinary team. The resident gains hands-on experience in a dynamic environment regarding all aspects of running a clinical pharmacogenetics service. Since the first resident graduated in 2012, the program has graduated one resident each year. Conclusion To fill a need for pharmacists trained in pharmacogenetics, an innovative PGY2 residency in clinical pharmacogenetics was successfully developed. Upon completion of the program, residents are equipped with the clinical skills and necessary experience to drive precision medicine forward and lead the implementation of pharmacogenetics in various healthcare settings. PMID:28274984
McKneally, Martin F.; Singer, Peter A.
BIOETHICS IS NOW TAUGHT IN EVERY CANADIAN MEDICAL SCHOOL. Canada needs a cadre of teachers who can help clinicians learn bioethics. Our purpose is to encourage clinician teachers to accept this important responsibility and to provide practical advice about teaching bioethics to clinicians as an integral part of good clinical medicine. We use 5 questions to focus the discussion: Why should I teach? What should I teach? How should I teach? How should I evaluate? How should I learn? PMID:11338804
Gusic, Maryellen; Hageman, Heather; Zenni, Elisa
The system used by academic health centres to evaluate teaching must be valued by the large number of faculty staff that teach in clinical settings. Peer review can be used to evaluate and enhance clinical teaching. The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions of clinical faculty about the effects of participating in peer review. Faculty members were observed teaching in a clinical setting by trained peer observers. Feedback was provided using a checklist of behaviours and descriptive comments. Afterwards, semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess the faculty member's perception about the process. Notes from the interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. The study was approved by the institutional review boards of all the institutions involved. Three themes emerged from the interviews with faculty members: (1) they found the process to be valuable - they received information that affirmed "good" teaching behaviours, and were prompted to be more focused on their teaching; (2) they were motivated to enhance their teaching by being more deliberate, interactive and learner-centred; and (3) they were inspired to explore other opportunities to improve their teaching skills. Peer review is a process that promotes the open discussion and exchange of ideas. This conversation advances clinical teaching skills and allows high-quality teaching behaviours to be strengthened. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A premature embarkation in specialized areas of fluid mechanics by the beginning graduate student, without having first thoroughly learned the basics, leads to learning difficulties and destroys zeal for learning. To avoid these problems, many schools in the U.S. offer beginning graduate courses in fluid mechanics (BGCFM). Because the success or…
For any student, the first semester of graduate school is the most traumatic experience in his or her career as a graduate student. Fortunately, there are some things that can be done to make the transition for these students easier. Getting undergraduate students involved in the classrooms in positions of pedagogical responsibility is the most…
Aug 3, 2012 ... Medical Department of Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH). The World ... Assess vital signs: • temperature .... March 2012. NICE 2002 Principles for best practice in Clinical Audit. 4. ... A clinical audit cycle has a number of phases: 1.
Bennett, L. Michelle; Cicutto, Lisa; Gadlin, Howard; Moss, Marc; Tentler, John; Schoenbaum, Ellie
Abstract This paper is the third in a five‐part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline, and it focuses on strategies for enhancing graduate research education to improve skills for interdisciplinary team science. Although some of the most cutting edge science takes place at the borders between disciplines, it is widely perceived that advancements in clinical and translational science are hindered by the “siloed” efforts of researchers who are comfortable working in their separate domains, and reluctant to stray from their own discipline when conducting research. Without appropriate preparation for career success as members and leaders of interdisciplinary teams, talented scientists may choose to remain siloed or to leave careers in clinical and translational science all together, weakening the pipeline and depleting the future biomedical research workforce. To address this threat, it is critical to begin at what is perhaps the most formative moment for academics: graduate training. This paper focuses on designs for graduate education, and contrasts the methods and outcomes from traditional educational approaches with those skills perceived as essential for the workforce of the future, including the capacity for research collaboration that crosses disciplinary boundaries. PMID:26643714
Christopher N. Amos Sr.
Full Text Available This paper examines a group of graduate students and their previous experiences with online education, various teaching and learning online tools, and their perceptions on the effectiveness of these tools as it relates to their learning, interpersonal skills and communication. This paper presents the graduate student's self-reported educational experience at a regional state university in the southeast United States in a 100% online Master's Degree program. The data was collected through the use of a 28 open-ended question survey, which was completed by a group of 127 graduate students and the findings produced six main findings, which were: 1 The respondents indicated at a high percentage (85% a high level (level 4, 5 and 6 of technology use and understanding. 2 The majority of the respondents (97% indicated they preferred live synchronous sessions rather than discussion boards for learning content and communication. 3 The majority of the respondents (72% indicated that when choosing future courses, the inclusion of discussion boards in a course was not important (34% or somewhat unimportant (38%. 4 100% of the respondents indicated that Live Elluminate Sessions were Highly Effective (65% or Somewhat Effective (35%, as it pertained to understanding the content. 5 Respondents indicated that 59% (12% Highly Effective, 47% Somewhat Effective of the respondents indicated discussion boards as an impactful way of learning content at the graduate level. It also shows that 41% (22% Somewhat Ineffective, 19% Not Effective. This study helps universities identify the importance of synchronous learning in a digital format when delivering online teaching and learning. There is a clear change in the needs of students enrolled in 100% online courses, which will force university faculty to increase the synchronous interaction between them and their students and between the students and their peers. Keywords: Synchronous learning, discussion boards, Blackboard
Full Text Available International students in Masters programs come to the US optimistic and willing to learn. Upon arrival and entrance into programs, they often encounter unexpected environments. Culture shock and language barriers may seem like obvious hurdles, but work ethic and scope of visual knowledge also pose unique challenges for both students and design educators. Although all students share new challenges in graduate school, international students face tougher impediments in studio environments where they express themselves both visually and verbally. Additionally, much of design uses humor, idioms, and visual clues only understood in English. So how do educators help international students build on what they already know? How do educators break barriers between domestic and international students so they may teach one another through a shared language? In fall 2015, my Conceptual Development and Implementation class was struggling to exchange ideas in the classroom. We moved through that struggle by developing a shared language around each student's experiences with healthcare clinics in their country of origin. Students explained what makes healthcare clinics reputable; how people access information in India, China, small towns and larger urban areas; and where people look for trustworthy information. This paper discusses how one educator used student experience of healthcare clinics to find a universal language to maximize learning for international students in design education.
Morrissey, Benjamin; Heilbrun, Marta E
The 2014 Institute of Medicine report, Graduate Medical Education that Meets the Nation's Health Needs , challenged the current graduate medical training process and encouraged new opportunities to redefine the fundamental skills and abilities of the physician workforce. This workforce should be skilled in critically evaluating the current systems to improve care delivery and health. To meet these goals, current challenges, motivations, and educational models at the medical school and graduate medical education levels related to formal training in nonclinical aspects of medicine, especially critical thinking, are reviewed. Our diagnostic radiology training program is presented as a "case study" to frame the review.
Haghighi Moghadam, Yousef; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Feizi, Aram
Introduction: Clinical education is the core component of nursing education. PhD graduated nurses who are faculty members can play a main role in clinical instruction. However, there is not clear understanding about the challenges which they may encounter for accepting their role as clinical educator. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges of role acceptance by PhD aduated nurses who are faculty members. Methods: In this qualitative exploratory study a total of 13 participants (8 PhD graduated in nursing, 3 head of departments of nursing, one educational vice chancellor of nursing school, and one nurse) were selected by purposive sampling method. Data were collected by semi-structured, face to face interview and analyzed by conventional content analysis approach developed by Graneheim and Lundman. Results: The main theme emerged from data analysis was "identity threat". This theme had five categories including expectations beyond ability, lack of staff's rely on the performance of PhD graduated nurses, poor clinical competencies, doubtfulness, and obligation. Conclusion: PhD graduated nurses experienced some worries about their role as clinical educators and argued that they have not been prepared for their role. Therefore, policy makers and authorities of nursing schools should support PhD graduated nurses for accepting their new roles as clinical educators. Moreover, some changes in nursing PhD curriculum is needed to improve the clinical competencies of PhD graduated and prepare them for their role as a clinical educator.
Beckman, Thomas J; Lee, Mark C
Evidence suggests that inexperienced clinical teachers are often controlling and noninteractive. Adult learning theory states that mature students prefer shared and self-directed learning and that skillful teachers favor facilitating discussions over transmitting knowledge. Similarly, education research shows that effective clinical teachers invest in relationships with learners, ask questions to diagnose learners, communicate complex information clearly, and provide meaningful feedback. On the basis of these principles, we propose a collaborative approach to clinical teaching that has 4 essential components: (1) establish a relationship with the learner, (2) diagnose the learner, (3) use teaching frameworks that engage learners, and (4) develop teaching scripts and a personal philosophy. This article includes suggestions for creating a positive learning climate, asking higher-order questions, providing meaningful feedback, and developing teaching scripts. We believe that practicing this approach, which emphasizes respectful teacher-learner relationships, improves the quality of every clinical teaching encounter.
Robert J. Sternberg; Karin Sternberg; Rebel J. E. Todhunter
Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning) and educational skills. We found that women per...
Muganyizi, Projestine S; Ishengoma, Joyce; Kanama, Joseph; Kikumbih, Nassoro; Mwanga, Feddy; Killian, Richard; McGinn, Erin
Promoting family planning (FP) is a key strategy for health, economic and population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa, with one of the lowest contraceptive prevalence and highest fertility rates globally, contributes half of the global maternal deaths. Improving the quality of FP services, including enhancing pre-service FP teaching, has the potential to improve contraceptive prevalence. In efforts to improve the quality of FP services in Tanzania, including provider skills, this study sought to identify gaps in pre-service FP teaching and suggest opportunities for strengthening the training. Data were collected from all medical schools and a representative sample of pre-service nursing, Assistant Medical Officer (AMO), Clinical Officer (CO) and assistant CO schools in mainland Tanzania. Teachers responsible for FP teaching at the schools were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Observations on availability of teaching resources and other evidence of FP teaching and evaluation were documented. Relevant approved teaching documents were assessed for their suitability as competency-based FP teaching tools against predefined criteria. Quantitative data were analyzed using EPI Info 6 and qualitative data were manually analyzed using content analysis. A total of 35 pre-service schools were evaluated for FP teaching including 30 technical education and five degree offering schools. Of the assessed 11 pre-service curricula, only one met the criteria for suitability of FP teaching. FP teaching was typically theoretical with only 22.9% of all the schools having systems in place to produce graduates who could skillfully provide FP methods. Across schools, the target skills were the same level of competence and skewed toward short acting methods of contraception. Only 23.3% (n = 7) of schools had skills laboratories, 76% (n = 22) were either physically connected or linked to FP clinics. None of the degree providing schools practiced FP at its own teaching hospital
The Physics Entrepreneurship Program (PEP) at Case Western Reserve University is a MS in Physics, Entrepreneurship Track that teaches physics, business, and innovation. PEP admitted its first class in 2000 with the original goal of empowering physicists to be successful entrepreneurs. Since Y2K, much has happened in the world's economies and markets, and we have shifted our goals to include a strong innovation component. For instance, our metrics have changed from ``companies created'' to ``capital raised by our students'' (i.e., grants and investment in innovation), which allows our students to participate in an apprentice-type relationship with a more experienced entrepreneur before venturing out on their own (which could take many years before they are ready). We will describe the program, how we teach innovation, student and alumni activities and how difficult it is to operate a sustainable graduate program in this arena.
Wallace, Juanita S; Infante, Taline D
Faculty development courses related to acquiring clinical teaching skills in the health professions are limited. Consequently, the Department of Dental Hygiene at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio conducted a series of clinical teaching workshops to address clinical teaching methodology. The goal of these workshops was to promote a problem-solving learning atmosphere for dental hygiene faculty to acquire and share sound clinical teaching strategies. To determine the value of the annual workshops on clinical teaching and evaluation, a web-based qualitative program assessment was developed using software by Survey Tracker. Four open-ended questions were designed to elicit perceptions regarding what significant changes in teaching strategies were achieved, what barriers or challenges were encountered in making these changes, and what strategies were used to overcome the barriers. The assessment was sent to dental hygiene educators representing thirty-eight dental hygiene programs who had participated in two or more of these workshops. Twenty-eight programs provided collective responses to the questions, and the narrative data were analyzed, using a qualitative methodology. Responses revealed that programs had made productive changes to their clinical education curricula and the information gained from the workshops had a positive effect on clinical teaching.
Gill, Fenella J; Leslie, Gavin D; Grech, Carol; Boldy, Duncan; Latour, Jos M
To develop critical care nurse education practice standards. Critical care specialist education for registered nurses in Australia is provided at graduate level. Considerable variation exists across courses with no framework to guide practice outcomes or evidence supporting the level of qualification. An eDelphi technique involved the iterative process of a national expert panel responding to three survey rounds. For the first round, 84 statements, organised within six domains, were developed from earlier phases of the study that included a literature review, analysis of critical care courses and input from health consumers. The panel, which represented the perspectives of four stakeholder groups, responded to two rating scales: level of importance and level of practice. Of 105 experts who agreed to participate, 92 (88%) completed survey round I; 85 (92%) round II; and 73 (86%) round III. Of the 98 statements, 75 were rated as having a high level of importance - median 7 (IQR 6-7); 14 were rated as having a moderate level of importance - median 6 (IQR 5-7); and nine were rated as having a low level of importance - median 4 (IQR 4-6)-6 (IQR 4-6). The majority of the panel rated graduate level of practice as 'demonstrates independently' or 'teaches or supervises others' for 80 statements. For 18 statements, there was no category selected by 50% or more of the panel. The process resulted in the development of 98 practice standards, categorised into three levels, indicating a practice outcome level by the practitioner who can independently provide nursing care for a variety of critically ill patients in most contexts, using a patient- and family-focused approach. The graduate practice outcomes provide a critical care qualification definition for nursing workforce standards and can be used by course providers to achieve consistent practice outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Collins, Anne Wrigley
Modern science education reform recommends that teachers provide K-12 science students a more complete picture of the scientific enterprise, one that lies beyond content knowledge and centers more on the processes and culture of scientists. In the case of Research Experience for Teachers (RET) programs, the "teacher" becomes "researcher" and it is expected that he/she will draw from the short-term science research experience in his/her classroom, offering students more opportunities to practice science as scientists do. In contrast, this study takes place in a program that allows graduate students, engaged in research full-time, to design and implement a short-duration course for high school students on Saturdays; the "researcher" becomes "teacher" in an informal science program. In this study, I investigated eleven graduate students who taught in the Saturday Science (SS) program. Analyses revealed participants' sophisticated views of the nature of science. Furthermore, participants' ideas about science clearly resonated with the tenets of NOS recommended for K-12 education (McComas et al., 1998). This study also highlighted key factors graduate students considered when designing lessons. Instructors took great care to move away from models of traditional, "lecture"-based, university science teaching. Nonetheless, instruction lacked opportunities for students to engage in scientific inquiry. In instances when instructors included discussions of NOS in SS courses, opportunities for high school students to learn NOS were not explicit enough to align with current science reform recommendations (e.g., AAAS, 2009). Graduate students did, however, offer high school students access to their own science or engineering research communities. These findings have significant implications for K-12 classroom reform. Universities continue to be a valuable resource for K-12 given access to scientists, materials or equipment, and funding. Nonetheless, and as was the case with
Leveritt, Simon; McKnight, Gerard; Edwards, Kimberley; Pratten, Margaret; Merrick, Deborah
Anatomy teaching, once thought of as being the cornerstone of medical education, has undergone much change in the recent years. There is now growing concern for falling standards in medical graduates' anatomical knowledge, coupled with a reduction in teaching time and appropriately qualified teaching staff. With limited contact hours available to…
Brugnolli, Anna; Benaglio, Carla
. Teaching Methods for clinical settings: a review. The teaching process during internship requires several methods to promote the acquisition of more complex technical skills such as relational, decisional and planning abilities. To describe effective teaching methods to promote the learning of relational, decisional and planning skills. A literature review of the teaching methods that have proven most effective, most appreciated by students, and most frequently used in Italian nursing schools. Clinical teaching is a central element to transform clinical experiences during internship in professional competences. The students are gradually brought to become more independent, because they are offered opportunities to practice in real contexts, to receive feedback, to have positive role models, to become more autonomous: all elements that facilitate and potentiate learning. Clinical teaching should be based on a variety of methods. The students value a gradual progression both in clinical experiences and teaching strategies from more supervised methods to methods more oriented towards reflecting on clinical practice and self-directed learning.
Full Text Available Purpose: "Introduction to Clinical Medicine" in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services is an initiative in which general practitioners work as instructors and have the opportunity to experience teaching in addition to clinical practice. Since teaching, affects both teacher and students, this study aims to assess the influence of teaching clinical skills on the instructors' psychological, social and professional behaviour. Methods: This was performed as a qualitative study. The research population consisted of instructors of “Introduction to Clinical Medicine” who were all general practitioners and acted as facilitator in small groups working on physical examination and case discussion. The data collecting tool was a semi-structured interview which was recorded on the tape. Then, the interviews were transcribed and confirmed by interviewees at the end. 10 instructors were interviewed. The data were analysed according to Colaizzi model. Results: After coding the data to 38 main subjects, they were classified into three main categories including professional, psychological and social effects. The influence of teaching on professional performance included performing a thorough and correct physical examination, taking a detailed and correct history, increasing decision making ability and increasing professional knowledge. Some of the psychological effects were increasing selfconfidence, job satisfaction and morale. The social effects of teaching were increasing social contacts, having a relationship with an academic environment and having a respectful job. Conclusion: Considering the positive effects of teaching on instructors, teaching clinical skills by general practitioners can increase general practitioners knowledge and clinical skills and improve their morale. It is recommended to train general practitioners both for teaching skills and clinical skills and consider this, as an opportunity for physicians’ continuing
Al-Temimi, Mohammed; Kidon, Michael; Johna, Samir
Reports evaluating faculty knowledge of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in community hospitals without a dedicated residency program are uncommon. Faculty evaluation regarding knowledge of ACGME core competencies before a residency program is started. Physicians at the Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center (N = 480) were surveyed for their knowledge of ACGME core competencies before starting new residency programs. Knowledge of ACGME core competencies. Fifty percent of physicians responded to the survey, and 172 (71%) of respondents were involved in teaching residents. Of physicians who taught residents and had complete responses (N = 164), 65 (39.7%) were unsure of their knowledge of the core competencies. However, most stated that they provided direct teaching to residents related to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes stated in each of the 6 competencies as follows: medical knowledge (96.3%), patient care (95.7%), professionalism (90.7%), interpersonal and communication skills (86.3%), practice-based learning (85.9%), and system-based practice (79.6%). Physician specialty, years in practice (1-10 vs > 10), and number of rotations taught per year (1-6 vs 7-12) were not associated with knowledge of the competencies (p > 0.05); however, full-time faculty (teaching 10-12 rotations per year) were more likely to provide competency-based teaching. Objective assessment of faculty awareness of ACGME core competencies is essential when starting a residency program. Discrepancy between knowledge of the competencies and acclaimed provision of competency-based teaching emphasizes the need for standardized teaching methods that incorporate the values of these competencies.
Robert J. Sternberg
Full Text Available Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning and educational skills. We found that women performed better than men on our reasoning-about-teaching measure, and that factorially, our reasoning-about-teaching measure clustered with our reasoning-about-research measures but not with our measures of abstract cognitive reasoning and educational skills.
Campbell, Arthur; Feinstein, Jonathan S.; Hong, Soonwook; Qian, Sharon; Williams, Trevor C.
The authors present an empirical analysis of what is taught in core micro-economics at a set of top U.S. doctoral economics programs. Their aim is to evaluate the diversity across programs and assess whether there are distinct "schools of thought" in graduate economics education. Their empirical findings reveal substantial, in fact,…
Saraswat, Satya Prakash; Anderson, Dennis M.; Chircu, Alina M.
This paper describes the development and evaluation of a graduate level Business Process Management (BPM) course with process modeling and simulation as its integral component, being offered at an accredited business university in the Northeastern U.S. Our approach is similar to that found in other Information Systems (IS) education papers, and…
Ng, Chenny; Rosenbaum, James E.
Sub-baccalaureate degrees represent a growing and distinctive sector of American higher education. However, policymakers and community colleges lack a clear understanding of the specific competencies learned in these programs that are useful in graduates' careers. In particular, they overlook non-academic skills. This study uses qualitative…
Cantlay, Andrew; Salamanca, Jennifer; Golaw, Cherie; Wolf, Daniel; Maas, Carly; Nicholson, Patricia
Accelerated nursing programs are gaining momentum as a means of career transition into the nursing profession for mature age learners in an attempt to meet future healthcare workforce demands in Australia. With a gap in the literature on readiness for practice of graduates from accelerated nursing programs at the Masters level the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the program based on graduates' preparedness for practice and graduate outcomes. Using a descriptive, exploratory design an online survey was used to explore the perception of graduate nurses' readiness for clinical practice. Forty-nine graduates from a nursing Masters program at an Australian university completed the survey defining readiness for practice as knowledge of self-limitations and seeking help, autonomy in basic clinical procedures, exhibiting confidence, possessing theoretical knowledge and practicing safe care. Graduates perceived themselves as adequately prepared to work as a beginner practitioner with their perception of readiness for clinical practice largely positive. The majority of participants agreed that the program had prepared them for work as a beginner practitioner with respondents stating that they felt adequately prepared in most areas relating to clinical practice. This would suggest that educational preparation was adequate and effective in achieving program objectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hyde, Sarah; Hannigan, Ailish; Dornan, Tim; McGrath, Deirdre
Educational environment is a strong determinant of student satisfaction and achievement. The learning environments of medical students on clinical placements are busy workplaces, composed of many variables. There is no universally accepted method of evaluating the clinical learning environment, nor is there consensus on what concepts or aspects should be measured. The aims of this study were to compare the Dundee ready educational environment measure (DREEM - the current de facto standard) and the more recently developed Manchester clinical placement index (MCPI) for the assessment of the clinical learning environment in a graduate entry medical student cohort by correlating the scores of each and analysing free text comments. This study also explored student perceptionof how the clinical educational environment is assessed. An online, anonymous survey comprising of both the DREEM and MCPI instruments was delivered to students on clinical placement in a graduate entry medical school. Additional questions explored students' perceptions of instruments for giving feedback. Numeric variables (DREEM score, MCPI score, ratings) were tested for normality and summarised. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of the association between total DREEM score and total MCPI scores. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the free text comments. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 67% (n = 180), with a completed response rate for the MCPI of 60% (n = 161) and for the DREEM of 58% (n = 154). There was a strong, positive correlation between total DREEM and MCPI scores (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). On a scale of 0 to 7, the mean rating for how worthwhile students found completing the DREEM was 3.27 (SD 1.41) and for the MCPI was 3.49 (SD 1.57). 'Finding balance' and 'learning at work' were among the themes to emerge from analysis of free text comments. The present study confirms that DREEM and MCPI total scores are strongly correlated
Full Text Available “Ayurveda” is an ancient system of healthcare that is native to India. At present, in India, there are more than 240 colleges that offer a graduate-level degree (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery—BAMS in Ayurveda. Even though the Central Council of Indian Medicine, the governing body that monitors the matters related to Ayurveda education, has imposed various educational norms and regulations, the standard of education has been a cause of concern in recent years. The mushrooming of substandard Ayurvedic colleges is the most important factor that is being held responsible for this kind of erosion in the standards. The present study is a mailed survey, which was carried out to evaluate the “Extent of exposure to basic clinical skills during BAMS course” as perceived by the sample groups of students and teachers drawn from 32 Ayurvedic educational institutions spread all over India. A methodically validated questionnaire was used as the tool in the study, to which 1022 participants responded. The study indicates that there are some serious flaws in the existing system of the graduate-level Ayurveda education. Since the Ayurvedic graduates play an important role in the primary healthcare delivery system of the country, governing bodies are required to take necessary steps to ensure the adequate exposure of the students to basic clinical skills. Along with the strict implementation of all the regulatory norms during the process of recognition of the colleges, introducing some changes in the policy model may also be required to tackle the situation.
Patwardhan, Kishor; Gehlot, Sangeeta; Singh, Girish; Rathore, H. C. S.
“Ayurveda” is an ancient system of healthcare that is native to India. At present, in India, there are more than 240 colleges that offer a graduate-level degree (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery—BAMS) in Ayurveda. Even though the Central Council of Indian Medicine, the governing body that monitors the matters related to Ayurveda education, has imposed various educational norms and regulations, the standard of education has been a cause of concern in recent years. The mushrooming of substandard Ayurvedic colleges is the most important factor that is being held responsible for this kind of erosion in the standards. The present study is a mailed survey, which was carried out to evaluate the “Extent of exposure to basic clinical skills during BAMS course” as perceived by the sample groups of students and teachers drawn from 32 Ayurvedic educational institutions spread all over India. A methodically validated questionnaire was used as the tool in the study, to which 1022 participants responded. The study indicates that there are some serious flaws in the existing system of the graduate-level Ayurveda education. Since the Ayurvedic graduates play an important role in the primary healthcare delivery system of the country, governing bodies are required to take necessary steps to ensure the adequate exposure of the students to basic clinical skills. Along with the strict implementation of all the regulatory norms during the process of recognition of the colleges, introducing some changes in the policy model may also be required to tackle the situation. PMID:19687194
Nicol, Pam; Young, Melisa
A 1-day sail-training program that aims to increase graduate nurse preceptor skills was evaluated. Preliminary results suggest that this experiential learning is an effective way to develop graduate nurse preceptors. Awareness of graduate nurses' needs has been heightened, and skills in clinical teaching have been developed. It is indicated from the limited results that the outcomes are sustained over time, but further evaluation is needed.
Millán K, Teresa; Ercolano F, Mariely; Pérez A, Marcela; Fuentes F, Cristián
The new curriculum of the University of Chile School of Medicine includes the evaluation not only of knowledge and skills, but also abilities and attitudes. To measure the self perceived level of basic clinical competences (BCC) declared by recently graduated physicians. A self evaluation survey was designed, based on the proposed objectives of the Faculty Curriculum Committee and on an instrument used in Spanish Universities. It contained 194 questions and the possible answers were: 1.1 know what it is and it has been explained to me; 2.1 have seen it done; 3.1 have done it before under supervision; 4. I would be capable to do it under any circumstance. It was applied confidentially to 50 of a total of 170 recently graduated physicians. Perception of BCC for the diagnosis of most common diseases was felt as satisfactory. History taking and physical examination were also considered as achieved skills. Deficiencies were found in practical aspects of nursing care, obstetric and gynecological abilities and reanimation procedures. Answers may be biased considering that the survey was a self assessment procedure. However, results provide sound orientation to detect strengths and weaknesses of delivered education. Achievement of BCC is proportional to clinical practice opportunities as a student.
de la Garza, Santiago; Phuoc, Vania; Throneberry, Steven; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McCullough, Laurence; Coverdale, John
One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes. Search terms included ethics, bioethics, medical ethics, medical students, residents/registrars, teaching, education, outcomes, and controlled trials. Nine studies were found that met inclusion criteria, including five randomized controlled trails and four controlled non-randomized trials. Subjects included medical students (5 studies), surgical residents (2 studies), internal medicine house officers (1 study), and family medicine preceptors and their medical students (1 study). Teaching methods, course content, and outcome measures varied considerably across studies. Common methodological issues included a lack of concealment of allocation, a lack of blinding, and generally low numbers of subjects as learners. One randomized controlled trial which taught surgical residents using a standardized patient was judged to be especially methodologically rigorous. None of the trials incorporated psychiatry residents. Ethics educators should undertake additional rigorously controlled trials in order to secure a strong evidence base for the design of medical ethics curricula. Psychiatry ethics educators can also benefit from the findings of trials in other disciplines and in undergraduate medical education.
Tofan, Daniel C.
This paper describes an upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level course on computers in chemical education that was developed and offered for the first time in Fall 2007. The course provides future chemistry teachers with exposure to current software tools that can improve productivity in teaching, curriculum development, and education…
Vasquez-Colina, Maria D.; Maslin-Ostrowski, Pat; Baba, Suria
This case study used qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate challenges of learning and teaching research methods by examining graduate students' use of collaborative technology (i.e., digital tools that enable collaboration and information seeking such as software and social media) and students' computer self-efficacy. We conducted…
João Marcelino Pantoja Rodrigues
Full Text Available This work is the result of a research in education. It analyzes contributions and limitations of the Modular Teaching Organization System in the education of young people in the rural environment of the municipality of Breves, Pará, from the perceptions of high school graduates. It considers the needs and expectations of this public. The research was carried out through a qualitative field study in the Mainardi village, a pioneer community in the offering of this program in the rural environment of Breves. The main technique of data collection is a semi-structured interview with six young graduates, whose responses were treated in light of the thematic content analysis. The results point to the affirmation of the importance of this program as the only alternative of access to secondary education for a large portion of young people from the rural environment of Pará. At the same time, the results reveal the mismatch of the experience in relation to the needs and expectations of this public of secondary education.
Rana Gholamzadeh nikjoo
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : In order to implement clinical governance successfully, it should be perceived positively and there must be a positive attitude towards it. The current policy of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education about clinical governance requires assessing the knowledge and attitudes of medical students to identify their educational needs and the necessary steps needed to be taken in educational planning, designing and modification of the courses. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students and graduates about clinical governance in 1391. Materials and Methods : This is a descriptive–analytic study. This research was conducted on 159 students from different medical fields simple random sampling method. For data collecting, a researcher-made questionnaire was used which its validity was confirmed by using content validity and construct validity. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, internal consistency and Cronbach's Alpha were used for field of knowledge (0.78 and attitude (0.68. For data analysis, SPSS version 11.5 software was applied using exploratory factor analysis method. Results : 64% of the participants were female and 36% were male. 71% of the participants were in the health care management field and 29% from other medical fields. Mean and standard deviation of knowledge and attitude scores were 64.2 ± 5.8 and 13.06 ± 3.02 respectively. Comparing the students' and graduates’ knowledge and attitudes with their educational level showed no significant correlation. (P> 0.05 Although, there was a significant correlation between educational level and attitude (P = 0.001. In higher levels of education, students' attitude towards clinical governance reduced. Conclusion : The knowledge of medical students and graduates was estimated average to high about clinical governance but their attitude was very poor. This reflects negative views of medical students despite the
Smith, C. Scott; Francovich, Chris; Morris, Magdalena; Hill, William; Langlois-Winkle, Francine; Rupper, Randall; Roth, Craig; Wheeler, Stephanie; Vo, Anthony
Teaching clinic managers struggle to convert performance data into meaningful behavioral change in their trainees, and quality improvement measures in medicine have had modest results. This may be due to several factors including clinical performance being based more on team function than individual action, models of best practice that are…
Jiang Zhong; Wu Jinchang
Klaber, R E; Pollock, I
Children and young people are used as cases and standardised patients in clinical exams and teaching courses. Consultation with them suggests that education and training are areas they feel they should actively participate in. To examine the perceptions, motives and concerns of children and young people participating in exam-focused clinical teaching, and to compare these views with those of their parents, trainees and tutors. Consultation and a pilot study were used to design an anonymised questionnaire with 5-point Likert scales and free text answers. This was sent to 112 children and young people, their parents, and tutors and trainees attending a clinical teaching course. Results were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test. 71% of the questionnaires sent to children and young people and their parents were completed. For children and young people the major reasons for taking part were the enjoyment of helping people to learn (92% agreement) and wanting to "give something back" (85% agreement). Parents put significantly more emphasis on giving something back than anything else. Tutors and trainees felt the chance for children and young people to earn pocket money was their most important motivation. The major problem highlighted was that it is tiring being repeatedly examined. All children and young people and their parents said that they would participate in future clinical teaching. This study demonstrates that in the context of well-planned, structured clinical teaching, most children and young people are primarily motivated to participate to help educate doctors.
Evidence-based practice has been introduced internationally as a standard for healthcare delivery to improve the quality of care, thus ensuring safe care and treatment. Evidence-based practice calls for a decision-making that specifically requires nurses to place the patient at the centre...... of clinical decisions, based on transparent, articulate and reflective use of knowledge sources. Furthermore, it is implied that nurses are able to retrieve, asses, implement and evaluate research evidence. To meet these requirements, nursing educations around the world have organised curricula to educate...... and support future nurses, enabling them to work within a framework of evidence-based practice. Recent studies underline that despite curricula interventions, newly graduated nurses’ use of research evidence and components within evidence-based practice is limited. However, it is unclear why the newly...
Isabel, Jeanne M
Training clinical laboratory science (CLS) students in techniques of preparation and delivery of an instructional unit is an important component of all CLS education programs and required by the national accrediting agency. Participants of this study included students admitted to the CLS program at Northern Illinois University and enrolled in the teaching course offered once a year between the years of 1997 and 2009. Courses on the topic of "teaching" may be regarded by CLS students as unnecessary. However, entry level practitioners are being recruited to serve as clinical instructors soon after entering the workforce. Evaluation of the data collected indicates that students are better prepared to complete tasks related to instruction of a topic after having an opportunity to study and practice skills of teaching. Mentoring CLS students toward the career role of clinical instructor or professor is important to maintaining the workforce.
Rosenbaum, Paul-Erik Lillholm; Mikalsen, Øyvind; Lygre, Henning; Solheim, Einar; Schjøtt, Jan
Postgraduate courses in clinical pharmacology are important for dentists to be updated on drug therapy and information related to their clinical practice, as well as knowledge of relevant adverse effects and interactions. A traditional approach with classroom delivery as the only method to teaching and learning has shortcomings regarding flexibility, individual learning preferences, and problem based learning (PBL) activities compared to online environments. This study examines a five week postgraduate course in clinical pharmacology with 15 hours of lectures and online learning activities, i.e. blended course design. Six postgraduate dental students participated and at the end of the course they were interviewed. Our findings emphasize that a blended learning course design can be successfully used in postgraduate dental education. Key matters for discussion were time flexibility and location convenience, change in teacher’s role, rein-forced learning strategies towards professional needs, scarcity in online communication, and proposed future utilization of e-learning components. PMID:23248716
Carroll, J. Gregory; And Others
"Clinical Nutrition in an Interdisciplinary Setting" is a course designed to introduce basic nutrition knowledge and concepts of nutritional assessment, counseling, and intervention in the clinical care of patients. Provides a brief course overview and descriptions of its development, use, and preliminary evaluation of the patient simulation…
Emília Campos de Carvalho
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To present the concept and development of teaching strategies and the assessment tools regarding clinical reasoning for accurate practice. Method: This is a theoretical reflection based on scientific studies. Results: Comprehension of the essential concepts of the thought process and its articulation with the different teaching strategies and the assessment tools which has allowed presenting ways to improve the process of diagnostic or therapeutic clinical reasoning. Conclusion: The use of new strategies and assessment tools should be encouraged in order to contribute to the development of skills that lead to safe and effective decision making.
Chappell, Kathy B; Richards, Kathy C; Barnett, Scott D
The objective of this study was to determine predictors of clinical leadership skill (CLS) for RNs with 24 months of clinical experience or less. New graduate nurse transition programs (NGNTPs) have been proposed as a strategy to increase CLS. CLS is associated with positive patient outcomes. Method used was hierarchical regression modeling to evaluate predictors of CLS among individual characteristics of RNs and characteristics of NGNTPs. Perceived overall quality of an NGNTP was the strongest predictor of CLS (R = 0.041, P < .01). Clinical experience and NGNTP characteristics accounted for 6.9% of the variance in CLS and 12.6% of the variance among RNs with assigned mentors (P < .01). RNs participating in NGNTPs for more than 24 weeks were 21 times more likely to remain employed within the organization when compared with NGNTPs of 12 weeks or less, a significant cost-benefit to the organization. Although perceived overall quality of a NGNTP was the strongest predictor of CLS, much of the variance in CLS remains unexplained.
Nielsen, Annegrethe; Pedersen, Pernille Mølholt
taking place in clinical practice and try to align the educational efforts in school and clinical settings for the benefit of the students PERSPECTIVES It is known that students in medical education find that clinical learning experiences do not reinforce the communication skills they learn pre......-clinically (Rosenbaum et al. 2013) and our own experience teaching Danish midwifery students indicates the same problem in our program. Providing an opportunity for the clinical teachers to learn, discuss and practice communication issues with each other and with theoretical teachers can represent an important...
Delany, Clare; Golding, Clinton
Clinical reasoning is fundamental to all forms of professional health practice, however it is also difficult to teach and learn because it is complex, tacit, and effectively invisible for students. In this paper we present an approach for teaching clinical reasoning based on making expert thinking visible and accessible to students. Twenty-one experienced allied health clinical educators from three tertiary Australian hospitals attended up to seven action research discussion sessions, where they developed a tentative heuristic of their own clinical reasoning, trialled it with students, evaluated if it helped their students to reason clinically, and then refined it so the heuristic was targeted to developing each student's reasoning skills. Data included participants' written descriptions of the thinking routines they developed and trialed with their students and the transcribed action research discussion sessions. Content analysis was used to summarise this data and categorise themes about teaching and learning clinical reasoning. Two overriding themes emerged from participants' reports about using the 'making thinking visible approach'. The first was a specific focus by participating educators on students' understanding of the reasoning process and the second was heightened awareness of personal teaching styles and approaches to teaching clinical reasoning. We suggest that the making thinking visible approach has potential to assist educators to become more reflective about their clinical reasoning teaching and acts as a scaffold to assist them to articulate their own expert reasoning and for students to access and use.
Kassirer, Jerome P
Optimal medical care is critically dependent on clinicians' skills to make the right diagnosis and to recommend the most appropriate therapy, and acquiring such reasoning skills is a key requirement at every level of medical education. Teaching clinical reasoning is grounded in several fundamental principles of educational theory. Adult learning theory posits that learning is best accomplished by repeated, deliberate exposure to real cases, that case examples should be selected for their reflection of multiple aspects of clinical reasoning, and that the participation of a coach augments the value of an educational experience. The theory proposes that memory of clinical medicine and clinical reasoning strategies is enhanced when errors in information, judgment, and reasoning are immediately pointed out and discussed. Rather than using cases artificially constructed from memory, real cases are greatly preferred because they often reflect the false leads, the polymorphisms of actual clinical material, and the misleading test results encountered in everyday practice. These concepts foster the teaching and learning of the diagnostic process, the complex trade-offs between the benefits and risks of diagnostic tests and treatments, and cognitive errors in clinical reasoning. The teaching of clinical reasoning need not and should not be delayed until students gain a full understanding of anatomy and pathophysiology. Concepts such as hypothesis generation, pattern recognition, context formulation, diagnostic test interpretation, differential diagnosis, and diagnostic verification provide both the language and the methods of clinical problem solving. Expertise is attainable even though the precise mechanisms of achieving it are not known.
Nguyen, Van N B; Forbes, Helen; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Duke, Maxine
Teaching nursing in clinical environments is considered complex and multi-faceted. Little is known about the role of the clinical nurse educator, specifically the challenges related to transition from clinician, or in some cases, from newly-graduated nurse to that of clinical nurse educator, as occurs in developing countries. Confidence in the clinical educator role has been associated with successful transition and the development of role competence. There is currently no valid and reliable instrument to measure clinical nurse educator confidence. This study was conducted to develop and psychometrically test an instrument to measure perceived confidence among clinical nurse educators. A multi-phase, multi-setting survey design was used. A total of 468 surveys were distributed, and 363 were returned. Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The instrument was successfully tested and modified in phase 1, and factorial validity was subsequently confirmed in phase 2. There was strong evidence of internal consistency, reliability, content, and convergent validity of the Clinical Nurse Educator Skill Acquisition Assessment instrument. The resulting instrument is applicable in similar contexts due to its rigorous development and validation process. © 2017 The Authors. Nursing & Health Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
AL-Dossary, Reem; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J
Health care institutions have adapted residency programs to help new graduate nurses to become fully competent and transition from a student nurse to an independent practicing nurse and a bedside leader. The study's aim is to review the literature on the impact of residency programs on new graduate nurses' clinical decision-making and leadership skills. An electronic search was conducted between 1980 and 2013 using databases of the scientific literature in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane EPOC, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature database guide (CINAHL), and PsychInfo using a range of keywords. Information gathered was evaluated for relevance. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were used in this systematic review. In several studies considered in this review, residency programs were developed to improve new graduates skills and promote their transition into the nursing workforce. In fact, the transition programs reduced turnover in that first year of practice and promoted professional growth of the new graduate such as hand-on nursing skills, clinical decision-making and leadership skills, satisfaction, and retention. There is a need for effective residency programs that are designed to prepare new graduate nurses in providing safe, competent and effective patient care. © 2013.
Regenstein, Marsha; Snyder, John E; Jewers, Mariellen Malloy; Nocella, Kiki; Mullan, Fitzhugh
Despite considerable federal investment, graduate medical education financing is neither transparent for estimating residency training costs nor accountable for effectively producing a physician workforce that matches the nation's health care needs. The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program's authorization in 2010 provided an opportunity to establish a more transparent financing mechanism. We developed a standardized methodology for quantifying the necessary investment to train primary care physicians in high-need communities. The THCGME Costing Instrument was designed utilizing guidance from site visits, financial documentation, and expert review. It collects educational outlays, patient service expenses and revenues from residents' ambulatory and inpatient care, and payer mix. The instrument was fielded from April to November 2015 in 43 THCGME-funded residency programs of varying specialties and organizational structures. Of the 43 programs, 36 programs (84%) submitted THCGME Costing Instruments. The THCGME Costing Instrument collected standardized, detailed cost data on residency labor (n = 36), administration and educational outlays (n = 33), ambulatory care visits and payer mix (n = 30), patient service expenses (n = 26), and revenues generated by residents (n = 26), in contrast to Medicare cost reports, which include only costs incurred by residency programs. The THCGME Costing Instrument provides a model for calculating evidence-based costs and revenues of community-based residency programs, and it enhances accountability by offering an approach that estimates residency costs and revenues in a range of settings. The instrument may have feasibility and utility for application in other residency training settings.
Berk, Ronald A; Naumann, Phyllis L; Appling, Susan E
Peer observation of classroom and clinical teaching has received increased attention over the past decade in schools of nursing to augment student ratings of teaching effectiveness. One essential ingredient is the scale used to evaluate performance. A five-step systematic procedure for adapting, writing, and building any peer observation scale is described. The differences between the development of a classroom observation scale and an appraisal scale to observe clinical instructors are examined. Psychometric issues peculiar to observation scales are discussed in terms of content validity, eight types of response bias, and interobserver reliability. The applications of the scales in one school of nursing as part of the triangulation of methods with student ratings and the teaching portfolio are illustrated. Copies of the scales are also provided.
Missen, Karen; McKenna, Lisa; Beauchamp, Alison; Larkins, Jo-Ann
Evidence from the literature and anecdotally from clinical settings suggests that newly graduated nurses are not fully prepared to be independent practitioners in healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of qualified nurses in relation to the practice readiness of newly registered nursing graduates and determine whether these views differ according to specific demographic characteristics, clinical settings, and geographical locations. A descriptive quantitative design was used. An online survey tool was used to assess how qualified nurses (n=201) in Victoria, Australia, rated newly graduated nurses' abilities on 51 individual clinical skills/competencies in eight key skill areas. A composite score was calculated for each skill area and a comparative analysis was undertaken on the various cohorts of participants according to their demographic and clinical characteristics using one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests. Newly graduated nurses were found to be lacking competence in two key skill areas and were rated as performing adequately in the remaining six skill areas assessed. Significant differences (p≤0.05) in performance were found according to the age of the nurse, number of years registered, the educational setting in which they undertook their nurse education, their role, and the clinical area in which they worked. There were no significant differences according to whether the nurse worked in the private or public healthcare sector. Few differences were found between nurses working in a metropolitan vs. regional/rural healthcare setting. This is the first study to quantify the scale of this problem. Our findings serve as a reference for both nurse education providers and healthcare settings in better preparing nursing graduates to be competent, safe practitioners in all clinical areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blount, Kamilah V.
This study examined the impact of accelerated nursing direct entry master's programs on the development of clinical decision-making skills of new graduate nurses that completed the Performance Based Development System (PBDS) assessment during the study period of 2008-2012 at a healthcare organization. Healthcare today is practiced in a…
Jane C. OBrien PhD, MS.MEdL, OTR/L
Full Text Available Medical educators must examine the ability of teaching methodologies to prepare students for clinical practice. Two types of assessment methods commonly used in medical education include the Short Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE and the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument (IPPI. The use of these methods in occupational therapy (OT education is less understood. With the increasing number of students enrolled in programs, faculty face challenges to examine how clinical competence is established using data to determine teaching effectiveness. This study examines two educational methodologies used in OT curriculum: the long written case study (IPPI and short performance-based OSCE. The authors describe the effectiveness of each examination as it relates to student performance in clinical practice (as measured by the Fieldwork Performance Evaluation [FWPE]. The findings obtained from separate focus group sessions with faculty and students further provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of the educational methodologies.
The “extension for prevention” dogma by G.V Black had been jettisoned while the modern concept of conservatism or minimal cavity preparation has been well embraced by dental practitioners. However, there are some limitations in clinical teaching of conservative amalgam cavity preparation which include late patient ...
Berman, Judith; And Others
A study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction, interactive video, and videotapes as alternative methods of instruction in clinical clerkship modules on diabetes and hypertension. The 17 participants were more interested in balancing time between patient contact and alternative teaching methods and had better knowledge,…
The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes and practices of students related to oral hygiene teaching by mean of a questionnaire submitted to patients attending the clinics of the Department of Dentistry of Dakar. Method: A KPC study (Knowledge, Practices and Coverage) focusing on dental students was conducted ...
Scheiter, Katharina; Jarodzka, Halszka
Scheiter, K., & Jarodzka, H. (2011, May). Teaching perceptual skills in clinical diagnostics using digital media. Presentation at the 2nd International Conference “Research in Medical Education”: Shaping diamonds from bench to bedside, Universität Tübingen.
Sheppard, Fiona; Stacey, Gemma; Aubeeluck, Aimee
This paper will report on an evaluation of group clinical supervision (CS) facilitated for graduate entry nursing (GEN) students whilst on clinical placement. The literature suggests educational forums which enable GEN students to engage in critical dialogue, promote reflective practice and ongoing support are an essential element of GEN curricula. The model of supervision employed was informed by Proctor's three function interactive CS model and Inskipp and Proctor's Supervision Alliance. Both emphasise the normative, formative and restorative functions of CS as task areas within an overarching humanistic supervisory approach. The three-function model informed the design of a questionnaire which intended to measure their importance, impact and influence through both structured and open-ended questions. Findings suggest the restorative function of supervision is most valued and is facilitated in an environment where humanistic principles of non-judgement, empathy and trust are clearly present. Also the opportunity to learn from others, consider alternative perspectives and question personal assumptions regarding capability and confidence are a priority for this student group. It is suggested that the restorative function of CS should be prioritised within future developments and models which view this function as a key purpose of CS should be explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vasantmeghna Srinivasa Murthy
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate subjective sleep quality, day-time sleepiness, prevalence of substance use, satisfaction with life among residents at our institute. To evaluate association of sleep qualitywith satisfaction with life and day-time sleepiness. To compare the findings between residents in clinical and para-clinical departments. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four residents filled questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic information and use of substance (s. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and Satisfaction With Life scale (SWLS were also used. Association between sleep quality and sleepiness and satisfaction with life was evaluated. From the data collected, comparisons were made between the clinical and para-clinical department residents. Results: A significant number of residents belonging to the clinical faculty were poorsleepers; reported high levels of abnormal day-time sleepiness and less satisfaction with life compared to residents in para-clinical faculties. The differences in correlation between sleepiness and satisfaction with life with sleep quality among the two groups were not found to be significant. A larger percentage of clinical residents reported use of at least one substance during the residency period compared to the para-clinical residents. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality is perceived greatly by the resident doctors in our public hospital, especially among clinical faculties. Interventions are thus necessary in order to ensure adequate sleep among them.
Verma, Anju; Griffin, Ann; Dacre, Jane; Elder, Andrew
International Medical Graduates (IMGs) are known to perform less well in many postgraduate medical examinations when compared to their UK trained counterparts. This "differential attainment" is observed in both knowledge-based and clinical skills assessments. This study explored the influence of culture and language on IMGs clinical communication skills, in particular, their ability to seek, detect and acknowledge patients' concerns in a high stakes postgraduate clinical skills examination. Hofstede's cultural dimensions framework was used to look at the impact of culture on examination performance. This was a qualitative, interpretative study using thematic content analysis of video-recorded doctor-simulated patient consultations of candidates sitting the MRCP(UK) PACES examination, at a single examination centre in November 2012. The research utilised Hofstede's cultural dimension theory, a framework for comparing cultural factors amongst different nations, to help understand the reasons for failure. Five key themes accounted for the majority of communication failures in station 2, "history taking" and station 4, "communication skills and ethics" of the MRCP(UK) PACES examination. Two themes, the ability to detect clues and the ability to address concerns, related directly to the overall construct managing patients' concerns. Three other themes were found to impact the whole consultation. These were building relationships, providing structure and explanation and planning. Hofstede's cultural dimensions may help to contextualise some of these observations. In some cultures doctor and patient roles are relatively inflexible: the doctor may convey less information to the patient (higher power distance societies) and give less attention to building rapport (high uncertainty avoidance societies.) This may explain why cues and concerns presented by patients were overlooked in this setting. Understanding cultural differences through Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory
Full Text Available This research explored how educators with limited programming experiences learned to design mobile apps through peer support and instructor guidance. Educators were positive about the sense of community in this online course. They also considered App Inventor a great web-based visual programming tool for developing useful and fully functioning mobile apps. They had great sense of empowerment through developing unique apps by using App Inventor. They felt their own design work and creative problem solving were inspired by the customized mobile apps shared by peers. The learning activities, including sharing customized apps, providing peer feedback, composing design proposals, and keeping design journals (blogging, complemented each other to support a positive sense of community and form a strong virtual community of learning mobile app design. This study helped reveal the educational value of mobile app design activities and the web-based visual programming tool, and the possibility of teaching/learning mobile app design online. The findings can also encourage educators to explore and experiment on the potential of incorporating these design learning activities in their respective settings, and to develop mobile apps for their diverse needs in teaching and learning.
Virdun, Claudia; Gray, Joanne; Sherwood, Juanita; Power, Tamara; Phillips, Angela; Parker, Nicola; Jackson, Debra
Previously there has been commitment to the idea that Indigenous curricula should be taught by Indigenous academic staff, whereas now there is increasing recognition of the need for all academic staff to have confidence in enabling Indigenous cultural competency for nursing and other health professional students. In this way, Indigenous content can be threaded throughout a curriculum and raised in many teaching and learning situations, rather than being siloed into particular subjects and with particular staff. There are many sensitivities around this change, with potential implications for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students and staff, and for the quality of teaching and learning experiences. This paper reports on a collaborative process that was used to reconceptualise how Indigenous health care curricula would be positioned throughout a programme and who would or could work with students in this area. Effective leadership, establishing a truly collaborative environment, acknowledging fears and perceived inadequacies, and creating safe spaces for sharing and learning were crucial in effecting this change.
L. Gomes da Silva
Full Text Available Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ – Campus Macaé- RJMass spectrometry is an analytical powerful technique for identifying unknowns, quantitating knows and discovering chemicals properties and molecular structures. The mass spectrometry concept is very simple: The sample becomes an ion through an ionization method. Ions are selected by mass to charge ratio (m/z based upon the motion in a magnetic field and each one is register under a spectrum. To access the basic of these techniques by using appropriate literature, videos, virtual models and simulations for this machinesbehavior is today´s exclusiveness for researchers through manufacturer handbooks. This reality becomes the science popularization and knowledge diffusion about proteomic analysis something plenty arduous for the portion or part of graduate students. The work objectives were making a multimediaschool-book showing biochemical techniques for proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry. The material was make with specific software for building 3D models and animation of different ionizations methods: Electron Ionization (EI, Electro spray Ionization (ESI, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization(APCI, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALD and mass analyzers: Time of Flight(TOF, Quadrupole and Ion Trap.
Beck, Ann R; Verticchio, Heidi
The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of a daily mindfulness practice and 2 types of journaling on participants' development of self-compassion. This was a between-groups design. All participants in a graduate counseling course engaged in a short daily mindfulness practice at the beginning of every class. Participants were randomly assigned to a counseling journal or a gratitude journal group. Participants were to write in their journals 2 to 5 times a week for the duration of the class. Participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003) and a questionnaire created by the 1st author before any mindfulness sessions were held and again at the completion of the course. Participants' level of self-compassion increased from pretest to posttest. The self-compassion scores of participants who kept counseling journals increased more than did those of participants who kept gratitude journals. Qualitative data indicated that participants believed that mindfulness was an important quality for clinicians to possess and that they were accepting of the daily mindfulness practice. Engaging in a 12-min daily mindfulness practice utilizing simple yoga postures, breath work, reflective writing, and journaling done at a separate time appears to be an effective technique for increasing students' levels of self-compassion. Maintaining a counseling journal as opposed to a gratitude journal appears to enhance the effect of the daily mindfulness practice on self-compassion.
Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Komsari, Samane; Mohammadtaghizadeh, Sedigheh; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza
Clinical education is one of the most important components of the resource generation function of health systems, and it has a very important role in graduates' competency with respect to effective, practical education. This study aimed to assess the quality of clinical services in Kerman's teaching hospitals located in southeastern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on 303 medical students at different levels of medical education at Kerman's teaching hospitals. A modified SERVQUAL instrument was used to collect the data after its validity and reliability were checked. The data were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 using the paired t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and post hoc tests, when appropriate. In all five dimensions of quality, gaps were observed between students' perceptions and expectations as follows: Assurance (mean = -1.18), Responsiveness (-1.56), Empathy (-1.4), Reliability (-1.27), and Tangibles (-1.21). There was a significant difference between the quality perceptions and expectations of the medical students (p < 0.001). A significant difference was observed between three educational levels, including externships, internships, and assistantships regarding the dimensions of the quality gaps (p < 0.001). The clinical services provided by teaching hospitals in the study did not meet the students' expectations at any of the three educational levels. As we precisely assessed the dimensions and items that had the higher quality gaps, it was apparent that, for most part, clinical education officials could improve the quality by designing interventions, which would not be very difficult to do.
Haghani, Fariba; Arabshahi, Seyed Kamran Soltani; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Alavi, Mousa; Omid, Athar
Medical students spend most of their time in hospital wards and it is necessary to study clinical educational opportunities. This study was aimed to explore faculty members' experience on Ward Round Teaching content. This qualitative study was conducted by purposive sampling with the maximum variation of major clinical departments faculty members in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (n = 9). Data gathering was based on deep and semi-structured interviews. Data gathering continued till data saturation. Data was analyzed through the Collaizzi method and validated. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of data (credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability) were employed (Guba and Lincoln). Basic codes extracted from the analyzed data were categorized into two main themes and related subthemes, including (1) tangible teachings (analytic intelligence, technical intelligence, legal duties) and (2) implied teachings (professionalism, professional discipline, professional difficulties). Ward round teaching is a valuable opportunity for learners to learn not only patient care aspects but also ethical values. By appropriate planning, opportunities can be used to teach capabilities that are expected of general practitioners.
Full Text Available Background: Medical students spend most of their time in hospital wards and it is necessary to study clinical educational opportunities. This study was aimed to explore faculty members′ experience on Ward Round Teaching content. Methods and Materials: This qualitative study was conducted by purposive sampling with the maximum variation of major clinical departments faculty members in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (n = 9. Data gathering was based on deep and semi-structured interviews. Data gathering continued till data saturation.Data was analyzed through the Collaizzi method and validated. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of data (credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability were employed (Guba and Lincoln. Results: Basic codes extracted from the analyzed data were categorized into two main themes and related subthemes, including (1 tangible teachings (analytic intelligence, technical intelligence, legal duties and (2 implied teachings (professionalism, professional discipline, professional difficulties. Conclusion: Ward round teaching is a valuable opportunity for learners to learn not only patient care aspects but also ethical values. By appropriate planning, opportunities can be used to teach capabilities that are expected of general practitioners.
Houchens, Nathan; Harrod, Molly; Fowler, Karen E; Moody, Stephanie; Saint, Sanjay
Clinical reasoning is a crucial component of training in health professions. These cognitive skills are necessary to provide quality care and avoid diagnostic error. Much previous literature has focused on teaching clinical reasoning in nonclinical environments and does not include learner reflections. The authors sought to explore, through multiple perspectives including learners, techniques used by exemplary inpatient clinician-educators for explicitly cultivating clinical reasoning. The authors conducted (2014-2015) a multisite, exploratory qualitative study examining how excellent clinician-educators foster clinical reasoning during general medicine rounds. This was accomplished through interviews of educators, focus group discussions with learners, and direct observations of clinical teaching. The authors reviewed field notes and transcripts using techniques of thematic analysis. Twelve clinician-educators, 57 current learners, and 26 former learners participated in observations and interviews. The techniques and behaviors of educators were categorized into 4 themes, including 1) emphasizing organization and prioritization, 2) accessing prior knowledge, 3) thinking aloud, and 4) analyzing the literature. The findings of this comprehensive study both confirm strategies found in previous literature and provide novel approaches. This is the first study to incorporate the perspectives of learners. Educators' techniques and behaviors, identified through direct observation and supported by reflections from the entire team, can inform best practices for the teaching of clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Melanie I Stefan
Full Text Available The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014 show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others.
Stefan, Melanie I; Gutlerner, Johanna L; Born, Richard T; Springer, Michael
The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014) show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others.
McMillan, Wendy Jayne
Dental educators complain that students struggle to apply what they have learnt theoretically in the clinical context. This paper is premised on the assumption that there is a relationship between conceptual thinking and clinical reasoning. The paper provides a theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between conceptual learning and clinical reasoning. A review of current literature is used to explain the way in which conceptual understanding influences clinical reasoning and the transfer of theoretical understandings to the clinical context. The paper argues that the connections made between concepts are what is significant about conceptual understanding. From this point of departure the paper describes teaching strategies that facilitate the kinds of learning opportunities that students need in order to develop conceptual understanding and to be able to transfer knowledge from theoretical to clinical contexts. Along with a variety of teaching strategies, the value of concept maps is discussed. The paper provides a framework for understanding the difficulties that students have in developing conceptual networks appropriate for later clinical reasoning. In explaining how students learn for clinical application, the paper provides a theoretical framework that can inform how dental educators facilitate the conceptual learning, and later clinical reasoning, of their students.
A software program developed by OPTEL has been evaluated for use in consultation and interactive teaching in pediatric radiology in a university system with three interconnected hospitals. The system uses IBM PC hardware. Screen capture allows users to run graphics and text in foreground and permits conventional television images to be grabbed and stored. Images are retrieved using a graphics tablet and pen. Annotation of the graphics tablet permits arrows and other indicators to be superimposed on radiographs. Color and black-and-white images can be transmitted from any hospital site with television imaging capability and a PC. Applications in clinical practice and teaching programs via interactive telephone communication are described
Luft, Julie A.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.; Roehrig, Gillian H.; Turner, Jessica
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in the sciences are a common feature of U.S. universities that have a prominent mission of research. During the past 2 decades, increased attention has been paid to the professional development of GTAs as instructors. As a result, universities have created training programs to assist GTAs in selecting instructional methods, curricular formats, and assessments when they serve as laboratory, lecture, or discussion group instructors. Unfortunately, few studies explore the educational and instructional environment of GTAs in these reformed settings. This study was conducted to address this specific need. As a constructivist inquiry, qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze the data to elucidate the educational and instructional environment of science GTAs at a doctoral/research university in which various training programs existed. We found that GTAs worked autonomously, that traditional practices and curricula existed in laboratories, and that instructors frequently held limited views of undergraduates' abilities and motivation. Findings in this initial study about GTAs suggest that developers of GTA training programs draw on the literature regarding science teacher education, and that reward systems be instituted that recognize faculty and staff for their participation in GTA training programs.
Thangaratinam, S.; Barnfield, Gemma; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berit; Arvanitis, Theodoros N.; Horvath, Andrea R.; Zanrei, Gianni; Kunz, Regina; Suter, Katja; Walczak, Jacek; Kaleta, Anna; Rengerink, Katrien; Gee, Harry FRCOG; Mol, Ben W. J.; Khan, Khalid Saeed
Background:\\ud Evidence based medicine (EBM) is considered an integral part of medical training, but integration of teaching various EBM steps in everyday clinical practice is uncommon. Currently EBM is predominantly taught through theoretical courses, workshops and e-learning. However, clinical teachers lack confidence in teaching EBM in workplace and are often unsure of the existing opportunities for teaching EBM in the clinical setting. There is a need for continuing professional developme...
Thangaratinam, Shakila; Barnfield, Gemma; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berit; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Horvath, Andrea R; Zanrei, Gianni; Kunz, Regina; Suter, Katja; Walczak, Jacek; Kaleta, Anna; Rengerink, Katrien; Gee, Harry; Mol, Ben WJ; Khan, Khalid S
Abstract Background Evidence based medicine (EBM) is considered an integral part of medical training, but integration of teaching various EBM steps in everyday clinical practice is uncommon. Currently EBM is predominantly taught through theoretical courses, workshops and e-learning. However, clinical teachers lack confidence in teaching EBM in workplace and are often unsure of the existing opportunities for teaching EBM in the clinical setting. There is a need for continuing professional deve...
Faculty members are key stakeholders to support social work students' learning about race and racism in practice and to promote the professional standards established by the field. This qualitative study examines how 15 clinical social work faculty members teaching advanced practice in the Northeast conceptualize and incorporate their…
Teaching Hospital and Other Issues Related to Graduate Medical Education. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session (June 11, 1196).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.
This document reports testimony presented on Medicare financing of graduate medical education, as proposed by the Balanced Budget Act of 1995. Witnesses included: (1) Timothy M. Golddfarb, Director, Healthcare Systems (Oregon), who noted the importance of graduate medical education funding to teaching hospitals; (2) Leo P. Brideau of Strong…
Andrea V. Breen
Full Text Available Knowledge Translation (KT is increasingly a requirement for scholars and non-academics working in applied settings. However, few programs provide explicit training in KT. In this article we systematically explore our experiences as a multi-disciplinary group of course facilitators and students in a newly redeveloped graduate course in Evidence Based Practice and Knowledge Translation. The course was designed to emphasize handson learning, collaboration and community engagement. We reflect on the challenges we faced and the skills, knowledge and opportunities that students gained as they developed and implemented community-based KT strategies relating to refugee resettlement, young carers, and consumer attitudes, behaviour and values around food purchasing decisions. We conclude by providing recommendations for instructors and institutions for implementing learning experiences in KT that are designed for real-world impact. L’application des connaissances (AC est devenue une exigence de plus en plus fréquente pour les chercheurs et les personnes qui travaillent dans les milieux non universitaires. Toutefois, peu de programmes offrent une formation explicite en AC. Dans cet article, nous explorons systématiquement nos expériences en tant que groupe pluridisciplinaire formé de responsables de cours et d’étudiants dans un cours de cycle supérieur nouvellement remanié portant sur la pratique fondée sur les données probantes et l’application des connaissances. Le cours a été conçu pour mettre en valeur l’apprentissage pratique, la collaboration et l’engagement communautaire. Nous réfléchissons aux défis auxquels nous avons été confrontés ainsi qu’aux compétences, aux connaissances et aux opportunités que les étudiants ont acquis en développant et mettant en pratique des stratégies d’AC en milieu communautaire sur les thèmes de la réinstallation des réfugiés, des jeunes aidants et des attitudes, comportements et
Ponce de León-Castañeda, Ma Eugenia; Ruíz-Alcocer, Ma del Carmen; Lozano-Sánchez, J Rogelio
Certification in Medical Education; Strategy for Educational Formation. Origins and Follow-Up. This study is a review of the problem of educational formation in terms of an international context, and determinant factors of this need are analyzed, barriers or limitations that have prevented such a formation are highlighted, and some development proposals for educational training are offered. It is also a description of the actions that the Facultad de Medicina (Medical School) of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (National Autonomous University of Mexico) implemented from 1965 to 1996 to promote educational training. In 1997, the Diplomado en Enseñanza de la Medicina began as a new possibility for educational training. The first certification course ran in 1997, and there have been 18 courses to date, eight the Medical School and 10 at external institutions. In 1999, a follow-up questionnaire was answered by physicians trained under the certification program. Results showed that training received in the certification course had a positive effect on teaching skills of physicians who attended it, thus establishing the program as a good option for medical teachers.
Goldberg, D M; Flexer, C
Audiologists must be knowledgeable about the efficacy of aural habilitation practices because we are often the first professionals to inform parents about their child's hearing impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to document the status of graduates of one aural habilitation option; auditory-verbal. A consumer survey was completed by graduates from auditory-verbal programs in the United States and Canada. Graduates were queried regarding degree and etiology of hearing loss, age of onset, amplification, and educational and employment history, among other topics. Results indicated that the majority of the respondents were integrated into regular learning and living environments.
Evidence-based best practices for improving undergraduate STEM education abound. Unfortunately, these practices have not been widely adopted, in part because typical dissemination efforts are mediated in a top-down fashion and fail to obtain critical buy-in from key local stakeholders. Here, we present a novel framework to increase nationwide uptake of STEM-education best practices through grassroots propagation of Professional Development programs for Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTA-PD). Our model pays special attention to overcoming resistance to change by soliciting, from the very start, critical buy-in from departmental chairs, faculty, and GTAs who have direct control over and responsibility for instruction. A key component of our approach involves an annual National GTA Workshop where faculty-GTA leadership teams from many different Physics and Chemistry departments come together to develop best-practices-based GTA-PD improvement plans for their own departments while guided by a core group of nationally recognized expert practitioners in GTA-PD and STEM education. As a pre-condition for participation, each department chair must pledge to facilitate implementation of their leadership team's plan; additional and ongoing support is provided by the core group of experts, together with other teams from the workshop cohort. Our initial pilot efforts point to success via enthusiastic buy-in within each STEM department due to the potential for immediate positive impacts on both undergraduate instruction and the long term research productivity of GTAs. In the future, longitudinal data on the progress of the GTA-PD programs will be gathered and analyzed to provide guidance for improving the success of future GTA-PD programs. Financial support provided by the Research Corporation for Science Advancement and the American Chemical Society.
Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Handa, Manavi
Clinical instructors in health care disciplines are charged with engaging students in experiential learning wherein respect and cultural sensitivity is applied. This article reports on the results of 3 diversity workshops conducted for clinical preceptors and field instructors from various disciplines. The workshops were developed in response to students' growing concerns that their academic learning experiences were negatively affected by dissatisfying management of differences between students, faculty, and preceptors with respect to ethno-racial group membership, socioeconomic level, and degree of privilege and power. The workshops included a didactic session that presented basic principles of social and health equity followed by small-group reflection about various ethical and moral dilemmas that were presented in clinical education scenarios. Examples of discrimination on a variety of levels were addressed in these workshops, including race, ethnicity, immigration status, sexual orientation, religion, body size and appearance, ability, age, socioeconomic class, religious faith, and gender. The group exercises and discussion from these sessions provided valuable insight and approaches to difficult but common areas of discomfiture encountered in the clinical teaching setting. This article presents the findings from participants of these diversity workshops in order to encourage the application of equity principles into clinical teaching in midwifery and other health care education contexts. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Pitjeng-Mosabala, Phihlo; Rollnick, Marissa
This study investigates the development of Topic-Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TSPCK) of 14 novice uncertified graduate science teachers during a Professional Development Intervention (PDI) on teaching particulate nature of matter. TSPCK was defined in terms of five knowledge components: learner prior knowledge, curricular saliency, representations, what is difficult to teach and conceptual teaching strategies. Data sources consisted of validated pre- and post-TSPCK and content knowledge (CK) tests, teacher-constructed Content Representations (CoRes) before and after teaching and, for four teachers, video-recorded lessons, and field notes together with teacher interviews. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the teachers develop TSPCK through the process. The results provide an insight into how initial construction of CoRes enabled the entire group to start thinking about how to teach the topic. For the four case-study teachers, evidence of TSPCK development was observed in their teaching. These teachers showed greater improvement in TSPCK and CK than those who taught only the prerequisite concepts of the topic. The findings show that it is possible for uncertified teachers to develop PCK in the practice context with appropriate PDI. Some improvement in PCK was also observed for the larger group who taught only prerequisite concepts.
Praveen L. Indraratna
Full Text Available Purpose. Bedside teaching (BST of medical students has become less common in recent years; however, there have been strong recommendations made in the literature to continue this teaching modality for the valued benefits it provides. The purpose of the present study is to explore the perceptions and opinions of bedside teaching among senior Australian medical students. Methods. Medical students at Australian universities were surveyed by means of an electronic questionnaire. The results were collected and analysed. Results. A total of 517 responses were received from students at 15 universities and 94 different clinical sites. The percentage of students who identified BST as very important ranged from 62.5% in psychiatry to 90.4% in internal medicine. The optimal class size was nominated as 3-4 students, and students favoured a style where one individual performs a complete examination, with the remainder allowed to elicit the key sign afterwards. Students felt 3-4 hours of BST per week to be ideal. Advantages identified to BST included provision of feedback and elicitation of clinical signs. Disadvantages included time constraints and excessive class sizes. Conclusions. The unique benefits of BST result in its high demand by students, regardless of the discipline being taught.
Graduation thesis is an indispensible procedure for each undergraduate, which is crucial for successful graduation, employment, further study and even further development. However, due to most undergraduates' ignorance of academic writing and the deficiency of current thesis writing course, thesis writing ability can hardly be enhanced and…
Tedesco, Lisa A.
The relationship between clinical teaching and research in the basic sciences is discussed. The same energy expended to enhance clinical research will also efficiently build new curricula; ease the strains associated with assigning a priority to teaching or research; and serve to further science, teaching, and technology transfer. (MLW)
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Hassankhani, Hadi; Negarandeh, Reza; Jeffrey, Carol; Azizi, Azim
Ethical studies in nursing are very important topics, and it is particularly crucial with vulnerable populations such as new graduated nurses. Neglecting ethical principles and violence toward graduates can lead to their occupational burnout, job dissatisfaction, and leaving the nursing profession. This study was designed with the aim of understanding the experience of Iranian experienced nurses' use of lateral and horizontal violence against new graduated nurses. This qualitative study used a conventional content analysis approach; it was conducted with 18 experienced nurses. Data were collected through unstructured and semi-structured interviews of various general hospital departments in northwest of Iran and analyzed using methods as described by Graneheim and Lundman. Ethical considerations: This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered. "Psychological violence," "Verbal violence," "Physical violence," and "Source of violence" were four categories extracted through data analysis. Violence behaviors are instances of workplace maltreatment that damage individual nurses, quality of care, and the ethical climate of the healthcare settings. The lateral and hierarchical violence in nursing were explained by oppressed group model. This study provided the context for identifying details of various types of workplace violence against new graduated nurses. It should be approached as a health system priority that requires specific multi-dimensional methods to manage consisting of identification, strategic planning, policymaking, prevention, education, and research.
Margaret M. Briehl
Full Text Available In the absence of oxygen human life is measured in minutes. In the presence of oxygen, normal metabolism generates reactive species (ROS that have the potential to cause cell injury contributing to human aging and disease. Between these extremes, organisms have developed means for sensing oxygen and ROS and regulating their cellular processes in response. Redox signaling contributes to the control of cell proliferation and death. Aberrant redox signaling underlies many human diseases. The attributes acquired by altered redox homeostasis in cancer cells illustrate this particularly well. This teaching review and the accompanying illustrations provide an introduction to redox biology and signaling aimed at instructors of graduate and medical students.
Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Nazeer, Ishra; Athauda, Lathika; Perera, Jennifer
Medical education research in general, and those focusing on clinical settings in particular, have been a low priority in South Asia. This explorative study from 3 medical schools in Sri Lanka, a South Asian country, describes undergraduate medical students' experiences during their final year clinical training with the aim of understanding the teaching-learning experiences. Using qualitative methods we conducted an exploratory study. Twenty eight graduates from 3 medical schools participated in individual interviews. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative content analysis method. Emergent themes reveled 2 types of teaching-learning experiences, role modeling, and purposive teaching. In role modelling, students were expected to observe teachers while they conduct their clinical work, however, this method failed to create positive learning experiences. The clinical teachers who predominantly used this method appeared to be 'figurative' role models and were not perceived as modelling professional behaviors. In contrast, purposeful teaching allowed dedicated time for teacher-student interactions and teachers who created these learning experiences were more likely to be seen as 'true' role models. Students' responses and reciprocations to these interactions were influenced by their perception of teachers' behaviors, attitudes, and the type of teaching-learning situations created for them. Making a distinction between role modeling and purposeful teaching is important for students in clinical training settings. Clinical teachers' awareness of their own manifest professional characterizes, attitudes, and behaviors, could help create better teaching-learning experiences. Moreover, broader systemic reforms are needed to address the prevailing culture of teaching by humiliation and subordination.
Stalmeijer, Renée E; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Wolfhagen, Ineke H A P; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A
Clinical teaching's importance in the medical curriculum has led to increased interest in its evaluation. Instruments for evaluating clinical teaching must be theory based, reliable, and valid. The Maastricht Clinical Teaching Questionnaire (MCTQ), based on the theoretical constructs of cognitive apprenticeship, elicits evaluations of individual clinical teachers' performance at the workplace. The authors investigated its construct validity and reliability, and they used the underlying factors to test a causal model representing effective clinical teaching. Between March 2007 and December 2008, the authors asked students who had completed clerkship rotations in different departments of two teaching hospitals to use the MCTQ to evaluate their clinical teachers. To establish construct validity, the authors performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the evaluation data, and they estimated reliability by calculating the generalizability coefficient and standard error measurement. Finally, to test a model of the factors, they fitted a structural linear model to the data. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a five-factor model which fit the data well. Generalizability studies indicated that 7 to 10 student ratings can produce reliable ratings of individual teachers. The hypothesized structural linear model underlined the central roles played by modeling and coaching (mediated by articulation). The MCTQ is a valid and reliable evaluation instrument, thereby demonstrating the usefulness of the cognitive apprenticeship concept for clinical teaching during clerkships. Furthermore, a valuable model of clinical teaching emerged, highlighting modeling, coaching, and stimulating students' articulation and exploration as crucial to effective teaching at the clinical workplace.
Dimitrov, Nanda; Dawson, Debra L.; Olsen, Karyn C.; Meadows, Ken N.
This study explores how teaching development programs may facilitate the development of intercultural competence in graduate students and prepare them for communicating effectively in the global workplace after graduation. First, we describe the concept of intercultural teaching competence and examine the skills that graduate students may need to…
Full Text Available Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession’s (mistaken understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor–patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient’s psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication.
Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession's (mistaken) understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor-patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient's psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication.
Pinnock, Ralph; Anakin, Megan; Lawrence, Julie; Chignell, Helen; Wilkinson, Tim
There is increasing evidence that students at different levels of training may benefit from different methods of learning clinical reasoning. Two of the common methods of teaching are the "whole - case" format and the "serial cue" approach. There is little empirical evidence to guide teachers as to which method to use and when to introduce them. We observed 23 students from different stages of training to examine how they were taking a history and how they were thinking whilst doing this. Each student interviewed a simulated patient who presented with a straightforward and a complex presentation. We inferred how students were reasoning from how they took a history and how they described their thinking while doing this. Early in their training students can only take a generic history. Only later in training are they able to take a focused history, remember the information they have gathered, use it to seek further specific information, compare and contrast possibilities and analyze their data as they are collecting it. Early in their training students are unable to analyze data during history taking. When they have started developing illness scripts, they are able to benefit from the "serial cue" approach of teaching clinical reasoning.
Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession’s (mistaken) understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor–patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient’s psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication. PMID:28155325
Full Text Available On the gradual implementation of the new medical education reform and thoroughly applying the Educational Development Plan and the Health Care System Reform, the teaching mode of medical discipline will be changed gradually by following the law of medical education and meeting the need to boost the medical education reform. Meanwhile, the changing life-style prompts the traditional dispensing mode for Chinese traditional medicine to various modes. This changing put forward higher requirement for medicine- related professionals During the process of Chinese medicine teaching, the only method which can fulfill the new need for graduates of Chinese medicine and qualified medicine personals is to change the traditional teaching mode to the new ones which can arose the enthusiasm of working and learning by the traditional medicine students.
Addy, Tracie M.; Blanchard, Margaret R.
Reform-minded practices are widely encouraged during pre-service science teacher education in concert with national reform documents. This contrasts to the nature of instruction within university science laboratories in which pre-service teachers enrol, which are largely confirmatory in nature. Undergraduate science laboratories are taught predominantly by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) with minimal teacher preparation. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate the instructional practices and teacher beliefs of eight GTAs at a university with very high research activity who completed a reform-minded Teacher Certificate Programme, asking: What are their beliefs about teaching? How are their practices described? Do their beliefs and practices differ from one another? Do their teaching beliefs correspond with their practices? Findings indicate that GTAs held moderately reform-minded "transitional" beliefs of teaching following the programme, yet displayed fairly traditional instruction. Cross-case findings highlight similar patterns across subscales of the RTOP that draw attention to underlying constraints of the laboratory curriculum structure. We suggest that GTA professional development is best undertaken concurrent with laboratory course revision.
Nassif, Joseph; Sleiman, Abdul-Karim; Nassar, Anwar H; Naamani, Sima; Sharara-Chami, Rana
Clinical breast examination (CBE) is traditionally taught to third-year medical students using a lecture and a tabletop breast model. The opportunity to clinically practice CBE depends on patient availability and willingness to be examined by students, especially in culturally sensitive environments. We propose the use of a hybrid simulation model consisting of a standardized patient (SP) wearing a silicone breast simulator jacket and hypothesize that this, compared to traditional teaching methods, would result in improved learning. Consenting third-year medical students (N = 82) at a university-affiliated tertiary care center were cluster-randomized into two groups: hybrid simulation (breast jacket + SP) and control (tabletop breast model). Students received the standard lecture by instructors blinded to the randomization, followed by randomization group-based learning and practice sessions. Two weeks later, participants were assessed in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), which included three stations with SPs blinded to the intervention. The SPs graded the students on CBE completeness, and students completed a self-assessment of their performance and confidence during the examination. CBE completeness scores did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.889). Hybrid simulation improved lesion identification grades (p simulation relieved the fear of missing a lesion on CBE (p = 0.043) and increased satisfaction with the teaching method among students (p = 0.002). As a novel educational tool, hybrid simulation improves the sensitivity of CBE performed by medical students without affecting its specificity. Hybrid simulation may play a role in increasing the confidence of medical students during CBE.
Rural health care facilities are geographically remote, tend to be small, and often possess limited resources. Although newly graduated registered nurses are important to the work force of many rural communities, maintaining a formal preceptorship/mentorship program within a rural hospital may prove difficult as a result of limited resources. Unfortunately, the new graduate may become overwhelmed by the many expectations for clinical practice and the facility can experience high turnover rates of new graduate hires. This article explores the unique traits of the rural hospital and the new graduate nurse as well as the pros and cons of a formal preceptorship program within a rural setting. Constructivist learning theory is used to develop practical teaching strategies that can be used by the preceptor and the new graduate. These strategies are inexpensive, yet effective, and are feasible for even the smallest of facilities. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Tolsgaard, Martin G; Gustafsson, Amandus; Rasmussen, Maria B
AIM: The aim of this study is to compare student teachers and clinical associate professors regarding the quality of procedural skills teaching in terms of participants' technical skills, knowledge and satisfaction with the teaching. METHODS: This is an experimental, randomized, controlled study....... CONCLUSION: Trained student teachers can be as good as associate professors in teaching clinical skills. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep...... comparing the teaching of student teachers and associate professors regarding participants' learning outcome and satisfaction with the teaching. Two skills are chosen for the experiment, i.v.-access and bladder catheterization. Learning outcome is assessed by a pre- and post testing of the participants...
Hanson, Joshua T; Pierce, Read G; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet
Regulations that restrict resident work hours and call for increased resident supervision have increased attending physician presence in the hospital during the nighttime. The resulting increased interactions between attendings and trainees provide an important opportunity and obligation to enhance the quality of learning that takes place in the hospital between 6 PM and 8 AM. Nighttime education should be transformed in a way that maintains clinical productivity for both attending and resident physicians, integrates high-quality teaching and curricula, and achieves a balance between patient safety and resident autonomy. Direct observation of trainees, instruction in communication, and modeling of cost-efficient medical practice may be more feasible during the night than during daytime hours. To realize the potential of this educational opportunity, training programs should develop skilled nighttime educators and establish metrics to define success.
The purposes of this investigation were (1) to examine the findings of effectiveness of the process of learning-by-doing; (2) to develop students' skill of designing English teaching materials and teaching English language; and (3) to determine an efficient format of learning-by-doing used for training student-teachers in the skill of teaching…
Full Text Available Introduction The federal democratic republic government of Ethiopia has practiced the education training policy since 1994. The target of the policy has been the improvement of access quality relevance equity efficiency in education sector In order to enhance the implementation of the policy several programs and interventions have been introduced such as system of training quality teachers both pre-service and in-service USAID and MOE 2008. This research work has intended to assess the reaction of the 2012 graduates of Adwa teachers and educational leadership College after they covered their three years training program and prepared to celebrate their graduation. Objective Assess the reaction of the senior trainees to the quality of the training program and identify specific areas that need further intervention. Methodology-institutional based cross sectional study design was employed. This research work has been carried by dispatching 250 questionnaires randomly to 2012 graduate students of Adwa Teachers and Educational leadership College. Among these 220 88 returned. In total among the 424 2012 graduates of Adwa Teachers and Educational leadership College 220 51.9 were involved in responding the questionnaires. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively entering in to a computer using SPSS version 16 using Ch-square Annova Sign test. Result- Among the respondents of this pre-service teachers training majority 152 69 entered to the training with interest towards the teaching profession whereas 68 31 entered without interest. Majority of the trainees 111 73 had joined to the training with interest to the teaching profession because the profession plays a role as foundation for the development of the country. Among of the trainee who joined to the training without interest to the profession 59 86.8 were with negative attitude to the profession because teachers are with subsistence life condition. Majority of the trainees weather heshe entered
Due to unsatisfactory number of researches investigating ELT post-graduate programs, and perceptions of academics and students in these programs regarding mediation theory of Feuerstein, this study attempted to investigate the aspects of this theory in doctorate and master programs in ELT department of a state university. Methodologically, this…
Dahiya, Sunita; Dahiya, Rajiv
Theory and practicals are two essential components of pharmacy course curriculum; but in addition to appearing and passing examination with good score grades, pharmacy post graduation (PG) pursuing students are essentially required to develop some professional skills which might not be attained solely by conventional class room programs. This…
Thielen, Joanna; Samuel, Sara M.; Carlson, Jake; Moldwin, Mark
Engineering researchers face increasing pressure to manage, share, and preserve their data, but these subjects are not typically a part of the curricula of engineering graduate programs. To address this situation, librarians at the University of Michigan, in partnership with the Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering Department, developed a…
To investigate if there was an agreement between the students and supervisors on the quality of clinical teaching in Restorative Dentistry in the Dublin Dental School and Hospital and to identify differences on how effective clinical teaching is perceived between three academic years. In addition it aimed to identify the existence of any similarities between students\\' and supervisors\\' perceptions of specific teaching behaviours that are most and least helpful in learning.
Thoresen, Carol Wiggins
This study determined if the training provided physics teaching assistants was sufficient to accomplish the objectives of inquiry-based tutorials for an introductory physics course. Qualitative research methods were used: (1) to determine if the Physics by Inquiry method was modeled; (2) to describe the process from the teaching assistant perspective; (3) to determine TA opinions on training methods; (4) to develop a frame of reference to better understand the role of TA's as instructional support staff. The study determined that the teaching assistants verbalized appropriate instructional actions, but were observed to use a predominantly didactic teaching style. TA's held a variety of perceptions and beliefs about inquiry -based learning and how science is learned. They felt comfortable in the role of tutorial instructor. They were satisfied with the training methods provided and had few suggestions to change or improve training for future tutorial instructors. A concurrent theme of teacher action dependent on teacher beliefs was sustained throughout the study. The TA's actions, as tutorial instructors, reflected their educational beliefs, student background and learning experiences. TA's performance as tutorial instructors depended on what they think and believe about learning science. Practical implications exist for training teaching assistants to be tutorial instructors. Some recommendations may be appropriate for TA's required to use instructional methods that they have not experienced as students. Interview prospective teaching assistants to determine educational experience and beliefs. Employ inexperienced teaching assistants whose perspectives match the proposed instructional role and who might be more receptive to modeling. Incorporate training into staff meetings. Provide time for TA's to experience the instructional model with simulation or role play as students and as instructors, accompanied by conference discussion. Use strategies known to enhance
Juan L. Castejón
Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyse the role of intellectual, personal and emotional competencies as well as technical knowledge - academic achievement - in the employment of university graduates, with the purpose of incorporating these competencies into training programmes developed within the European Framework of Higher Education. This study is based on an initial sample of 118 university graduates in the field of education. We have gathered information about academic achievement and the intellectual, personal and emotional traits of this sample. From these data, and given the importance of non-intellectual aspects of intelligence associated with professional success, the specific contribution -incremental validity - of personal and emotional intelligence in explaining theemployment - labour integration - of university graduates in the field of education is studied. From this point onwards, we attempt to identify the key socio-emotional competencies in the field of education in order to establish the implications of including this type of skills in university training programmes within the European Higher Education Area.
Anadolu University, Open Education Faculty, Turkish Language and Literature Department Graduated Students' Views towards Pedagogical Formation Training Certificate, Special Teaching Methods Courses and Turkish Language and Literature Education from: Sample of Turkey
The aim of this study is to find out Anadolu University Open Education Faculty Turkish Language and Literature graduated students' views towards Pedagogical Formation Training certificate and their opinions about special teaching methods. This study has been done in one of the universities of East Karadeniz in Turkey in which the 20 Turkish…
Kim, Eun-Kyeung; Shin, Sujin
Clinical nurses play a vital role in clinical practice education; thus, it is necessary to help clinical nurses have teaching efficacy through the development and application of systematic education programs. To identify nurses' teaching efficacy for clinical education and analyze the influencing factors of teaching efficacy. The study used a cross-sectional design. We used a convenience sample of 263 nurses from two hospitals. Teaching efficacy, general characteristics, and perception of clinical practice education were collected via self-reported questionnaires. Teaching efficacy was measured using Hwang's (2006) questionnaire, while perception of clinical practice education was measured using the Clinical Nurse Teacher Survey developed by Nishioka et al. (2014). Participants completed the questionnaire directly. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVAs, and multiple regression analysis with PASW Statistics 18.0. The mean total score of teaching efficacy was 72.5 (range 21-105). The leadership for students subscale had the highest score (3.56±0.59). The factors influencing teaching efficacy were length of clinical career (β=0.26, pteaching efficacy in nurses. Based on these results, nursing educators might need to develop greater confidence in their knowledge and enhance control of their teaching strategies. Nursing schools and hospitals might need to provide greater support and educational opportunities to nurse clinical practice instructors. Furthermore, constructing a system of cooperation between these colleges and educational hospitals, developing programs to enhance teaching efficacy, and identifying the clinical instructor's role are all necessary to promote clinical practice education. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Blouin, Robert A.; And Others
The structure, components, and anticipated outcomes of a University of Kentucky doctoral program in pharmacology are described. The program is designed to develop pharmacy-trained specialists who are interested in rigorous, intensive clinical experience, state-of-the-art coursework, and integrated laboratory-based and clinical dissertation…
Austin, Zubin; Dean, Marie Rocchi
The use of distance education for clinical skills development in the health professions has not been extensively described, due in part to the intensive nature of the relationship between the patient and practitioner. In the context of pharmacy practice, there are specific needs to develop new vehicles for clinical skills education due to growing…
Full Text Available Introduction: Among the factors that are involved in medical education, undoubtedly feedback is a special place. Feedback is a link between assessment and learning. Student satisfaction has an important indicator in the quality of learning and teaching. Learning is also associated with the satisfaction of students from the courses. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of feedback in clinical education. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on all of the seventh term nursing students in the faculty of Nursing and Midwifery in Arak and shazand cities. In the first semester in 93-94, they were trained post-CCU ward. The participants were selected through the census procedure. The students in both groups (intervention and control were selected randomly in subgroups of 7 and 8 participants. In each group, the students were trained for 4 weeks in the morning shift. To determine the effects of these two methods, after completion of each of the training courses, all of the students completed the questionnaires and the results were compared. Results: The results showed that the intervention and the control groups were similar in terms of demographic characteristics (gender, indigenous and student work experience and there was no statistically significant difference. Therefore, the mean of overall student satisfaction scores in the intervention group was higher than the control group. In all of the levels, the intervention group had more satisfaction compared to the control one. Statistical test showed a significant difference between the two groups (P <0/003. Conclusion: Generally, it can be said that the immediate and planned feedbacks during the training were offered to students and it could lead the way clinical training in the correct direction. So, the student satisfaction was increased with this process.
von Bernstorff, W; Irmer, H; Menges, P; Peters, S; Heidecke, C-D; Busemann, A
Background: History taking and systematic clinical examination are central techniques of physicians. Medicine in general and surgery in particular frequently require immediate decisions and start of therapies. So far, a standardised surgical system for history taking and clinical examination in teaching has been lacking at our faculty. A consensus of all medical faculties on a standardised system could be a tool to improve the medical teaching and education at our teaching institutions. Methods: The established Anglo-Saxonian system of history taking and clinical examination was adapted to our own clinical needs. Thereafter, this system was sent out to all chairmen of general and visceral surgery departments in German University Hospitals asking for evaluation and improvements. We adapted the system according to the chairmen's comments and suggestions. Since winter semester 2011 this system has been integrated into the clinical course of history taking and examination. It is compulsory for all 5th semester students (first clinical year/graduate course) at the Universitätsmedizin Greifswald. In addition, a video was produced demonstrating all major techniques of clinical examination. This video is available for all students on a password blocked site of the World Wide Web. Results: Altogether, 89 % of all contacted chairmen returned their comments and suggestions for improvements. After implementation of the new system, positive evaluations of students increased significantly from 63.5 to 77.0 % in general and abdominal surgery (p history taking and clinical examination applicable for students as well as qualified surgeons in daily routine work. It has been approved by the majority of the departments of surgery of all German university hospitals. Furthermore, it can be applied by other medical specialties, in particular, internal medicine. Furthermore, the standardisation of history taking and clinical examination can contribute to improve patients' safety as
Haase, Patricia T.; And Others
Three Florida associate degree in nursing (ADN) demonstration projects of the Nursing Curriculum Project (NCP) are described, and the history of the ADN program and current controversies are reviewed. In 1976, the NCP of the Southern Regional Education Board issued basic assumptions about the role of the ADN graduate, relating them to client…
Greenberg, Julie; Jacobs, Sandi
As a follow up to National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ's) national studies of how well elementary teachers are prepared to teach reading and mathematics, NCTQ looks at preparation in both subjects in all undergraduate teacher preparation programs in New Mexico. This analysis evaluated New Mexico's eight undergraduate elementary teacher…
Fredrickson, William E.; Moore, Christopher; Gavin, Russell
The present study was designed to pilot test an adjusted version of a questionnaire, used in earlier studies with college music students, to determine opinions of college music faculty on the topic of private lesson teaching. Full-time tenure-track college music faculty, with primary appointments in applied music at two universities in the United…
Noeli Antonia Pimentel Vaz
Full Text Available The University has as one of its pillars the teaching, research and extension triad. Only through the articulation between these three activities can higher education institutions fulfill their role: to fully form citizens capable of acting critically and reflexively in society. This work aims to present the experience of the Degree in Computer Science of the Center for Teaching and Learning in Network of the State University of Goiás in the curricular component Supervised Stage. Through this component the students went to elementary schools in their municipalities to analyze and intervene to propose improvements in the teaching-learning process, using computational resources with pedagogical functionalities. After the course of research and intervention, the academics presented their research papers to a committee made up of professors from the area at the First Scientific Meeting of the CEAR / UEG, and from these works, the best ones were selected and presented their work, also in the III Congress of Teaching, Research and Extension of UEG. In these two moments the academics had access to updated information in their area of professional training and / or study; Discussed with the academic community, through the presentation of relevant thematic banners. In this way, they had the opportunity to reflect the professional training panorama of the degrees, exchanging experiences and interacting with teachers / researchers in the area.
Fatikhu Yatuni Asmara
Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical learning is the centre of medical students education. Students not only learn about practical skills but also communication with patient and other health care givers which both competencies are useful for students when they come into working world (Spencer, 2003. There are variations of methods applied in clinical learning process; one of them is bedside teaching. The aim of this study was to observe the bedside teaching process which is held in group of students, teacher, and patient. Another aim was to know responses of students, teacher, and patients to the bedside teaching process. Method: The method which was applied in this study is observation in which bedside teaching process was observed related to the roles and function of each component of bedside teaching: students, teacher, and patient in each phase: preparation, process, and evaluation. Then it was continued by interview to know the responses of students, teacher, and patient related to bedside teaching process. Result: The result showed that both students and teacher felt that bedside teaching is an effective method since it helped students to achieve their competences in clinical setting and develop their communication skill. Furthermore teacher stated that bedside teaching facilitated her to be a good role model for students. As well as students and teacher, patient got advantage from the bedside teaching process that she got information related to her case; however the time to discuss was limited. During the observation, each component of bedside teaching did their roles and function, such as: during the preparation teacher asked inform consent from patient, and patient gave inform consent as well while students prepared the material. Discussions: Suggestion for next research is conducting a deeper study about perception of students, teacher, and patient about bedside teaching process and the strategies to develop it to be better method. Keywords: bedside
Boerboom, Tobias B B; Mainhard, Tim; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, A D C
Students are a popular source of data to evaluate the performance of clinical teachers. Instruments to obtain student evaluations must have proven validity. One aspect of validity that often remains underexposed is the possibility of effects of between-student differences and teacher and student characteristics not directly related to teaching performance. The authors examined the occurrence of such effects, using multilevel analysis to analyse data from the Maastricht clinical teaching questionnaire (MCTQ), a validated evaluation instrument, in a veterinary curriculum. The 15-item MCTQ covers five domains. The authors used multilevel analysis to divide the variance in the domain scores in components related to, respectively, teachers and students. They estimated subsequent models to explore how the MCTQ scores are dependent on teacher and student characteristics. Significant amounts of variance in student ratings were due to between-teacher differences, particularly for learning climate, modelling and coaching. The effects of teacher and student characteristics were mostly non-significant or small. Large portions of variance in MCTQ scores were due to differences between teachers, while the contribution of student and teacher characteristics was negligible. The results support the validity of student ratings obtained with the MCTQ for evaluating teacher performance.
Dybowski, Christoph; Sehner, Susanne; Harendza, Sigrid
Being exposed to good teachers has been shown to enhance students' knowledge and their clinical performance, but little is known about the underlying psychological mechanisms that provide the basis for being an excellent medical teacher. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) postulates that more self-regulated types of motivation are associated with higher performance. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) focuses on self-efficacy that has been shown to be positively associated with performance. To investigate the influences of different types of teaching motivation, teaching self-efficacy, and teachers' perceptions of students' skills, competencies and motivation on teaching quality. Before the winter semester 2014, physicians involved in bedside teaching in internal medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf completed a questionnaire with sociodemographic items and instruments measuring different dimensions of teaching motivation as well as teaching self-efficacy. During the semester, physicians rated their perceptions of the participating students who rated the teaching quality after each lesson. We performed a random intercept mixed-effects linear regression with students' ratings of teaching quality as the dependent variable and students' general interest in a subject as covariate. We explored potential associations between teachers' dispositions and their perceptions of students' competencies in a mixed-effects random intercept logistic regression. 94 lessons given by 55 teachers with 500 student ratings were analyzed. Neither teaching motivation nor teaching self-efficacy were directly associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Teachers' perceptions of students' competencies and students' general interest in the lesson's subject were positively associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Physicians' perceptions of their students' competencies were significantly positively predicted by their teaching self-efficacy. Teaching quality
Norcini, John J.; And Others
A study assessed the effectiveness of medical resident training programs during 1983-88 by evaluating students' certification scores and comparing them to the program's evaluation of students' clinical competence. Results are reported and analyzed for top-rated, university-affiliated, and non-university-affiliated programs, focusing on trends over…
Hassan, Bahaeldin A; Elfaki, Omer A; Khan, Muhammed A
Clinical teaching at outpatient settings is an essential part of undergraduate medical students' training. The increasing number of students in many medical schools and short hospital stays makes inpatient teaching alone insufficient to provide students with the required clinical skills. To make up this shortfall, outpatient clinical teaching has been implemented by our Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Khalid University, KSA, throughout the academic year 2015-2016. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of clinical teaching at outpatient settings on the academic performance of our students. In this comparative retrospective study, the effects of outpatient clinical teaching of obstetrics and gynecology on the academic performance of student was assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). During their course on obstetrics and gynecology, 58 students had their clinical teaching both at inpatient and outpatient settings and constituted "study group". The remaining 52 students had clinical teaching only at inpatient settings and were considered "control group". Students in both groups sat for OSCE at the end of week 8 of the gynecology course. Students in both groups sat for OSCE at the end of week 8 of the gynecology course. Four stations were used for assessment: obstetric history, gynecological history, obstetric physical examination of pregnant women, and gynecological procedure station. Twenty marks were allocated for each station giving a total score of 80. The OSCE scores for study group were compared with those of the control group using Student's t -test; p performance in OSCE. There is evidence of remarkable improvement in the mastery of clinical skills as manifested in the students' scores in physical examination and procedures stations. These results will encourage us to have clinical teaching in other disciplines at outpatient settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation training has potential in developing clinical skills in pre-clinical medical students, but there is little evidence on its effectiveness. Methods Twenty four first year graduate entry preclinical medical students participated in this crossover study. They were divided into two groups, one performed chest examination on each other and the other used SimMan. The groups then crossed over. A pretest, midtest and post-test was conducted in which the students answered the same questionnaire with ten questions on knowledge, and confidence levels rated using a 5 point Likert scale. They were assessed formatively using the OSCE marking scheme. At the end of the session, 23 students completed a feedback questionnaire. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Results When the two groups were compared, there was no significant difference in the pretest and the post-test scores on knowledge questions whereas the midtest scores increased significantly (P Mean confidence ratings increased from the pretest to midtest and then further in the post-test for both groups. Their confidence ratings increased significantly in differentiating between normal and abnormal signs [Group starting with SimMan, between pretest and midtest (P= 0.01 and group starting with peer examination, between midtest and post-test (P=0.02]. When the students’ ability to perform examination on each other for both groups was compared, there was a significant increase in the scores of the group starting with SimMan (P=0.007. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrated a significant improvement in the students’ knowledge and competence to perform chest examination after simulation with an increase in the student’s perceived levels of confidence. Feedback from the students was extremely positive. SimMan acts as a useful adjunct to teach clinical skills to preclinical medical students by providing a simulated safe environment and thus aids
Kokaliari, Efrosini; Berzoff, Joan; Byers, David S.; Fareed, Anan; Berzoff-Cohen, Jake; Hreish, Khalid
The authors were invited to teach clinical social work in the Palestinian West Bank. In order to teach, we designed a study exploring how 65 Palestinian social work students described the psychological and social effects of working under occupation. Students described social stressors of poverty, unemployment, lack of infrastructure, violence,…
Maddineshat, Maryam; Hashemi, Mitra; Besharati, Reza; Gholami, Sepideh; Ghavidel, Fatemeh
Clinical experience associated with the fear and anxiety of nursing students in the psychiatric unit. Mental health nursing instructors find it challenging to teach nursing students to deal with patients with mental disorders in an environment where they need to provide patient teaching and clinical decision-making based on evidence and new technology. To measure the effectiveness of clinical teaching of mental health courses in nursing using clinical supervision and Kirkpatrick's model evaluation in the psychiatry unit of Imam Reza Hospital, Bojnurd, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out from 2011 to 2016 on 76 nursing students from a university as part of a clinical mental health course in two semesters. The students were selected by a non-probable convenient sampling method. After completing their clinical education, each student responded to checklist questions based on the four-level Kirkpatrick's model evaluation and open questions relating to clinical supervision. Finally, all data was analyzed using the SPSS version 16. The students have evaluated clinical supervision as a useful approach, and appreciated the instructor's supportive behavior during teaching and imparting clinical skills. This has made them feel relaxed at the end of the clinical teaching course. In addition, in the evaluation through Kirkpatrick's model, more than 70% of the students have been satisfied with the method of conducting the teaching and average score of nursing students' attitude toward mental health students: Their mean self-confidence score was 18.33±1.69, and the mean score of their performance in the study was evaluated to be 93.74±5.3 from 100 points. The results of clinical mental health teaching through clinical supervision and Kirkpatrick's model evaluation show that the satisfaction, self-esteem, attitude, and skill of nursing students are excellent, thereby portraying the effectiveness of clinical teaching. But this program still needs to be reformed. To
Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Queralto, José; Solnica, Bogdan; Gruson, Damien; Tomberg, Karel; Riittinen, Leena; Baum, Hannsjörg; Brochet, Jean-Philippe; Buhagiar, Gerald; Charilaou, Charis; Grigore, Camelia; Johnsen, Anders H; Kappelmayer, Janos; Majkic-Singh, Nada; Nubile, Giuseppe; O'Mullane, John; Opp, Matthias; Pupure, Silvija; Racek, Jaroslav; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Rogic, Dunja; Špaňár, Július; Štrakl, Greta; Szekeres, Thomas; Tzatchev, Kamen; Vitkus, Dalius; Wallemacq, Pierre; Wallinder, Hans
Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of Clinical Chemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing a common platform of knowledge, skills and competency, the syllabus supports the aims of the European Commission in providing safeguards to increasing professional mobility across European borders at a time when demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing and the labour force is declining. It continues to act as a guide for the formulation of national programmes supplemented by the needs of individual country priorities.
Although regression is widely used for reading and publishing in the medical literature, no instruments were previously available to assess students' understanding. The goal of this study was to design and assess such an instrument for graduate students in Clinical and Translational Science and Public Health. A 27-item REsearch on Global Regression Expectations in StatisticS (REGRESS) quiz was developed through an iterative process. Consenting students taking a course on linear regression in a Clinical and Translational Science program completed the quiz pre- and postcourse. Student results were compared to practicing statisticians with a master's or doctoral degree in statistics or a closely related field. Fifty-two students responded precourse, 59 postcourse , and 22 practicing statisticians completed the quiz. The mean (SD) score was 9.3 (4.3) for students precourse and 19.0 (3.5) postcourse (P REGRESS quiz was internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha 0.89). The initial validation is quite promising with statistically significant and meaningful differences across time and study populations. Further work is needed to validate the quiz across multiple institutions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thangaratinam, Shakila; Barnfield, Gemma; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berit; Arvanitis, Theodoros N.; Horvath, Andrea R.; Zanrei, Gianni; Kunz, Regina; Suter, Katja; Walczak, Jacek; Kaleta, Anna; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Gee, Harry; Mol, Ben W. J.; Khan, Khalid S.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence based medicine (EBM) is considered an integral part of medical training, but integration of teaching various EBM steps in everyday clinical practice is uncommon. Currently EBM is predominantly taught through theoretical courses, workshops and e-learning. However,
Binford, Robert T.; And Others
At Cornell University Medical College one 3-hour session in dermatology is required during the second year. A teaching exercise has been developed that combines a lecture, laboratory exercises, and presentations of patients. (Author)
Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Barnfield, Gemma; Suter, Katja; Horvath, Andrea R.; Walczak, Jacek; Welminska, Anna; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berit; Arvanitis, Theodoros N.; Onody, Rita; Zanrei, Gianni; Kunz, Regina; Arditi, Chantal; Burnand, Bernard; Gee, Harry; Khan, Khalid S.; Mol, Ben W. J.
Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) improves the quality of health care. Courses on how to teach EBM in practice are available, but knowledge does not automatically imply its application in teaching. We aimed to identify and compare barriers and facilitators for teaching EBM in clinical
Yiend, Jenny; Tracy, Derek K; Sreenan, Brian; Cardi, Valentina; Foulkes, Tina; Koutsantoni, Katerina; Kravariti, Eugenia; Tchanturia, Kate; Willmott, Lucy; Shergill, Sukhi; Reedy, Gabriel
Systematic evaluations of clinical placements are rare, especially when offered alongside academic postgraduate courses. An evidence-based approach is important to allow pedagogically-driven provision, rather than that solely governed by opinion or market demand. Our evaluation assessed a voluntary clinical placement scheme allied to a mental health course. Data were collected over academic years 2010/11- 2013/14, from participating students (n = 20 to 58) and clinician supervisors (n = 10-12), using a mixed-methods cross-sectional design. Quantitative evaluation captured information on uptake, dropout, resource use, attitudes and experience, using standardized (the Placement Evaluation Questionnaire; the Scale To Assess the Therapeutic Relationship - Clinical version and the University of Toronto Placement Supervisor Evaluation) and bespoke questionnaires and audit data. Qualitative evaluation comprised two focus groups (5 clinicians, 5 students), to investigate attitudes, experience, perceived benefits, disadvantages and desired future developments. Data were analysed using framework analysis to identify a priori and emergent themes. High uptake (around 70 placements per annum), low dropout (2-3 students per annum; 5 %) and positive focus group comments suggested placements successfully provided added value and catered sufficiently to student demand. Students' responses confirmed that placements met expectations and the perception of benefit remained after completion with 70 % (n = 14) reporting an overall positive experience, 75 % (n = 15) reporting a pleasant learning experience, 60 % (n = 12) feeling that their clinical skills were enhanced and 85 % (n = 17) believing that it would benefit other students. Placements contributed the equivalent of seven full time unskilled posts per annum to local health care services. While qualitative data revealed perceived 'mutual benefit' for both students and clinicians, this was qualified by
Farahani, Mansoureh A.; Ghasemi, Hormat Sadat Emamzadeh; Nikpeyma, Nasrin; Fereidouni, Zhila; Rassouli, Maryam
Evaluation of nursing instructors? clinical teaching performance is a prerequisite to the quality assurance of nursing education. One of the most common procedures for this purpose is using student evaluations. This study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of Nursing Instructors? Clinical Teaching Performance Inventory (NICTPI). The primary items of the inventory were generated by reviewing the published literature and the existing questionnaires as well as consulting wit...
Bearor, Dawn E.
The clinical education component provided to dental hygiene students is an essential part of their development as competent practitioners. Instructor approaches to clinical teaching are therefore critical in providing quality clinical learning experiences. This study sought to identify dental hygiene students' perceptions of "best" and…
Slootweg, Irene; Lombarts, Kiki; van der Vleuten, Cees; Mann, Karen; Jacobs, Johanna; Scherpbier, Albert
Residents learn by working in a multidisciplinary context, in different locations, with many clinical teachers. Although clinical teachers are collectively responsible for residency training, little is known about the way teaching teams function. We conducted a qualitative study to explore clinical
Mills, Jonathan K A; Dalleywater, William J; Tischler, Victoria
Peer teaching is now used in medical education with its value increasingly being recognised. It is not yet established whether students differ in their satisfaction with teaching by peer-teachers compared to those taught by academic or clinical staff. This study aimed to establish satisfaction with communication skills teaching between these three teaching groups. Students participated in a role-play practical facilitated either by clinicians, peer-teachers or non-clinical staff. A questionnaire was administered to first-year medical students after participating in a communication skills role-play session asking students to evaluate their satisfaction with the session. Data were analysed in SPSS 20. One hundred and ninety eight students out of 239 (83%) responded. Students were highly satisfied with the teaching session with no difference in satisfaction scores found between those sessions taught by peers, clinical and non-clinical staff members. 158 (80%) considered the session useful and 139 (69%) strongly agreed tutors facilitated their development. There was no significant difference in satisfaction scores based on tutor background. Satisfaction is as high when tutored by peer-teachers compared to clinicians or non-clinical staff. Constructive feedback is welcomed from a range of personnel. Final-year students could play an increasing role in the teaching of pre-clinical medical students.
Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Evidence - based medicine (EBM is defined as the „conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence‟. It i s an important tool for lifelong learning in medicine, and medical students can develop the skills necessary to understand and use EBM. The teaching of EBM in Sumandeep Vidyapeeth is as part of Evidence Based Education System (EBES. The university has imp lemented the 16 hours of teaching with project work on Evidence Based Medicine in 1st MBBS and 2nd MBBS curriculum in addition to MBBS syllabus. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: This study was planned to take feedback from all the faculties those who are involved in Evi dence based Medicine teaching to evaluate their attitude and perception towards this innovative teaching method and to recommend improvements. MATERIAL & METHODS: A Descriptive, self - structured , pilot pretested questionnaire based cross sectional study was conducted in the year 2013 - 2014 among 40 faculties from 7 Departments like Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Pathology and Forensic Medicine teaching Evidence Base d Medicine to students at S.B.K.S MI & RC, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. Data was expressed as percentage. RESULTS: The response rate for the study was 75%. Almost 87% of faculties agreed that teaching EBM is a welcoming development during pre and para clinical ye ars. About 80% faculties agreed that it will help them in future clinical learning. 87% faculties agreed that literature and research searching improves their day to day teaching. About 77% of faculties have attended workshop and training held in Universit y and 83% of faculties agreed that they are interested in more learning and improving skills necessary to incorporate Evidence based medicine into their discipline. Barriers included shortage of time and need for training in teaching EBM. CONCLUSION: Facul ties of this University teaching Pre - clinical and Para - clinical medical students recognized
Full Text Available Prerna Upadhyaya,1 Vikas Seth,2 Monika Sharma,1 Mushtaq Ahmed,1 Vijay Vasant Moghe,1 Zafar Yab Khan,1 Vinay Kumar Gupta,1 Shipra Vikram Jain,1 Utkarsh Soni,1 Manohar Bhatia,1 Kumar Abhijit,1 Jaswant Goyal11Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, 2Department of Pharmacology, Hind Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, IndiaObjectives: The study aimed to review the prescribing knowledge of first-year postgraduate doctors in a medical college in India, using the principles of good prescribing, to suggest strategies to improve rational prescribing, and to recommend what curriculum planners can do to accomplish this objective.Methods: Fifty first-year postgraduate doctors were asked to fill in a structured questionnaire that sought information regarding their undergraduate training in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, prescribing habits, and commonly consulted drug information sources. Also, the questionnaire assessed any perceived deficiencies in their undergraduate clinical pharmacology teaching and sought feedback regarding improvement in the teaching.Results: Eighty-eight percent of residents said that they were taught prescription writing in undergraduate pharmacology teaching; 48% of residents rated their prescribing knowledge at graduation as average, 28% good, 4% excellent, 14% poor, and 4% very poor; 58% felt that their undergraduate training did not prepare them to prescribe safely, and 62% felt that their training did not prepare them to prescribe rationally. Fifty-eight percent of residents felt that they had some specific problems with writing a prescription during their internship training, while 92% thought that undergraduate teaching should be improved. Their suggestions for improving teaching methods were recorded.Conclusions: This study concludes that efforts are needed to develop a curriculum that encompasses important aspects of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics along with incorporation of
Beldham-Collins, Rachael; Milinkovic, Danielle
Purpose: The evaluation of the Radiation Oncology Network's (RON) in house professional development year (PDY) support program was implemented to determine the appropriate teaching, learning and transfer of learning strategies that assist the newly practicing radiation therapists' transition into the busy working environment. As the AIR program saw little clinical support offered to participating new graduates and thus a need for further educational support was felt. The RON support program was initially introduced as the clinical education support component of the NSW PDY program that was introduced in 1995 by the Australian Institute of Radiography. Method: Following the facilitation of the RON PDY program over a twelve month period, qualitative feedback was obtained using a focus group consisting of new graduates from the program. Two moderators facilitated the focus group: one moderator facilitated the discussion while the second moderator transcribed it. The graduate practitioners were asked a number of questions related to the teaching and learning strategies employed by the program as well as the structure of the program. Results/discussion: The responses were analysed into the following themes: teaching and learning strategies, transfer of learning, facilitation and future learning needs. Overall the graduate practitioners found the program nurtured their skill, knowledge and attitudes appropriately at such a critical stage in their career
Beldham-Collins, Rachael [Radiation Oncology Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, PO Box 533, Wentworthville NSW 2145 (Australia); School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Milinkovic, Danielle [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: email@example.com
Purpose: The evaluation of the Radiation Oncology Network's (RON) in house professional development year (PDY) support program was implemented to determine the appropriate teaching, learning and transfer of learning strategies that assist the newly practicing radiation therapists' transition into the busy working environment. As the AIR program saw little clinical support offered to participating new graduates and thus a need for further educational support was felt. The RON support program was initially introduced as the clinical education support component of the NSW PDY program that was introduced in 1995 by the Australian Institute of Radiography. Method: Following the facilitation of the RON PDY program over a twelve month period, qualitative feedback was obtained using a focus group consisting of new graduates from the program. Two moderators facilitated the focus group: one moderator facilitated the discussion while the second moderator transcribed it. The graduate practitioners were asked a number of questions related to the teaching and learning strategies employed by the program as well as the structure of the program. Results/discussion: The responses were analysed into the following themes: teaching and learning strategies, transfer of learning, facilitation and future learning needs. Overall the graduate practitioners found the program nurtured their skill, knowledge and attitudes appropriately at such a critical stage in their career.
Are, Chandrakanth; Suh, Melissa; Carpenter, Lauren; Stoddard, Hugh; Hamm, Vicki; DeVries, Matthew; Goldner, Whitney; Jarzynka, Kimberly; Parker, Jennifer; Simonson, Jean; Talmon, Geoffrey; Vokoun, Chad; Gold, Jeffrey; Mercer, David; Wadman, Michael
Funding for graduate medical education (GME) is becoming scarce and is likely to worsen. There is a higher degree of accountability and return on investment demanded from public funds dedicated to GME. Academic centers (AC) partnered with clinical enterprises (CE) are finding it increasingly difficult to retain sustainable funding streams for GME activities. To develop and implement a novel algorithmic funding model at one AC in symbiotic partnership with the CE for all 50 GME programs with nearly 500 residents. A new GME Finance and Workforce Committee was convened which was tasked with developing the novel algorithmic financial model to prioritize GME funding. Early outcomes measures that were monitored consisted of: satisfaction of all stakeholders and financial savings. The model was presented to all the stakeholders and was well received and approved. Early signs, demonstrated AC and CE satisfaction with the model, financial savings and increased efficiency. This GME funding model may serve as a template for other academic centers with tailored modifications to suit their local needs, demands and constraints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Background. Clinical educators are being challenged to graduate students who can adapt to complex situations. Evidence suggests that one must go beyond teaching students what to know and what to do, and help them learn how to be. Objective. To identify teaching strategies that could be used to help develop students ...
Hewitt, Peggy; Lewallen, Lynne Porter
Many schools of nursing are hiring part-time clinical instructors with little or no teaching experience. Although they contribute greatly to student nurses' clinical experience, many do not realize the commitment they are making when they accept such a position. If key issues are addressed before new part-time clinical instructors begin teaching, the transition could be made more smoothly. An in-depth orientation, awareness of the need for preparation for clinical rotations, and strategies to assist students in achieving course objectives can guide new instructors as they begin this venture. Preparing new part-time clinical instructors from the beginning will give them a more accurate picture of clinical education, increasing their recruitment and retention and providing students with quality learning experiences. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Bierer, S Beth; Hull, Alan L
This study explores whether a clinical teaching effectiveness (CTE) instrument provides valid scores for summative faculty assessment. The sample included all CTE instruments (n = 10,087) that learners (N = 1,194) completed to assess clinical teachers (N = 872) during 1 academic year. The authors investigated response processes (e.g., missing data, straight-line responses, level of learner), internal structure (e.g., confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis), teaching ratings by learner group (medical student or resident), and relation to other variables (e.g., correlation with global rating). Response processes identified a high prevalence of straight-line responses (same rating across all items) and differential patterns of missing data by learner group. Medical students rated their teachers higher than residents, and CTE scores had different factor structures depending on learner group. High correlation coefficients of CTE items with a single rating of overall teaching performance suggest that learners consider global performance when assessing clinical teaching performance.
Perceptions of preparedness of LBS I teachers in the state of Illinois and graduates of Illinois State University's LBS I program to collaborate in teaching grade 7--12 math, science, and social science
Caldwell, Janet E.
The expectations for no child to be left behind are leading to increased emphasis on teaching math, science, and social science effectively to students with disabilities. This study utilized information collected from online surveys to examine how current LBS I teachers and individuals graduating from the Illinois State University teacher certification program in LBS I perceive their preparedness to teach these subjects. Participants provided information about coursework and life experiences, and they made suggestions about teacher preparation and professional development programs. Six key items forming the composite variable focused on level of preparation in (a) best practices, (b) selecting materials, (c) selecting objectives, (d) adapting instructional strategies, (e) planning lessons, and (f) and evaluating outcomes. Only 30 LBS I teachers of the 282 contacted by e-mail completed surveys. Of 115 graduates contacted, 71 participated in the original survey and 23 participated in a follow-up survey. Data were analyzed to learn more about the teachers' self-perceptions regarding preparedness to teach math, science, or social science. There was a correlation between perceived level of knowledge and the composite preparation variable for all subjects, but no correlation with length of teaching. Both groups indicated high school content courses were important in preparation to teach. Teachers also indicated collaboration and graduates indicated grade school learning. The most frequent recommendation for both teacher preparation and professional development was additional methods courses. A survey distributed to math, science, and social science teachers of Grades 7--12 asked about their perceptions of the preparedness of LBS I teachers to teach their area of content. Few surveys were completed for each subject so they were examined qualitatively. There was variability among participants, but generally the content area teachers rated themselves as more prepared than
H. H. Gaeta et al.
Full Text Available Biochemistry subject in general has a high degree of difficulty and complexity. Therefore, application of playful and creative games as teaching methodology has spread in various disciplines of life sciences. "METABOLIC RIDE" board game is a conceptual and perceptual evaluation tool for metabolic biochemistry teaching, aiming to review concepts transmitted in classroom, promoting a competitive challenge to students without denying tools that are at their disposal, stimulating their skills. OBJECTIVES. Correlate metabolic routes importance and their interconnections to establish that metabolic pathways are interconnected, such as a railway map. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This game was developed based on a board game Ticket to Ride. Players purchase enzyme cards, which must be used to claim metabolic routes. The goal is to complete the route previously drawn to earn points and the player who builds the longest continuous route will also earn bonus points. In each turn, players can: buy more card, claim a route or pick up additional destination tickets. The game should be played in groups of 5 to 6 students in 6 to 8 groups. Previously there will be theoretical classes. The activity was designed to last 4 hours. Use of didatic books and internet by players are encouraged. RESULTS. This game proved to be an excellent tool for student’s complementary evaluation, which stimulated teamwork and competitiveness within classroom, which allowed to analyze student’s perception regarding metabolic subjects. On the other hand, for teacher and students participating in compulsory traineeship program this game demonstrated to students new ways to approach complex subjects in biochemistry using creativity. CONCLUSION: Overall, students had a good impression of “Metabolic Ride” game since it helped to secure and administer metabolism subject in a competitive and team work way.
Boerboom, Tobias B B; Jaarsma, Debbie; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Mastenbroek, Nicole J J M; Van Beukelen, Peter
Student evaluations can help clinical teachers to reflect on their teaching skills and find ways to improve their teaching. Studies have shown that the mere presentation of student evaluations is not a sufficient incentive for teachers to critically reflect on their teaching. We evaluated and compared the effectiveness of two feedback facilitation strategies that were identical except for a peer reflection meeting. In this study, 54 clinical teachers were randomly assigned to two feedback strategies. In one strategy, a peer reflection was added as an additional step. All teachers completed a questionnaire evaluating the strategy that they had experienced. We analysed the reflection reports and the evaluation questionnaire. Both strategies stimulated teachers to reflect on feedback and formulate alternative actions for their teaching practice. The teachers who had participated in the peer reflection meeting showed deeper critical reflection and more concrete plans to change their teaching. All feedback strategies were considered effective by the majority of the teachers. Strategies with student feedback and self-assessment stimulated reflection on teaching and helped clinical teachers to formulate plans for improvement. A peer reflection meeting seemed to enhance reflection quality. Further research should establish whether it can have lasting effects on teaching quality.
Clinical teaching evaluations are common in health profession education programs to ensure students are receiving a quality clinical education experience. Questionnaires students use to evaluate their clinical teachers have been developed in professions such as medicine and nursing. The development of a questionnaire that is specifically for the osteopathy on-campus, student-led clinic environment is warranted. Previous work developed the 30-item Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire. The current study utilised Rasch analysis to investigate the construct validity of the Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire and provide evidence for the validity argument through fit to the Rasch model. Senior osteopathy students at four institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom rated their clinical teachers using the Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire. Three hundred and ninety-nine valid responses were received and the data were evaluated for fit to the Rasch model. Reliability estimations (Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega) were also evaluated for the final model. The initial analysis demonstrated the data did not fit the Rasch model. Accordingly, modifications to the questionnaire were made including removing items, removing person responses, and rescoring one item. The final model contained 12 items and fit to the Rasch model was adequate. Support for unidimensionality was demonstrated through both the Principal Components Analysis/t-test, and the Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega reliability estimates. Analysis of the questionnaire using McDonald's omega hierarchical supported a general factor (quality of clinical teaching in osteopathy). The evidence for unidimensionality and the presence of a general factor support the calculation of a total score for the questionnaire as a sufficient statistic. Further work is now required to investigate the reliability of the 12-item Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire to provide evidence
Background. Nursing education institutions in Lesotho face an increasing number of enrolments owing to a high demand for professional nurses to work in the community. Enrolments have doubled during the last 3 years, without an increase in teaching resources or staff. Professional nurses in the wards are expected to ...
Full Text Available Introduction: In a four-year undergraduate level , the nursing students have to get prepared in the patients education, designing care plans, applying nursing processes and exercise the clinical decisions, in addition to learning practical skills. Therefore, multiple clinical teaching strategies in nursing must be applied. In this study the sheets for the mentioned fields were designed and used. Methods: In this action research in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 64 nursing senior students and related instructors participated. Clinical written assignment included the patient’s health condition sheet, tables showing the used medicines and the precautions, the clinical and paraclinical tests and the results, identifying the patient problems, designing and implementing care plan and writing nursing reports with SOAPIE method. The instructors’ viewpoints were achieved through the group discussions and their notes taken. The perceived competency of the students was obtained through a questionnaire. The qualitative data was analyzed by the content analysis and quantitative using SPSS. Results: Both the students and the instructors agreed with the clinical written assignment. The desired care competency of the students before and after assignment was statistically significant (p<0.05. According to the instructors, intervention was useful for the senior students who have passed the courses needed for completing and using the different parts of these forms. Conclusion: Since a need is always felt in the trends of the nursing clinical teaching, the researchers recommend the clinical written assignment and their application along with other strategies for senior nursing students in clinical teaching.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: A learning contract is defined as a written agreement between teacher and student which makes explicit what a learner will do to achieve specified learning outcomes.Learning contracts have been used as a teaching and learning strategy for both undergraduate and graduate nursing students in many countries.Methods : This research is a quasi-experimental study that compares effect of two different teaching methods , Contract learning and traditional on clinical skills for a group of nursing students who were in fourth year of study in a pre-registration bachelor of nursing degree program in Tehran . A learning contract was implemented as a learning tool in the students clinical placement in psychiatric nursing .Data were connected from questionnaires , interviews and clinical evaluation papers with students .Results : The results showed that students agreed that there was an increase in students autonomy and motivation in learning with the use of learning contract . It also increased the sharing between students and clinical instructors.Conclusion : According to the findings of this study , contract learning is considered beneficial to students learning and has the potential to be used in clinical learning .Key words : NURSING STUDENTS, LEARNING CONTRACTS , TRADITIONAL METHOD , MOTIVATION , AUTONOMY, PSYCHIATRIC WARDS .
Robinson, Cathy P
More sessional clinical educators are being employed in educational institutions today than ever before. Also identified in the literature are issues affecting sessional clinical educators' ability to develop and maintain educator competency. Using the definition of educator competency by the National League for Nursing (NLN 2005a), explored in this paper are ways of increasing sessional clinical educator competency, such as orientation and mentorship programs to support student learning in clinical environments. Approaches in the form of theoretical models designed to evaluate clinical educator competency are examined. A new Sessional Clinical Educator Competency (SCEC) Framework is offered to provide direction for implementing strategies to develop and evaluate sessional clinical educator competency. Suggested is that the SCEC framework could be useful for educational administrators and sessional clinical educators to assess clinical educator competency.
Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.; Creutz, Stefan
Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of…
Slootweg, I.; Lombarts, K.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Mann, K.; Jacobs, J.; Scherpbier, A.
Background: Residents learn by working in a multidisciplinary context, in different locations, with many clinical teachers. Although clinical teachers are collectively responsible for residency training, little is known about the way teaching teams function. Aim: We conducted a qualitative study to
Nurses need sharp, clinical reasoning skills to respond to critical situations and to be successful at work in a complex and challenging healthcare system. While past research has focused on using virtual learning environments to teach clinical reasoning, there has been limited research on the experiences of nursing faculty and there is a need for…
Phuma-Ngaiyaye, Ellemes Everret; Adejumo, Oluyinka; Dartey, Anita Fafa
Practice-based learning is important in clinical teaching of nursing and midwifery as students develop the necessary competencies and confidence aligned by the outcomes of their learning programs. However, in Malawi, research shows that clinical teaching in neonatal nursing has not been given adequate consideration. This article reports on challenges faced by educators and students in clinical teaching and learning in neonatal nursing for nurse-midwife technicians. An explorative qualitative study was conducted. Data were collected through 23 focus group discussions with 140 students and 31 clinical teachers from eight nursing colleges. Audiorecorded data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Hennink's content analysis stages. Challenges faced by clinical teachers and students were short duration and variation in clinical placements, lack of emphasis in clinical teaching, and lack of skills among clinical staff. Nursing training institutions should maximize student learning opportunities in neonatal nursing practice by creating more practice-based learning opportunities that meet the students' needs. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(4):215-221.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
The purpose of this review is to provide a framework for peer teaching and learning in the clinical education of undergraduate health science students in clinical practice settings and make clear the positive and negative aspects of this teaching and learning strategy. The practice of using peers incidentally or purposefully in the clinical education of apprentice or undergraduate health science students is a well-established tradition and commonly practiced, but lacks definition in its implementation. The author conducted a search of health science and educational electronic databases using the terms peer, clinical education and undergraduate. The set limitations were publications after 1980 (2005 inclusive), English language and research papers. Selection of studies occurred: based on participant, intervention, research method and learning outcomes, following a rigorous critical and quality appraisal with a purposefully developed tool. The results have been both tabled and collated in a narrative summary. Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria, representing five countries and four health science disciplines. This review reported mostly positive outcomes on the effectiveness of peer teaching and learning; it can increase student's confidence in clinical practice and improve learning in the psychomotor and cognitive domains. Negative aspects were also identified; these include poor student learning if personalities or learning styles are not compatible and students spending less individualized time with the clinical instructor. Peer teaching and learning is an effective educational intervention for health science students on clinical placements. Preclinical education of students congruent with the academic timetable increases student educational outcomes from peer teaching and learning. Strategies are required prior to clinical placement to accommodate incompatible students or poor student learning. The findings from this systematic review, although not
Crothers, A J; Bagg, J; McKerlie, R
A Flipped Classroom method for teaching of adult practical pre-clinical dental skills was introduced to the BDS curriculum in Glasgow during the 2015/2016 academic session. This report provides a commentary of the first year of employing this method - from the identification of the need to optimise teaching resources, through the planning, implementation and development of the method, with an early indication of performance.
Julie B. Damp
Full Text Available Introduction The authors developed and evaluated a faculty development program on clinical teaching skills to address barriers to participation and to impact teaching behaviors. Methods Four one-hour workshops were implemented over five months. Evaluation included participant satisfaction and pre/post self-assessment. Pre/post faculty teaching ratings by trainees were compared. Results A total of 82% of faculty ( N = 41 attended. Participants rated workshops highly (mean, 4.43/5.00. Self-assessment of skills and comfort with teaching activities improved. A total of 59% of residents and 40% of fellows felt that teaching received from participating faculty was highly effective. The majority observed targeted teaching behaviors by the faculty. Teaching ratings improved after the workshops ( P = 0.042. Conclusion Our series of short workshops during a standing conference time was associated with increased self-assessed skill and comfort and an increase in faculty ratings on teaching evaluations. Effective faculty development programs can be implemented in flexible formats and overcome common barriers to participation.
Damp, Julie B.; Dewey, Charlene M.; Wells, Quinn; Horn, Leora; Kroop, Susan F.; Mendes, Lisa
Introduction The authors developed and evaluated a faculty development program on clinical teaching skills to address barriers to participation and to impact teaching behaviors. Methods Four one-hour workshops were implemented over five months. Evaluation included participant satisfaction and pre/post self-assessment. Pre/post faculty teaching ratings by trainees were compared. Results A total of 82% of faculty (N = 41) attended. Participants rated workshops highly (mean, 4.43/5.00). Self-assessment of skills and comfort with teaching activities improved. A total of 59% of residents and 40% of fellows felt that teaching received from participating faculty was highly effective. The majority observed targeted teaching behaviors by the faculty. Teaching ratings improved after the workshops (P = 0.042). Conclusion Our series of short workshops during a standing conference time was associated with increased self-assessed skill and comfort and an increase in faculty ratings on teaching evaluations. Effective faculty development programs can be implemented in flexible formats and overcome common barriers to participation. PMID:29349327
A challenge facing physics education is how to encourage and support the adoption of evidence-based instructional practices that decades of physics education research has shown to be effective. Like many STEM departments, physics departments struggle to overcome the barriers of faculty knowledge, motivation and time; institutional cultures and reward systems; and disciplinary traditions. Research has demonstrated successful transformation of department-level approaches to instruction through local learning communities, in-house expertise, and department administrative support. In this talk, I will discuss how physics and other STEM departments can use a MOOC on evidence-based instruction together with in-person seminar discussions to create a learning community of graduate students and postdocs, and how such communities can affect departmental change in teaching and learning. Four university members of the 21-university network working to prepare future faculty to be both excellent researchers and excellent teachers collaborated on an NSF WIDER project to develop and deliver two massive open online courses (MOOCs) in evidence-based STEM instruction. A key innovation is a new blended mode of delivery where groups of participants engaged with the online content and then meet weekly in local learning communities to discuss content, communicate current experiences, and delve deeper into particular techniques of local interest. The MOOC team supported these so-called MOOC-Centered Learning Communities, or MCLCs, with detailed facilitator guides complete with synopses of online content, learning goals and suggested activities for in-person meetings, as well as virtual MCLC communities for sharing and feedback. In the initial run of the first MOOC, 40 MCLCs were created; in the second run this past fall, more than 80 MCLCs formed. Further, target audiences of STEM graduate students and postdocs completed at a 40-50% rate, indicating the value they place in building their
Sidhu, Navdeep S; Edwards, Morgan
We conducted a scoping review of tools designed to add structure to clinical teaching, with a thematic analysis to establish definitional clarity. Six thousand and forty nine citations were screened, 434 reviewed for eligibility, and 230 identified as meeting study inclusion criteria. Eighty-nine names and 51 definitions were identified. Based on a post facto thematic analysis, we propose that these tools be named "deliberate teaching tools" (DTTs) and defined as "frameworks that enable clinicians to have a purposeful and considered approach to teaching encounters by incorporating elements identified with good teaching practice." We identified 46 DTTs in the literature, with 38 (82.6%) originally described for the medical setting. Forty justification articles consisted of 16 feedback surveys, 13 controlled trials, seven pre-post intervention studies with no control group, and four observation studies. Current evidence of efficacy is not entirely conclusive, and many studies contain methodology flaws. Forty-nine clarification articles comprised 12 systematic reviews and 37 narrative reviews. The most number of DTTs described by any review was four. A common design theme was identified in approximately three-quarters of DTTs. Applicability of DTTs to specific alternate settings should be considered in context, and appropriately designed justification studies are warranted to demonstrate efficacy.
Khaw, Carole; Raw, Lynne
To determine the outcomes and acceptability of final-year students tutoring in Clinical Skills to Years 1-2 students in a 4-week Medical Education elective. A paper-based survey with 14 questions requiring responses on a Likert-like scale and 2 questions with free-text responses was used to investigate Year 6 student-tutor (n=45) and Years 1-2 tutee (n=348) perceptions of near-peer teaching in Clinical Skills. The independent t-test compared mean responses from student-tutors and tutees, and thematic analysis of free-text responses was conducted. Tutee perceptions were significantly higher than student-tutor self-perceptions in small-group teaching and facilitation skills (p=0.000), teaching history-taking skills (p=0.046) and teaching physical examination skills (p=0.000). Perceptions in aspects of 'Confidence in tutoring' were not significantly different for student-tutors and tutees, with both having lowest perceptions for identifying and providing remediation for underperforming tutees. Student-tutors rated all areas of personal and professional development highly. Main themes emerging from analysis of student comments were the benefits to student-tutors, benefits to tutees and areas needing improvement, with outcomes of this near-peer teaching relating well to cognitive and social theories in the literature. Both student tutors and their tutees perceived near-peer teaching in Clinical Skills to be acceptable and beneficial with particular implications for Medical Education.
Kamran Soltani Arabshahi
Full Text Available Background: Holding educational sessions in a clinical environment is a major concern for faculty members because of its special difficulties and restrictions. This study attempts to recognize the challenges of the ward round teaching through investigating the experiences of clinical teachers in 2011. Materials and Methods: This qualitative research is carried out through purposive sampling with maximum variation from among the clinical teachers of major departments in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (9 persons. The sampling continued until data saturation. Data were collected through semi-structured interview and analyzed through Collaizzi method. Data reliability and validity was confirmed through the four aspects of Lincoln and Guba method (credibility, conformability, transferability, and dependability. Results: Three major themes and their related sub-themes (minor themes were found out including the factors related to the triad of clinical teaching (patient, learner, and clinical teacher (concern about patient′s welfare, poor preparation, lack of motivation, ethical problems, factors related to the educational environment (stressful environment, humiliating environment and poor communication and the factors related to the educational system of the clinical environment (poor organizing and arrangement of resources, poor system′s monitoring, bad planning and inadequate resource. Conclusion: Ward round teaching has many concerns for teachers, and this should be recognized and resolved by authorities and teachers. If these problems are not resolved, it would affect the quality of clinical teaching.
Valiee, Sina; Moridi, Glorokh; Khaledi, Shahnaz; Garibi, Fardin
An important factor contributing to the quality of clinical education is instructors' teaching performance. The aim of this study was to identify clinical instructors' most effective teaching strategies from nursing and midwifery students' perspectives. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All third- and fourth-year bachelor's nursing and midwifery students studying at the Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences were recruited to the study by using the census method. The study instrument consisted of a demographic questionnaire and the self-report 30-item Clinical Instructors' Effective Teaching Strategies Inventory. The SPSS v.16.0 was used for data analysis. The most effective teaching strategies of clinical instructors from nursing and midwifery students' perspectives were respectively 'treating students, clients, and colleagues with respect' and 'being eager for guiding students and manage their problems'. Clinical instructors need to be eager for education and also be able to establish effective communication with students. Empowering clinical instructors in specialized and technical aspects of clinical education seems necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arabshahi, Kamran Soltani; Haghani, Fariba; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Omid, Athar; Adibi, Peyman
Holding educational sessions in a clinical environment is a major concern for faculty members because of its special difficulties and restrictions. This study attempts to recognize the challenges of the ward round teaching through investigating the experiences of clinical teachers in 2011. This qualitative research is carried out through purposive sampling with maximum variation from among the clinical teachers of major departments in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (9 persons). The sampling continued until data saturation. Data were collected through semi-structured interview and analyzed through Collaizzi method. Data reliability and validity was confirmed through the four aspects of Lincoln and Guba method (credibility, conformability, transferability, and dependability). Three major themes and their related sub-themes (minor themes) were found out including the factors related to the triad of clinical teaching (patient, learner, and clinical teacher) (concern about patient's welfare, poor preparation, lack of motivation, ethical problems), factors related to the educational environment (stressful environment, humiliating environment and poor communication) and the factors related to the educational system of the clinical environment (poor organizing and arrangement of resources, poor system's monitoring, bad planning and inadequate resource). Ward round teaching has many concerns for teachers, and this should be recognized and resolved by authorities and teachers. If these problems are not resolved, it would affect the quality of clinical teaching.
Haydar, Bishr; Charnin, Jonathan; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Baker, Keith
Clinical teachers and trainees share a common view of what constitutes excellent clinical teaching, but associations between these behaviors and high teaching scores have not been established. This study used residents' written feedback to their clinical teachers, to identify themes associated with above- or below-average teaching scores. All resident evaluations of their clinical supervisors in a single department were collected from January 1, 2007 until December 31, 2008. A mean teaching score assigned by each resident was calculated. Evaluations that were 20% higher or 15% lower than the resident's mean score were used. A subset of these evaluations was reviewed, generating a list of 28 themes for further study. Two researchers then, independently coded the presence or absence of these themes in each evaluation. Interrater reliability of the themes and logistic regression were used to evaluate the predictive associations of the themes with above- or below-average evaluations. Five hundred twenty-seven above-average and 285 below-average evaluations were evaluated for the presence or absence of 15 positive themes and 13 negative themes, which were divided into four categories: teaching, supervision, interpersonal, and feedback. Thirteen of 15 positive themes correlated with above-average evaluations and nine had high interrater reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient >0.6). Twelve of 13 negative themes correlated with below-average evaluations, and all had high interrater reliability. On the basis of these findings, the authors developed 13 recommendations for clinical educators. The authors developed 13 recommendations for clinical teachers using the themes identified from the above- and below-average clinical teaching evaluations submitted by anesthesia residents.
Northam, Holly L; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Grealish, Laurie; Mak, Anita S
Australia's immigration policy has generated a rich diverse cultural community of staff and patients in critical care environments. Many different cultural perspectives inform individual actions in the context of critical care, including the highly sensitive area of end of life care, with nurses feeling poorly prepared to provide culturally sensitive end of life care. This article describes and evaluates the effectiveness of an educational innovation designed to develop graduate-level critical care nurses' capacity for effective interpersonal communication, as members of a multi-disciplinary team in providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care. A mixed method pilot study was conducted using a curriculum innovation intervention informed by The Excellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Program (EXCELL),(1) which is a higher education intervention which was applied to develop the nurses' intercultural communication skills. 12 graduate nursing students studying critical care nursing participated in the study. 42% (n=5) of the participants were from an international background. Information about students' cultural learning was recorded before and after the intervention, using a cultural learning development scale. Student discussions of end of life care were recorded at Week 2 and 14 of the curriculum. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistical analysis and qualitative data was thematically analysed. Students demonstrated an increase in cultural learning in a range of areas in the pre-post surveys including understandings of cultural diversity, interpersonal skills, cross cultural interactions and participating in multicultural groups. Thematic analysis of the end of life discussions revealed an increase in the levels of nurse confidence in approaching end of life care in critical care environments. The EXCELL program provides an effective and supportive educational framework to increase graduate nurses' cultural learning
Scott, Karen M; Caldwell, Patrina Hy; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Barrett, Jenny
To generate a contemporary understanding of "teaching by humiliation" as experienced by medical students in Australia. In this pilot study, we surveyed final-stage medical students from two Australian medical schools about their experiences of teaching by humiliation during their adult and paediatric clinical rotations. The students were invited to complete the anonymous survey at the end of their paediatric rotation in Semester 2 of 2013. We used descriptive statistics to analyse quantitative data, and a grounded theory approach to analyse qualitative data. Student reports of experiencing or witnessing teaching by humiliation during their adult and paediatric clinical rotations. Of 151 students invited to participate, 146 (96.7%) completed the survey. Most students reported experiencing (108; 74.0%) or witnessing (118; 83.1%) teaching by humiliation during adult clinical rotations. Smaller but still sizeable proportions had experienced (42; 28.8%) or witnessed (64; 45.1%) it during their paediatric clinical rotation. The humiliating and intimidating behaviours students experienced were mostly more subtle than overt and included aggressive and abusive questioning techniques. The students' responses to these practices ranged from disgust and regret about entering the medical profession to endorsement of teachers' public exposure of a student's poor knowledge. Practices associated with humiliating medical students persist in contemporary medical education. These practices need to be eradicated, given the evidence that they affect students' learning and mental health and are dissonant with formal professionalism curricula. Interventions are needed to interrupt the transgenerational legacy and culture in which teaching by humiliation is perpetuated.
Davis, Drew; Lee, Gordon
As of 2006, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education had defined six "core competencies" of residency education: interpersonal communication skills, medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Objective structured clinical examinations using standardized patients are becoming effective educational tools, and the authors developed a novel use of the examinations in plastic surgery residency education that assesses all six competencies. Six plastic surgery residents, two each from postgraduate years 4, 5, and 6, participated in the plastic surgery-specific objective structured clinical examination that focused on melanoma. The examination included a 30-minute videotaped encounter with a standardized patient actor and a postencounter written exercise. The residents were scored on their performance in all six core competencies by the standardized patients and faculty experts on a three-point scale (1 = novice, 2 = moderately skilled, and 3 = proficient). Resident performance was averaged for each postgraduate year, stratified according to core competency, and scored from a total of 100 percent. Residents overall scored well in interpersonal communications skills (84 percent), patient care (83 percent), professionalism (86 percent), and practice-based learning (84 percent). Scores in medical knowledge showed a positive correlation with level of training (86 percent). All residents scored comparatively lower in systems-based practice (65 percent). The residents reported unanimously that the objective structured clinical examination was realistic and educational. The objective structured clinical examination provided comprehensive and meaningful feedback and identified areas of strengths and weakness for the residents and for the teaching program. The examination is an effective assessment tool for the core competencies and a valuable adjunct to residency training.
Full Text Available Student’s learning and performance reflects the professional attitude, behavior, ethics and standards of their instructors. The aim of this study is to analyse the perception of Indonesian Nursing students regarding caring behavior and teaching characteristics of their CNIs. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, 149 Professional Nursing students from Regular program (Baccalaureate and Post diploma BSN and 15 Clinical Nursing Instructors were recruited from nursing faculty of public university located in Surabaya Indonesia. Data were collected by questionnaire and FGD was conducted to explore detailed information. In descriptive analysis: 6 % students perceived the caring behavior of their clinical instructors as low, 52.3% responds it as enough and 41.6 % considered it good. Teaching characteristics of CNI; 2.7% low, 26.8 as enough and 70.5 % good as perceived by their students. Data collected from students was analysed by using logistic regression test. Professional commitment with (P-value .038, motivation (P-value .010 and clinical placement environment (P-value .002 in main category (significance value is < 0.05 shows influence on perception of Indonesian nursing students regarding caring behaviour and teaching characteristics of their CNIs. In focused group discussion students’ recommended to increase the number of visits in clinical area and emphasises on bed side clinical demonstration. It can be concluded that students’ characteristics does have influence on their perception regarding caring behavior and clinical setting environment influence their perception regarding teaching characteristics of their CNIs.
Feezel, Jerry D.; Myers, Scott A.
Finds that graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) experience eight interrelated types of communication concern (self, task, impact, role conflict, teaching, area knowledge, procedural knowledge, and time management). Shows that GTA variables of expected duties, prior teaching experience, newness to area, foreign or domestic birth, and age are likely…
Mannion, C J; Brotherton, P
There is recognition that the provision of excellence in education and training results in a skilled and competent workforce. However, the educational experiences of dental core trainees (DCT's) working in the hospital oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) setting have not been previously investigated. In this paper, we examine DCT's learning experiences both 'formal' and 'non-formal' within the hospital setting of ward and clinic-based teaching. Are hospital dental core trainees receiving a meaningful educational experience? To conclude this paper, the authors recommend methods, based upon sound educational principles, to maximise the value of clinical sessions for teaching.
Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Barnfield, Gemma; Suter, Katja; Horvath, Andrea R; Walczak, Jacek; Wełmińska, Anna; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berit; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Onody, Rita; Zanrei, Gianni; Kunz, Regina; Arditi, Chantal; Burnand, Bernard; Gee, Harry; Khan, Khalid S; Mol, Ben W J
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) improves the quality of health care. Courses on how to teach EBM in practice are available, but knowledge does not automatically imply its application in teaching. We aimed to identify and compare barriers and facilitators for teaching EBM in clinical practice in various European countries. A questionnaire was constructed listing potential barriers and facilitators for EBM teaching in clinical practice. Answers were reported on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from not at all being a barrier to being an insurmountable barrier. The questionnaire was completed by 120 clinical EBM teachers from 11 countries. Lack of time was the strongest barrier for teaching EBM in practice (median 5). Moderate barriers were the lack of requirements for EBM skills and a pyramid hierarchy in health care management structure (median 4). In Germany, Hungary and Poland, reading and understanding articles in English was a higher barrier than in the other countries. Incorporation of teaching EBM in practice faces several barriers to implementation. Teaching EBM in clinical settings is most successful where EBM principles are culturally embedded and form part and parcel of everyday clinical decisions and medical practice.
Maneval, Rhonda; Fowler, Kimberly A; Kays, John A; Boyd, Tiffany M; Shuey, Jennifer; Harne-Britner, Sarah; Mastrine, Cynthia
This study was conducted to determine whether the addition of high-fidelity patient simulation to new nurse orientation enhanced critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills. A pretest-posttest design was used to assess critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills in two groups of graduate nurses. Compared with the control group, the high-fidelity patient simulation group did not show significant improvement in mean critical thinking or clinical decision-making scores. When mean scores were analyzed, both groups showed an increase in critical thinking scores from pretest to posttest, with the high-fidelity patient simulation group showing greater gains in overall scores. However, neither group showed a statistically significant increase in mean test scores. The effect of high-fidelity patient simulation on critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills remains unclear. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Bank, Lindsay; Jippes, Mariëlle; Leppink, Jimmie; Scherpbier, Albert Jja; den Rooyen, Corry; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Scheele, Fedde
Curriculum change and innovation are inevitable parts of progress in postgraduate medical education (PGME). Although implementing change is known to be challenging, change management principles are rarely looked at for support. Change experts contend that organizational readiness for change (ORC) is a critical precursor for the successful implementation of change initiatives. Therefore, this study explores whether assessing ORC in clinical teaching teams could help to understand how curriculum change takes place in PGME. Clinical teaching teams in hospitals in the Netherlands were requested to complete the Specialty Training's Organizational Readiness for curriculum Change, a questionnaire to measure ORC in clinical teaching teams. In addition, change-related behavior was measured by using the "behavioral support-for-change" measure. A two-way analysis of variance was performed for all response variables of interest. In total, 836 clinical teaching team members were included in this study: 288 (34.4%) trainees, 307 (36.7%) clinical staff members, and 241 (28.8%) program directors. Overall, items regarding whether the program director has the authority to lead scored higher compared with the other items. At the other end, the subscales "management support and leadership," "project resources," and "implementation plan" had the lowest scores in all groups. The study brought to light that program directors are clearly in the lead when it comes to the implementation of educational innovation. Clinical teaching teams tend to work together as a team, sharing responsibilities in the implementation process. However, the results also reinforce the need for change management support in change processes in PGME.
Diane M. Parente
Full Text Available Abstract A recent study led by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC revealed at least 30% of antibiotic prescriptions in the outpatient setting were inappropriate. In this study of all ages, among adult patients, results were similar to the overall population, with the majority of inappropriate prescribing relating to respiratory infections. We applied the same methodology to investigate rates of antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections in outpatient primary care clinics at the Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The results of our evaluation reflected comparable rates of inappropriate prescribing, but when stratified by teaching versus non-teaching primary care clinics, inappropriate prescribing was significantly higher in non-teaching clinics (17.6% vs 44.0%, p < .0001. Respiratory infection visits in non-teaching outpatient clinics may be a pragmatic target for antimicrobial stewardship programs.
Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper
INTRODUCTION: Use of video cases in clinical education is rarely used systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical students (n = 127) reported by questionnaire whether they had or had not seen a bedside case of each of 22 specific clinical conditions during their five-week clinical course...... the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. CONCLUSION: A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value...... for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION...
Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas J; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H
Evaluations of faculty members are widely used to identify excellent or substandard teaching performance. In order to enable such evaluations to be properly interpreted and used in faculty development, it is essential to understand the factors that influence resident doctors' (residents) evaluations of the teaching qualities of faculty members and their perceptions of faculty members as role-model specialists. We carried out a cross-sectional survey within a longitudinal study of the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) of clinical teachers. The study sample included 889 residents and 1014 faculty members in 61 teaching programmes spanning 22 specialties in 20 hospitals in the Netherlands. Main outcome measures included residents' (i) global and (ii) specific ratings of faculty member teaching qualities, and (iii) global ratings of faculty members as role-model specialists. Statistical analysis was conducted using adjusted multivariable logistic generalised estimating equations. In total, 690 residents (77.6%) completed 6485 evaluations of 962 faculty members, 848 (83.6%) of whom also self-evaluated. More recently certified faculty members, those who had attended a teacher training programme, and those who spent more time teaching than seeing patients or conducting research were more likely to score highly on most teaching qualities. However, faculty members who had undergone teacher training were less likely to be seen as role models (odds ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.88). In addition, faculty members were evaluated slightly higher by male than female residents on core teaching domains and overall teaching quality, but were less likely to be seen as role models by male residents (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.97). Lastly, faculty members had higher odds of receiving top scores in specific teaching domains from residents in the first 4 years of residency and were less likely to be considered as role models by more
Kinne, Lenore J.; Ryan, Carol; Faulkner, Shawn A.
This study examined the perceptions of teacher candidates, cooperating teachers, and university supervisors in the first year of state-mandated co-teaching in the clinical experience. Study results suggest the need (a) to emphasize the importance of the teacher candidate exerting leadership, (b) to develop and communicate specific criteria for…
Fraser, James W.; Watson, Audra M.
Woodrow Wilson Senior Fellow James W. Fraser and Audra Watson, the Foundation's Director of Mentoring and Induction Strategy, take a look at emerging trends in clinical preparation for new teachers. This new white paper is based on experience with the Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowships, and includes observations from some of the colleges and…
Goetz, C; Dupoux, A; Déloy, L; Hertz, C; Jeanmaire, T; Parneix, N
Most clinical research in France takes place in teaching hospitals. There are, however, many advantages to developing it in other hospitals: access to innovative treatments, improvement in healthcare quality, attractiveness of hospitals, increased trial inclusion rates and reduced selection bias. The objectives of our study were to report on the current situation of clinical research outside teaching hospitals. A three-stage survey was conducted between January 2012 and May 2013 in non-teaching hospitals of north-eastern France. First, questionnaires were sent to administrative and medical boards of all hospitals with more than 100 beds, then to head doctors of every department in hospitals with more than 300 beds and finally meetings were organized with members of 20 selected hospitals. The administrative and medical boards of 85 hospitals participated in the first stage of the survey; half of these hospitals were engaged in clinical research activities and for 10 the internal structuring was cross-disciplinary. Answers from 178 departments were obtained during the second stage; 47% reported a clinical research activity. Meetings with research teams in 20 hospitals allowed us to identify difficulties concerning research funding, transversal organization and sponsoring. Clinical research existed in more than half of the respondent non-teaching hospitals. Obstacles to its development can be grouped in three categories: 1) internal structuring of clinical research, 2) access to information and knowledge of how clinical research functions and to interlocutors outside the hospital and 3) access to skills necessary to sponsor clinical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vaižgėlienė, Eglė; Padaiga, Žilvinas; Rastenytė, Daiva; Tamelis, Algimantas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Fluit, Cornelia
In 2013, all residency programs at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences were renewed into the competency-based medical education curriculum (CBME). In 2015, we implemented the validated EFFECT questionnaire together with the EFFECT-System for quality assessment of clinical teaching in residency training. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of characteristics of the resident (year of training) and clinical teacher (gender, age, and type of academic position) on teaching quality, as well as to assess areas for teaching quality improvement. Residents from 7 different residency study programs filled out 333 EFFECT questionnaires evaluating 146 clinical teachers. We received 143 self-evaluations of clinical teachers using the same questionnaire. Items were scored on a 6-point Likert scale. Main outcome measures were residents' mean overall (MOS), mean subdomain (MSS) and clinical teachers' self-evaluation scores. The overall comparisons of MOS and MSS across study groups and subgroups were done using Student's t test and ANOVA for trend. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated in order to see how residents' evaluations match with self-evaluations for every particular teacher. To indicate areas for quality improvement items were analyzed subtracting their mean score from the respective (sub)domain score. MOS for domains of "role modeling", "task allocation", "feedback", "teaching methodology" and "assessment" valued by residents were significantly higher than those valued by teachers (Pevaluation questionnaires were rated significantly higher by residents in role modeling subdomains (Phigher than the female teachers (Phigher (Pevaluations of clinical teachers are influenced by teachers' age, gender, year of residency training, type of teachers' academic position and whether or not a clinical teacher performed self-evaluation. Development of CBME should be focused on the continuous evaluation of quality, clinical teachers
Sweet, J; Wilson, J; Pugsley, L; Schofield, M
This article provides a scenario for analysis of good chairside teaching practice to serve as a starting point for continued discussion in this complex field. Documented issues of good chairside teaching practice are cross-referenced to a clinical scenario with explanations in the form of a commentary. This provided the context for generating a set of questions that are provided as tools to support good chairside practice. These tools are designed to be used with 'Appreciative Inquiry', which claims that there is much to be gained by discovering where excellence is possible and elaborating upon this. Although this process can be carried out in single units or departments, it is proposed that collaboration between institutions would allow sharing of valuable innovations and greater understanding of educational training, production of good practice guidance and professional development of staff. This article is the third in a series of three and provides a scaffold for a scenario and questions to encourage collaboration in evolving and sharing good chairside teaching practice. The first article investigated the perceptions of stakeholders in chairside teaching at a single dental school and the second evaluated chairside teaching on a UK wide scale. A further accompanying article reviews some of the educational methodology and innovations in teaching and learning that may be applied to dentistry.
Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Creutz, Stefan
Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of seven senior optometry students and six optometrist instructors at a Canadian optometry teaching clinic. The participants described their experiences in learning to deliver bad news. Using a grounded theory approach, our analysis was informed by situated learning and activity theory. Optometry students received formal classroom training regarding how to deliver bad news, including exposure to the medically-based six-step SPIKES protocol (Baile et al. The Oncologist, 5, 302-311, 2000). Yet, application of this protocol to the teaching clinic was limited by the lack of exposure most instructors had received to this strategy. Determinants of the students' complex learning process during their clinical apprenticeship, included: (i) knowing one's place, (ii) knowing one's audience, (iii) knowing through feedback, and (iv) knowing who speaks. The experiences of these participants pointed toward the need for: (1) more instructional "scaffolding" (Bruner and Sherwood Play: Its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) in the clinical setting when the learning task is complex, and (2) explicit discussions about the impacts that unfold when the activities of patient care and student education overlap. We reflect on the possible consequences to student education and patient care in the absence of these changes.
Holdsworth, Clare; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Delany, Clare M
Supervision of students is a key role of senior physiotherapy clinicians in teaching hospitals. The objective of this study was to test the effect of simulated learning environments (SLE) on educators' self-efficacy in student supervision skills. A pilot prospective randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation was conducted. Clinical educators were randomized to intervention (SLE) or control groups. SLE participants completed two 3-hour workshops, which included simulated clinical teaching scenarios, and facilitated debrief. Standard Education (StEd) participants completed two online learning modules. Change in educator clinical supervision self-efficacy (SE) and student perceptions of supervisor skill were calculated. Between-group comparisons of SE change scores were analyzed with independent t-tests to account for potential baseline differences in education experience. Eighteen educators (n = 18) were recruited (SLE [n = 10], StEd [n = 8]). Significant improvements in SE change scores were seen in SLE participants compared to control participants in three domains of self-efficacy: (1) talking to students about supervision and learning styles (p = 0.01); (2) adapting teaching styles for students' individual needs (p = 0.02); and (3) identifying strategies for future practice while supervising students (p = 0.02). This is the first study investigating SLE for teaching skills of clinical education. SLE improved educators' self-efficacy in three domains of clinical education. Sample size limited the interpretation of student ratings of educator supervision skills. Future studies using SLE would benefit from future large multicenter trials evaluating its effect on educators' teaching skills, student learning outcomes, and subsequent effects on patient care and health outcomes.
Sheahan, Linda; While, Alison; Bloomfield, Jacqueline
The teaching and learning of clinical skills is a key component of nurse education programmes. The clinical competency of pre-registration nursing students has raised questions about the proficiency of teaching strategies for clinical skill acquisition within pre-registration education. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of teaching clinical skills using a multiple intelligences teaching approach (MITA) compared with the conventional teaching approach. A randomised controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated to an experimental group (MITA intervention) (n=46) and a control group (conventional teaching) (n=44) to learn clinical skills. Setting was in one Irish third-level educational institution. Participants were all first year nursing students (n=90) in one institution. The experimental group was taught using MITA delivered by the researcher while the control group was taught by a team of six experienced lecturers. Participant preference for learning was measured by the Index of Learning Styles (ILS). Participants' multiple intelligence (MI) preferences were measured with a multiple intelligences development assessment scale (MIDAS). All participants were assessed using the same objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the end of semester one and semester two. MI assessment preferences were measured by a multiple intelligences assessment preferences questionnaire. The MITA intervention was evaluated using a questionnaire. The strongest preference on ILS for both groups was the sensing style. The highest MI was interpersonal intelligence. Participants in the experimental group had higher scores in all three OSCEs (pmultiple choice questions as methods of assessment. MITA was evaluated positively. The study findings support the use of MITA for clinical skills teaching and advance the understanding of how MI teaching approaches may be used in nursing education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kovalev, A V; Romanenko, G Kh; Makarov, I Yu; Zharov, V V; Bereznikov, A V
The objective of the present study was the definition of the basic professional competences of the graduates of the clinical residency and internship in the speciality 31.08.10 'forensic medical expertise'. The program for the acquirement of the basic knowledge, skills, and professional competences needed to be trained in the speciality 31.08.10 'forensic medical expertise' has been elaborated in the framework of the more extensive program for the clinical residency and internship intended for the training of the highly qualified specialists in this discipline. The preliminary list of basic professional competences of a graduate from the clinical residency and internship has been formulated in accordance with the program for the training of a competitive and highly qualified forensic medical experts. The practical professional activities are considered to be an indispensable component of the training and educational process for a future forensic medical expert. It is believed that the strengthening of this training component will greatly contribute to the improvement of the quality of training of such specialists.
Some of the implications of the failure of graduate schools to help students find constructive solutions to societal problems are considered. This issue is seen as a crucial one since graduate students are not only teaching assistants, with a major share of the burden of undergraduate education, but become university professors and secondary…
An attempt is made to find a solution to the occasional problem of a need for storing large numbers of graduated cylinders in many teaching and research laboratories. A design, which involves the creation of a series of parallel channels that are used to suspend inverted graduated cylinders by their bases, is proposed.
El Sayed, Khalid A; Chelette, Candace T
To design, implement, and evaluate student performance on clinically relevant chemical and spectral laboratory exercises on antibiotics. In the first of 2 exercises, second-year pharmacy students enrolled in an integrated laboratory sequence course studied the aqueous stability of ß-lactam antibiotics using a spectral visual approach. In a second exercise, students studied the tendency of tetracycline, rifamycins, and fluoroquinolones to form insoluble chelate complexes (turbidity) with polyvalent metals. On a survey to assess achievement of class learning objectives, students agreed the laboratory activities helped them better retain important information concerning antibiotic stability and interactions. A significant improvement was observed in performance on examination questions related to the laboratory topics for 2012 and 2013 students compared to 2011 students who did not complete the laboratory. A 1-year follow-up examination question administered in a separate course showed >75% of the students were able to identify rifamycins-food interactions compared with laboratory exercises. The use of spectral visual approaches allowed students to investigate antibiotic stability and interactions, thus reinforcing the clinical relevance of medicinal chemistry. Students' performance on questions at the 1-year follow-up suggested increased retention of the concepts learned as a result of completing the exercises.
Phillips, Diane; Duke, Maxine; Nagle, Cate; Macfarlane, Susie; Karantzas, Gery; Patterson, Denise
There are challenges for midwifery students in developing skill and competency due to limited placements in antenatal clinics. The Virtual Maternity Clinic, an online resource, was developed to support student learning in professional midwifery practice. Identifying students' perceptions of the Virtual Maternity Clinic; learning about the impact of the Virtual Maternity Clinic on the students' experience of its use and access; and learning about the level of student satisfaction of the Virtual Maternity Clinic. Two interventions were used including pre and post evaluations of the online learning resource with data obtained from questionnaires using open ended and dichotomous responses and rating scales. The pre-Virtual Maternity Clinic intervention used a qualitative design and the post-Virtual Maternity Clinic intervention applied both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Three campuses of Deakin University, located in Victoria, Australia. Midwifery students enrolled in the Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery and Graduate Diploma of Midwifery were recruited across three campuses of Deakin University (n=140). Thematic analysis of the pre-Virtual Maternity Clinic intervention (return rate n=119) related to students' expectations of this resource. The data for the post-Virtual Maternity Clinic intervention (return rate n=42) including open-ended responses were thematically analysed; dichotomous data examined in the form of frequencies and percentages of agreement and disagreement; and 5-rating scales were analysed using Pearson's correlations (α=.05, two-tailed). Results showed from the pre-Virtual Maternity Clinic intervention that students previously had placements in antenatal clinics were optimistic about the online learning resource. The post-Virtual Maternity Clinic intervention results indicated that students were satisfied with the Virtual Maternity Clinic as a learning resource despite some technological issues. The Virtual Maternity Clinic
Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Doevendans, C.H.; Verbeke, J.
USO-Built is a distributed Graduate Research School under the CLUSTER (www.cluster.org) umbrella with its own aim, high-quality research and educational programs. It focuses on teaching research at the PhD and MPhil-level, concerns the technological domains of science aiming at balanced and implicit
Coker, O O; Coker, A O; Onuoha, B
Previous studies had demonstrated that continuous and effective productivity of hospital staff are linked to job satisfaction and only those who are satisfied with their job can be maximally effective and productive. This cross-sectional descriptive survey was designed to determine the levels of job satisfaction among various groups of health care professionals working in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Two hundred clinical and non-clinical hospital staff were invited to take part in the study. They completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI). The results indicated that majority clinical and non-clinical staff were satisfied with their jobs as regards the parameters of the JDI compared with those not satisfied with their jobs. The government and health policy makers should continue to pay attention to boost job morale and satisfaction of medical health workers to continue to make them to be satisfied with their job.
Schmidt, Henk G; Mamede, Sílvia
The development of clinical reasoning (CR) in students has traditionally been left to clinical rotations, which, however, often offer limited practice and suboptimal supervision. Medical schools begin to address these limitations by organising pre-clinical CR courses. The purpose of this paper is to review the variety of approaches employed in the teaching of CR and to present a proposal to improve these practices. We conducted a narrative review of the literature on teaching CR. To that end, we searched PubMed and Web of Science for papers published until June 2014. Additional publications were identified in the references cited in the initial papers. We used theoretical considerations to characterise approaches and noted empirical findings, when available. Of the 48 reviewed papers, only 24 reported empirical findings. The approaches to teaching CR were shown to vary on two dimensions. The first pertains to the way the case information is presented. The case is either unfolded to students gradually - the 'serial-cue' approach - or is presented in a 'whole-case' format. The second dimension concerns the purpose of the exercise: is its aim to help students acquire or apply knowledge, or is its purpose to teach students a way of thinking? The most prevalent approach is the serial-cue approach, perhaps because it tries to directly simulate the diagnostic activities of doctors. Evidence supporting its effectiveness is, however, lacking. There is some empirical evidence that whole-case, knowledge-oriented approaches contribute to the improvement of students' CR. However, thinking process-oriented approaches were shown to be largely ineffective. Based on research on how expertise develops in medicine, we argue that students in different phases of their training may benefit from different approaches to the teaching of CR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Abass, Marwa Ahmed; Said, Nagwa Samy; Zahed, Eman Salah El; Hussein, Wafaa Fawzy; Hamid, Omaima Ibrahim Abdel
effective communication in a clinical environment plays a vital role in patient assessment and treatment. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of Malaysian medical students concerning communication barriers during clinical practice. The goal was to provide answers for three important research questions, i.e., 1) Are communication barriers an impediment to Malaysian students during clinical teaching? 2) What is the nature of the language barriers that the students encounter? and 3) What are the best ways of reducing these barriers during clinical teaching? The qualitative method was used to conduct the research, and open-ended questionnaires were used to collect the data. The study was conducted on 95 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year students, 80% of whom completed the study. Medical students from Malaysia who have limited knowledge of the Arabic language experience some difficulties in communicating with staff members, patients, and nurses during their clinical practices. Successful orientation of students to the language used in the clinical environment will help the students overcome the communication barriers they encounter during their clinical practices.
Haider, Sonia Ijaz; Johnson, Neil; Thistlethwaite, Jill Elizabeth; Fagan, Gay; Bari, Muhammad Furqan
Medical education and teaching skills are core competencies included in the generic curriculum for specialty training. To support the development of these skills, there is need for a validated instrument. This study aims to develop and test an instrument to measure the attributes of specialty trainees as effective teachers. The study was conducted in two phases. In first phase, the content of the instrument was generated from the literature and tested using the Delphi technique. In second phase, the instrument was field tested for validity and reliability using factor analysis and generalizability study. Feasibility was calculated by the time taken to complete the instrument. Acceptability and educational impact were determined by qualitative analysis of written feedback. Attributes of specialty trainees were assessed by clinical supervisors, peers, and students. The Delphi study produced consensus on 15 statements which formed the basis of the instrument. In field study, a total of 415 instruments were completed. Factor analysis demonstrated a three-factor solution ('learning-teaching milieu', 'teaching skills', and 'learner-orientated'). A generalizability coefficient was 0.92. Mean time to complete the instrument was five minutes. Feedback indicated that it was an acceptable and useful method of assessment. This new instrument provides valid, reliable, feasible, and acceptable assessment of clinical teaching.
Stoddard, Hugh A; O'Dell, David V
Medical students and residents are familiar with clinical teaching methods in which a faculty member poses a series of questions to them. This technique is often called the "Socratic method," but it is frequently perceived by learners as an attempt to demean them, a practice that is colloquially known as "pimping." The distinction between Socratic teaching and pimping lies in the perception of "psychological safety." Psychological safety allows learners to answer questions or ask for help without threats to their dignity or worthiness. In a psychologically safe clinical teaching context, learners recognize that questions posed by attending physicians probe their current understanding and guide them to expand their knowledge. In pimping, questions are posed to embarrass the learner and to reinforce the teacher's position of power over them. Absent a threat of disparagement or condemnation, learners are able to focus on building schema for knowledge, skills, and attitudes, rather than worrying about shielding their self-worth. This article presents the proper Socratic method, as intended by Socrates, and contrasts it with pimping. This perspective defines psychological safety as the pivotal factor distinguishing Socratic teaching from pimping, and establishes the foundation for empirical studies of these common practices in medical education.
Gut, Dianne M.; Beam, Pamela C.; Henning, John E.; Cochran, Deborah C.; Knight, Rhonda Talford
The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in mentoring across three different clinical settings: student teaching, early field experiences, and entry year teachers. Eighteen teachers with mentoring experience in all three clinical settings were selected and interviewed. The teachers' expectations for teacher development,…
Mohammad Taghi Beigmohammadi
Full Text Available Critically ill patient transfer is potentially risky and may be lead to morbidity and mortality. Physicians' skill is very important for safe transport. We want to evaluate the effect of clinical course teaching on the promotion of physicians' abilities in the transport of critically ill patients. In an interventional study, 320 interns, male and female, were taught about patient transfer in two groups include in one day clinical course as the small group system (n=160 and other group the lecture base learning (n=160. In the clinical course, each participant under observation of an anesthesiologist in the operation room and ICU was acquainted with mask ventilation, intubation and learned to work with a defibrillator, infusion pump, portable ventilator and pulse oximeter. In lecture group, the anesthesiologist explained the topics by video and dummy. At the end of education course, the interns’ abilities were evaluated based on checklist method and scored by the project colleague in all educational items. Three hundred twenty interns, 122 males, and 198 females; were enrolled, two groups. The clinical course training caused improvements in the interns’ knowledge and abilities in intubation and use of the defibrillator and portable ventilator vs.lecture group significantly (P<0.005. The males were better than females in laryngoscopy, but the progress of the females was significantly better than males (P=0.003. The rate of adverse events was reduced significantly after clinical course teaching (P=0.041 Clinical course teaching could promote interns' clinical competencies in the transport of critically ill patients.
Buch, Steen Vigh; Treschow, Frederik Philip; Svendsen, Jesper Brink; Worm, Bjarne Skjødt
This study investigated the effectiveness of two different levels of e-learning when teaching clinical skills to medical students. Sixty medical students were included and randomized into two comparable groups. The groups were given either a video- or text/picture-based e-learning module and subsequently underwent both theoretical and practical examination. A follow-up test was performed 1 month later. The students in the video group performed better than the illustrated text-based group in the practical examination, both in the primary test (Pvideo group performed better on the follow-up test (P=0.04). Video-based e-learning is superior to illustrated text-based e-learning when teaching certain practical clinical skills.
Pay equity, the concept of equal pay for equal or comparable work, will continue to be of paramount importance to women as the 20th century draws to a close. While it might have been anticipated that women in academic settings would enjoy pay equity, clinical teaching in nursing education provides a model for gender discrimination as related to women's work. Elements of proposal development and a case study for contesting pay inequity are presented.
Johnsen, Hege Mari; Fossum, Mariann; Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Fruhling, Ann; Slettebø, Åshild
The aim of this study was to design and pilot-test a serious game for teaching nursing students clinical reasoning and decision-making skills in caring for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A video-based serious game prototype was developed. A purposeful sample of six participants tested and evaluated the prototype. Usability issues were identified regarding functionality and user-computer interface. However, overall the serious game was perceived to be useful, usable and likable to use.
Liu, Jinlin; Zhu, Bin; Mao, Ying
A large number of programs have been implemented in many countries to increase the healthcare workforce recruitment in rural and remote areas. Rural early exposure programs for medical students have been shown to be effective strategies. However, no related studies have been reported before in China. This study was carried out to determine the association between medical students' participation in rural clinical clerkships and their intentions to choose rural medical work after graduation from western medical schools in China. Based on a two-stage random sampling method, the cross-sectional survey was carried out in ten western provinces in China. A brief questionnaire filled in by medical students was used for data collection. A total of 4278 medical students participated in the study. The response rate was approximately 90.34%. Pearson's chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed for data analyses. Approximately 52.0% of medical students disclosed intentions to work in rural medical institutions after graduation. Only one in five participants had experience with a rural clinical clerkship. Rural clinical clerkships were significantly associated with medical students' intentions to work in rural medical institutions (OR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05-1.46); further analyses indicated that such clerkships only had a significant impact among the medical students with an urban background (OR: 2.10, 95%CI: 1.48-2.97). In terms of the sociodemographic characteristics, younger age, low level of parental education, majoring in general practice, and studying in low-level medical schools increased the odds of having intentions to engage in rural medical work among medical students; however, rural origins was the only positive univariate predictor. In addition, the predictors of intentions to choose rural medical work were different between medical students with a rural background and those with an urban background. Rural clinical clerkship is likely to
A Farahani, Mansoureh; Emamzadeh Ghasemi, Hormat Sadat; Nikpaima, Nasrin; Fereidooni, Zhila; Rasoli, Maryam
Evaluation of nursing instructors' clinical teaching performance is a prerequisite to the quality assurance of nursing education. One of the most common procedures for this purpose is using student evaluations. This study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of Nursing Instructors' Clinical Teaching Performance Inventory (NICTPI). The primary items of the inventory were generated by reviewing the published literature and the existing questionnaires as well as consulting with the members of the Faculties Evaluation Committee of the study setting. Psychometric properties were assessed by calculating its content validity ratio and index, and test-retest correlation coefficient as well as conducting an exploratory factor analysis and an internal consistency assessment. The content validity ratios and indices of the items were respectively higher than 0.85 and 0.79. The final version of the inventory consisted of 25 items, and in the exploratory factor analysis, items were loaded on three factors which jointly accounting for 72.85% of the total variance. The test-retest correlation coefficient and the Cronbach's alpha of the inventory were 0.93 and 0.973, respectively. The results revealed that the developed inventory is an appropriate, valid, and reliable instrument for evaluating nursing instructors' clinical teaching performance.
da Costa, J C
Clinical teaching at Lisbon's Faculty of Medicine is analyzed in its two phases: 1. A period of stability and continuity of the institution (from 1911 to 1947) characterized by good rules in the selection of teachers: an impressive group of personalities (F. Gentil, Pulido Valente, Reynaldo dos Santos, Egas Moniz, A. Flores, Sobral Cid, Lopo de Carvalho, Gama Pinto, etc). At the some period a true University Hospital (of Santa Marta) provided clinical investigation (cerebral angiography and leucotomy, aortography and arteriography of the limbs, angiopneumography, endarterectomy) and the creation of new specialties (neurosurgery, vascular surgery, pneumology). 2. A period of instability due to a deleterious political intervention (from 1947 to the present day) responsible for the destruction of the structure and concept of a new teaching hospital (Hospital de Santa Maria). As a result of the socio-political situation conflicting law and vicious rules lead to an excess of non-selected teachers and an alarming increase of students, patients and medical doctors. A change from the present situation and a new concept of clinical teaching must be imagined.
da Costa, J C
Clinical teaching at Lisbon's Faculty of Medicine is analyzed in its two phases: 1. A period of stability and continuity of the institution (from 1911 to 1947) characterized by good rules in the selection of teachers: an impressive group of personalities (F. Gentil, Pulido Valente, Reynaldo dos Santos, Egas Moniz, A. Flores, Sobral Cid, Lopo de Carvalho, Gama Pinto, etc). At the same period a true University Hospital (of Santa Marta) provided clinical investigation (cerebral angiography and leucotomy, aortography and arteriography of the limbs, angiopneumography, endarterectomy) and the creation of new specialities (neurosurgery, vascular surgery, pneumology) (Act. Méd. Port. 1990; 2: 109-114). 2. A period of instability due to a deleterious political intervention (from 1947 to the present day) responsible for the destruction of the structure and concept of a new teaching hospital (Hospital de Santa Maria). As a result of the socio-political situation conflicting laws and vicious rules lead to an excess of non-selected teachers and an alarming increase of students, patients and medical doctors A change from the present situation and a new concept of clinical teaching must be imagined.
van der Leeuw, Renée; Lombarts, Kiki; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi
The importance of effective clinical teaching for the quality of future patient care is globally understood. Due to recent changes in graduate medical education, new tools are needed to provide faculty with reliable and individualized feedback on their teaching qualities. This study validates two
Breckwoldt, Jan; Svensson, Jörg; Lingemann, Christian; Gruber, Hans
Teacher training may improve teaching effectiveness, but it might also have paradoxical effects. Research on expertise development suggests that the integration of new strategies may result in a temporary deterioration of performance until higher levels of competence are reached. In this study, the impact of a clinical teacher training on teaching effectiveness was assessed in an intensive course in emergency medicine. As primary study outcome students' practical skills at the end of their course were chosen. The authors matched 18 clinical teachers according to clinical experience and teaching experience and then randomly assigned them to a two-day-teacher training, or no training. After 14 days, both groups taught within a 12-hour intensive course in emergency medicine for undergraduate students. The course followed a clearly defined curriculum. After the course students were assessed by structured clinical examination (SCE) and MCQ. The teaching quality was rated by students using a questionnaire. Data for 96 students with trained teachers, and 97 students with untrained teachers were included. Students taught by untrained teachers performed better in the SCE domains 'alarm call' (p teaching quality was rated significantly better by students of untrained teachers (p = 0.05). At the end of a structured intensive course in emergency medicine, students of trained clinical teachers performed worse in 2 of 4 practical SCE domains compared to students of untrained teachers. In addition, subjective evaluations of teaching quality were worse in the group of trained teachers. Difficulties in integrating new strategies in their teaching styles might be a possible explanation.
Shahzadi, Uzma; Shaheen, Gulnaz; Shah, Ashfaque Ahmed
The study was intended to compare the quality of teaching learning process in the faculty of social science and science at University of Sargodha. This study was descriptive and quantitative in nature. The objectives of the study were to compare the quality of teaching learning process in the faculty of social science and science at University of…
Graduate Student Attitudes toward Professor Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Transformational Teaching Practices, Student-Professor Engagement in Learning, and Student Deep Learning in Worldwide Business and Education Programs
Economos, Jennifer Lynn
Some professors are expected to remain competitive research scholars, as well as teach, particularly in research-intensive universities. It has been argued that some professors spend too much time on research to obtain institutional incentives or promotion, and not enough time on teaching. Consequently, some adjuncts assume the responsibility for…
Mukeredzi, Tabitha Grace; Sibanda, Doras
The purpose of this study was to understand the nature and extent of subject content and curriculum knowledge that part-time Post Graduate Certificate in Education students in one South African university, brought to the classroom, and the kind and level of knowledge that they expected and sought from the programme. The study employed a…
Secret, Mary; Bryant, Nita L.; Cummings, Cory R.
Our paper describes the design and delivery of an online interdisciplinary social science research methods course (ISRM) for graduate students in sociology, education, social work, and public administration. Collaborative activities and learning took place in two types of computer-mediated learning environments: a closed Blackboard course…
The education system of modern society can be understood as an institution whose functions include its capacity to reproduce its host society, both economically and culturally. Higher institution of learning is no more seen as a place of mass production of graduates willingly believes that they are now ready to perform their duties. The newly…
Dhaliwal, Upreet; Supe, Avinash; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder
For a doctor to provide medical care with competence, he must not only have knowledge but must also be able to translate that knowledge into action. It is his competence in clinical skills that will enable him to practice safely and effectively in the real world. To ensure acquisition of clinical skills, medical teachers must adopt teaching methods that prioritise observation, practice, feedback; and more practice. We try to elucidate the meaning of clinical skills, the challenges inherent in clinical skills training in India, training models that have shown success in practice and can be adopted in the Indian context, and various techniques to enhance skill-training, including the giving of feedback, which is a critically important component of skills development.
Full Text Available Audience: This workshop is intended for faculty members in an emergency medicine (or other residency program, but is also appropriate for chief residents and medical student educators, including basic science faculty. Introduction: Faculty development sessions are required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and enhance the learning environment within residency programs. Resident as teacher sessions are important in helping residents transition from junior learners to supervisors of medical students and junior residents. Part I of this two-part workshop introduces learners to effective techniques to engaging learners during didactic sessions. Objectives: By the end of this workshop, the learner will: 1 describe eight teaching techniques that encourage active learning during didactic sessions; 2 plan a didactic session using at least one of eight new teaching techniques for didactic instruction. Methods: This educational session is uses several blended instructional methods, including team-based learning (classic and modified, the flipped classroom, audience response systems, pause procedures in order to demonstrate effective didactic teaching techniques.
Charon, Rita; Hermann, Nellie; Devlin, Michael J
Medical educators increasingly have embraced literary and narrative means of pedagogy, such as the use of learning portfolios, reading works of literature, reflective writing, and creative writing, to teach interpersonal and reflective aspects of medicine. Outcomes studies of such pedagogies support the hypotheses that narrative training can deepen the clinician's attention to a patient and can help to establish the clinician's affiliation with patients, colleagues, teachers, and the self. In this article, the authors propose that creative writing in particular is useful in the making of the physician. Of the conceptual frameworks that explain why narrative training is helpful for clinicians, the authors focus on aesthetic theories to articulate the mechanisms through which creative and reflective writing may have dividends in medical training. These theories propose that accurate perception requires representation and that representation requires reception, providing a rationale for teaching clinicians and trainees how to represent what they perceive in their clinical work and how to read one another's writings. The authors then describe the narrative pedagogy used at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Because faculty must read what their students write, they receive robust training in close reading. From this training emerged the Reading Guide for Reflective Writing, which has been useful to clinicians as they develop their skills as close readers. This institution-wide effort to teach close reading and creative writing aims to equip students and faculty with the prerequisites to provide attentive, empathic clinical care.
Charon, Rita; Hermann, Nellie; Devlin, Michael J.
Medical educators increasingly have embraced literary and narrative means of pedagogy, such as the use of learning portfolios, reading works of literature, reflective writing, and creative writing, to teach interpersonal and reflective aspects of medicine. Outcomes studies of such pedagogies support the hypotheses that narrative training can deepen the clinician's attention to a patient and can help to establish the clinician's affiliation with patients, colleagues, teachers, and the self. In this article, the authors propose that creative writing in particular is useful in the making of the physician. Of the conceptual frameworks that explain why narrative training is helpful for clinicians, the authors focus on aesthetic theories to articulate the mechanisms through which creative and reflective writing may have dividends in medical training. These theories propose that accurate perception requires representation and that representation requires reception, providing a rationale for teaching clinicians and trainees how to represent what they perceive in their clinical work and how to read one another's writings. The authors then describe the narrative pedagogy used at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Since faculty must read what their students write, they receive robust training in close reading. From this training emerged the Reading Guide for Reflective Writing, which has been useful to clinicians as they develop their skills as close readers. This institution-wide effort to teach close reading and creative writing aims to equip students and faculty with the pre-requisites to provide attentive, empathic clinical care. PMID:26200577
Gregory J. Marchant
Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., race, family education and income, GPA and class rank, regression analyses revealed that states requiring graduation exams had lower graduation rates and lower SAT scores. Individually, students from states requiring a graduation exam performed more poorly on the SAT than did students from states not requiring an exam. The impact of high stakes tests' on students' motivation to stay in school and on the teaching of critical thinking skills (tested by the SAT are discussed.
Jeremy D. Sperling
Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation-based medical education (SBME is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods: AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results: A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42% attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001. Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05. They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03, know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01, and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003. Students who participated in a simulation session
Liu, Sheng-bo; Peng, Bin; Song, Ya-ling; Xu, Qing-an
To investigate the education effect of case-based learning (CBL) pattern on clinical internship of conservative dentistry and endodontics. Forty-one undergraduates were randomly assigned into CBL group and traditional teaching group. After clinical internship in the department of conservative dentistry and endodontics for 11 weeks, each student in the 2 groups underwent comprehensive examinations including medical record writing, case analysis, academic knowledge, professional skills and the ability of winning the trust of the patients. The scores were compared between the 2 groups using SPSS 13.0 software package. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with regard to the scores of academic knowledge and profession skills (P>0.05). However, the results of medical record writing, case analysis and the ability of winning the trust of the patients showed significant difference between the 2 groups(Pendodontics contributes to improve students' ability of clinical thinking, synthetical analysis and adaptability to different patients.
Full Text Available Background: Clinical Governance is a Framework in which health care provider will be responsible for continuous quality improvement. This study aimed to identify implementation challenges of Clinical Governance in the area of risk management. Methods: This is a descriptive-qualitative study. We used Content Analysis method for data analysis. Study environment contained 7 teaching hospitals, and the study population included the hospitals staff engaged in Clinical Governance implementation. Using purposive non-randomised sampling, 18 participants were selected. A semi-structured face-to-face interview was used for data collection. Content Analysis method was used to conceptualize, interpret and analyze the texts and maxQDA software for data analysis. Results: Our research findings presented two main themes as cultural factors and lack of resources. Conclusion: Promoting management as well as empowering health care providers could act as a key factor in addressing problems related to the implementation of risk management in health care environments.
Full Text Available Background: Quantum leadership approach causes efficient and effective procedures among health care organizations, specially clinical laboratories. Objective: This research was aimed to determine the status of quantum leadership dimensions among all management levels of clinical laboratories of teaching hospitals of medical sciences universities in Tehran. Methods: This descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study was induced among 180 managers of 35 clinical laboratories of Iran, Shahid Beheshti and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences 2016. The research tool was researcher - constructed questionnaire of quantum skills, demographic details that its content and face validity and reliability were confirmed. For analysis of data, T-test and ANOVA techniques were used. Findings: Most of the studied clinical laboratories managers were male, married, with 15-20 years work experiences, 1-5 years managerial services, and minimally one training courses in clinical laboratory management. The managers had relatively desired and desired score of quantum skills and leadership respectively. Also, there was significant correlation between quantum leadership with age (P=0.01, and with management training courses (P=0.02. Conclusion: It is expected this paradigm may change the clinical laboratory management in the near future with regards to desirability of quantum leadership dimensions among clinical laboratories.
Full Text Available Steen Vigh Buch,1 Frederik Philip Treschow,2 Jesper Brink Svendsen,3 Bjarne Skjødt Worm4 1Department of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Background and aims: This study investigated the effectiveness of two different levels of e-learning when teaching clinical skills to medical students. Materials and methods: Sixty medical students were included and randomized into two comparable groups. The groups were given either a video- or text/picture-based e-learning module and subsequently underwent both theoretical and practical examination. A follow-up test was performed 1 month later. Results: The students in the video group performed better than the illustrated text-based group in the practical examination, both in the primary test (P<0.001 and in the follow-up test (P<0.01. Regarding theoretical knowledge, no differences were found between the groups on the primary test, though the video group performed better on the follow-up test (P=0.04. Conclusion: Video-based e-learning is superior to illustrated text-based e-learning when teaching certain practical clinical skills. Keywords: e-learning, video versus text, medicine, clinical skills
Coyne, Elisabeth; Rands, Hazel; Frommolt, Valda; Kain, Victoria; Plugge, Melanie; Mitchell, Marion
The aim of this review is to inform future educational strategies by synthesising research related to blended learning resources using simulation videos to teach clinical skills for health students. An integrative review methodology was used to allow for the combination of diverse research methods to better understand the research topic. This review was guided by the framework described by Whittemore and Knafl (2005), DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of the following databases was conducted in consultation with a librarian using the following databases: SCOPUS, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, PsycINFO databases. Keywords and MeSH terms: clinical skills, nursing, health, student, blended learning, video, simulation and teaching. Data extracted from the studies included author, year, aims, design, sample, skill taught, outcome measures and findings. After screening the articles, extracting project data and completing summary tables, critical appraisal of the projects was completed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Ten articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The MMAT scores varied from 50% to 100%. Thematic analysis was undertaken and we identified the following three themes: linking theory to practice, autonomy of learning and challenges of developing a blended learning model. Blended learning allowed for different student learning styles, repeated viewing, and enabled links between theory and practice. The video presentation needed to be realistic and culturally appropriate and this required both time and resources to create. A blended learning model, which incorporates video-assisted online resources, may be a useful tool to teach clinical skills to students of health including nursing. Blended learning not only increases students' knowledge and skills, but is often preferred by students due to its flexibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boerboom, Tobias B. B.; Mainhard, Tim; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.
Background: Students are a popular source of data to evaluate the performance of clinical teachers. Instruments to obtain student evaluations must have proven validity. One aspect of validity that often remains underexposed is the possibility of effects of between-student differences and teacher and
Carrese, Joseph A; McDonald, Erin L; Moon, Margaret; Taylor, Holly A; Khaira, Kiran; Catherine Beach, Mary; Hughes, Mark T
Being a good doctor requires competency in ethics. Accordingly, ethics education during residency training is important. We studied the everyday ethics-related issues (i.e. ordinary ethics issues commonly faced) that internal medical residents encounter in their out-patient clinic and determined whether teaching about these issues occurred during faculty preceptor-resident interactions. This study involved a multi-method qualitative research design combining observation of preceptor-resident discussions with preceptor interviews. The study was conducted in two different internal medicine training programme clinics over a 2-week period in June 2007. Fifty-three residents and 19 preceptors were observed, and 10 preceptors were interviewed. Transcripts of observer field notes and faculty interviews were carefully analysed. The analysis identified several themes of everyday ethics issues and determined whether preceptors identified and taught about these issues. Everyday ethics content was considered present in 109 (81%) of the 135 observed case presentations. Three major thematic domains and associated sub-themes related to everyday ethics issues were identified, concerning: (i) the Doctor-Patient Interaction (relationships; communication; shared decision making); (ii) the Resident as Learner (developmental issues; challenges and conflicts associated with training; relationships with colleagues and mentors; interactions with the preceptor), and; (iii) the Doctor-System Interaction (financial issues; doctor-system issues; external influences; doctor frustration related to system issues). Everyday ethics issues were explicitly identified by preceptors (without teaching) in 18 of 109 cases (17%); explicit identification and teaching occurred in only 13 cases (12%). In this study a variety of everyday ethics issues were frequently encountered as residents cared for patients. Yet, faculty preceptors infrequently explicitly identified or taught these issues during their
An innovative curriculum was developed to equip public health students with appropriate attitude and skills to address healthcare of asylum seekers. Implemented in 2005 the curriculum included: (1) didactic sessions covering epidemiology and health sequelae of torture, asylum laws, and approaches to identify survivors' healthcare needs; (2) panel discussions with survivors and advocates; and (3) participating in medico-legal process of asylum seeking. Complementary mixed methods evaluations included pre- and post-curriculum questionnaires, formal curriculum evaluations, final papers and oral presentations. 125 students participated. Students showed improved knowledge regrading sequelae of abuse and survivors' healthcare needs (P health and human rights careers. As an advocacy and cultural competency training in public health practice addressing healthcare of refugees domestically, this curriculum was well received and effective, and will also help students better serve other similar populations. Population case-based domestic opportunities to teach global health and health and human rights should be effectively utilized to develop a well-equipped global health corps.
Goldie, J; Dowie, A; Goldie, Anne; Cotton, Phil; Morrison, Jill
Learning in clinical settings is a function of activity, context and culture. Glasgow University's Medical School has undergone significant curricular change in recent years. This has coincided with change to National Health Service consultants' contracts, the introduction of the European Working Time Directive and the Modernising Medical Careers training initiative. We wished to explore teachers' and students' perspectives on the effects of change on our clinical teachers' capacity for teaching and on medical culture. A qualitative approach using individual interviews with educational supervisors and focus groups with senior clinical students was used. Data were analysed using a "framework" technique. Curricular change has led to shorter clinical attachments in the senior clinical rotation, which combined with more centralised teaching have had adverse effects on both formal and informal teaching during attachments. Consultants' NHS contract changes the implementation of the European Working Time Directive and changes to postgraduate training have adversely affected consultants' teaching capacity, which has had a detrimental effect on their relationships with students. Medical culture has also changed as a result of these and other societal influences. The apprenticeship model was still felt to be relevant in clinical settings. This has to be balanced against the need for systematic teaching. Structural and institutional change affects learning. Faculty needs to be aware of the socio-historical context of their institutions.
Zi-zhen XU; Ye-fei WANG; Yan WANG; Shu CHENG; Yi-qun HU; Lei DING
Objective To explore the application and the effect of the case based learning(CBL)method in clinical probation teaching of the integrated curriculum of hematology among eight-year-program medical students.Methods The CBL method was applied to the experimental group,and the traditional approach for the control group.After the lecture,a questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate the teaching effect in the two groups.Results The CBL method efficiently increased the students’interest in learning and autonomous learning ability,enhanced their ability to solve clinical problems with basic theoretic knowledge and cultivated their clinical thinking ability.Conclusion The CBL method can improve the quality of clinical probation teaching of the integrated curriculum of hematology among eight-year-program medical students.
Zerah, Simone; McMurray, Janet; Bousquet, Bernard; Baum, Hannsjorg; Beastall, Graham H; Blaton, Vic; Cals, Marie-Josèphe; Duchassaing, Danielle; Gaudeau-Toussaint, Marie-Françoise; Harmoinen, Aimo; Hoffmann, Hans; Jansen, Rob T; Kenny, Desmond; Kohse, Klaus P; Köller, Ursula; Gobert, Jean-Gérard; Linget, Christine; Lund, Erik; Nubile, Giuseppe; Opp, Matthias; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinon, Georges; Queralto, José M; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Szekeres, Thomas; Vidaud, Michel; Wallinder, Hans
The EC4 Syllabus for Postgraduate Training is the basis for the European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The syllabus: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. The syllabus is not primarily meant to be a training guide, but on the basis of the overview given (common minimal programme), national societies should formulate programmes that indicate where knowledge and experience is needed. The main points of this programme are: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory management; and Quality insurance management. The aim of this version of the syllabus is to be in accordance with the Directive of Professional Qualifications published on 30 September 2005. To prepare the common platforms planned in this directive, the disciplines are divided into four categories: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory
Naveen Sulakshan Salins
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this clinical audit was to determine how accurately documentation of anticipatory Not for Resuscitation (NFR orders takes place in a major metropolitan teaching hospital of Australia. Materials and Methods: Retrospective hospital-based study. Independent case reviewers using a questionnaire designed to study NFR documentation reviewed documentation of NFR in 88 case records. Results: Prognosis was documented in only 40% of cases and palliative care was offered to two-third of patients with documented NFR. There was no documentation of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR process or outcomes of CPR in most of the cases. Only in less than 50% of cases studied there was documented evidence to suggest that the reason for NFR documentation was consistent with patient′s choices. Conclusion: Good discussion, unambiguous documentation and clinical supervision of NFR order ensure dignified and quality care to the dying.
V Siva Kalyan
Full Text Available Introduction: The understanding of patient's view is considered as an important component in doctor–patient relationship. The health-care provider with an empathetic understanding may perceive patient's need as more reasonable and thus therapeutic. Aim: To assess empathy among clinical dental students in a teaching dental institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among clinical dental students during the period between June 2016 and July 2016 in a teaching dental institution in Khammam town. Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Care Provider Student version was used to assess empathy among the students in this study. Gender differences were analyzed using t-test, and one-way ANOVA was used for comparison of empathy scores across year of study. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 364 students participated in the study with a mean age of 22.76 ± 2.4 years. Males exhibited more empathy (86.54 ± 7 compared to females. The mean empathy level was found to be highest for the postgraduates (85.92 ± 6.5 followed by 3rd year students (P = 0.0943. Conclusion: There is a need to train these students not only from technical point of view but also in “life skills” such as communication, interpersonal relationship and empathy.
Modupeoluwa Omotunde Soroye
Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to examine the clinical management of patients who attended a Nigerian teaching hospital with periodontal abscesses. Setting and Design: This is a retrospective study among patients who attended the Periodontics Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, between January 2008 and December 2015. Patients and Methods: Information about the diagnosis was obtained from the departmental log book, and case notes were retrieved from record department. Data collection elicited information on age, sex, tribe, frequency of tooth brushing, dental attendance, medical history, clinical features, involved tooth/teeth, and treatment received. Statistical Analysis Used: Epi info version 3.5.1 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Patients aged between 15 and 87 years, with a mean age of 35.53 ± 19.30 years. Majority of patients were males, had minor ethnic extractions, had some form of education, first dental clinic attendees, indulged in once-daily toothbrushing, fully dentate, and had fair/poor oral hygiene. A total of 8.8% and 31.6% of the participants smoked cigarettes and consumed alcohol, respectively. A fifth of the participants had systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and peptic ulcer disease. Majority of the participants (91.2% had severe pain. About two-fifths had periodontal abscess around the incisors and the molars. The upper right quadrant was mostly involved (31.6%. Two-fifth of the patients had extraction done. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed periodontal abscess as a severely painful condition in naÏve dental patients, successfully treated mainly through extraction of the implicated tooth/teeth. This implies that oral health awareness and regular dental attendance may prevent its occurrence.
Kaeser, Martha A.; Hawk, Cheryl; Anderson, Michelle
Objective The purpose of this study was to compare demographics and chief complaints of the new patient population at our institution's fee-for-service clinics to the patient population of practicing chiropractors in the United States. We also compared the prevalence of obesity and hypertension to reference standards for the adult population. Methods Patient data were obtained from the electronic health records. All records identified as new patients during October 2013 were included. Variables of interest were clinic site, patient demographics, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), chief complaint, and ICD-9 codes. Descriptive statistics were computed and compared to reference standards from previous reports. Results During October 2013, there were 224 new patients that entered the clinics. The average patient was a 31- to 50-year-old white male. Our clinic patients differed from those seen by US chiropractors in the distribution of all demographic variables. For adult patients, 31.4% were overweight, 29% were obese, and 8% stage 1 or 2 hypertension. Conclusion New patients in the fee-for-service teaching clinics appear to be dissimilar to those of US practicing chiropractors in several important demographics, characteristics, and types of complaints. The new patients had lower levels of overweight, obesity, and hypertension compared to US reference standards. PMID:25162982
The Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice (BCMP) is a new degree at the University of Pretoria (UP), designed to create a new category of mid-level medical workers, namely clinical associates. UP produced its first 44 graduates in 2011. The BCMP created the opportunity to innovate learning and teaching through ...
Littlejohn, Deborah Kathleen
This research concerns the culture of design education in the context of great change in the social and professional conditions of practice. Findings illuminate interrelationships among pedagogy, professional identity and the design of the instructional setting in programs that teach visual communication and interaction design. Participants'…
Feirsen, Robert; Weitzman, Seth
Competition for the best teaching jobs is becoming more intense. Since publication of the first edition, when it was mainly the most desirable schools that were deluged by applications, the economic climate has made the teacher market more competitive across the board, and is changing hiring practices. Now extensively revised, this book maintains…
Jiang, Jian; Peng, Wenbo; Gu, Tieguang; King, Catherine; Yin, J Kevin
The increasing acceptance of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has highlighted the importance of ensuring the provision of high-quality TCM clinical education. This clinical training should be partly guided by a robust assessment of patient data outcomes in TCM teaching clinics. We undertook a comprehensive literature review to examine the data evaluation in TCM teaching clinics outside China and its implications for TCM education. Literature was retrieved via MEDLINE (from 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (from 1980 to February 2015), and Google Scholar for studies conducted outside China. The search was restricted to English articles reporting empirical findings related to the assessments of patient data in TCM teaching clinics, with implications for TCM education in countries other than China. Only seven articles from six studies met the inclusion criteria. The characteristics and main symptoms of patients who received any TCM treatment in the context of teaching clinics among all included studies were similar. Symptom relief as well as a high level of patient satisfaction with TCM treatment were found in TCM teaching clinics. Conventional healthcare providers and other complementary practitioners were not the main source of referral to TCM practitioners but rather patients׳ friends/relatives. Patients received acupuncture treatment more frequently than treatments utilizing Chinese herbal medicine in teaching clinics. A standardized and consistent framework for patient records within TCM teaching clinics is currently lacking. There was no robust study which "translated" TCM clinic data evaluation findings into implications for TCM education and clinical training. Recognizing that TCM evolves over time and its practice varies in different settings, there is an urgent need to conduct large-scale, rigorous evaluations of TCM clinic data to address the findings of our review, with the purpose of better informing TCM education and clinical training in
Purpose: Case Method Teaching approach is a teaching tool used commonly in business school to challenge students with real-world situations—i.e. cases. The students are placed in the role of the decision maker and have to provide a solution based on the multitude of information provided. Specifically, students must develop an ability to quickly make sense of a complex problem, provide a solution incorporating all of the objectives (at time conflicting) and constraints, and communicate that solution in a succinct, professional and effective manner. The validity of the solution is highly dependent on the auxiliary information provided in the case and the basic didactic knowledge of the student. A Case Method Teaching approach was developed and implemented into an on-going course focused on AAPM Task Group reports at UTHSCSA. Methods: A current course at UTHSCSA reviews and discusses 15 AAPM Task Group reports per semester. The course is structured into three topic modules: Imaging QA, Stereotactic Radiotherapy, and Special Patient Measurements—i.e. pacemakers, fetal dose. After a topic module is complete, the students are divided into groups (2–3 people) and are asked to review a case study related to the module topic. Students then provide a solution presented in an executive summary and class presentation. Results: Case studies were created to address each module topic. Through team work and whole-class discussion, a collaborative learning environment was established. Students additionally learned concepts such vendor relations, financial negotiations, capital project management, and competitive strategy. Conclusion: Case Method Teaching approach is an effective teaching tool to further enhance the learning experience of radiation oncology physics students by presenting them with though-provoking dilemmas that require students to distinguish pertinent from peripheral information, formulate strategies and recommendations for action, and confront obstacles to
Gutierrez, A [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)
Purpose: Case Method Teaching approach is a teaching tool used commonly in business school to challenge students with real-world situations—i.e. cases. The students are placed in the role of the decision maker and have to provide a solution based on the multitude of information provided. Specifically, students must develop an ability to quickly make sense of a complex problem, provide a solution incorporating all of the objectives (at time conflicting) and constraints, and communicate that solution in a succinct, professional and effective manner. The validity of the solution is highly dependent on the auxiliary information provided in the case and the basic didactic knowledge of the student. A Case Method Teaching approach was developed and implemented into an on-going course focused on AAPM Task Group reports at UTHSCSA. Methods: A current course at UTHSCSA reviews and discusses 15 AAPM Task Group reports per semester. The course is structured into three topic modules: Imaging QA, Stereotactic Radiotherapy, and Special Patient Measurements—i.e. pacemakers, fetal dose. After a topic module is complete, the students are divided into groups (2–3 people) and are asked to review a case study related to the module topic. Students then provide a solution presented in an executive summary and class presentation. Results: Case studies were created to address each module topic. Through team work and whole-class discussion, a collaborative learning environment was established. Students additionally learned concepts such vendor relations, financial negotiations, capital project management, and competitive strategy. Conclusion: Case Method Teaching approach is an effective teaching tool to further enhance the learning experience of radiation oncology physics students by presenting them with though-provoking dilemmas that require students to distinguish pertinent from peripheral information, formulate strategies and recommendations for action, and confront obstacles to
Cheng, R; Lourenço, F; Resnick, S
Purpose – Despite rising graduate unemployment in the UK, there are insufficient numbers of graduates employed in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The literature suggests that a teaching emphasis on large organisational business models in Higher Education Institutions (HEI), particularly in the teaching of marketing theory, renders the SME sector unattractive to graduate employment and conversely, it is perceived that graduates lack additional ‘soft skills’ vital for SME development...
Li, Ruixian; Gao, Song
Introduction of information technology into the education field has greatly enriched teaching content and forms, and facilitated transformation of teaching mode, teaching approaches and training concepts. Especially for training of graduates, its introduction seems extraordinarily prominent. In this paper, the authors will analyze and discuss…
Pennaforte, Thomas; Moussa, Ahmed; Loye, Nathalie; Charlin, Bernard; Audétat, Marie-Claude
Helping trainees develop appropriate clinical reasoning abilities is a challenging goal in an environment where clinical situations are marked by high levels of complexity and unpredictability. The benefit of simulation-based education to assess clinical reasoning skills has rarely been reported. More specifically, it is unclear if clinical reasoning is better acquired if the instructor's input occurs entirely after or is integrated during the scenario. Based on educational principles of the dual-process theory of clinical reasoning, a new simulation approach called simulation with iterative discussions (SID) is introduced. The instructor interrupts the flow of the scenario at three key moments of the reasoning process (data gathering, integration, and confirmation). After each stop, the scenario is continued where it was interrupted. Finally, a brief general debriefing ends the session. System-1 process of clinical reasoning is assessed by verbalization during management of the case, and System-2 during the iterative discussions without providing feedback. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Simulation with Iterative Discussions versus the classical approach of simulation in developing reasoning skills of General Pediatrics and Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine residents. This will be a prospective exploratory, randomized study conducted at Sainte-Justine hospital in Montreal, Qc, between January and March 2016. All post-graduate year (PGY) 1 to 6 residents will be invited to complete one SID or classical simulation 30 minutes audio video-recorded complex high-fidelity simulations covering a similar neonatology topic. Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires will be completed and a semistructured interview will be conducted after each simulation. Data analyses will use SPSS and NVivo softwares. This study is in its preliminary stages and the results are expected to be made available by April, 2016. This will be the first study to explore a new
Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun
wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637
Adams, Alyson; Ross, Dorene D.
In this article we describe a graduate program for practicing teachers at the University of Florida. Offered in a blended format (mostly online but supported by a local faculty member), the program embeds graduate work within school reform efforts in hard to staff schools in partner school districts up to 350 miles away from campus in order to…
O'Mara, Ryan J; Hsu, Stephen I; Wilson, Daniel R
The goal of MD-PhD training programs is to produce physician-scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician-scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD-PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This question is especially relevant because the central value and ultimate goal of the academic medicine community is to help attain the highest level of health and health equity for all people. Advances in medical science and practice, along with improvements in health care access and delivery, are steps toward health equity, but alone they will not come close to eliminating health inequalities. Addressing the complex health issues in our communities and society as a whole requires a biomedical research workforce with knowledge, practice, and research skills well beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences. To make real progress in advancing health equity, educational pathways must prepare physician-scientists to treat both micro and macro determinants of health. The authors argue that MD-PhD programs should allow and encourage their scholars to cross boundaries into less traditional disciplines such as epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, ethics, public policy, management, economics, education, social work, informatics, communications, and marketing. To fulfill current and coming health care needs, nontraditional MD-PhD students should be welcomed and supported as valuable members of our biomedical research workforce.
Miranda, Renata Pinto Ribeiro; de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Érika; Silva Lima, Rogério; Braga, Cristiane Giffoni; Simões, Ivandira Anselmo Ribeiro; Fava, Silvana Maria Coelho Leite; Iunes, Denise Hollanda
Simulation allows students to develop several skills during a bed bath that are difficult to teach only in traditional classroom lectures, such as problem-solving, student interactions with the simulator (patient), reasoning in clinical evaluations, evaluation of responses to interventions, teamwork, communication, security and privacy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a simulated bed bath scenario on improving cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction among nursing students. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Nursing students that were in the fifth period from two educational institutions in Brazil. Nursing students (n=58). The data were collected using the assessments of cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction were made through a written test about bed baths, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and a satisfaction questionnaire. We identified that the acquisition and assimilation of cognitive knowledge was significantly higher in the simulation group (p=0.001). The performance was similar in both groups regardless of the teaching strategy (p=0.435). At follow-up, the simulation group had significantly more satisfaction with the teaching method than the control group (p=0.007). The teaching strategy based on a simulated scenario of a bed bath proved to be effective for the acquisition of cognitive knowledge regarding bed baths in clinical practice and improved student satisfaction with the teaching process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Henrique Hessel Gaeta
Full Text Available Biochemistry as a discipline have a high degree of difficulty. Otherwise, application of creative games as teaching methodology has spread in various disciplines. "METABOLIC RIDE" board game is a conceptual and perceptual evaluation tool for biochemistry teaching, aiming to review concepts transmitted in classroom, promoting a competitive challenge to students without denying tools that are at their disposal, stimulating their skills such as their creativity. Further, it makes possible to correlate metabolic routes and their interconnections to establish that metabolic pathways are not separated, such as a railway map. In addition, this game proved to be an excellent tool for student’s complementary evaluation, which allowed to analyze the student’s perception and thus realize that when properly stimulated some groups could show a great productive and creative capacity. However, this game demonstrated to students new ways to approach complex subjects in biochemistry using creativity.
Arthur C Onwuchekwa
Full Text Available Arthur C Onwuchekwa, Sunday ChinenyeDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, NigeriaBackground: Hypertension in Nigeria is a widespread problem of immense social and economic importance because of its high prevalence and the severity of its complications.Aim: To define the morbidity and mortality pattern of hypertension at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH.Method: Records of all patients admitted to the medical wards of the UPTH over a 5-year period with essential hypertension or any of its complications were retrieved from the ward and medical records and reviewed.Result: A total of 780 hypertensive patients were reviewed, constituting 28.2% of all medical admissions. Only 424 (15.2% had complete records and were analyzed. Record keeping was poor. There were 173 (41% males and 251 (59% females with a male to female ratio of 1:1.5. The ages ranged from 18 years to 100 years with a mean of 56.5 ± 16.2. Stroke was responsible for 169 (39.9% hypertensive complications. Heart failure occurred in 97 (22% cases while renal failure and encephalopathy accounted for 40 (9.4% and 7 (1.7% hypertensive complications respectively. There were 99 deaths out of which 51 (51.5% were due to stroke, 14 (14.12% were due to heart failure, and 12 (12.1% were due to renal failure.Conclusion: The contribution of systemic hypertension to the morbidity and mortality of adults at UPTH is quite significant.Keywords: clinical profile, hypertension, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital
Stevens, Niall T; McDermott, Hélène; Boland, Fiona; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Humphreys, Hilary
Audience response devices, or "clickers", have been used in the education of future healthcare professionals for several years with varying success. They have been reported to improve the learning experience by promoting engagement and knowledge retention. In 2014, our department evaluated the use of "clickers" in a newly introduced multidisciplinary approach to teaching large groups of third year medical students clinical cases developed around a microbiology theme. Six multidisciplinary teaching sessions covering community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, infective endocarditis, peritonitis, bloodstream infection with pyelonephritis and bacterial meningitis were included in the study. Three involved the use of the "clickers" and three did not. Consenting undergraduate students attended the designated classes and afterwards answered a short online quiz relating to the session. Students also answered a short questionnaire about the "clickers" to gauge their attitudes on the use of these devices. Of 310 students, 294 (94.8%) agreed to participate in the study. Interestingly, the grades of online quizzes after a session where a "clicker" was used were slightly lower. Looking only at the grades of students who engaged completely with the process (n = 19), there was no statistical difference to suggest that the devices had a positive or negative impact on knowledge retention. However, student attitudes to using the devices were positive overall. Fifty-five percent strongly agreed and 27% agreed that teaching sessions where the "clickers" were used were more engaging. Thirty-four percent strongly agreed and 36% agreed that the "clickers" made important concepts more memorable and 54% felt the device enhanced their understanding of the topic being covered. Overall, it appears that "clickers" help in improving student engagement in large classroom environments, enhance the learning experience, and are received positively by medical students but their impact on
Kustra, Erika; Doci, Florida; Gillard, Kaitlyn; Hondzel, Catharine Dishke; Goff, Lori; Gabay, Danielle; Meadows, Ken N.; Borin, Paola; Wolf, Peter; Ellis, Donna; Eiliat, Hoda; Grose, Jill; Dawson, Debra L.; Hughes, Sandy
An institutional culture that values teaching is likely to lead to improved student learning. The main focus of this study was to determine faculty, graduate and undergraduate students' perception of the teaching culture at their institution and identify indicators of that teaching culture. Themes included support for teaching development; support…
Buck, Benjamin; Romeo, Katy Harper; Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L
One possible explanation for the dearth of psychologists working in severe mental illness (SMI) areas is a lack of training opportunities. Recent studies have shown that while training opportunities have increased, there remain fewer resources available for SMI training compared to other disorders. Examines whether students express discomfort working with this population and whether they are satisfied with their level of training in SMI. One-hundred sixty-nine students currently enrolled in doctoral programs in clinical psychology in the United States and Canada were surveyed for their comfort treating and satisfaction with training related to a number of disorders. RESULTS indicate that students are significantly less comfortable treating and finding a referral for a patient with schizophrenia as well as dissatisfied with their current training in SMI and desirous of more training. Regression analyses showed that dissatisfaction with training predicted a desire for more training; however, discomfort in treating people with SMI did not predict a desire for more training in this sample. This pattern generally held across disorders. Our results suggest general discomfort among students surveyed in treating SMI compared to other disorders.
Brykczynski, Karen A
Scholarship of teaching in nursing is illustrated by describing the development, implementation, evaluation, and revision of a family and health promotion course for graduate family nurse practitioner students. A narrative pedagogical approach that combines conventional pedagogy with action research is used. The work, an example of curriculum as dialogue, illustrates how teachers can incorporate research, evaluation, and reflection into their daily teaching practice. Given adequate support, these evaluation and research activities could constitute part of the scholarship of teaching, and, as such, would warrant allocation of time in faculty workloads and formal acknowledgment in annual performance evaluations and promotion and tenure decisions. The importance of increasing the clinical relevance of the scholarship of teaching in a practice discipline such as nursing is also emphasized.
Ramm, Dianne; Thomson, Anna; Jackson, Andrew
The benefits of peer teaching and assessment are well documented within nurse education literature. However, research to date has predominantly focused on the advantages and disadvantages for the inexperienced learner, with a dearth of knowledge relating to the perceptions of senior nursing students involved in teaching their peers. This study sought to investigate the student experience of taking part in a peer teaching and assessment initiative to include the perceptions of both first year nursing students and second/third year participants. Data were collected via open-ended questionnaires and analysed with qualitative 'Framework' analysis. This initiative received a generally positive response both from students being taught and also from those acting as facilitators. Perceived benefits included the social learning experience, development of teaching skills, self-awareness and the opportunity to communicate both good and bad news. Suggestions for improvement included additional time working in small groups, specific supplementary learning materials and the introduction of peer teaching and assessment into other areas of the Adult Nursing Programme. Peer teaching and assessment principles represent valuable strategies which can be utilised in nurse education to develop clinical skills and prepare nurses for real-life scenarios. Further research needs to investigate how to enhance the student learning experience and to fully exploit the potential for simulated experience to prepare students for their future role as registered nurses in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Emotion and how people manage it is an important part of personality that would immensely affect their health. Investigations showed that emotional intelligence is significantly related to and can predict psychological health. Objective: To determine the effect of teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses on their general health. Methods: This randomized clinical trial (registered as IRCT201208022812N9 was conducted on 52 of 200 in intensive care unit nurses affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. They were recruited through purposeful convenience sampling and then randomly categorized into two groups. The intervention group members were trained in emotional intelligence. Bar-on emotional intelligence and Goldberg's general health questionnaires were administered to each participant before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. Results: While the mean score of general health for the intervention group decreased from 25.4 before the intervention, to 18.1 immediately after the intervention and to 14.6 one month later, for the control group, it increased from 22.0, to 24.2 and to 26.5, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: Teaching emotional intelligence improved the general health of intensive care unit nurses.
Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben
The authors argue that medical school faculty should (1) make a distinction among competencies that they feel need to be taught for mastery (i.e., at a level of proficiency expected from a practicing physician) and those that should be taught at lower levels of proficiency, and (2) impart the former competencies in single teaching units. The authors propose that the skills that students should be expected to master include patient interviewing, physical examination, patient counseling on health promotion and disease prevention (HP/DP), and self-directed learning. The concepts of a hypothetical teaching unit that aims to impart these skills are described. By the end of this unit, the students would be expected to (1) examine simulated and real patients to detect risk indicators and physical findings for the diseases that are the most common causes of death in the patient's gender and age group, and to look for risk indicators and physical findings for diseases where early diagnosis and treatment have been shown to reduce mortality for such patients, and (2) provide counseling for lifestyle changes and future clinical examinations. The authors believe that the objective of acquiring an ability to counsel a patient on HP/DP at the level of competence of a practicing physician will motivate students to acquire the skills of patient interviewing, physical examination, and self-directed learning more effectively than would a succession of reinforcements of these subjects throughout the curriculum.
Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
AIM: To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. BACKGROUND: Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use...... underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. CONCLUSION: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions....... The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources....
Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Mani, Uma Maheswari; Christian, Jayanth; Seenivasan, Madhan Kumar; Natarajan, Parthasarathy; Vaidhyanathan, Anand Kumar
Teeth arrangement is a vital skill for the undergraduate dental student. The attainment of skills depends largely on the methodology of teaching. In a dental curriculum, the students are exposed to a wide variety of inputs and teaching methodologies from different sources. The educational unit in dental school must identify the sequence of teaching methods that enhance the learning and practising ability of students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three different teaching methodologies for teeth arrangement and compare the differences between the orders of exposure to each teaching methodology on the development of teeth arrangement skills. The first year B.D.S students were study participants and were divided into three groups A, B, C. They were exposed to three teaching patterns namely live demonstration with video assisted teaching, group discussion with hand-outs and lectures with power point presentation. After each teaching methodology, their skill was assessed. The groups were exposed to three methodologies in different order for three arrangements. The scores obtained were analysed using Kruskal Wallis rank sum test and Dunn test for statistical significance. Significantly higher scores in the teeth arrangement procedure were obtained by the Group A students who were exposed initially to live demonstration with video-assisted teaching. Difference in the scores was noted among and within the groups. The difference between Group A and Group C was statistically significant after both first and third teeth arrangement (p=0.0031, p=0.0057). The study suggests each pre-clinical practice should begin with a live demonstration to enhance immediate learning absorption followed by lectures with power point presentation and group discussion for retention of knowledge and memory retrieval.
Kuehne, Lauren M; Twardochleb, Laura A; Fritschie, Keith J; Mims, Meryl C; Lawrence, David J; Gibson, Polly P; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D
Development of skills in science communication is a well-acknowledged gap in graduate training, but the constraints that accompany research (limited time, resources, and knowledge of opportunities) make it challenging to acquire these proficiencies. Furthermore, advisors and institutions may find it difficult to support graduate students adequately in these efforts. The result is fewer career and societal benefits because students have not learned to communicate research effectively beyond their scientific peers. To help overcome these hurdles, we developed a practical approach to incorporating broad science communication into any graduate-school time line. The approach consists of a portfolio approach that organizes outreach activities along a time line of planned graduate studies. To help design the portfolio, we mapped available science communication tools according to 5 core skills essential to most scientific careers: writing, public speaking, leadership, project management, and teaching. This helps graduate students consider the diversity of communication tools based on their desired skills, time constraints, barriers to entry, target audiences, and personal and societal communication goals. By designing a portfolio with an advisor's input, guidance, and approval, graduate students can gauge how much outreach is appropriate given their other commitments to teaching, research, and classes. The student benefits from the advisors' experience and mentorship, promotes the group's research, and establishes a track record of engagement. When graduate student participation in science communication is discussed, it is often recommended that institutions offer or require more training in communication, project management, and leadership. We suggest that graduate students can also adopt a do-it-yourself approach that includes determining students' own outreach objectives and time constraints and communicating these with their advisor. By doing so we hope students will
Kidwell, Clara Sue; LaPidus, Jules B.
This pamphlet guides the college graduate in determining whether graduate school is an appropriate choice in career planning. Chapter titles include: "Why Graduate School?,""What is Graduate Education?,""Preparation for Graduate School,""Career Options with a Graduate Degree,""Making the Decision,""Financing a Graduate Education,""Choosing a…
Kamine, Tovy Haber; Barron, Rebecca J; Lesicka, Agnieszka; Galbraith, John D; Millham, Frederick H; Larson, Janet
On July 1, 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) eliminated 30-hour call in an attempt to improve resident wakefulness. We surveyed interns on the Newton Wellesley Hospital (NWH) surgery service before and after the transition from Q4 overnight call to a night float schedule. For 15 weeks, interns completed weekly surveys including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The service changed to a night float schedule after 3 weeks (ie, first to 3-4 and then to 6 nights in a row). The average ESS score rose from 9.8 ± 5.2 to 14.9 ± 3.1 and 14.4 ± 4.5 (P = .042) on the 3/4 and 6/1 schedules, respectively. Interns were more likely to be abnormally tired on either night float schedule (relative risk = 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-6.97, P = .029). The new ACGME work hours increased the ESS scores among interns at NWH and caused interns to be more tired than interns on the Q4 schedule. This is likely caused by the multiple nights of poor sleep without a post-call day to make up sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DiBartolomeis, Susan M.
Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky73. Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers. PMID:21364104
Hulsman, R.L.; Ros, W.J.G.; Winnubst, J.A.M.; Bensing, J.M.
Interest in the teaching of communication skills in medical schools has increased since the early seventies but, despite this growing interest, relatively limited curricular time is spent on the teaching of communication skills. The limited attention to the teaching of these skills applies even more
Billeaud, Frances P.
A study was undertaken to evaluate the benefits derived by speech and language pathology students who used video tape recordings to learn diagnosis of communication disorders, to observe professional therapists and therapy programs, and to improve their own clinical techniques through self-observation. The use of video tapes to teach clinical…
Ishiyama, John; Balarezo, Christine; Miles, Tom
We investigate whether the existence of a required graduate course on "Teaching in Political Science" is related to overall job placement rates reported by graduate political science programs. We examine this in light of evidence from 73 public PhD-granting political science departments across the country. We find that the existence of…
Mundfrom, Daniel J.; Shaw, Dale G.; Thomas, Ann; Young, Suzanne; Moore, Alan D.
This study addresses the question, "What should graduate students know about research and statistics after completing an initial course?" Individuals who teach such courses at various Carnegie classifications of institutions were surveyed about the specific characteristics of an introductory graduate research course at their own institutions to…
Chong, Y; Unklesbay, N; Dowdy, R
To investigate the perceived total quality management (TQM) performance of their department by clinical nutrition managers and dietitians, and foodservice managers and supervisors, in hospital food and nutrition service departments. Using a 2-part questionnaire containing items about 3 constructs of TQM performance and demographic characteristics, participants rated their perceptions of TQM performance. Employees in 7 Council of Teaching Hospitals. Of the 128 possible respondents, 73 (57%) completed the study. Correlation analysis to identify relationships between demographic characteristics and TQM performance. Analysis of variance to investigate statistical differences among hospitals and between subject groups and types of employment positions. Three TQM constructs--organization, information, and quality management--were evaluated. The clinical nutrition manager and dietitian group had mean ratings between 3.1 and 4.7 (5-point Likert scale); the foodservice manager and supervisor group had mean ratings from 2.7 to 4.0. Education level was significantly correlated (r = 0.44) to performance of employee training in the clinical nutrition group. The number of employees directly supervised was negatively correlated (r = -0.21) to the performance of employee training in the foodservice group. As the dynamic roles of dietitians change, many dietitians will occupy management positions in organizations such as restaurants, health food stores, food processing/distribution companies, and schools. This study demonstrates how a TQM survey instrument could be applied to clinical nutrition and foodservice settings. Dietitians will need to assess TQM in their workplace facilities, especially because of the direct links of TQM to productivity and client satisfaction.
Wenting, Sandy Zhou; Samin, Margaret Million; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Neelam, Kumari; Shibli, Khalil; Chang, Su; Cheng, Jason
To compare medical students' preference of smart phone television display (SPTD) to a slit-lamp teaching telescope (SLTT) in undergraduate clinical ophthalmology education. This is a randomized, crossover, comparative study. Pairs of medical students were randomly assigned to 2 teaching sessions using either SPTD first followed by SLTT or in reverse order. Students were asked to give feedback on the 2 teaching devices by answering 6 questions using a numeric rating score from 1 to 10. All participating students were sent the results of the study 1 month after the completion of the study and were asked to reflect upon the outcome. Thirty-eight students were recruited. The overall satisfaction scores were significantly higher for SPTD than SLTT (8.6 ± 1.4 vs 7.5 ± 1.0, p teaching. Our study has demonstrated that the utility of SPTD as a teaching aid can significantly increase the satisfaction of undergraduate medical students during their ophthalmology attachment. It offers specific practical advantages in teaching medical students over the traditional SLTT. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCobb, Emily; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Malcolm, Elizabeth L; Wolfus, Gregory; Rush, John E
Providing veterinary students with opportunities to develop clinical skills in a realistic, hands-on environment remains a challenge for veterinary education. We have developed a novel approach to teaching clinical medicine to fourth-year veterinary students and technical high school students via development of a primary care clinic embedded within a technical high school. The primary care clinic targets an underserved area of the community, which includes many of the participating high school students. Support from the veterinary community for the project has been strong as a result of communication, the opportunity for veterinarians to volunteer in the clinic, and the careful targeting of services. Benefits to veterinary students include the opportunity to build clinical competencies and confidence, as well as the exposure to a diverse client population. The financial model of the clinic is described and initial data on outcomes for case load, clinic income, veterinary student evaluations, and high school students' success in passing the veterinary assisting examination are reported. This clinical model, involving a partnership between a veterinary school and a technical high school, may be adoptable to other clinical teaching situations.
Saber, Mahboobeh; Enjoo, Seyed Ali; Mahboudi, Ali; Tabei, Seyed Ziaadin
The newly deceased patients have long been used in medical schools to teach clinical skills without any challenges as it helps to train skilled doctors. Nowadays, the use of moulages and simulators are common in teaching clinical skills since these tools provide the opportunity for frequent practice without any pain and injury. There are specific procedures which still require the use of cadavers. However, the increased significance of patient rights has generally challenged the practicality of using the deceased bodies for this purpose. This study was designed with the aim of determining to what extent clinical skill training is dependent on the recently deceased patients. This was a cross-sectional mixed-method triangulation design conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data of the medical students and residents. The data were used to assess the frequency of experience. In the second stage, semi-structured interviews were conducted with faculty members and fellows in order to evaluate the educational impact of this type of procedure and the influential factors. The quantitative data were analyzed using statistical software, and the qualitative codes were extracted following a content analysis. Finally, a comparative analysis was performed. Twenty five residents (26%) and seven medical students (14%) had the experience of performing procedures on the recently deceased patients for training purposes. About half of the residents and 33% of the medical students had observed their colleagues practicing procedures on cadavers. In the qualitative phase, the main categories included professional ethics, law and educational requirements. A relatively low number of medical students and residents had experienced procedures on the newly deceased patients. In this regard, ethical, religious and legal concerns might have played a part despite the desire to learn. It would be effective to direct these
Fall, B; Diao, B; Fall, P A; Diallo, Y; Sow, Y; Ondongo, A A M; Diagana, M; Ndoye, A K; Ba, M; Diagne, B A
To present the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of the urological emergencies in Senegal, West Africa. The authors conducted a 20 months retrospective study that analyzed the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of all urological emergencies admitted to the urology department of the university teaching hospital Aristide-Le-Dantec (Dakar). There were 1237 urological emergencies. The mean age of the patients was 58.8 years (range one month-94 years). The sex ratio (M/F) was 20.32. These patients had an age equal to or higher than 60 years in 50.7% of the cases. The most frequent illness was urinary retention (53%) and genitor-urinary system infectious, which represented as a whole 16.4% of the cases. The gangrenes of male external genitalia (Fournier's gangrene) accounted for 4.1% of the cases and the priapism 1.3%. In emergency, 331 surgical operations were performed. The most performed procedures were the installation of a suprapubic catheter (59.8%) and debridement of a gangrene of male external genitalia (15.4%). The most frequent urological emergency in our country was the acute urinary retention. Some serious illness like gangrene of male external genitalia (Fournier's gangrene) and priapism are not rare there.
Geography graduates face an uncertain future. To help students think and practice as a geographer, we must teach disciplinary knowledge--particularly threshold concepts--as well as skills and attributes. We must role model and articulate our geographical reasoning using signature pedagogies and promote high-impact and signature learning…
Dewberry, David R.
After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…
Smith, Katherine K.; Winn, Vanessa G.
This paper serves as a phenomenological reflection about the meaning of a co-teaching experience at the college level for two graduate teaching assistants. When two teachers combine planning and teaching efforts it is called co-teaching. As a pedagogical method for both instructors and students, co-teaching was beneficial because it modeled a…
Watmough, Simon; O'Sullivan, Helen; Taylor, David
In 1996 The University of Liverpool reformed its medical course from a traditional lecture-based course to an integrated PBL curriculum. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. Part of this project has involved gathering retrospective views on the relevance of both types of undergraduate education according to graduates. This paper focuses on the views of traditional Liverpool graduates approximately 6 years after graduation. From February 2006 to June 2006 interviews took place with 46 graduates from the last 2 cohorts to graduate from the traditional Liverpool curriculum. The graduates were generally happy with their undergraduate education although they did feel there were some flaws in their curriculum. They felt they had picked up good history and examination skills and were content with their exposure to different specialties on clinical attachments. They were also pleased with their basic science teaching as preparation for postgraduate exams, however many complained about the overload and irrelevance of many lectures in the early years of their course, particular in biochemistry. There were many different views about how they integrated this science teaching into understanding disease processes and many didn't feel it was made relevant to them at the time they learned it. Retrospectively, they felt that they hadn't been clinically well prepared for the role of working as junior doctor, particularly the practical aspects of the job nor had enough exposure to research skills. Although there was little communication skills training in their course they didn't feel they would have benefited from this training as they managed to pick up had the required skills on clinical attachments. These interviews offer a historical snapshot of the views of graduates from a traditional course before many courses were reformed. There was some conflict in the interviews about the doctors enjoying their undergraduate education but then saying that they
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 The University of Liverpool reformed its medical course from a traditional lecture-based course to an integrated PBL curriculum. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. Part of this project has involved gathering retrospective views on the relevance of both types of undergraduate education according to graduates. This paper focuses on the views of traditional Liverpool graduates approximately 6 years after graduation. Methods From February 2006 to June 2006 interviews took place with 46 graduates from the last 2 cohorts to graduate from the traditional Liverpool curriculum. Results The graduates were generally happy with their undergraduate education although they did feel there were some flaws in their curriculum. They felt they had picked up good history and examination skills and were content with their exposure to different specialties on clinical attachments. They were also pleased with their basic science teaching as preparation for postgraduate exams, however many complained about the overload and irrelevance of many lectures in the early years of their course, particular in biochemistry. There were many different views about how they integrated this science teaching into understanding disease processes and many didn't feel it was made relevant to them at the time they learned it. Retrospectively, they felt that they hadn't been clinically well prepared for the role of working as junior doctor, particularly the practical aspects of the job nor had enough exposure to research skills. Although there was little communication skills training in their course they didn't feel they would have benefited from this training as they managed to pick up had the required skills on clinical attachments. Conclusion These interviews offer a historical snapshot of the views of graduates from a traditional course before many courses were reformed. There was some conflict in the interviews about the doctors
Rahman, Reece O.; Zeglin, Robert J.
Many undergraduate psychology students eventually choose a career providing clinical mental health services. A background in abnormal psychology (psychopathology) is helpful and requisite in these graduate academic and future professional venues. The creativity needed to adequately teach the complex material covered in most abnormal psychology…
Unadike, B.C.; Akpan, N.A.; Essien, I.O.
Diabetes Mellitus is emerging as a major health challenge with the incidence and prevalence of the disease on the increase. It also contributes to overall morbidity and mortality with complications like cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy and lower extremity amputation. There are few local studies on the clinical characteristics of the disease in our wet up and this study therefore set out to characterize the clinical profile of newly presenting diabetic patients in a health facility in Nigeria. It is a cross sectional, descriptive study carried out at the diabetes clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital between January 2007 and September 2008. Data obtained included age, sex, anthropometric indices, symptomatology, co-morbidities, complications and treatment of diabetes. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 10. A total of two hundred and seventy patients were studied (120 males, 150 females). About 89.2% were Type 2 DM patients and majority of the study subjects were overweight. Diabetic neuropathy was the commonest complication present in 38.8% of the subjects. Polyuria was the commonest symptom and hypertension the commonest comorbidity. Majority of the subjects were on oral hypolgycaemic agents for the management of their disease with the sulphonyureas and biguanides being the most common medication that was taken by them. A few of the patients were also taking herbal medication for treatment of their disease. Majority of the patients presenting in our facility have Type 2 diabetes, were hypertensive and overweight. Hypertension was the commonest co-morbidity and diabetic neuropathy the commonest complication. Adequate health education, subsidies on medications and proper funding of the health sector is necessary to stem the tide of the burden attributable to the disease. (author)
Wardle, Jonathan Lee; Sarris, Jerome
Complementary medicine is forming an increasingly large part of health care in developed countries and is increasingly being formally taught in tertiary academic settings. An exploratory study of naturopathic student perceptions of, use of and attitudes towards teaching resources in naturopathic clinical training and education. Focus groups were conducted with current and recent students of 4-year naturopathic degree programmes in Brisbane and Sydney to ascertain how they interact with clinical teaching materials, and their perceptions and attitudes towards teaching materials in naturopathic education. Naturopathic students have a complex and critical relationship with their learning materials. Although naturopathic practice is often defined by traditional evidence, students want information that both supports and is critical of traditional naturopathic practices, and focuses heavily on evidence-based medicine. Students remain largely ambivalent about new teaching technologies and would prefer that these develop organically as an evolution from printed materials, rather than depart from dramatically and radically from these previously established materials. Findings from this study will assist publishers, librarians and academics develop clinical information sources that appropriately meet student expectations and support their learning requirements. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.
Hansman, Catherine A.
This chapter is a case story of the evolution of the Master of Education in Health Professions Education (MEHPE), a collaborative graduate program developed by the Adult Learning and Development program at Cleveland State University and the Cleveland Clinic.
Furtado, Ivo A; Gonçalves Ferreira, Ana D; Gonçalves Ferreira, António J
The authors make the balance of the first five years of teaching Anatomy to the Licensure in Health Sciences, of Lisbon University. Were studied 408 students, enrolled in the Curricular Unit of Anatomy (mandatory subject of the 1st semester) and 29 in the Curricular Unit of Neuroanatomy (optional subject of the 6th semester). It was performed the statistical analysis by Anova and t Student test. There was an annual growing influx of students enrolled in Curricular Unit of Anatomy, a stable number in Neuroanatomy and clear predominance of female students; ratio teacher / student variable between 1/9 and 1/17 in Anatomy and 1/8 in Neuroanatomy; high number of initial dropouts (15.69%) in Anatomy; approval levels of 95.93% in Anatomy and Neuroanatomy 100%; trend of improvement in the last two years, with statistical significance in the Curricular Unit of Anatomy (p = 0.0001) and equal academic performance of students of both genders; satisfaction scores of students of Anatomy, Good = 71% and Very Good = 8%; in Neuroanatomy, unanimous classification by students = Very Good. It was a very positive learning experience. The authors propose: the study of the causes and prevention of early dropout of incoming students, improving the ratio teacher / student, possible extension to a 2nd semester of the Curricular Unit of Anatomy and improving facilities that are already underway and includes the refurbishment and modernization of the anatomical theater of the Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon.
Brooks, Erin G; Thornton, Joanne M; Ranheim, Erik A; Fabry, Zsuzsanna
Given the current rapid expansion of biological knowledge and the challenges of translating that knowledge into clinical practice, finding effective methods of teaching graduate students clinical medicine concepts has become even more critical. The utility of autopsy in medical student and resident education has been well established. Multiple studies have reported it to be a helpful means of teaching anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical problem-solving skills, and medical diagnostic techniques. Although various models of training PhD candidates in clinical medicine have been reported, an autopsy-based curriculum has not been previously described. For over 4 years, our pathology department has offered a novel semester-long autopsy-based course to educate future Cellular and Molecular Pathology scientists about clinical medicine. Our results indicate that this "hands-on" approach is a popular as well as effective means of teaching the pathogenesis of disease at the level of the cell, organ, and patient. The course reputation has recently led to requests to open registration to graduate students from other university programs as well as undergraduate students. Additionally, it has played an important role in our Cellular and Molecular Pathology program's recent receipt of a 5-year renewal National Institutes of Health-funded T32 award. Overall, this course model has been successful at our own institution and could provide a useful template for other institutions seeking to provide graduate investigators with in-depth exposure to clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mai, Christine L; Baker, Keith
Anesthesiologists play an important role in educating future clinicians. Yet few residency programs incorporate teaching skills into faculty development. Consequently, many anesthesiologists have limited training to supervise and educate residents. In turn, these attendings may receive negative feedback and poor evaluations from residents without a means to effectively improve. Peer-assisted teaching between faculty members may serve as a strategy to improve teaching skills. We report a case of peer-assisted analysis of resident feedback to identify specific areas of concern that were targeted for improvement. This approach resulted in improved teaching scores and feedback for the faculty member.
The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian.
Nicholas, Kaen E
ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee's chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit it's a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years
Background Clinical governance (CG) is among the different frameworks proposed to improve the quality of healthcare. Iran, like many other countries, has put healthcare quality improvement in its top health policy priorities. In November 2009, implementation of CG became a task for all hospitals across the country. However, it has been a challenge to clarify the notion of CG and the way to implement it in Iran. The purpose of this action research study is to understand how CG can be defined and implemented in a selected teaching emergency department (ED). Methods/design We will use Soft Systems Methodology for both designing the study and inquiring into its content. As we considered a complex problem situation regarding the quality of care in the selected ED, we initially conceptualized CG as a cyclic set of purposeful activities designed to explore the situation and find relevant changes to improve the quality of care. Then, implementation of CG will conceptually be to carry out that set of purposeful activities. The activities will be about: understanding the situation and finding out relevant issues concerning the quality of care; exploring different stakeholders’ views and ideas about the situation and how it can be improved; and defining actions to improve the quality of care through structured debates and development of accommodations among stakeholders. We will flexibly use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis in the course of the study. To ensure the study rigor, we will use different strategies. Discussion Successful implementation of CG, like other quality improvement frameworks, requires special consideration of underlying complexities. We believe that addressing the complex situation and reflections on involvement in this action research will make it possible to understand the concept of CG and its implementation in the selected setting. By describing the context and executed flexible methods of implementation, the results of this study
Busari, J O; Arnold, Aer
In recent years, higher medical education has witnessed major changes in the structure and content of postgraduate medical training. Seven professional competencies have been described that address the medical doctors' ability to effectively communicate and transfer medical information, interact effectively and professionally, and demonstrate a good grasp of clinical knowledge and skills. Proficiency in didactic skills, however, is an important competency that has not received prominent attention. In the clinical setting, attending-physicians and medical residents are responsible for teaching. Consequently, several medical institutions have proposed the need for teacher training programs to improve the teaching skills of attending doctors and medical residents. The supporters of these programs believe that through teaching, medical doctors improve their individual professional and clinical problem-solving abilities. Hence, it is logical to assume that didactic skills' training would contribute to the professional development of doctors. In this paper, we re-examine the underlying theory of the didactic proficiency, how it relates to the clinical setting, and why it may be beneficial for the professional training of medical residents.
Full Text Available In recent years, higher medical education has witnessed major changes in the structure and content of postgraduate medical training. Seven professional competencies have been described that address the medical doctors′ ability to effectively communicate and transfer medical information, interact effectively and professionally, and demonstrate a good grasp of clinical knowledge and skills. Proficiency in didactic skills, however, is an important competency that has not received prominent attention. In the clinical setting, attending-physicians and medical residents are responsible for teaching. Consequently, several medical institutions have proposed the need for teacher training programs to improve the teaching skills of attending doctors and medical residents. The supporters of these programs believe that through teaching, medical doctors improve their individual professional and clinical problem-solving abilities. Hence, it is logical to assume that didactic skills′ training would contribute to the professional development of doctors. In this paper, we re-examine the underlying theory of the didactic proficiency, how it relates to the clinical setting, and why it may be beneficial for the professional training of medical residents.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a hypnosis program with graduate students as a stress management strategy This study identified components of the program that were perceived as beneficial in relieving stress. Additionally, this study determined the amount of time necessary for benefits to be realized. The…
Padilla, Brenda Lisa
This study highlights the development of a graduate training program at The Wright Institute in Berkeley, CA, which provides assessment services for undocumented immigrants seeking asylum. This program focuses on the needs of a general asylum seeking population, with a specific relevance to some of the populations that may be served in the…
Smart, Sarah; Hutchings, Merryn; Maylor, Uvanney; Mendick, Heather; Menter, Ian
Teach First is an educational charity that places graduates to teach in "challenging" schools for two years. It is marketed as an opportunity to develop employability while "making a difference". In this paper, I examine the process of class reproduction occurring in this graduate employment scheme through examining the…
In this contribution I address the challenges and rewards that are brought by teaching creatively in higher education. By looking auto-ethnographically at my own practice as educator at undergraduate and graduate programs in Denmark, I describe a number of creative educational tools: metaphor-bui......) critical and original thinking. The aspiration of the present contribution is to disseminate my thoughts, reflections, experiences and engage in a conversation with a scholarly field, to whom academia is much more than logical-verbal transmission of knowledge.......In this contribution I address the challenges and rewards that are brought by teaching creatively in higher education. By looking auto-ethnographically at my own practice as educator at undergraduate and graduate programs in Denmark, I describe a number of creative educational tools: metaphor...
Jabaut, Joshua M.; Dudum, Ramzi; Margulies, Samantha L.; Mehta, Akshita; Han, Zhiyong
To foster medical students to become physicians who will be lifelong independent learners and critical thinkers with healthy skepticism and provide high-quality patient care guided by the best evidence, teaching of evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become an important component of medical education. Currently, the teaching and learning of…
Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun
The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research-practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n = 618). Pearson's chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Washington University's (Missouri) Department of Romance Languages and Literature requires its graduate teaching assistants to take a one-semester pedagogy course to ensure their competence and effectiveness as teaching assistants. The course features seminars in which goals, expectations, and learning theories are discussed and practice teaching…
Describes approach to teaching treatment planning that author has used successfully in both seminars and graduate courses. Clarifies nature and importance of systematic treatment planning, then describes context in which treatment planning seems more effectively taught, and concludes with step-by-step plan for teaching treatment planning.…
Guenther, Sylvia; Shadbolt, Narelle; Roberts, Chris; Clark, Tyler
The primary care areas of priority (PCAP) activity was developed to engage medical students in learning about chronic disease management in a clinical context from their peers. It is one of several summative assessment tasks that occur during a primary care community term rotation in a graduate-entry medical programme. We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of the PCAP activity as a combined teaching, learning and assessment innovation. Evaluation and assessment data from students who rotated through the four community term blocks during the 2011-2012 academic year was analysed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. PCAP peer teaching activity is an effective format for teaching about the management of chronic conditions in the community Analysis indicated that 89 per cent (n = 148/166) of responding students rated the PCAP as satisfactory, good or excellent. The marking rubric contained 11 assessable components, including teaching skills, mastery of clinical knowledge, developing a management plan, disease prevention and health promotion opportunities, identifying patient safety issues, the impact of the clinical presentation on the patient and family, and consideration of health equity factors. Analysis of the assessment scores indicated that the majority of students achieved the specified learning outcomes. The PCAP peer teaching activity was an acceptable and effective format for teaching about the management of chronic conditions in the community, and is adaptable to other teaching contexts. Students enjoyed teaching and being taught by their peers, and assessment results indicated that they developed their clinical knowledge as well as their teaching ability regarding chronic disease management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Pedagogic education of graduate students, when and where it exists, is restricted to theoretical courses or to the participation of the students as teachers' assistants. This model is essentially reproductive and offers few opportunities for any significant curriculum innovation. To open an opportunity for novelty we have introduced a new approach in "Biochemistry Teaching", a course included in the Biochemistry Graduate Program of the Biochemistry Department (Universidade Estadual de Campinas and Universidade de São Paulo. The content of the course consists of a choosing the theme, b selecting and organizing the topics, c preparing written material, d establishing the methodological strategies, e planning the evaluation tools and, finally, f as teachers, conducting the course as an optional summer course for undergraduate students. During the first semester the graduate students establish general and specific educational objectives, select and organize contents, decide on the instructional strategies and plan evaluation tools. The contents are explored using a wide range of strategies, which include computer-aided instruction, laboratory classes, small group teaching, a few lectures and round table discussions. The graduate students also organize printed class notes to be used by the undergraduate students. Finally, as a group, they teach the summer course. In the three versions already developed, the themes chosen were Biochemistry of Exercise (UNICAMP, Biochemistry of Nutrition (UNICAMP and Molecular Biology of Plants (USP. In all cases the number of registrations greatly exceeded the number of places and a selection had to be made. The evaluation of the experience by both graduate and undergraduate students was very positive. Graduate students considered this experience to be unique and recommended it to their schoolmates; the undergraduate students benefited from a more flexible curriculum (more options and gave very high scores to both
Hirschberg, Joe; Lye, Jenny
This study attempts to establish the extent to which in-class teaching quality instruments can be used to predict post-graduation survey results. It examines the responses for the Good Teaching Scale of the Course Experience Questionnaire administered to 10,433 students who completed their studies at a major Australian tertiary institution from…
Service-learning is a widely used teaching method that appears to be a good fit for graduate nurses, with essential outcomes of advocacy and culturally responsive health care in special populations. However, quantitative evidence to support its effectiveness is minimal. This study evaluated the impact of service-learning on graduate nursing students' cultural competence, civic engagement, and knowledge and understanding of the effects of poverty on health care. Students are required to serve 16 to 20 hours in a nurse-run free clinic as part of their clinical experience. Students (N = 152) completed pre- and postservice surveys. Statistically significant increases were noted in graduate students' civic engagement (p = .0001 to .0495), knowledge and understanding of health care issues (p < .0001), and in three of six statements related to cultural competence (p = .0001 to 9.662). Patient-reported outcomes and community impact is also positive. Service-learning appears to be an effective tool with graduate nurses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Kimbrough-Walls, Vickie J.
Student success is dependent on effective instruction. Yet, effective teaching is difficult to define and described differently by students, faculty, and administrators. Nursing and dental hygiene education programs require faculty to teach in both classroom and clinical environments. However, accreditation agencies for these programs mandate…
Kashiwaya, Kiyoshi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Sakata, Ryuji; Iwata, Morihiro; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Chang, Bin; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tateda, Kazuhiro
Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones are representatives of worldwide-spreading pathogens. DiversiLab system, a repetitive PCR system, has been proposed as a less labor-and time-intensive genotyping platform alternative to conventional methods. However, the utility and analysis parameters of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineages was not established. To evaluate and optimize the performance of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide pneumococcal lineages, we examined 245 consecutive isolates of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae from all age-group patients at a teaching hospital in Japan. The capsular swelling reaction of all isolates yielded 24 different serotypes. Intensive visual observation (VO) of DiversiLab band pattern difference divided all isolates into 73 clusters. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of representative 73 isolates from each VO cluster yielded 51 different STs. Among them, PMEN-related lineages accounted for 63% (46/73). Although the serotype of PMEN-related isolates was identical to that of the original PMEN clone in 70% (32/46), CC156-related PMEN lineages, namely Greece(6B)-22 and Colombia(23F)-26, harbored various capsular types discordant to the original PMEN clones. Regarding automated analysis, genotyping by extended Jaccard (XJ) with a 75% similarity index cutoff (SIC) showed the highest correlation with serotyping (adjusted Rand's coefficient, 0.528). Elevating the SIC for XJ to 85% increased the discriminatory power sufficient for distinguishing two major PMEN-related isolates of Taiwan(19F)-14 and Netherlands(3)-31. These results demonstrated a potential utility of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineage of pneumococcus. An optimized parameters of automated analysis should be useful especially for comparison for reference strains by "identification" function of DiversiLab. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd
Full Text Available Introduction: Perinatal asphyxia, a major topic in neonatology, is a severe condition which has a high impact on neonatal mortality and morbidity and neurological and intellectual development of the infant. It is defined by WHO as "failure to initiate and sustain breathing at birth". It is estimated that around four million babies are born asphyxiated and among those one million die and an equal number of babies develop serious neurological consequences ranging from cerebral palsy and mental retardation to epilepsy. This study was done to identify the occurrence, clinical profile and, immediate outcome of perinatal asphyxia in Lumbini Medical College Teaching Hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective study where 82 cases who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included between December 2014 to November 2015. Inclusion criteria included newborns with: a Apgar score equal to or less than six at five minutes, b requirement of more than one minute of positive pressure ventilation, c signs of fetal distress (heart rate of less than 100 beats per minute, late decelerations. Results: Out of total 425 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admissions, 82 (19.3% cases were of asphyxia among which 56 were inborn and 26 were referred from outside. Of those 82 cases, 47 (57.3% cases developed hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE; HIE stage I had good outcome with survival rate of 95% and HIE stage III had poor outcome with survival rate of only 25%. Conclusion: Despite advances in management of neonates, perinatal asphyxia is still the leading cause of neonatal intensive care unit admission and mortality and morbidity in neonates.
Ikechebelu, J I; Onwusulu, D N
The study aims at reviewing the clinical presentation and management of placenta praevia in a tertiary health facility. This is a retrospective study of 59 cases of placenta praevia managed at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi from January 1997 to December 2001. The case records of 44 of the patients were obtained from the hospital medical records department and analysed. During the five year period, there were 3565 deliveries and 59 cases of placenta praevia giving an incidence of 1.65%. Thirty four (77.3%) occurred in women aged 35 years and below. The commonest was type 111 (12 cases; 27.3%) followed by type IV (10 cases; 22.7%). Previous uterine scar was associated with 22 (50.0%) cases. Age had no statistically significant effect on the prevalence. The commonest GA range at presentation (13; 29.6%) and at delivery (18; 40.9%) was 37-40 weeks. The commonest mode of presentation was antepartum haemorrhage (34; 77.3%) followed by abnormal lie and malpresentation (4 each; 9.1%). The average admission delivery interval was one week in 33 (75.0%) cases and only two (4.5%) received blood transfusion. Forty (90.9%) women had caesarean delivery while 12 (27.3%) babies were of low birth weight. There were only 2 (4.5%) fetal deaths and one (2.3%) caesarean hysterectomy. The commonest predisposing factor to placenta praevia in this study is previous uterine scar. Judicious use of caesarean section especially in the primigravida will help reduce the incidence of placenta praevia. Also a screening ultrasonography at 34-36 weeks gestation (especially in women with previously scarred uterus) is recommended.
Snoek, Marco; Bekebrede, Judith; Hanna, Fadie; Creton, Theun; Edzes, Hester
When teaching is considered as a collaborative activity, the aim of research projects in schools needs to exceed the individual and personal levels and aim to contribute to research-informed reflection of a team of teachers. Within this multiple case study, we adapted the graduation research project within a primary teacher education programme,…
Numminen, O H; Leino-Kilpi, H; van der Arend, A; Katajisto, J
To explore graduating nursing students' perception of nurse educators' teaching of codes of ethics in polytechnics providing basic nursing education in Finland. Codes of ethics are regarded as an essential content in most nursing ethics curricula. However, little is known about how their teaching is implemented. Descriptive, cross-sectional design was used in this study. A total of 214 nursing students responded to a structured questionnaire with one open-ended question. The data was analysed statistically by SPSS and content analysis. Students perceived teaching of the codes as fairly extensive. The emphasis was on the nurse-patient relationship. Less attention was paid to nursing in wider social contexts. Educators' use of teaching and evaluation methods was narrow. Students whose teaching had been integrated into clinical training perceived that teaching had been more extensive. However, students did not perceive integration to clinical training as a much used teaching format. Students assessed their own knowledge and ability to apply the codes as mediocre. Those educators, whose knowledge about the codes students had assessed as adequate, were also perceived to teach the codes more extensively. Regardless of the responding students' positive description of the teaching, the findings should be interpreted with caution, due to the students' limited interest to respond. In teaching ethics, particular attention should be paid to more versatile use of teaching and evaluation methods, organization of integrated teaching, educators' competence in ethics, and student outcomes so that the importance of ethics would come across to all nursing students.
La formación de competencias clínicas según la percepción de los graduados de medicina de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, UNNE, Argentina Graduates' perceptions about the acquired clinical competences in undergraduate study of medicine in National University of the Northeast, UNNE, Argentina
Blanca H. de Espínola
intends to evaluate the quality and pertinence relevancy of the medical education, in the Career of Medicine of the National University of the Northeast (Argentina, according to the perceptions of the graduate ones, about: the received medical education, the acquired clinical competences and the adaptation of the medical formation to the demands of the profession, in the current systems of health. The real profile of the graduate ones is compared with the ideal profile of the Career of grade Medicine, where they are defined the clinical competences to develop in a general physician. A survey was applied at 439 graduate, of up to ten years of expenditure, of the city of Corrientes (Argentina. The results show that: the graduate ones considered "satisfactory", preferably, traditional aspects of the education, for example, the theoretical teaching and the used methods. Consequently, they were considered they are better qualified in traditional medical competences, as the diagnostic ones (that continue being central in the current medical education and the initial physical explorations and anamnesis. Of the data it is possible to infer that, in the modernization processes and curricular change, it is fundamental the coherence among the proposed professional profile - ideal - and the curricular model implemented in the career, to achieve such purposes. Also, it is evidenced in the graduate, examined, the preponderant rol of the teacher one, in the transmission of knowledge and skills and, mainly, in the formation of values and attitudes about the medical model that transmits.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical governance (CG is among the different frameworks proposed to improve the quality of healthcare. Iran, like many other countries, has put healthcare quality improvement in its top health policy priorities. In November 2009, implementation of CG became a task for all hospitals across the country. However, it has been a challenge to clarify the notion of CG and the way to implement it in Iran. The purpose of this action research study is to understand how CG can be defined and implemented in a selected teaching emergency department (ED. Methods/design We will use Soft Systems Methodology for both designing the study and inquiring into its content. As we considered a complex problem situation regarding the quality of care in the selected ED, we initially conceptualized CG as a cyclic set of purposeful activities designed to explore the situation and find relevant changes to improve the quality of care. Then, implementation of CG will conceptually be to carry out that set of purposeful activities. The activities will be about: understanding the situation and finding out relevant issues concerning the quality of care; exploring different stakeholders’ views and ideas about the situation and how it can be improved; and defining actions to improve the quality of care through structured debates and development of accommodations among stakeholders. We will flexibly use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis in the course of the study. To ensure the study rigor, we will use different strategies. Discussion Successful implementation of CG, like other quality improvement frameworks, requires special consideration of underlying complexities. We believe that addressing the complex situation and reflections on involvement in this action research will make it possible to understand the concept of CG and its implementation in the selected setting. By describing the context and executed flexible methods of implementation
Kar, Maitreyee; Kar, Chinmaya; Roy, Hironmoy; Goyal, Parmod
Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine. This study was conducted in collaboration with the Departments of Anatomy, General Medicine and Medical Education Unit in the year 2016. This was cross-sectional study. One hundred and fifty students of 1 st Professional MBBS were subdivided into two groups. After preliminary classes on brain, brainstem, and spinal cord for both groups, conventional lecture classes were taken for Group A only on upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) paralysis, and only Group B visited General Medicine ward where HOD, General Medicine showed and examined patients of UMN paralysis and LMN paralysis, elicited different symptoms, and discussed different investigation. It was followed by assessment of all by problem-based multiple choice questions (MCQ) and short answer questions. Then, Group B attended lecture class on different cranial nerve palsy whereas Group A visited medicine ward. It was followed by assessment of both groups by problem-based MCQ and short answer questions. The performance was compared. Then, the feedback of the students on ECE was collected by means of reflection writing followed by administration of questionnaire. Then, the perception of teachers regarding ECE was recorded by focused group discussion. Student's t -test was used to compare the performance of both batches. Reflection writing and focus group discussion were analyzed
Jul 26, 2014 ... women at their booking antenatal visit in a teaching hospital in South- western ... cell volume (PCV) was used to assess level of anaemia. ..... that poverty as a result of unemployment .... Tirupato, India – A multivariate analysis.
Busari, Jamiu O; Koot, Bart G
Attending doctors (ADs) play important roles in the supervision of specialist registrars. Little is known, however, about how they perceive the quality of their supervision in different teaching settings. We decided to investigate whether there is any difference in how ADs perceive the quality of their supervision in university teaching hospital (UTH) and district teaching hospital (DTH) settings. We used a standardised questionnaire to investigate the quality of supervision as perceived by ADs. Fifteen items reflecting good teaching ability were measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1-5: never-always). We investigated for factors that influenced the perceived quality of supervision using Likert scale items (1-5: totally disagree-totally agree) and open-ended questionnaires. A total of 83 ADs (UTH: 51; DTH: 32) were eligible to participate in the survey. Of these, 43 (52%) returned the questionnaire (UTH: 25; DTH: 18). There was no difference in the overall mean of the 15 items between the UTH (3.67, standard deviation [SD] 0.35) and DTH (3.73, SD 0.31) ADs. Attending doctors in the DTH group rated themselves better at 'teaching technical skills' (mean 3.50, SD 0.70), compared with their UTH counterparts (mean 3.0, SD 0.76) (P = 0.03). Analysis of variance of the overall means revealed no significant difference between the different hospital settings. The results suggest that teaching hospital environments do not influence how ADs perceive the quality of their supervision. Lack of time for teaching was perceived as responsible for poor supervision. Other factors found to influence AD perceptions of good supervision included effective teaching skills, communication skills and provision of feedback.
Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Muthulakshmi, Paulpandi; Happell, Brenda; Hunt, Glenn E
To explore recent Singapore nursing graduates' experience of and views about their career development and progress. The recruitment and retention of an adequate number of registered nurses is a continuing workforce issue in Singapore and other major cities. Survey of recent nursing graduates. Recent nursing graduates from the Bachelor programme (n = 147) were sent an individual survey; a response rate of 54% was achieved. Findings show that nurses rated their self-concept in a positive manner and were most satisfied (moderately to very) with helping patients and providing effective care, and the level of patient involvement. They were least satisfied (moderately to only a little) with prestige among the general medical community and the general public, hours of work, lifestyle factors and research opportunities. The following four factors were identified as significant impediments to career development; lack of support in the work place; perceived insufficient clinical career development opportunities; excessive work hours; and limited access to merit-based places in further education. Suggestions made to overcome perceived career development barriers are as follows: broad multifactorial healthcare system changes; decreased and more flexible working hours; and fairer access to further clinical and higher education. Results highlight the value clinical nurses place on having access to career development opportunities, merit-based further education and work place supports. These factors also have the potential to influence patient care and impact on the retention of nurses in their present job and satisfaction with their nursing career. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Chirag B. Mistry, Shreya M. Shah, Jagatkumar D. Bhatt
Full Text Available Animal experiments are of paramount importance in the pre-clinical screening of new chemical entity. On the other hand, various regulatory guidelines for animal experiments are becoming more stringent in the face of worldwide protests by animal rights activists. Moreover, simulated animal experiments’ softwares are being developed and they can be implemented in the postgraduate and graduate students’ curriculum for demonstration of standard physiological and pharmacological principles compared to real time animal experiments. In fact, implementation of virtual experiment will decrease hand on experience of animal experiments among medical students, but after medical graduation, animal experiment is lest utilized during their day to day clinical practice. Similarly, in case of postgraduate pharmacology curriculum, computer based virtual animal experiments can facilitate teaching and learning in a short span of time with various protocols, without sacrificing any animal for already established experimental outcomes.
Mercedes Moleiro Hernández
Full Text Available The formation process of the Licentiate in Health Technology of the profile of Clinical Laboratory is based in the mastery of the essential knowledge that, linked with the performance ways, allow him the solution of the professional problems he faces, as part of the health team of his specialty, so that within his teaching curriculum a group of subjects are included which have a special linking with the labor practice that the students carry out, on the base of a new didactic approach, starting from invariants of didactics as science which energize the teaching-learning process, and taking as base structure the didactic unity, which makes possible that the student consolidates his learning, achieving partial objectives, but around a well defined object of learning.
Christensen, Nicole; Black, Lisa; Furze, Jennifer; Huhn, Karen; Vendrely, Ann; Wainwright, Susan
Although clinical reasoning abilities are important learning outcomes of physical therapist entry-level education, best practice standards have not been established to guide clinical reasoning curricular design and learning assessment. This research explored how clinical reasoning is currently defined, taught, and assessed in physical therapist entry-level education programs. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was administered to physical therapist program representatives. An electronic 24-question survey was distributed to the directors of 207 programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education. Descriptive statistical analysis and qualitative content analysis were performed. Post hoc demographic and wave analyses revealed no evidence of nonresponse bias. A response rate of 46.4% (n=96) was achieved. All respondents reported that their programs incorporated clinical reasoning into their curricula. Only 25% of respondents reported a common definition of clinical reasoning in their programs. Most respondents (90.6%) reported that clinical reasoning was explicit in their curricula, and 94.8% indicated that multiple methods of curricular integration were used. Instructor-designed materials were most commonly used to teach clinical reasoning (83.3%). Assessment of clinical reasoning included practical examinations (99%), clinical coursework (94.8%), written examinations (87.5%), and written assignments (83.3%). Curricular integration of clinical reasoning-related self-reflection skills was reported by 91%. A large number of incomplete surveys affected the response rate, and the program directors to whom the survey was sent may not have consulted the faculty members who were most knowledgeable about clinical reasoning in their curricula. The survey construction limited some responses and application of the results. Although clinical reasoning was explicitly integrated into program curricula, it was not consistently defined, taught, or
Full Text Available It is one of six modules within the SIF (Strategic Innovative Fund funded Generic Skills Project for PHDS. The Generic Skills Project itself was just one strand within others Supporting the development of 4th level education in Ireland. The Graduate Information Skills module is a collaborative project led by NUI Galway with partners Trinity College Dublin and University College Cork. It is aimed at PHDS but Masters Research and post-docs will find the module of benefit too. The module is developed to offer both an online and face-to-face environment and be customizable with eLearning environments. Project launched in 2007 and has a three year cycle. We agreed to outsource online development and after a tendering process a company called eMedia were awarded the contract. We have piloted full content to PHDS in the three institutions involved and have reviewed feed-back received from attendees. We have also met with module presenters and authors to review their feed-back. The initial content while generic to all PHDS has Science Technology Medicine specific examples. We have complete Online content and module is being offered locally for face-to-face credited teaching. The module has in all units Learning Outcomes and is intended to be fully credited and evaluated for module completion. Funds allowing we would hope to develop Humanities specific content, add units such as on Writing Skills etc. We feel the module has created very good blended learning opportunities and is offered to students in a very contemporary design format. In an Irish context we feel the module offers a national resource that could be used by other institutions.
Sungatullina Dilyana D.
Full Text Available Over the last couple of years there was an increase in graduates’ willingness to interleave their vocational careers with academic instruction at the university. Hence, the authors conducted evaluation and needs analysis of the skills crucial for graduate students to possess. The current study analyzed the attitude of 150 KFU IMEF graduates towards their core requirements within the framework of modern educational environment. The results showed that the majority of the respondents consider knowledge of teaching methodology (a new topic introduction, the material delivery, its further practice and revision, effective groupwork and public speaking to be of great importance. The paper concludes with suggestions on the need for the development and the introduction of a cutting-edge course at a Master’s level tailored to graduates to enhance the skills applicable not only in the professional field but the educational environment as well.
Vukojevič, Mladenka; Antunovič, Andelka; Petrov, Božo
The aim of this study was to determine the difference in the prevalence of burnout syndrome in preclinical and clinical teaching doctors of Mostar School of Medicine in the academic year 2011/2012. Special attention was also focused on finding out the possible difference between the syndrome incidence that was correlated to gender and years of service. The main hypothesis was that the probability of burnout syndrome incidence was higher in the group of female clinical teaching doctors having more years of service. The study involved 62 people with high academic education employed at Mostar School of Medicine who were surveyed during a randomly selected consecutive 3-month period (February to May) of the academic year 2011/2012. The data were prospectively collected through a standardized questionnaire survey. The studied parameters were gender, years of work experience and the engagement in preclinical or clinical departments of the Medical School. The survey showed that 43 out of 62 (69.4%) respondents did not suffer the burnout syndrome, while moderate syndrome was recodred in 19 (30.6%) of them. No person had serious symptoms of the syndrome. The difference between the respondents who suffered the syndrome and those who did not was not statistically significant (P=0.002). Considering the gender of respondents, statistically significant differences were not confirmed (P=0.444). Considering the years of service, the highest incidence of the syndrome was found in people with more work experience (in the group of 21-25 years), but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (P=0.271). Observing the work in preclinical and clinical departments, because of the limited number of patients we could not confirm the hypothesis. The syndrome had affected 13 (21%) clinical teaching doctors and 6 (9,7%) preclinical doctors, while the differenece between them was not statistically significant (P=0.054). Considering the results of this research, it has
Stagg, P; Greenhill, J; Worley, P S
Australian medical education is increasingly influenced by rural workforce policy. Therefore, understanding the influences on medical graduates' practice location and specialty choice is crucial for medical educators and medical workforce planners. The South Australian Flinders University Parallel Rural Community Curriculum (PRCC) was funded by the Australian Government to help address the rural doctor workforce shortage. The PRCC was the first community based medical education program in Australia to teach a full academic year of medicine in South Australian rural general practices. The aim of this research was to identify what factors influence the career choices of PRCC graduates. A retrospective survey of all contactable graduates of the PRCC was undertaken. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS 14.0 for Windows. Qualitative data were entered into NVIVO 7 software for coding, and analysed using content analysis. Usable data were collected from 46 of the 86 contactable graduates (53%). More than half of the respondents (54%) reported being on a rural career path. A significant relationship exists between being on a rural career pathway and making the decision prior to or during medical school (p = 0.027), and between graduates in vocational training who are on an urban career path and making a decision on career specialty after graduation from medical school (p = .004). Graduates in a general practice vocational training program are more likely to be on a rural career pathway than graduates in a specialty other than general practice (p = .003). A key influence on graduates' practice location is geographic location prior to entering medical school. Key influences on graduates choosing a rural career pathway are: having a spouse/partner with a rural background; clinical teachers and mentors; the extended rural based undergraduate learning experience; and a specialty preference for general practice. A lack of rural based internships and specialist training
Ricardo, Maria Paula Ferreira; Marin, Maria José Sanches; Otani, Marcia Aparecida Padovan; Marin, Marina Sanches
There is a lack of knowledge about the effective value of the experience gained by medical students who participate in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF)) during the early stages of their medical training. This teaching strategy is based on learning by experiencing the problems that exist in real life. This study proposed to understand the value of this teaching strategy from the viewpoint of the students who had participated, after their graduation. The method adopted was a qualitative study conducted through interviews with students who graduated in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. The data analysis used the hermeneutic dialectic technique as its model. The graduates considered that this experience enabled them to understand the organization and functioning of the health service and the context of the daily life of the users. This experience facilitated the doctor patient relationship, the development of clinical reasoning and the bond with the user. However the students emphasized that a lack of maturity prevented them gaining a higher level of benefit from the experience. Therefore, although the structure of the course is permeated by advances and challenges, it was concluded that this experience contributed to the student's learning of certain essential elements of medical training.
Shetty, Vittaldas B; Shirahatti, Ravi V; Pawar, Prakash
This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing students' perceived learning experience at the time of graduation from a dental school in India. The domains appraised were undergraduate curriculum, student motivation and support services, institutional infrastructure, administrative services, components of teaching-learning programs, confidence level in carrying out specific clinical procedures, career choice, and postgraduate specialty preference after graduation. The authors surveyed forty-five dental interns at the end of their undergraduate course, a 100 percent response rate from the class. The results showed that over 95 percent of the graduates were satisfied with the curriculum and 60 to 95 percent reported that the various components of the teaching-learning process were adequate. Only 42 percent of the students were confident about setting up a practice; 65 percent wished to take a course on general dentistry; and 86 percent wanted to pursue postgraduate study. The principal conclusions were that although the program was satisfactory to the majority of participants, some areas of concern were identified that need improvement.
Maria Paula Ferreira Ricardo
Full Text Available There is a lack of knowledge about the effective value of the experience gained by medical students who participate in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF during the early stages of their medical training. This teaching strategy is based on learning by experiencing the problems that exist in real life. This study proposed to understand the value of this teaching strategy from the viewpoint of the students who had participated, after their graduation. The method adopted was a qualitative study conducted through interviews with students who graduated in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. The data analysis used the hermeneutic dialectic technique as its model. The graduates considered that this experience enabled them to understand the organization and functioning of the health service and the context of the daily life of the users. This experience facilitated the doctor patient relationship, the development of clinical reasoning and the bond with the user. However the students emphasized that a lack of maturity prevented them gaining a higher level of benefit from the experience. Therefore, although the structure of the course is permeated by advances and challenges, it was concluded that this experience contributed to the student's learning of certain essential elements of medical training.
Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the perceptions of pharmacy clerkship students and clinical preceptors of preceptors’ teaching behaviors at Gondar University. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy clerkship students and preceptors during June 2014 and December 2015. A 52-item structured questionnaire was self-administered to 126 students and 23 preceptors. The responses are presented using descriptive statistics. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test the significance of differences between students and preceptors. The response rate was 89.4% for students and 95.6% for preceptors. Statistically significant differences were observed in the responses regarding two of the five communication skills that were examined, six of the 26 clinical skills, and five of the 21 parameters involving feedback. The mean scores of preceptors (2.6/3 and students (1.9/3 regarding instructors’ ability to answer questions were found to be significantly different (P= 0.01. Students and preceptors gave mean scores of 1.9 and 2.8, respectively, to a question regarding preceptors’ application of appropriate up-to-date knowledge to individual patients (P= 0.00. Significant differences were also noted between students and instructors regarding the degree to which preceptors encouraged students to evaluate their own performance (P= 0.01. Discrepancies were noted between students and preceptors regarding preceptors’ teaching behaviors. Preceptors rated their teaching behaviors more highly than students did. Short-term training is warranted for preceptors to improve some aspects of their teaching skills.
Bamford, K B; Wood, S; Shaw, R J
Conducting gene therapy clinical trials with genetically modified organisms as the vectors presents unique safety and infection control issues. The area is governed by a range of legislation and guidelines, some unique to this field, as well as those pertinent to any area of clinical work. The relevant regulations covering gene therapy using genetically modified vectors are reviewed and illustrated with the approach taken by a large teaching hospital NHS Trust. Key elements were Trust-wide communication and involvement of staff in a pro-active approach to risk management, with specific emphasis on staff training and engagement, waste management, audit and record keeping. This process has led to the development of proposed standards for clinical trials involving genetically modified micro-organisms.
Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas J.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.
OBJECTIVES Evaluations of faculty members are widely used to identify excellent or substandard teaching performance. In order to enable such evaluations to be properly interpreted and used in faculty development, it is essential to understand the factors that influence resident doctors' (residents)
Busari, Jamiu O.; Koot, Bart G.
Attending doctors (ADs) play important roles in the supervision of specialist registrars. Little is known, however, about how they perceive the quality of their supervision in different teaching settings. We decided to investigate whether there is any difference in how ADs perceive the quality of
Turner, S; Sundaresan, P; Mann, K; Pryor, D; Gebski, V; Shaw, T
To evaluate the learner's perspectives on a novel workshop programme designed to improve skills in biostatistics, research methodology and critical appraisal in oncology. Trainees were surveyed anonymously at the completion of each annual workshop from 2012 to 2015. In total, 103 trainees in years 2-4 of training in radiation oncology responded, giving a 94% survey response rate. A 1 day workshop, designed by biostatisticians and radiation oncologist facilitators, is the central component of a programme teaching skills in biostatistics, research methods and critical appraisal. This links short didactic lectures about statistical concepts to interactive trainee discussions around discipline-related publications. The workshop was run in conjunction with the major radiation oncology clinical trials group meeting with alternating programmes (A and B). Most of the participants (44-47/47 for A and 48-55/56 for B), reported that their understanding of one or more individual topics improved as a result of teaching. Refinement of the workshop over time led to a more favourable perception of the 'optimal' balance between didactic/interactive teaching: nine of 27 (33%) 'optimal' responses seen in 2013 compared with 23 of 29 (79%) in 2015 (P research to illuminate key statistical concepts. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diamond, Ursula; Di Bartolo, Christina A; Badin, Emily; Shatkin, Jess P
The Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies (CAMS) program is housed in a Liberal Arts undergraduate college of a large research university. Psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and social workers at the university's medical center teach the courses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which CAMS encourages graduates of the program to pursue a career in child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). In 2015-2016, graduates of the CAMS program were invited to participate in a mixed methods study. In addition to statistical analyses, qualitative thematic analyses were performed to interpret free-text responses. Forty-five percent (314/702) of invited graduates completed the online survey. Interviews were conducted with 11% (34/314) of participants by study staff over the phone. Quantitative results suggested that 81% (149/185) of participants enrolled in educational programs after graduation due to an interest in CAMH. A significantly higher proportion of the total sample (t = 3.661, p graduation. Results of qualitative interviews with 34 participants uncovered five key themes unique to CAMS that may explain the program's influence on graduates' career choices and career development: practitioners-as-instructors, instructor mentorship, novel course content, experiential learning opportunities, and career training and skills. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated that teaching college undergraduate students about CAMH encourages them to set career goals within the field. These findings suggest the utility of implementing similar programs at other undergraduate colleges.
This dissertation aims to make two research contributions: (1) In physics education research, this work aims to advance our understanding of physics student learning at the graduate level. This work attempts to better understand how physics researchers and teachers are produced, and what factors support or encourage the process of becoming a researcher and a teacher. (2) In cognitive science research in the domain of expert/novice differences, researchers are interested in defining and understanding what expertise is. This work aims to provide some insight into some of the components of expertise that go into becoming a competent expert researcher in the domain of physics. This in turn may contribute to our general understanding of expertise across multiple domains. Physics graduate students learn in their classes as students, teach as teaching assistants, and do research with research group as apprentices. They are expected to transition from students to independent researchers and teachers. The three activities of learning, teaching, and research appear to be very different and demand very different skill-sets. In reality, these activities are interrelated and have subtle effects on each other. Understanding how students transition from students to researchers and teachers is important both to PER and physics in general. In physics, an understanding of how physics students become researchers may help us to keep on training physicists who will further advance our understanding of physics. In PER, an understanding of how graduate students learn to teach will help us to train better physics teachers for the future. In this dissertation, I examine physics graduate students' approaches to teaching, learning, and research through semi-structured interviews. The collected data is interpreted and analyzed through a framework that focuses on students' epistemological beliefs and locus of authority. The data show how students' beliefs about knowledge interact with their
Full Text Available Hector Oladapo Olasoji Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria Purpose: Part of the local hidden curriculum during clinical training of students in the University of Maiduguri medical college in Nigeria, metaphorically referred to as “toxic” practice by students, are situations where a teacher belittles and/or humiliates a student who has fallen short of expected performance, with the belief that such humiliation as part of feedback will lead to improvement in future performance. Through a framework of sociocultural perspective, this study gathered data to define the breadth and magnitude of this practice and identify risk and protective factors with the aim of assessing effectiveness of current intervention strategies. Materials and methods: Using a mixed method research approach, quantitative data were collected from fourth-year medical students in a Nigerian medical college through a survey questionnaire, and qualitative data were obtained through a face-to-face, individual, semi-structured interview of students attending the same institution.Results: Findings indicate that many students continue to experience “toxic” practice, with only very few reporting the incidents to relevant authorities, raising important questions about the appropriateness of current intervention efforts.Conclusion: Current intervention strategies grossly underestimate the influence of institutional forces that can lead to or promote this behavior. Acknowledgment of this has implications for an appropriate intervention strategy. Keywords: clinical teaching, verbal interactions, belittling, socio-cultural perspective, intervention
Gunersel, Adalet B.; Kaplan, Avi; Barnett, Pamela; Etienne, Mary; Ponnock, Annette R.
The current study employed an emergent theoretical model of teaching role identity and motivation to investigate the change in conception of and motivation for teaching in higher education of research graduate students who teach in the United States. Fifteen participants took a graduate-level seminar as part of a two-course teaching professional…
Saporito, Richard P
The number of households in the United States that are not proficient in the English language is growing and presenting a challenge to the health care system. Over nineteen percent of the US population speak a language other than English in the home. This increase in language discordance generates a greater need to find and implement accommodations in the clinical setting to insure accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment as well as provide for patient safety. The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of patients accessing the chiropractic college teaching clinics who are not proficient in the English language and to what extent the colleges provide accommodations for that language disparity. The clinic directors and deans of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges were surveyed via an on-line survey engine. The survey queried the percentage of the patient population that is not English language proficient, the accommodations the college currently has in place, if the college has a language specific consent to treat document and if the college has a written policy concerning patients without English proficiency. Fifty percent of the contacted chiropractic colleges responded to the survey. In the respondent college clinics 16.5% of the patient population is not proficient in English, with over 75% speaking Spanish. All but one of the respondents provide some level of accommodation for the language non-concordance. Forty five percent of the responding colleges employ a language specific consent to treat form. The implementation of accommodations and the use of a language specific consent to treat form is more prevalent at colleges with a higher percentage of non-English speaking patients. The percentage of patients with limited English proficiency accessing services at the teaching clinics of the chiropractic colleges mirrors the numbers in the general population. There is a wide disparity in the accommodations that the individual colleges make
Background Despite the large body of evidence suggesting that effective public health infrastructure is vital to improving the health status of populations, many universities in developing countries offer minimal opportunities for graduate training in public health. In Nepal, for example, only two institutions currently offer a graduate public health degree. Both institutions confer only a general Masters in Public Health (MPH), and together produce 30 graduates per year. The objective of this assessment was to identify challenges in graduate public health education in Nepal, and explore ways to address these challenges. Methods The assessment included in-person school visits and data collection through semi-structured in-depth interviews with primary stakeholders of Nepal’s public health academic sector. The 72 participants included faculty, students, alumni, and leaders of institutions that offered MPH programs, and the leadership of one government-funded institution that is currently developing an MPH program. Data were analyzed through content analysis to identify major themes. Results Six themes characterizing the challenges of expanding and improving graduate public health training were identified: 1) a shortage of trained public health faculty, with consequent reliance on the internet to compensate for inadequate teaching resources; 2) teaching/learning cultures and bureaucratic traditions that are not optimal for graduate education; 3) within-institution dominance of clinical medicine over public health; 4) a desire for practice–oriented, contextually relevant training opportunities; 5) a demand for degree options in public health specialties (for example, epidemiology); and 6) a strong interest in international academic collaboration. Conclusion Despite an enormous need for trained public health professionals, Nepal’s educational institutions face barriers to developing effective graduate programs. Overcoming these barriers will require: 1
Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Full Text Available Introduction. Infections due to extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae are on the rise. They pose serious public health problems due to their resistance to large number of antibiotics. However, little is known about the genotypes of ESBL from Nepal. Therefore, the study presents results of phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from various clinical specimens in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal. Methods. A total of 172 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates recovered from various clinical specimens were analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility test. Detection of ESBLs was carried out using combination disk test and multiplex PCR for their genotypes (CTX-M, SHV, and TEM. Results. Out of 172 clinical isolates, 70 (40.6% of them were found ESBL producers. The major source of ESBL producers was urinary tract samples and the highest ESBL production was observed in Escherichia coli (46.5%. Among ESBL genotypes, CTX-M (91.4% was most predominant, followed by TEM (65.7% and SHV (11.4% in both of the isolates. Conclusions. High level of drug resistance and ESBL production was observed among the clinical isolates. There is a need for longitudinal and nationwide surveillance for drug resistance in clinical isolates and antimicrobial stewardship is necessary to guide the appropriate and judicious antibiotic use.
Parajuli, Narayan Prasad; Maharjan, Pooja; Joshi, Govardhan; Khanal, Puspa Raj
Introduction . Infections due to extended spectrum β -lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae are on the rise. They pose serious public health problems due to their resistance to large number of antibiotics. However, little is known about the genotypes of ESBL from Nepal. Therefore, the study presents results of phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from various clinical specimens in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal. Methods . A total of 172 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates recovered from various clinical specimens were analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility test. Detection of ESBLs was carried out using combination disk test and multiplex PCR for their genotypes (CTX-M, SHV, and TEM). Results . Out of 172 clinical isolates, 70 (40.6%) of them were found ESBL producers. The major source of ESBL producers was urinary tract samples and the highest ESBL production was observed in Escherichia coli (46.5%). Among ESBL genotypes, CTX-M (91.4%) was most predominant, followed by TEM (65.7%) and SHV (11.4%) in both of the isolates. Conclusions . High level of drug resistance and ESBL production was observed among the clinical isolates. There is a need for longitudinal and nationwide surveillance for drug resistance in clinical isolates and antimicrobial stewardship is necessary to guide the appropriate and judicious antibiotic use.
Murphy, Nicholas A.; Freeland, Emily
Graduate employee unions represent a significant fraction of graduate employees in the United States, Canada, and other nations. The collective bargaining process is a unique forum where issues ranging from paid parental leave, hostile work environment, and access to lactation rooms can be addressed on an even footing with the employing universities. Because employment is governed by a collective bargaining agreement, violations are subject to a grievance policy. The Teaching Assistants' Association at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is one of the oldest graduate employee unions in the world. We discuss this example union, including successes in both the collective bargaining process and the grievance procedure. In particular, we find that graduate employee unions are an effective means of fighting pregnancy discrimination. We also provide a comparison of parental leave policies for graduate students at various universities.
This article offers a theoretical proposal of how political science graduate programs can emphasize teaching in the discipline by creating the subfield of the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL). Currently, these programs neither prepare their students for academic positions where teaching is valued nor participate in a disciplinary trend…
Hastings, Amber; Stockley, Denise; Kinderman, Laura; Egan, Rylan
As universities continue to grow their undergraduate programs, graduate students are increasingly called upon to teach first and second year classes, often without feeling adequately prepared for the task. These teaching opportunities, however, can provide novice instructors with a chance to engage in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning…
Teacher Candidates' Experiences with Clinical Teaching in Reading Instruction: A Comparison between the Professional Development School Environment and the Non-Professional Development School Environment
Hopper, Cynthia J.
Teacher candidates experience a variety of school settings when enrolled in teacher education methods courses. Candidates report varied experiences when in public school classrooms. This dissertation investigated clinical experiences of teacher candidates when placed in two different environments for clinical teaching. The two environments were a…
Wilkison, Bart D; Sperling, Leonard C; Spillane, Anne P; Meyerle, Jon H
Using potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations in the diagnosis of superficial fungal infections is a technique that has been handed down from teacher to apprentice for more than 100 years. The technique is simple, accurate, and inexpensive; however, there is reason to believe it is falling to the wayside in favor of empiric treatment, especially in primary care settings. To continue the use of this valuable diagnostic aid, a system of teaching the KOH preparation to the next generation of physicians (ie, medical students, residents) is proposed with emphasis on facilitating the process by storing viable skin samples infected with dermatophytes for long periods of time. This technique obviates the need to find suitably infected patients before each teaching laboratory. This technique also is appropriate to refresh the skills of practicing physicians as they prepare for point-of-care testing assessments.
Hale, L. V. A.; Lutter, J. C.; Shultz, G. V.
Graduate students play a critical role in undergraduate education at doctorate granting institutions; but generally have minimal opportunity to develop teaching expertise. Furthermore, little is known about how graduate students develop teaching expertise in this context. We investigated the development of topic-specific pedagogical content…
This article discusses my (recursive) process of theory building and the relationship between research, teaching, and theory development for graduate students. It shows how graduate students can reshape their conceptual frameworks not only through course work, but also through researching classes they teach. Specifically, while analyzing the…
Purpose: Internalization of students’ motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. Methods: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC), relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students’ basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more ‘human centred’ teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. Conclusion: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students’ self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery. PMID:25855386
Orsini, Cesar; Evans, Phillip; Jerez, Oscar
Internalization of students' motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC), relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students' basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more 'human centred' teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students' self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.
Full Text Available Purpose: Internalization of students’ motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. Methods: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC, relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students’ basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more ‘human centred’ teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. Conclusion: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students’ self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.