WorldWideScience

Sample records for grades 9-12 results

  1. Program of Studies, Aesthetic Education: Art, Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.

    Brief course descriptions and educational objectives of the art program in grades 9-12, Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, Maryland, are provided. Courses are elective and may be grouped into two sequences. Students with broad interests may elect Fundamentals of Art and continue with a series of studio art classes. Students interested in…

  2. Illinois Ratings of Teacher Effectiveness Manual. Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, B. Everard

    The Illinois Ratings of Teacher Effectiveness (IRTE) is an instrument for recording senior high school student perceptions of teacher performance in ten trait areas: teacher appearance, ability to explain, friendliness, grading fairness, discipline, outside classroom assignments, enjoyment of teaching, voice, mannerisms, and command of subject…

  3. Dynamics of Clothing I. Curriculum Guide. A Family and Consumer Sciences Education Course of Study for Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Dean-Ellen, Ed.; Hancey, Helen-Louise; Hendrickson, Diane; Hicks, Camille; Munns, Barbara; Price, Barbara

    This document is a six-unit curriculum guide for a high school (grades 9-12) course in clothing instruction. The units contain one to three lessons on the following topics: (1) psychology of clothing and appearance (role of clothing and clothing choices, personal grooming); (2) design principles (line and design, color); (3) construction…

  4. Technology and Man: The Humanities and Science (Selected Study Topics for Gifted Students in Grades 9-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Barbara; Diers, Russell

    One in a series of units of instruction for gifted students, the booklet focuses on humanities and science. Three sample units are offered for students in grades 9-12. In "Man's Origins: Where Did He Come From?" students examine the conflicts over evolution versus creationism, impacts of genetic control, and the ecomonics and politics of the…

  5. An Exploratory Study of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in a Design Project by Students in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie; Santoso, Harry; Lawanto, Kevin; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies of 27 students in grades 9-12 during an engineering design project. The specific focus of the study was on student task interpretation and its relation to planning and cognitive strategies in design activities. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what degree was…

  6. 32 CFR 9.12 - Delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation. 9.12 Section 9.12 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.12 Delegation...

  7. A Curriculum Guide for Power Technology, Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, J. Thomas

    Designed to help the high school industrial arts instructor in teaching power technology, this curriculum guide concentrates on seven subject areas: exploratory power technology, electricity, electronics, small gas engines, automotive repair, transportation, and alternate energy sources. The general course objectives are identified as enabling the…

  8. Some Results on Graded Generalized Local Cohomology Modules

    OpenAIRE

    F. Dehghani-Zadeh; H. Zakeri

    2010-01-01

    . Let R = ⊕n>0Rn be a graded Noetherian ring with local base ring R0 and let R+ = ⊕n>1Rn. Let M and N be finitely generated graded R-modules. In this paper we extend some of the known results about ordinary local cohomology modules Hi R+ (M) to generalized local cohomology modules Hi R+ (M, N). Indeed, among other things, we prove that certain submodules and factor modules of Hi R+ (M, N) are Artinian for some i. Also we obtain some results on the asymptoti...

  9. Data analysis of grade crossing incidents : research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Incidents and fatalities at highway-rail grade crossing in the United States have declined significantly over the past two decades despite a significant increase in both train and vehicle traffic. Therefore, to provide a more realistic comparison of ...

  10. Z-phase in 9-12% Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    The complex nitride Z-phase, Cr(V,Nb)N, has recently been identified as a major cause for premature breakdown in creep strength of a number of new 9-12%Cr martensitic steels. A thermodynamic model of the Z-phase has been created based on the Thermo-Calc software. The model predicts the Z-phase to......The complex nitride Z-phase, Cr(V,Nb)N, has recently been identified as a major cause for premature breakdown in creep strength of a number of new 9-12%Cr martensitic steels. A thermodynamic model of the Z-phase has been created based on the Thermo-Calc software. The model predicts the Z......-phase to be stable in all of the new 9-12%Cr martensitic steels. This has generally been confirmed by the performed experiments. Z-phase precipitation seems to be a kinetic problem, and drivning force calculations using Thermo-Calc with the developed model have been used to predict steel compositions, which...

  11. Comparison of various 9-12%Cr steels under fatigue and creep-fatigue loadings at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, B.; Dalle, F.; Sauzay, M.; Longour, J.; Salvi, M.; Caes, C.; Tournie, I.; Giroux, P.F.; Kim, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present article compares the cyclic behaviour of various 9-12%Cr steels, both commercial grades and optimized materials (in terms of creep strength). These materials were subjected to high temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue loadings. TEM examinations of the microstructure after cyclic loadings were also carried out. It appears that all the tempered ferritic-martensitic steels suffer from a cyclic softening effect linked to the coarsening of the sub-grains and laths and to the decrease of the dislocation density. These changes of the microstructure lead to a drastic loss in creep strength for all the materials under study. However, due to a better precipitation state, several materials optimized for their creep strength still present a good creep resistance after cyclic softening. These results are discussed and compared to the literature in terms of the physical mechanisms responsible for cyclic and creep deformation at the microstructural scale. (authors)

  12. Conversion of MX Nitrides to Modified Z-Phase in 9-12%Cr Ferritic Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cipolla, Leonardo

    for Z-phase formation was highlighted during the studies. Several 9-12%Cr commercial steels with prolonged high-temperature exposures have been investigated, too. The same mechanism of Z-phase formation observed in 12%Cr model alloys was identified in industrial 9-12%Cr steels after thousands of hours......The 9-12%Cr ferritic steels are extensively used in modern steam power plants at service temperature up to 620°C. Currently the best perform ing ferritic creep resistance steel is the ASTM Grade 92, whose high temperature strength has recently been assessed by European Creep Collaborative Committee...... in 2005 as 600°C/113MPa/10 5h. All previous attempts made in the last twenty years to develop ferritic steels for 650°C applications have failed due to the incapacity to combine the superior oxidation resistance, given by 12%Cr content, with excellent creep resistance of high-alloyed ferritic steels...

  13. Fundamental modelling of particle strengthened 9-12% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Hans; Sandstroem, Rolf [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Brinell Centre

    2010-07-01

    Creep strength of particle strengthened 9-12% Cr steels can be predicted by fundamental modelling. The creep strength is evaluated from the state of the microstructure during creep. Particle hardening at high temperatures can be predicted by taking dislocation climb across particles into account. Work hardening is calculated from immobile dislocations in subgrain interiors and at boundaries using the composite theory. Subgrain coarsening will lower the influence of the mechanically hard boundaries. Recovery in dislocation density is predicted through static recovery by climb and dynamic recovery by locking and dipole formation. Solid solution hardening is needed in order to explain the difference in creep strength between different 9-12% Cr steels. The accumulation of large atoms such as Mo and W will slow down the dislocation climb velocity, and thereby the microstructure recovery rate. 100000h rupture strength is predicted for X20, P91, P92 steels without any use of fitting parameters. The creep strength of P91 steel with different microstructure due to Al additions. Z-phase transformation and heat affected material is presented. (orig.)

  14. Microstructure of a high boron 9-12% chromium steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andren, H.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2008-07-01

    Additions of small amounts of boron (10-100 ppm) to 9-12% chromium steels are often made since they have been found to be beneficial for the creep strength up to and above 600 C. The effect of boron is to restrict the coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates during service. It was found that increasing the boron content from 9 to 40 ppm gave a decrease in coarsening constant at 600 C by a factor of 2. The present understanding of boron solution, non-equilibrium grain boundary segregation, incorporation into M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and diffusion is reviewed in the paper. A very high boron addition (300 ppm) was made in the trial TAF steel already in the 1950'ies. The microstructure of a similar trial steel, FT3B, has been studied detail. In this steel large Mo, Cr, Fe and V containing metal borides are formed rather than the expected BN, with the crystal structure M{sub 2}B{sub 2}. Nitrogen is therefore still available for the formation of VN. Due to tempering at a low temperature (690 C) to a high strength (830 MPa), this steel contained a dense distribution of very small VN precipitates, 5-15 nm in size. A similar VN distribution is probably the cause of the still unsurpassed creep strength of the TAF steel. (orig.)

  15. A Global Perspective on Virtual Reality. Grade Levels 9-12. Technology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Forum for Global Education, New York, NY.

    This activity packet addresses technology in the classroom, specifically using the Internet. It presents three activities that use the Internet as a resource: (1) "Whose Point of View" (the transfer of Hong Kong to Chinese control); (2) "Where to Look" (an earthquake in Afghanistan); and (3) "Research Project: The Pros and Cons of Free Trade."…

  16. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  17. Children Hungering for Justice: Curriculum on Hunger and Children's Rights, Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkum, Carla

    This curriculum is designed to introduce students to the issues of world hunger and children's rights. The curriculum includes more than enough material for two hour-long lessons. Each lesson can stand on its own; however, the interrelated nature of the topics lends itself to presenting both parts of the packet. If time is limited, suggestions are…

  18. Sports Business Unit Meets Cross-Curricular Learning Goals: Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A new online learning tool called the eCommSports Kit links a seven-step sports marketing curriculum with a school team to give students real-life experience in developing and executing a plan to boost game attendance. The kit, available through http://www.ecommsports.com, takes teens on a cross-curricular journey through conducting business…

  19. Developing Essential Understanding of Functions for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gwendolyn; Beckmann, Sybilla; Zbiek, Rose Mary; Cooney, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Are sequences functions? What can't the popular "vertical line test" be applied in some cases to determine if a relation is a function? How does the idea of rate of change connect with simpler ideas about proportionality as well as more advanced topics in calculus? Helping high school students develop a robust understanding of functions requires…

  20. Designing Tools for Ocean Exploration. Galapagos Rifts Expedition--Grades 9-12. Overview: Ocean Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity teaches about the complexity of ocean exploration, the technological applications and capabilities required for ocean exploration, the importance of teamwork in scientific research projects, and developing abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. The activity provides learning objectives, a list of needed materials, key…

  1. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases. Grades 9-12. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This curriculum supplement guide brings the latest medical discoveries to classrooms. This module focuses on the objectives of introducing students to major concepts related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and developing an understanding of the relationship between biomedical research and personal and public health. This module…

  2. Factors Related to the Eating Habits of Students in Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Elizabeth M.; Fors, Stuart W.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of demographics and family factors on adolescent's consumption of healthy meals and fruits and vegetables. Surveys indicated that healthy eaters were more likely to: be white, Asian, and male; communicate well with parents; be monitored by their parents; live with one or both parents; spend less time at home alone; and…

  3. Cell Biology and Cancer. Grades 9-12. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This curriculum supplement guide brings the latest medical discoveries to classrooms. This module focuses on the objectives of introducing students to major concepts related to the development of cancer and its impacts, and developing an understanding of the relationship between biomedical research and personal and public health. This module…

  4. Fatigue-creep of martensitic steels containing 9-12% Cr: behaviour and damage; Fatigue-fluage des aciers martensitiques a 9-12% Cr: comportement et endommagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, B

    2007-09-15

    It is in the framework of the research programs on nuclear reactors (generation IV) that the martensitic steels containing 9-12% Cr are studied by the CEA. Most of the structures for which they are considered will be solicited in fatigue-creep at high temperature (550 C). The aim of this work is to understand and model the cyclic behaviour and the damage of these materials. The proposed modelling are based on detailed observations studies (SEM, TEM, EBSD...). The cyclic softening is attributed to the growth of the microstructure. A micro-mechanical model based on the physical parameters is proposed and leads to encouraging results. The damage results of interactions between fatigue, creep and oxidation. Two main types of damage are revealed. A model of anticipation of service time is proposed and gives very satisfying results. The possible extrapolations are discussed. (O.M.)

  5. Results of Third-Grade Students in a Reform Curriculum on the Illinois State Mathematics Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the results of the reform curriculum of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project's elementary curriculum, Everyday Mathematics, for third-grade students. Results included the fact that only 2% of UCSMP students failed to meet state goals. UCSMP students also scored well in all mathematical areas including number skills and…

  6. 77 FR 59377 - Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty... duty order on solid agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from Ukraine. The Department has conducted an... revocation of the antidumping duty order would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping at...

  7. 76 FR 39847 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... duty order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of Antidumping... review of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate...

  8. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9-12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades

  9. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  10. Fatigue-creep of martensitic steels containing 9-12% Cr: behaviour and damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, B.

    2007-09-01

    It is in the framework of the research programs on nuclear reactors (generation IV) that the martensitic steels containing 9-12% Cr are studied by the CEA. Most of the structures for which they are considered will be solicited in fatigue-creep at high temperature (550 C). The aim of this work is to understand and model the cyclic behaviour and the damage of these materials. The proposed modelling are based on detailed observations studies (SEM, TEM, EBSD...). The cyclic softening is attributed to the growth of the microstructure. A micro-mechanical model based on the physical parameters is proposed and leads to encouraging results. The damage results of interactions between fatigue, creep and oxidation. Two main types of damage are revealed. A model of anticipation of service time is proposed and gives very satisfying results. The possible extrapolations are discussed. (O.M.)

  11. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 9-12 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 9-12 (2016). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 60, No 9-12 (2016). Supplementary Issue. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  12. Microstructural Stability and Oxidation Resistance of 9-12 Chromium Steels at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.N.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.; Hawk, J.A.

    2006-05-01

    Various martensitic 9-12 Cr steels are utilized currently in fossil fuel powered energy plants for their good elevated temperature properties such as creep strength, steam side oxidation resistance, fire side corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. Need for further improvements on the properties of 9-12 Cr steels for higher temperature (>600oC) use is driven by the environmental concerns (i.e., improve efficiency to reduce emissions and fossil fuel consumption). In this paper, we will discuss the results of the research done to explore new subsitutional solute solution and precipitate hardening mechanisms for improved strength of 9-12 Cr martensitic steels. Stability of the phases present in the steels will be evaluated for various temperature and time exposures. A comparison of microstructural properties of the experimental steels and commercial steels will also be presented.

    The influence of a Ce surface treatment on oxidation behavior of a commercial (P91) and several experimental steels containing 9 to 12 weight percent Cr was examined at 650ºC in flowing dry and moist air. The oxidation behavior of all the alloys without the Ce modification was significantly degraded by the presence of moisture in the air during testing. For instance the weight gain for P91 was two orders of magnitude greater in moist air than in dry air. This was accompanied by a change in oxide scale from the formation of Cr-based scales in dry air to the formation of Fe-based scales in moist air. The Ce surface treatment was very effective in improving the oxidation resistance of the experimental steels in both moist and dry air. For instance, after exposure to moist air at 650ºC for 2000 hours, an experimental alloy with the cerium surface modification had a weight gain three orders of magnitude lower than the alloy without the Ce modification and two orders of magnitude lower than P91. The Ce surface treatment suppressed the formation of Fe-based scales and

  13. Pion radiation for high grade astrocytoma: results of a randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Tom; Goodman, George B.; Rheaume, Dorianne E.; Duncan, Graeme G.; Fryer, Chris J.; Bhimji, Shamim; Ludgate, Charles; Syndikus, Isabel; Graham, Peter; Dimitrov, Mario; Bowen, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempted to compare within a randomized study the outcome of pion radiation therapy vs. conventional photon irradiation for the treatment of high-grade astrocytomas. Methods and Materials: Eighty-four patients were randomized to pion therapy (33-34.5 Gyπ), or conventional photon irradiation (60 Gy). Entry criteria included astrocytoma (modified Kernohan high Grade 3 or Grade 4), age 18-70, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥50, ability to start irradiation within 30 days of surgery, unifocal tumor, and treatment volume < 850 cc. The high-dose volume in both arms was computed tomography enhancement plus a 2-cm margin. The study was designed with the power to detect a twofold difference between arms. Results: Eighty-one eligible patients were equally balanced for all known prognostic variables. Pion patients started radiation 7 days earlier on average than photon patients, but other treatment-related variables did not differ. There were no significant differences for either early or late radiation toxicity between treatment arms. Actuarial survival analysis shows no differences in terms of time to local recurrence or overall survival where median survival was 10 months in both arms (p = 0.22). The physician-assessed KPS and patient-assessed quality of life (QOL) measurements were generally maintained within 10 percentage points until shortly before tumor recurrence. There was no apparent difference in the serial KPS or QOL scores between treatment arms. Conclusion: In contrast to high linear energy transfer (LET) therapy for central nervous system tumors, such as neutron or neon therapy, the safety of pion therapy, which is of intermediate LET, has been reaffirmed. However, this study has demonstrated no therapeutic gain for pion therapy of glioblastoma

  14. Long-term results in patients with low-grade nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviles, A.; Diaz-Maqueo, J.C.; Sanchez, E.; Cortes, H.D.; Ayala, J.R.; Oncology Hospital, Mexico City; National Medical Center, Mexico City

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen patients with nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were randomized to receive either chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (total nodal or involved field irradiation). Although the complete remission rate was similar in the three programs (about 90%) the relapse-free survival rate (RFS) among patients with complete remission was significantly higher in the groups treated with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy than among those treated with chemotherapy alone. The 7-year RFS in the groups treated with total node irradiation and involved field irradiation was 71% and 66% respectively, compared to only 33% in the group treated by chemotherapy alone (p<0.01). The results suggest that combined chemoradiotherapy may achieve complete long-term remission and potential cure in more than 60% of patients with nodular low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Toxicity was moderate in all three arms. Bulky disease and a high level of lactic dehydrogenase were associated with a poor prognosis. (orig.)

  15. Results after surgical treatment of liver metastases in patients with high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galleberg, R B; Knigge, U; Tiensuu Janson, E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NEC) are generally characterized by synchronous metastases, high aggressiveness and a dismal prognosis. Current international guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment of liver metastases, however the existing data are scarce......., particularly for the group with a Ki-67 in the relatively lower G3 range. Our findings indicate a possible role for surgical treatment of liver metastases in the management of this patient population.......Background: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NEC) are generally characterized by synchronous metastases, high aggressiveness and a dismal prognosis. Current international guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment of liver metastases, however the existing data are scarce....... The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of curatively intended resection/radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases in patients with metastatic GEP-NEC. Methods: 32 patients with a diagnosis of high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (Ki-67 > 20%) and with intended...

  16. Tumor type resulting in upgrade: An analysis based on 333 low grade soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS are rare tumors. Based on histopathological criteria, three grades are distinguished from low (G1 to intermediate (G2 and high grade (G3. After complete initial surgical resection, some G1 STS recur as lesions with an upgrade of a previous G1 STS to a recurrent G2 STS. This upgrade indicates higher malignancy of the STS. Our aim was to find possible risk factors for these upgrades including age, localization of tumor and tumor type. Methods: This retrospective case-control study evaluated 333 patients. Of these 333, 54.7% were male and 45.3% female. All patients underwent R0 resections and among these, 10% subsequently upgraded. The processed data include age, gender, tumor type, tumor localization, local recurrence and upgrade. Results: Patients with upgrades have a higher mean age of 5.5 years than our reference collective. The tumor type has a significant effect on upgrades. Patients with fibrosarcomas are at a threefold risk of an upgrade compared to patients with other G1 STS.Conclusion: Our results indicate that age and tumor type play a key role in upgrades in G1 STS. Patients, age 60 and above and diagnosed with G1 fibrosarcomas, are three times as likely to upgrade compared to patients younger than 60 with other G1 STS. We discuss the significance of these risk factors and whether aside from complete tumor resection, additional therapies (e.g. irradiation may be applied to improve therapeutic outcome.

  17. MODEL LATIHAN KETERAMPILAN GERAK PENCAK SILAT ANAK USIA 9-12 TAHUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Iswana

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This study aims to produce a training model for pencak silat (self-defence movement skills of children aged 9-12 years. This research and development (R & D study was conducted by adapting the R & D steps by Borg & Gall (1983, p.775, i.e. (1 information collection, (2 information result analysis, (3 preliminary product development, (4 expert validation and stage 1 revision, (5 a small-scale tryout and a revision, (6 a large-scale tryout and stage 2 revision, and (7 final product. The small-scale tryout was conducted by involving participants of Tapak Suci SD N I Padokan and Tapak Suci SD Muhamadiyah Demangan. The large-scale tryout was conducted by involving participants of Pagar Nusa Sleman and Pagar Nusa Yogyakarta City carrying out training in SD N Demangan and Persatuan Hati Bantul. The data collecting instruments included (1 interviews, (2 a score scale, (3 a model observation guide, and (4 a model effectiveness guide. The data were anlyzed using the quantitative and qualitative descriptive techniques. The contents of the product consist of six training models, i.e. (1 kucing dan tikus, (2 bentengan, (3 gobak sodor, (4 jala ikan, (5 berburu burung  and (6 elang dan anak ayam. The experts conclude that in the model there are cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects so that it is appropriate and effective to use. Keywords: model, training, pencak silat, children aged 9 – 12 years

  18. Verification Results of Safety-grade Optical Modem for Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jangyeol; Son, Kwangseop; Lee, Youngjun; Cheon, Sewoo; Cha, Kyoungho; Lee, Jangsoo; Kwon, Keechoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    We confirmed that the coverage criteria for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator is satisfactory using a traceability analysis matrix between high-level requirements and lower-level system test case data set. This paper describes the test environment, test components and items, a traceability analysis, and system tests as a result of system verification and validation based on Software Requirement Specifications (SRS) for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in a Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP), and Software Design Specifications (SDS) for a safety-grade optical modem of a CPC in a KSNP. All tests were performed according to the test plan and test procedures. Functional testing, performance testing, event testing, and scenario based testing for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator in a Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant as a thirty-party verifier were successfully performed.

  19. 17 CFR 9.12 - Effective date of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.12 Effective date of disciplinary or access denial action. (a) Effective date. Any disciplinary or access denial action taken by an... cause a disciplinary action to become effective prior to that time if: (1) As authorized by § 8.25 of...

  20. 5-aminolevulinic acid and neuronavigation in high-grade glioma surgery: results of a combined approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciani, Pier Paolo; Fontanella, Marco; Garbossa, Diego; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2012-02-01

    In high-grade glioma surgery, several techniques are used to achieve the maximum cytoreductive treatment preserving neurological functions. However, the effectiveness of all the methods used alone is reduced by specific limitations of each. We assessed the reliability of a multimodal strategy based on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and neuronavigation. We prospectively studied 18 patients with suspected, non eloquent-area malignant gliomas amenable for complete resection. Conventional illumination was used until the excision appeared complete. The cavity was then systematically inspected in violet-blue light to identify any residual tumour. Multiple biopsies of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent tissue were performed in all cases. Each specimen was labelled according to the sampling location (inside or outside the boundary set by the neuronavigator). The samples were analysed by a neuropathologist blinded to the intraoperative classification. We reviewed the results of both methods, either singly or in combination. Individual analysis showed higher 5-ALA reliability compared to neuronavigation. However, several false-negative fluorescent specimens were detected. With the combined use of fluorescence and neuroimaging, only 1 sample (negative for both 5-ALA and navigation) was tumoral tissue. In our experience, the combined approach showed the best sensitivity and it is recommended in cases of lesions involving non-eloquent areas. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Reflecting on an impact evaluation of the Grade R programme: Method, results and policy responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Samuels

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the expansion since 2001 of a public pre-school programme in South Africa known as ‘Grade R’, summarises the findings from an impact evaluation of the introduction of Grade R, discusses the policy recommendations flowing from the evaluation and reflects on the process of implementing the recommendations. The Grade R programme has expanded dramatically, to the point where participation is nearly universal. Although a substantial literature points to large potential benefits from pre-school educational opportunities, the impact evaluation reported on in this article demonstrated that the Grade R programme, as implemented until 2011, had a limited impact on later educational outcomes. Improving the quality of Grade R, especially in schools serving low socio-economic status communities, thus emerges as a key policy imperative. Recommended responses include professionalising Grade R teachers, providing practical in-service support, increasing access to appropriate storybooks, empowering teachers to assess the development of their learners, and improving financial record-keeping of Grade R expenditure by provincial education departments. The impact evaluation was initiated by the Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME and the Department of Basic Education (DBE, and was conducted by independent researchers. The move towards increased evaluation of key government programmes is important for shifting the focus of programme managers and policymakers towards programme outcomes rather than only programme inputs. Yet the process is not without its challenges: following a clear process to ensure the implementation of the lessons learned from such an evaluation is not necessarily straightforward.

  2. Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid sclerotherapy for Goligher Grades II and III hemorrhoids: Results from a multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hidenori; Hada, Takenori; Ishiyama, Gentaro; Ono, Yoshito; Watanabe, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To show that aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) sclerotherapy has a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids. METHODS: This study was based on the clinical data of 604 patients with hemorrhoids who underwent ALTA sclerotherapy between January 2009 and February 2015. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of this treatment for Grades II and III hemorrhoids. Preoperative and postoperative symptoms, complications and success rate were all assessed retrospectively. Follow-up consisted of a simple questionnaire, physical examination and an anoscopy. Patients were followed-up at one day, one week, two weeks, one month, one year, two years, three years, four years and five years after the ALTA sclerotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with Grade II hemorrhoids and 435 patients were diagnosed with Grade III hemorrhoids. The one year, three year and five year cumulative success rates of ALTA sclerotherapy for Grades II and III hemorrhoids were 95.9% and 93.1%; 89.3% and 83.7%; and 89.3% and 78.2%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the cumulative success rates after ALTA sclerotherapy between Grades II and III hemorrhoids (P = 0.09). There were forty-seven post-operative complications (low grade fever; anal pain; urinary retention; rectal ulcer; and others). No serious or life-threatening complications occurred and all cases improved through conservative treatment. At univariate analysis there were no predictive factors of failure. CONCLUSION: ALTA sclerotherapy has had a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids during five years of post-operative treatment. However, additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this ALTA sclerotherapy in the management of hemorrhoidal disease. PMID:27458504

  3. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9-12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Golle

    Full Text Available Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development. Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9-12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values.Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed, the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power, the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility, the star run test (i.e., agility, and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance. Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90 were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen's d.Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40-1.34, whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55, flexibility (d = 0.81, agility (d = 0.44, and endurance (d = 0.32 only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36, flexibility (d = 0.61, and agility (d = 0.27 in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10-11 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs, agility (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs, and endurance (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-10 yrs. Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test indicated that running distances between 1

  4. First results of the radiological surveillance of RIT trial for high grade astrocytomas in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Balbona, Z.H.; Pardo Ayra, F.E.; Torres Berdeguez, M.B. [Isotope Centre, Havana (Cuba). Radiation Protection Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The first phase of the clinical trial using the humanized monoclonal antibody h-R3 labeled with {sup 188} Re, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of brain tumors began in the Republic of Cuba in 2002. This monoclonal antibody was obtained in the country and it is required to evaluate its toxicity, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry. Five groups of three patients of each one with an administered activity from 0.37 GBq to 1.1 GBq, are considered. The aim of this work is to assess workers doses and public doses for this research and to compare projected doses with the first results related to the radiological surveillance. The contribution to the total effective dose and equivalent dose in extremities are calculated with the code Microshield version 4.0 by each activity level, operation and total quantity of patients. We take into account radioactive decay of {sup 188} Re and consider that only a person made all of the operations during this study. It is demonstrated that individual doses are acceptable and lower than world average effective annual dose of natural radiation background (2.4 mSv), because for the operations of more risk are used individual protection means. Nevertheless, it is identified that nurses are the most exposed. The projected maximum equivalent dose to hands is about 4 mSv and it belongs to the neurosurgeon. Radiological surveillance is performed to verify our calculations. Five workers and public (four individuals) are monitoring for each patient with direct reading dosimeters DOSICARD and TLD for extremities. For the first seven patients results are obtained. The conservative assumptions in the dose assessment and the compliance with established safety procedures determine that the registered doses are lower than those were projected. RIT with 188 Re for high-grade astrocytomas is a safety practice from radiation protection point of view. There is not a reference of a similar study in Latin America. (author)

  5. First results of the radiological surveillance of RIT trial for high grade astrocytomas in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Balbona, Z.H.; Pardo Ayra, F.E.; Torres Berdeguez, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    The first phase of the clinical trial using the humanized monoclonal antibody h-R3 labeled with 188 Re, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of brain tumors began in the Republic of Cuba in 2002. This monoclonal antibody was obtained in the country and it is required to evaluate its toxicity, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry. Five groups of three patients of each one with an administered activity from 0.37 GBq to 1.1 GBq, are considered. The aim of this work is to assess workers doses and public doses for this research and to compare projected doses with the first results related to the radiological surveillance. The contribution to the total effective dose and equivalent dose in extremities are calculated with the code Microshield version 4.0 by each activity level, operation and total quantity of patients. We take into account radioactive decay of 188 Re and consider that only a person made all of the operations during this study. It is demonstrated that individual doses are acceptable and lower than world average effective annual dose of natural radiation background (2.4 mSv), because for the operations of more risk are used individual protection means. Nevertheless, it is identified that nurses are the most exposed. The projected maximum equivalent dose to hands is about 4 mSv and it belongs to the neurosurgeon. Radiological surveillance is performed to verify our calculations. Five workers and public (four individuals) are monitoring for each patient with direct reading dosimeters DOSICARD and TLD for extremities. For the first seven patients results are obtained. The conservative assumptions in the dose assessment and the compliance with established safety procedures determine that the registered doses are lower than those were projected. RIT with 188 Re for high-grade astrocytomas is a safety practice from radiation protection point of view. There is not a reference of a similar study in Latin America. (author)

  6. When Iron Crumbles: Berlin and the Wall. A Social Studies Unit Recommended for Grades 9-12 and Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adrian; And Others

    This unit, designed for use with high school and community college students, uses primary materials, literature, and interactive lesson plans to present the city of Berlin (Germany) as a case study of some of the 20th century's most significant events. In lesson 1, students take a pre-test, view a video about the Berlin Wall, and discuss the kinds…

  7. Entering Adulthood: Understanding Reproduction, Birth and Contraception. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruess, Clint E.; Laing, Susan J.

    This module covers in nine lessons the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems, the birth process, healthy pregnancy, birthing choices, and contraceptive methods. The book provides detailed teacher information sheets, reproducible diagrams and a step-by-step approach to teaching about these topics with candor and ease.…

  8. Let's Bet on Sediments! Hudson Canyon Cruise--Grades 9-12. Focus: Sediments of Hudson Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    These activities are designed to teach about the sediments of Hudson Canyon. Students investigate and analyze the patterns of sedimentation in the Hudson Canyon, observe how heavier particles sink faster than finer particles, and learn that submarine landslides are avalanches of sediment in deep ocean canyons. The activity provides learning…

  9. Teacher Evaluations of Executive Functioning in Schoolchildren Aged 9-12 and the Influence of Age, Sex, Level of Parental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tetering, Marleen A J; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) develop over the period of early childhood and adolescence up until young adulthood. Individual children differ substantially in the pace at which their EFs develop, and characteristics such as sex and the level of parental education (LPE) are thought to contribute to these differences. In the present study, we assessed age-related changes in EFs as perceived and evaluated by teachers and parents as well as the influence of sex and LPE on their evaluations. We used a newly developed observer-report questionnaire, the Amsterdam Executive Function Inventory (AEFI). The AEFI assesses three important components of the executive aspects of daily life behavior in 13 questions: Attention; Self-control and Self-monitoring; and Planning and Initiative taking. Teachers and parents evaluated these aspects of executive functioning in 186 schoolchildren in grades 3-6 (age: 9-12 years). Age effects within grades and differences in social economic status between the four participating schools were controlled. Results showed a significant increase in teacher-perceived EFs from third to fourth grades and from fifth to sixth grades. This development was influenced both by the sex of the child and by the LPE. As perceived by teachers, the component self-control and self-monitoring was higher for girls than for boys, and planning abilities were higher for children from families with a higher LPE. Additional analyses showed that there is a systematic and statistically significant difference between the evaluations of the teachers and that of parents. Parents reported higher scores for planning, whereas teachers reported higher scores for self-control and self-monitoring. Evaluations by parents and teachers were different for girls, but not for boys. These findings are important because they imply that the development of EFs as perceived by parents and teachers is influenced by child-related factors. Second, there are clear differences in evaluations between

  10. The Impact of Grading on a Curve: Assessing the Results of Kulick and Wright's Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Gary L.; Steed, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Kulick and Wright concluded, based on theoretical mathematical simulations of hypothetical student exam scores, that assigning exam grades to students based on the relative position of their exam performance scores within a normal curve may be unfair, given the role that randomness plays in any given student's performance on any given exam.…

  11. Acute high-grade acromioclavicular dislocations treated with triple button device (MINAR): Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Martínez, José Antonio; Nicolás-Serrano, Gregorio; Bento-Gerard, Julio; Picazo-Marín, Francisco; Andrés-Grau, Josefina

    2016-11-01

    Describe the clinical and radiological results of triple button device in the treatment of high-grade AC dislocations (Rockwood, type V) and assess whether improves vertical and horizontal stability compared to the techniques previously described. This retrospective study included 39 patients with type V acromioclavicular dislocations treated with Twin Tail TightRope™ system (triple button device). Of the 39 patients, 33 (26 men and 7 women) were able to participate in clinical and radiographic follow up. At the time of surgery, the mean age was 25years±7(range, 17-49). All patients underwent bilateral-weighted Zanca (CC distance) and Alexander view (AC distance) as well as the Constant Score (CS) and Acromioclavicular Joint Instability Scoring System (ACJI). Radiological and clinical outcome was assessed during routine follow-up examinations preoperatively, postoperatively, 1, 3, 6 months and every year after the surgery. The presence of calcification, degenerative changes, mobilization of implants and bone resorption were also assessed. After a mean follow up of 25±4months (range 14-38), the results of the Constant (CS) were 94.1±5,5 (range 76-100) and test ACJI 87.3±9,8 (range 65-100), showing no significant differences with the uninjured shoulder (CS 95.8±2.5, range 83-100; ACJI 94.1±3.7, range 80-100). At final review, we observed that preoperative coracoclavicular distance (Zanca View) improved from 21,75±1.97mm to 8,73mm±0.75 and the acromioclavicular distance (Alexander View) from 12,65mm±1.99 to 0,35±0.3mm. Compared with healthy shoulder, these differences were not significant. There was no loss of reduction with this system in the vertical plane. 4 patients (12.12%) revealed signs of posterior instability with worse clinical test results. The presence of degenerative joint changes (6,06%), calcifications (27,2%) or mobilization of the implant (18,18%) was not associated with worse clinical outcomes. Twin Tail device using minimally invasive

  12. Room and elevated temperature Mechanical Behavior of 9-12% Cr Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2005-02-01

    The mechanical properties of medium Cr steels used in fossil fired power plants are very good because of their excellent high temperature microstructural stability. However, as the desire to increase the operating temperature (>650C) of the plant goes up, the need for steels that maintain their strength at these temperatures also increases. The mechanical properties of three medium Cr steels (0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti) were investigated through hardness, hot hardness and tensile measurements. The strength of the 9-12%Cr steels at room temperature after long-term isothermal aging (750C; 1000 hours) compares favorably with that of other power plant steels (e.g., P91). In addition, the elevated temperature strength and hot hardness also behave similarly. The mechanical behavior will be discussed in terms of the strength, elongation and tensile fracture characteristics.

  13. Development of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) and Performance Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hwoi; Park, Won Man; Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); No, Young Hun; Song, Seung Hwan [POSCON, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) is being developed in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) R and D project. The PLC satisfies Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. The software such as the RTOS and firmware are being developed according to the safety critical software life cycle. Especially, the formal method is applied to design the SRS (Software Requirement Spec.) and the SDS (Software Design Specification.) to be error-free. The POSAFE-Q has several modules such as processor module, input and output modules, communication modules, redundant processor module, redundant power modules, etc,. To verify the function and performance, several tests such as CT, IT and ST were performed. And also, the equipment qualification test for environment, EMI and EMC, and seismic ware performed. All tests are satisfied with the requirements and specification for safety grade PLC, and the criteria for safety system in nuclear power plants.

  14. Development of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) and Performance Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwoi; Park, Won Man; Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young; No, Young Hun; Song, Seung Hwan

    2006-01-01

    The safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) is being developed in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) R and D project. The PLC satisfies Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. The software such as the RTOS and firmware are being developed according to the safety critical software life cycle. Especially, the formal method is applied to design the SRS (Software Requirement Spec.) and the SDS (Software Design Specification.) to be error-free. The POSAFE-Q has several modules such as processor module, input and output modules, communication modules, redundant processor module, redundant power modules, etc,. To verify the function and performance, several tests such as CT, IT and ST were performed. And also, the equipment qualification test for environment, EMI and EMC, and seismic ware performed. All tests are satisfied with the requirements and specification for safety grade PLC, and the criteria for safety system in nuclear power plants

  15. Confidence in Science and Achievement Outcomes of Fourth-Grade Students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from assessments of fourth-grade science have indicated that students in Korea scored higher than international averages. Research results have also shown that attitudes toward science were related to achievement outcomes for Korean students. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between confidence in science and…

  16. Effects of formative assessments to develop self-regulation among sixth grade students: Results from a randomized controlled intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meusen-Beekman, Kelly; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a formative assessment intervention in writing assignments in sixth grade. We examined whether formative assessments would improve self-regulation, motivation and self-efficacy among sixth graders, and whether differential effects exist between formative

  17. Influence of Z-phase on long-term creep stability of martensitic 9-12%Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J. [DONG Energy (Denmark)]|[Vattenfall Europe AG, Berlin (Germany)]|[DTU Mechanical Engineering (Denmark); Danielsen, H.K. [DTU Mechanical Engineering (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The long-term creep strength of the new generation of martensitic creep resistant 9- 12% Cr steels since the well-known steel Grade 91 relies strongly on particle strengthening by fine MN nitrides based on V and Nb. During long-term hightemperature exposures the MN nitrides may be replaced by the thermodynamically more stable Z-phases (Cr(V,Nb)N) causing a breakdown in creep strength. Cr contents above 10.5% strongly accelerate Z-phase precipitation, which explains the lack of success for all attempts to develop martensitic creep resistant steels with high Cr content for oxidation protection. The Z-phase nucleation process by Cr-diffusion into pre-existing MN nitrides is rate controlling for the Z-phase transformation. More work is needed before effects of chemical composition on the nucleation process can be reliably modeled. Careful control of the Z-phase precipitation process has led to the design of experimental 12%Cr martensitic steels strengthened by Z-phase. Such steels may again enable the combination of high strength and oxidation resistance in the same alloy. This opens a new pathway for further alloy development of the heat resistant martensitic steels. (orig.)

  18. Influence of Z-phase on long-term creep stability of martensitic 9-12% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, Hilmar K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hald, John [DONG Energy A/S (Denmark); Vattenfall (Denmark)

    2010-07-01

    The long-term creep strength of the new generation of martensitic creep resistant 9-12%Cr steels since the well-known steel Grade 91 relies strongly on particle strengthening by fine Mn nitrides based on V and Nb. During long-term high-temperature exposures the Mn nitrides may be replaced by the thermodynamically more stable Z-phases (Cr(V,Nb)N) causing a breakdown in creep strength. Cr contents above 10.5% strongly accelerate Z-phase precipitation, which explains the lack of success for all attempts to develop martensitic creep resistant steels with high Cr content for oxidation protection. However 9%Cr steels do not seem to be affected by the Z-phase. Careful control of the Z-phase precipitation process has led to the design of experimental 12%Cr martensitic steels strengthened by fine Z-phase nitrides based on Nb or Ta. Such steels may again enable the combination of high strength and oxidation resistance in the same alloy. This opens a new pathway for further alloy development of the heat resistant martensitic steels. (orig.)

  19. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  20. Precipitation process of Z-phase in 9-12%CR steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation of Z-phase, Cr(V,Nb)N, is known to negatively affect creep properties of 9-12%Cr steels for power plant applications as it dissolves finely distributed MX particles, (V,Nb)N, especially in high Cr steels. As the Z-phase precipitates slowly as large particles, this causes a net drop ...... and crystallographically into Z-phase CrTaN particles. Copyright © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Distributed by ASM International®. All rights reserved....

  1. Graded changes in enamel component volumes resulted from a short tooth bleaching procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Artemisa Fernanda Moura; Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes Ramos; Limeira Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Moura, Mirella de Fátima Liberato; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that changes in enamel component volumes (mineral, organic, and water volumes, and permeability) are graded from outer to inner enamel after a short bleaching procedure. Extracted unerupted human third molars had half of their crowns bleached (single bleaching session, 3 × 15 min), and tooth shade changes in bleached parts were analyzed with a spectrophotometer. Ground sections were prepared, component volumes and permeability were quantified at histological points located at varying distances from the enamel surface (n=10 points/location), representing conditions before and after bleaching. Tooth shade changes were significant (pbleaching, except at the outer layers. Multiple analysis of covariances revealed that most of the variance of the change in enamel composition after bleaching was explained by the combination of the set of types of component volume (in decreasing order of relevance: mineral loss, organic gain, water gain, and decrease in permeability) with the set of distances from the enamel surface (graded from the enamel surface inward) (canonical R(2)=0.97; p99%). Changes in enamel composition after a short bleaching procedure followed a gradient within component volumes (mineral loss>organic gain>water gain>decrease in permeability) and decreased from the enamel surface inward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute Toxicity Grade 3 and 4 After Irradiation in Children and Adolescents: Results From the IPPARCA Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixberg, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Koch, Raphael [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: Hans.Eich@ukmuenster.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Martinsson, Ulla [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Kristensen, Ingrid [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Pohl, Fabian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Elsayad, Khaled [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Lindh, Jack [Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Steinmann, Diana [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: In the context of oncologic therapy for children, radiation therapy is frequently indicated. This study identified the frequency of and reasons for the development of high-grade acute toxicity and possible sequelae. Materials and Methods: Irradiated children have been prospectively documented since 2001 in the Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK) database in Germany and since 2008 in the registry for radiation therapy toxicity (RADTOX) in Sweden. Data were collected using standardized, published forms. Toxicity classification was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: As of June 2013, 1500 children have been recruited into the RiSK database and 485 into the RADTOX registry leading to an analysis population of 1359 patients (age range 0-18). A total of 18.9% (n=257) of all investigated patients developed high-grade acute toxicity (grades 3/4). High-grade toxicity of the bone marrow was documented for 63.8% (n=201) of those patients, oral mucositis for 7.6% (n=24), and dermatitis for 7.6% (n=24). Patients with high-grade acute toxicity received concomitant chemotherapy more frequently (56%) than patients with no or lower acute toxicity (31.5%). In multivariate analyses, concomitant chemotherapy, diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma, and total radiation dose showed a statistically noticeable effect (P≤.05) on acute toxicity, whereas age, concomitant chemotherapy, Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, total radiation dose, and acute toxicity influenced the time until maximal late toxicity. Conclusions: Generally, high-grade acute toxicity after irradiation in children and adolescence occurs in a moderate proportion of patients (18.9%). As anticipated, the probability of acute toxicity appeared to depend on the prescribed dose as well as concomitant chemotherapy. The occurrence of chronic toxicity correlates with the prior acute

  3. Liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy in Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Sonia; Mercer, Kim; Twaddell, William S; Uradomo, Lance; Greenwald, Bruce D

    2013-08-01

    Liquid nitrogen endoscopic spray cryotherapy can safely and effectively eradicate high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE-HGD). Long-term data on treatment success and safety are lacking. To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of spray cryotherapy in patients with BE-HGD. Single-center, retrospective study. Tertiary-care referral center. A total of 32 patients with BE-HGD of any length. Patients were treated with liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy every 8 weeks until complete eradication of HGD (CE-HGD) and intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) was found by endoscopic biopsy. Surveillance endoscopy with biopsies was performed for at least 2 years. CE-HGD, CE-IM, durability of response, disease progression, and adverse events. CE-HGD was 100% (32/32), and CE-IM was 84% (27/32) at 2-year follow-up. At last follow-up (range 24-57 months), CE-HGD was 31/32 (97%), and CE-IM was 26/32 (81%). Recurrent HGD was found in 6 (18%), with CE-HGD in 5 after repeat treatment. One patient progressed to adenocarcinoma, downgraded to HGD after repeat cryotherapy. BE segment length ≥3 cm was associated with a higher recurrence of IM (P = .004; odds ratio 22.6) but not HGD. No serious adverse events occurred. Stricture was seen in 3 patients (9%), all successfully dilated. Retrospective study design, small sample size. In patients with BE-HGD, liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy has an acceptable safety profile and success rate for eliminating HGD and IM and is associated with a low rate of recurrence or progression to cancer with long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-grade spondylolisthesis: gradual reduction using Magerl's external fixator followed by circumferential fusion technique and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampalis, Christos; Grevitt, Michael; Shafafy, Masood; Webb, John

    2012-05-01

    To report the results of a cohort of patients treated with this technique high lighting radiological and functional outcomes, discussing also benefits arising from a gradual reduction procedure compared with other techniques. We evaluated nine patients who have undergone high-grade listhesis reduction and circumferential fusion at our institution from 1988 to 2006. Average length of follow-up was 11 years (5-19). Functional outcomes and radiological measurements were recorded and reported. Slip magnitude was reduced by an average of 2.9 grades (Meyerding classification). Slip angle improved by an average of 66% (p = 0.0001), lumbosacral angle by 47% (p = 0.0002), sacral rotation by 51% (p = 0.0068) and sacral inclination by 47% (p = 0.0055). At the latest follow-up 88.9% had achieved solid fusion. Post-operative 10-point Visual Analogue Score (VAS) for back pain had improved by 70% (p Average postoperative Oswestry Disability Index for all patients was 8% (range 0-16%) and that for Low Back Outcome Scores was 56.6 (range 44-70). All components of Short Form 36 Health Survey were greater than 80%. Overall patients' expectations were met in 100%. This is an effective and safe technique which addresses the lumbosacral kyphosis and cosmetic deformity without the neurological complications which accompany other reduction and fusion techniques for high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  5. Improvement in High-Grade Osteosarcoma Survival: Results from 202 Patients Treated at a Single Institution in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Yen, Chueh-Chuan; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Paul C-H; Wu, Hung-Ta H; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare survival before and after 2004 and define the prognostic factors for high-grade osteosarcomas beyond those of typical young patients with localized extremity disease. Few studies have reported the long-term treatment outcomes of high-grade osteosarcoma in Taiwan. A total of 202 patients with primary high-grade osteosarcoma who received primary chemotherapy at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 1995 and December 2011 were retrospectively evaluated and compared by period (1995-2003 vs 2004-2011). Patients of all ages and tumor sites and those following or not following controlled protocols were included in analysis of demographic, tumor-related, and treatment-related variables and survival. Overall survival and progression-free survival at 5 years were, respectively, 67.7% and 48% for all patients (n = 202), 77.3% and 57.1% for patients without metastasis (n = 157), and 33.9% and 14.8% for patients with metastasis (n = 45). The survival rates of patients treated after 2004 were significantly higher (by 13%-16%) compared with those of patients treated before 2004, with an accompanying 30% increase in histological good response rate (P = .002). Factors significantly contributing to inferior survival in univariate and multivariate analyses were diagnosis before 2004, metastasis at diagnosis, and being a noncandidate for a controlled treatment protocol. By comparison with the regimens used at our institution before 2004, the current results support the effectiveness of the post-2004 regimens, which consisted of substantially reduced cycles of high-dose methotrexate and a higher dosage of ifosfamide per cycle, cisplatin, and doxorubicin, for treating high-grade osteosarcoma in Asian patients.

  6. CATE 2016 Indonesia: normalized radial graded filtering, site-to-site image registration, and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L.; Kovac, S. A.; Hare, H. S.; Mitchell, A. M.; McKay, M. A.; Bosh, R.; Watson, Z.; Penn, M.

    2016-12-01

    An area of the solar corona from 1 out to approximately 2.5 solar radii is currently poorly sampled in astronomy. This is largely due to difficulties inherent in observing the sun from space and from the ground. Specifically focusing on ground based observations, the main problem is scattered light in the Earth's atmosphere and in the telescopes themselves. A total solar eclipse solves this problem by blocking the light from the photosphere of the sun before it enters the atmosphere, reducing the scattered light in the atmosphere by a factor of 10,000. However, using a total solar eclipse introduces another challenge due to the small window of time it provides. At any given location in 2017, the totality will last for only about 2.5 minutes and such a small data set limits the studies that can be done on the inner corona. The Citizen Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse Experiment plans to overcome this issue by taking advantage of America's infrastructure and using 60 identical telescopes to collect continuous data of the solar eclipse as the shadow travels from Oregon to South Carolina. By splicing these data together 90 minutes of one-of-a-kind data can be collected, revealing the dynamics of the inner corona as never seen before. For the 2016 Indonesian total solar eclipse the CATE project collected data using 5 sites along the eclipse path. These data were then used to develop processing programs to use on future data. These processes included site-to-site image registration as well as normalized radial graded filtering of the images. Programs were also developed to begin performing studies on the data including overlapping CATE and LASCO space telescope data for a total coronal image as well as thread tracing routines to quantify direction in the coronal filaments. This work was made possible through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program, which is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSO

  7. Microstructure and elevated temperature stability of 9-12% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-02-01

    Medium Cr steels have been used in fossil fired power plants for many years because of their excellent high temperature stability and mechanical properties. As the desire to increase the efficiency of power plants continues, the operating temperature (>650C) continues to go up. Currently available low and medium Cr containing steels will not withstand the new operating temperature and must be reassessed in terms of their solid-solution and precipitation strengthening schemes. Three medium Cr steels were developed to investigate high temperature alloy strengthening strategies: 0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti. The microstructure of the alloy will be described in the as-cast and thermo-mechanically worked states. In addition, the effect on microstructure from long-term high temperature exposure will also be discussed. Finally, the overall stability of these steels will be compared against currently available power plant steels.

  8. Microstructure and creep properties of 9-12 % Cr-steels. The influence of Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, F.; Zies, G.; Maile, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA; Straub, S. [ALSTOM Power Systems, Mannheim (Germany); Mayer, K.H. [ALSTOM Power System, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The martensitic 9-12 wt. % Cr steels currently developed for the application in steam power plants are aimed for service temperatures above 600 C and steam pressures above 250 bar. The creep strength of these steels strongly depends on the microstructure and thereby on the chemical composition. In the present work, a combination of various microscopy techniques is used to study the microstructural changes of creep relevant features like subgrain-size, dislocation density, the chemical composition and crystallographic structure of the occurring precipitates as well as their density and size distribution in dependence of the addition of Co for several steels developed in the frame of the COST programs. These features are then correlated with the creep strength of the materials. The behavior of the alloy CB6 with a high Co content is compared to the low Co containing CB2 and the Co free B0 at 650 C. Similar comparisons are made for the alloy FN2, FN3 and FN 4 at 600 C. (orig.)

  9. Influence of stress on creep deformation properties of 9-12Cr ferritic creep resistant steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K.; Sawada, K.; Kushima, H. [National Institute for Materials Science (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Creep deformation property of 9-12Cr ferritic creep resistant steels was investigated. With decrease in stress, a magnitude of creep strain at the onset of accelerating creep stage decreased from about 2% in the short-term to less than 1% in the longterm. A time to 1% total strain was observed in the transient creep stage in the short term regime, however, it shifted to the accelerating creep stage in the long-term regime. Life fraction of the times to 1% creep strain and 1% total strain tended to increase with decrease in stress. Difference in stress dependence of the minimum creep rate was observed in the high- and low-stress regimes with a boundary condition of 50% of 0.2% offset yield stress. Stress dependence of the minimum creep rate in the high stress regime was equivalent to a strain rate dependence of the flow stress evaluated by tensile test, and a magnitude of stress exponent, n, in the high stress regime decreased with increase in temperature from 20 at 550 C to 10 at 700 C. On the other hand, n value in the low stress regime was about 5, and creep deformation in the low stress regime was considered to be controlled by dislocation climb. Creep rupture life was accurately predicted by a region splitting method by considering a change in stress dependence of creep deformation. (orig.)

  10. The results of STEM education methods in physics at the 11th grade level: Light and visual equipment lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungsombatsanti, A.; Ponkham, K.; Somtoa, T.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) To evaluate the efficiency of the process and the efficiency of the results (E1 / E2) of the innovative instructional lesson plan in the form of the STEM Education method in the field of physics of secondary students at the 10th grade level in physics class to determine the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria of the 70/70 standard level. 2) To study students' critical thinking skills of secondary students at the 11th grade level, and assessing skill in criteria 80 percentage 3) To compare learning achievements between students' pre-post testing after taught in STEM Education 4) To evaluate Student' Satisfaction after using STEM Education teaching by using mean compare to 5 points Likert Scale. The participant used were 40 students from grade 11 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 11 students of 1 schemes with total of 15 hours, 2) The test of critical think skills with essay type in amount of 30 items, 3) achievement test on Light and visual equipment with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 16 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The results of these findings revealed that the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria indicate that are higher than the standard level of the 70/70 at 71.51/75 2) Student has critical thinking scores that are higher than criteria 80 percentage as amount is 26 people. 3) Statistically significant of students' learning achievements to their later outcomes were differentiated between pretest and posttest at the .05 level, evidently. 4) The student' level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a good level (X ¯ = 4.33, S.D = 0.64).

  11. Comparison of Crack Growth Test Results at Elevated Temperature and Design Code Material Properties for Grade 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Kim, Woo-Gon; Kim, Nak-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Reserach Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The material properties of crack growth models at an elevated temperature were derived from the results of numerous crack growth tests for Mod.9Cr-1Mo (ASME Grade 91) steel specimens under fatigue loading and creep loading at an elevated temperature. These crack growth models were needed for defect assessment under creep-fatigue loading. The mathematical crack growth rate models for fatigue crack growth (FCG) and creep crack growth (CCG) were determined based on the test results, and the models were compared with those of the French design code RCCMRx to investigate the conservatism of the code. The French design code RCC-MRx provides an FCG model and a CCG model for Grade 91 steel in Section III Tome 6. It was shown that the FCG model of RCC-MRx is conservative, while the CCG model is non-conservative compared with the present test data. Thus, it was shown that further validation of the property was required. Mechanical strength tests and creep tests were also conducted, and the test results were compared with those of RCC-MRx.

  12. Recent results for bonding S-65C grade Be to copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Novel processes for bonding beryllium to copper alloys without the use of a silver bonding aid have been developed at Brush Wellman. Tensile strength results will be presented at room temperature and elevated temperatures. A comparison will be made between bond strengths derived from rectangular tensile specimens and reduced section tensile specimens. Failure modes of the specimens at various temperatures will be shown

  13. Automated analysis of aircraft configurations for safe separation enabled by quantitative grading of results; presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available perturbations of: • store mass and physical properties • ejector rack performance • aircraft release flight conditions • stations on aircraft • neighbouring stores – MIL-HDBK 1763: 271.4 – Results in a very large analysis matrix! From: Tutty, M...

  14. Laser surface treatment and the resultant hierarchical topography of Ti grade 2 for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczyńska, Donata, E-mail: donatakuczynska@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kwaśniak, Piotr [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Marczak, Jan [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Warsaw (Poland); Bonarski, Jan [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Smolik, Jerzy [Institute for Sustainable Technology–National Research Institute, Radom (Poland); Garbacz, Halina [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Presented surface modification results in multimodal topography. • Laser treatment creates roughness in a range from nano- to micrometers. • Multimodal topography promote protein adsorption. • Hybrid surface treatment results in a texture favorable for osteogenic passes. - Abstract: Modern prosthesis often have a complex structure, where parts of an implant have different functional properties. This gradient of functional properties means that local surface modifications are required. Method presented in this study was develop to functionalize prefabricated elements with original roughness obtained by conventional treatments used to homogenize and clean surface of titanium implants. Demonstrated methodology results in multimodal, periodic grooved topography with roughness in a range from nano- to micrometers. The modified surfaces were characterized in terms of shape, roughness, wettability, surface energy and chemical composition. For this purpose, the following methods were used: scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Protein adsorption studies were conducted to determine the potential biomedical application of proposed method. In order to estimate the intensity and way of the protein adsorption process on different titanium surfaces, XPS studies and AFM measurements were performed. The systematic comparison of surface states and their osseointegration tendency will be useful to evaluate suitability of presented method as an single step treatment for local surface functionalization of currently produced implantable devices.

  15. Prognostic factors and treatment results of high-grade osteosarcoma in norway: a scope beyond the "classical" patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Kjetil; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Monge, Odd R; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Zaikova, Olga; Bruland, Øyvind S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A retrospective study of prognostic factors and treatment outcome of osteosarcoma (OS) during modern chemotherapy era with focus on patients with primary metastatic disease, nonextremity localisation, or age >40 years (nonclassical OS). Methods. A nationwide cohort, comprising 424 high-grade Norwegian bone OS patients, was based on registry sources supplemented with clinical records from hospitals involved in sarcoma management between 1975 and 2009. Results. Only 48% were younger patients with tumour in the extremities and without metastasis at diagnosis (classical OS). A considerable discrepancy in survival between classical and nonclassical OS was observed: 61% versus 26% 10-year sarcoma specific survival. Twice as many of the former received both adequate surgery and chemotherapy compared to the latter. This could only partly explain the differences in survival due to inherent chemoresistance in primary metastatic disease and a higher rate of local relapse among patients with axial tumours. Metastasis at diagnosis, increased lactate dehydrogenase, age > 40 years, and tumour size above median value were all adverse prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusion. We confirm a dramatic difference in outcome between classical and nonclassical high-grade OS patients, but treatment variables could only partly explain the dismal outcome of the latter.

  16. Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Neuburger, Daniela; Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

  17. Detection of low-grade prosthetic joint infections using 99mTc-antigranulocyte SPECT/CT: initial clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graute, Vera; Lehner, Sebastian; Haug, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus; Feist, Markus; Mueller, Peter Ernst

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade joint infections are characterized by infiltration of granulocytes, which mediate aspects of inflammatory changes. We evaluated retrospectively the contribution of SPECT/CT as an addition to planar scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibodies for diagnosing and localizing low-grade joint infections. Planar scintigraphy using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte BW 250/183 antibodies was performed in 31 patients with suspected joint infections at 5 min, 5 h and 24 h after injection, with additional SPECT/CT performed 6 h after injection. With reference to gold standard clinical data, we assessed the diagnostic sensitivity of scintigraphy alone and in conjunction with SPECT/CT. Joint infections were diagnosed clinically in 9 of the 31 patients (1 hip and 8 knee prostheses). Planar scintigraphy revealed 6 true-positives, 13 true-negatives, 9 false-positives and 3 false-negative results, indicating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of, respectively, 0.66, 0.60, 0.4 and 0.81. With the addition of SPECT images, corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values increased to 0.89, 0.45, 0.40 and 0.91. Implementation of fused SPECT/CT led to a further increase to 0.89, 0.73, 0.57 and 0.94. Relative to planar scintigraphy, SPECT with and without CT substantially improved the utility of imaging with 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibodies for diagnosis and localization of suspected joint infections. Optimal accuracy was obtained through image fusion, which permitted anatomical allocation of foci of pathological tracer accumulation as well as providing information on the extent of the infection. This imaging method seems suited for selection of patients requiring surgical therapy. (orig.)

  18. Long-term results of exclusive low-dose rate curie-therapy for a high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, P.; Monnier, L.; Dumas, I.; Azoury, F.; Mazeron, R.; Haie-Meder, C.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the results of an exclusive low dose rate curie therapy for female patients treated for a grade 3 vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. They reviewed the medical files of patients treated since 1983, i.e. 28 women. They analysed demographic characteristics, the clinic description of lesions, possible treatments which occurred before this high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, possible previous history of cervical or endometrial cancer, curie therapy detailed data, presence of tumorous relapse. According to that, they conclude that a 60 Gy exclusive low- vaginal dose-rate curie-therapy is an efficient and well tolerated treatment for high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Short communication

  19. Long-term results of postoperative radiotherapy in adult patients with incompletely excised infratentorial low grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluta, E.; Glinski, B.; Szpytma, T.; Nowak-Sadzikowska, J.

    2002-01-01

    lnfratentorial low grade astrocytoma (ILGA) occurs rarely in adult patients and accounts for about 3% of all intracranial tumors.The basic method of treatment for ILGA is surgery. Complete resection results in high local control rate and the role of postoperative irradiation in management of partially resected tumors is not clearly determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative irradiation in adult patients with incompletely excised ILGA. Between 1975 and 1995, thirty one adult patients with incompletely excised ILGA received postoperative irradiation with curative intent. All patients were treated with megavoltage gamma rays ( 60C o). The total dose ranged from 50 to 60 Gy (mean; 54 Gy) and was delivered with daily fraction of 1.8-2 Gy. The treatment volume covered the tumor being area with a margin of 1-2 cm. Tolerance to treatment has been found to be good in 30 patients (97%). The overall 15-year actuarial survival rate was 62% in the entire group. Young patients, up to twenty years of age achieved a 15-year overall actuarial survival rate of 85%, older patients - 46%. This difference was statistically significant (p =0. 0205). Conventionally fractionated postoperative radiotherapy with doses of 50 to 60 Gy may improve long term results of adult patients with ILGA after uncomplete resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor - young patients, up to twenty years of age, show best survival. (author)

  20. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  1. Carbon ion radiotherapy for chordomas and low-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base. Results in 67 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz-Ertner, D.; Wannenmacher, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Nikoghosyan, A.; Thilmann, C.; Jaekel, O.; Karger, C. [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, T.; Scholz, M.; Kraft, G. [Dept. of Biophysics, German Ion Research Center (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Debus, J. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate outcome and toxicity after carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) in chordomas and low-grade chondrosarcomas. Patients and Methods: Between September 1998 and December 2001, 74 patients were treated for chordomas and chondrosarcomas with carbon ion RT at the ''Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung'' (GSI). Seven patients reirradiated with reduced carbon ion doses after conventional RT were excluded from the analysis, leaving 67 evaluable patients (44 chordomas and 23 chondrosarcomas) who received a full course of carbon ion therapy. Tumor-conform application of carbon ion beams was realized by intensity-controlled raster scanning with active energy variation. Three-dimensional treatment planning included intensity modulation and biological plan optimization. A median dose of 60 GyE was applied to the target volume within 20 consecutive days at a dose of 3.0 GyE per fraction. Results: Median follow-up was 15 months (range 3-46 months). At 3 years, actuarial local control was 100% for chondrosarcomas and 87% for chordomas, respectively. Partial tumor remission was observed in 14/44 (31%) chordoma patients and in 4/23 (17%) chondrosarcoma patients. At 3 years, actuarial overall survival was 100% for chondrosarcomas and 89% for chordomas, respectively. No severe side effects > CTC III have been observed. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the clinical efficiency and safety of scanning beam delivery of carbon ion beams in patients with skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas. The observation of tumor regressions at a dose level of 60 GyE may indicate that the biological effectiveness of carbon ions in chordomas and chondrosarcomas is higher than initially estimated. (orig.)

  2. Carbon ion radiotherapy for chordomas and low-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base. Results in 67 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Ertner, D.; Wannenmacher, M.; Nikoghosyan, A.; Thilmann, C.; Jaekel, O.; Karger, C.; Haberer, T.; Scholz, M.; Kraft, G.; Debus, J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate outcome and toxicity after carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) in chordomas and low-grade chondrosarcomas. Patients and Methods: Between September 1998 and December 2001, 74 patients were treated for chordomas and chondrosarcomas with carbon ion RT at the ''Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung'' (GSI). Seven patients reirradiated with reduced carbon ion doses after conventional RT were excluded from the analysis, leaving 67 evaluable patients (44 chordomas and 23 chondrosarcomas) who received a full course of carbon ion therapy. Tumor-conform application of carbon ion beams was realized by intensity-controlled raster scanning with active energy variation. Three-dimensional treatment planning included intensity modulation and biological plan optimization. A median dose of 60 GyE was applied to the target volume within 20 consecutive days at a dose of 3.0 GyE per fraction. Results: Median follow-up was 15 months (range 3-46 months). At 3 years, actuarial local control was 100% for chondrosarcomas and 87% for chordomas, respectively. Partial tumor remission was observed in 14/44 (31%) chordoma patients and in 4/23 (17%) chondrosarcoma patients. At 3 years, actuarial overall survival was 100% for chondrosarcomas and 89% for chordomas, respectively. No severe side effects > CTC III have been observed. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the clinical efficiency and safety of scanning beam delivery of carbon ion beams in patients with skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas. The observation of tumor regressions at a dose level of 60 GyE may indicate that the biological effectiveness of carbon ions in chordomas and chondrosarcomas is higher than initially estimated. (orig.)

  3. The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2011. Trial Urban District Assessment Results at Grades 4 and 8. NCES 2012-452

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Representative samples of fourth- and eighth-grade public school students from 21 urban districts participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics. Eighteen of the districts participating in the 2011 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) participated in earlier assessment years, while three districts…

  4. Hardwood lumber widths and grades used by the furniture and cabinet industries: Results of a 14-mill survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett; Everette Rast

    2003-01-01

    Data on red oak lumber width, length, and grade were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify relationships among these lumber attributes and the degree to which they differ from mill to mill. Also, this information is needed to formulate valid lumber size distributions that will improve the quality of theresults obtained in mill and...

  5. Positron emission tomography changes management, improves prognostic stratification and is superior to gallium scintigraphy in patients with low-grade lymphoma: results of a multicentre prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Andrew M.; Gunawardana, Dishan H.; Wong, Joseph; Kirkwood, Ian; Hicks, Rodney J.; Ho Shon, Ivan; Ramshaw, Jayne E.; Robins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was evaluated in low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to determine its impact on staging and management and to compare PET and gallium scans. PET resulted in management plan changes in 74 patients with untreated low-grade NHL stages I to III. Patient outcomes to 12 months were documented. PET identified additional lesions in 50% of patients, led to a change in stage in 32%, and had a significant impact on management in 34%. Inferior progression-free survival was noted in patients with additional lesions detected by PET (p=0.001) and in the 28% of patients upstaged by PET to stage III or IV (p=0.024). In a subset of 16 patients undergoing both PET and gallium scans, PET was found to be superior. PET has a major role in the management of low-grade NHL in addition to its proven role in aggressive lymphoma. (orig.)

  6. Phase II Trial of Radiotherapy After Hyperbaric Oxygenation With Multiagent Chemotherapy (Procarbazine, Nimustine, and Vincristine) for High-Grade Gliomas: Long-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ishiuchi, Shogo [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Inoue, Osamu [Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Yoshii, Yoshihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tsukuba Memorial Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, Atsushi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, Takashi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Iraha, Shiro [Department of Radiology, Okinawa South Medical Center, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Ariga, Takuro; Kasuya, Goro; Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term results of a Phase II trial of radiotherapy given immediately after hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) with multiagent chemotherapy in adults with high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed high-grade gliomas were administered radiotherapy in daily 2 Gy fractions for 5 consecutive days per week up to a total dose of 60 Gy. Each fraction was administered immediately after HBO, with the time interval from completion of decompression to start of irradiation being less than 15 minutes. Chemotherapy consisting of procarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine and was administered during and after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 57 patients (39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas) were enrolled from 2000 to 2006, and the median follow-up of 12 surviving patients was 62.0 months (range, 43.2-119.1 months). All 57 patients were able to complete a total radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy immediately after HBO with one course of concurrent chemotherapy. The median overall survival times in all 57 patients, 39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas, were 20.2 months, 17.2 months, and 113.4 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, histologic grade alone was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p < 0.001). During treatments, no patients had neutropenic fever or intracranial hemorrhage, and no serious nonhematologic or late toxicities were seen in any of the 57 patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy delivered immediately after HBO with multiagent chemotherapy was safe, with virtually no late toxicities, and seemed to be effective in patients with high-grade gliomas.

  7. Behavioural graded activity results in better exercise adherence and more physical activity than usual care in people with osteoarthritis: a cluster-randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, M.F.; Veenhof, C.; de Bakker, D.H.; Schellevis, F.G.; Dekker, J.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Does behavioural graded activity result in better exercise adherence and more physical activity than usual care in people with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee? Design: Analysis of secondary outcomes of a cluster-randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and

  8. Changes in Second Grade Children's Preconceptions about the Earth as a Cosmic Body Resulting from a Short Series of Audio-Tutorial Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Joseph; Sharoni-Dagan, Niva

    1983-01-01

    Tested Ausubel/Novak hypothesis that primary grade students can learn meaningfully certain aspects of science concepts in the "reception learning" model. Revised audio-tutorial instruction unit on earth based on understanding children's misconceptions; assessed impact of revised units with second graders; and compared results to concept…

  9. The relationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in parents and their children aged 9-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Erik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is documented that parents have an essential influence on the physical activity (PA of their children. More physically active parents bring up more physically active children in comparison with children of less physically active parents. However, the relationship between parents-child PA is not exactly quantified and little is known about whether the parents' PA helps their children achieve the currently recommended daily step count (SC on weekdays and at weekends. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine and quantify the relationship between parents' behaviour (SC and screen time [ST] and children's SC on weekdays and at weekends. This study also investigates whether parents' level of SC helps children achieve the step count recommendations. METHODS: The participants (388 parents aged 35-45 and their 485 children aged 9-12 were randomly recruited from 21 Czech government-funded primary schools. The participants recorded their SC (The Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 and their ST duration for seven consecutive days (≥ 10 hours/day during April-May and September-October of 2013. The associations between the parents' behaviour (SC and ST and children's SC were estimated using general linear regression. Logistic regression (enter method was used to examine the odds of achievement of the recommendations of 11,000 SC/day for girls and 13,000 SC/day for boys. RESULTS: Each 1,000 SC increase in the mothers' (fathers' SC/weekday was significantly (p < .05 associated with an extra 261 SC/day in their daughters and 413 (244 SC/day in their sons. Each 1,000 SC increase in mothers' (fathers' SC/weekend day was significantly (p < .05 associated with an extra 523 (386 SC/day in their daughters and 508 (435 SC/day in their sons. A reduction in the mothers' ST by 30 minutes per weekend day was significantly (p < .05 associated with an extra 494 SC/day in their daughters and 467 SC/day in their sons. The children of the mothers and fathers who met the

  10. 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Jara, David

    2011-03-21

    This work was carried out aiming to design and characterise 9-12% Cr steels with tailormade microstructures for applications in fossil fuel fired power plants. The investigations concentrated in the design and characterisation of heat resistant steels for applications in high oxidising atmospheres (12% Cr) and 9% Cr alloys for components such as rotors (P91). ThermoCalc calculations showed to be a reliable tool for alloy development. The modeling also provided valuable information for the adjustment of the processing parameters (austenisation and tempering temperatures). Two 12% Cr heat resistant steels with a fine dispersion of nano precipitates were designed and produced supported by thermodynamic modeling (ThermoCalc). A detailed characterisation of the microstructure evolution at different creep times (100 MPa / 650 C / 8000 h) was carried out by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results of the microstructure analysis were correlated with the mechanical properties in order to investigate the influence of different precipitates (especially M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides) on the creep strength of the alloys. Precipitation of Laves phase and Z-phase was observed after several hundred hours creep time. Very few Z-phase of the type Cr(V,Ta)N nucleating from existing (V,Ta)(C,N) was observed. Both alloys show growth and coarsening of Laves phase, meanwhile the MX carbonitrides present a very slow growth and coarsening rate. Alloys containing Laves phase, MX and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates show best creep properties. The influence of hot-deformation and tempering temperature on the microstructure evolution on one of the designed 12% Cr alloys was studied during short-term creep at 80-250 MPa and 650 C. Quantitative determination of dislocation density and sub-grain size in the initial microstructure and after creep was investigated by STEM combined with the high-angle annular dark-field detector (HAADF). A correlation between microstructure

  11. 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Jara, David

    2011-01-01

    This work was carried out aiming to design and characterise 9-12% Cr steels with tailormade microstructures for applications in fossil fuel fired power plants. The investigations concentrated in the design and characterisation of heat resistant steels for applications in high oxidising atmospheres (12% Cr) and 9% Cr alloys for components such as rotors (P91). ThermoCalc calculations showed to be a reliable tool for alloy development. The modeling also provided valuable information for the adjustment of the processing parameters (austenisation and tempering temperatures). Two 12% Cr heat resistant steels with a fine dispersion of nano precipitates were designed and produced supported by thermodynamic modeling (ThermoCalc). A detailed characterisation of the microstructure evolution at different creep times (100 MPa / 650 C / 8000 h) was carried out by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results of the microstructure analysis were correlated with the mechanical properties in order to investigate the influence of different precipitates (especially M 23 C 6 carbides) on the creep strength of the alloys. Precipitation of Laves phase and Z-phase was observed after several hundred hours creep time. Very few Z-phase of the type Cr(V,Ta)N nucleating from existing (V,Ta)(C,N) was observed. Both alloys show growth and coarsening of Laves phase, meanwhile the MX carbonitrides present a very slow growth and coarsening rate. Alloys containing Laves phase, MX and M 23 C 6 precipitates show best creep properties. The influence of hot-deformation and tempering temperature on the microstructure evolution on one of the designed 12% Cr alloys was studied during short-term creep at 80-250 MPa and 650 C. Quantitative determination of dislocation density and sub-grain size in the initial microstructure and after creep was investigated by STEM combined with the high-angle annular dark-field detector (HAADF). A correlation between microstructure evolution and creep

  12. Imagine the Universe! The Anatomy of Black Holes. Probing the Structure & Evolution of the Cosmos. An Information and Activity Booklet. Grades 9-12, 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Laura A.; Granger, Kara C.; Mahon, Jane D.

    The information provided in this booklet is meant to give the necessary background information so that the science of black holes can be taught confidently to secondary students. The featured activities can be used to engage and excite students about the topic of black holes in different disciplines and in a number of ways. Activities include: (1)…

  13. Early Chinese History: The Hundred Schools Period. China's Golden Age of Philosophy. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lehn; Dube, Clayton

    In this unit students examine the four most influential Chinese philosophical traditions developed during the Zhou period (roughly 6th-3rd centuries B.C.E.). The four philosophies students study include: (1) Confucianism; (2) Mohism; (3) Daoism (Taoism); and (4) Legalism. In three lessons, students compare the ideas of these schools and explore…

  14. Evaluation of a primary prevention program for anxiety disorders using story books with children aged 9-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Gervais, Jean; Gagnier, Nadia; Loranger, Claudie

    2013-10-01

    This article reports the results of a study evaluating a book-supported primary prevention program "Dominique's Handy Tricks" for anxiety disorders in children aged 9-12 years. This cognitive-behavioural program is delivered using a combination of storybooks and workshop sessions. The originality of the program comes from the use of storybooks that were not developed specifically for anxiety management. Every session is based on a story describing characters facing common stressors and how they manage to cope with their daily problems. In our randomized control trial with 46 children, participation in the program led to a significant improvement in coping skills, perceived self-efficacy, anxiety sensitivity, as well as in symptoms of anxiety and fear. The theoretical and practical elements underlying the delivery of this primary prevention program are described. It is suggested that such an approach, without any labelling specific to anxiety disorders, can be useful in primary prevention programs.

  15. Thermal studies of Se85-xTe15Inx (x = 3,6,9,12) glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushama, D.; George, Achamma; Asokan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk glasses of compositions Se 85-x Te 15 In x (x = 3,6,9,12) are prepared by melt quenching technique and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is employed to study the thermal stability, crystallization mechanism as well as specific heat of these glasses. It is found that the addition of indium increases the glass transition temperature. From the heating rate dependence of the glass transition temperature the activation energy of glass transition is determined using Kissinger's equation for non-isothermal crystallization of materials. An attempt has been made to explain the variation in the value of T c , T p and ΔC p for the composition Se 73 Te 15 In 12 using rigidity percolation threshold (RPT). From the values of (T c -T g ) the stable glass system is determined.

  16. Predictors of Grade 3 or Higher Late Bowel Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer: Results From a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Supriya, E-mail: schopra@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Dora, Tapas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Chinnachamy, Anand N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Thomas, Biji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Kannan, Sadhna [Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates relationship between dose–volume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2 cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 40 Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Results: The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-65 years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50 Gy in 25 fractions for 5 weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. Conclusions: V 15 Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%.

  17. Altered expression of MGMT in high-grade gliomas results from the combined effect of epigenetic and genetic aberrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ramalho-Carvalho

    Full Text Available MGMT downregulation in high-grade gliomas (HGG has been mostly attributed to aberrant promoter methylation and is associated with increased sensitivity to alkylating agent-based chemotherapy. However, HGG harboring 10q deletions also benefit from treatment with alkylating agents. Because the MGMT gene is mapped at 10q26, we hypothesized that both epigenetic and genetic alterations might affect its expression and predict response to chemotherapy. To test this hypothesis, promoter methylation and mRNA levels of MGMT were determined by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP or methylation-specific multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively, in a retrospective series of 61 HGG. MGMT/chromosome 10 copy number variations were determined by FISH or MS-MLPA analysis. Molecular findings were correlated with clinical parameters to assess their predictive value. Overall, MGMT methylation ratios assessed by qMSP and MS-MLPA were inversely correlated with mRNA expression levels (best coefficient value obtained with MS-MLPA. By FISH analysis in 68.3% of the cases there was loss of 10q26.1 and in 15% of the cases polysomy was demonstrated; the latter displayed the highest levels of transcript. When genetic and epigenetic data were combined, cases with MGMT promoter methylation and MGMT loss depicted the lowest transcript levels, although an impact in response to alkylating agent chemotherapy was not apparent. Cooperation between epigenetic (promoter methylation and genetic (monosomy, locus deletion changes affecting MGMT in HGG is required for effective MGMT silencing. Hence, evaluation of copy number alterations might add relevant prognostic and predictive information concerning response to alkylating agent-based chemotherapy.

  18. Histological Grading of Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted Imaging: Inconsistent Results Depending on the Fitting Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shintaro; Motosugi, Utaroh; Hernando, Diego; Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Masanori; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2018-04-10

    To compare the abilities of three intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging approximation methods to discriminate the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fifty-eight patients (60 HCCs) underwent IVIM imaging with 11 b-values (0-1000 s/mm 2 ). Slow (D) and fast diffusion coefficients (D * ) and the perfusion fraction (f) were calculated for the HCCs using the mean signal intensities in regions of interest drawn by two radiologists. Three approximation methods were used. First, all three parameters were obtained simultaneously using non-linear fitting (method A). Second, D was obtained using linear fitting (b = 500 and 1000), followed by non-linear fitting for D * and f (method B). Third, D was obtained by linear fitting, f was obtained using the regression line intersection and signals at b = 0, and non-linear fitting was used for D * (method C). A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to reveal the abilities of these methods to distinguish poorly-differentiated from well-to-moderately-differentiated HCCs. Inter-reader agreements were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The measurements of D, D * , and f in methods B and C (Az-value, 0.658-0.881) had better discrimination abilities than did those in method A (Az-value, 0.527-0.607). The ICCs of D and f were good to excellent (0.639-0.835) with all methods. The ICCs of D * were moderate with methods B (0.580) and C (0.463) and good with method A (0.705). The IVIM parameters may vary depending on the fitting methods, and therefore, further technical refinement may be needed.

  19. Effectiveness of graded activity versus physiotherapy in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: midterm follow up results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Maurício Oliveira; Comachio, Josielli; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique; Pappas, Evangelos; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major health and economic problem worldwide. Graded activity and physiotherapy are commonly used interventions for nonspecific low back pain. However, there is currently little evidence to support the use of one intervention over the other in the medium-term. To compare the effectiveness of graded activity exercises to physiotherapy-based exercises at mid-term (three and six months' post intervention) in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. Sixty-six patients were randomly allocated to two groups: graded activity group (n=33) and physiotherapy group (n=33). These patients received individual sessions twice a week for six weeks. Follow-up measurements were taken at three and six months. The main outcome measurements were intensity pain (Pain Numerical Rating Scale) and disability (Rolland Morris Disability Questionnaire). No significant differences between groups after three and six month-follow ups were observed. Both groups showed similar outcomes for pain intensity at three months [between group differences: -0.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]=-1.5 to 1.2)] and six months [0.1 (95% CI=-1.1 to 1.5)], disability at three months was [-0.6 (95% CI=-3.4 to 2.2)] and six months [0.0 (95% CI=-2.9 to 3.0)]. The results of this study suggest that graded activity and physiotherapy have similar effects in the medium-term for patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial impact of alternative management policies for low-grade cervical abnormalities: results from the TOMBOLA randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sharp

    Full Text Available Large numbers of women who participate in cervical screening require follow-up for minor cytological abnormalities. Little is known about the psychological consequences of alternative management policies for these women. We compared, over 30-months, psychosocial outcomes of two policies: cytological surveillance (repeat cervical cytology tests in primary care and a hospital-based colposcopy examination.Women attending for a routine cytology test within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes were eligible to participate. 3399 women, aged 20-59 years, with low-grade abnormal cytology, were randomised to cytological surveillance (six-monthly tests; n = 1703 or initial colposcopy with biopsies and/or subsequent treatment based on colposcopic and histological findings (n = 1696. At 12, 18, 24 and 30-months post-recruitment, women completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A subgroup (n = 2354 completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES six weeks after the colposcopy episode or first surveillance cytology test. Primary outcomes were percentages over the entire follow-up period of significant depression (≥ 8 and significant anxiety (≥ 11; "30-month percentages". Secondary outcomes were point prevalences of significant depression, significant anxiety and procedure-related distress (≥ 9. Outcomes were compared between arms by calculating fully-adjusted odds ratios (ORs for initial colposcopy versus cytological surveillance.There was no significant difference in 30-month percentages of significant depression (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.80-1.21 or anxiety (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.81-1.16 between arms. At the six-week assessment, anxiety and distress, but not depression, were significantly less common in the initial colposcopy arm (anxiety: 7.9% vs 13.4%; OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.81; distress: 30.6% vs 39.3%, OR = 0.67 95% CI 0.54-0.84. Neither anxiety nor depression differed between arms at subsequent time-points.There was no difference in the

  1. Fireside corrosion and steamside oxidation of 9-12% Cr martensitic steels exposed for long term testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jensen, S. A.; Rasmussen, F.

    2009-01-01

    MoV121 and HCM12 for the 12% Cr steels. The test tubes were welded in as part of the existing final superheaters in actual plants and exposure has been conducted over a ten year period (1994-2005). Compared to the older steel types, T92 and HCM12 utilise tungsten to improve their creep strength. From......To obtain long term corrosion and steam oxidation data for the 9-12%Cr ferritic steels, test tube sections have been exposed in Amager 3 and Avedore 1 coal fired power plants in Denmark (formerly run by ENERGI E2). Thus direct comparisons can be made for T91 and T92 for the 9% Cr steels and X20Cr...... Avedore I testing, T91 and T92 can be compared for exposure times up to similar to 48 000 h exposure. From Amager 3 testing, X20, HCM12 and T92 were tested; T92 has been exposed for up to 31 000 h and X20 and HCM12 have had 84 500 h exposure. Tube sections were removed for various exposure durations...

  2. BEDA PENGARUH ARKUS KAKI TERHADAP KESEIMBANGAN STATIS ANAK USIA 9-12 TAHUN DI SD NEGERI MOJOLEGI, TERAS, BOYOLALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syafi’i

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan  normal foot dan flat foot terhadap keseimbangan statis pada anak usia 9-12 tahun. Sejumlah 60 subyek sehat, terbagi menjadi dua kelompok. Masing- masing kelompok 30 orang. Kelompok I adalah Kelompok dengan kondisi arkus normal dan kelompok II adalah kondisi arkus flat foot. Dilakukan di SD Negeri Mojolegi, Teras, Boyolali. Dengan menggunakan alat ukur Wet Test dan One Legged Stance Test. Penelitian ini merupakan non eksperimental cross sectional design. Masing-masing kelompok diuji normalitas data dengan Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test pada Kelompok I menujukkan nilai p>0,05 maka data berdistribusi normal dan Kelompok II menunjukkan nilai p>0,05 maka data berdistribusi normal. Pada kedua kelompok diuji hipotesis dengan Independent T Test dengan hasil p<0,05 maka terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara kondisi arkus normal dan kondisi arkus flatfoot dalam mempertahankan keseimbangan statis. Berdasarkan  analisis  statistik penelitian yang telah dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara kondisi arkus normal dan kondisi arkus flatfoot dalam mempertahankan posisi keseimbangan statis.

  3. Do later wake times and increased sleep duration of 12th graders result in more studying, higher grades, and improved SAT/ACT test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration, wake time, and hours studying on high school grades and performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)/ American College Testing (ACT) college entrance exams. Data were collected from 13,071 recently graduated high school seniors who were entering college in the fall of 2014. A column proportions z test with a Bonferroni adjustment was used to analyze proportional differences. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine mean group differences. Students who woke up prior to 6 a.m. and got less than 8 h of sleep (27 %) were significantly more likely to report studying 11 or more hours per week (30 %), almost double the rate compared to students who got more than 8 h of sleep and woke up the latest (16 %). Post hoc results revealed students who woke up at 7 a.m. or later reported significantly higher high school grades than all other groups (p students who woke up between 6:01 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. and got eight or more hours of sleep. The highest reported SAT/ACT scores were from the group that woke up after 7 a.m. but got less than 8 h sleep (M = 1099.5). Their scores were significantly higher than all other groups. This study provides additional evidence that increased sleep and later wake time are associated with increased high school grades. However, this study also found that students who sleep the longest also reported less studying and lower SAT/ACT scores.

  4. Gemcitabine Plus Radiation Therapy for High-Grade Glioma: Long-Term Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Michelle M., E-mail: michekim@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Camelo-Piragua, Sandra [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew; Tao, Yebin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Junck, Larry; Mammoser, Aaron [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Betz, Bryan L. [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kim, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Heth, Jason; Sagher, Oren [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of gemcitabine plus radiation therapy (RT) in this phase 1 study of patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma (HGG). Patients and Methods: Between 2004 and 2012, 29 adults with HGG were enrolled. After any extent of resection, RT (60 Gy over 6 weeks) was given concurrent with escalating doses of weekly gemcitabine. Using a time-to-event continual reassessment method, 5 dose levels were evaluated starting at 500 mg/m{sup 2} during the last 2 weeks of RT and advanced stepwise into earlier weeks. The primary objective was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of gemcitabine plus RT. Secondary objectives included progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and long-term toxicity. Results: Median follow-up was 38.1 months (range, 8.9-117.5 months); 24 patients were evaluable for toxicity. After 2005 when standard practice changed, patients with World Health Organization grade 4 tumors were no longer enrolled. Median progression-free survival for 22 patients with grade 3 tumors was 26.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.6-inestimable), and OS was 48.5 months (95% CI 26.8-inestimable). In 4 IDH mutated, 1p/19q codeleted patients, no failures occurred, with all but 1 alive at time of last follow-up. Seven with IDH mutated, non-codeleted tumors with ATRX loss had intermediate OS of 73.5 months (95% CI 32.8-inestimable). Six nonmutated, non-codeleted patients had a median OS of 26.5 months (95% CI 25.4-inestimable). The recommended phase 2 dose of gemcitabine plus RT was 750 mg/m{sup 2}/wk given the last 4 weeks of RT. Dose reductions were most commonly due to grade 3 neutropenia; no grade 4 or 5 toxicities were seen. Conclusions: Gemcitabine concurrent with RT is well-tolerated and yields promising outcomes, including in patients with adverse molecular features. It is a candidate for further study, particularly for poor-prognosis patient subgroups with HGG.

  5. Orthodontic treatment need of 9, 12 and 15 year-old children according to the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and the Dental Aesthetic Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Montiel-Company, José María; Catalá-Pizarro, Montserrat; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    To assess the differences in occlusal features in three cohorts at 9, 12 and 15 years of age, and compare orthodontic treatment need measured by the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Cross-sectional study. School of Dentistry, University of Valencia. A total of 1086 children: 321 aged 9, 397 aged 12 and 368 aged 15. Children were examined to measure their orthodontic treatment need according to IOTN and DAI. The main outcome measure was orthodontic treatment need according to the DAI and IOTN indices. Overbite and inter-incisal diastema were the occlusal features that presented significant differences between the three groups, diminishing with age. Treatment need according to the IOTN was 15.4% at 9 years, 20.9% at 12 years and 12.8% at 15 years. Treatment need according to DAI was 44.8% at 9 years, 21.7% at 12 years and 14.1% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the two indices on the treatment need by age group was very low at 9 years (Kappa 0.18) and moderate at 12 and 15 years (Kappa 0.451 and 0.405, respectively). Orthodontic treatment need is greater in the mixed dentition and falls slightly as the child grows. The greatest variation in results between 9 and 15 years were found in relation to the DAI, which is consequently not recommended for use in the mixed dentition.

  6. The results of STEM education methods for enhancing critical thinking and problem solving skill in physics the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soros, P.; Ponkham, K.; Ekkapim, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) compare the critical think and problem solving skills before and after learning using STEM Education plan, 2) compare student achievement before and after learning about force and laws of motion using STEM Education plan, and 3) the satisfaction of learning by using STEM Education. The sample used were 37 students from grade 10 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 10 students of 1 schemes with total of 14 hours, 2) The test of critical think and problem solving skills with multiple-choice type of 5 options and 2 option of 30 items, 3) achievement test on force and laws of motion with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 20 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have score of critical think and problem solving skills on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level .01. 2) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have achievement score on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level of .01. 3) The student'level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a high level (X ¯ = 4.51, S.D=0.56).

  7. Long-term outcome of stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) versus stapled hemorrhoidopexys (STH) for grade III-IV hemorrhoids: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Simone; Spirch, Saverio; Scarpa, Marco; Ricci, Francesco; Lumachi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Circular stapled transanal hemorrhoidopexy (STH) was first introduced by A. Longo for the correction of internal mucosal prolapse and obstructed defecation and in 1998, was proposed as alternative to conventional excisional hemorrhoidectomy. More recently, stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) has gradually gained popularity, as the Longo procedure, in the treatment of hemorrhoids. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of STARR as alternative to STH in patients with grade III (n=218, 68.1%) and IV (n=102, 31.9%) hemorrhoids. A group of 320 consecutive patients (median age=51 years; range=16-85) underwent STH (n=281) or STARR (n=39) procedure. The rate of postoperative bleeding (53.8% vs. 74.4%, phemorrhoids and a lower incidence of prolapse, both at one year (none vs. 1.4%, p=0.593 and 2.6% vs. 5.3%, p=0.396, respectively) and at two years (none vs. 6.8%, p=0.078 and none vs. 13.2%, p=0.012, respectively). The one-year (9.0 ± 1.8 vs. 9.4 ± 0.7, p=0.171) and two-year (9.6 ± 0.8 vs. 9.1 ± 1.7, p=0.072) general satisfaction was similar but higher in STARR patients than in the STH group. In conclusion, according to our preliminary results, the STARR procedure leads to a lower incidence of complications and recurrences and should be considered for patients with grade III or IV hemorrhoids previously selected for stapled hemorrhoidectomy, as a promising alternative to STH. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Phase 2 Study of Temozolomide-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for High-Risk Low-Grade Gliomas: Preliminary Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0424

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Barbara J., E-mail: barbara.fisher@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Hu, Chen [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Macdonald, David R. [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Lesser, Glenn J. [Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (United States); Coons, Stephen W. [Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Brachman, David G. [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Ryu, Samuel [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bahary, Jean-Paul [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Notre Dame, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Junfeng [GCE Solutions, Inc., Bloomington, Illinois (United States); Chakravarti, Arnab [The Ohio State University, The James, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mehta, Minesh [University of Maryland Medical Systems, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0424 was a phase 2 study of a high-risk low-grade glioma (LGG) population who were treated with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), and outcomes were compared to those of historical controls. This study was designed to detect a 43% increase in median survival time (MST) from 40.5 to 57.9 months and a 20% improvement in 3-year overall survival (OS) rate from 54% to 65% at a 10% significance level (1-sided) and 96% power. Methods and Materials: Patients with LGGs with 3 or more risk factors for recurrence (age ≥40 years, astrocytoma histology, bihemispherical tumor, preoperative tumor diameter of ≥6 cm, or a preoperative neurological function status of >1) were treated with RT (54 Gy in 30 fractions) and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ. Results: From 2005 to 2009, 129 evaluable patients (75 males and 54 females) were accrued. Median age was 49 years; 91% had a Zubrod score of 0 or 1; and 69%, 25%, and 6% of patients had 3, 4, and 5 risk factors, respectively. Patients had median and minimum follow-up examinations of 4.1 years and 3 years, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 73.1% (95% confidence interval: 65.3%-80.8%), which was significantly improved compared to that of prespecified historical control values (P<.001). Median survival time has not yet been reached. Three-year progression-free survival was 59.2%. Grades 3 and 4 adverse events occurred in 43% and 10% of patients, respectively. One patient died of herpes encephalitis. Conclusions: The 3-year OS rate of 73.1% for RTOG 0424 high-risk LGG patients is higher than that reported for historical controls (P<.001) and the study-hypothesized rate of 65%.

  9. Detection of low-grade prosthetic joint infections using {sup 99m}Tc-antigranulocyte SPECT/CT: initial clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graute, Vera; Lehner, Sebastian; Haug, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Feist, Markus; Mueller, Peter Ernst [University of Munich, Department of Orthopedic Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Low-grade joint infections are characterized by infiltration of granulocytes, which mediate aspects of inflammatory changes. We evaluated retrospectively the contribution of SPECT/CT as an addition to planar scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibodies for diagnosing and localizing low-grade joint infections. Planar scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-labelled antigranulocyte BW 250/183 antibodies was performed in 31 patients with suspected joint infections at 5 min, 5 h and 24 h after injection, with additional SPECT/CT performed 6 h after injection. With reference to gold standard clinical data, we assessed the diagnostic sensitivity of scintigraphy alone and in conjunction with SPECT/CT. Joint infections were diagnosed clinically in 9 of the 31 patients (1 hip and 8 knee prostheses). Planar scintigraphy revealed 6 true-positives, 13 true-negatives, 9 false-positives and 3 false-negative results, indicating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of, respectively, 0.66, 0.60, 0.4 and 0.81. With the addition of SPECT images, corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values increased to 0.89, 0.45, 0.40 and 0.91. Implementation of fused SPECT/CT led to a further increase to 0.89, 0.73, 0.57 and 0.94. Relative to planar scintigraphy, SPECT with and without CT substantially improved the utility of imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibodies for diagnosis and localization of suspected joint infections. Optimal accuracy was obtained through image fusion, which permitted anatomical allocation of foci of pathological tracer accumulation as well as providing information on the extent of the infection. This imaging method seems suited for selection of patients requiring surgical therapy. (orig.)

  10. Abstracts of the communications presented during the 6th World Rabbit Congress: REPRODUCTION & REPRODUCTION PHYSIOLOGY. Toulouse, July 9-12, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    REPRODUCTION & REPRODUCTION PHYSIOLOGY

    1996-01-01

    Abstract not available. REPRODUCTION & REPRODUCTION PHYSIOLOGY (1996). Abstracts of the communications presented during the 6th World Rabbit Congress: REPRODUCTION & REPRODUCTION PHYSIOLOGY. Toulouse, July 9-12, 1996. World Rabbit Science. 58-67. doi:10.4995/wrs.1996.302 58 67 04

  11. Attention Problems, Inhibitory Control, and Intelligence Index Overlapping Genetic Factors: A Study in 9-, 12-, and 18-Year-Old Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, T.J.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Verhulst, F.C.; Posthuma, D.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    It is assumed that attention problems (AP) are related to impaired executive functioning. We investigated the association between AP and inhibitory control and tested to what extent the association was due to genetic factors shared with IQ. Data were available from 3 independent samples of 9-, 12-,

  12. A study on some motoric and anthropometric attributes of competitive and non - competitive taekwondo athletes between the age group 9 - 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu SEVİNÇ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to examine some motoric and antrophometric attributes of competitive and non - competitive taekwondo athletes within the age group 9 - 12 years and to det ermine the difference between those two groups. Material and method: 31 competitive and 29 non - competitive licensed taekwondo athletes voluntarily participated in the study. The average ages, heights and weight of competitive and non - competitive athletes w ere 11,16±,93 year, 150,58±17,14 cm and 43,80± 13,97 kg, 9,62±,82 year, 137,31±8,80 cm and 35,24±8,28 kg respectively. Both groups have been practising regularly taekwondo for 2,5 years, 2 days a week and two hours a day. Flamingo balance test, test of dis k touching, sit and reach flexibility test, long jump while standing still, 30 sec sit - up test, bent arm pull - up test and 10x5m push up run, right and left hand grip strength test and 20 m shuttle run of the Eurofit test battery were used. Body fat percen t, body fat mass, fat free mass, body mass index values were measured. Such antrophometric attributes as hand length, calf and femur circumference, arm length, biceps circumference in flexion, arm span length were measured. Results: Results of statistical analyses showed a significant difference between two groups in terms of motoric scores (p<0,01, p<0,001, antrophometric characteristics ( p<0,01, p<0,001, and fat free mass ( p<0,001 in favor of the competitive group. Conclusion: Compared with the no n - competitive group, significant differences in competitive group can be explained by their active participation in competitions.

  13. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  14. Endoscopic Injection of Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid as First-Line Treatment in 851 Consecutive Children with High-Grade Vesicoureteral Reflux: Efficacy and Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmacher, Florian; Colhoun, Eric; Puri, Prem

    2018-03-15

    Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic is widely acknowledged as first-line treatment of lower grade vesicoureteral reflux. Our objective was to demonstrate its long-term efficacy and safety in eradicating high-grade reflux. Eight-hundred-fifty-one children (518 girls, 333 boys), median age 2.3 years (2 months-13.7 years), underwent endoscopic correction of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid. Reflux was unilateral in 415 cases and bilateral in 436, comprising 1,287 refluxing units: grade IV in 1,153 (89.6%) and grade V in 134 (10.4%). 99m technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid imaging identified renal scarring in 317 (37.3%) patients. Follow-up ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months post intervention and renal ultrasound annually thereafter. Median follow-up was 8.5 years (6 months-16 years). Overall resolution rate after the first endoscopic injection was 895/1,287 (69.5%): 70.4% in grade IV and 61.9% in grade V, respectively. Reflux resolved after a second injection in 259 (20.1%) and after a third in 133 (10.4%). Persistent reflux after initial treatment was significantly more common in infants reflux resolution, 43 (5.1%) children developed febrile urinary tract infections: 24 (55.8%) in the first, 15 (34.9%) in the second and 4 (9.3%) after ≥3 years. Of these, 6 had reflux recurrence and 8 demonstrated neocontralateral grade III reflux, which was successfully treated with single endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid. Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is an efficient and safe long-term treatment for grade IV and V vesicoureteral reflux, which can be easily repeated in cases of failure with a high subsequent resolution rate. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DRD4 Genotype and the Developmental Link of Peer Social Preference with Conduct Problems and Prosocial Behavior Across Ages 9-12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, J Marieke; Koot, Hans M; Olthof, Tjeert; Nelson, Kelly A; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    The peer environment is among the most important factors for children's behavioral development. However, not all children are equally influenced by their peers, which is potentially due to their genetic make-up. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence children's susceptibility to the peer environment. In the present study, we explored whether variations in the DRD4 gene moderated the association between children's social standing in the peer group (i.e., social preference among classmates) with subsequent conduct problems and prosocial behavior among 405 (51% females) elementary school children followed annually throughout early adolescence (ages 9-12 years). The behavioral development of children with and without the DRD4 7-repeat allele was compared. The results indicated that children who had higher positive social preference scores (i.e., who were more liked relative to disliked by their peers) showed less conduct problem development in subsequent years relative to children who had lower positive social preference scores. In contrast, children who had more negative preference scores (i.e., who were more disliked relative to liked among peers) showed more conduct problem development in subsequent years, relative to children who had less negative preference scores. However, these effects only occurred when children had a 7-repeat allele. For children who did not have a 7-repeat allele, the level of social preference was not associated with subsequent conduct problems. No evidence for gene-environment interaction effects for prosocial behavior was found. The implications for our understanding of conduct problem development and its prevention are discussed.

  16. Contemporary management of high-grade renal trauma: Results from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Genitourinary Trauma study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihani, Sorena; Xu, Yizhe; Presson, Angela P; Hotaling, James M; Nirula, Raminder; Piotrowski, Joshua; Dodgion, Christopher M; Black, Cullen M; Mukherjee, Kaushik; Morris, Bradley J; Majercik, Sarah; Smith, Brian P; Schwartz, Ian; Elliott, Sean P; DeSoucy, Erik S; Zakaluzny, Scott; Thomsen, Peter B; Erickson, Bradley A; Baradaran, Nima; Breyer, Benjamin N; Miller, Brandi; Santucci, Richard A; Carrick, Matthew M; Hewitt, Timothy; Burks, Frank N; Kocik, Jurek F; Askari, Reza; Myers, Jeremy B

    2018-03-01

    The rarity of renal trauma limits its study and the strength of evidence-based guidelines. Although management of renal injuries has shifted toward a nonoperative approach, nephrectomy remains the most common intervention for high-grade renal trauma (HGRT). We aimed to describe the contemporary management of HGRT in the United States and also evaluate clinical factors associated with nephrectomy after HGRT. From 2014 to 2017, data on HGRT (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades III-V) were collected from 14 participating Level-1 trauma centers. Data were gathered on demographics, injury characteristics, management, and short-term outcomes. Management was classified into three groups-expectant, conservative/minimally invasive, and open operative. Descriptive statistics were used to report management of renal trauma. Univariate and multivariate logistic mixed effect models with clustering by facility were used to look at associations between proposed risk factors and nephrectomy. A total of 431 adult HGRT were recorded; 79% were male, and mechanism of injury was blunt in 71%. Injuries were graded as III, IV, and V in 236 (55%), 142 (33%), and 53 (12%), respectively. Laparotomy was performed in 169 (39%) patients. Overall, 300 (70%) patients were managed expectantly and 47 (11%) underwent conservative/minimally invasive management. Eighty-four (19%) underwent renal-related open operative management with 55 (67%) of them undergoing nephrectomy. Nephrectomy rates were 15% and 62% for grades IV and V, respectively. Penetrating injuries had significantly higher American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades and higher rates of nephrectomy. In multivariable analysis, only renal injury grade and penetrating mechanism of injury were significantly associated with undergoing nephrectomy. Expectant and conservative management is currently utilized in 80% of HGRT; however, the rate of nephrectomy remains high. Clinical factors, such as surrogates of

  17. Eighth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (abstracts). 2001 September 9-12; Hiwassee, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Sung; P.P. Kormanik; W.J. Ostrosina; J.G. Isebrands

    2002-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of planted trees, seedling propagation, physiology, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration for oaks are described in 21 abstracts.

  18. The Effect of the Interval Training During 8-Week Preparation Period on the Athletic Performances of 9-12 Year Old Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    SEVER, M. Onur; CICIOGLU, H. Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect ofinterval training on the athletic performances of 9-12 years old swimmers inaddition to the eight-week preparation stage. Athletes were split into twogroups as the ones with performing branch specific swimming training (n=9) andthe ones with performing interval training along with swimming training (n=11).Before and after training programs, 12-minutes Cooper test was applied todetermine aerobic endurance in both groups. Wingate test was used...

  19. Attention Problems, Inhibitory Control, and Intelligence Index Overlapping Genetic Factors: A Study in 9-, 12-, and 18-Year-Old Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Polderman, T.J.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Verhulst, F.C.; Posthuma, D.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    It is assumed that attention problems (AP) are related to impaired executive functioning. We investigated the association between AP and inhibitory control and tested to what extent the association was due to genetic factors shared with IQ. Data were available from 3 independent samples of 9-, 12-, and 18-year-old twins and their siblings (1,209 participants). AP were assessed with checklists completed by multiple informants. Inhibitory control was measured with the Stroop Color Word Task (St...

  20. Combined oral contraception and obesity are strong predictors of low-grade inflammation in healthy individuals: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie J Sørensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI, is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0% participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC (29.9% than in men (6.1% and women not using OC (7.9%. Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio = 8.98, p<0.001. Additionally, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. CONCLUSION: High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment.

  1. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Min Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher’s exact or Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student’s t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann–Whitney’s U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Results: In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133 of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005 and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033, as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038 than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a

  2. Effect of right ventricular pacing lead site on left ventricular function in patients with high-grade atrioventricular block: results of the Protect-Pace study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Gerald C; Linker, Nicholas J; Marwick, Thomas H; Pollock, Lucy; Graham, Laura; Pouliot, Erika; Poloniecki, Jan; Gammage, Michael

    2015-04-07

    Chronic right ventricle (RV) apical (RVA) pacing is standard treatment for an atrioventricular (AV) block but may be deleterious to left ventricle (LV) systolic function. Previous clinical studies of non-apical pacing have produced conflicting results. The aim of this randomized, prospective, international, multicentre trial was to compare change in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) between right ventricular apical and high septal (RVHS) pacing over a 2-year study period. We randomized 240 patients (age 74 ± 11 years, 67% male) with a high-grade AV block requiring >90% ventricular pacing and preserved baseline LVEF >50%, to receive pacing at the RVA (n = 120) or RVHS (n = 120). At 2 years, LVEF decreased in both the RVA (57 ± 9 to 55 ± 9%, P = 0.047) and the RVHS groups (56 ± 10 to 54 ± 10%, P = 0.0003). However, there was no significant difference in intra-patient change in LVEF between confirmed RVA (n = 85) and RVHS (n = 83) lead position (P = 0.43). There were no significant differences in heart failure hospitalization, mortality, the burden of atrial fibrillation, or plasma brain natriutetic peptide levels between the two groups. A significantly greater time was required to place the lead in the RVHS position (70 ± 25 vs. 56 ± 24 min, P function requiring a high percentage of ventricular pacing, RVHS pacing does not provide a protective effect on left ventricular function over RVA pacing in the first 2 years. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00461734. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Design of heat treatments for 9-12%Cr steels to optimise creep resistance for power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, P.F.; Sachadel, U.A.; Clarke, P.D. [Tata Steel Europe, Rotherham (United Kingdom). Swinden Technology Centre; CRD and T, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Optimisation of the creep rupture properties of Steel 92 (9%Cr, 0.5%Mo, 2%W) by modification of heat treatment and C:N ratio has been studied. It was shown that a higher austenization temperature and double tempering at lower temperature can significantly extend creep life of the standard composition. The increase in austenization temperature from 1060 C and double tempering at 660 C/3h instead of single tempering at 780 C/2h resulted in the increase of stress rupture life from 1,734 to 6,179h at 650 C/110MPa. Even greater improvement in creep life was achieved by the combination of the modified heat treatment and decreased C:N ratio. In this case the creep life was extended to 10,255 h at 650 C/110MPa. A further increase in austenitization temperature to 1200 C for the decreased C:N ratio variant extended the rupture life to 17,118h. Initial results indicate that this modified heat treatment schedule does not result in notch brittle behaviour and most of the improvement in creep strength remains after a simulated post weld heat treatment at 740 C. The stress rupture programme is continuing and at 600 C test durations are approaching 60,000h. To explain the effect on rupture life thermodynamic calculations, microscopic investigations and a literature study were performed. Electron metallography investigations revealed that the lower tempering temperature resulted in a finer distribution of nano-size particles. Calculations show that increasing the austenitization temperature gave more dissolved B, N, C, Nb and V. The lower C:N ratio resulted in a higher atomic fraction of N in nano-size particles on subsequent tempering. Dissolved B should stabilize M{sub 23}M{sub 6} and dissolved N, C, Nv, and V should allow precipitation of a higher volume fraction of nano-size carbo-nitrides during tempering. Literature data suggest that lower tempering temperatures could also change their type from MX to M{sub 2}X. (orig.)

  4. Poor results of 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy for residual high-grade dysplasia and early cancer in barrett esophagus after endoscopic resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, F.; Kara, M.; Rosmolen, W.; Aalders, M.; ten Kate, F.; Krishnadath, K.; van Lanschot, J.; Fockens, P.; Bergman, J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of residual high-grade dysplasia or early cancer (HGD/EC) after endoscopic resection in Barrett esophagus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study patients were separated into group A,

  5. Stepwise circumferential and focal ablation of Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia: results of the first prospective series of 11 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gondrie, J. J.; Pouw, R. E.; Sondermeijer, C. M. T.; Peters, F. P.; Curvers, W. L.; Rosmolen, W. D.; Krishnadath, K. K.; ten Kate, F.; Fockens, P.; Bergman, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Stepwise circumferential and focal ablation of nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus has proven safe and effective. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of ablation for Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and residual Barrett's esophagus with dysplasia

  6. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-07-21

    High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI) remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher's exact or Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann-Whitney's U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133) of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005) and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033), as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038) than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a higher incidence of complications than motorcyclists. The results also

  7. Mental and somatic health complaints associated with school bullying between 10th and 12th grade students; results from cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Green, Kristian; Welander-Vatn, Audun; Bjertness, Espen

    2009-03-23

    Bullying is a widespread and serious problem that might influence both mental and psychical well being as well as school performance and social life. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of bullying, mental health problems and psychical complaints among 10th and 12th grade students and to analyze the association between bullying, mental health problems and muscle and skeletal complaints. Two cross sectional studies of adolescents living in Oslo, Norway the first conducted in 2001 among 10th grade students (15/16 years old) and the second in 2004 among 12th grade students (18/19 years old). Both surveys were based on self report, were mostly school based and had almost identical questionnaires. There were around 3700 participants in both surveys, but the participation rate was lower in the latter survey (88 versus 80%). The Hopkins Symptoms Check List (HSCL-10) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to measure mental health problems. Bullying is decreasing both among boys and girls while the prevalence of internalized mental health problems are increasing from 10th to 12th grade. For muscle and skeletal pain there is a diverging trend between boys and girls, with an increase among girls and a decrease among boys. The highest Odds Ratios, as a measure for the association between bullying, mental health problems and pain, were found for internalized mental health problems at both 10th and 12th grade both for boys and girls. Both internalized and externalized mental health problems together with pain seem to be associated with bullying irrespective of school type and gender.

  8. The Optimum Font Size and Type for Students Aged 9-12 Reading Arabic Characters on Screen: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubaker, A. A.; Lu, J.

    2012-05-01

    More and more, interest in the way data is displayed on screen has increased, especially with the increase in the number of people using e-text for learning purposes. So, this requires more focus on factors that affect screen legibility. Text display factors, such as font size, line length and font type, have an impact on reading online. Two font types [Arabic Traditional and Simplified Arabic] in four different sizes [10, 14, 16 and 18] are measured using Arabic text. On-line processes were measured using reading-aloud technique. Accuracy of reading was also measured by the average of errors that students made when reading the text, while reading speed was tested by the time it took students to read the text. However, results indicated that Arabic text in font size 10 is not readable to students aged 10 to 12. On the other hand, font sizes sixteen and eighteen are more readable than any smaller-sized font, the averages of error size 18 improve in all font types, while age has a significant impact on reading speed. Simplified Arabic font is reported as readable to students aged 10-12, especially in sizes 14 and 18.

  9. The fourth Arab Impact Cratering and Astrogeology Conference (AICAC IV), April 9-12, 2017, Algiers (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaï, D.; Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Baratoux, D.; Ferrière, L.; Lamali, A.; Sahoui, R.; Lambert, P.; Ayadi, A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a report about the fourth Arab Impact Cratering and Astrogeology Conference (AICAC IV) that took place in Algiers at the USTHB (Université des Sciences et Technologie Houari Boumedienne, Algiers, Algeria) in the presence of the presidents of the USTHB and Boumerdès Universities, the Director of CRAAG (Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Géophysique), and the General Director of the National Administration for Scientific Research (NASR/DGRSDT). This series of conferences aims to promote research interest for impact cratering in the Arab world and beyond, including for instance in African countries. In spite of persistently restraining travel measures to Algeria, the fourth edition held in Algiers was marked by continuous international participation, with participants from seven different countries. This conference focused on presentations of scientific results in the research fields related to planetology, meteorites, and impact craters. In particular, the Algerian impact structures were under the spotlights during both oral and poster sessions. During this conference, the presence of freshly graduated Ph.D. students and new Ph.D. projects related to impact cratering or meteoritic science was a positive sign for the consolidation of research groups in this domain in the Arab world and Africa. Therefore, international cooperation or external support and funding are still needed to ensure the development of this scientific discipline in this part of the world.

  10. Active site specificity profiling datasets of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13 and 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Eckhard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described provide a comprehensive resource for the family-wide active site specificity portrayal of the human matrix metalloproteinase family. We used the high-throughput proteomic technique PICS (Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites to comprehensively assay 9 different MMPs. We identified more than 4300 peptide cleavage sites, spanning both the prime and non-prime sides of the scissile peptide bond allowing detailed subsite cooperativity analysis. The proteomic cleavage data were expanded by kinetic analysis using a set of 6 quenched-fluorescent peptide substrates designed using these results. These datasets represent one of the largest specificity profiling efforts with subsequent structural follow up for any protease family and put the spotlight on the specificity similarities and differences of the MMP family. A detailed analysis of this data may be found in Eckhard et al. (2015 [1]. The raw mass spectrometry data and the corresponding metadata have been deposited in PRIDE/ProteomeXchange with the accession number http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002265.

  11. Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Koper, Keith D.; Sufri, Oner; Zhu, Lupei; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2009-04-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 was the most destructive Chinese earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan event. Tens of thousands of people were killed, hundreds of thousands were injured, and millions were left homeless. Here we infer the detailed rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P energy from several arrays of seismometers. This technique has only recently become feasible and is potentially faster than traditional finite-fault inversion of teleseismic body waves; therefore, it may reduce the notification time to emergency response agencies. Using the IRIS DMC, we collected 255 vertical component broadband P waves at 30-95° from the epicenter. We found that at periods of 5 s and greater, nearly all of these P waves were coherent enough to be used in a global array. We applied a simple down-sampling heuristic to define a global subarray of 70 stations that reduced the asymmetry and sidelobes of the array response function (ARF). We also considered three regional subarrays of seismometers in Alaska, Australia, and Europe that had apertures less than 30° and P waves that were coherent to periods as short as 1 s. Individual ARFs for these subarrays were skewed toward the subarrays; however, the linear sum of the regional subarray beams at 1 s produced a symmetric ARF, similar to that of the groomed global subarray at 5 s. For both configurations we obtained the same rupture direction, rupture length, and rupture time. We found that the Wenchuan earthquake had three distinct pulses of high beam power at 0, 23, and 57 s after the origin time, with the pulse at 23 s being highest, and that it ruptured unilaterally to the northeast for about 300 km and 110 s, with an average speed of 2.8 km/s. It is possible that similar results can be determined for future large dip-slip earthquakes within 20-30 min of the origin time using relatively sparse global networks of seismometers such as those the USGS uses to locate

  12. Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Koper, K.D.; Sufri, O.; Zhu, L.; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2009-01-01

    [1] The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 was the most destructive Chinese earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan event. Tens of thousands of people were killed, hundreds of thousands were injured, and millions were left homeless. Here we infer the detailed rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P energy from several arrays of seismometers. This technique has only recently become feasible and is potentially faster than traditional finite-fault inversion of teleseismic body waves; therefore, it may reduce the notification time to emergency response agencies. Using the IRIS DMC, we collected 255 vertical component broadband P waves at 30-95?? from the epicenter. We found that at periods of 5 s and greater, nearly all of these P waves were coherent enough to be used in a global array. We applied a simple down-sampling heuristic to define a global subarray of 70 stations that reduced the asymmetry and sidelobes of the array response function (ARF). We also considered three regional subarrays of seismometers in Alaska, Australia, and Europe that had apertures less than 30?? and P waves that were coherent to periods as short as 1 s. Individual ARFs for these subarrays were skewed toward the subarrays; however, the linear sum of the regional subarray beams at 1 s produced a symmetric ARF, similar to that of the groomed global subarray at 5 s. For both configurations we obtained the same rupture direction, rupture length, and rupture time. We found that the Wenchuan earthquake had three distinct pulses of high beam power at 0, 23, and 57 s after the origin time, with the pulse at 23 s being highest, and that it ruptured unilaterally to the northeast for about 300 km and 110 s, with an average speed of 2.8 km/s. It is possible that similar results can be determined for future large dip-slip earthquakes within 20-30 min of the origin time using relatively sparse global networks of seismometers such as those the USGS uses to locate

  13. Investigations on diffusion-controlled transformations in creep resistant steels and graded cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat Borquez, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to simulate diffusion-controlled transformations on engineering alloys designed by the author and his colleagues. The main challenge of the work is to adapt the existing DICTRA models to the experimental processing and working conditions investigated, as well as to find the adequate boundary conditions for the description of the diffusion-controlled transformations governing the microstructure formation and evolution, in order to obtain reliable simulation results. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the microstructure evolution by scanning electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Two groups of materials were investigated. The first group was 9-12% Cr heat resistant alloys. These alloys are particularly interesting because the microstructure evolves during working conditions. Different compositions were designed in order to form different kinds and amounts of precipitates. For the designed 9-12% Cr creep steels the coarsening of MX and M 23 C 6 particles was modeled by applying the coarsening model implemented in DICTRA. The cell method of DICTRA was applied to investigate the kinetics of the Laves phase growth on 9-12% Cr alloys. The particular objectives of these investigations were: a) to determine the coarsening rate of precipitates, b) to investigate the influence of alloying element on the growth rate of the Laves phase, c) to determine the influence of the M 23 C 6 formation on the growth kinetics of the Laves phase, d) to determine the growth mechanism at the interface of the Laves phase (i.e. up-hill diffusion), e) to investigate the effect of the cell size on the simulation kinetics of Laves phase. The second group of materials was cemented carbides. They are used as cutting tools or wear parts in the automotive, aircraft and mining industry among others. The wear performance of cemented carbides (hardmetals and cermets) can be largely improved by applying wear

  14. Mental and somatic health complaints associated with school bullying between 10th and 12th grade students; results from cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Lars; Green, Kristian; Welander-Vatn, Audun; Bjertness, Espen

    2009-01-01

    Background Bullying is a widespread and serious problem that might influence both mental and psychical well being as well as school performance and social life. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of bullying, mental health problems and psychical complaints among 10th and 12th grade students and to analyze the association between bullying, mental health problems and muscle and skeletal complaints. Metho...

  15. A numerical approach to predict the long-term creep behaviour and precipitate back-stress evolution of 9-12% chromium steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, I.; Cerjak, H. [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. for Materials Science and Welding; Kozeschnik, E. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Materials Science and Technology; Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Christian Doppler Lab. ' Early Stages of Precipitation'

    2010-07-01

    The mechanical properties of modern 9-12% Cr steels are significantly influenced by the presence and stability of different precipitate populations. These secondary phases grow, coarsen and, sometimes, dissolve again during heat treatment and service, which leads to a remarkable change in the obstacle effect of these precipitates on dislocation movement. In the present work, the experimentally observed creep rupture strength of a modified 9-12% Cr steel developed in the European COST Group is compared to the calculated maximum obstacle effect (Orowan threshold stress) caused by the precipitates present in the investigated alloy for different heat treatment conditions. It is shown that the differences in creep rupture strength caused by different heat treatments disappear after long time service. This observation is discussed on the basis of the calculated evolution of the precipitate microstructure. The concept of boosting long-term creep rupture strength by maximizing the initial creep strength with optimum quality heat treatment parameters for precipitation strengthening is critically assessed. (orig.)

  16. Low-grade Glioma Surgery in Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Results of a Multicenter Retrospective Assessment of the German Study Group for Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburger, Jan; Merkel, Andreas; Scherer, Moritz; Schwartz, Felix; Gessler, Florian; Roder, Constantin; Pala, Andrej; König, Ralph; Bullinger, Lars; Nagel, Gabriele; Jungk, Christine; Bisdas, Sotirios; Nabavi, Arya; Ganslandt, Oliver; Seifert, Volker; Tatagiba, Marcos; Senft, Christian; Mehdorn, Maximilian; Unterberg, Andreas W; Rössler, Karl; Wirtz, Christian Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The ideal treatment strategy for low-grade gliomas (LGGs) is a controversial topic. Additionally, only smaller single-center series dealing with the concept of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) have been published. To investigate determinants for patient outcome and progression-free-survival (PFS) after iMRI-guided surgery for LGGs in a multicenter retrospective study initiated by the German Study Group for Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A retrospective consecutive assessment of patients treated for LGGs (World Health Organization grade II) with iMRI-guided resection at 6 neurosurgical centers was performed. Eloquent location, extent of resection, first-line adjuvant treatment, neurophysiological monitoring, awake brain surgery, intraoperative ultrasound, and field-strength of iMRI were analyzed, as well as progression-free survival (PFS), new permanent neurological deficits, and complications. Multivariate binary logistic and Cox regression models were calculated to evaluate determinants of PFS, gross total resection (GTR), and adjuvant treatment. A total of 288 patients met the inclusion criteria. On multivariate analysis, GTR significantly increased PFS (hazard ratio, 0.44; P surgery. Patients with accidentally left tumor remnants showed a similar prognosis compared with patients harboring only partially resectable tumors. Use of high-field iMRI was significantly associated with GTR. However, the field strength of iMRI did not affect PFS. EoR, extent of resectionFLAIR, fluid-attenuated inversion recoveryGTR, gross total resectionIDH1, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1iMRI, intraoperative magnetic resonance imagingLGG, low-grade gliomaMGMT, methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferasenPND, new permanent neurological deficitOS, overall survivalPFS, progression-free survivalSTR, subtotal resectionWHO, World Health Organization.

  17. High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-IC) in treatment of cervical carcinoma: 5-year results and implication of increased low-grade rectal complication on initiation of an HDR-IC fractionation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongjong; Wan Leung, Stephen; Chen Huichun; Sun Limin; Fang Fumin; Changchien Chanchao; Huang Engyen; Wu Jiaming; Chen Chuhnchih

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To report the treatment results and rectal/bladder complications of cervical carcinoma radically treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-IC). The current policy of using three-fraction scheme was examined. Methods and Materials: Between November 1987 and August 1990, 173 patients with cervical carcinoma were treated with curative-intent radiation therapy. Whole pelvic irradiation was administered with 10-MV X ray. Dose to the central cervix was 40-44 Gy in 20-22 fractions, following by pelvic wall boost 6-14 Gy in three to seven fractions with central shielding. 60 Co sources were used for HDR-IC, and 7.2 Gy was given to Point A for three applications, 1-2 weeks apart. Duration of follow-up was 5-7.8 years. Results: Twenty-eight patients (16%) developed central-regional recurrences. Overall 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate was 83%. By stage, 5-year actuarial pelvic control rates were 94%, 87%, and 72% for Stages IB + IIA, IIB + IIIA, and IIIB + IVA, respectively. Thirty-one patients (18%) developed distant metastasis. Overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 58%. By stage, 5-year actuarial survival rates were 79%, 59%, and 41% for Stages IB + IIA, IIB + IIIA, and IIIB + IVA, respectively. Sixty-six (38%) and 19 patients (11%) developed rectal and bladder complications, respectively. For rectal complication, the overall actuarial rate was 38% at 5 years. By grade, 5-year actuarial rectal complication rates were 24%, 15%, 4%, and 3% for Grades 1-4, respectively. Overall prevalence of rectal complications was 37% and 14% at 2 and 5 years, respectively. Prevalence of low-grade rectal complication (Grades 1 and 2) was dominant at 2 years (30%), but declined to 8% at 5 years. Prevalence of high-grade, severe rectal complication (Grades 3 and 4) remained steady at 2 and 5 years (7% and 6%, respectively). Five-year actuarial bladder complication was 9%. Five-year prevalence of bladder complication was 2%. Conclusion: Using a three

  18. Quality of life after radiation therapy of cerebral low-grade gliomas of the adult: results of a randomised Phase III trial on dose response (EORTC trial 22844)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiebert, G.M. [MEDTAP International, 27 Gilbert Street, London (United Kingdom); Curran, D. [EORTC Data Centre Brussels (Belgium); Aaronson, N.K. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bolla, M. [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire, Grenoble (France); Menten, J. [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven (Belgium); Rutten, E.H.J.M. [University Hospital St. Radboud, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nordman, E. [Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Silvestre, M.E. [Hospital Santa Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Pierart, M. [EORTC Data Centre, Brussels (Belgium); Karim, A.B.M.F. [Free University Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    In 1985, the EORTC Radiotherapy Co-operative Group launched a randomised phase III study comparing high-dose (59.4 Gy in 6.5 weeks) versus low-dose (45 Gy in 5 weeks) radiotherapy with conventional techniques in patients diagnosed with low-grade cerebral glioma. The primary endpoint of the study was survival. No difference in survival was observed between the two treatment strategies. A quality of life (QoL) questionnaire consisting of 47 items assessing a range of physical, psychological, social, and symptom domains was included in the trial to measure the impact of treatment over time. Patients who received high-dose radiotherapy tended to report lower levels of functioning and more symptom burden following completion of radiotherapy. These group differences were statistically significant for fatigue/malaise and insomnia immediately after radiotherapy and in leisure time and emotional functioning at 7-15 months after randomisation. These findings suggest that for conventional radiotherapy for low-grade cerebral glioma, a schedule of 45 Gy in 5 weeks not only saves valuable resources, but also spares patients a prolonged treatment at no loss of clinical efficacy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Quality of life after radiation therapy of cerebral low-grade gliomas of the adult: results of a randomised Phase III trial on dose response (EORTC trial 22844)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebert, G.M.; Curran, D.; Aaronson, N.K.; Bolla, M.; Menten, J.; Rutten, E.H.J.M.; Nordman, E.; Silvestre, M.E.; Pierart, M.; Karim, A.B.M.F.

    1998-01-01

    In 1985, the EORTC Radiotherapy Co-operative Group launched a randomised phase III study comparing high-dose (59.4 Gy in 6.5 weeks) versus low-dose (45 Gy in 5 weeks) radiotherapy with conventional techniques in patients diagnosed with low-grade cerebral glioma. The primary endpoint of the study was survival. No difference in survival was observed between the two treatment strategies. A quality of life (QoL) questionnaire consisting of 47 items assessing a range of physical, psychological, social, and symptom domains was included in the trial to measure the impact of treatment over time. Patients who received high-dose radiotherapy tended to report lower levels of functioning and more symptom burden following completion of radiotherapy. These group differences were statistically significant for fatigue/malaise and insomnia immediately after radiotherapy and in leisure time and emotional functioning at 7-15 months after randomisation. These findings suggest that for conventional radiotherapy for low-grade cerebral glioma, a schedule of 45 Gy in 5 weeks not only saves valuable resources, but also spares patients a prolonged treatment at no loss of clinical efficacy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  1. On the microstructural basis of creep strength and creep-fatigue interaction in 9-12 % Cr steels for application in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilukuru, H

    2007-03-06

    As part of the efforts of preserving the environment it is necessary to reduce of the CO2 emissions from power plants. This can be done by increasing the plant efficiency. Research groups around the world are engaged in developing new steels capable of sustaining higher stresses and temperatures envisaged for high-efficiency power plants. Research carried out in Europe is organized within the COST Programme (Co-Operation in Science and Technology) aiming at replacing the conventional steels of type X20CrMoV121 by the new class of 9-12% Cr-steels with modified composition. The resistance of materials against deformation at elevated temperatures depends on their microstructure. Frequently in 9-12% Cr-steels improved short-term creep properties do not persist in the long-term service [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. This is related with insufficient microstructural stability. Hardening contributions in 9-12% Cr-steels come from solute atoms of the ferritic matrix, from dislocations, and from precipitates of foreign phases within the matrix. The term ''carbide stabilized substructure hardening'' of 9-12% Cr steels [7, 8] indicates that the hardening contributions are interdependent. The dislocations are the carriers of plastic deformation. They interact with each other, with solute atoms and with precipitates. The dislocation-dislocation interaction leads to formation of planar dislocation networks constituting low-angle boundaries. They form a subgrain structure within the grains. At present, a full and detailed understanding of the effects exerted by the different components of microstructure on creep strength is still lacking. The present work makes a contribution to the efforts of understanding the microstructural basis of creep strength and of creep-fatigue interaction by transmission electron microscopic structure investigations coupled with creep tests. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out with regard to hardening by subgrain boundaries

  2. On the microstructural basis of creep strength and creep-fatigue interaction in 9-12 % Cr steels for application in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilukuru, H.

    2007-03-06

    As part of the efforts of preserving the environment it is necessary to reduce of the CO2 emissions from power plants. This can be done by increasing the plant efficiency. Research groups around the world are engaged in developing new steels capable of sustaining higher stresses and temperatures envisaged for high-efficiency power plants. Research carried out in Europe is organized within the COST Programme (Co-Operation in Science and Technology) aiming at replacing the conventional steels of type X20CrMoV121 by the new class of 9-12% Cr-steels with modified composition. The resistance of materials against deformation at elevated temperatures depends on their microstructure. Frequently in 9-12% Cr-steels improved short-term creep properties do not persist in the long-term service [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. This is related with insufficient microstructural stability. Hardening contributions in 9-12% Cr-steels come from solute atoms of the ferritic matrix, from dislocations, and from precipitates of foreign phases within the matrix. The term ''carbide stabilized substructure hardening'' of 9-12% Cr steels [7, 8] indicates that the hardening contributions are interdependent. The dislocations are the carriers of plastic deformation. They interact with each other, with solute atoms and with precipitates. The dislocation-dislocation interaction leads to formation of planar dislocation networks constituting low-angle boundaries. They form a subgrain structure within the grains. At present, a full and detailed understanding of the effects exerted by the different components of microstructure on creep strength is still lacking. The present work makes a contribution to the efforts of understanding the microstructural basis of creep strength and of creep-fatigue interaction by transmission electron microscopic structure investigations coupled with creep tests. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out with regard to hardening by

  3. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  4. Impact of performance grading on annual numbers of acute myocardial infarction-associated emergency department visits in Taiwan: Results of segmented regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, I-Shiang; Liu, Su-Hsun; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Wu, Chin-Chieh; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2016-10-01

    To reduce patient boarding time at the emergency department (ED) and to improve the overall quality of the emergent care system in Taiwan, the Minister of Health and Welfare of Taiwan (MOHW) piloted the Grading Responsible Hospitals for Acute Care (GRHAC) audit program in 2007-2009.The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the GRHAC audit program on the identification and management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-associated ED visits by describing and comparing the incidence of AMI-associated ED visits before (2003-2007), during (2007-2009), and after (2009-2012) the initial audit program implementation.Using aggregated data from the MOHW of Taiwan, we estimated the annual incidence of AMI-associated ED visits by Poisson regression models. We used segmented regression techniques to evaluate differences in the annual rates and in the year-to-year changes in AMI-associated ED visits between 2003 and 2012. Medical comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertensive disease were considered as potential confounders.Overall, the number of AMI-associated patient visits increased from 8130 visits in 2003 to 12,695 visits in 2012 (P-value for trend capacity for timely and correctly diagnosing and managing patients presenting with AMI-associated symptoms or signs at the ED.

  5. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  6. Management of Primary Tectal Plate Low-Grade Glioma in Pediatric Patients: Results of the Multicenter Treatment Study SIOP-LGG 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Ariane; Gerber, Nicolas U; Kandels, Daniela; Azizi, Amedeo A; Schmidt, Rene; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Pietsch, Torsten; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Gnekow, Astrid K; Grotzer, Michael A

    2018-06-11

     Tectal plate low-grade gliomas (LGGs) most often present with increased intracranial pressure and sometimes as incidental findings from brain imaging. Prognostic factors predicting outcome are largely unknown.  From 2004 until 2012, 71 patients with tectal plate LGG from Germany and Switzerland were followed within the SIOP-LGG 2004 study. Median age at diagnosis was 9.7 (range: 0.1-17.5) years, and median follow-up time of surviving patients was 6.3 (interquartile range: 4.9-8.3) years.  A total of 41 out of 71 patients received no tumor treatment (12 with and 29 without biopsy). The 10-year event-free survival (EFS) rate (± standard error ) for patients with an initial tumor volume of ≤3 cm 3 was 56% (±7%), as opposed to 12% (±8%) for those with tumors >3 cm 3 ( p  < 0.001). The 10-year EFS for patients without contrast enhancement on initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 52% (±9%), and for those with enhancement, it was 23% (±9%) ( p  = 0.003). The 10-year overall survival rate was 96% (±3%) (death due to disease, 1; ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection, 1). Sixty-three (89%) patients had at least one cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure.  More than half of patients were managed without tumor treatment. Favorable prognostic factors for EFS were small initial tumor volume (≤3cm 3 ) and the absence of initial contrast enhancement on MRI. Overall survival was excellent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Treatment of Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Self-Reported Neuropsychological Performance at 6 Months - Results of a Prospective Clinical Pilot Study on Good-Grade Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bründl, Elisabeth; Schödel, Petra; Bele, Sylvia; Proescholdt, Martin; Scheitzach, Judith; Zeman, Florian; Brawanski, Alexander; Schebesch, Karl-Michael

    2018-01-01

    Limited focus has been placed on neuropsychological patient profiles after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH). We conducted a prospective controlled study in good-grade sSAH patients to evaluate the time course of treatment-specific differences in cognitive processing after sSAH. Twenty-six consecutive sSAH patients were enrolled (drop out n=5). Nine patients received endovascular aneurysm occlusion (EV), 6 patients were treated microsurgically (MS), and 6 patients with perimesencephalic SAH (pSAH) underwent standardized intensive medical care. No patient experienced serious vasospasm-related ischemic or hemorrhagic complications. All patients were subjected to neuropsychological self-report assessment (36-Item Short Form Health Survey and ICD-10-Symptom-Rating questionnaire) subacutely (day 11 - 35) after the onset of bleeding (t1) and at the 6-month follow-up (FU; t 2 ). From t1 to t 2 , MS and EV patients significantly improved in physical functioning (Pfi; p=.001 each) and the physical component summary (p=.010 vs. p=.015). Bodily pain (Pain; MS p=.034) and general health perceptions (EV p=.014) significantly improved, and nutrition disorder (EV p=.008) worsened. At FU, MS patients reported significantly better Pfi (vs. EV p=.046), less Pain (vs. EV p=.040), and more depression (vs. pSAH p=.035). Group-rate analyses of test differences showed a significant alleviation in nutrition disorder in MS (vs. EV p=.009). All sSAH groups reported a significant deterioration in health. Though both MS and EV patients, improved in several physical items over time, our data suggest a better short-term Pfi, less Pain and improved nutrition disorder in surgically treated patients. pSAH patients performed significantly better in various aspects of physical and psychological functioning than patients with aneurysmal SAH.

  8. Albumin and Neutrophil Combined Prognostic Grade as a New Prognostic Factor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results from a Large Consecutive Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Sun

    Full Text Available It has been reported nutritional status and systemic inflammation were associated with the outcome of patients with malignancies. However, the prognostic value of combination of them was really scarce, especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. In order to find a more simple and efficient predictor, we hypothesized that pretreatment albumin and neutrophil combined prognostic grade (ANPG could offer an improved prognostic ability in NSCLC patients.We collected pretreatment albumin and neutrophil, clinicopathological, treatment and follow-up data of 1033 consecutive NSCLC patients treated between 2006 and 2011 in this retrospective study. The ANPG was calculated according to pretreatment albumin and neutrophil levels dichotomized by the optimal cut-off values, the quartile values and the clinical reference values. Kaplan-Meier (K-M curves and Cox proportional regression were used for survival analyses. All the data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0.According to optimal cut-off values and quartile values, significant differences were found in different pretreatment albumin, neutrophil levels and ANPG from the K-M curve (all p<0.05. Univariate analyses and multivariate analyses disclosed ANPG was a more sensitive independent predictor for both overall survival (OS and progression free survival (PFS than either albumin level or neutrophil level (HRs were higher for ANPG. As for clinical reference values, no significant difference of pretreatment albumin levels was found in K-M curve and univariate analyses. All three indexes lost their significance in multivariate analyses.Higher ANPG predicts worse OS and PFS in NSCLC patients independently, and it is more sensitive than hypoalbuminaemia and neutrophilia. It might be used as a reliable, convenient and more sensitive predictor to assist the identification of patients with poor prognosis and be a hierarchical factor in the future NSCLC clinical trials.

  9. Ride On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Public Transportation for Grades 9 through 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the public transportation topic for grades 9-12. It contains forty-nine learning activities grouped…

  10. C9/12 Ribbon-Like Structures in Hybrid Peptides Alternating α- and Thiazole-Based γ-Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnel, Clément; Legrand, Baptiste; Simon, Matthieu; Martinez, Jean; Bantignies, Jean-Louis; Kang, Young Kee; Wenger, Emmanuel; Hoh, Francois; Masurier, Nicolas; Maillard, Ludovic T

    2017-12-11

    According to their restricted conformational freedom, heterocyclic γ-amino acids are usually considered to be related to Z-vinylogous γ-amino acids. In this context, oligomers alternating α-amino acids and thiazole-based γ-amino acids (ATCs) were expected to fold into a canonical 12-helical shape as described for α/γ-hybrid peptides composed of cis-α/β-unsaturated γ-amino acids. However, through a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, FTIR experiments, and DFT calculations, it was determined that the folding behavior of ATC-containing hybrid peptides is much more complex. The homochiral α/(S)-ATC sequences were unable to adopt a stable conformation, whereas the heterochiral α/(R)-ATC peptides displayed novel ribbon structures stabilized by unusual C 9/12 -bifurcated hydrogen bonds. These ribbon structures could be considered as a succession of pre-organized γ/α dipeptides and may provide the basis for designing original α-helix mimics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Load-related brain activation predicts spatial working memory performance in youth aged 9-12 and is associated with executive function at earlier ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anna S; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9-12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Attention problems, inhibitory control, and intelligence index overlapping genetic factors: a study in 9-, 12-, and 18-year-old twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; de Geus, Eco J C; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Bartels, Meike; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Verhulst, Frank C; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-05-01

    It is assumed that attention problems (AP) are related to impaired executive functioning. We investigated the association between AP and inhibitory control and tested to what extent the association was due to genetic factors shared with IQ. Data were available from 3 independent samples of 9-, 12-, and 18-year-old twins and their siblings (1,209 participants). AP were assessed with checklists completed by multiple informants. Inhibitory control was measured with the Stroop Color Word Task (Stroop, 1935), and IQ with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Wechsler et al., 2002) or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1997). AP and inhibitory control were only correlated in the 12-year-old cohort (r = .18), but appeared non-significant after controlling for IQ. Significant correlations existed between AP and IQ in 9- and 12-year olds (r = -.26/-.34). Inhibitory control and IQ were correlated in all cohorts (r = -.16, -.24 and -.35, respectively). Genetic factors that influenced IQ also influenced inhibitory control. We conclude that the association between AP and inhibitory control as reported in the literature may largely derive from genetic factors that are shared with IQ.

  13. Creep strength and microstructural evolution of 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels during creep exposure at 600 C and 650 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Martin, Francisca [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. for Materials Science and Welding; Panait, Clara Gabriela [MINES ParisTech, UMR CNRS, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux; V et M France CEV, Aulnoye-Aymeries (France); Bendick, Walter [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH (SZMF), Duisburg (DE)] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    9-12% Cr heat resistant steels are used for applications at high temperatures and pressures in steam power plants. 12% Cr steels show higher creep strength and higher corrosion resistance compared to 9% Cr steels for short term creep exposure. However, the higher creep strength of 12 %Cr steels drops increasingly after 10,000-20,000 h of creep. This is probably due to a microstructural instability such as the precipitation of new phases (e.g. Laves phases and Z-phases), the growth of the precipitates and the recovery of the matrix. 9% Cr and 12% Cr tempered martensitic steels that have been creep tested for times up to 50,000 h at 600 C and 650 C were investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) on extractive replicas and thin foils together with Backscatter Scanning Electron Microscopy (BSE-SEM) to better understand the different creep behaviour of the two different steels. A significant precipitation of Laves phase and low amounts of Z-phase was observed in the 9% Cr steels after long-term creep exposure. The size distribution of Laves phases was measured by image analysis of SEM-BSE images. In the 12% Cr steel two new phases were identified, Laves phase and Z-phase after almost 30,000 h of creep test. The quantification of the different precipitated phases was studied. (orig.)

  14. High grade glioma: Imaging combined with pathological grade defines management and predicts prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, Neil G.; Lynch, Andrew G.; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Price, Stephen J.; Jones, Phil H.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Xuereb, John H.; Pohl, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is ambiguity in pathological grading of high grade gliomas within the WHO 2000 classification, especially those with predominant oligodendroglial differentiation. Patients and methods: All adult high grade gliomas treated radically, 1996-2005, were assessed. Cases in which pathology was grade III but radiology suggested glioblastoma (GBM) were classified as 'grade III/IV'; their pathology was reviewed. Results: Data from 245 patients (52 grade III, 18 grade III/IV, 175 GBM) were analysed using a Cox Proportional Hazards model. On pathology review, features suggestive of more aggressive behaviour were found in all 18 grade III/IV tumours. Oligodendroglial components with both necrosis and microvascular proliferation were present in 7. MIB-1 counts for the last 8 were all above 14%, mean 27%. Median survivals were: grade III 34 months, grade III/IV 10 months, GBM 11 months. Survival was not significantly different between grade III/IV and GBM. Patients with grade III/IV tumours had significantly worse outcome than grade III, with a hazard of death 3.7 times higher. Conclusions: The results highlight the current inconsistency in pathological grading of high grade tumours, especially those with oligodendroglial elements. Patients with histological grade III tumours but radiological appearances suggestive of GBM should be managed as glioblastoma

  15. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--United States and Selected Sites, 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 65, Number 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; McManus, Tim; Harris, William A.; Shanklin, Shari L.; Flint, Katherine H.; Queen, Barbara; Lowry, Richard; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Thornton, Jemekia; Lim, Connie; Yamakawa, Yoshimi; Brener, Nancy; Zaza, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Problem: Sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts can both be used to identify sexual minority youth. Significant health disparities exist between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. However, not enough is known about health-related behaviors that contribute to negative health outcomes among sexual minority youth and how the prevalence…

  16. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

    2011-01-01

    Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

  17. Perda precoce de molares permanentes e fatores associados em escolares de 9, 12 e 15 anos da rede pública municipal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Early loss of permanent molars and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francineide Guimarães Carneiro de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a perda precoce de molares permanentes em escolares da rede pública de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, com idades de nove, 12 e 15 anos. A amostra compreendeu 873 escolares, aleatoriamente selecionados. O instrumento de coleta consistiu de um questionário e de uma ficha clínica. As variáveis do estudo compreenderam os aspectos relativos à perda dentária (tipo de elemento dental, localização na arcada dentária e a região do arco, à prevenção e à autopercepção em saúde bucal. A análise estatística compreendeu a distribuição de frequências e os testes do Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Os resultados revelaram a prevalência de 17,2% de perda dentária, sem diferenças entre os sexos, frequência de escovação e palestra educativa (p > 0,05. Os elementos dentários 36 (42,5% e 46 (33,9% foram os mais frequentemente perdidos. Observou-se a associação positiva entre perda dentária e as variáveis idade, visita ao cirurgião-dentista (OR = 2,19; IC95%: 1,35-3,59, satisfação com o sorriso (OR = 0,40; IC95%: 0,24-0,65 e a dificuldade na mastigação (OR = 2,16; IC95%: 1,48- 3,16. Conclui-se que a prevalência da perda precoce de molares permanentes foi elevada, sendo necessária a imediata adoção de ações curativas a fim de reduzir a perda precoce desses elementos dentários.This study evaluate the early loss of permanent molars in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. The sample was composed of 873 randomly selected schoolchildren. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire and a clinical chart. The following variables were analyzed: tooth loss (tooth type, localization in the dental arch and region of the arch, prevention and selfperception of oral health. The statistical analysis was done by frequency distribution and the chisquare and fisher’s exact tests were used. The results showed a prevalence of

  18. GRADE guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyatt, Gordon H; Oxman, Andrew D; Santesso, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    such choice is presenting evidence from low-quality randomized trials or high-quality observational studies. When in doubt, a reasonable approach is to present both sets of evidence; if the two bodies of evidence have similar quality but discrepant results, one would rate down further for inconsistency...

  19. GRADE guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyatt, Gordon H; Thorlund, Kristian; Oxman, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Presenting continuous outcomes in Summary of Findings tables presents particular challenges to interpretation. When each study uses the same outcome measure, and the units of that measure are intuitively interpretable (e.g., duration of hospitalization, duration of symptoms), presenting differences...... and absolute effects, presenting the ratio of the means of intervention and control groups, and presenting the results in minimally important difference units. We outline the merits and limitations of each alternative and provide guidance for meta-analysts and guideline developers....

  20. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  1. Determination of processing-induced stresses and properties of layered and graded coatings: Experimental method and results for plasma-sprayed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, O.; Finot, M.; Suresh, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Sampath, S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-08-01

    An experimental method is proposed which enables the determination of processing-induced intrinsic stresses, elastic modulus, and coefficients of thermal expansion of surface coatings of homogeneous and graded compositions. In this method, a number of identical substrate specimens are coated simultaneously with surface layers of fixed or graded compositions, and specimens with different layer thicknesses are periodically removed from the deposition chamber. It is shown that the following results can be obtained from a knowledge of the strain or curvature and thermal history of the coated specimens, in conjunction with simple four-point bend tests and thermal loading/cycling at different temperatures: (i) the magnitude of the processing-induced intrinsic stresses through the thickness of the coating, (ii) the in-plane Young`s modulus, E, as a function of the coating thickness, (iii) the coefficient of thermal expansion, {alpha}, as a function of the coating thickness, (iv) the variation of E and {alpha} as a function of temperature at any thickness location within the coating, and (v) the separation of internal stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatch between different constituent phases or layers from those arising from the deposition process (so-called intrinsic or quench stresses). The thermomechanical analyses underlying this method are discussed in detail, and its significance and limitations are addressed. The proposed method is used to determine the evolution of processing-induced stresses during the successive build-up of plasma-sprayed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings of homogeneous and graded compositions.

  2. [The tinnitus questionnaire. A standard instrument for grading the degree of tinnitus. Results of a multicenter study with the tinnitus questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, G; Hiller, W

    1994-03-01

    The clinical examination of patients with severe and chronic tinnitus must include associated psychological disturbances. The present paper describes traditional diagnostic methods of ENT practice as well as the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) which has been evaluated in a number of studies. This instrument differentiates between emotional and cognitive distress, auditory perceptual difficulties and self-experienced intrusiveness produced by the tinnitus. The results of a German multicenter study are presented which show that the TQ can be used to demonstrate differences of tinnitus distress under different clinical conditions (e.g., ENT clinic vs psychosomatic clinic and in- vs out-patient care). The TQ can be employed for comparative studies in different tinnitus-related institutions and for the evaluation of the relative effects of different treatment approaches.

  3. Quality assurance grading criteria for plant systems and components: Results from a pilot plant project at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    As part of the original design of a nuclear power plant, the NSSS vendor, architect/engineer and utility identified structures, systems and components (SSCs) as safety related and assigned them to a Q-list. A Q-list is usually very large, e.g. 75,000 components, which creates large ongoing annual operating costs for the utility. Operating experience and the greater knowledge of plant systems safety accumulated during the past 20 years have suggested that many components are not truly important to safety and do not warrant the Q-classification and the associated costs. The completion of Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSAs) for many nuclear power plants has contributed to this greater knowledge. This report describes a practical application of PSA technology to modify the existing QA program at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Section 1 introduces the term, QA Safety Significant (QASS), and relates it to the existing term, ''safety related''. Section 2 describes six deterministic criteria as a basis for classifying systems as QASS or non-QASS. An expert panel reviewed 421 systems at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and identified 42 of them as QASS. All components in non-QASS systems are classified as non-QASS. For QASS systems, Section 3 describes five deterministic criteria for classifying components as QASS or non-QASS. By using these two sets of criteria, the expert panel found that the number of components requiring full QA compliance could be reduced by 24%. These results are summarized in Section 4

  4. Reliability of ultrasound grading traditional score and new global OMERACT-EULAR score system (GLOESS): results from an inter- and intra-reading exercise by rheumatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Ferrusquia-Toríz, Diana; Cruz-Arenas, Esteban; Rodríguez-Henríquez, Pedro; Alvarez Del Castillo, Ana Laura; Campaña-Parra, Alfredo; Canul, Efrén; Guerrero Yeo, Gerardo; Mendoza-Ruiz, Juan Jorge; Pérez Cristóbal, Mario; Sicsik, Sandra; Silva Luna, Karina

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to test the reliability of ultrasound to graduate synovitis in static and video images, evaluating separately grayscale and power Doppler (PD), and combined. Thirteen trained rheumatologist ultrasonographers participated in two separate rounds reading 42 images, 15 static and 27 videos, of the 7-joint count [wrist, 2nd and 3rd metacarpophalangeal (MCP), 2nd and 3rd interphalangeal (IPP), 2nd and 5th metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints]. The images were from six patients with rheumatoid arthritis, performed by one ultrasonographer. Synovitis definition was according to OMERACT. Scoring system in grayscale, PD separately, and combined (GLOESS-Global OMERACT-EULAR Score System) were reviewed before exercise. Reliability intra- and inter-reading was calculated with Cohen's kappa weighted, according to Landis and Koch. Kappa values for inter-reading were good to excellent. The minor kappa was for GLOESS in static images, and the highest was for the same scoring in videos (k 0.59 and 0.85, respectively). Excellent values were obtained for static PD in 5th MTP joint and for PD video in 2nd MTP joint. Results for GLOESS in general were good to moderate. Poor agreement was observed in 3rd MCP and 3rd IPP in all kinds of images. Intra-reading agreement were greater in grayscale and GLOESS in static images than in videos (k 0.86 vs. 0.77 and k 0.86 vs. 0.71, respectively), but PD was greater in videos than in static images (k 1.0 vs. 0.79). The reliability of the synovitis scoring through static images and videos is in general good to moderate when using grayscale and PD separately or combined.

  5. FY 1995 result report. Research/development on the creation of high-grade combustion technology using a microgravity environment; 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita kodo nensho gijutsu soshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report summarized the results of the research survey carried out by Japan Space Utilization Promotion Center (JSUP) under the contract with NEDO's industrial technology research and development department. This research survey is aimed at creating high-grade combustion technology which can respond to the decrease in environmental pollutant in combustion exhaust gas from viewpoints of energy diversification and global environmental preservation in consideration of the stabilized energy supply. Established inside JSUP is a research/development committee on high-grade combustion technology which is organized by men of learning and experience from universities, national institutes, private companies, etc. Following FY 1994, the following were continuously conducted: (1) joint research with NASA as an international research cooperation; (2) test using microgravity test facilities and analysis/evaluation of the test data. The experiment was conducted using facilities, etc. of the underground gravity-free test center established as a part of the national research base arrangement project. A lot of experimental data were obtained and stored which are useful for elucidation of the combustion mechanism and the development of ground combustor. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1996 result report. Research/development on the creation of high-grade combustion technology using a microgravity environment; 1996 nendo seika hokokusho. Bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita kodo nensho gijutsu soshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    With the aim of creating high-grade combustion technology which can respond to the decrease in environmental pollutant in combustion exhaust gas, the high-grade combustion technology research development committee was established inside JSUP (Japan Space Utilization Promotion Center), using the underground gravity-free test center. Following FY 1995, the following were conducted: (1) international joint research with NASA, and (2) tests using microgravity test facilities, etc. and analysis/evaluation of the test data. As to the international joint research, a lot of new information was obtained through the adjustment conference with NASA. Further, there were a lot of results obtained from joint tests and researches. Moreover, the leading experimental device and measuring device which are usable in the microgravity field were developed/prepared. Conducted were combustion/evaporation evaluation experiments on fuel droplet and groups of droplet, combustion characteristics elucidation evaluation experiments on high-density fuels, evaluation experiment on flammability limits, and elucidation evaluation experiments on emission mechanism of NOx, etc. Through those, abundant experimental data were able to be accumulated, and a lot of precious knowledge/information were obtained. Besides, the fabrication of high-class combustor test equipment for ground demonstration was started. (NEDO)

  7. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  8. A Quantitative Study on the Correlation between Grade Span Configuration of Sixth Grade Students in Private Florida Schools and Academic Achievement on Standardized Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantin, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The applied dissertation was designed to investigate the three models of grade span configurations of sixth grade and the effects grade span configuration has on results of the standardized achievement scores of sixth grade students in private, Florida schools. Studies that have been conducted on sixth grade students and grade span configuration…

  9. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  10. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  11. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  12. Age-Related Grade Inflation Expectancies in a University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Loffredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation is a recognized problem in higher education in the United States. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in discrepancies between student reports of their expected grade in each course and their expectations for general university grading practices were explored in a survey of 166 (mostly female participants at a small upper-division university. Results revealed that while a small minority of students agreed that grading systems in college should only include A or B grades, a large majority of students expected A or B grades. Thus, student discrepancies between their expectations for grading systems and their expected class grades were in line with expectations that they should receive inflated grades. Results also revealed statistically significant age differences in grade expectation with students older than the age of 55 expecting lower grades relative to their younger counterparts.

  13. Cracks in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, H.-A.; Balke, H.; Fett, T.; Hofinger, I.; Kirchhoff, G.; Munz, D.; Neubrand, A.; Semenov, A.S.; Weiss, H.-J.; Yang, Y.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found to develop in several distinct stages: vertical cracking→delamination→blistering→spalling. This sequence can be understood as an effect of progressive shrinkage due to sintering and high-temperature creep during thermal cycling, which increases the energy-release rate for vertical cracks which subsequently turn into delamination cracks. The results of finite element modeling, taking into account the TBC damage mechanisms, are compatible with experimental data. An increase of interface fracture toughness due to grading and a decrease due to ageing have been measured in a four-point bending test modified by a stiffening layer. Correlation with the damage observed in cyclic heating is discussed. It is explained in which way grading is able to reduce the damage

  14. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  15. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  16. Grading as a Sadomasochistic Activity or an Erotic Benevolent Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjarks, Larry D.

    Numerous research studies have been conducted concerning the negative aspects of grading: the low correlations between academic success (high grades) and later vocational or professional success, possible sadomasochistic motives of teachers in awarding grades, and grade assignment resulting from the teacher's sense of duty or responsibility to…

  17. Applying cheerful disco learning for improving of motivation and learning result of PKn in grade viii c students junior high school 1 Kebumen in second semester 2013/2014 academic years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Makmuroh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this classroom action research is to improve students’ learning motivation, learning result of PKn on Basic Competence of Describing Indonesian Government System and the Roles of the State Institutions as the Sovereignty Executive and the characters of Grade VIII C Students of Junior High School 1 of Kebumen in Second Semester of Academic Year 2013/2014 by applying CHEERFUL DISCO learning method. The research is a classroom action research conducted in two cycles; each cycle of which includes planning, conducting, observation, and reflection. The result of the research shows that the learning method was able to improve the students’ learning motivation in learning activities from 62.37% in pre cycle to 73.74% in the first cycle, then from 78.91% in the second cycle, improved the PKn learning achievement in mastering concept of the ability to describe Indonesian Government System and the Roles of the State Institutions as the Sovereignty Executive, which can be seen that the students’ achievement test result is improving in average from 78.18 with 54.55% of mastery learning in pre cycle to 83.23 with 72.73% of mastery learning in the first cycle, then it was improved to 86.59 in average with 81.82% of mastery learning in the second cycle.

  18. Phase II trial of carmustine, cisplatin, and oral etoposide chemotherapy before radiotherapy for grade 3 astrocytoma (anaplastic astrocytoma): Results of North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial 98-72-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ravi D.; Krishnan, Sunil; Fitch, Tom R.; Schomberg, Paula J.; Dinapoli, Robert P.; Nordstrom, Kathleen; Scheithauer, Bernd; O'Fallon, Judith R.; Maurer, Matthew J. M.S.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of preradiotherapy (RT) chemotherapy with carmustine, cisplatin, and oral etoposide combined with RT in the treatment of newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma. Methods and materials: Therapy consisted of carmustine (40 mg/m 2 /d) on Days 1-3, oral etoposide (50 mg/d) on Days 1-21 and 29-49, and cisplatin (20 mg/m 2 /d i.v.) on Days 1-3 and 29-31. The regimen was repeated every 8 weeks for three cycles, with conventionally fractionated RT (5000 cGy with a 1000-cGy boost) delivered concurrently with the third cycle. Results: A total of 29 patients were enrolled between December 1999 and March 2001. For varying reasons (e.g., progression, refusal, death, or toxicity), only 48% completed the chemotherapy regimen and 76% completed RT. Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 14 patients (48%). The primary study endpoint was the 23-month (700-day) survival, the median survival of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma in a previous North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial. To be considered an active treatment, a maximum of 9 patient deaths (of the first 25) were allowed before 700 days. However, 14 patients had died by 700 days after therapy. Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated that pre-RT chemotherapy with this regimen is insufficiently active in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma

  19. Effect of green tea catechins in patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: Results of a short-term double-blind placebo controlled phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Micali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and study objective: Several studies suggest a protective role of green tea catechins against prostate cancer (PCa. In order to evaluate the efficacy of green tea catechins for chemoprevention of PCa in patients with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN we performed a phase II clinical trial. Methods: Sixty volunteers with HG-PIN were enrolled to carry out a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial. Treated group took daily 600 mg of green tea catechins (Categ Plus® for 1 year. Patients were screened at 6 and 12 months through prostatic biopsy and measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA. Results: Despite the statistically significant reduction of PSA observed in subjects who received green tea catechins for 6 and 12 months, we did not find any statistical difference in PCa incidence between the experimental groups neither after 6 nor after 12 months. However, throughout the one-year follow- up we observed very limited adverse effects induced by green tea catechins and a not significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions: Although the small number of patients enrolled in our study and the relatively short duration of intervention, our findings seems to deny the efficacy of green tea catechins. However, results of our clinical study, mainly for its low statistical strength, suggest that the effectiveness of green tea catechins should be evaluated in both a larger cohort of men and longer trial.

  20. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  1. Diels-Alder Reactions of 12-Hydroxy-9(10®20-5aH-abeo-abieta-1(10,8(9,12(13-triene-11,14-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shougang Hu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 12-Hydroxy-9(10®20-5aH-abeo-abieta-1(10,8(9,12(13-triene-11,14-dione (quinone 2 served as the dienophile in numerous intermolecular Diels-Alder reactions. These cycloadditions were conducted either thermally (including microwave heating or with Lewis acid activation. While most dienes reacted with quinone 2 in good chemical yield, others were incompatible under the experimental conditions used.

  2. [Reproducibility of Fuhrman nuclear grade: advantages of a two-grade system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneux, Hervé; Lindner, Véronique; Lang, Hervé; Massfelder, Thierry; Meyer, Nicolas; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2006-06-01

    The Fuhrman nuclear grade is the reference histoprognostic grading system routinely used all over the world for renal cell carcinoma. Studies measuring the inter-observer and intra-observer concordance of Fuhrman grade show poor results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. These variations are due to a certain degree of subjectivity of the pathologist in application of the definition of tumour grade, particularly nuclear grade. Elements able to account for this subjectivity in renal cell carcinoma are identified from a review of the literature. To improve the reliability of nuclear grade, the territory occupied by the highest grade must be specified and the grades should probably be combined. At the present time, regrouping of grade 1 and 2 tumours as low grade and grade 3 and 4 tumours as high grade would achieve better reproducibility, while preserving the prognostic: value for overall survival. The development of new treatment modalities and their use in adjuvant situations will imply the use of reliable histoprognostic factors to specify, indications.

  3. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  4. Analysis of Spinopelvic Parameters with L5 as the New Sacrum after Fusion in High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: A Possible Explanation for Satisfactory Results with In-Situ Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Das, Gurudip; Aiyer, Siddharth Narasimhan; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2018-02-01

    Retrospective case series. To correlate functional outcomes with spinopelvic parameters in patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS) treated with instrumented in-situ surgery or reduction and fusion. Satisfactory functional outcomes are reported with reduction and in-situ fusion strategies in HGS. However, reasons for this are unclear. We hypothesize that following lumbosacral fusion, the L5 becomes part of the sacrum, which improves spinopelvic parameters, resulting in equivalent functional outcomes in both surgical methods. Twenty-six patients undergoing HGS (reduction group A, 13; in-situ group B, 13) were clinically evaluated using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), short form-12 (SF-12), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores. Spinopelvic parameters, including pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), lumbosacral kyphosis (LSK) angle, and sacrofemoral distance (SFD) were measured preoperatively from S1 and postoperatively from L5 as the new sacrum at 1 year follow-up. Sagittal alignment was assessed using the sagittal vertical axis. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, severity of slip, and preoperative spinopelvic parameters ( p >0.05). Postoperative VAS, SF-12, and ODI scores significantly improved in both groups ( p 0.05). After fusion, the L5 becomes the new sacrum and influences spinopelvic parameters to change favorably. This possibly explains why reduction and in-situ fusion achieve equivalent functional outcomes in HGS.

  5. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  6. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  7. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  8. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  9. United States - Japan Workshop on Dielectric and Piezoelectric Ceramics (3rd) Held in Toyama, Japan on November 9-12, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-30

    hydrothermal synthesis method, the oxalate method and the calcination -, method, and among various additives for low firing temperature. As a result. it was...were used as samples: 1) Powder produced by the hydrothermal synthesis method 2) Commercially available powder produced by the oxalate method 3) Powder...4Hii prepared by, coprecipitation in a mixed solution of TIC!- BaCI., and oxalic acid was -alcined at 800 C for I Hr in air. Caicinei BaTilO

  10. Matriculation Research Report: Incomplete Grades; Data & Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joe

    The policy on incomplete grades at California's College of the Canyons states that incompletes may only be given under circumstances beyond students' control and that students must make arrangements with faculty prior to the end of the semester to clear the incomplete. Failure to complete an incomplete may result in an "F" grade. While…

  11. Consumer Preference for Graded Maple Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Sendak

    1978-01-01

    The three grades of maple syrup and a commercial table syrup containing artificial flavor and 3 percent pure maple syrup were evaluated by 1,018 women in four cities. The results indicate that differences in preference for flavor are related to how close the respondents are to a maple syrup-production region. Differences in preference among grades of pure maple syrup...

  12. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  13. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  14. 20th and 21st Annual seminar on theoretical physics, Potchefstroom, 9-12 Jul 1985, Johannesburg, 8-11 Jul 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A return of only three manuscripts from fourteen contributions to the Theoretical Seminar held in Potchefstroom did not warrant the normal publication of our proceedings in 1985. Mainly as a result of the very fine response received this year (1986) we are in a position to publish once again our proceedings. The three papers delivered on the 1985 Theoretical Physics Seminar include themes such as determinant and classical polynomials, the Wigner function formalism in quantum theory and eigenvalues. Seminars delivered on the 1986 Seminar include information on nuclear structures, quarks and quantum mechanics, field theory, invariance principles and symmetries, radioactive decay, nuclear moments, spin, and nuclear models. Thirteen papers that were delivered on the 1986 Theoretical Physics Seminar are published in this volume

  15. Irradiation performance of 9--12 Cr ferritic/martensitic stainless steels and their potential for in-core application in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Gelles, D.S.

    1993-08-01

    Ferritic-martensitic stainless steels exhibit radiation stability and stress corrosion resistance that make them attractive replacement materials for austenitic stainless steels for in-core applications. Recent radiation studies have demonstrated that 9% Cr ferritic/martensitic stainless steel had less than a 30C shift in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) following irradiation at 365C to a dose of 14 dpa. These steels also exhibit very low swelling rates, a result of the microstructural stability of these alloys during radiation. The 9 to 12% Cr alloys to also exhibit excellent corrosion and stress corrosion resistance in out-of-core applications. Demonstration of the applicability of ferritic/martensitic stainless steels for in-core LWR application will require verification of the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking behavior, measurement of DBTT following irradiation at 288C, and corrosion rates measurements for in-core water chemistry

  16. Selected papers from the 23rd MicroMechanics and Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2012) (Ilmenau, Germany, September 9-12, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin

    2013-07-01

    In September 2012, the 23rd MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME) took place in Ilmenau, Germany. With about 120 participants from 20 countries and 76 accepted presentations, the workshop series turned out to be a successful platform for young scientists to present their work to our scientific community. Traditionally, the interaction is an important aspect of this workshop: while short presentations introduce the posters, an extended poster session allows intensive discussion which is quite useful to the participants. The discussion very often extends into the breaks and the evening events. It is also encouraging for them that the best presentations are selected and invited to submit a full paper to this journal. Thanks to the support of IOP Publishing, this next logical step to present work to the scientific world is made possible. In this issue, you can find the best papers that have been selected by a committee during the workshop taking the written workshop contribution, the poster and the presentation into account. Again, all areas of micromechanics from new technology developments up to systems integration were presented at the workshop at different levels of completion. The selected papers present those results which are almost complete. Nevertheless, it is nice to see that in some cases topics grow over the years from 'nice ideas' to realized system concepts. And although this is the 23rd workshop, it is clear that micromechanics is a topic that is not running short of new ideas. First, I would like to thank the authors of the selected papers for each of their individual excellent contributions. My gratitude also goes to my fellow members in the programme committee (Per Ohlckers, Martin Hill and Sami Franssila) for their cooperation in the selection of invited speakers and submitted papers, as well as the anonymous Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM) reviewers for their careful selection of the final papers presented here. Last, but not

  17. Changes In Properties and Microstructure of High-Chromium 9-12%Cr Steels Due to Long-Term Exposure at Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieliński A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the performance of P91 (X10CrMoVNb9-1, P92 (X10CrWMoVNb9-2 and VM12 (X12CrCoWVNb12-2-2 steels used for condition assessment of the pressure components of boilers with supercritical steam parameters. Studies on the mechanical properties, microstructure tests using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray analysis of the phase composition of precipitates were performed for selected steels in the as-received condition and after long-term annealing. These steel characteristics are used for the evaluation of the microstructural changes and mechanical properties of the material of components after long-term service. The result of this study is the database of material characteristics representing the mechanical properties related to the microstructure analysis and it can be used for diagnosis of the components of pressure parts of power boilers.

  18. Utility of early dynamic and delayed post-diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax in predicting tumour grade and T-stage of urinary bladder carcinoma: results from a prospective single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Mete, Uttam K; Sood, Ashwani; Kakkar, Nandita; Gorla, Arun K R; Mittal, Bhagwant R

    2017-04-01

    Accurate pre-treatment grading and staging of bladder cancer are vital for better therapeutic decision and prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) calculated during early dynamic and post-diuretic fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT studies with grade and pT-stage of bladder cancer. 39 patients with suspected/proven bladder carcinoma underwent 10-min early dynamic pelvic imaging and delayed post-diuretic whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging. SUV max of the lesions derived from both studies was compared with grade and pT-stage. Relationship of SUV max with grade and pT-stage was analyzed using independent sample t-test and analysis of variance. SUV max of the early dynamic imaging showing tumour perfusion was independent from the SUV max of delayed imaging. High-grade tumours showed higher SUV max than low-grade tumours in the early dynamic imaging (5.4 ± 1.4 vs 4.7 ± 1.6; p-value 0.144) with statistically significant higher value in Stage pT1 tumours (6.8 ± 0.8 vs 5.5 ± 1.2; p-value 0.04). Non-invasive pTa tumours had significantly less SUV max than higher stage tumours during early dynamic imaging [F(4,29) = 6.860, p 0.001]. Early dynamic imaging may have a role in predicting the grade and aggressiveness of the bladder tumours and thus can help in treatment planning and prognostication. Advances in knowledge: Dynamic PET/CT is a limitedly explored imaging technique. This prospective pilot study demonstrates the utility of this modality as a potential adjunct to standard FDG PET/CT imaging in predicting the grade and aggressiveness of the bladder tumours and thus can impact the patient management.

  19. High-grade bursal-side partial rotator cuff tears: comparison of mid- and long-term results following arthroscopic repair after conversion to a full-thickness tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Nuri; Karaismailoglu, Bedri

    2017-07-21

    Partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) are one of the leading causes of shoulder dysfunction. Successful results have been reported with different treatment techniques, but the long-term consequences of these procedures are not yet clearly known. The purposes of this study were to evaluate and compare the mid- and long-term clinical outcomes of arthroscopically repaired bursal-side PTRCTs after conversion to full-thickness tears and identify the possible effects of age, gender, and hand dominance on clinical outcomes. Twenty-nine patients who had undergone arthroscopic repair of a significant bursal-side PTRCT were functionally evaluated. The repair was made after conversion to a full-thickness tear. The average patient age was 55.2 years (range 35-69 years, SD ±7.6 years). Clinical outcomes were evaluated at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Constant Shoulder Score (CSS) and Visual Analogue Scale for Pain (VAS pain) were used as outcome measures. The average CSS improved from 38.9 preoperatively to 89.2 and 87.8 at 2 and 5 years after surgery, respectively (p functional outcomes and VAS pain scores at 2 and 5 years after surgery compared with the preoperative period. The patients who underwent surgery from their non-dominant extremity showed a significantly higher CSS increase relative to those who underwent surgery on the dominant extremity (p = 0.022). Arthroscopic repair of high-grade bursal-side PTRCTs after conversion to full-thickness tears is a reliable surgical technique with good functional outcomes and pain relief both at mid- and long-term follow-ups. Surgery on the non-dominant side may be related to better functional outcomes.

  20. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  1. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  2. Processing hot-dip galvanized AHSS grades: a challenging task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, A.; Hebesberger, T.; Tragl, E.; Traint, S.; Faderl, J.; Angeli, G.; Koesters, K. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    High-strength thin sheet steel grades have gained a considerable market share. At present a very strong demand has been observed for DP (dual-phase), CP (complex phase) and TRIP grades, which are often summarized as advanced high-strength steel grades (AHSS). The potential benefits of applying AHSS grades were impressively demonstrated in the ULSAC-AVC project, in which a remarkable reduction in mass and an increase in stiffness and crash safety were achieved by using a very high share of AHSS steel grades. The present contribution concentrates on hot-dip galvanized AHSS thin sheet grades. The hot-dip galvanizeability of such grades is critically discussed after an overview is provided of the metallurgy of AHSS grades, including microstructure, mechanical properties, phase transformations and required alloy design. Based on these fundamentals, the processing of AHSS grades in the hot-dip galvanizing line is discussed and the resulting properties presented. (orig.)

  3. Gradings on simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Elduque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

  4. Extensive Graded Reading in the Liberal Arts and Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulshock, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    For this research, learners did extensive graded reading (EGR) with traditional graded readers, and they also interacted with short graded stories in the liberal arts and sciences (LAS). This study describes the purpose and format of the LAS stories used by hundreds of university students and adult learners in Japan. It summarizes the results of…

  5. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  6. Determination of sieve grading curves using an optical device

    OpenAIRE

    PHAM, AM; DESCANTES, Yannick; DE LARRARD, François

    2011-01-01

    The grading curve of an aggregate is a fundamental characteristic for mix design that can easily be modified to adjust several mix properties. While sieve analysis remains the reference method to determine this curve, optical devices are developing, allowing easier and faster assessment of aggregate grading. Unfortunately, optical grading results significantly differ from sieve grading curves. As a consequence, getting full acceptance of these new methods requires building bridges between the...

  7. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  8. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: lj94172350@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: ejhwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  9. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  10. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  11. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  12. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  13. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  14. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  15. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  16. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  17. Tumor grade-related thallium-201 uptake in chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.C.; Demir, Y.; Ozkal, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma, especially discrimination between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma, may be difficult pathologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma and to investigate whether there was a correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade. We retrospectively evaluated 121 patients with pathologically proven bone and soft tissue tumors diagnosed between the years 1999 and 2007. All patients were followed by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Working Group in our hospital. Twenty-three patients, mean age 44±15 (range 17-72) years, with a diagnosis of cartilaginous tumors were included. Increased Tl-201 uptake at the lesion sites greater than background was evaluated as malignant tumor. For the pathologic classification, a grading system (grade 1-3) based on the histopathologic findings was used. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there was any correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. There were 7 enchondromas and 16 chondrosarcomas. Four of 16 patients with chondrosarcoma had lesions pathologically classified as grade 3, 5 as grade 2, and 7 had grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Increased Tl-201 uptake was observed in all patients with grade 3 chondrosarcoma and 2 patients with grade 2 chondrosarcoma. Of 10 patients with chondrosarcoma, 3 grade 2 chondrosarcomas and 7 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, there was no Tl-201 uptake in the tumor region. A significant correlation was found between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma (p=0.002, r=0.71). Only a few reports in literature have demonstrated false negative results in low-grade chondrosarcoma. Tl-201 uptake was related to tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. If there is a possibility of chondrosarcoma, Tl-201 scintigraphy should be reported with caution. (author)

  18. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children (N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks – one narrative and two expository prompts. Children’s written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:25642118

  19. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  20. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  1. HABIT-an early phase study to explore an oral health intervention delivered by health visitors to parents with young children aged 9-12 months: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskyte, Ieva; Gray-Burrows, Kara; Owen, Jenny; Sykes-Muskett, Bianca; Zoltie, Tim; Gill, Susanne; Smith, Victoria; McEachan, Rosemary; Marshman, Zoe; West, Robert; Pavitt, Sue; Day, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Parental supervised brushing (PSB) when initiated in infancy can lead to long-term protective home-based oral health habits thereby reducing the risk of dental caries. However, PSB is a complex behaviour with many barriers reported by parents hindering its effective implementation. Within the UK, oral health advice is delivered universally to parents by health visitors and their wider teams when children are aged between 9 and 12 months. Nevertheless, there is no standardised intervention or training upon which health visitors can base this advice, and they often lack the specialised knowledge needed to help parents overcome barriers to performing PSB and limiting sugary foods and drinks.Working with health visitors and parents of children aged 9-24 months, we have co-designed oral health training and resources (Health Visitors delivering Advice in Britain on Infant Toothbrushing (HABIT) intervention) to be used by health visitors and their wider teams when providing parents of children aged 9-12 months with oral health advice.The aim of the study is to explore the acceptability of the HABIT intervention to parents and health visitors, to examine the mechanism of action and develop suitable objective measures of PSB. Six health visitors working in a deprived city in the UK will be provided with training on how to use the HABIT intervention. Health visitors will then each deliver the intervention to five parents of children aged 9-12 months. The research team will collect measures of PSB and dietary behaviours before and at 2 weeks and 3 months after the HABIT intervention. Acceptability of the HABIT intervention to health visitors will be explored through semi-structured diaries completed after each visit and a focus group discussion after delivery to all parents. Acceptability of the HABIT intervention and mechanism of action will be explored briefly during each home visit with parents and in greater details in 20-25 qualitative interviews after the

  2. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  3. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  4. Fatigue Characterization of Functionally Graded Metallic Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    Functionally graded components exhibit spatial variations of mechanical properties in contrast with, and as an alternative to, purely homogeneous components. A large class of graded materials, however, are in fact mostly homogeneous materials with property variations (chemical or mechanical) restricted to a specific area or layer produced by applying for example a coating or by introducing sub-surface residual stresses. However, it is also possible to obtain graded materials with a smooth transition of mechanical properties along the entire component, for example in a 40 mm component. This is possible, for example, by using centrifugal casting technique or incremental melting and solidification technique. In this paper we will study fully metallic functionally graded components with a smooth gradient, focusing on fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue propagation will be assessed in the direction parallel to the gradation (in different homogeneous layers of the functionally graded component) to assess what would be fatigue crack propagation on the direction perpendicular to the gradation. Fatigue crack growth rate (standard mode I fatigue crack growth) will be correlated to the mode I stress intensity factor range. Other mechanical properties of different layers of the component (Young's modulus) will also be considered in this analysis. The effect of residual stresses along the component gradation on crack propagation will also be taken into account. A qualitative analysis of the effects of some important features, present in functionally graded materials, will be made based on the obtained results

  5. Development of an automatic visual grading system for grafting seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subo Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a visual grading system of vegetable grafting machine was developed. The study described key technology of visual grading system of vegetable grafting machine. First, the contrasting experiment was conducted between acquired images under blue background light and natural light conditions, with the blue background light chosen as lighting source. The Visual C++ platform with open-source computer vision library (Open CV was used for the image processing. Subsequently, maximum frequency of total number of 0-valued pixels was predicted and used to extract the measurements of scion and rootstock stem diameters. Finally, the developed integrated visual grading system was experimented with 100 scions and rootstock seedlings. The results showed that success rate of grading reached up to 98%. This shows that selection and grading of scion and rootstock could be fully automated with this developed visual grading system. Hence, this technology would be greatly helpful for improving the grading accuracy and efficiency.

  6. The effects of social structure and social capital on changes in smoking status from 8th to 9th grade: results of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chi-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2014-05-01

    Social structure and social capital are important variables for public health strategies seeking to prevent smoking among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between social structure, social capital and changes in smoking status from the 8th to 9th grade in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) project. The study analyzed a final sample of 1937 students (50.7% female). Each layer of social structure was associated with a particular form of social capital. Students whose parents were married and living together had higher family social capital. After controlling for background variables, the social structure variable of friends who smoke was significantly associated with changes in smoking status. Students reporting more school attachment were less likely to start smoking. Students with higher parental supervision was associated with less chance of being a consistent smoker, whereas participation of social organization outside of school was associated with continued smoking. Attending school club was associated with higher probability of smoking cessation. Smoking prevention and intervention strategies aimed at junior high school students should be tailored to the particular form of social capital important for each type of smoking status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of pioglitazone and ramipril on biomarkers of low-grade inflammation and vascular function in nondiabetic patients with increased cardiovascular risk and an activated inflammation: results from the PIOace study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Hanefeld, Markolf; Dekordi, Lida A; Müller, Jürgen; Kleine, Iris; Fuchs, Winfried; Forst, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of pioglitazone (PIO), ramipril (RAM), or their combination (PIRA) on low-grade inflammation in nondiabetic hypertensive patients with increased cardiovascular risk. Patients enrolled in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel trial (72 male, 77 female, aged 60 ± 9 years, body mass index 30.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2), duration of hypertension 9 ± 8 years) were treated with either 30/45 mg PIO (dose titration), 2.5/5 mg RAM, or their combination for 12 weeks. A reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was observed with PIO (-0.89 ± 1.98 mg/liter; -25%) and PIRA (-0.49 ± 2.11 mg/liter; -16%), while an increase was seen with RAM (0.58 ± 2.13 mg/liter; +20%, p PIRA). The 24-hour blood pressure profile showed a small increase with both monotherapies but a decrease with PIRA (p PIRA arms only [PIO/RAM/PIRA: homeostasis model of assessment of IR: -0.78 ± 1.39 (-29%)/0.15 ± 1.03 (+5%)/ -1.44 ± 2.83 (-40%); adiponectin: 8.51 ± 5.91 (+104%)/ 0.09 ± 2.63 (+1%)/ 8.86 ± 6.37 mg/liter (+107%); matrix metallo-proteinase-9: -48 ± 127 (-12%)/-1 ± 224 (0%)/-60 ± 210 ng/ml (-13%), p PIRA in all cases]. Our 3-month study in nondiabetic hypertensive patients showed a decrease in biomarkers of IR and chronic systemic inflammation with the PIO monotherapy and the PIRA combination only, which may help to explain some findings in other cardiovascular outcome trials. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. BCNU wafer placement with temozolomide (TMZ) in the immediate postoperative period after tumor resection followed by radiation therapy with TMZ in patients with newly diagnosed high grade glioma: final results of a prospective, multi-institutional, phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Stuart H; Prabhu, Roshan S; Sumrall, Ashley L; Brick, Wendy; Blaker, Brian D; Heideman, Brent E; Boltes, Peggy; Kelly, Renee; Symanowski, James T; Wiggins, Walter F; Ashby, Lynn; Norton, H James; Judy, Kevin; Asher, Anthony L

    2015-06-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) and BCNU have demonstrated anti-glioma synergism in preclinical models. We report final data from a prospective, multi-institutional study of BCNU wafers and early TMZ followed by radiation therapy with TMZ in patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma. 65 patients were consented in 4 institutions, and 46 patients (43 GBM, 3 AA) were eligible for analysis. After resection and BCNU wafer placement, TMZ began on day four postoperatively. Radiation and TMZ (RT/TMZ) were then administered, followed by monthly TMZ at 200 mg/m2 for the first 26 patients, which was reduced to 150 mg/m2 for the remaining 20 patients. Non-hematologic toxicities were minimal. Nine of 27 patients (33 %) who received 200 mg/m2 TMZ, but only 1 of 20 (5 %) who received 150 mg/m2, experienced grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. Median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) period was 8.5 and 18 months, respectively. The 1-year OS rate was 76 %, which is a significant improvement compared with the historical control 1-year OS rate of 59 % (p = 0.023). However, there was no difference in 1-year OS compared with standard RT/TMZ (p = 0.12) or BCNU wafer followed by RT/TMZ (p = 0.87) in post hoc analyses. Early post-operative TMZ can be safely administered with BCNU wafers following resection of malignant glioma at the 150 mg/m2 dose level. Although there was an OS benefit compared to historical control, there was no indication of benefit for BCNU wafers and early TMZ in addition to standard RT/TMZ or early TMZ in addition to regimens of BCNU wafers followed by RT/TMZ.

  9. The Stability of School Effectiveness Indices across Grade Levels and Subject Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1987-01-01

    School effectiveness indices based on regressing achievement test scores onto earlier scores and a socioeconomic status measure were obtained for South Carolina students in grades one to four. Results were unstable across grades, and grade-to-grade correlations were more significant for mathematics achievement than for reading. (Author/GDC)

  10. Studies on high grade cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of attempts in the United Kingdom to improve the results of treatment of high grade (grade 3, 4) supra-tentorial astrocytomas is presented. The radiosensitizer misonidazole failed to improve the results of post-surgical radiotherapy, however, multivariate analysis of data from these patients has provided a prognostic index of use in defining good and poor prognosis patients. An overview study of adjuvant nitrosourea therapy trials has shown a small significant advantage for the chemotherapy. A study of chemosensitization by benznidazole of CCNU treatment of patients in relapse failed to demonstrate any effect. 13 references

  11. Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation and other biomedical and socioenvironmental influences on children's cognition at age 9-12 years in Indonesia: follow-up of the SUMMIT randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Sebayang, Susy K; Apriatni, Mandri; Adawiyah, Siti R; Hidayati, Nina; Islamiyah, Ayuniarti; Siddiq, Sudirman; Harefa, Benyamin; Lum, Jarrad; Alcock, Katherine J; Ullman, Michael T; Muadz, Husni; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2017-02-01

    Brain and cognitive development during the first 1000 days from conception are affected by multiple biomedical and socioenvironmental determinants including nutrition, health, nurturing, and stimulation. An improved understanding of the long-term influence of these factors is needed to prioritise public health investments to optimise human development. We did a follow-up study of the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind, cluster-randomised trial of maternal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron and folic acid (IFA) in Indonesia. Of 27 356 live infants from birth to 3 months of age in 2001-04, we re-enrolled 19 274 (70%) children at age 9-12 years, and randomly selected 2879 from the 18 230 who were attending school at a known location. Of these, 574 children were oversampled from mothers who were anaemic or malnourished at SUMMIT enrolment. We assessed the effects of MMN and associations of biomedical (ie, maternal and child anthropometry and haemoglobin and preterm birth) and socioenvironmental determinants (ie, parental education, socioeconomic status, home environment, and maternal depression) on general intellectual ability, declarative memory, procedural memory, executive function, academic achievement, fine motor dexterity, and socioemotional health. The SUMMIT trial was registered, number ISRCTN34151616. Children of mothers given MMN had a mean score of 0·11 SD (95% CI 0·01-0·20, p=0·0319) higher in procedural memory than those given IFA, equivalent to the increase in scores with half a year of schooling. Children of anaemic mothers in the MMN group scored 0·18 SD (0·06-0·31, p=0·0047) higher in general intellectual ability, similar to the increase with 1 year of schooling. Overall, 18 of 21 tests showed a positive coefficient of MMN versus IFA (p=0·0431) with effect sizes from 0·00-0·18 SD. In multiple regression models, socioenvironmental determinants had coefficients

  12. Report on the fiscal 1997 result of the Japan-China joint demonstration project of environment-friendly cost utilization systems. Low grade coal combustion system (Zhejiang Huba Co. Ltd.); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo. Teihin`itan nensho system ni kakawaru jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This demonstration project aims at reduction of pollutants derived from coal utilization in China by demonstration of CCT to be diffused in China and preparation of diffusion bases, and stable import of energy for Japan. A low-grade coal combustion system burns low-grade coal by use of an internal circulating fluidized bed boiler which burns coal by uniform mixing and circulation of coal and some particles such as limestone and ash. Main specifications of the boiler are as follows: evaporation rate of 35t/h, steam pressure of 3.82MPa (39.0kg/cm{sup 2}), steam temperature of 450degC, water supply temperature of 150degC, internal circulating fluidized bed combustion type, boiler efficiency of 75%, and desulfurization rate of 90% or more. Main properties of low-grade coal are as follows: calorific value of 1830kcal/kg, coal size of 10mm or less, total water content of 2.5%, total S content of 2.7%, ash content of 67.7%, limestone purity of 50% or more, and stone size of 3mm or less. The results in fiscal 1997 are as follows: field survey and arrangement, basic planning and design, design, production and procurement of equipment, training, and dispatch of field supervisor. 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bayou Choctaw Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Park, Byoung; Rudeen, D.K.; Eldredge, L.L.; Wynn, K.; Checkai, D.; Osborne, G.; Moore, D.

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 15 wells at the Bayou Choctaw site, with each active well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  14. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 31 wells at the West Hackberry site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  15. 2014 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 47 wells at the Bryan Mound site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site.

  16. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  17. Strategy Guideline: Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2016-02-24

    The Strategy Guideline describes how to model and interpret results of models for above grade walls. The Measure Guideline analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Warme Und Feuchte Instationar) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.

  18. Peer Grading in Astronomy Massive Open Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanek, Martin; Wenger, Matthew; Impey, Christopher; Buxner, Sanlyn

    In this work we thoroughly investigate the peer grading process as it happened in the University of Arizona session based MOOC ``Astronomy: Exploring Time and Space'' offered during Spring 2015 through Coursera. Overall, 25400 learners from over 100 countries registered for this course. Of those, 14900 accessed at least one part of the course and 1332 users engaged in the peer grading. First of all we provide description of the peer graded assignments and we identify trends in behavior of people who participated in these exercises. E.g. time they spent on grading, number of assignments graded and patterns arising from comparing all three assignments. Furthermore, for the second assignment, we graded random sample of 300 essays by a group of trained undergraduate students and a group consisting of one of the course instructors together with graduate TAs and we compared results with grades from the peer grading. Specifically we look on Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for all three groups of graders to determine reliability of each group and correlations between final grades. Finally we assess factors influencing reliability of the peer graders participating in the MOOC based on the difference from our grades. This research was supported by Howard Hughes Medical Institute Grant No. 415580.

  19. Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO 2 fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle

  20. Graded photonic crystals by optical interference holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of graded photonic crystals in dye doped dichromate gelatin emulsions using an optical interference holographic technique. The gradedness is achieved by imposing a gradient form factor in the interference intensity resulting from the absorption of the dye in the dichromate gelatin. Wider and deeper photonic bandgaps are observed for the dyed samples as compared to the un-dyed samples. Our method could open up a new direction in fabricating graded photonic crystals which cannot be achieved easily using other techniques. (paper)

  1. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  2. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  3. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  4. Comparison of the reliability of two hydronephrosis grading systems: The Society for Foetal Urology grading system vs. the Onen grading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.-Y.; Kim, M.-J.; Yoon, C.S.; Lee, M.S.; Han, K.H.; Lee, M.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the reliability of the conventional ultrasonography grading system for hydronephrosis as suggested by the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) in 1993 and that developed by Onen in 2007. Materials and methods: One hundred and eighty kidneys in 90 paediatric patients were assessed by four radiologists using each of the two grading systems twice. The SFU system was graded 0–4 (0 = no hydronephrosis; 1 = visualized only renal pelvis; 2 = plus a few caliceal dilatation; 3 = all calyceal dilatation; 4 = plus parenchymal thinning). The Onen system was graded 0–4 (0 = no hydronephrosis; 1 = only renal pelvic dilatation; 2 = plus caliceal dilatation; 3 = plus 50% renal parenchymal loss). Cohen's kappa statistic was used to estimate intra- and interobserver agreement. The weighted least-squares approach was used to compare the intra-observer agreement, and bootstrapping was used to compare the interobserver agreement between the two systems. Results: Intra-observer agreement was substantial to almost perfect in both the SFU (κ 0.79–0.95) and the Onen (κ 0.66–0.97) grading system without difference. The overall interobserver agreement was substantial in both the SFU (κ 0.61–0.68) and the Onen (κ 0.66–0.76) grading system. However, interobserver agreement was fair to moderate for SFU grades 1 and 2 and Onen grades 2 and 3. Conclusion: Both the SFU and Onen grading system are reliable with good intra- and interobserver agreement. However, decreased interobserver agreement was demonstrated for SFU grades 1 and 2 and Onen grades 2 and 3

  5. Comparison of non-electrophoresis grade with electrophoresis grade BIS in NIPAM polymer gel preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khajeali, Azim; Farajollahi, Ali Reza; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Raeisi, Noorallah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The main objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing electrophoresis cross-linker with non-electrophoresis N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel and its possible effect on dose response. Methods: NIPAM polymer gel was prepared from non-electrophoresis grade BIS and the relaxation rate (R2) was measured by MR imaging after exposing the gel to gamma radiation from Co-60 source. To compare the response of this gel with the one that contains electrophoresis grade BIS, two sets of NIPAM gel were prepared using electrophoresis and non-electrophoresis BIS and irradiated to different gamma doses. Results: It was found that the dose–response of NIPAM gel made from the non-electrophoresis grade BIS is coincident with that of electrophoresis grade BIS. Conclusion:Taken all, it can be concluded that the non-electrophoresis grade BIS not only is a suitable alternative for the electrophoresis grade BIS but also reduces the cost of gel due to its lower price. PMID:26457250

  6. Role of cytologic grading in prognostication of invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of cytologic features is indispensable in the preoperative diagnosis and grading of infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma (CA in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC material and this method can also provide additional information regarding intrinsic features of the tumor as well as its prognosis. Aim: This study has been done to evaluate comparatively the cytologic and histomorphologic grading of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast with specific reference to lymph node metastasis and its role in prognostication. Materials and Methods: Forty three patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded (employing Robinson′s cytologic grading system and Elston′s modification of Bloom-Richardson system, respectively. Statistical analysis was done employing ′z′ test and c2 test to compare the two grading system and to examine the degree of correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the significance of every cytologic and histologic parameter. All 43 cases, graded cyto-histologically were also evaluated for presence or absence of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes employing c2 test. Results: With histologic grade taken as the standard, cytology was found to be fairly comparable, for grading breast carcinoma (overall sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 100%. Further comparison of the two grading systems by Z-test showed that difference between the cytologic and histologic grading was insignificant in all the three grade (p > 0.05. Of the six parameters studied, cell dissociation, nucleoli and chromatin pattern were the most influential features (p < 0.001. The statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was found in incidences of axillary lymph node metastatic rate in three cytologic grades (15.4% in grade I vs. 83.3% in grade III as well. Conclusions: Apart from being simple and

  7. High-grade and low-grade gliomas: differentiation by using perfusion MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakyemez, B.; Erdogan, C.; Ercan, I.; Ergin, N.; Uysal, S.; Atahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) is a commonly used perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for the evaluation of tumour grade. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) has been less studied. The goal of our study was to determine the usefulness of these parameters in evaluating the histopathological grade of the cerebral gliomas. METHODS: This study involved 33 patients (22 high-grade and 11 low-grade glioma cases). MRI was performed for all tumours by using a first-passage gadopentetate dimeglumine T2*-weighted gradient-echo single-shot echo-planar sequence followed by conventional MRI. The rCBV and rCBF were calculated by deconvolution of an arterial input function. The rCBV and rCBF ratios of the lesions were obtained by dividing the values obtained from the normal white matter of the contralateral hemisphere. For statistical analysis Mann-Whitney testing was carried out. A p value of less than 0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the rCBV and rCBF ratios and grade of gliomas. Their cut-off value permitting discrimination was calculated. The correlation between rCBV and CBF ratios and glioma grade was assessed using Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: In high-grade gliomas, rCBV and rCBF ratios were measured as 6.50±4.29 and 3.32±1.87 (mean±SD), respectively. In low-grade gliomas, rCBV and rCBF ratios were 1.69±0.51 and 1.16±0.38, respectively. The rCBV and rCBF ratios for high-grade gliomas were statistically different from those of low-grade gliomas (p 0.05). The cut-off value was taken as 1.98 in the rCBV ratio and 1.25 in the rCBF ratio. There was a strong correlation between the rCBV and CBF ratios (Pearson correlation = 0.830, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Perfusion MRI is useful in the preoperative assessment of the histopathologicalal grade of gliomas; the rCBF ratio in addition to the rCBV ratio can be incorporated

  8. Student Test Grades in College: A Study of Possible Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Frank; Mariano, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Research on variables related to test performance has produced mixed results. Typically, research of this type involves only a few variables. In an attempt to obtain a more complete picture, we investigated how test grades might be related to variables such as classification, student seating location, test completion time, predicted grade, time…

  9. What Did You Get? A Faculty Grade Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Joseph K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates how the increased use of part-time and nontenure-track instructors may result in grade inflation. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses ten years of registrar data at a Midwest State (USA) institution to perform a multiple regression grade analysis. Findings: Evidence is found that part-time and…

  10. Grading of direct laryngoscopy. A survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Fleming, B G; Wace, J R

    1994-06-01

    One hundred and twenty anaesthetists (30 of each grade), from three separate regions, were interviewed as to how they recorded the appearance of laryngeal structures at direct laryngoscopy and about their knowledge of the commonly used numerical grading system. About two-thirds of anaesthetists surveyed (69.2%) used the numerical grading system, but of these, over half could not identify a 'grade 2' laryngoscopic appearance correctly. Of anaesthetists who did not use the numerical method, over half could not correctly state the difference between a 'grade 2' and a 'grade 3' laryngoscopic appearance. Over 40% of anaesthetists stated incorrectly that the grading should be made on the initial view, even when laryngeal pressure had been needed. Junior anaesthetists were more likely to use the numerical method of recording. The results show that there is unacceptable uncertainty and inaccuracy in the use of the numerical grading system by users as well as non-users, which makes the current routine clinical use of the numerical grading system unsatisfactory.

  11. Setting standards to determine core clerkship grades in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, Robert A; Barone, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for clerkship directors is assigning a final grade and determining the precise point at which a student either passes or fails a clinical clerkship. The process of incorporating both subjective and objective assessment data to provide a final summative grade can be challenging. We describe our experience conducting a standard-setting exercise to set defensible cut points in a 4-tiered grading system in our pediatric clerkship. Using the Hofstee standard-setting approach, 8 faculty members participated in an exercise to establish grade cut points. These faculty members were subsequently surveyed to assess their attitudes toward the standard-setting process as well as their reactions to these newly proposed standards. We applied the new cut points to a historic cohort of 116 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine students from the academic year 2012-2013 to assess the potential impact on grade distributions. The resultant grading schema would lead to a significant increase in the number of students receiving a failing grade and a decrease in the number of students receiving a grade of honors in a historical cohort. Faculty reported that the Hofstee method was easy to understand and fair. All faculty members thought that grade inflation presently exists within the pediatric clerkship. This study demonstrates that practical standards using the Hofstee method can be set for medical students in a pediatric clerkship in which multiple performance measures are used. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  13. Advanced soft computing diagnosis method for tumour grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, E I; Spyridonos, P P; Stylios, C D; Ravazoula, P; Groumpos, P P; Nikiforidis, G N

    2006-01-01

    To develop an advanced diagnostic method for urinary bladder tumour grading. A novel soft computing modelling methodology based on the augmentation of fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) with the unsupervised active Hebbian learning (AHL) algorithm is applied. One hundred and twenty-eight cases of urinary bladder cancer were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Histopathology, University Hospital of Patras, Greece. All tumours had been characterized according to the classical World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. To design the FCM model for tumour grading, three experts histopathologists defined the main histopathological features (concepts) and their impact on grade characterization. The resulted FCM model consisted of nine concepts. Eight concepts represented the main histopathological features for tumour grading. The ninth concept represented the tumour grade. To increase the classification ability of the FCM model, the AHL algorithm was applied to adjust the weights of the FCM. The proposed FCM grading model achieved a classification accuracy of 72.5%, 74.42% and 95.55% for tumours of grades I, II and III, respectively. An advanced computerized method to support tumour grade diagnosis decision was proposed and developed. The novelty of the method is based on employing the soft computing method of FCMs to represent specialized knowledge on histopathology and on augmenting FCMs ability using an unsupervised learning algorithm, the AHL. The proposed method performs with reasonably high accuracy compared to other existing methods and at the same time meets the physicians' requirements for transparency and explicability.

  14. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Mineralogical and thermodynamic constraints on Palaeogene palaeotemperature conditions during low-grade metamorphism of basaltic lavas recovered from the Lopra-1/1A deep hole, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glassley, William E.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The sequene of secondary minerals that are reported for the Lopra-1/1A well records progressive zeolite facies to prehnite–pumpellyite-facies mineral progressions consistent with those of other wellstudied hydrothermally altered rock sequences. Detailed comparison of the calc–silicate (zeolites and prehnite mineral distributions of the Lopra-1/1A sequence with those from other regions indicates that this sequence exhibits consistently longer down-hole intervals for secondary mineral species than reported elsewhere. When compared to measured down-hole temperatures reported in other hydrothermally altered regions, the results suggest that the Lopra-1/1A mineral progression formed under conditions typical of low temperature hydrothermal systems that form shortly after eruption of thick basaltic piles. Maximum temperatures achieved at the 3500 m level of the well were at or below 200°C. The implied geothermal gradient was less than 50°C/km. An analysis of prehnite – fluid composition relationships was also conducted in order to determine if results compatible with the paragenetic sequence study could be obtained from thermodynamic constraints. In this case, thelimiting temperature for prehnite formation in equilibrium with albite–quartz–calcite–laumontite (the mineral assemblage at the bottom of the hole was determined for a range of fluid compositions.The resulting calculations suggest temperatures of formation of prehnite in the range of 140°C to 205°C, a conclusion which is broadly consistent with those reached from study of the parageneticrelationships. Comparison of these results with other studies of palaeogeothermal gradients of the North Atlantic margins suggests a consistent pattern in which relatively low geothermal gradientspersisted in the Palaeogene rift basin.

  15. Analysis of DTI-Derived Tensor Metrics in Differential Diagnosis between Low-grade and High-grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Chao-Yong; Xu, Quan; Sun, Jun; Chen, Huiyou; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yin, Xindao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It is critical and difficult to accurately discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas preoperatively. This study aimed to ascertain the role of several scalar measures in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, especially the axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), and linear tensor (Cl) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas (21 low-grade and 32 high-grade) were included. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and DTI were performed in all patients. The AD, RD, Cp, Cs, and Cl values in the tumor zone, peritumoral edema zone, white matter (WM) adjacent to edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were calculated. The DTI parameters and tumor grades were statistically analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. Results: The DTI metrics in the affected hemisphere showed significant differences from those in the NAWM, except for the AD values in the tumor zone and the RD values in WM adjacent to edema in the low-grade groups, as well as the Cp values in WM adjacent to edema in the high-grade groups. AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema revealed significant differences between the low- and high-grade gliomas. The areas under the curve (Az) of all three metrics were greater than 0.5 in distinguishing low-grade from high-grade gliomas by ROC curve analysis, and the best DTI metric was Cs in WM adjacent to edema (Az: 0.692). Conclusion: AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema will provide additional information to better classify gliomas and can be used as non-invasive reliable biomarkers in glioma grading.

  16. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  17. Modeling Erlang's Ideal Grading with Multirate BPP Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Glabowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete methodology for modeling gradings (also called non-full-availability groups servicing single-service and multi-service traffic streams. The methodology worked out by the authors makes it possible to determine traffic characteristics of various types of gradings with state-dependent call arrival processes, including a new proposed structure of the Erlang’s Ideal Grading with the multirate links. The elaborated models of the gradings can be used for modeling different systems of modern networks, for example, the radio interfaces of the UMTS system, switching networks carrying a mixture of different multirate traffic streams, and video-on-demand systems. The results of the analytical calculations are compared with the results of the simulation data for selected gradings, which confirm high accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  18. Differentiation of grade II/III and grade IV glioma by combining ''T1 contrast-enhanced brain perfusion imaging'' and susceptibility-weighted quantitative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Jitender; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Sahoo, Prativa; Singh, Anup; Patir, Rana; Ahlawat, Suneeta; Beniwal, Manish; Thennarasu, K.; Santosh, Vani

    2018-01-01

    MRI is a useful method for discriminating low- and high-grade glioma using perfusion MRI and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of T1-perfusion MRI and SWI in discriminating among grade II, III, and IV gliomas. T1-perfusion MRI was used to measure relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in 129 patients with glioma (70 grade IV, 33 grade III, and 26 grade II tumors). SWI was also used to measure the intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity (ITSS) scores for each tumor in these patients. rCBV and ITSS values were compared to seek differences between grade II vs. grade III, grade III vs. grade IV, and grade III+II vs. grade IV tumors. Significant differences in rCBV values of the three grades of the tumors were noted and pairwise comparisons showed significantly higher rCBV values in grade IV tumors as compared to grade III tumors, and similarly increased rCBV was seen in the grade III tumors as compared to grade II tumors (p < 0.001). Grade IV gliomas showed significantly higher ITSS scores on SWI as compared to grade III tumors (p < 0.001) whereas insignificant difference was seen on comparing ITSS scores of grade III with grade II tumors. Combining the rCBV and ITSS resulted in significant improvement in the discrimination of grade III from grade IV tumors. The combination of rCBV values derived from T1-perfusion MRI and SWI derived ITSS scores improves the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of grade III from grade IV gliomas. (orig.)

  19. Differentiation of grade II/III and grade IV glioma by combining ''T1 contrast-enhanced brain perfusion imaging'' and susceptibility-weighted quantitative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Jitender [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore (India); Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Department of Radiology and Imaging, Gurugram (India); Sahoo, Prativa [Philips Health System, Philips India Limited, Bangalore (India); Beckman Research Institute, Mathematical Oncology, Duarte, CA (United States); Singh, Anup [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Delhi (India); Patir, Rana [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Gurugram (India); Ahlawat, Suneeta [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, SRL Diagnostics, Gurugram (India); Beniwal, Manish [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurosurgery, Bangalore (India); Thennarasu, K. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Biostatistics, Bangalore (India); Santosh, Vani [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuropathology, Bangalore (India)

    2018-01-15

    MRI is a useful method for discriminating low- and high-grade glioma using perfusion MRI and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of T1-perfusion MRI and SWI in discriminating among grade II, III, and IV gliomas. T1-perfusion MRI was used to measure relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in 129 patients with glioma (70 grade IV, 33 grade III, and 26 grade II tumors). SWI was also used to measure the intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity (ITSS) scores for each tumor in these patients. rCBV and ITSS values were compared to seek differences between grade II vs. grade III, grade III vs. grade IV, and grade III+II vs. grade IV tumors. Significant differences in rCBV values of the three grades of the tumors were noted and pairwise comparisons showed significantly higher rCBV values in grade IV tumors as compared to grade III tumors, and similarly increased rCBV was seen in the grade III tumors as compared to grade II tumors (p < 0.001). Grade IV gliomas showed significantly higher ITSS scores on SWI as compared to grade III tumors (p < 0.001) whereas insignificant difference was seen on comparing ITSS scores of grade III with grade II tumors. Combining the rCBV and ITSS resulted in significant improvement in the discrimination of grade III from grade IV tumors. The combination of rCBV values derived from T1-perfusion MRI and SWI derived ITSS scores improves the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of grade III from grade IV gliomas. (orig.)

  20. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  1. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  2. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  3. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P bullied (P bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  4. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  5. DIFFERENT LEVEL OF LEARNED-HELPLESSNESS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH LOWER GRADE AND HIGHER GRADE IN SALATIGA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Esti Ari Prasetya

    2013-06-01

    consisted of 190 of higher grade students and 127 of lower grade students. Mann-Whitney U was used to analyse the data, considering that the data were not normally distributed. This test result showed that there was a significant difference between high school students with higher grade and lower grade (the Mann-Whitney U coefficient of 10,644, with z value of -1795, p <0.05 (p = 0036, 1-tailed, with students of lower grade tend to be more prone to experience learned-helplessness. Additional results from their subjective perception on their achievement were also discussed and so were the implications of the study.

  6. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: validation of World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Julien; Delahunt, Brett; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R; Coughlin, Geoffrey; Dunglinson, Nigel; Gianduzzo, Troy; Kua, Boon; Malone, Greg; Martin, Ben; Preston, John; Pokorny, Morgan; Wood, Simon; Yaxley, John; Samaratunga, Hemamali

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced a novel grading system for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. This system is incorporated into the latest World Health Organization renal tumour classification, being designated WHO/ISUP grading. This study was undertaken to compare WHO/ISUP and Fuhrman grading and to validate WHO/ISUP grading as a prognostic parameter in a series of clear cell RCC. Analysis of 681 cases of ccRCC showed that 144 tumours could not be assigned a Fuhrman grade on the basis of ambiguous grading features. The application of WHO/ISUP grading resulted in a general down-grading of cases when compared with Fuhrman grading. In a sub-group of 374 cases, for which outcome data were available, 9.3% were WHO/ISUP grade 1, 50.3% were grade 2, 24.1% grade 3 and 16.3% grade 4, while the distribution of Fuhrman grades was 0.4% grade 1, 48.7% grade 2, 29.4% grade 3 and 21.5% grade 4. There were no recurrence/metastases amongst patients with WHO/ISUP grade 1 tumours and there was a significant difference in outcome for WHO/ISUP grades 2, 3 and 4. For Fuhrman grading the cancer-free survival was not significantly different for grade 2 and grade 3 tumours. On multivariate analysis WHO/ISUP grade and pT staging category were found to retain prognostic significance. The study demonstrates that FG cannot be applied in >20% of cases of ccRCC and the WHO/ISUP provides superior prognostic information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  8. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  9. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  10. A revision of the Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic grading system with special consideration to grade II laryngoscopic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain khan Z

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to provide adequate respiration for the patient. The most vital element in providing functional respiration is the airway. No anesthetic is safe unless diligent efforts are devoted to maintaining an intact functional airway. Difficult intubation had been classified into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy by Cormack and Lehane in 1984. This grading system has been in use to evaluate and manage those patients with difficult airway by anesthesiologists. In clinical state, grades III and IV are quite rare, so the need for a modified Cormack and Lehane grading system was felt. The use of a modified Cormack-Lehane scoring system of laryngoscopic views during direct laryngoscopy, was previously examined in the Western population. Koh and his co-workers had examined this modified Cormack and Lehane grading system in Asian population in a study in Singapore General Hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate this scoring system in Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross sectional study, a modified version of the Cormack and Lehane grading system was evaluated in 300 patients requiring tracheal intubation. In the modified system, grade II (only part of the glottis is visible was divided into IIa (part of the cords is visible and IIb (only the arytenoids or the very posterior origin of the cords are visible. Difficult intubation was defined as requiring more than one laryngoscopy or the use of special equipments.Results: Sixty eight patients (22.7% were scored as grade IIa and 32 (7.7% as grade IIb. The prevalence of difficult intubation in grade IIb was significantly higher than patients in group IIa (47.8% vs. 2.9% respectively, Fisher's exact test, p= 0.001Conclusion: The modified grading system provides more information than the original Cormack and Lehane system."n 

  11. Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Jamal, S.; Mamoon, N.; Luqman, M.; Anwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections. Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly. Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision. (author)

  12. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  13. HYPERGLYCEMIA IN GRADE III AND GRADE IV MALNUTRITION WITH DEHYDRATING GASTROENTERITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To study the incidence of hyperglycemia in grade III AND IV malnutrition with no signs and some signs of dehydration. SETTING: Tertiary care center located in north Karnataka. DESIGN: Prospective observational study involving 21 children. METHODS: All the children with grade III and grade IV malnutrition presenting with diarrhea of less than 14 days duration, having no signs to some signs of dehydration. RESULTS: Hyperglycemia was observed in three of 21 children hypoglycemia was observed in six children. CONCLUSION: Although hypoglycemia is common finding in moderate and severely malnourished children with dehydrating gastroenteritis, hyperglycemia should also be suspected and treated. Long term follow up of these children is needed involving larger number of people in multicenter studies.

  14. Grading sacroiliitis with emphasis on MRI imaging; Grading der Sakroiliitis mit Betonung der MRT-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurik, A.G.; Egund, N. [The Department of Radiology R, Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark)

    2004-03-01

    Cross-sectional imaging techniques play a decisive role in identification, localization, and characterization of alterations in the sacroiliac joint during the early stage of seronegative spondylarthropathy (SpA). Although several studies showed that the diagnostic capabilities of MRI and CT are superior to those of conventional radiography, they have not yet become established and accepted as methods for evaluating the grade of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in contrast to conventional radiography. The lack of acceptance for MRI and/or CT methods for evaluating and grading changes in the sacroiliac joint makes it difficult to include the results of these procedures in classifying the grade of SpA. Moreover, grading the changes in the sacroiliac joint in SpA with a method more sensitive than conventional radiography will be of prime importance in assessing treatment, e.g., the efficacy of new biological therapeutic agents directed against the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}). An overview of the available grading methods is provided and MRI and CT techniques are presented. (orig.) [German] Schnittbildverfahren spielen bei der Identifizierung, Lokalisation und Charakterisierung von Veraenderungen des Sakroiliakalgelenks (SIG) im Fruehstadium der seronegativen Spondylarthropathie (SpA) eine entscheidende Rolle. Obwohl mehrere Studien zeigten, dass der diagnostische Wert der MRT und CT jenem der konventionellen Radiographie ueberlegen ist, hat sich das Schnittbildverfahren als Mittel zur Evaluierung des Grades der ankylosierenden Spondylitis (AS) im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Radiographie noch nicht etabliert und durchgesetzt. Dieses Fehlen eines akzeptierten MRT- und/oder CT-Verfahrens zur Evaluierung und zum Grading der Veraenderungen am SIG macht es schwierig, die Ergebnisse dieser Verfahren bei der Einstufung des Grades der AS-Veraenderungen und Erarbeitung von Diagnosekriterien fuer andere Formen der SpA einzubeziehen. Ausserdem wird das Grading der SIG

  15. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    of 10, it implies that their prognosis is intermediate and contributes to their fear of having a more aggressive cancer. Also, in the literature and for therapeutic purposes, various scores have been incorrectly grouped together with the assumption that they have a similar prognosis. For example, many classification systems consider Gleason score 7 as a single score without distinguishing 3+4 versus 4+3, despite studies showing significantly worse prognosis for the latter. The basis for a new grading system was proposed in 2013 by one of the authors (J.I.E.) based on data from Johns Hopkins Hospital resulting in 5 prognostically distinct Grade Groups. This new system was validated in a multi-institutional study of over 20,000 radical prostatectomy specimens, over 16,000 needle biopsy specimens, and over 5,000 biopsies followed by radiation therapy. There was broad (90%) consensus for the adoption of this new prostate cancer Grading system in the 2014 consensus conference based on: (1) the new classification provided more accurate stratification of tumors than the current system; (2) the classification simplified the number of grading categories from Gleason scores 2 to 10, with even more permutations based on different pattern combinations, to Grade Groups 1 to 5; (3) the lowest grade is 1 not 6 as in Gleason, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of indolent cancer; and (4) the current modified Gleason grading, which forms the basis for the new grade groups, bears little resemblance to the original Gleason system. The new grades would, for the foreseeable future, be used in conjunction with the Gleason system [ie. Gleason score 3+3=6 (Grade Group 1)]. The new grading system and the terminology Grade Groups 1-5 have also been accepted by the World Health Organization for the 2016 edition of Pathology and Genetics: Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs.

  16. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may...

  18. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  19. A Quantitative Evaluation of an Ability-Grouped Literacy Program in the Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portales Blair, Lidiana

    2017-01-01

    National assessments have shown that the majority of students in the United States cannot read at grade level by fourth grade. These results are alarming because students who are not proficient readers by third grade suffer long-term consequences and are more likely to drop out of high school. Feeling pressure to improve reading outcomes, schools…

  20. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Darshan P.; Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Majercik, Sarah D.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Craig, James R.; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...

  1. A geostatistical estimation of zinc grade in bore-core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzec, A.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities and preliminary results of geostatistical interpretation of the XRF determination of zinc in bore-core samples are considered. For the spherical model of the variogram the estimation variance of grade in a disk-shape sample (estimated from the grade on the circumference sample) is calculated. Variograms of zinc grade in core samples are presented and examples of the grade estimation are discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  2. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available -3146. [50] X. Jin, L. Wu, L. Guo, H. Yu, and Y. Sun, ?Experimental investigation of the mixed-mode crack propagation in ZrO2/NiCr functionally graded materials,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 76(12), (2009), pp. 1800-1810. [51] Z. Cheng, D. Gao... by stable crack growth,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.72(15), (2005), pp. 2359-2372. [47] Z.-H. Jin, and R.H. Dodds Jr, ?Crack growth resistance behavior of a functionally graded material: computational studies,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics...

  3. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  4. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  5. Strategy Guideline. Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy's research team Building Science Corporation, 1) describes how to model and interpret results of models for above-grade walls, and 2) analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above-grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Wärme und Feuchte instationär) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.

  6. The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology...... as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way....

  7. Effect of Retention in Elementary Grades on Grade 9 Motivation for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students’ motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained = 177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted = 384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West, & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student’s overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. PMID:25636258

  8. Effect of retention in elementary grades on grade 9 motivation for educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained=177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted=384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student's overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than those of the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 radiation pneumonitis in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Jun; Li, Guang; Ma, Lianghua; Han, Chong; Zhang, Shuo; Yao, Lei [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical Univ., Shenyang (China)], e-mail: gl1963516@yahoo.cn; Diao, Rao [Dept. of Experimental Technology Center, China Medical Univ., Shenyang (China); Zang, Shuang [Dept. of Nursing, China Medical Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2013-08-15

    Grade {>=}3 radiation pneumonitis (RP) is generally severe and life-threatening. Predictors of grade {>=}2 are usually used for grade {>=}3 RP prediction, but it is unclear whether these predictors are appropriate. In this study, predictors of grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 RP were investigated separately. The increased risk of severe RP in elderly patients compared with younger patients was also evaluated. Material and methods: A total of 176 consecutive patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were followed up prospectively after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. RP was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: Mean lung dose (MLD), mean heart dose, ratio of planning target volume to total lung volume (PTV/Lung), and dose-volume histogram comprehensive value of both heart and lung were associated with both grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 RP in univariate analysis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age and MLD were predictors of both grade {>=}2 RP and grade {>=}3 RP; receipt of chemotherapy predicted grade {>=}3 RP only; and sex and PTV/Lung predicted grade {>=}2 RP only. Among patients who developed high-grade RP, MLD and PTV/Lung were significantly lower in patients aged {>=}70 years than in younger patients (p<0.05 for both comparisons). Conclusions: The predictors were not completely consistent between grade {>=}2 RP and grade {>=}3 RP. Elderly patients had a higher risk of severe RP than younger patients did, possibly due to lower tolerance of radiation to the lung.

  10. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  11. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  12. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  13. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  14. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  15. Vibration of Elastic Functionally Graded Thick Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration behaviors of functionally graded rings were investigated theoretically. The material graded in the thickness direction according to the power law rule and the rings were assumed to be in plane stress and plane strain states. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the kinetic relation of von Kárman type, the frequency equation for free vibration of functionally graded ring was derived. The derived results were verified by those in literatures which reveals that the present theory can be appropriate to predict the free vibration characteristics for quite thick rings with the radius-to-thickness ratio from 60 down to 2.09. Comparison between the plane stress case and the plane strain case indicates a slight difference. Meanwhile, the effects of the structural dimensional parameters and the material inhomogeneous parameter are examined. It is interesting that the value of the logarithmic form of vibration frequency is inversely proportional to the logarithmic form of the radius-to-thickness ratio or the mean radius.

  16. Affix Meaning Knowledge in First Through Third Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Forty students at each grade level completed an assessment battery that included measures of phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, reading comprehension, and affix meaning knowledge. On the AMT, 1st-grade students were significantly less accurate than 2nd- and 3rd-grade students; there was no significant difference in performance between the 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Regression analyses revealed that the AMT accounted for 8% unique variance of students' performance on word-level reading measures and 6% unique variance of students' performance on the reading comprehension measure, after age, phonological awareness, and receptive vocabulary were explained. These results provide initial information on the development of affix meaning knowledge via an explicit measure in 1st- through 3rd-grade students and demonstrate that affix meaning knowledge uniquely contributes to the development of reading abilities above other known literacy predictors. These findings provide empirical support for how students might use morphological problem solving to read unknown multimorphemic words successfully.

  17. GRADE AS THE MOTIVATIONAL FACTOR IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research the motivation for learning mathematics was tested,as well as the effect of grades on the motivation of primary school level students. On a sample of N=100 participants, primary school students, we conducted a survey, the results of which show that the participants are more motivated with extrinsic factors, then intrinsic factors for learning mathematics. Grades are the main factor that has the most influence on the motivation level of students for learning mathematics, because students need good grades for their further education. The results also show that punishment and rewards from parents for bad and good grades has no effect on the motivation level of students

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of pre-treatment biopsy for grading cutaneous mast cell tumours in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T; Kudnig, S T; Firestone, S M

    2018-06-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are common tumours of the canine skin, and are estimated to represent up to 20% of all skin tumours in dogs. Tumour grade has a major impact on the incidence of local recurrence and metastatic potential. In addition to helping the clinician with surgical planning, knowledge of the tumour grade also assists in proper prognostication and client education. For pre-treatment biopsies to be useful, there must exist a high level of correlation between the histopathological grade obtained from the pre-treatment biopsy and the actual histopathological grade from the excisional biopsy. The aim of this study was to determine concordance of tumour grade between various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch, needle core) and the "gold standard" excisional biopsy method. We found an overall concordance rate of 96% based on the Patnaik grading system, and an overall concordance rate of 92% based on the Kiupel grading system. The accuracy of the various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch and needle core) when compared with excisional biopsy was 92%, 100% and 100%, respectively, based on the Patnaik grading system, and 90%, 95% and 100%, respectively, based on the Kiupel grading system. Of the cases with discordant results, the pre-treatment biopsies tended to underestimate the grade of the tumour. Based on these results, we conclude that pre-treatment biopsies are sufficiently accurate for differentiating low-grade from high-grade MCTs, regardless of biopsy technique or tumour location. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Perda precoce de molares permanentes e fatores associados em escolares de 9, 12 e 15 anos da rede pública municipal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v33i1.8373 Early loss of permanent molars and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v33i1.8373

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio D’Avila Lins Bezerra Cavalcanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a perda precoce de molares permanentes em escolares da rede pública de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, com idades de nove, 12 e 15 anos. A amostra compreendeu 873 escolares, aleatoriamente selecionados. O instrumento de coleta consistiu de um questionário e de uma ficha clínica. As variáveis do estudo compreenderam os aspectos relativos à perda dentária (tipo de elemento dental, localização na arcada dentária e a região do arco, à prevenção e à autopercepção em saúde bucal. A análise estatística compreendeu a distribuição de frequências e os testes do Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Os resultados revelaram a prevalência de 17,2% de perda dentária, sem diferenças entre os sexos, frequência de escovação e palestra educativa (p > 0,05. Os elementos dentários 36 (42,5% e 46 (33,9% foram os mais frequentemente perdidos. Observou-se a associação positiva entre perda dentária e as variáveis idade, visita ao cirurgião-dentista (OR = 2,19; IC95%: 1,35-3,59, satisfação com o sorriso (OR = 0,40; IC95%: 0,24-0,65 e a dificuldade na mastigação (OR = 2,16; IC95%: 1,48-3,16. Conclui-se que a prevalência da perda precoce de molares permanentes foi elevada, sendo necessária a imediata adoção de ações curativas a fim de reduzir a perda precoce desses elementos dentários.This study evaluate the early loss of permanent molars in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. The sample was composed of 873 randomly selected schoolchildren. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire and a clinical chart. The following variables were analyzed: tooth loss (tooth type, localization in the dental arch and region of the arch, prevention and self-perception of oral health. The statistical analysis was done by frequency distribution and the chi-square and fisher’s exact tests were used. The results showed a prevalence of

  20. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  1. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  2. An endoscopic mucosal grading system is predictive of leak in stapled rectal anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha-Bhaskar, Sarath; Jafari, Mehraneh D; Hanna, Mark; Koh, Christina Y; Inaba, Colette S; Mills, Steven D; Carmichael, Joseph C; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2018-04-01

    Anastomotic leak is a devastating postoperative complication following rectal anastomoses associated with significant clinical and oncological implications. As a result, there is a need for novel intraoperative methods that will help predict anastomotic leak. From 2011 to 2014, patient undergoing rectal anastomoses by colorectal surgeons at our institution underwent prospective application of intraoperative flexible endoscopy with mucosal grading. Retrospective review of patient medical records was performed. After creation of the colorectal anastomosis, application of a three-tier endoscopic mucosal grading system occurred. Grade 1 was defined as circumferentially normal appearing peri-anastomotic mucosa. Grade 2 was defined as ischemia or congestion involving 30% of the colon or rectal mucosa or ischemia/congestion involving both sides of the staple line. From 2011 to 2014, a total of 106 patients were reviewed. Grade 1 anastomoses were created in 92 (86.7%) patients and Grade 2 anastomoses were created in 10 (9.4%) patients. All 4 (3.8%) Grade 3 patients underwent immediate intraoperative anastomosis takedown and re-creation, with subsequent re-classification as Grade 1. Demographic and comorbidity data were similar between Grade 1 and Grade 2 patients. Anastomotic leak rate for the entire cohort was 12.2%. Grade 1 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 9.4% (9/96) and Grade 2 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 40% (4/10). Multivariate logistic regression associated Grade 2 classification with an increased risk of anastomotic leak (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.21-13.63, P = 0.023). Endoscopic mucosal grading is a feasible intraoperative technique that has a role following creation of a rectal anastomosis. Identification of a Grade 2 or Grade 3 anastomosis should provoke strong consideration for immediate intraoperative revision.

  3. Grade Inflation in Medical Student Radiation Oncology Clerkships: Missed Opportunities for Feedback?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Sosnowicz, Stasha; Li, Jiaqi; Mitra, Nandita; Berman, Abigail T.; Baffic, Cordelia; Vapiwala, Neha; Freedman, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that medical student radiation oncology elective rotation grades are inflated and cannot be used to distinguish residency applicants. Methods and Materials: The records of 196 applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program in 2011 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The grades for each rotation in radiation oncology were collected and converted to a standardized 4-point grading scale (honors, high pass, pass, fail). Pass/fail grades were scored as not applicable. The primary study endpoint was to compare the distribution of applicants' grades in radiation oncology with their grades in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology core clerkships. Results: The mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score of the applicants was 237 (range, 188-269), 43% had additional Masters or PhD degrees, and 74% had at least 1 publication. Twenty-nine applicants were graded for radiation oncology rotations on a pass/fail basis and were excluded from the final analysis. Of the remaining applicants (n=167), 80% received the highest possible grade for their radiation oncology rotations. Grades in radiation oncology were significantly higher than each of the other 4 clerkships studied (P<.001). Of all applicants, 195 of 196 matched into a radiation oncology residency. Higher grades in radiation oncology were associated with significantly higher grades in the pediatrics core clerkship (P=.002). However, other medical school performance metrics were not significantly associated with higher grades in radiation oncology. Conclusions: Although our study group consists of a selected group of radiation oncology applicants, their grades in radiation oncology clerkships were highly skewed toward the highest grades when compared with grades in other core clerkships. Student grading in radiation oncology clerkships should be re-evaluated to incorporate more objective and detailed performance metrics to allow for

  4. Long-term Results from the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth Program, a Multimodal School-Based Approach, Show Marked Reductions in Suicidality, Depression, and Anxiety in 6,227 Students in Grades 6–12 (Aged 11–18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H.; Bercov, Marni; Suen, Victoria Y. M.; Allen, Andrea; Cribben, Ivor; Goodrick, Jodi; Henry, Stu; Pryce, Catherine; Langstraat, Pieter; Rittenbach, Katherine; Chakraborty, Samprita; Engles, Rutger C.; McCabe, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report on findings from a 15-month follow-up of a school-based program called Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth (EMPATHY). This was primarily intended to reduce suicidal thinking in pre-teens, adolescents, and youth students aged 11–18 in middle schools (Grades 6–8) and high SCHOOLS (Grades 9–12). It also aimed to reduce depression and anxiety. The EMPATHY multimodal program consisted of repeated data collection, identification of a high-risk group, a rapid intervention for this high-risk group including offering supervised online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program, a universal CBT intervention for those in Grades 6–8, a variety of interactions with trained staff (“Resiliency Coaches”), and referral to external medical and psychiatric services where appropriate. There were four time-points at which assessments were made: baseline, 3, 7, and 15 months. Here, we report cross-sectional findings over 15 months in a total of 6,227 students who were assessed at least once during the study period. Additionally, we report longitudinal findings from the 1,884 students who completed all 4 assessments. Our results found highly statistically significant decreases in suicidality rates, with the percentage of the total school population who were actively suicidal decreasing from 4.4% at baseline (n = 143 of 3,244) to 2.8% at 15 months (n = 125 of 4,496) (p < 0.001). There were also highly statistically significant reductions in depression and anxiety scores at each time-point. Thus, Mean Depression scores at baseline for the entire student population were 3.73 ± 3.87 (n = 3,244) at baseline and decreased to 3.22 ± 3.52 (n = 4,496) (p < 0.001). Since most students were not depressed, whole population changes such as this may indicate impact in many areas. In the longitudinal analysis of students who completed all four assessments, there were also highly statistically significant improvements

  5. Long-term Results from the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth Program, a Multimodal School-Based Approach, Show Marked Reductions in Suicidality, Depression, and Anxiety in 6,227 Students in Grades 6–12 (Aged 11–18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Silverstone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on findings from a 15-month follow-up of a school-based program called Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth (EMPATHY. This was primarily intended to reduce suicidal thinking in pre-teens, adolescents, and youth students aged 11–18 in middle schools (Grades 6–8 and high SCHOOLS (Grades 9–12. It also aimed to reduce depression and anxiety. The EMPATHY multimodal program consisted of repeated data collection, identification of a high-risk group, a rapid intervention for this high-risk group including offering supervised online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT program, a universal CBT intervention for those in Grades 6–8, a variety of interactions with trained staff (“Resiliency Coaches”, and referral to external medical and psychiatric services where appropriate. There were four time-points at which assessments were made: baseline, 3, 7, and 15 months. Here, we report cross-sectional findings over 15 months in a total of 6,227 students who were assessed at least once during the study period. Additionally, we report longitudinal findings from the 1,884 students who completed all 4 assessments. Our results found highly statistically significant decreases in suicidality rates, with the percentage of the total school population who were actively suicidal decreasing from 4.4% at baseline (n = 143 of 3,244 to 2.8% at 15 months (n = 125 of 4,496 (p < 0.001. There were also highly statistically significant reductions in depression and anxiety scores at each time-point. Thus, Mean Depression scores at baseline for the entire student population were 3.73 ± 3.87 (n = 3,244 at baseline and decreased to 3.22 ± 3.52 (n = 4,496 (p < 0.001. Since most students were not depressed, whole population changes such as this may indicate impact in many areas. In the longitudinal analysis of students who completed all four assessments, there were also highly statistically significant

  6. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-10-30

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  7. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24 h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72 h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced. PMID:26858565

  8. A better norm-referenced grading using the standard deviation criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    The commonly used norm-referenced grading assigns grades to rank-ordered students in fixed percentiles. It has the disadvantage of ignoring the actual distance of scores among students. A simple norm-referenced grading via standard deviation is suggested for routine educational grading. The number of standard deviation of a student's score from the class mean was used as the common yardstick to measure achievement level. Cumulative probability of a normal distribution was referenced to help decide the amount of students included within a grade. RESULTS of the foremost 12 students from a medical examination were used for illustrating this grading method. Grading by standard deviation seemed to produce better cutoffs in allocating an appropriate grade to students more according to their differential achievements and had less chance in creating arbitrary cutoffs in between two similarly scored students than grading by fixed percentile. Grading by standard deviation has more advantages and is more flexible than grading by fixed percentile for norm-referenced grading.

  9. Coupled plasmon modes and their localization in graded plasmonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J.J.; Yakubo, K.; Yu, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmonic waves occur in the subwavelength scale with transverse confinement below the diffraction limit. In this work, we report results of longitudinal localization-delocalization transitions of coupled plasmon modes in graded chains of metallic nanodots. Two graded models are studied: graded index of refraction in the host medium and incremental spacing between the nanoparticles. The coupled plasmon modes in these graded systems exhibit strong localization, showing a tunable passband in finite size systems. These localized modes survive in presence of weak loss in the nanodots. To understand the localization mechanism, we construct equivalent systems of one-dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators, whose coupling strength or masses are gradually varied from one end to the other, with additional on-site potentials. Confining and transmitting electromagnetic energy in these structures may pave new way for many fruitful applications in plasmonics

  10. Ortographic difficulties in writing at a basic grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the performance in children’s writing at a basic grade level. A written test was applied to 546 grade 2 or 3 boys and girls (aged 7 to 13 in public and private schools from the State of São Paulo. The results showed that the grade 3 participants presented a better performance than the grade 2 participants even though both groups have achieved the same maximum and minimum scores. It was confirmed that participants had more difficulty with words containing compound syllables, while words with aggregated consonants and digraphs were associated with the highest rate of correct answers. Furthermore, students from private school revealed more competence in orthographic writing than those coming from public schools. As to gender differences, there were no significant differences in performance for compound and complex syllables items though for other words, girls had better scores.   Keywords: writing; academic achievement; evaluation.

  11. Anaplasia and grading in medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Burger, Peter C

    2003-07-01

    The variable clinical outcomes of medulloblastoma patients have prompted a search for markers with which to tailor therapies to individuals. In this review, we discuss clinical, histological and molecular features that can be used in such treatment customization, focusing on how histopathological grading can impact both patient care and research on the molecular basis of CNS embryonal tumors. Medulloblastomas span a histological spectrum ending in overtly malignant large cell/anaplastic lesions characterized by increased nuclear size, marked cytological anaplasia, and increased mitotic and apoptotic rates. These "high-grade" lesions make up approximately one quarter of medulloblastomas, and recur and metastasize more frequently than tumors lacking anaplasia. We believe anaplastic change represents a type of malignant progression common to many medulloblastoma subtypes and to other CNS embryonal lesions as well. Correlation of these histological changes with the accumulation of genetic events suggests a model for the histological and molecular progression of medulloblastoma.

  12. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  14. Measure of uncertainty in regional grade variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Kaymak, U.; Melin, P.; Castillo, O.; Gomez Ramirez, E.; Kacprzyk, J.; Pedrycz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Because the geological events are neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the geological investigations are characterized by particularly high uncertainties. This paper presents a hybrid methodology for measuring of uncertainty in regional grade variability. In order to evaluate the fuzziness in grade

  15. How is anxiety related to math performance in young students? A longitudinal study of Grade 2 to Grade 3 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Elisa; Tomasetto, Carlo; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2017-06-01

    Both general and math-specific anxiety are related to proficiency in mathematics. However, it is not clear when math anxiety arises in young children, nor how it relates to early math performance. This study therefore investigated the early association between math anxiety and math performance in Grades 2 and 3, by accounting for general anxiety and by further inspecting the prevalent directionality of the anxiety-performance link. Results revealed that this link was significant in Grade 3, with a prevalent direction from math anxiety to performance, rather than the reverse. Longitudinal analyses also showed an indirect effect of math anxiety in Grade 2 on subsequent math performance in Grade 3. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety from the early stages of schooling in order to promote proficient academic performance.

  16. The grading management of the quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaozheng; Han Shufang; Yu Bei; Tian Xuehang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the quality assurance grading management of the items, services and technology process on nuclear power plants (nuclear island, conventional island, BOP), such as the requirements and aim in the related code, guide, technical document, the requirements for the related units, the grading principle and grading, the considering method for the differences of QA requirements of the each QA grand, as well as the status and propositions in the QA grading management in China. (authors)

  17. The pathologist's mean grade is constant and individualizes the prognostic value of bladder cancer grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Bas W G; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Ooms, Bert C M; Kirkels, Wim J; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boevé, Egbert R; Jöbsis, Adriaan C; van der Kwast, Theo H

    2010-06-01

    A new grading system for bladder cancer (BCa) was adopted in 2004 to reduce observer variability and provide better prognostic information. We compared the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 systems for observer variability and prognosis. Slides of 173 primary non-muscle-invasive BCa were reviewed two times by four pathologists. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using κ statistics. We determined the mean grade (eg, G1/low malignant potential is 1 grade point, G2/low grade is 2 grade points) of the pathologists per grading cycle. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied for prediction of recurrence and progression. For WHO 2004 and 1973 grading, the agreement between the pathologists was 39-74% (κ: 0.14-0.58) and 39-64% (κ: 0.15-0.41), respectively. The intraobserver agreement varied from 71% to 88% (κ: 0.55-0.81). The mean grade of a pathologist was constant (difference below 0.1 grade point) irrespective of the grading system. Conversely, mean-grade differences among the pathologists were high, up to 0.7 grade point. The mean grades for the WHO 2004 system were 0.3-0.5 grade point higher than those of WHO 1973. Mean grade distinguished low and high graders among the pathologists and was strongly linked with risk of progression in each grade category. The variation in mean grade among individual pathologists exceeded the grade shift caused by WHO 2004 grading. Knowledge of the pathologist's mean grade allows a better assessment of the prognostic value of grading. Mean grade has the potential to become a tool for quality assurance in pathology. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  19. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  20. Forecasting and recruitment in graded manpower systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Wessels, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a generalized Markov model is introduced to describe the dynamic behaviour of an individual employee in a graded Manpower system. Characteristics like the employee's grade, his educational level, his age and the time spent in his actual grade, can be incorporated in the Markov model.

  1. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  2. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  3. Fractal Behavior Of Gleason And Srigley Grading Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Serbanescu

    2016-06-01

    In-class variation was 0.045 using the box-counting algorithm and 0.048 using the R-VA algorithm for Gleason grading system and 0.161 using the box-counting algorithm and 0.178 using the R-VA algorithm for Srigley grading system. Inter-class variation was, for Gleason grading system 13/28 using the box-counting algorithm and 20/28 using the R-VA algorithm while for the Srigley grading system was 3/6 using the box-counting algorithm and 5/6 using the R-VA algorithm respectively. Srigley grading system seems to perform better than Gleason’s on inter-class variation, but has lower performance on in-class variation. Nevertheless, we must note that there is a large difference between the two systems regarding the number of classes. The FD computed with the R-VA algorithm has better discrimination results than the one computed with the box-counting algorithm in both grading systems, thus proving once again the R-VA’s performance [3].

  4. Correlation between grade of pearlite spheroidization and laser induced spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunchun; Dong, Meirong; Lu, Jidong; Li, Jun; Dong, Xuan

    2013-12-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) which is used traditionally as a spectrochemical analytical technique was employed to analyze the grade of pearlite spheroidization. Three 12Cr1MoV steel specimens with different grades of pearlite spheroidization were ablated to produce plasma by pulse laser at 266 nm. In order to determine the optimal temporal condition and plasma parameters for correlating the grade of pearlite spheroidization and laser induced spectra, a set of spectra at different delays were analyzed by the principal component analysis method. Then, the relationship between plasma temperature, intensity ratios of ionic to atomic lines and grade of pearlite spheroidization was studied. The analysis results show that the laser induced spectra of different grades of pearlite spheroidization can be readily identifiable by principal component analysis in the range of 271.941-289.672 nm with 1000 ns delay time. It is also found that a good agreement exists between the Fe ionic to atomic line ratios and the tensile strength, whereas there is no obvious difference in the plasma temperature. Therefore, LIBS may be applied not only as a spectrochemical analytical technique but also as a new way to estimate the grade of pearlite spheroidization.

  5. Correlation between grade of pearlite spheroidization and laser induced spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Shunchun; Dong, Meirong; Lu, Jidong; Li, Jun; Dong, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) which is used traditionally as a spectrochemical analytical technique was employed to analyze the grade of pearlite spheroidization. Three 12Cr1MoV steel specimens with different grades of pearlite spheroidization were ablated to produce plasma by pulse laser at 266 nm. In order to determine the optimal temporal condition and plasma parameters for correlating the grade of pearlite spheroidization and laser induced spectra, a set of spectra at different delays were analyzed by the principal component analysis method. Then, the relationship between plasma temperature, intensity ratios of ionic to atomic lines and grade of pearlite spheroidization was studied. The analysis results show that the laser induced spectra of different grades of pearlite spheroidization can be readily identifiable by principal component analysis in the range of 271.941–289.672 nm with 1000 ns delay time. It is also found that a good agreement exists between the Fe ionic to atomic line ratios and the tensile strength, whereas there is no obvious difference in the plasma temperature. Therefore, LIBS may be applied not only as a spectrochemical analytical technique but also as a new way to estimate the grade of pearlite spheroidization. (paper)

  6. Optimizing grade-control drillhole spacing with conditional simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martínez-Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a method to determine the optimum spacing of grade-control drillholes drilled with reverse-circulation. The optimum drillhole spacing was defined as that one whose cost equals the cost of misclassifying ore and waste in selection mining units (SMU. The cost of misclassification of a given drillhole spacing is equal to the cost of processing waste misclassified as ore (Type I error plus the value of the ore misclassified as waste (Type II error. Type I and Type II errors were deduced by comparing true and estimated grades at SMUs, in relation to a cuttoff grade value and assuming free ore selection. True grades at SMUs and grades at drillhole samples were generated with conditional simulations. A set of estimated grades at SMU, one per each drillhole spacing, were generated with ordinary kriging. This method was used to determine the optimum drillhole spacing in a gold deposit. The results showed that the cost of misclassification is sensitive to extreme block values and tend to be overrepresented. Capping SMU’s lost values and implementing diggability constraints was recommended to improve calculations of total misclassification costs.

  7. PA03.13. Effect of triphaladi rasayana along with yoga therapy on low grade non hodgkins lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade non hodgkins lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, MS Surya; Sarasa, TP

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: 1. To find out the effect of Thriphaladi Rasayana along with Yoga Therapy on low grade Non Hodgkins Lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma. 2. To apply a less costly, less morbid, well accepted method of treatment on NHL. 3.To find a simple method to increase the immunity. 4.To try a drug which is easy to prepare? Method: Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Sample of 30 patients age range 25 75 years with histologicaly proven NonHodgkins lymphoma, attending the M.O.I.O.P of the regional cancer centre during a period of 18 months. Groups1) Low grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma 2) Resistant intermediate &High grade NonHodgkins lymphoma (failed chemotherapy) were taken. Procedure : 2 groups were given Triphaladhi Rasayana (15 grams of powder with ghee and honey) twice dailymorning& at bed time with milk as anupana for period of 1month along with selected yoga asanas and niyama? Result: Symptoms included were fever, night sweats, weight loss, lymph nodes enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. In low grade symptom relief was noted in almost all cases. Lymph node changes notedLow grade5 2% (complete remission), 38% (partial remission), 10% (no change), intermediate35% (CR), 52% (PR) & 13% (NC), High grade67% (CR), 33%(PR). Hepatomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate 90.9% & high grade100%. Splenomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate72.72% & high grade80% Over all remission status of 30 patientscomplete remission30%, partial remission 30% & no change30%? Conclusion: Thriphaladirasayana along with Yoga therapy is very effective in Low grade NonHodgkins lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade Non hodgkins Lymphoma?

  8. Correlation between CT grading and blood interleukin-6 in severe acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokohari, Kenji; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Shiga, Hidetoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuya; Nakamura, Masataka

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and an evaluating of the degree of severity in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) are required to decide the therapeutic strategy. We measured blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) in critically ill patients at our intensive care unit (ICU) in a daily clinical setting. To determine the significance of grading CT findings in SAP, we studied the correlation between CT grading and blood IL-6 in SAP patients on ICU admission. Among 31 SAP cases, 66 were CT grade III, 22 CT grade IV, and 3 cases CT grade V. Patients with a higher CT grade tended to have higher blood IL-6. Data also showed that mean blood IL-6 among SAP patients in stage 2 was significantly higher than that among those in stage 3 (p<0.05). From these results, we concluded that CT grading and IL-6 blood level have a different significance in the management of SAP patients. (author)

  9. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per

    2011-07-01

    torque are combined with observations of the road altitude from a GPS receiver, using vehicle and road models. The operation of the estimators is adjusted during gearshifts, braking, and poor satellite coverage, to account for variations in sensor and model reliability. The estimated error covariances of the road grade estimates are used together with their absolute positions to update a stored road grade map. Highway driving trials show that the proposed estimators produce accurate road grade data. The estimation performance improves as the number of road segment traces increases. A vehicle equipped with the proposed system will rapidly develop a road grade map for its area of operation. Simulations show that collaborative generation of the third dimension for a pre-existing large area two-dimensional map is feasible. The experimental results indicate that road grade estimates from the proposed methods are accurate enough to be used in predictive vehicle control systems to enhance safety, efficiency, and driver comfort in heavy duty vehicles. The grade estimators may also be used for on-line validation of road grade information from other sources. This is important in on-board applications, since the envisioned control applications can degrade vehicle performance if inaccurate data are used

  10. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  11. Association of Grade Configuration with School Climate for 7th and 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marisa; Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan

    2017-01-01

    Educational authorities have questioned whether middle schools provide the best school climate for 7th and 8th grade students, and proposed that other grade configurations such as K-8th grade schools may provide a better learning environment. The purpose of this study was to compare 7th and 8th grade students' perceptions of 4 key features of…

  12. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  13. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  14. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  15. Low grade gastric MALT lymphoma: Radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.A.; Carson, B.W.; Gascoyne, R.D.; Cooperberg, P.L.; Connors, J.M.; Mason, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: Gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma is now recognized as a distinct entity within extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to describe the radiographic findings in low grade gastric MALT lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the radiographic findings in 22 cases of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. The study group consisted of 15 men and seven women (median age 68 years, range 41-91 years). Lesions were designated as infiltrative or polypoid by consensus of two radiologists. Polypoid lesions were categorized by number and size. Anatomical site within the stomach and presence of transpyloric or oesophagogastric extension was determined for each case. The presence of abdominal lymphadenopathy was categorized as regional or distant. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was determined from endoscopic and surgical biopsies. RESULTS: Computed tomography (CT) revealed abnormalities of the stomach in 19 cases of the 21 in which it was performed. There were 14 infiltrative lesions and five polypoid lesions. Of the 14 infiltrative lesions, the mean gastric wall thickness was 2.2 cm (range 0.8-6.0 cm). There were three single and two multiple polypoid lesions (mean size 2.2 cm, range 1.5-2.7 cm). Transpyloric extension was observed in two cases and oesophagogastric extension in one. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was observed in 10 of 21 patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 19 of 22 cases (86%). CONCLUSION: Low grade B cell gastric MALT lymphomas present with an infiltrative form on CT in about three-quarters of cases and a polypoid pattern in the remainder. Abdominal lymphadenopathy is seen in approximately one-half of cases. There is a high association with Helicobacter pylori. Brown, J.A. 2000. Clinical Radiology 55, 384-389

  16. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  17. Differentiation of initial skills in 1st grade and the relative age effect in 3rd grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRZYSZTOF KONARZEWSKI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to verify two hypotheses. The first states that the differentiation of initial 1st grade pupil skills is negatively correlated with age at entry to school. This was tested according to findings from the ERI study Six and seven year olds at the start of school. The variation of reading and writing scores of 1164 pupils aged 5.9–7.9 years who were beginning 1st grade decreased in subsequent age quartiles. The second hypothesis – that classroom differentiation of pupils’ initial skills in 1st grade is positively correlated with the birthdate effect in 3rd grade – was tested on data of 4838 pupils from 254 classrooms drawn from the 2011 PIRLS and TIMSS studies in Poland. Skills were evaluated on the basis of parental reports. Hierarchical linear analysis (gender, SES and school location controlled showed that the greater the differentiation of language skills in 1st grade, the greater the birthdate effect in mathematics in 3rd grade. This result suggests that school entry age is of lesser importance than the methods used to reduce differences in children’s school readiness at the onset of education.

  18. Pharmacokinetic MRI of the prostate. Parameters for differentiating low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Taupitz, M.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Luedemann, L.; Rost, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate whether pharmacokinetic MRI parameters ''perfusion, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), interstitial volume, permeability, extraction coefficient, delay, and dispersion'' allow the differentiation of low-grade (Gleason score ≤ 6) and high-grade (Gleason score ≥ 7) prostate cancer. Materials and method: forty-two patients with prostate cancer verified by biopsy (PSA 2.7 to 31.4ng/ml) and scheduled for prostatectomy underwent MRI at 1.5 Tesla using the dynamic contrast-enhanced inversion-prepared dual-contrast gradient echo sequence (temporal resolution, 1.65 s) and a combined endorectal body phased array coil. Parametric maps were computed using a sequential 3-compartment model and the corresponding post-processing algorithms. A total of 41 areas of prostate cancer (15 low-grade, 26 high-grade cancers) in 32 patients were able to be correlated with the prostatectomy specimens and were included in the analysis. Results: low-grade prostate cancers had a higher mean blood volume (1.76% vs. 1.64%, p = 0.039), longer MTT (6.39 s vs. 3.25 s, p -1 vs. 3.86 min -1 , p = 0.011) than high-grade cancers. No statistically significant difference was found for perfusion (p = 0.069), interstitial volume (p = 0.849), extraction coefficient (p = 0.615), delay (p = 0.489), and dispersion (p = 0.306). (orig.)

  19. Laser-controlled land grading for farmland drainage in the Red River Valley: an economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, S.; Watt, D.; Disrud, L.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted in the Red River Valley to evaluate the benefits of laser land grading for drainage. Graded fields were compared with ungraded fields to measure changes in crop yields due to better drainage on the graded fields. Cut-and-fill areas were studied in graded fields to evaluate the effect of grading on nutrient levels and crop uniformity. Potential cut-and-fill areas on an ungraded field were also studied for yield uniformity and nutrient levels and compared with the graded field. Crop maturity and yield were more uniform on graded fields (0.05 level of significance) than on ungraded fields. Aerial photographs indicated graded fields had more uniform drainage and, consequently, more uniform crop maturity at harvest. A method is presented for determining the economic feasibility of land grading based upon the percentage of land lost to drown out, the value of the crop, and the cost of grading. The economic analysis indicates that land grading on the areas studied resulted in an 8-year payback and a positive investment return for a longer period of time. (author)

  20. EMMPRIN expression positively correlates with WHO grades of astrocytomas and meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Li-Chun; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Ma, Hsin-I; Huang, Shih-Ming; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    High-grade primary brain tumors possessed poor outcome due to invasiveness. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates peri-tumoral fibroblasts to secrete matrix metalloproteinase and promote invasiveness. This study hypothesized that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN. Analyzing the public delinked database from the Gene Expression Omnibus profile, the results showed that the EMMPRIN mRNA level was higher in WHO grade IV (n = 81) than in grade III (n = 19, p EMMPRIN levels positively correlated with WHO grades for astrocytomas (p = 0.008) and meningiomas (p = 0.048). EMMPRIN mRNA levels in conventional glioma cell lines (n = 36) was not less than those in glioma primary culture cells (n = 27) and glioblastoma stem-like cells (n = 12). The GBM8401, U87MG, and LN229 human glioma cell lines also overexpressed EMMPRIN. Hematoxylin and eosin, IHC, and immunofluorescence staining of xenografts confirmed that high-grade brain tumors overexpressed EMMPRIN. Lastly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed poorer survival in WHO grade IV (n = 56) than in grade III astrocytomas (n = 21, by log-rank test; p = 0.0001, 95 % CI: 1.842-3.053). However, in high-grade astrocytomas, there was no difference in survival between high and low EMMPRIN mRNA levels. Thus, this study identified that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN, which positively correlates with WHO grades in human astrocytomas and meningiomas, and suggests that EMMPRIN may be a therapeutic target of brain tumor.

  1. An equipment test for grading lumber by transverse vibration technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigo Carreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great variability of its mechanical properties, the rational use of lumber for structural purposes is directly conditioned to its grading. There are several techniques available for grading structural lumber. The most relevant one is the transverse vibration technique which obtained reliable results in non-destructive evaluation of lumber. The purpose of this work is to present the bases for the mechanical grading of lumber and the results of the calibration test of the frst transverse vibration equipment developed in Brazil. In this research 30 beams of cupiúba (Goupia glabra with nominal dimensions of 5 cm X 10 cm X 300 cm, were used. The tests were accomplished at the Wood and Timber Structures Laboratory (LaMEM of the University of São Paulo (USP. The results showed a strong correlation between the elasticity modulus measured by the static bending test and the one obtained with the transverse vibration equipment, showing the high reliability of the vibration method for the grading of structural lumber. A determination coeffcient (R² of 0.896 was obtained with the Brazilian equipment, showing that it can be used in the grading of lumber.

  2. Estimation of intermediate grade uranium resources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambie, F.W.; Kendall, G.R.; Klahn, L.J.; Davis, J.C.; Harbaugh, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the technique currently used by DOE to estimate intermediate grade uranium (0.01 to 0.05% U 3 O 8 ) and, if possible, suggest alternatives to improve the accuracy and precision of the estimate. There are three principal conclusions resulting from this study. They relate to the quantity, distribution and sampling of intermediate grade uranium. While the results of this study must be validated further, they indicate that DOE may be underestimating intermediate level reserves by 20 to 30%. Plots of grade of U 3 O 8 versus tonnage of ore and tonnage U 3 O 8 indicate grade-tonnage relationships that are essentially log-linear, at least down to 0.01% U 3 O 8 . Though this is not an unexpected finding, it may provide a technique for reducing the uncertainty of intermediate grade endowment. The results of this study indicate that a much lower drill hole density is necessary for DOE to estimate uranium resources than for a mining company to calculate ore resources. Though errors in local estimates will occur, they will tend to cancel over the entire deposit

  3. Differentiation between grade 3 and grade 4 articular cartilage defects of the knee: Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted versus fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Sun Ki (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: whjee@catholic.ac.kr; Koh, In-Jun (Dept. of Joint Reconstruction Center, Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea)); Kim, Jung-Man (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Fat-suppressed (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FS three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo imaging such as spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence have been established as accurate methods for detecting articular cartilage defects. Purpose: To retrospectively compare the diagnostic efficacy between FS PD-weighted and FS 3D gradient-echo MRI for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects of the knee with arthroscopy as the standard of reference. Material and Methods: Twenty-one patients who had grade 3 or 4 cartilage defects in medial femoral condyle at arthroscopy and knee MRI were included in this study: grade 3, >50% cartilage defects; grade 4, full thickness cartilage defects exposed to the bone. Sagittal FS PD-weighted MR images and FS 3D gradient-echo images with 1.5 T MR images were independently graded for the cartilage abnormalities of medial femoral condyle by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. Inter-observer agreement in grading of cartilage was assessed using ? coefficients. Results: Arthroscopy revealed grade 3 defects in 17 patients and grade 4 defects in 4 patients in medial femoral condyles. For FS 3D gradient-echo images grade 3 defects were graded as grade 3 (n=15) and grade 4 (n=2), and all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. However, for FS PD-weighted MR images all grade 3 defects were misinterpreted as grade 1 (n=1) and grade 4 (n=16), whereas all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. FS 3D gradient-echo MRI could differentiate grade 3 from grade 4 defects (P=0.003), whereas FS PD-weighted imaging could not (P=1.0). Inter-observer agreement was substantial (?=0.70) for grading of cartilage using FS PD-weighted imaging, whereas it was moderate (?=0.46) using FS 3D gradient-echo imaging. Conclusion: FS 3D gradient-echo MRI is more helpful for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage

  4. SURFACE TREATMENT AND EXAMINATION OF GRADE 2 AND GRADE 5 TITANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface characteristics play an important role in the implant-bone integration that is required for the long-term reliability of dental and orthopedic implants. In this paper, we investigate the effect of acid etching on the mass reduction and roughness of grade 2 and grade 5 Ti under controlled experimental conditions. Three different etching compounds were investigated: 30% HCl, 85% H3PO4 and the compound of 30% (COOH2 × 2H2O and 30% H2O2 in various treatment intervals under controlled temperature. Stereo microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, roughness and weight measurements were carried out on the samples. We found that neither 85% H3PO4 nor the compound of 30% (COOH2 × 2H2O and 30% H2O2 were able to remove the machining marks from the surface of Ti discs in our experimental setting. On the other hand, etching in 30% HCl yielded even surfaces both on Ti grade 2 and 5 discs. We also found that etching at higher temperatures in 30% HCl resulted in significant mass loss.

  5. Ninth Grade Adjustment and Achievement as Related to Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Gerald P.; Weigel, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    School records of 643 ninth-grade students were examined. Classroom adjustment was measured by the Classroom Behavior Inventory. Results indicated that mobility was negatively related to math achievement and adjustment. Results are discussed in relation to the peer society and the use of these data for schools. (Author/RL)

  6. Correlation of DNA content and nucleomorphometric features with World Health Organization grading of meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, J P; Röhl, F W; Kirches, E; Dietzmann, K

    1998-02-01

    Many studies dealing with extracranial cancer showed a strong correlation of DNA ploidy to a poor clinical outcome, recurrence, or malignancy. In brain tumors, analysis of DNA content did not always provided significant diagnostic information. In this study, DNA density and karyometric parameters of 50 meningiomas (26 Grade I, 10 Grade II, 14 Grade III) were quantitatively evaluated by digital cell image analyses of Feulgen-stained nuclei. In particular, the densitometric parameter SEXT, which describes nuclear DNA content, as well as the morphometric values LENG (a computer-assisted measurement of nuclear circumference), AREA (a computer-assisted measurement of nuclear area), FCON (a parameter that describes nuclear roundness), and CONC (a describing nuclear contour), evaluated with the software IMAGE C, were correlated to World Health Organization (WHO) grading using univariate and multivariate methods. AREA and LENG values showed significant differences between tumors of Grades I and III. FCON values were unable to distinguish WHO Grade III from Grade I/II but were useful in clearly separating Grade II from Grade I tumors. CONC values detected differences between WHO Grades II and I/III tumors but not between the latter. SEXT values clearly distinguished Grade III from Grade I/II tumors. The 1c, 2c, 2.5c, and 5c exceeding rates showed no predictive values. Only the 6c exceeding rate showed a significant difference between Grades I and III. These results outline the characteristic features of the atypical (Grade II) meningiomas, which make them a recognizable tumor entity distinct from benign and anaplastic meningiomas. The combination of DNA densitometric and morphometric findings seems to be a powerful addition to the histopathologic classification of meningiomas, as suggested by the WHO.

  7. Controlling Thermal Conduction by Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qin; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Manipulating thermal conductivities are fundamentally important for controlling the conduction of heat at will. Thermal cloaks and concentrators, which have been extensively studied recently, are actually graded materials designed according to coordinate transformation approaches, and their effective thermal conductivity is equal to that of the host medium outside the cloak or concentrator. Here we attempt to investigate a more general problem: what is the effective thermal conductivity of graded materials? In particular, we perform a first-principles approach to the analytic exact results of effective thermal conductivities of materials possessing either power-law or linear gradation profiles. On the other hand, by solving Laplace’s equation, we derive a differential equation for calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a material whose thermal conductivity varies along the radius with arbitrary gradation profiles. The two methods agree with each other for both external and internal heat sources, as confirmed by simulation and experiment. This work provides different methods for designing new thermal metamaterials (including thermal cloaks and concentrators), in order to control or manipulate the transfer of heat. Support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11725521, by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality under Grant No. 16ZR1445100

  8. Grade III or Grade IV Hypertensive Retinopathy with Severely Elevated Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Henderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertensive retinopathy describes a spectrum of retinal changes in patients with elevated blood pressure (BP. It is unknown why some patients are more likely to develop acute ocular end-organ damage than others with similar BP. We examined risk factors for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency in the emergency department (ED and compared healthcare utilization and mortality between patients with and without grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy.Methods: A preplanned subanalysis of patients who presented to a university hospital ED with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg and who enrolled in the Fundus Photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the ED study was performed. Bilateral nonmydriatic ocular fundus photographs, vital signs, and demographics were obtained at presentation. Past medical history, laboratory values, healthcare utilization, and mortality were ascertained from medical record review at least 8 months after initial ED visit.Results: Twenty-one patients with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg, 7 of whom (33% had grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, were included. Patients with retinopathy were significantly younger than those without (median 33 vs 50 years, P = 0.02. Mean arterial pressure (165 vs 163 mmHg was essentially equal in the 2 groups. Patients with retinopathy had substantially increased but nonsignificant rates of ED revisit (57% vs 29%, P = 0.35 and hospital admission after ED discharge (43% vs 14%, P = 0.28. One of the patients with retinopathy died, but none without.Conclusion: Younger patients may be at higher risk for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency. Chronic compensatory mechanisms may have not yet developed in these younger patients. Alternatively, older patients with retinopathy may be underrepresented secondary to increased mortality among these patients at a younger age (survivorship bias. Further research is needed to

  9. Hypofractionated intensity modulated irradiation for localized prostate cancer, results from a phase I/II feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junius, Sara; Haustermans, Karin; Bussels, Barbara; Oyen, Raymond; Vanstraelen, Bianca; Depuydt, Tom; Verstraete, Jan; Joniau, Steven; Van Poppel, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    To assess acute (primary endpoint) and late toxicity, quality of life (QOL), biochemical or clinical failure (secondary endpoints) of a hypofractionated IMRT schedule for prostate cancer (PC). 38 men with localized PC received 66 Gy (2.64 Gy) to prostate,2 Gy to seminal vesicles (50 Gy total) using IMRT. Acute toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy (RT), at 1–3 months afterwards using RTOG acute scoring system. Late side effects were scored at 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 36 months after RT using RTOG/EORTC criteria. Quality of life was assessed by EORTC-C30 questionnaire and PR25 prostate module. Biochemical failure was defined using ASTRO consensus and nadir+2 definition, clinical failure as local, regional or distant relapse. None experienced grade III-IV toxicity. 10% had no acute genito-urinary (GU) toxicity, 63% grade I; 26% grade II. Maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) scores 0, I, II were 37%, 47% and 16%. Maximal acute toxicity was reached weeks 4–5 and resolved within 4 weeks after RT in 82%. Grade II rectal bleeding needing coagulation had a peak incidence of 18% at 16 months after RT but is 0% at 24–36 months. One developed a urethral stricture at 2 years (grade II late GU toxicity) successfully dilated until now. QOL urinary symptom scores reached a peak incidence 1 month after RT but normalized 6 months later. Bowel symptom scores before, at 1–6 months showed similar values but rose slowly 2–3 years after RT. Nadir of sexual symptom scores was reached 1–6 months after RT but improved 2–3 years later as well as physical, cognitive and role functional scales. Emotional, social functional scales were lowest before RT when diagnosis was given but improved later. Two years after RT global health status normalized. This hypofractionated IMRT schedule for PC using 25 fractions of 2.64 Gy did not result in severe acute side effects. Until now late urethral, rectal toxicities seemed acceptable as well as failure rates. Detailed analysis of

  10. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  11. Laboratory study on subgrade soil stabilization using RBI grade 81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia, J. Bernadette; Kamalambikai, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.; Dharini, K.

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigates the effect of reinforcing the sub grade soils with RBI 81 material. A soil nearby was collected and preliminary tests were conducted to classify the soil and it was found from the results that the sample collected was a poorly graded clay. Subsequently Tests such as Proctor Compaction, CBR, and UCC were conducted to study the various engineering properties of the identified soil. In addition to the above tests were also conducted on the soil by reinforcing with varying percentages of RBI 81. From the analysis of test results it was found that this material (RBI 81) will significantly improve the CBR value of the soil.

  12. Generation IV and transmutation materials (GETMAT) project: First assessment of selected results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, Concetta; Serrano, Marta; Gessi, Alessandro; Henry, Jean; Malerba, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Generation IV and Transmutation Material (GETMAT) project has been initiated within the 7. EURATOM framework programme with the objective to support the development of innovative reactor designs. Emphasis has been put on the investigation, both in the theoretical and experimental domains, of selected material properties that are cross-cutting among the various Generation IV and Transmutation systems. The selection of the properties to be investigated has been performed by identifying relevant conditions of key components as cores and primary systems. Moreover, taking into account the envisaged conditions of these components it turned out that innovative materials might be a better choice with respect to conventional nuclear grade steels. Therefore, ODS alloys and 9-12 Cr Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) steels have been selected as reference for the GETMAT project. The R and D activities have been focused on basic characterisation of ODS alloys produced ad hoc for the project and on an extensive PIE programme of F/M steels irradiated in previous programmes. Finally, first principle modelling studies to explain irradiation hardening and embrittlement of F/M alloys were an additional important task. The objective of this manuscript is to make a first assessment of the results obtained within GETMAT. (authors)

  13. What is current practice in soft tissue sarcoma grading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golouh, R.; Bracko, M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. Most published grading systems of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are somewhat subjective and it seems that there is no definite consensus among experts which of them is the most effective. The aim of this study was to collect data from practicing pathologists and to get some insight in the practice of STS grading. Subjects. A questionnaire was sent to 135 pathologists chosen randomly. Results. There were 88 responders from 30 countries from 5 continents. Most responders (85%) grade STS, more frequently in Europe than in non-European countries. Three-grade system is preferred by both European and non-European pathologists, who use it in almost 77% and 67%, respectively. They apply the criteria set by FNCLCC in 37.3%, by NCI in 24%, by Broders in 12% and by Markhede in 1.4%. In Europe, FNCLCC system is the most widely used. Beside classical histological criteria, other modern methods are applied by more than one half of the responders. Immunohistochemical evaluation of proliferation markers is the method most widely used, followed by molecular markers and DNA flow cytometry. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate that most pathologists consider histologic grade of STS as a valuable, however not completely satisfactory predictor of a patient's survival. (author)

  14. Influence of Tönnis Grade on Outcomes of Arthroscopic Management of Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Bardowski, Elizabeth A; Jones, Kay S

    2018-05-19

    To define the outcomes of arthroscopic correction of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) based on Tönnis findings within a previously reported patient population, including a comparative analysis of Tönnis grade 0 and 1 versus grade 2 changes. Outcomes (modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS]) of a previously published study of arthroscopic correction of FAI were correlated with Tönnis grade. The inclusion criteria were the first 100 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic FAI correction with minimum 2-year follow-up. These procedures were performed between December 2003 and May 2006. Grades were determined independently by 2 experienced clinicians. Tönnis grades 0 and 1 were compared with Tönnis grade 2. Independent variables of sex and age were also evaluated. The average age of the entire group was 34.7 years (range, 13-76 years), with 66 male and 34 female patients. Of the patients, 17 had Tönnis grade 0, 49 had Tönnis grade 1, 29 had Tönnis grade 2, and 4 had Tönnis grade 3 (1 unknown). The average mHHS improvement for Tönnis grade 0 was 20.6 points; Tönnis grade 1, 22.2 points; Tönnis grade 2, 14.9 points; and Tönnis grade 3, 18.8 points. The improvement was statistically (P 8 points) significant across all Tönnis grades. There was no difference (P = .077) between Tönnis grades 0 and 1 (21.8 points) versus grade 2 (14.9 points). There was no difference based on sex or age. These data support that statistically and clinically meaningful successful patient-reported outcomes (mHHS) at 2 years can be encountered even in the presence of Tönnis grade 2 radiographic features. Neither age nor sex was an indicator of poorer results within similar Tönnis grades. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Repeated Intraperitoneal Injection of Pharmaceutical-grade and Nonpharmaceutical-grade Corn Oil in Female C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jennifer S; Chen, Patty H; Boyd, Kelli L

    2017-11-01

    Due to potential adverse effects on animal wellbeing, the use of nonpharmaceutical-grade substances in animal research must be scientifically justified in cases where a pharmaceutical-grade version of the substance exists. This requirement applies to all substances, including vehicles used to solubilize experimental drugs. To date, no studies have evaluated the direct effect of the pharmaceutical classification of a compound on animal wellbeing. In this study, we evaluated intraperitoneal administration of pharmaceutical-grade corn oil, nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil, and saline in female C57BL/6J mice. Compounds were administered every 48 h for a total of 4 injections. Mice were evaluated clinically by using body weight, body condition score, visual assessment score, CBC, and serum chemistries. Animals were euthanized at 24 h and 14 d after the final injection. Inflammation of the peritoneal wall and mesenteric fat was assessed microscopically by using a semiquantitative scoring system. Saline-dosed groups had lower pathology scores at both time points. At day 21, pharmaceutical-grade corn oil had a significantly higher pathology score compared with nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil. No other significant differences between the corn oil groups were observed. The use of nonpharmaceutical grade corn oil did not result in adverse clinical consequences and is presumed safe to use for intraperitoneal injection in mice. Differences in inflammation between the 2 groups suggest that the use of either pharmaceutical-grade or nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil should be consistent within a study.

  16. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee-Jin, E-mail: parkhiji@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo, E-mail: samskim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Yeon, E-mail: parkhiji@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh-Hyuck, E-mail: nhpark904@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yeon, E-mail: zzzz3@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Jung, E-mail: yoonchoi99@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyun-Jun, E-mail: ostrich-13@hanmail.net [Department of Occupational Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-ku, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography.

  17. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Hyun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography

  18. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

  19. A new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Ali; Taşdelen, Neslihan; Fırat, Zeynep

    2017-04-01

    Background Chondromalacia patellae is a very common disorder. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to investigate patellar cartilage lesions, there is no descriptive MRI-based grading system for chondromalacia patellae. Purpose To propose a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding high resolution images which might be useful in precisely reporting and comparing knee examinations in routine daily practice and used in predicting natural course and clinical outcome of the patellar cartilage lesions. Material and Methods High resolution fat-saturated proton density (FS PD) images in the axial plane with corresponding T2 mapping images were reviewed. A detailed MRI grading system covering the deficiencies of the existing gradings has been set and presented on these images. Two experienced observers blinded to clinical data examined 44 knee MR images and evaluated patellar cartilage changes according to the proposed grading system. Inter- and intra-rater validity testing using kappa statistics were calculated. Results A descriptive and detailed grading system with corresponding FS PD and T2 mapping images has been presented. Inter-rater agreement was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.89). Intra-rater agreements were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.91) for observer A and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.70-0.88) for observer B (k-values). Conclusion We present a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding images and good inter- and intra-rater agreement which might be useful in reporting and comparing knee MRI examinations in daily practice and may also have the potential for using more precisely predicting prognosis and clinical outcome of the patients.

  20. Assessment of tissue heterogeneity using diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging for grading gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam [International Institute of Information Technology-Bangalore, Bangalore (India); Saini, Jitender; Mahadevan, Anita; Rao, K.V.L. Narasinga; Swaminathan, Aarthi [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we aim to assess the significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters in grading gliomas. Retrospective studies were performed on 53 subjects with gliomas belonging to WHO grade II (n = 19), grade III (n = 20) and grade IV (n = 14). Expert marked regions of interest (ROIs) covering the tumour on T2-weighted images. Statistical texture measures such as entropy and busyness calculated over ROIs on diffusion parametric maps were used to assess the tumour heterogeneity. Additionally, we propose a volume heterogeneity index derived from cross correlation (CC) analysis as a tool for grading gliomas. The texture measures were compared between grades by performing the Mann-Whitney test followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. Entropy, busyness and volume heterogeneity index for all diffusion parameters except fractional anisotropy and anisotropy of kurtosis showed significant differences between grades. The Mann-Whitney test on mean diffusivity (MD), among DTI parameters, resulted in the highest discriminability with values of P = 0.029 (0.0421) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.0312 (0.0415) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). In DKI, mean kurtosis (MK) showed the highest discriminability, P = 0.018 (0.038) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.022 (0.04) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). Results of CC analysis illustrate the existence of homogeneity in volume (uniformity across slices) for lower grades, as compared to higher grades. Hypothesis testing performed on volume heterogeneity index showed P values of 0.0002 (0.0001) and 0.0003 (0.0003) between grades II vs. III and III vs. IV, respectively, for MD (MK). In summary, the studies demonstrated great potential towards automating grading gliomas by employing tumour heterogeneity measures on DTI and DKI parameters. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of tissue heterogeneity using diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging for grading gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam; Saini, Jitender; Mahadevan, Anita; Rao, K.V.L. Narasinga; Swaminathan, Aarthi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we aim to assess the significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters in grading gliomas. Retrospective studies were performed on 53 subjects with gliomas belonging to WHO grade II (n = 19), grade III (n = 20) and grade IV (n = 14). Expert marked regions of interest (ROIs) covering the tumour on T2-weighted images. Statistical texture measures such as entropy and busyness calculated over ROIs on diffusion parametric maps were used to assess the tumour heterogeneity. Additionally, we propose a volume heterogeneity index derived from cross correlation (CC) analysis as a tool for grading gliomas. The texture measures were compared between grades by performing the Mann-Whitney test followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. Entropy, busyness and volume heterogeneity index for all diffusion parameters except fractional anisotropy and anisotropy of kurtosis showed significant differences between grades. The Mann-Whitney test on mean diffusivity (MD), among DTI parameters, resulted in the highest discriminability with values of P = 0.029 (0.0421) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.0312 (0.0415) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). In DKI, mean kurtosis (MK) showed the highest discriminability, P = 0.018 (0.038) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.022 (0.04) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). Results of CC analysis illustrate the existence of homogeneity in volume (uniformity across slices) for lower grades, as compared to higher grades. Hypothesis testing performed on volume heterogeneity index showed P values of 0.0002 (0.0001) and 0.0003 (0.0003) between grades II vs. III and III vs. IV, respectively, for MD (MK). In summary, the studies demonstrated great potential towards automating grading gliomas by employing tumour heterogeneity measures on DTI and DKI parameters. (orig.)

  2. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Teaching Reading and Writing for First Grade Students in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhafir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the Kuwaiti first grade teachers' perceptions of developmentally appropriate practices in teaching reading and writing. To achieve the research purpose, a questionnaire was developed and administrated to 167 first grade teachers. Results revealed that first grade teachers hold moderate agreement towards…

  4. Processing of low-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1975-01-01

    Four types of low grade ores are studied. Low grade ores which must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. It allows to obtain solutions or preconcentrates which may be delivered at the nearest plant. Normal grade ores contained in a low amplitude deposit which can be processed using leaching as far as the operation does not need any large expensive equipment. Medium grade ores in medium amplitude deposits to which a simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. Low grade ores in large deposits. The processing possibilities leading to use in place leaching are explained. The operating conditions of the method are studied (leaching agent, preparation of the ore deposit to obtain a good tightness with regard to the hydrological system and to have a good contact between ore and reagent) [fr

  5. Processing of low grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1978-10-01

    Four types of low-grade ores are studied: (1) Low-grade ores that must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal-grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. (2) Normal-grade ores contained in low-amplitude deposits. They can be processed using in-place leaching as far as the operation does not need any large and expensive equipment. (3) Medium-grade ores in medium-amplitude deposits. A simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. (4) Low-grade ores in large deposits. The report explains processing possibilities leading in most cases to the use of in-place leaching. The operating conditions of this method are laid out, especially the selection of the leaching agents and the preparation of the ore deposit

  6. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    northern parts of Cuddapah basin in Andhra Pradesh is the host for unconformity related low grade uranium deposits. Four low grade low to medium tonnage deposits viz. Lambapur, Peddagattu, Chitrial and Koppunuru have been established in this province along the contact between basement granite and Proterozoic sedimentary rocks. This province also holds promise for large tonnage high grade mineralization in the deeper unexplored parts of the basin. The North Delhi Fold Belt in the states of Rajasthan and Haryana is the host for albitite/vein type uranium mineralization. A 320km long NE-SW trending zone of deep seated fractures and soda metasomatism hosted the low grade mineralization.. A low grade uranium deposit is already established at Rohil associated with albitites and vast areas in this zone is open for exploration. The Cigar lake deposit, one of the two very high grade deposits in the world, though discovered in the year 1991 remains unexploited because of it high grade and requirement of remote handling and high end mining technology. The Mc Arthur deposit is being mined by raisebore mining method and the entire operation is carried out by 750 employees. Because of the high grade nature of the ore, it is diluted with barren rocks to bring the grade into manageable level before the beneficiation. The Rossing uranium deposit in Namibia, the biggest opencast mine for uranium, is of low grade and produces nearly 8% of the global output. As a result of the massive mining and beneficiation operation, the employment of manpower is also very high compare to the high grade deposits. India, being a developing country with a high rate of unemployment, should treat the low grade deposits as an opportunity for employment. The operation of Rossing mine in Namibia is a shining example of as to how a low grade deposit could be economically exploited in the national interest and still be among the top five countries in terms of production. In spite of mining the low grade resources

  7. Structure with improved self-imaging in its graded-index multimode interference region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Rui; Jiang Xiaoqing; Yang Jianyi; Wang Minghua

    2002-01-01

    Propagation constant errors (PCEs) of guided modes in regions of multimode interference in optical networks were analyzed. Results show that a graded-index waveguide can effectively decrease the PCEs. An example based on an exponential function is presented. Numerical results show that addition of a graded-index waveguide greatly improves device performance in this structure

  8. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.

  9. Ski and snowboard school programs: Injury surveillance and risk factors for grade-specific injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, R; Djerboua, M; Romanow, N; Mitra, T; Russell, K; White, K; Goulet, C; Emery, C; Hagel, B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate incidence rates and profile of school program ski and snowboard-related injuries by school grade group using a historical cohort design. Injuries were identified via Accident Report Forms completed by ski patrollers. Severe injury was defined as those with ambulance evacuation or recommending patient transport to hospital. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the school grade group-specific injury rates adjusting for risk factors (sex, activity, ability, and socioeconomic status) and accounting for the effect of clustering by school. Forty of 107 (37%) injuries reported were severe. Adolescents (grades 7-12) had higher crude injury rates (91 of 10 000 student-days) than children (grades 1-3: 25 of 10 000 student-days; grades 4-6: 65 of 10 000 student-days). Those in grades 1-3 had no severe injuries. Although the rate of injury was lower in grades 1-3, there were no statistically significant grade group differences in adjusted analyses. Snowboarders had a higher rate of injury compared with skiers, while higher ability level was protective. Participants in grades 1-3 had the lowest crude and adjusted injury rates. Students in grades 7-12 had the highest rate of overall and severe injuries. These results will inform evidence-based guidelines for school ski/snowboard program participation by school-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A simple method for assigning genomic grade to individual breast tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jonas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic value of grading in breast cancer can be increased with microarray technology, but proposed strategies are disadvantaged by the use of specific training data or parallel microscopic grading. Here, we investigate the performance of a method that uses no information outside the breast profile of interest. Results In 251 profiled tumours we optimised a method that achieves grading by comparing rank means for genes predictive of high and low grade biology; a simpler method that allows for truly independent estimation of accuracy. Validation was carried out in 594 patients derived from several independent data sets. We found that accuracy was good: for low grade (G1 tumors 83- 94%, for high grade (G3 tumors 74- 100%. In keeping with aim of improved grading, two groups of intermediate grade (G2 cancers with significantly different outcome could be discriminated. Conclusion This validates the concept of microarray-based grading in breast cancer, and provides a more practical method to achieve it. A simple R script for grading is available in an additional file. Clinical implementation could achieve better estimation of recurrence risk for 40 to 50% of breast cancer patients.

  11. Interval prediction for graded multi-label classification

    CERN Document Server

    Lastra, Gerardo; Bahamonde, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Multi-label was introduced as an extension of multi-class classification. The aim is to predict a set of classes (called labels in this context) instead of a single one, namely the set of relevant labels. If membership to the set of relevant labels is defined to a certain degree, the learning task is called graded multi-label classification. These learning tasks can be seen as a set of ordinal classifications. Hence, recommender systems can be considered as multi-label classification tasks. In this paper, we present a new type of nondeterministic learner that, for each instance, tries to predict at the same time the true grade for each label. When the classification is uncertain for a label, however, the hypotheses predict a set of consecutive grades, i.e., an interval. The goal is to keep the set of predicted grades as small as possible; while still containing the true grade. We shall see that these classifiers take advantage of the interrelations of labels. The result is that, with quite narrow intervals, i...

  12. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Malouff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1 to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2 to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3 not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, as hypothesized, the graders assigned significantly higher scores to written work following the better oral presentation than following the poor oral presentation, with intermediate scores for the written work of the student whose oral presentation was not seen by the graders. The results provide evidence of a halo effect in that prior experience with a student biased the grading of written work completed by the student. The findings suggest that keeping students anonymous, as in the condition with no knowledge of the student’s performance in the oral presentation, helps prevent bias in grading.

  13. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif

    2014-01-01

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  14. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with contrast-enhanced computed tomography in different grading of blunt hepatic and splenic trauma: an animal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Li, Wenxiu; Lv, Faqin; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Lihai; Wang, Yuexiang; Li, Junlai; Yang, Li

    2009-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) for the detection of different grading of solid organ injuries in blunt abdominal trauma in animals. A self-made miniature tools were used as models to simulate a blunt hepatic or splenic trauma in 16 and 14 anesthetized dogs, respectively. Baseline ultrasound, CEUS and CECT were used to detect traumatic injuries of livers and spleens. The degree of injuries was determined by CEUS according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) scale and the results compared with injury scale based on CECT evaluation. CEUS showed 22 hepatic injury sites in 16 animals and 17 splenic injury sites in other 14 animals. According to AAST scale, 2 grade I, 4 grade II, 3 grade III, 5 grade IV and 2 grade V hepatic lesions were present in 16 animals; 2 grade I, 4 grade II, 6 grade III and 2 grade IV splenic lesions in 14 animals. On CECT scan, 21 hepatic and 17 splenic injuries were demonstrated. According to Becker CT scaling for hepatic injury, 1 grade I, 2 grade II, 4 grade III, 5 grade IV and 2 grade V hepatic injuries were present. On the basis of Buntain spleen scaling, 2 grade I, 5 grade II, 5 grade III, 2 grade IV splenic injuries were showed. After Spearman rank correlation analysis, the agreement of CEUS with CECT on the degree of hepatic and splenic injury is 93.3% and 92.9%, respectively. CT is currently considered as the reference method for grading blunt abdominal trauma, according to experiment results, CEUS grading showed high levels of concordance with CECT. CEUS can accurately determine the degree of injury and will play an important role in clinical application.

  16. MMP-9 immunohistochemical expression is correlated with histologic grade in feline diffuse iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nordio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Feline diffuse iris melanoma (FDIM is the most common primary intraocular neoplasm in cats. It is usually a malignant tumor, even if slowly progressive, thus representing an unique spontaneous model of the aggressive, although rare, human iris melanoma. In cats, the extent of the tumor within the eye, expressed as histological grade, is considered a good predictor of survival. In the context of the neoplastic cells-tumor microenvironment interaction, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is an endopeptidase able to digest the extracellular matrix with involvement in tumor invasion . MMP-9 expression has been positively correlated with metastasizing behavior in human posterior uveal melanoma. The present study investigates the expression of MMP-9 in a caseload of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded FDIMs in relation to the histological grade  and mitotic index (MI (threshold=7/10 hpf. Sixty-one samples of FDIM evaluated on light microscopy (Fig. 1 were selected (grade I n=22, grade II n=20, grade III n=19. Immunohistochemical staining with standard ABC method was performed using a mouse anti-MMP-9 antibody. Results were semi-quantitatively scored and compared by Mann-Whitney U test. MMP-9 was expressed in 59,1% grade I FDIM, 90,0% grade II and 80,0% grade III. Tumors with MMP-9 expression in more than 50% of neoplastic cells were 13,6% in grade I cases, 40,0% in grade II and 36,8% in grade III. MMP-9 was expressed in 71,4% of FDIM with MI≤7 and 92,3% of FDIM with MI>7. MMP-9 expression differed significantly between grade I and the other two grades, and between groups with low and high MI. In conclusion, intense expression of MMP-9 seems to correlate with the histological aggressiveness of FDIM.

  17. Does the Compliance of the Bladder Affect the Grade of Vesicoureteral Reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kilinc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We retrospectively reviewed videourodynamic outcomes in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this study to evaluate the relationship between vesicoureteral reflux grade and bladder compliance. Material and Method: Videourodynamic traces of 53 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux investigated between January 2004 and January 2012 were reviewed. The detrusor pressures of the point when the reflux started were recorded. The detrusor pressures 10 cmH2O or less at that point was accepted as normal compliance (Group 1, the detrusor pressures more than10 cm H2O was accepted as hipocompliance (Group 2. The reflux grades were divided into two grades, low-grade reflux (grades 1 and 2, high-grade reflux (grades 3, 4 and 5. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: Patients’ ages ranged between 5 and 11 years (mean 7.09±1.81 years. Of the 53 patients, 29 (54.7% had normal compliance (Group 1, 24 (45.3% had hipocompliance (Group 2. Twenty-four (82.8% patients in-group 1 had a low-grade reflux, 5 (17.2% patients had a high-grade reflux. In group 2, 8 (33.3% patients had a low-grade reflux, 16 (66.7% patients had a high-grade reflux. The detected high-grade reflux in-group 2 was significantly higher than in-group 1 (p<0.001. Discussion: The physicians should be considering the bladder compliance at the point when the reflux started in primary vesicoureteral reflux cases. The bladder hipocompliance may play a secondary role in reflux grade.

  18. Growth of optical grade germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, M.; Akhtar, M.J.; Mehmood, N.; Ashraf, M.; Siddique, M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of Czochralski( CZ ) growth station in a low frequency induction furnace is described and growth of optical grade Ge crystal as a test material is performed achieving a flat solid-liquid interface shape. Grown Ge crystals are annealed in air at 450 -500 deg. C for 4 hrs and then characterized by determination of crystallographic orientation by Laue (back-reflection of X-rays) method, dislocation density studies by etch-pits formation, measuring electrical resistivity by 4-probe technique, conductivity type determination by hot probe method, measurement of hardness on Moh's scale and optical transmission measurement in IR region. The results obtained are compared to those reported in the literature. The use of this growth station for other materials is suggested. (author)

  19. Microbial leaching of low grade copper ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, A.; Ashfaq, M.

    1991-01-01

    Biotechnology is regarded as one of the most promising and revolutionary solution to various problems which are generally faced in the extraction of metals from their ores such as high energy, capital costs and environmental pollution. The paper deals with the study of low grade copper ores for their beneficiation and extraction of copper. The ores used were chalcopyrite and oxidized copper ores. Microorganisms play a vital role in the solubilization of valuable contents from ores such as copper and other metals. Studies have been conducted on the indigenous copper ores by using thiobacillus ferro oxidans and thiobacillus thio oxidans. For comparison purpose some experiments have also been conducted by chemical leaching. The results of bacterial leaching are encouraging. (author)

  20. Synthesis of battery grade reduced silver powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.; Hameed, M.; Ikram, S.; Munir, A.

    2002-01-01

    Process for production of battery grade reduced silver powder, an active positive material for zinc-silver oxide batteries, having specific characteristics has been optimized and the synthesized reduced silver powder was characterized. Results reveal that the values of bulk density (1.25 0.1 g/cm3) and activity (73.27 %) of synthesized reduced silver powder lies within the recommended range for use as battery material. It has purity ≥ 98% and contains Fe and Cu as traces in the concentration range of 30 5 ppm and 15 7 ppm respectively. Others determined values of surface and pores parameters are: surface area 2.6 .4 m2/g: pore volume 3.10 cm3/g: pore diameter 0.043 mu m and porosity 20%. XRD studies reveal that reduced silver powder has a cubic structure. (author)

  1. Micromechanical models for graded composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, T; Dvorak, G.J.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    of piecewise homogeneous layers with equivalent elastic properties estimated by Mori-Tanaka and self-consistent methods are also analysed under similar boundary conditions. Comparisons of the overall and local fields predicted by the discrete and homogenized models are made using a C/SiC composite system...... fields are predicted by Mori-Tanaka estimates. On the other hand, the response of graded materials with a skeletal microstructure in a wide transition zone between clearly defined matrix phases is better approximated by the self-consistent estimates. Certain exceptions are noted for loading by overall...... transverse shear stress; The results suggest that the averaging methods originally developed for statistically homogeneous aggregates may be selectively applied, with a reasonable degree of confidence, to aggregates dth composition gradients, subjected to both uniform and nonuniform overall loads. (C) 1997...

  2. Band structures in fractal grading porous phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu; Wang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a new grading porous structure is introduced based on a Sierpinski triangle routine, and wave propagation in this fractal grading porous phononic crystal is investigated. The influences of fractal hierarchy and porosity on the band structures in fractal graidng porous phononic crystals are clarified. Vibration modes of unit cell at absolute band gap edges are given to manifest formation mechanism of absolute band gaps. The results show that absolute band gaps are easy to form in fractal structures comparatively to the normal ones with the same porosity. Structures with higher fractal hierarchies benefit multiple wider absolute band gaps. This work provides useful guidance in design of fractal porous phononic crystals.

  3. Prostate malignancy grading using gland-related shape descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Scheibe, Patrick; Loeffler, Markus; Kristiansen, Glen; Wernert, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    A proof-of-principle study was accomplished assessing the descriptive potential of two simple geometric measures (shape descriptors) applied to sets of segmented glands within images of 125 prostate cancer tissue sections. Respective measures addressing glandular shapes were (i) inverse solidity and (ii) inverse compactness. Using a classifier based on logistic regression, Gleason grades 3 and 4/5 could be differentiated with an accuracy of approx. 95%. Results suggest not only good discriminatory properties, but also robustness against gland segmentation variations. False classifications in part were caused by inadvertent Gleason grade assignments, as a-posteriori re-inspections had turned out.

  4. Splenic trauma management in relation to mode and grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangat, S.A.; Khaskhali, A.A.; Memon, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    To study the prevalence and management of splenic trauma in relation to its mode and grade. All cases admitted in emergency with abdominal trauma and splenic injury. The data of all the patients who had splenic trauma was entered on a proforma and analyzed. A total of 44 patients with ages between 20-40 years presented with splenic injury; 32(72.7%) were male. The commonest mode of splenic trauma was blunt abdominal injury (50%), and most (47%) patients had Grade- III injury. Splenectomy was carried out in 84% patients, while 9% underwent splenic salvage. Seven (15.9%) patients with splenectomy died in the series. Splenic injury was mostly caused by blunt abdominal trauma. Proper assessment of the grade of injury at the time of laparotomy resulted in more splenic salvage procedures with decreased risk of complications. (author)

  5. Association between varicocele grade and semen analysis parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ariyati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Varicocele is a condition characterized by elongation, dilatation and tortuousity of spermatic vein in pampiniform plexus. Approximately 50% of infertility cases among men are caused by varicocele. The varicocele may affect the components of sperm. This study aimed to determine the association between varicocele grade based on ultrasound Doppler examination and sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology based on semen analysis examination.Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study which used secondary data from 85 patients that visited Department of Urology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, then underwent ultrasonography examination at Department of Radiology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and semen analysis examination at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital.Results: Varicocele grade was significantly associated with sperm morphology, concentration and motility (all p<0.05. Significant association was found between maximum condition and semen analysis component.Conclusion: Varicocele grade may affect semen analysis component.

  6. Content and Grade Trends in State Assessments and NAEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Schafer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Each state is required by the No Child Left Behind Act to report the percents of its students who have reached a score level called - proficient- or above for certain grades in the content areas of reading (or a similar construct and math. Using 2005 data from public web sites of states and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, state-to-state differences in percents were analyzed, both unconditionally and conditionally on NAEP, for (1 trend across content areas (horizontal moderation, (2 trend across grade levels (vertical moderation, and (3 consistency with NAEP. While there was considerable variation from state to state, especially on an idealistic-realistic dimension, the results generally show that states are relatively consistent in trends across grades and contents.

  7. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-02-24

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  8. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-01-01

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  9. Gadd45β expression in chondrosarcoma: A pilot study for diagnostic and biological implications in histological grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishido Yasuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, especially the distinction between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma or low-grade chondrosarcoma and high-grade chondrosarcoma, is pathologically difficult, differential diagnosis is very important because the treatment strategies for these diseases are completely different. The grading system is crucial in predicting biologic behavior and prognosis, however, exact pathological grading is difficult using only routine examinations because the criteria of the grading system are not necessarily definitive. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45β (GADD45β is an essential molecule for chondrocytes during terminal differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of GADD45β in enchondroma, and chondrosarcoma of histological grades I, II, and III, to clarify the diagnostic significance of GADD45β in pathological grading of chondrosarcoma. Methods Twenty samples (enchondroma = 6, chondrosarcoma grade I = 7, grade II = 6, grade III = 1 were used for immunohistochemical analysis to investigate the expression of GADD45β. Quantitative analysis was performed to compare the number of GADD45β positive cells and pathological grading. Results Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β. On the other hand, the expression of GADD45β decreased significantly according to the histological grade of chondrosarcoma (grade I: 45%; grade II: 13.8%; and grade III: 3.8%. Conclusions The association of GADD45β expression and pathological grading of chondrosarcoma in the present study suggests that the immunohistochemical study of GADD45β may be a specific diagnostic parameter for chondrosarcoma cell differentiation.

  10. Impact of restaurant hygiene grade cards on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Leslie, Phillip; Run, Grace; Jin, Ginger Zhe; Reporter, Roshan; Aguirre, Arturo; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2005-03-01

    Although health departments routinely inspect restaurants to assess compliance with established hygienic standards, few data are available on the effectiveness of these efforts in preventing foodborne disease. The study reported here assessed the impact on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County of a restaurant hygiene grading system that utilized publicly posted grade cards. The grading systm was introduced in January 1998. Hospital discharge data on foodborne-disease hospitalizations were analyzed for Los Angeles County and, as a control, for the rest of California during the period 1993-2000. Ordinary least-squares regression analysis was done to measure the effect of the grading progam on these hospitalizations. After baseline temporal and geographic trends were adjusted for, the restaurant hygiene grading program was associated with a 13.1 percent decrease (p restaurant hygiene grading with public posting of results is an effective intervention for reducing the burden of foodborne disease.

  11. The relationship between faculty characteristics and the use of norm- and criteria-based grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robst

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norm-based grading has been associated with a reduction in student incentives to learn. Thus, it is important to understand faculty incentives for using norm-based grading. This paper used two waves of the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty to examine faculty characteristics related to the use of norm-based grading. Results suggest that norm-based grading is more likely when faculty and departments are more research oriented. Faculty who are at lower rank, male, younger, in science and social science departments are more likely to use norm-based grading, while faculty who feel that teaching should be the primary promotion criterion use criteria-based grading.

  12. High bone sialoprotein (BSP expression correlates with increased tumor grade and predicts a poorer prognosis of high-grade glioma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression and prognostic value of bone sialoprotein (BSP in glioma patients. METHODS: We determined the expression of BSP using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 15 normal brain and 270 glioma samples. Cumulative survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the stepwise forward Cox regression model. RESULTS: Both BSP mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in high-grade glioma tissues compared with those of normal brain and low-grade glioma tissues, and BSP expression positively correlated with tumor grade (P<0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed high BSP expression was an independent prognostic factor for a shorter progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients [hazard ratio (HR = 2.549 and 3.154 for grade III glioma, and HR = 1.637 and 1.574 for grade IV glioma, respectively]. Patients with low BSP expression had a significantly longer median OS and PFS than those with high BSP expression. Small extent of resection and lineage of astrocyte served as independent risk factors of both shorter PFS and OS in grade III glioma patients; GBM patients without O(6-methylguanine (O(6-meG DNA methyltransferase (MGMT methylation and Karnofsky performance score (KPS less than 70 points were related to poor prognosis. Lack of radiotherapy related to shorter OS but not affect PFS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients. CONCLUSION: High BSP expression occurs in a significant subset of high-grade glioma patients and predicts a poorer outcome. The study identifies a potentially useful molecular marker for the categorization and targeted therapy of gliomas.

  13. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  14. Autothermal gasification of low-grade fuels in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Belyaev [Scientific Center for Comprehensive Processing of Solid Combustible Minerals (IGI), Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Combustible Minerals Federal State Unitary Enterprise

    2009-01-15

    Autothermal gasification of high-ash flotation wastes of Grade Zh Kuzbass coal and low-ash fuel in a suspended-spouted (fluidized) bed at atmospheric pressure is investigated, and a comparison is presented of experimental results that indicate that the ash content of fuels has only slight influence on the generator gas heating value.

  15. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  16. Hypertension, and blood pressure response to graded exercise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension, and blood pressure response to graded exercise in young obese and non- athletic Nigerian university students. ... onset of hypertension and thus other cardiovascular diseases and less tolerant to physical exercises. Our results add to the evidence that hypertension is common among obese young adults.

  17. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  18. Improvement of strength characteristics of lateritic sub-grade soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Abstract. This paper presents the results of investigation of the behavior of pavement subgrade soil stabilized with shredded polyethylene waste. ... Keywords: Lateritic soil, High density polyethylene (HDPE) waste, Pavement thickness, Sub-grade soil ...

  19. Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube from different grades of carbon black using arc discharge method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Neha, E-mail: n4neha31@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Sharma, N. N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Director, School of Automobile, Mechanical & Mechatronics, Manipal University,Jaipur,India (India)

    2016-04-13

    This paper describes the synthesis of nanotube from different grades (Tread * A(non-ASTM), N134,N121,N660 and N330)of carbon black using DC arc discharge method at 40A current for 60sec. Carbon black samples of different grades were procured from industry (Aditya Birla Science and Technology Limited, India). Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) of the deposited carbon nanostructures suggests that MWCNTs are formed at 40A and for a minimal exposure time of 60sec.The result formed indicates the N330 grade of carbon black gets converted to MWCNTs (Multiwall Carbon nanotube) as compared to other grades.

  20. OFDM Scheme Based on Wavelet Packet Transform-OrientedGraded Multi-Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧; 侯春萍

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a concept of image grading transmission is put forward to enhance data rate and to improve the usage of subcarriers in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The idea originates from the wavelet packets representative of an image in which information is graded in terms of different priorities. The graded image facilitates more efficient use of adaptive subcarriers and bits allocation. The results of simulation in typical mobile environment prove that the output signal noise ratio (SNR) of the graded image excels that of the ungraded image by 1-2 dB under the same channel condition.

  1. Teachers grading practices : an analysis of the reliability of teacher-assigned grade point average (GPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, R. M.; van de Grift, W. J. C. M.; van Veen, K.

    2015-01-01

    In previous research, teachers report that they use a hodgepodge of factors when grading students. This has led researchers to suspect that teacher-assigned grades are inflated by teacher-student interactions; the hodgepodge hypothesis. Teachers also are reported to differ in grading leniency; the

  2. The Impact of Early Exposure of Eighth Grade Math Standards on End of Grade Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tonjai E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Cumberland County Schools district-wide issue surrounding the disproportional performance of eighth grade Math I students' proficiency scores on standardized end-of-grade and end-of-course assessments. The study focused on the impact of the school district incorporating eighth grade math standards in…

  3. Are Flunkers Social Outcasts? A Multilevel Study of Grade Retention Effects on Same-Grade Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school's proportion of retained students on these friendships and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel…

  4. Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

  5. The Leap into 4th Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  6. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  7. Perceptions of restaurateurs on quality grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Roberson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A restaurateur's strategic focus is to maximise wealth for the owner(s. To achieve wealth maximisation, a restaurateur could implement one or more of the following strategies: focus strategy, cost-leadership strategy and/or differentiation strategy. A management intervention a restaurateur could implement to achieve this is quality differentiation. Grading of an establishment will assist a restaurateur in becoming a market leader. Currently there no national restaurant grading system exists in South Africa. As support and participation of restaurateurs in any future quality grading system are essential, it is imperative to test their perceptions of the implementation of a quality grading scale. The aim of this paper is to gather the perceptions of restaurateurs of an envisaged scale that could be used to grade independent full-service restaurants. In this study the researcher tested the perceptions of restaurateurs using nine possible outcomes of implementing quality grading in the independent fullservice restaurant segment. The outcomes to be tested were presented to restaurateurs in a questionnaire uploaded on "survey monkey". This was emailed to 3 286 restaurateurs and 265 responses were received. Respondents who were positive regarding grading indicated that they were enthusiastic about the impact grading would have on international tourism, as well as the fact that it could contribute to an increase in the value of their establishments.

  8. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet the following requirements: (1) Well dried, or...

  9. Contraction of graded su(2) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, M.K.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Inoenu-Wigner contraction scheme is extended to Lie superalgebras. The structure and representations of extended BRS algebra are obtained from contraction of the graded su(2) algebra. From cohomological consideration, we demonstrate that the graded su(2) algebra is the only superalgebra which, on contraction, yields the full BRS algebra. (orig.)

  10. What's ahead in automated lumber grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses how present scanning technologies are being applied to automatic lumber grading. The presentation focuses on 1) what sensing and scanning devices are needed to measure information for accurate grading feature detection, 2) the hardware and software needed to efficiently process this information, and 3) specific issues related to softwood lumber...

  11. Liberal Grading Improves Evaluations But Not Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Ross; Sarmiento, Robert F.

    Two grading distributions--a liberal and a more stringent curve--were compared between two sections of an undergraduate psychology course. The two classes were team taught and treated as similarly as possible. Four unit exams and an optional final were administered, with one section consistently receiving a more lenient grade distribution. No…

  12. Examining First Grade Teachers' Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the first grade teachers' practices of handwriting instructions in terms of teaching, evaluation and handwriting difficulties. From qualitative research patterns, phenomenology was used. The study was applied to the 54 First grade teachers who work at central Burdur and Burdur county centre primary education…

  13. Extrauterine Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Chen

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma typically has an indolent clinical course and favorable prognosis. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or progesterone therapy should be considered for the management of residual or recurrent low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.

  14. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  15. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  16. Graded activity: legacy of the sanatorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C

    1993-08-01

    Occupational therapists in all areas of practice grade therapeutic activities to help patients progress toward their goals. It is proposed in this paper that the concept of graded activity originated in German tuberculosis sanatoria in the late 1800s, when patients were required to walk on graded (sloped) land for exercise. British physician Marcus Paterson included work, as well as walking, in his graduated exercise program for tuberculosis patients and was honored for this innovation at the founding meeting of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (NSPOT). George Barton, Susan Tracy, and Herbert Hall were among the NSPOT members who contributed to the development of graded activity as a principle in occupational therapy intervention. The military rehabilitation programs established during World War I provided additional impetus, and by the mid-1920s, graded activity was recognized as central to the profession.

  17. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  18. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Gaining experience by graded approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi Abhay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA has become a gold standard in management of most of the adrenal disorders. Though report on the first laparoscopic adrenalectomy dates back to 1992, there is no series of LA reported from India. Starting Feb 2001, a graded approach to LA was undertaken in our center. Till March 2006, a total of 34 laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed with success. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The endocrinology department primarily evaluated all patients. Patients were divided into Group A - unilateral LA and Group B - bilateral LA (BLA. The indications in Group A were pheochromocytoma (n=7, Conn′s syndrome (n=3, Cushing′s adenoma (n=2, incidentaloma (n=2; and in Group B, Cushing′s disease (CD following failed trans-sphenoid pituitary surgery (n = 8; ectopic ACTH- producing Cushing′s syndrome (n=1 and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH (n=1. The lateral transabdominal route was used. RESULTS: The age group varied from 12-54 years, with mean age of 28.21 years. Average duration of surgery in Group A was 166.43 min (40-270 min and 190 min (150- 310 min in Group B. Average blood loss was 136.93 cc (20-400 cc in Group A and 92.5 cc (40-260 cc in Group B. There was one conversion in each group. Mean duration of surgical stay was 1.8 days (1-3 days in Group A and 2.6 days (2-4 days in Group B. All the patients in both groups were cured of their illness. Three patients in Group B developed Nelson′s syndrome. The mean follow up was of 24.16 months (4-61 months. CONCLUSION: LA though technically demanding, is feasible and safe. Graded approach to LA is the key to success.

  19. Comparison between clinical grading and navigation data of knee laxity in ACL-deficient knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Yuji

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latest version of the navigation system for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction has the supplementary ability to assess knee stability before and after ACL reconstruction. In this study, we compared navigation data between clinical grades in ACL-deficient knees and also analyzed correlation between clinical grading and navigation data. Methods 150 ACL deficient knees that received primary ACL reconstruction using an image-free navigation system were included. For clinical evaluation, the Lachman, anterior drawer, and pivot shift tests were performed under general anesthesia and were graded by an examiner. For the assessment of knee stability using the navigation system, manual tests were performed again before ACL reconstruction. Navigation data were recorded as anteroposterior (AP displacement of the tibia for the Lachman and anterior drawer tests, and both AP displacement and tibial rotation for the pivot shift test. Results Navigation data of each clinical grade were as follows; Lachman test grade 1+: 10.0 mm, grade 2+: 13.2 ± 3.1 mm, grade 3+: 14.5 ± 3.3 mm, anterior drawer test grade 1+: 6.8 ± 1.4 mm, grade 2+: 7.4 ± 1.8 mm, grade 3+: 9.1 ± 2.3 mm, pivot shift test grade 1+: 3.9 ± 1.8 mm/21.5° ± 7.8°, grade 2+: 4.8 ± 2.1 mm/21.8° ± 7.1°, and grade 3+: 6.0 ± 3.2 mm/21.1° ± 7.1°. There were positive correlations between clinical grading and AP displacement in the Lachman, and anterior drawer tests. Although positive correlations between clinical grading and AP displacement in pivot shift test were found, there were no correlations between clinical grading and tibial rotation in pivot shift test. Conclusions In response to AP force, the navigation system can provide the surgeon with correct objective data for knee laxity in ACL deficient knees. During the pivot shift test, physicians may grade according to the displacement of the tibia, rather than rotation.

  20. "RMP Evaluations, Course Easiness, and Grades: Are They Related?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Rizvi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the student evaluations of the instructors at the RateMyProfessors.com (RMP website and the average grades awarded by those instructors. As of Spring 2012, the RMP site included evaluations of 538 full-and part-time instructors at the College of Staten Island (CSI. We selected the evaluations of the 419 instructors who taught at CSI for at least two semesters from Fall 2009 to Spring 2011 and had at least ten evaluations. This research indicates that there is a strong correlation between RMP's overall evaluation and easiness scores. However, the perceived easiness of an instructor/course does not always result in higher grades for students. Furthermore, we found that the instructors who received high overall evaluation and easiness scores (4.0 to 5.0 at the RMP site do not necessarily award high grades. This is a very important finding as it disputes the argument that instructors receive high evaluations because they are easy or award high grades. On the other hand, instructors of the courses that are perceived to be difficult (RMP easiness score of 3.0 or less are likely to be tough graders. However, instructors who received moderate overall evaluation and easiness scores (between 3.0 and 4.0 the RMP site had a high correlation between these scores and average grade awarded by those instructors. Finally, our research shows that the instructors in non-STEM disciplines award higher grades than the instructors in STEM disciplines. Non-STEM instructors also received higher overall evaluations than their STEM counterparts and non-STEM courses were perceived easier by the students than STEM courses.

  1. Grading A-Level Double Subject Mathematicians and the Implications for Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbould, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    Test data were used to compare the grading of two forms of double mathematics: pure and applied math, and regular and advanced math. Results confirm expectations that in the former system, the grading is comparable, and in the latter, it is not necessarily comparable. Implications for student admission are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Automated grading, upgrading, and cuttings prediction of surfaced dry hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; Phil Araman; A.Lynn Abbott; Matthew F. Winn

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the scanning, sawing, and grading of kiln-dried hardwood lumber. A prototype system is described that uses laser sources and a video camera to scan boards. The system automatically detects defects and wane, searches for optimal sawing solutions, and then estimates the grades of the boards that would result. The goal is to derive maximum commercial...

  3. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Grade 12 Learners' Performance in Projectile Motions, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, Israel; Lehong, Moyahabo Jeridah

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the effect of cooperative learning on Grade 12 learners' performance in projectile motions. A quasi-experimental research design with non-equivalent control group was used. Two schools were purposively selected from Maleboho Central circuit in South Africa based on their performance in Physical Sciences Grade 12 results of 2011.…

  4. A Case Study of Middle Grades Leadership in a Conversion Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Dowell, Margaret-Mary Sulentic

    2015-01-01

    This 3-year case study examined middle grades principal leadership in a takeover charter school. The researcher analyzed principal and teacher interviews, field notes, and documents in relationship to a middle grades model of principal leadership. Results suggest the principals' limited experience, organizational factors unique to takeover charter…

  5. An Analysis of Grades, Class Level and Faculty Evaluation Scores in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the results of a student evaluation of faculty against the grades awarded and the level of the course for a higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the study was to determine if the grades awarded in the course and/or level of the course impacted the evaluation scores awarded to the faculty…

  6. Treatment of grade 2 and 3 hemorrhoids with Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallis de Vries, B. M.; van der Beek, E. S. J.; de Wijkerslooth, L. R. H.; van der Zwet, W. C.; van der Hoeven, J. A. B.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, M.; Eddes, E. H.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the results of the Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal arterial ligation (DG-HAL) method in the management of symptomatic grade 2 and 3 hemorrhoids. Between June 2005 and March 2006, 110 consecutive patients with symptomatic grade 2 and 3 hemorrhoids according to the DG-HAL method were treated.

  7. Grading Innovation in an International Marketing Course: Promoting Student Collaboration and Individual Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelminski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes an innovative, exam-based homework grading method to facilitate both collaboration among students and individual accountability while learning a complex theory and applying it to solve a problem. Results from this novel approach to grading a "comparative advantage theory" homework assignment, using an…

  8. The Effect of a Homework Grade Cap in an Introductory Finance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannonier, Colin; Chen, Dennis; Smolira, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The authors used data collected from various sections of principles of finance classes at a private university to examine the effect of utilizing a homework grade cap policy. The results indicate that the homework grade cap policy increased the homework scores and that an increase in homework scores improved performance of the students on exams.…

  9. Automated tone grading of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalina Hernández, J.C.; Fernández Ramón, G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of a natural stone processing plant is subject to the intrinsic variability of the stone blocks that constitute its raw material, which may cause problems of lack of uniformity in the visual appearance of the produced material that often triggers complaints from customers. The best way to tackle this problem is to classify the product according to its visual features, which is traditionally done by hand: an operator observes each and every piece that comes out of the production line and assigns it to the closest match among a number of predefined classes, taking into account visual features of the material such as colour, texture, grain, veins, etc. However, this manual procedure presents significant consistency problems, due to the inherent subjectivity of the classification performed by each operator, and the errors caused by their progressive fatigue. Attempts to employ automated sorting systems like the ones used in the ceramic tile industry have not been successful, as natural stone presents much higher variability than ceramic tiles. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop classification systems specifically designed for the treatment of the visual parameters that distinguish the different types of natural stone. This paper describes the details of a computer vision system developed by AITEMIN for the automatic classification of granite pieces according to their tone, which provides an integral solution to tone grading problems in the granite processing and marketing industry. The system has been designed to be easily trained by the end user, through the learning of the samples established as tone patterns by the user. [es

  10. GRADE INFLATION: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. CARUTH,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: Ø student evaluations of professors, Ø student teacher dynamics, Ø merit-based financial aid, and Ø student expectations. Ø Among the reasons for higher student grades on the part of professors are: Ø fear of student evaluations, Ø avoidance of bad relations with students, Ø below average teaching skills,Ø lack of experience, Ø a lack of clearly stated objectives, and Ø job security. While grades are not a perfect answer to assessing student performance in a course they are still the best answer we have for evaluating students. In order to evaluate students more accurately, universities must identify the problems in grading and grading practices. Once this is accomplished new practices can be designed and policies implemented.

  11. Power calculation of grading device in desintegrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, V. S.; Semikopenko, I. A.; Vavilov, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    This article describes the analytical method of measuring the secondary power consumption, necessitated by the installation of a grading device in the peripheral part of the grinding chamber in the desintegrator. There is a calculation model for defining the power input of the disintegrator increased by the extra power demand, required to rotate the grading device and to grind the material in the area between the external row of hammers and the grading device. The work has determined the inertia moments of a cylindrical section of the grading device with armour plates. The processing capacity of the grading device is adjusted to the conveying capacity of the auger feeder. The grading device enables one to increase the concentration of particles in the peripheral part of the grinding chamber and the amount of interaction between particles and armour plates as well as the number of colliding particles. The perforated sections provide the output of the ground material with the proper size granules, which together with the effects of armour plates, improves the efficiency of grinding. The power demand to rotate the grading device does not exceed the admissible value.

  12. Alternative Grading Systems. The Practitioner, Vol. III, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, Nancy; Thomson, Scott

    After examining some of the pros and cons of traditional grading, the demands colleges make on grading practices, and the responses of people interested in grading, a number of examples of operating alternative systems are given. The alternatives include a dual (pass/withdraw grading in some courses, traditional grading in others) system, a…

  13. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  14. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Nelson, Joel B.; Egevad, Lars; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Vickers, Andrew J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.; Eastham, James A.; Wiklund, Peter; Han, Misop; Reddy, Chandana A.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Nyberg, Tommy; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite revisions in 2005 and 2014, the Gleason prostate cancer (PCa) grading system still has major deficiencies. Combining of Gleason scores into a three-tiered grouping (6, 7, 8–10) is used most frequently for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The lowest score, assigned 6, may be misunderstood as a cancer in the middle of the grading scale, and 3 + 4 = 7 and 4 + 3 = 7 are often considered the same prognostic group. Objective To verify that a new grading system accurately produces a smaller number of grades with the most significant prognostic differences, using multi-institutional and multimodal therapy data. Design, setting, and participants Between 2005 and 2014, 20 845 consecutive men were treated by radical prostatectomy at five academic institutions; 5501 men were treated with radiotherapy at two academic institutions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Outcome was based on biochemical recurrence (BCR). The log-rank test assessed univariable differences in BCR by Gleason score. Separate univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards used four possible categorizations of Gleason scores. Results and limitations In the surgery cohort, we found large differences in recurrence rates between both Gleason 3 + 4 versus 4 + 3 and Gleason 8 versus 9. The hazard ratios relative to Gleason score 6 were 1.9, 5.1, 8.0, and 11.7 for Gleason scores 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9–10, respectively. These differences were attenuated in the radiotherapy cohort as a whole due to increased adjuvant or neoadjuvant hormones for patients with high-grade disease but were clearly seen in patients undergoing radiotherapy only. A five–grade group system had the highest prognostic discrimination for all cohorts on both univariable and multivariable analysis. The major limitation was the unavoidable use of prostate-specific antigen BCR as an end point as opposed to cancer-related death. Conclusions The new PCa grading system has these benefits: more

  15. Graded Alternating-Time Temporal Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faella, Marco; Napoli, Margherita; Parente, Mimmo

    Graded modalities enrich the universal and existential quantifiers with the capability to express the concept of at least k or all but k, for a non-negative integer k. Recently, temporal logics such as μ-calculus and Computational Tree Logic, Ctl, augmented with graded modalities have received attention from the scientific community, both from a theoretical side and from an applicative perspective. Both μ-calculus and Ctl naturally apply as specification languages for closed systems: in this paper, we add graded modalities to the Alternating-time Temporal Logic (Atl) introduced by Alur et al., to study how these modalities may affect specification languages for open systems.

  16. Automated egg grading system using computer vision: Investigation on weight measure versus shape parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Ahmad Fakhri Ab; Suhaila Sabarudin, Siti; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Ghani, Ahmad Shahrizan Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Chicken egg is a source of food of high demand by humans. Human operators cannot work perfectly and continuously when conducting egg grading. Instead of an egg grading system using weight measure, an automatic system for egg grading using computer vision (using egg shape parameter) can be used to improve the productivity of egg grading. However, early hypothesis has indicated that more number of egg classes will change when using egg shape parameter compared with using weight measure. This paper presents the comparison of egg classification by the two above-mentioned methods. Firstly, 120 images of chicken eggs of various grades (A–D) produced in Malaysia are captured. Then, the egg images are processed using image pre-processing techniques, such as image cropping, smoothing and segmentation. Thereafter, eight egg shape features, including area, major axis length, minor axis length, volume, diameter and perimeter, are extracted. Lastly, feature selection (information gain ratio) and feature extraction (principal component analysis) are performed using k-nearest neighbour classifier in the classification process. Two methods, namely, supervised learning (using weight measure as graded by egg supplier) and unsupervised learning (using egg shape parameters as graded by ourselves), are conducted to execute the experiment. Clustering results reveal many changes in egg classes after performing shape-based grading. On average, the best recognition results using shape-based grading label is 94.16% while using weight-based label is 44.17%. As conclusion, automated egg grading system using computer vision is better by implementing shape-based features since it uses image meanwhile the weight parameter is more suitable by using weight grading system.

  17. Report on the results of the fiscal 1997 international research cooperation project. `Joint R and D industrial base technology` (development of functionally graded materials); 1997 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. `Sangyo kiban gijutsu kyodo kenkyu kaihatsu` keisha kinosei zairyo no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing functionally graded materials (FGM/LB) of thermal stress relaxation heat resistant large bulk state which are adoptable to high efficiency engine members, conducted in fiscal 1997 as intermediate target were the experiment for enlargement of the sintering process of FGM/LB with bore of up to 100mm, evaluation of physical properties, the basic development of the fabricating system facility for the commercialization. In the development of heat resistance use FGM/LB fabrication technology, to obtain ZrO2(3Y) stainless steel system FGM/LB, the following were fabricated in each bore size of 50-100mm by the research use large discharge plasma sintering machine: sintered bodies of ceramics/metal single substrate materials and mixed layer single substance materials, and FGM/LB sintered bodies without separation and crack which are composed of 9 intermediate graded layers. The survey was also made on the optimal composition and optimal sintering conditions toward the enlargement without unevenness. In the evaluation of physical properties, ZrO2(3Y)/stainless steel system was selected and test pieces were fabricated to obtain basic data on texture observation, distribution of hardness, fracture toughness, high temperature abrasion resistance, thermal expansion rates, etc. 27 refs., 108 figs., 43 tabs.

  18. Multiphoton imaging of low grade, high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and intramucosal invasive cancer of esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is devastating because of its aggressive lymphatic spread and clinical course. It is believed to occur through low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), and intramucosal invasive cancer (IMC) before transforming to submucosal cancer. In particular, these early lesions (LGIN, HGIN and IMC), which involve no lymph node nor distant metastasis, can be cured by endoscopic treatment. Therefore, early identification of these lesions is important so as to offer a curative endoscopic resection, thus slowing down the development of ESCC. In this work, spectral information and morphological features of the normal esophageal mucosa are first studied. Then, the morphological changes of LGIN, HGIN and IMC are described. Lastly, quantitative parameters are also extracted by calculating the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of epithelial cells and the pixel density of collagen in the lamina propria. These results show that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to identify normal esophageal mucosa, LGIN, HGIN and IMC. With the development of multiphoton endoscope systems for in vivo imaging, combined with a laser ablation system, MPM has the potential to provide immediate pathologic diagnosis and curative treatment of ESCC before the transformation to submucosal cancer in the future.

  19. Investigation of dynamic fracture behavior in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X B; Qin, Y P; Zhuang, Z; You, X C

    2008-01-01

    The fast running crack in functionally graded materials (FGMs) is investigated through numerical simulations under impact loading. Some fracture characterizations such as crack propagation and arrest are evaluated by the criterion of the crack tip opening angle. Based on the experimental results, the whole propagation process of the fast running crack is simulated by the finite element program. Thus, the dynamic fracture parameters can be obtained during the crack growing process. In this paper, the crack direction is assumed to be the graded direction of the materials, and the property gradation in FGMs is considered by varying the elastic modulus exponentially along the graded direction and keeping the mass density and Poisson's ratio constant. The influences of the non-homogeneity, the loading ratio and the crack propagation speed on the dynamic fracture response of FGMs are analyzed through the test and numerical analysis. Considering the potential application of FGMs in natural-gas transmission engineering, a functionally graded pipeline is designed to arrest the fast running crack for a short period in high pressure large diameter natural-gas pipelines

  20. Comparison of Oxidation Characteristics of Selected Nuclear Graphite Grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se Hwan; Kim, Gen Chan

    2010-02-01

    The oxidation behavior of some selected nuclear graphite grades (i.e., IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18, NBG-25) were compared in view of their filler coke type and the physical property of the grades. Oxidation rates were determined at six temperatures between 600 ∼ 960 .deg. C in air by using a three-zone vertical tube furnace at a 10 L/min air flow rate. The specimens were a cylinder with a 25.4 mm diameter and a 25.4 mm length. Results showed that, even though the four examined nuclear graphite grades showed a highly temperature-sensitive oxidation behavior through out the test temperature range of 600 ∼ 950 .deg. C, the differences between the grades were not significant. The oxidation rates determined for a 5∼10 % weight loss at the six temperatures were nearly the same except for 702 and 808 .deg. C, where the pitch coke graphites showed an apparent decrease in their oxidation rate, more so than the petroleum coke graphites. These effects of the coke type reduced or nearly disappeared with an increasing temperature. The average activation energy determined for 608 ∼ 808 .deg. C was 161.5 ± 7.3 kJ/mol, showing that the dominant oxidation reaction occurred by a chemical control

  1. Assessment of health surveys: fitting a multidimensional graded response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaoli, Sarah; Tiemensma, Jitske; Felt, John M

    The multidimensional graded response model, an item response theory (IRT) model, can be used to improve the assessment of surveys, even when sample sizes are restricted. Typically, health-based survey development utilizes classical statistical techniques (e.g. reliability and factor analysis). In a review of four prominent journals within the field of Health Psychology, we found that IRT-based models were used in less than 10% of the studies examining scale development or assessment. However, implementing IRT-based methods can provide more details about individual survey items, which is useful when determining the final item content of surveys. An example using a quality of life survey for Cushing's syndrome (CushingQoL) highlights the main components for implementing the multidimensional graded response model. Patients with Cushing's syndrome (n = 397) completed the CushingQoL. Results from the multidimensional graded response model supported a 2-subscale scoring process for the survey. All items were deemed as worthy contributors to the survey. The graded response model can accommodate unidimensional or multidimensional scales, be used with relatively lower sample sizes, and is implemented in free software (example code provided in online Appendix). Use of this model can help to improve the quality of health-based scales being developed within the Health Sciences.

  2. Benchmarking of Sterilizing grade filters with liposome Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Thomas; Mundlamuri, Ramesh; Loewe, Thomas; Mundrigi, Ashok; Handt, Sebastian; Singh, Bhuwan

    2017-12-14

    Cytotoxic drugs can be encapsulated in liposomes vesicles, which act as drug delivery vehicles and reduce the risk of exposure of drug to healthy cells(1). The sterility of such liposome solutions is typically ensured using 0.2μm rated sterilizing grade membranes, but due to the high viscosity and low surface tension of these formulations, they can cause pre-mature blocking and increased risk of bacterial penetration through a 0.2μm sterilizing grade membrane(2). The low surface tension of liposome solutions affects the contact angle with membrane and reduces bubble point leading to bacterial penetration through the membrane. This poses a great challenge to select an appropriate sterilizing grade membrane for a given process and for filter manufacturers to develop a sterilizing grade membrane that specifically addresses these needs. In this study, the influence of different variables that could affect the total throughput and bacterial retention performance of different membranes types on processing of liposome solutions have been evaluated. Based on the results, we conclude that the membrane properties e.g., surface porosity, surface tension, pore size, symmetry/asymmetry, hydrophilicity and liposome properties e.g., composition, lipid size and concentration affect bacterial retention and total throughput capacity. Process parameters such as temperature, pressure and flow should also be optimized to improve process efficiency. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  3. Composites of Upgraded Metallurgical Grade (UMG) Si with Photovoltaic (PV) Grade Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovel, Harold; Prettyman, Kevin; Krause, Rainer; Dipankar, Roy

    2015-03-27

    At the beginning of this project 125 wafers of UMG material blended with non-UMG were obtained in the various blends; 50/50,70/30,80/20. 90/10 and 100% UMG. Solar grade , non-UMG material was used for comparison. Many techniques for starting substrate evaluation were used including lifetime, resitivity, SEM, IPCMS. Some degree of gettering was implemented by lengthening the time of phosphorous diffusion. The UMG/solar blends resulted in 14.5% -15% efficiencies, and even 100% UMG showed 14.5% values, not less than standard cells manufactured at the time and an encouraging result for the prospects of using UMG material due to the lower $/watt. A later decline in the cost of Si and an emphasis on reaching higher efficiencies in general led to a vanishing interest in the use of UMG.

  4. ENERGY STAR Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers that...

  5. High Performance Graded Index Polymer Optical Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garito, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    ...) plastic optical fibers (POF) and graded index (GI) POFs are reported. A set of criteria and analyses of physical parameters are developed in context to the major issues of POF applications in short-distance communication systems...

  6. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Statistical Content in Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickle, Maria Consuelo Capiral

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the treatment and scope of statistical concepts in four, widely-used, contemporary, middle grades mathematics textbook series: "Glencoe Math Connects," "Prentice Hall Mathematics," "Connected Mathematics Project," and "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project." There were three…

  8. Doubly graded sigma model with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, J.

    1986-08-01

    Using the Hull-Witten construction we show how to introduce torsion to the doubly graded sigma model. This construction enables us to find a link between this model and the ten-dimensional supergravity theory in superspace. (Auth.)

  9. Graded contractions of Jordan algebras and of their representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashuba, Iryna; Patera, JirI

    2003-01-01

    Contractions of Jordan algebras and Jordan superalgebras which preserve a chosen grading are defined and studied. Simultaneous grading of Jordan algebras and their representation spaces is used to develop a theory of grading, preserving contractions of representations of Jordan algebras

  10. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 – 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...

  11. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  12. Dental anatomy grading: comparison between conventional visual and a novel digital assessment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Ran; Restrepo-Kennedy, Natalia; Dawson, Deborah V; Hernandez, Marcela; Denehy, Gerald; Blanchette, Derek; Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A; Armstrong, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Conventional grading of dental students' projects in preclinical courses has mainly relied on visual evaluation by experienced instructors. The purpose of this study was to compare conventional visual grading in a dental anatomy course at one U.S. dental school to a novel digital assessment technique. A total of sixty samples comprised of two sets of faculty wax-ups (n=30), student wax-ups (n=15), and dentoform teeth of tooth #14 (n=15) were used for this study. Two additional faculty members visually graded the samples according to a checklist and then repeated the grading after one week. The sample wax-up with the highest score based on the visual grading was selected as the master model for the digital grading, which was also performed twice with an interim period of one week. Descriptive statistics and signed rank tests for systematic bias were used for intra- and interrater comparisons. The intraclass correlation (ICC) was used as a measure of intra- and interrater reliability. None of the faculty members achieved the minimum acceptable intrarater agreement of 0.8. Interrater agreement was substantially less than intrarater agreement for the visual grading, whereas all measures of intrarater agreement were greater than 0.9 and considered excellent for the digital assessment technique. These results suggest that visual grading is limited by modest intrarater reliability and low interrater agreement. Digital grading is a promising evaluation method showing excellent intrarater reliability and correlation. Correlation for visual and digital grading was consistently modest, partly supporting the potential use of digital technology in dental anatomy grading.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ESOPHAGITIS GRADES AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Fernanda Saboya; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernandao; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes; Ribeiro, Irma Cláudia Saboya; Bertoldi, Andressa de Souza; Batistão, Venessa Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori infection (HP) is related to the development of gastric lesions and lymphoma; however, it is not known if there is a relation with gastroesophageal reflux disease and reflux esophagitis. To evaluate HP's relationship with esophagitis in patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, being evaluated 9576 patients undergoing outpatient endoscopic examination during the period between January and December 2015. Were included patients with any esophageal alteration at the examination; greater than 18; of both genders; independent of the complaint or the reason for the examination, illness or drug use. Were excluded those with active bleeding during the examination and in use of anticoagulants. The variables gender, age, esophagitis and result of the urease test, were studied. For statistical analysis was used the Epi Info software 7.1.5.2. Most of the samples consisted of women and the overall average age was 46.54±16.32 years. The presence of infection was balanced for gender: 1204 (12.56%) women and 952 (13.92%) men. Relating degree of esophagitis HP- and HP+ was observed that the type A was the most common (58.79%, n=1460); 604 (24.32%) had grade B; 334 (13.45%) grade C, and 85 (3.42%) grade D. In the relation between the grade of esophagitis with gender, esophagitis A was predominant in women and present in 929 (63.33%), followed by type B, 282 (46.68%), 136 C (40.71%) and D 30 (35.29%). In men 531 (36.36%) showed type A, 322 (53.31%) B, 198 (59.28%) C, and 55 (64.70%) D. Among the groups 40-50 and over 60 years there was a significant difference in whether have or not have HP+. There is no significant difference between HP infection and the different grades of esophagitis. A infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori (HP) é relacionada com o desenvolvimento de lesões e linfoma gástricos; porém, ainda não se sabe ao certo se há relação dele com a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e esofagite

  14. The research reported in this article was conducted from a socio-environmental perspective on learners’ school readiness when entering Grade 1, as well as their school performance in Grade 1 and again in Grade 4. The relation between school readiness and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna van Zyl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this article was conducted from a socio-environmental perspective on learners’ school readiness when entering Grade 1, as well as their school performance in Grade 1 and again in Grade 4. The relation between school readiness and performance in Home Language and Numeracy in Grade 1, and performance in the same learning areas in Grade 4 were investigated by means of a longitudinal quantitative study. One school in the Free State province was purposefully selected. The Aptitude Test for School Beginners (ASB was implemented to capture school readiness, including school maturity and levels of development in physical, cognitive, emotional, social and normative domains. Results confirm that school readiness significantly correlated with academic performance of the respondents in Grade 1 as well as with their school performance in Grade 4.

  15. Elevation of the correlation between cerebral blood volume and permeability surface from CT perfusion images with glioma grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Bei; Ling Huawei; Zhang Huan; Song Qi; Dong Haipeng; Chen Kemin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between cerebral blood volume and permeability surface by using multislice CT perfusion imaging with glioma grade. Methods: Ninteen patients with gliomas underwent conventional MR and multislice CT perfusion imaging preoperatively. These patients were divided into low grade and high grade groups which were correspond to WHO II grade gliomas and WHO III or IV grade gliomas respectively. CT data were transferred to on-line working station and processed to obtain time-signal curves, color perfusion maps and calculated perfusion parameters, including cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTF) and permeability surfaces (PS) in tumoral parenchyma. Kruskal-Wallis test and correlation of CBV and PS was assessed by using SPSS 11.0 software. Results: The median of CBV and PS in low-grade and high-grade glioma were 2.7, 6.5 ml/100 g; 0.389, 12.810 ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 respectively, corresponding t value were 12.907 13.500 with P<0.05. Pearson correlations between CBV and PS were as follows: in low-grade group, r=-0.058, in high-grade group, r=0.648. Conclusion: Both CBV and PS have obvious correlation with glioma grade. The correlation between CBV and PS in low-grade glioma was weaker, probably because of the focal high vascularity in oligodendroglioma. (authors)

  16. From Russian weapons grade plutonium to MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, G.; Kudriavtsev, E.G.; Seyve, C.

    1997-01-01

    The April 1996, G7 Moscow Summit on nuclear matters provided a political framework for one of the most current significant challenges: ensuring a consistent answer to the weapons grade fissile material disposition issue resulting from the disarmament effort engaged by both the USA and Russia. International technical assessments have showed that the transformation of Weapons grade Plutonium in MOX fuel is a very efficient, safe, non proliferant and economically effective solution. In this regard, COGEMA and SIEMENS, have set up a consistent technical program properly addressing incineration of weapons grade plutonium in MOX fuels. The leading point of this program would be the construction of a Weapons grade Plutonium dedicated MOX fabrication plant in Russia. Such a plant would be based on the COGEMA-SIEMENS industrial capabilities and experience. This facility would be operated by MINATOM which is the partner for COGEMA-SIEMENS. MINATOM is in charge of coordination of the activity of the Russian research and construction institutes. The project take in account international standards for non-proliferation, safety and waste management. France and Germany officials reasserted this position during their last bilateral summits held in Fribourg in February and in Dijon in June 1996. MINATOM and the whole Russian nuclear community have already expressed their interest to cooperate with COGEMA-SIEMENS in the MOX field. This follows governmental-level agreements signed in 1992 by French, German and Russian officials. For years, Russia has been dealing with research and development on MOX fabrication and utilization. So, the COGEMA-SIEMENS MOX proposal gives a realistic answer to the management of weapons grade plutonium with regard to the technical, industrial, cost and schedule factors. (author)

  17. Smart Kote Glove for Assessment of Scoring Parameters of Dan and Kyu Grade Kendokas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangyul Jeong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kendo is one of the most ancient swordsmanship arts in Japan. The aims of this study are to develop and test an innovative smart Kote glove for assisting the Kendoka to distinguish scoring from non-scoring Kote (wrist strikes. An in-house developed pressure sensing platform was utilized to develop the smart Kote glove. Ten kendo practitioners, comprising of five Dan (black belts equivalent and five Kyu (lower level/ungraded of both genders, participated in this study. The results showed significant differences between Dan and Kyu participants in both accuracy and sharpness of the strikes. Dan grade participants showed higher percentage of hitting the target comparing to Kyu grade (92% and 75% respectively. The percentage of scoring was also significantly higher in Dan (78% than in Kyu (37% grades. The average impact force of scoring by Dan grade (1159 ± 379 N was higher than by Kyu grade (852 ± 429 N.

  18. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, H.; Gottlieb, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  19. Prognostic implications of 2005 Gleason grade modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Brasso, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    ,890 men assessed with the modified Gleason classification, diagnosed between 2003 and 2007, underwent primary RP. Histopathology was reported according to the Gleason Grading Groups (GGG): GGG1 = Gleason score (GS) 6, GGG2 = GS 7(3 + 4), GGG3 = GS 7(4 + 3), GGG4 = GS 8 and GGG5 = GS 9-10. Cumulative...... incidence and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess difference in BCR. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of BCR was lower using the modified compared to the original classification: GGG2 (16% vs. 23%), GGG3 (21% vs. 35%) and GGG4 (18% vs. 34%), respectively. Risk......OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the 2005 modification of the Gleason classification on risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe), 2,574 men assessed with the original Gleason classification and 1...

  20. Application of ANFIS for analytical modeling of tensile strength of functionally graded steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the tensile strength of ferritic and austenitic functionally graded steels produced by electroslag remelting has been modeled. To produce functionally graded steels, two slices of plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steels were spot welded and used as electroslag remelting electrode. Functionally graded steel containing graded layers of ferrite and austenite may be fabricated via diffusion of alloying elements during remelting stage. Vickers microhardness profile of the specimen has been obtained experimentally and modeled with adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS. To build the model for graded ferritic and austenitic steels, training, testing and validation using respectively 174 and 120 experimental data were conducted. According to the input parameters, in the ANFIS model, the Vickers microhardness of each layer was predicted. A good fit equation which correlates the Vickers microhardness of each layer to its corresponding chemical composition was achieved by the optimized network for both ferritic and austenitic graded steels. Afterwards; the Vickers microhardness of each layer in functionally graded steels was related to the yield stress of the corresponding layer and by assuming Holloman relation for stress-strain curve of each layer, they were acquired. Finally, by applying the rule of mixtures, tensile strength of functionally graded steels configuration was found through a numerical method. The obtained results from the proposed model are in good agreement with those acquired from the experiments.

  1. Multiparametric analysis of magnetic resonance images for glioma grading and patient survival time prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, Benjamin; Emblem, Kyrre E.; Mouridsen, Kim; Nedregaard, Baard; Due-Toennessen, Paulina; Nome, Terje; Hald, John K.; Bjoernerud, Atle; Haaberg, Asta K.; Kvinnsland, Yngve

    2011-01-01

    Background. A systematic comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) options for glioma diagnosis is lacking. Purpose. To investigate multiple MR-derived image features with respect to diagnostic accuracy in tumor grading and survival prediction in glioma patients. Material and Methods. T1 pre- and post-contrast, T2 and dynamic susceptibility contrast scans of 74 glioma patients with histologically confirmed grade were acquired. For each patient, a set of statistical features was obtained from the parametric maps derived from the original images, in a region-of-interest encompassing the tumor volume. A forward stepwise selection procedure was used to find the best combinations of features for grade prediction with a cross-validated logistic model and survival time prediction with a cox proportional-hazards regression. Results. Presence/absence of enhancement paired with kurtosis of the FM (first moment of the first-pass curve) was the feature combination that best predicted tumor grade (grade II vs. grade III-IV; median AUC 0.96), with the main contribution being due to the first of the features. A lower predictive value (median AUC = 0.82) was obtained when grade IV tumors were excluded. Presence/absence of enhancement alone was the best predictor for survival time, and the regression was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Presence/absence of enhancement, reflecting transendothelial leakage, was the feature with highest predictive value for grade and survival time in glioma patients

  2. Preparation and dielectric properties of compositionally graded lead barium zirconate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Xihong, E-mail: xhhao@imust.edu.c [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhang, Zhiqing [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhou, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); An, Shengli [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhai, Jiwei [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-07-09

    Both up and down compositionally graded (Pb{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x})ZrO{sub 3} (PBZ) thin films with increasing x from 0.4 to 0.6 were deposited on Pt(1 1 1)-buffer layered silicon substrates through a sol-gel method. The microstructure and dielectric properties of graded PBZ thin films were investigated systemically. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that both PBZ films had crystallized into a pure perovskite phase after annealed 700 {sup o}C. Electrical measurement results showed that although up graded films had a slightly larger tunability, dielectric loss of down graded films was much lower than that of up graded films. Therefore, the figure of merit of down graded PBZ films was greatly enhanced, as compared with up graded films. Moreover, down graded PBZ thin films also displayed excellent temperature stability with a smaller temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) of -0.59 x 10{sup -3} {sup o}C{sup -1} from 20 {sup o}C to 80 {sup o}C.

  3. Safety Review related to Commercial Grade Digital Equipment in Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yeongjin; Park, Hyunshin; Yu, Yeongjin; Lee, Jaeheung

    2013-01-01

    The upgrades or replacement of I and C systems on safety system typically involve digital equipment developed in accordance with non-nuclear standards. However, the use of commercial grade digital equipment could include the vulnerability for software common-mode failure, electromagnetic interference and unanticipated problems. Although guidelines and standards for dedication methods of commercial grade digital equipment are provided, there are some difficulties to apply the methods to commercial grade digital equipment for safety system. This paper focuses on regulatory guidelines and relevant documents for commercial grade digital equipment and presents safety review experiences related to commercial grade digital equipment in safety system. This paper focuses on KINS regulatory guides and relevant documents for dedication of commercial grade digital equipment and presents safety review experiences related to commercial grade digital equipment in safety system. Dedication including critical characteristics is required to use the commercial grade digital equipment on safety system in accordance with KEPIC ENB 6370 and EPRI TR-106439. The dedication process should be controlled in a configuration management process. Appropriate methods, criteria and evaluation result should be provided to verify acceptability of the commercial digital equipment used for safety function

  4. Carbonic anhydrase XII expression is associated with histologic grade of cervical cancer and superior radiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chong Woo; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Joo-Young; Shin, Hye-Jin; Lim, Hyunsun; Lee, Sun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Lim, Myong-Cheol; Song, Yong-Jung

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12) is associated with histologic grade of the tumors and radiotherapy outcomes of the patients with invasive cervical cancer. CA12 expression was examined by immunohistochemical stains in cervical cancer tissues from 183 radiotherapy patients. Histological grading was classified as well (WD), moderately (MD) or poorly differentiated (PD). Oligonucleotide microarray experiment was performed using seven cervical cancer samples to examine differentially expressed genes between WD and PD cervical cancers. The association between CA12 and histological grade was analyzed by chi-square test. CA12 and histological grades were analyzed individually and as combined CA12 and histologic grade categories for effects on survival outcome. Immunohistochemical expression of CA12 was highly associated with the histologic grade of cervical cancer. Lack of CA12 expression was associated with PD histology, with an odds ratio of 3.9 (P = 0.01). Microarray analysis showed a fourfold reduction in CA12 gene expression in PD tumors. CA12 expression was marginally associated with superior disease-free survival. Application of the new combined categories resulted in further discrimination of the prognosis of patients with moderate and poorly differentiated tumor grade. Our study indicates that CA12 may be used as a novel prognostic marker in combination with histologic grade of the tumors

  5. Multiparametric analysis of magnetic resonance images for glioma grading and patient survival time prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Benjamin (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)), email: benjamin.garzon@ntnu.no; Emblem, Kyrre E. (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Dept. of Radiology, MGH-HST AA Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)); Mouridsen, Kim (Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark)); Nedregaard, Baard; Due-Toennessen, Paulina; Nome, Terje; Hald, John K. (Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Bjoernerud, Atle (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Haaberg, Asta K. (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Dept. of Medical Imaging, St Olav' s Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)); Kvinnsland, Yngve (NordicImagingLab, Bergen (Norway))

    2011-11-15

    Background. A systematic comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) options for glioma diagnosis is lacking. Purpose. To investigate multiple MR-derived image features with respect to diagnostic accuracy in tumor grading and survival prediction in glioma patients. Material and Methods. T1 pre- and post-contrast, T2 and dynamic susceptibility contrast scans of 74 glioma patients with histologically confirmed grade were acquired. For each patient, a set of statistical features was obtained from the parametric maps derived from the original images, in a region-of-interest encompassing the tumor volume. A forward stepwise selection procedure was used to find the best combinations of features for grade prediction with a cross-validated logistic model and survival time prediction with a cox proportional-hazards regression. Results. Presence/absence of enhancement paired with kurtosis of the FM (first moment of the first-pass curve) was the feature combination that best predicted tumor grade (grade II vs. grade III-IV; median AUC 0.96), with the main contribution being due to the first of the features. A lower predictive value (median AUC = 0.82) was obtained when grade IV tumors were excluded. Presence/absence of enhancement alone was the best predictor for survival time, and the regression was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Presence/absence of enhancement, reflecting transendothelial leakage, was the feature with highest predictive value for grade and survival time in glioma patients

  6. Molecular events leading to HPV-induced high grade neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia M. Wilting

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is initiated by high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (hrHPV and develops via precursor stages, called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. High-grade CIN lesions are considered true precancerous lesions when the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are aberrantly expressed in the dividing cells. This results in abolishment of normal cell cycle control via p53 and pRb degradation. However, it has become clear that these viral oncogenes possess additional oncogenic properties, including interference with the DNA methylation machinery and mitotic checkpoints. Identification of the resulting molecular events leading to high-grade neoplasia will 1 increase our understanding of cervical carcinogenesis, 2 yield biomarkers for early diagnosis, and 3 identify therapeutic targets for HPV-induced (pre cancerous lesions.This review will briefly summarise current advances in our understanding of the molecular alterations in the host cell genome that occur during HPV-induced carcinogenesis.

  7. WHO Grade IV Gliofibroma: A Grading Label Denoting Malignancy for an Otherwise Commonly Misinterpreted Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Escalante Abril

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old woman with no relevant clinical history who presented with headache and loss of memory. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a left parieto-temporal mass with annular enhancement after contrast media administration, rendering a radiological diagnosis of high-grade astrocytic neoplasm. Tumour sampling was performed but the patient ultimately died as a result of disease. Microscopically, the lesion had areas of glioblastoma mixed with a benign mesenchymal constituent; the former showed hypercellularity, endothelial proliferation, high mitotic activity and necrosis, while the latter showed fascicles of long spindle cells surrounded by collagen and reticulin fibers. With approximately 40 previously reported cases, gliofibroma is a rare neoplasm defined as either glio-desmoplastic or glial/benign mesenchymal. As shown in our case, its prognosis is apparently determined by the degree of anaplasia of the glial component.

  8. Fracture toughness testing of a reactor grade graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeding, M.; Klein, G.; Schiffers, H.; Nickel, H.

    1976-03-15

    Fracture mechanics is a well established tool for the assessment of brittle fracture in metallic structural materials. In this paper an attempt is made to apply fracture mechanics to a reactor-grade graphite. The effect of several test parameters on the stress intensity factor was measured; this was found to lie in the range 25 and 50 N/mm/sup -3/2/. The results are discussed in terms of the well known mechanical characteristics of graphite.

  9. Magnetic resonance perfusion for differentiating low-grade from high-grade gliomas at first presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrigo, Jill M; Fountain, Daniel M; Provenzale, James M; Law, Eric K; Kwong, Joey Sw; Hart, Michael G; Tam, Wilson Wai San

    2018-01-22

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability. Occasionally, high-grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO Grade III and IV) may have the same MRI appearance as LGGs. Taking a watch-and-wait approach could be detrimental for the patient if the tumour progresses quickly. Advanced imaging techniques are increasingly used in clinical practice to predict the grade of the tumour and to aid clinical decision of when to intervene surgically. One such advanced imaging technique is magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion, which detects abnormal haemodynamic changes related to increased angiogenesis and vascular permeability, or "leakiness" that occur with aggressive tumour histology. These are reflected by changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) expressed as rCBV (ratio of tumoural CBV to normal appearing white matter CBV) and permeability, measured by K trans . To determine the diagnostic test accuracy of MR perfusion for identifying patients with primary solid and non-enhancing LGGs (WHO Grade II) at first presentation in children and adults. In performing the quantitative analysis for this review, patients with LGGs were considered disease positive while patients with HGGs were considered disease negative.To determine what clinical features and methodological features affect the accuracy of MR perfusion. Our search strategy used two concepts: (1) glioma and the various histologies of interest, and (2) MR perfusion. We used structured search strategies appropriate for each database searched, which included: MEDLINE

  10. Comparative thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukanović Dragan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded thick rectangular plates accord¬ing to von Karman non-linear theory is presented. The material properties of the functionally graded plate, except for the Poisson’s ratio, were assumed to be graded in the thickness direction, according to a power-law distribution, in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. Formulations of equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the high order shear deformation theory based on different types of shape functions. Analytical method for determination of the critical buckling temperature for uniform increase of temperature, linear and non-linear change of temperature across thickness of a plate is developed. Numeri¬cal results were obtained in МATLAB software using combinations of symbolic and numeric values. The paper presents comparative results of critical buckling tempera¬ture for different types of shape functions. The accuracy of the formulation presented is verified by comparing to results available from the literature.

  11. Graded Aerobic Treadmill Testing in Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordingley, Dean M; Girardin, Richard; Morissette, Marc P; Reimer, Karen; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly; Ellis, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    To examine the safety and tolerability of clinical graded aerobic treadmill testing in recovering adolescent moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program. We completed a retrospective case series of two moderate and five severe TBI patients (mean age, 17.3 years) who underwent initial Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Testing at a mean time of 71.6 days (range, 55-87) postinjury. Six patients completed one graded aerobic treadmill test each and one patient underwent initial and repeat testing. There were no complications. Five initial treadmill tests were completely tolerated and allowed an accurate assessment of exercise tolerance. Two initial tests were terminated early by the treatment team because of neurological and cardiorespiratory limitations. As a result of testing, two patients were cleared for aerobic exercise as tolerated and four patients were treated with individually tailored submaximal aerobic exercise programs resulting in subjective improvement in residual symptoms and/or exercise tolerance. Repeat treadmill testing in one patient performed after 1 month of treatment with submaximal aerobic exercise prescription was suggestive of improved exercise tolerance. One patient was able to tolerate aerobic exercise following surgery for posterior glottic stenosis. Preliminary results suggest that graded aerobic treadmill testing is a safe, well tolerated, and clinically useful tool to assess exercise tolerance in appropriately selected adolescent patients with TBI. Future prospective studies are needed to evaluate the effect of tailored submaximal aerobic exercise prescription on exercise tolerance and patient outcomes in recovering adolescent moderate and severe TBI patients.

  12. Are the uterine serous carcinomas underdiagnosed? Histomorphologic and immunohistochemical correlates and clinical follow up in high-grade endometrial carcinomas initially diagnosed as high-grade endometrioid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaomin; Hinson, Jeff L; Matnani, Rahul; Cibull, Michael L; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G

    2018-02-01

    Histologic subclassification of high-grade endometrial carcinomas can sometimes be a diagnostic challenge when based on histomorphology alone. Here we utilized immunohistochemical markers to determine the immunophenotype in histologically ambiguous high-grade endometrial carcinomas that were initially diagnosed as pure or mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma, aiming to determine the utility of selected immunohistochemical panel in accurate classification of these distinct tumor types, while correlating these findings with the clinical outcome. A total of 43 high-grade endometrial carcinoma cases initially classified as pure high-grade endometrioid carcinoma (n=32), mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma/serous carcinoma (n=9) and mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma/clear cell carcinoma (n=2) were retrospectively stained with a panel of immunostains, including antibodies for p53, p16, estrogen receptor, and mammaglobin. Clinical follow-up data were obtained, and stage-to-stage disease outcomes were compared for different tumor types. Based on aberrant staining for p53 and p16, 17/43 (40%) of the high-grade endometrial carcinoma cases initially diagnosed as high-grade endometrioid carcinoma were re-classified as serous carcinoma. All 17 cases showed negative staining for mammaglobin, while estrogen receptor was positive in only 6 (35%) cases. The remaining 26 cases of high-grade endometrioid carcinoma showed wild-type staining for p53 in 25 (96%) cases, patchy staining for p16 in 20 (77%) cases, and were positive for mammaglobin and estrogen receptor in 8 (31%) and 19 (73%) cases, respectively, thus the initial diagnosis of high-grade endometrioid carcinoma was confirmed in these cases. In addition, the patients with re-classified serous carcinoma had advanced clinical stages at diagnosis and poorer overall survival on clinical follow-up compared to that of the remaining 26 high-grade endometrioid carcinoma cases. These results indicate that selected

  13. Increasing Academic Skills of Students with Autism Using Fifth Grade Peers as Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Debra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Nonhandicapped fifth-grade students conducted tutoring sessions in math, language, and reading for two elementary-aged children with autism. Results demonstrated that normal peers could effectively increase academic behaviors of autistic students through tutoring activities. (Author/JDD)

  14. Tuning Structure and Properties of Graded Triblock Terpolymer-Based Mesoporous and Hybrid Films

    KAUST Repository

    Phillip, William A.; Mika Dorin, Rachel; Werner, Jörg; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    -responsive, and contain pores with a nearly monodisperse diameter. These results suggest that moving to multiblock polymers and their hybrids may open new paths to produce high-performance graded membranes for filtration, separations, nanofluidics, catalysis, and drug

  15. The effects of grade, self-efficacy, learned-helpnessness, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    helplessness, and cognitive engagement on liking mathematics, and b) assessing the developmental trends of these variables across grade levels. The subjects of the study are 159 primary school students. The results showed that the effect of the ...

  16. Self-imaging of partially coherent light in graded-index media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Sergey A

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrate that partially coherent light beams of arbitrary intensity and spectral degree of coherence profiles can self-image in linear graded-index media. The results can be applicable to imaging with noisy spatial or temporal light sources.

  17. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks.

  18. Graded ferroelectrics, transpacitors and transponents

    CERN Document Server

    Mantese, Joseph V

    2005-01-01

    The text details the experimental and theoretical aspects of newly emerging ferroelectric devices, and their extensions to other ferroic systems such as: ferromagnetics, ferroelastics, piezoelectrics, etc. The theory and experimental results pertaining to non-homogeneous active ferroic devices and structures are presented.

  19. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Discriminating Low-Grade From High-Grade Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.K.; Kobus, T.; Litjens, G.J.S.; Hambrock, T.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Maas, M.C.; Scheenen, T.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and validate the optimal combination of parameters derived from 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging for discriminating low-grade from high-grade prostate cancer (PCa).The study was

  20. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. Does Grade Inflation Affect the Credibility of Grades? Evidence from US Law School Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2009-01-01

    While the nature and causes of university grade inflation have been extensively studied, little empirical research on the consequence of this phenomenon is currently available. The present study uses data for 48 US law schools to analyze admission decisions in 1995, 2000, and 2007, a period during which university grade inflation appears to have…

  2. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  3. Grades and Incentives: Assessing Competing Grade Point Average Measures and Postgraduate Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael A.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Albert H.

    2016-01-01

    In many educational settings, students may have an incentive to take courses where high grades are easier to achieve, potentially corroding student learning, evaluation of student achievement, and the fairness and efficiency of post-graduation labor outcomes. A grading system that takes into account heterogeneity of teacher standards and student…

  4. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-furnace carbon black is produced by pyrolysis of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons or their mixtures. The oil feedstock for the production of oil-furnace carbon black is mainly composed of high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons, which are residues of petroleum cracking, while the gaseous raw material is commonly natural gas. Most of the oil-furnace carbon black production (> 99 % is used as a reinforcing agent in rubber compounds. Occasionally, oil-furnace carbon blacks are used in contact with other rubber compounds and fillers that have different pigments, particularly with the color white. It has been observed that frequently a migrating rubber soluble colorant would enter the white or light colored rubber composition from the adjacent carbon black filled rubber, resulting in a highly undesirable staining effect. Methods for determining non-oxidized residue on the surface of the oil-furnace carbon black include extraction of carbon black with the appropriate organic solvent, and measuring the color of the organic solvent by means of a colorimeter on 425 nm (ASTM D 1618-99. Transmittance values of 85 % or more are indicative of a practically non-staining carbon black, while transmittance values below 50 % generally lead to a carbon black with pronounced staining characteristics. Many oil-furnace carbon blacks, particularly those with a larger particle size (dp > 50 nm which are produced by pyrolysis, have strongly adsorbed non-reacted oil on their surfaces. Upon incorporation in a rubber compound, the colored materials are gradually dissolved by the rubber matrix and migrate freely into adjacent light colored rubber compounds, causing a highly objectionable staining effect. Adjusting furnace parameters in the industrial process of producing specific soft grades of carbon black cannot obtain minimal values of toluene discoloration. The minimal value of toluene discoloration is very important in special applications. Therefore, after-treatment of

  5. Math grades and intrinsic motivation in elementary school: A longitudinal investigation of their association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Anne F; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2017-06-01

    It is often argued that the negative development of intrinsic motivation in elementary school strongly depends on the presence of school grades because grades represent extrinsic consequences and achievement feedback that are supposed to influence intrinsically motivated behaviour. However, only a few studies have tested this hypothesis. Therefore, we investigated the role of school grades in inter- and intra-individual changes in elementary school students' intrinsic motivation from when grades were first introduced until the end of elementary school, when students in Germany receive recommendations for a secondary school type on the basis of their prior performance in school. A sample of 542 German elementary school students (t 1 : M = 7.95 years, SD = 0.57) was followed for 2 years from the end of Grade 2 to the end of Grade 4. At seven measurement occasions, children's math grades and their domain-specific intrinsic motivation were assessed. Latent growth curve models showed differences in trajectories of intrinsic motivation across students rather than uniform development. Moreover, students' trajectories of grades and intrinsic motivation were only weakly associated. A latent cross-lagged model revealed that reciprocal effects between the two constructs over time were small at best. Contrary to theoretical considerations, our results indicate that negative performance feedback in the form of grades does not necessarily lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation. This calls into question the common opinion that a perception of being less competent, as reflected by poor grades, is responsible for weakening students' intrinsic motivation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Comparing 2 Whiplash Grading Systems to Predict Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Bagherian, Alireza; Mickelsen, Patrick K; Wagner, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Two whiplash severity grading systems have been developed: Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders (QTF-WAD) and the Croft grading system. The majority of clinical studies to date have used the modified grading system published by the QTF-WAD in 1995 and have demonstrated some ability to predict outcome. But most studies include only injuries of lower severity (grades 1 and 2), preventing a broader interpretation. The purpose of this study was assess the ability of these grading systems to predict clinical outcome within the context of a broader injury spectrum. This study evaluated both grading systems for their ability to predict the bivalent outcome, recovery, within a sample of 118 whiplash patients who were part of a previous case-control designed study. Of these, 36% (controls) had recovered, and 64% (cases) had not recovered. The discrete bivariate distribution between recovery status and whiplash grade was analyzed using the 2-tailed cross-tabulation statistics. Applying the criteria of the original 1993 Croft grading system, the subset comprised 1 grade 1 injury, 32 grade 2 injuries, 53 grade 3 injuries, and 32 grade 4 injuries. Applying the criteria of the modified (QTF-WAD) grading system, there were 1 grade 1 injury, 89 grade 2 injuries, and 28 grade 3 injuries. Both whiplash grading systems correlated negatively with recovery; that is, higher severity grades predicted a lower probability of recovery, and statistically significant correlations were observed in both, but the Croft grading system substantially outperformed the QTF-WAD system on this measure. The Croft grading system for whiplash injury severity showed a better predictive measure for recovery status from whiplash injuries as compared with the QTF-WAD grading system.

  7. Differentiating high-grade from low-grade chondrosarcoma with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja-Young; Choi, Jung-Ah; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Moon, Kyung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Han-Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the MR imaging features that differentiate between low-grade chondrosarcoma (LGCS) and high-grade chondrosarcoma (HGCS) and to determine the most reliable predictors for differentiation. MR images of 42 pathologically proven chondrosarcomas (28 LGCS and 14 HGCS) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 13 male and 29 female patients with an age range of 23-72 years (average age 51 years). On MR images, signal intensity, specific morphological characteristics including entrapped fat, internal lobular architecture, and outer lobular margin, soft tissue mass formation and contrast enhancement pattern were analysed. MR imaging features used to identify LGCS and HGCS were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. On T1-weighted images, a central area of high signal intensity, which was not seen in LGCS, was frequently observed in HGCS (n = 5, 36%) (p < 0.01). Entrapped fat within the tumour was commonly seen in LGCS (n = 26, 93%), but not in HGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). LGCS more commonly (n = 24, 86%) preserved the characteristic internal lobular structures within the tumour than HGCSs (n = 4, 29%) (p < 0.01). Soft tissue formation was more frequently observed in HGCS (n = 11, 79%) than in LGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). On gadolinium-enhanced images, large central nonenhancing areas were exhibited in only two (7.1%) of LGCS, while HGCS frequently (n = 9, 64%) had a central nonenhancing portion (p < 0.01). Results of multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that soft tissue formation and entrapped fat within the tumour were the variables that could be used to independently differentiate LGCS from HGCS. There were several MR imaging features of chondrosarcoma that could be helpful in distinguishing HGCS from LGCS. Among them, soft tissue mass formation favoured the diagnosis of HGCS, and entrapped fat within the tumour was highly indicative of LGCS. (orig.)

  8. Differentiating high-grade from low-grade chondrosarcoma with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja-Young; Choi, Jung-Ah; Kang, Heung Sik; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, Han-Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the MR imaging features that differentiate between low-grade chondrosarcoma (LGCS) and high-grade chondrosarcoma (HGCS) and to determine the most reliable predictors for differentiation. MR images of 42 pathologically proven chondrosarcomas (28 LGCS and 14 HGCS) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 13 male and 29 female patients with an age range of 23-72 years (average age 51 years). On MR images, signal intensity, specific morphological characteristics including entrapped fat, internal lobular architecture, and outer lobular margin, soft tissue mass formation and contrast enhancement pattern were analysed. MR imaging features used to identify LGCS and HGCS were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. On T1-weighted images, a central area of high signal intensity, which was not seen in LGCS, was frequently observed in HGCS (n = 5, 36%) (p < 0.01). Entrapped fat within the tumour was commonly seen in LGCS (n = 26, 93%), but not in HGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). LGCS more commonly (n = 24, 86%) preserved the characteristic internal lobular structures within the tumour than HGCSs (n = 4, 29%) (p < 0.01). Soft tissue formation was more frequently observed in HGCS (n = 11, 79%) than in LGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). On gadolinium-enhanced images, large central nonenhancing areas were exhibited in only two (7.1%) of LGCS, while HGCS frequently (n = 9, 64%) had a central nonenhancing portion (p < 0.01). Results of multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that soft tissue formation and entrapped fat within the tumour were the variables that could be used to independently differentiate LGCS from HGCS. There were several MR imaging features of chondrosarcoma that could be helpful in distinguishing HGCS from LGCS. Among them, soft tissue mass formation favoured the diagnosis of HGCS, and entrapped fat within the tumour was highly indicative of LGCS. (orig.)

  9. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  10. Effects of Instructions on Theme Grading: Grammatical vs. Holistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follman, John; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Twelve college seniors in an English methods course were assigned to three treatment groups, Grammatical, Holistic, and Both. Each group received different instructions but graded the same 10 themes. Themes graded for grammatical errors received lower grades than the same themes graded holistically. (NH)

  11. What Is Wrong with Grade Inflation (If Anything)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finefter-Rosenbluh, Ilana; Levinson, Meira

    2015-01-01

    Grade inflation is a global phenomenon that has garnered widespread condemnation among educators, researchers, and the public. Yet, few have deliberated over the ethics of grading, let alone the ethics of grade inflation. The purpose of this paper is to map out and examine the ethics of grade inflation. By way of beginning, we clarify why grade…

  12. 7 CFR 70.105 - Procedures for appeal gradings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conducting the appeal grading. Whether defrosting poultry or rabbit carcasses for other types of appeals will... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for appeal gradings. 70.105 Section 70.105... PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Appeal of A Grading Or...

  13. Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

  14. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Service [Doc. AMS-FV-10-0047] United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower AGENCY: Agricultural... Standards for Grades of Cauliflower. AMS is reviewing all fresh fruit and vegetable grade standards for... provisions for grading purple, orange or green cauliflower. The proposed revision will amend the color...

  15. Grading of shoulder ulcerations in sows by biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Barington, Krisitane

    2014-01-01

    legislation, stating that sows with shoulder ulcers grade 3 or 4 must be kept loose and have access to soft bedding. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if biopsies from the center of a shoulder ulcer can be used to point out animals for which an intervention must be initiated. Postmortem......, a punch biopsy was sampled from the center of the ulceration or from the tissue overlaying the tuber spina scapula. Afterward, the shoulders were cross-sectioned and evaluated grossly and histologically (“gold standard”). In total, 121 shoulders were included in the study, and the diagnostic value...... of a punch biopsy in grading shoulder ulcerations was evaluated. The results showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 0.98, a positive likelihood ratio of 38.36, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22. The agreement between the cross-section evaluation and the punch biopsy was found to be 0...

  16. Role of linguistic skills in fifth-grade mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated the direct and indirect relations between basic linguistic skills (i.e., phonological skills and grammatical ability) and advanced linguistic skills (i.e., academic vocabulary and verbal reasoning), on the one hand, and fifth-grade mathematics (i.e., arithmetic, geometry, and fractions), on the other, taking working memory and general intelligence into account and controlling for socioeconomic status, age, and gender. The results showed the basic linguistic representations of 167 fifth graders to be indirectly related to their geometric and fraction skills via arithmetic. Furthermore, advanced linguistic skills were found to be directly related to geometry and fractions after controlling for arithmetic. It can be concluded that linguistic skills directly and indirectly relate to mathematical ability in the upper grades of primary education, which highlights the importance of paying attention to such skills in the school curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vibration analysis of a functionally graded piezoelectric cylindrical actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T T; Shi, Z F; Spencer, B F Jr

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the response of a functionally graded piezoelectric cylindrical actuator placed in a harmonic electric field based on elastic membrane theory and shell theory. The actuator is polarized in the radial direction with its piezoelectric coefficient d 31 varying linearly along the axial direction. In the present investigation, non-dimensional expressions are introduced, and analytical solutions for this class of actuator are obtained. The results provided in the present study are compared with other investigations, with good agreement being found. The major differences between a functionally graded actuator and an actuator with homogeneous material properties are identified, and the advantages of the former are demonstrated. In the last section of this paper, limitations of membrane theory and shell theory models are discussed

  18. Code Analyses Supporting PIE of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Larry J.; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Spellman, Donald J.; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation's surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating the fuel in commercial power reactors. Four lead test assemblies (LTAs) were manufactured with weapons-grade mixed oxide (WG-MOX) fuel and irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1, to a maximum fuel rod burnup of ∼47.3 GWd/MTHM. As part of the fuel qualification process, five rods with varying burnups and initial plutonium contents were selected from one assembly and shipped to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for hot cell examination. ORNL has provided analytical support for the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of these rods via extensive fuel performance modeling which has aided in instrument settings and PIE data interpretation. The results of these fuel performance simulations are compared in this paper with available PIE data.

  19. Industrial grade versus scientific pure: Influence on melt properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, I.; Hembree, W.; Yang, F.; Busch, R.; Meyer, A.

    2018-04-01

    Viscosity, density, and the undercooling ability of the Zr-based bulk glass forming melt, which was manufactured in two different degrees of purity, have been studied. Investigations have been carried out by means of Couette rheometry and electrostatic and electromagnetic levitation with the latter under microgravity conditions. We found that oxygen and impurities present in industrial grade metals do not significantly alter the melt viscosity and density, while they clearly affect the undercooling ability. Comparing container based and containerless results showed that Couette rheometry can be applied in the temperature range between 1150 K and 1375 K, where it provides reliable data, but only at a rather low oxygen content. Higher oxygen contents, as in the case of the industrial grade alloy, cause measurement artefacts. In the case of Zr59.3Cu28.8Al10.4Nb1.5 alloys, these findings allow a better localization of the key factors dominating the glass forming ability.

  20. Report on the results of the fiscal 1997 R and D under consignment from NEDO of photon measuring/processing technology (R and D of petroleum production system high-grade measuring/processing technology); 1997 nendo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku photon keisoku kako gijutsu (sekiyu seisan system kodo keisoku kako gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The R and D were conducted of high-strength and high-accuracy welding/joining technology using laser, technology to measure and assess the joining state of structures and defects around the surface of structures and inside structures by high accuracy and high resolution, and technology/equipment to generate a laser light source for the tool, which are all required to remarkably enhance safety/reliability of oil drilling facilities working in the severe environment. In fiscal 1997, as the R and D of oil production system high-grade measuring/processing technology, technical study, study of measures to be taken, operating experiment, assessment, examination, etc. were conducted on the following themes: 1) macroscopic processing technology (R and D of high-reliability laser welding technology), 2) non-destructive composition measuring technology (R and D of internal measurement and photoelectron spectroscopy using short-wavelength radiation), 3) tight-focusing all-solid-state laser technology (R and D of fiber laser), 4) tight-focusing all-solid-state laser technology (R and D of high-efficiency laser diode), and 5) comprehensive investigation of phonics engineering (investigation for photon-applied materials processing technology). 256 refs., 205 figs., 18 tabs.