WorldWideScience

Sample records for grades 4-8 including

  1. The Cultural Exchange, A Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Multicultural Education Curriculum for Grades 4-8. Probe Cards [and] Probe Booklets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Mary; And Others

    These student probe cards for grades 4-8 provide a variety of values-oriented activities to help students explore, understand, and appreciate culturally diverse values. Activities are matched to one of seven objectives and are cross-referenced to the subject areas of social science, mathematics, fine arts, drama, physical education, language arts,…

  2. Piecing Together the 20th Century: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Principles of Collage in Modern Music, Art, and Poetry (Grades 4-8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigel, Eric; McDonald, Nan L.

    2011-01-01

    This theory-to-practice article focuses on interdisciplinary classroom activities based on principles of collage in modern music, art, and poetry. A two-lesson sequence was designed for an inner-city Grade 4 and 5 general classroom of English language learners, where the unit was taught, assessed, and documented by the authors. Included in the…

  3. Lessons that Bear Repeating and Repeating that Bears Lessons: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Principles of Minimalism in Modern Music, Art, and Poetry (Grades 4-8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigel, Eric; McDonald, Nan L.

    2012-01-01

    This theory-to-practice article focuses on interdisciplinary classroom activities based on principles of minimalism in modern music, art, and poetry. A lesson sequence was designed for an inner-city Grades 4 and 5 general classroom of English language learners, where the unit was taught, assessed, and documented by the authors. Included in the…

  4. Entomology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classrrom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Sue; And Others

    These reproducible entomology units are an introduction to a fascinating world within a world. Originally designed for gifted students, these units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of entomology. Included are two complete…

  5. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  6. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  7. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information..., the information shall be reviewed to determine whether it should remain classified. Ordinarily the...

  8. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  9. Cloning of a novel transcription factor-like gene amplified in human glioma including astrocytoma grade I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, U.; Heckel, D.; Michel, A.; Janka, M.; Hulsebos, T.; Meese, E.

    1997-01-01

    Gene amplification, which is generally considered to occur late in tumor development, is a common feature of high grade glioma. Up until now, there have been no reports on amplification in astrocytoma grade I. In this study, we report cloning and sequencing of a cDNA termed glioma-amplified sequence

  10. CARCINOMA PROSTATE HISTOPATHOLOGY IN NEEDLE BIOPSIES INCLUDING REVISED GLEASON’S GRADING AND ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Priyadarsini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adenocarcinoma of prostate is the most common form of cancer in men accounting for 29% of cancers in developed nations and the incidence of prostatic cancer is 6.4% in males of Trivandrum District. MATERIALS AND METHODS All prostatic biopsies taken per rectally and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. In suspected cases of malignancy immunohistochemical markers, the AMACR P504S and high molecular weight cytokeratin 34E12 were done. RESULTS The total number of cases studied were 142. The final diagnosis with histomorphological features show that maximum cases were prostatic carcinoma constituting 45.5% of the samples received. CONCLUSION All prostatic carcinomas were graded by revised Gleason’s grade (ISUP 2005 and the use of immunohistochemical markers in arriving at a definite diagnosis in carcinoma prostate was confirmed.

  11. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma upregulates markers associated with high-grade serous carcinomas including Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E and fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehdev, Ann Smith; Kurman, Robert J; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2010-06-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) has been proposed as a precursor for many pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas. Our previous analysis of the ovarian cancer genome identified several genes with oncogenic potential that are amplified and/or overexpressed in the majority of high-grade serous carcinomas. Determining whether these genes are upregulated in STICs is important in further elucidating the relationship of STICs to high-grade serous carcinomas and is fundamental in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of high-grade serous carcinomas. In this study, 37 morphologically defined STICs were obtained from 23 patients with stage IIIC/IV high-grade serous carcinomas. Both STICs and the high-grade serous carcinomas were analyzed for expression of Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and mucin-4. In addition, they were examined for expression of established markers including p53, Ki-67 and p16. We found that diffuse nuclear p53 and p16 immunoreactivity was observed in 27 (75%) of 36 and 18 (55%) of 33 STICs, respectively, whereas an elevated Ki-67 labeling index (>or=10%) was detected in 29 (78%) of 37 STICs. Cyclin E nuclear staining was seen in 24 (77%) of 35 STICs, whereas normal tubal epithelial cells were all negative. Increased Rsf-1 and FASN immunoreactivity occurred in 63%, and 62% of STICs, respectively, compared with adjacent normal-appearing tubal epithelium. Interestingly, only one STIC showed increased mucin-4 immunoreactivity. Carcinomas, when compared with STICs, overexpressed p16, Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in a higher proportion of cases. In conclusion, STICs express several markers including Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in high-grade serous carcinomas. In contrast, mucin-4 immunoreactivity either did not change or was reduced in most STICs. These results suggest that overexpression of Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN occurs early in tumor progression.

  12. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  13. Enantioselective Separation of 4,8-DHT and Phytotoxicity of the Enantiomers on Various Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Ma, Xiao-Yan; Ruan, Xiao; Jiang, De-An; Pan, Cun-De; Wang, Qiang

    2016-04-22

    As a candidate for bioherbicide, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT) was isolated from Caryospora callicarpa epicarp and its two enantiomers, S-(+)-isosclerone and R-(-)-regiolone, were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Chiralcel OD column with chiral stationary phase (CSP)-coated cellulose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). Then, the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers toward the seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species, including lettuce (Latuca sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), onion (Allium cepa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), were investigated and the results indicated a hormesis at low concentration of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers, but a retardant effect at high concentration. Between the two enantiomers of 4,8-DHT, the S-(+)-isosclerone was more toxic to seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species than the R-(-)-regiolone, and also the phytotoxicity of S-(+)-isosclerone varied with different plants. For example, S-(+)-isosclerone was the most active to seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that S-(+)-isosclerone had specific effects on different organisms. Thus, all of the chirality and concentration of 4,8-DHT, as well as the affected plant species, need to be taken into consideration in the development and utilization of 4,8-DHT.

  14. Enantioselective Separation of 4,8-DHT and Phytotoxicity of the Enantiomers on Various Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a candidate for bioherbicide, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT was isolated from Caryospora callicarpa epicarp and its two enantiomers, S-(+-isosclerone and R-(−-regiolone, were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on a Chiralcel OD column with chiral stationary phase (CSP-coated cellulose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate. Then, the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers toward the seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species, including lettuce (Latuca sativa, radish (Raphanus sativus, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, onion (Allium cepa, and wheat (Triticum aestivum, were investigated and the results indicated a hormesis at low concentration of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers, but a retardant effect at high concentration. Between the two enantiomers of 4,8-DHT, the S-(+-isosclerone was more toxic to seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species than the R-(−-regiolone, and also the phytotoxicity of S-(+-isosclerone varied with different plants. For example, S-(+-isosclerone was the most active to seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that S-(+-isosclerone had specific effects on different organisms. Thus, all of the chirality and concentration of 4,8-DHT, as well as the affected plant species, need to be taken into consideration in the development and utilization of 4,8-DHT.

  15. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative act...

  16. Mind Sparklers. Fireworks for Igniting Creativity in Young Minds. Book 2 for Grades 4-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robert E.

    The activities in this book were designed to encourage students to perceive what is going on around them, to be both receptive to and critical of the ideas of others, to analyze problems, to elaborate upon ideas, to explore possibilities, and to see relationships. The activities call for all 18 of E. Paul Torrance's creative thinking abilities.…

  17. Diagnostic terminology for urinary cytology reports including the new subcategories 'atypical urothelial cells of undetermined significance' (AUC-US) and 'cannot exclude high grade' (AUC-H).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaton, E; Decaussin-Petrucci, M; Mege-Lechevallier, F; Advenier, A-S; Devonec, M; Ruffion, A

    2014-02-01

    We studied whether atypical, non-superficial urothelial cells (AUC) could be separated into new subcategories including AUC 'of undetermined significance' (AUC-US) and 'cannot exclude high grade'' (AUC-H) in order to help to standardize urine cytopathology reports, as it is widely accepted in the Bethesda system for gynaecological cytopathology. We investigated whether AUC-US and AUC-H, defined by distinctive cytological criteria, might be separated with statistical significance according to actual diagnosis and follow-up data. A series of 534 cyto-histological comparisons taken in 139 patients, including 221 AUC at various steps of their clinical history was studied. There were 513 (96.1%) postcystoscopy and 469 (87.8%) ThinPrep® liquid-based specimens (95.9% and 89.1% of AUC cases, respectively). Patients viewed between 1999 and 2011 had histological control in a 0- to 6-months delay and were followed-up during an additional 5.9 ± 9.2 (0- to 56-) months period. The 221 AUC represented 0.8-2% of the specimens viewed during the study period. Among AUC-H cases, 70 out of 185 (37.8%) matched with high-grade lesions, compared with 3 of 38 (8.3%) of AUC-US cases (P = 0.0003). Conservatively treated patients with AUC-H more frequently developed high-grade lesions than those with AUC-US (54.1% versus 16.7%, P = 0.0007) with a 17.6-months mean delay. Nuclear hyperchromasia, a nuclear to cytoplasm (N/C) ratio > 0.7 and the combination of both were the more informative diagnostic criteria, all with P < 0.01. We conclude that the new subcategories could help to standardize urine cytopathology reports and contribute to the patient's management, provided it is validated by multicentric studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Uranyl-organic assemblies with the macrocyclic ligand 1, 4, 8, 11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetradecane-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraacetate (TETA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuery, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Three uranyl ion complexes obtained from the reaction of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and 1, 4, 8, 11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetradecane-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraacetic acid (H 4 TETA) were characterized by their crystal structure. The centrosymmetric macrocycle, in the [3434] conformation with either carbon or nitrogen atoms as corners, is zwitterionic, with four carboxylate groups and two or four protonated nitrogen atoms. The complexes [(UO 2 ) 2 (H 2 TETA)(C 2 O 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ] (1) and [UO 2 (H 4 TETA)(H 2 O)].NO 3 .Cl (2) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and 1 includes additional oxalate ligands generated in situ. Both compounds are two-dimensional polymers in which the four-fold monodentate macrocyclic ligand unites either four uranyl oxalate dinuclear species (1) or isolated uranyl ions (2). Complex 3, [UO 2 (H 2 TETA)(H 2 O)].6H 2 O, was obtained at room temperature and, although it displays the same stoichiometry as 2, it differs from it by being a three-dimensional framework. Both 2 and 3 present channels containing either counter-ions or water molecules. As often observed, the water content of the low-temperature species, 3, is higher than that of the high-temperature one, 2. (author)

  19. 42 CFR 4.8 - Publication of the Library and information about the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of the Library and information about the Library. 4.8 Section 4.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.8 Publication of the Library and information...

  20. Investigation of optimized experimental parameters including laser wavelength for boron measurement in photovoltaic grade silicon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwiche, S.; Benmansour, M.; Eliezer, N.; Morvan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of boron and other impurities in photovoltaic grade silicon was investigated using the LIBS technique with attention to the laser wavelength employed, temporal parameters, and the nature of the ambient gas. The laser wavelength was found to have a moderate effect on the performance of the process, while the type of purge gas and temporal parameters had a strong effect on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the boron spectral emission, which was used to determine the boron concentration in silicon. The three parameters are not independent, meaning that for each different purge gas, different optimal temporal parameters are observed. Electron density was also calculated from Stark broadening of the 390.5 nm silicon emission line in order to better understand the different performances observed when using different gases and gating parameters. Calibration curves were made for boron measurement in silicon using certified standards with different purge gases while using the temporal parameters which had been optimized for that gas. By comparing the calibration curves, it was determined that argon is superior to helium or air for use as the analysis chamber purge gas with an UV laser.

  1. Cryopreservation does not alter main characteristics of Good Manufacturing Process-grade human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells including immunomodulating potential and lack of malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzkendorf, Jana; Nerger, Katrin; Hering, Julian; Moegel, Angelika; Hoffmann, Katrin; Hoefers, Christiane; Mueller-Tidow, Carsten; Mueller, Lutz P

    2015-02-01

    The immunomodulating capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) qualifies them as a therapeutic tool in several diseases. However, repeated transplantation with products of reproducible characteristics may be required. This could be achieved with cryopreserved aliquots of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-grade MSCs. However, the impact of cryopreservation on the characteristics of GMP-MSCs is ill defined. We produced fresh and cryopreserved MSCs from human donors with a xenogen-free GMP protocol. Immunogenicity and immunomodulating capacity were tested in co-culture with putative recipient-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Risk of malignant transformation was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Cryopreservation had no impact on viability and consensus criteria of MSCs. In co-culture with PBMCs, MSCs showed low immunogenicity and suppressed mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC irrespective of cryopreservation. Cytogenetic aberrations were not observed consistently in fresh and cryopreserved products, and no signs of malignant transformation occurred in functional assays. MSC products from an elderly pretreated donor showed reduced functional quality, but imminent failure of functional criteria could be detected by an increased population doubling time in early passages. This study is the first systematic analysis on cryopreservation of xenogen-free human bone marrow-derived GMP-MSCs. The data support that cryopreservation does not alter the characteristics of the cells and thus may allow the generation of products for serial transplantation. In addition, the protocol allowed early detection of MSC products with low functional capacity. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang; Yao Wang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm 2 and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  3. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guang; Yao Wang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan, E-mail: w-li@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-01-15

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm{sup 2} and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  4. 4,8-bisallyl-2,6-dimethylnaphthalene-1,5-diyl diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørn Bolstad; Sørensen, Jeanett N.; Schaumburg, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    4,8-Diallyl-2,6-dimethylnaphthalene-1,5-diyl diacetate (1) which is a highly substituted naphthalene derivative has been synthesized in two steps starting from 2,6-dimethyl-1,5-naphthalenediol (3) using a modified Claisen-rearrangement.......4,8-Diallyl-2,6-dimethylnaphthalene-1,5-diyl diacetate (1) which is a highly substituted naphthalene derivative has been synthesized in two steps starting from 2,6-dimethyl-1,5-naphthalenediol (3) using a modified Claisen-rearrangement....

  5. Forsøg med 4,8 m langt lydvaffelelement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    Denne rapport omhandler den statiske eftervisning af Betonelements A/S's 4,8 m lange lydregulerende vaffelplade, i det følgende benævnt vaflen. Vaflen påtænkes anvendt i tagkonstruktioner til udfyldning mellem ribbeetagplader (RTP), hvor også den skivevirkning udnyttes. Vaflen har gode akutstikre......Denne rapport omhandler den statiske eftervisning af Betonelements A/S's 4,8 m lange lydregulerende vaffelplade, i det følgende benævnt vaflen. Vaflen påtænkes anvendt i tagkonstruktioner til udfyldning mellem ribbeetagplader (RTP), hvor også den skivevirkning udnyttes. Vaflen har gode...

  6. Construction and Validation of Parental Rating Scale from Children's Emotional Intelligence (4-8 Years Old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafnezhad, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence rating tools are not available for children, but mostly for children. So, the present study investigated the measurement and assessment of Emotional Intelligence in children with the age range of 4-8 years old by parents (mothers) through a preliminary research-made questionnaire. This study was based on an…

  7. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i4.8

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i4.8. 47. DIMETHOXYFLAVONE ISOLATED FROM THE STEM BARK OF STEREOSPERMUM KUNTHIANUM POSSESSES. ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY IN RODENTS. Ching, F. P.1*, Otokiti, I. O.2 and Egert-omoneukanrin, B.2. 1*Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical ...

  8. Proceedings fo the Seventeenth Annual Sea Turtle Symposium, 4-8 March 1997, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Epperly, Sheryan P.; Braun, Joanne

    1998-01-01

    The 17th Annual Sea Turtle Symposium was held at the Delta Orlando Resort in Orlando, Florida U.S.A. from March 4-8, 1997. The symposium was hosted by Florida Atlantic University, Mote Marine Laboratory, University of Central Florida, University of Florida, Florida Atlantic University and the Comité Nacional para la Conservación y Protección de las Totugas Marinas. The 17th was the largest symposium to date. A total of 720 participants registered, including sea turtle biologists, stu...

  9. Crystal structure of PrRh4.8B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Iwami; Shishido, Toetsu; Takei, Humihiko; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    1988-01-01

    The crystal structure of a new rare earth ternary boride PrRh 4.8 B 2 was investigated, by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. PrRh 4.8 B 2 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Immm with a = 9.697(4), b = 5.577(2), c = 25.64(3) A, Z=12. The intensity data were collected on a four-circle diffractometer with graphite-monochromatized Mo Kα radiation. The structure was solved by the Patterson method and refined with a full-matrix least-squares program to an R value (equal to Σvertical strokeΔFvertical stroke/Σvertical strokeF 0 vertical stroke) of 0.055 for 1176 reflections. (orig.)

  10. Validation Test Report for the Automated Optical Processing System (AOPS) Version 4.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    OC operating in the turbid coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico . Strict criteria exist for data collection, protocols and processing to calculate the...cruise The Gulf of Mexico chlorophyll cruise has been added to this report to show the correlation of the chlorophyll products and demonstrate how...the N2Gen 9 upgrades in AOPS v4.8 improve the matchups. Figure 18 shows a VIIRS image of the Gulf of Mexico with oceanographic cruise stations 1

  11. Stereospecific Synthesis of Two Isomers of (4,8 - Dimethyldecanal: The Aggregation Pheromone of Tribolium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarbin Paulo H.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward stereospecific synthesis of two stereoisomers, (4R, 8S and (4S, 8S, of 4,8-dimethyldecanal (1, out of four possible isomers, is described. The key step employs the coupling reaction of tosylates (3 and (3a, which are obtained from (R- and (S- citronellol, with the chiral Grignard reagent prepared from comercial (S-(+-1-bromo-2-methylbutane (4.

  12. High strain rate tensile behavior of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Paman, Ashish; Madhu, V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to perform quasi static and high strain rate tensile tests on Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy under different strain rates ranging from 0.01–3500/s and also at temperatures of 25,100, 200 and 300 °C. The combined effect of strain rate, temperature and stress triaxiality on the material behavior is studied by testing both smooth and notched specimens. Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive and fracture models are established based on high strain rate tensile data obtained from Split hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) and quasi-static tests. By modifying the strain hardening and strain rate hardening terms in the Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive model, a new J–C constitutive model of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook constitutive model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive and fracture models, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different conditions for Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy were conducted. Numerical simulations are performed using a non-linear explicit finite element code autodyn. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical simulation results and the experiment results. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested under various strain rates and temperatures were studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.4-8h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.05.AllAg.4-8h_embryos dm3 Histone Embryo 4-8h embryos SRX013093,SRX013021,S...RX013027,SRX013026,SRX013028,SRX013102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Emb.05.AllAg.4-8h_embryos.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 4-8h embryos SRX013021,SRX013...13022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos dm3 TFs and others Embryo 4-8h embryos SRX013053,SRX0...16156 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.4-8h_embryos.bed ...

  16. The 4.8 hour variation of Cygnus X-3 at high X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.; Kendziorra, E.; Staubert, R.; Trumper, J.

    1976-01-01

    During a balloon observation of Cygnus X-3 on 1975 February 20, an intensity variation has been found which is in phase with the low-energy X-ray 4.8 hour sinusoidal light curve. The measured relative amplitude in the range 32--64 keV is 0.37 (+0.31, -0.29). Compared with the results at lower energies there is no indication for an energy dependence of the relative amplitude up to 64 keV. The encountered low-intensity source spectrum is compared with previous measurements

  17. Large Binocular Telescope Observations of Europa Occulting Io's Volcanoes at 4.8 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Conrad, Albert; Resnick, Aaron; Leisenring, Jarron; Hinz, Phil; de Pater, Imke; de Kleer, Katherine; Spencer, John; Skemer, Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Defrére, Denis

    2015-11-01

    On 8 March 2015 Europa passed nearly centrally in front of Io. The Large Binocular Telescope observed this event in dual-aperture AO-corrected Fizeau interferometric imaging mode using the mid-infrared imager LMIRcam operating behind the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) at a broadband wavelength of 4.8 μm (M-band). Occultation light curves generated from frames recorded every 123 milliseconds show that both Loki and Pele/Pillan were well resolved. Europa's center shifted by 2 kilometers relative to Io from frame-to-frame. The derived light curve for Loki is consistent with the double-lobed structure reported by Conrad et al. (2015) using direct interferometric imaging with LBTI.

  18. On Type IIB moduli stabilization and N=4,8 supergravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, Gerardo [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Marques, Diego [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA/ Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Nunez, Carmen, E-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosabal, Jose A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-08-01

    We analyze D=4 compactifications of Type IIB theory with generic, geometric and non-geometric, dual fluxes turned on. In particular, we study N=1 toroidal orbifold compactifications that admit an embedding of the untwisted sector into gauged N=4,8 supergravities. Truncations, spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry and the inclusion of sources are discussed. The algebraic identities satisfied by the supergravity gaugings are used to implement the full set of consistency constraints on the background fluxes. This allows to perform a generic study of N=1 vacua and identify large regions of the parameter space that do not admit complete moduli stabilization. Illustrative examples of AdS and Minkowski vacua are presented.

  19. Design of a 4.8-m ring for inverse Compton scattering x-ray source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a 50 MeV compact electron storage ring with 4.8-meter circumference for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering x-ray source. The ring consists of four dipole magnets with properly adjusted bending radii and edge angles for both horizontal and vertical focusing, and a pair of quadrupole magnets used to adjust the horizontal damping partition number. We find that the dynamic aperture of compact storage rings depends essentially on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the dipole magnets with small bending radius. Hamiltonian dynamics is found to agree well with results from numerical particle tracking. We develop a self-consistent method to estimate the equilibrium beam parameters in the presence of the intrabeam scattering, synchrotron radiation damping, quantum excitation, and residual gas scattering. We also optimize the rf parameters for achieving a maximum x-ray flux.

  20. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  1. The ANGPTL3-4-8 model, a molecular mechanism for triglyceride trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysing circulating triglycerides (TG) into free fatty acids that are taken up by peripheral tissues. Postprandial LPL activity rises in white adipose tissue (WAT), but declines in the heart and skeletal muscle, thereby directing circulating TG to WAT for storage; the reverse is true during fasting. However, the mechanism for the tissue-specific regulation of LPL activity during the fed-fast cycle has been elusive. Recent identification of lipasin/angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8), a feeding-induced hepatokine, together with Angptl3 and Angptl4, provides intriguing, yet puzzling, insights, because all the three Angptl members are LPL inhibitors, and the deficiency (overexpression) of any one causes hypotriglyceridaemia (hypertriglyceridaemia). Then, why does nature need all of the three? Our recent data that Angptl8 negatively regulates LPL activity specifically in cardiac and skeletal muscles suggest an Angptl3-4-8 model: feeding induces Angptl8, activating the Angptl8-Angptl3 pathway, which inhibits LPL in cardiac and skeletal muscles, thereby making circulating TG available for uptake by WAT, in which LPL activity is elevated owing to diminished Angptl4; the reverse is true during fasting, which suppresses Angptl8 but induces Angptl4, thereby directing TG to muscles. The model suggests a general framework for how TG trafficking is regulated. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  3. Rheumatoid factor testing in Spanish primary care: A population-based cohort study including 4.8 million subjects and almost half a million measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsley, Klara; Miller, Anne; Luqmani, Raashid; Fina-Aviles, Francesc; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Edwards, Christopher J; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Medina, Manuel; Calero, Sebastian; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) testing is used in primary care in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however a positive RF may occur without RA. Incorrect use of RF testing may lead to increased costs and delayed diagnoses. The aim was to assess the performance of RF as a test for RA and to estimate the costs associated with its use in a primary care setting. A retrospective cohort study using the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care database (contains primary care records and laboratory results of >80% of the Catalonian population, Spain). Participants were patients ≥18 years with ≥1 RF test performed between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2011, without a pre-existing diagnosis of RA. Outcome measures were an incident diagnosis of RA within 1 year of testing, and the cost of testing per case of RA. 495,434/4,796,498 (10.3%) patients were tested at least once. 107,362 (21.7%) of those tested were sero-positive of which 2768 (2.6%) were diagnosed with RA within 1 year as were 1141/388,072 (0.3%) sero-negative participants. The sensitivity of RF was 70.8% (95% CI 69.4-72.2), specificity 78.7% (78.6-78.8), and positive and negative predictive values 2.6% (2.5-2.7) and 99.7% (99.6-99.7) respectively. Approximately €3,963,472 was spent, with a cost of €1432 per true positive case. Although 10% of patients were tested for RF, most did not have RA. Limiting testing to patients with a higher pre-test probability would significantly reduce the cost of testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  4. Field line distribution of density at L=4.8 inferred from observations by CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available For two events observed by the CLUSTER spacecraft, the field line distribution of mass density ρ was inferred from Alfvén wave harmonic frequencies and compared to the electron density ne from plasma wave data and the oxygen density nO+ from the ion composition experiment. In one case, the average ion mass M≈ρ/ne was about 5 amu (28 October 2002, while in the other it was about 3 amu (10 September 2002. Both events occurred when the CLUSTER 1 (C1 spacecraft was in the plasmatrough. Nevertheless, the electron density ne was significantly lower for the first event (ne=8 cm−3 than for the second event (ne=22 cm−3, and this seems to be the main difference leading to a different value of M. For the first event (28 October 2002, we were able to measure the Alfvén wave frequencies for eight harmonics with unprecedented precision, so that the error in the inferred mass density is probably dominated by factors other than the uncertainty in frequency (e.g., magnetic field model and theoretical wave equation. This field line distribution (at L=4.8 was very flat for magnetic latitude |MLAT|≲20° but very steeply increasing with respect to |MLAT| for |MLAT|≳40°. The total variation in ρ was about four orders of magnitude, with values at large |MLAT| roughly consistent with ionospheric values. For the second event (10 September 2002, there was a small local maximum in mass density near the magnetic equator. The inferred mass density decreases to a minimum 23% lower than the equatorial value at |MLAT|=15.5°, and then steeply increases as one moves along the field line toward the ionosphere. For this event we were also able to examine the spatial dependence of the electron density using measurements of ne from all four CLUSTER spacecraft. Our analysis indicates that the density varies with L at L~5 roughly like L−4, and that ne is also locally peaked at the magnetic equator, but with a smaller peak. The value of ne reaches a density minimum

  5. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  6. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  7. Jubilite: A 4-,8-connected Cubic Structural Pattern in Space Group Pm3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Castro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the course of investigating structural modifications of the 3-,4-connected net known as the Pt3O4 structure-type (waserite, a novel 4-,8-connected structure-type was discovered. This lattice is generated by replacing the 3-connected trigonal planar vertices of the Pt3O4 structure-type with 4-connected tetrahedral vertices, to achieve a structure which possesses a generic empirical formula of JK6L8. In such a topological modification, the four 3-fold axes of the parent cubic, Pm3n, Pt3O4 structure-type are retained. Thus the 4-connected tetrahedral vertices are oriented so as to preserve cubic symmetry in the resulting Pm3, JK6L8 (jubilite lattice. The unit cell contains a single 8-connected cubecentered vertex, six 4-connected distorted square planar vertices and eight 4-connected distorted tetrahedral vertices. It is a Wellsean structure with a Wells point symbol given by (4166484(42826(43838 and a Schläfli symbol of (53/4, 4.2667. This latter index reveals a decrease in the lattice’s polygonality and concomitant increase in the connectivity through the transformation from waserite to jubilite. The topology of the parent waserite lattice (Pt3O4 corresponds to that of the Catalan structures with the Wells point symbol (843(834, which has the Schläfli symbol (8, 3.4285. Finally, it can be seen that a sequence of structure-types starting with waserite (Pt3O4 and moving to jubilite (JK6L8 and finally to fluorite (CaF2 represents a continuous crystallographic structural transformation in which the symmetry and topology undergo concomitant changes from one structure-type (waserite to the other structure-types. The topology of the fluorite lattice, represented by the Wells point symbol (424(462, and the Schläfli symbol (4, 51/3, indicates a discontinuous topological transformation from the intermediate jubilite lattice; like the discontinuous topological transformation from Pt3O4 to JK6L8; in which the

  8. 1,4,8,11-Tetra[2-aryl-1-diazenyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanes - synthesis, characterization, and x-ray crystallography of the first tetrakistriazenes to be reported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.D.; Vaughan, K. [Dept. of Chemistry, Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)], E-mail: keith.vaughan@smu.ca; Bertolasi, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centro di Strutturistica Diffrattometrica, Universita' di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    The reactions of a series of arene diazonium salts with 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam) afford the novel compounds, the 1,4,8,11-tetra[2-aryl-1-diazenyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanes (1a-1f), which are the first examples of tetrakistriazenes to be reported. The tetrakistriazenes were characterized by IR spectroscopy, proton and carbon NMR, elemental analysis, high resolution electrospray mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. The analogous reaction of a diazonium salt with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane or 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane yields the tristriazenes 2, 3a, and 3b. The structures of compounds 1c and 1e were solved by X-ray crystallography at low temperature (150 K). Both molecules display a conformation where the four phenyltriazenyl groups point alternately upwards and downwards with respect to the mean macrocyclic plane. (author)

  9. 1,4,8,11-Tetra[2-aryl-1-diazenyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanes - synthesis, characterization, and x-ray crystallography of the first tetrakistriazenes to be reported

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.D.; Vaughan, K.; Bertolasi, V.

    2006-01-01

    The reactions of a series of arene diazonium salts with 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam) afford the novel compounds, the 1,4,8,11-tetra[2-aryl-1-diazenyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanes (1a-1f), which are the first examples of tetrakistriazenes to be reported. The tetrakistriazenes were characterized by IR spectroscopy, proton and carbon NMR, elemental analysis, high resolution electrospray mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. The analogous reaction of a diazonium salt with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane or 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane yields the tristriazenes 2, 3a, and 3b. The structures of compounds 1c and 1e were solved by X-ray crystallography at low temperature (150 K). Both molecules display a conformation where the four phenyltriazenyl groups point alternately upwards and downwards with respect to the mean macrocyclic plane. (author)

  10. Strategic Reading Groups: Guiding Readers in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Jennifer; Degener, Sophie C.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic grouping can transform reading instruction in the middle grades from a hit-or-miss learning experience to a targeted, responsive one. This book features a practical and field-tested model for small-group differentiated reading instruction in Grades 4-8. Jennifer Berne and Sophie C. Degener offer a clear, detailed discussion of how to…

  11. Teacher and Learners' Belief in a Just World and Perspectives of Discipline of Grade 4-8 Learners in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human-Vogel, Salomé; Morkel, Jorina

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we examine the personal belief in a just world (PBJW) for teachers and learners in predominantly Afrikaans-speaking South African schools, and the relationship between teachers' PBJW and their perception of problem behaviour in the classroom. The study is informed by national debates of school violence in South African…

  12. Comparison between clinical grading and navigation data of knee laxity in ACL-deficient knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Yuji

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latest version of the navigation system for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction has the supplementary ability to assess knee stability before and after ACL reconstruction. In this study, we compared navigation data between clinical grades in ACL-deficient knees and also analyzed correlation between clinical grading and navigation data. Methods 150 ACL deficient knees that received primary ACL reconstruction using an image-free navigation system were included. For clinical evaluation, the Lachman, anterior drawer, and pivot shift tests were performed under general anesthesia and were graded by an examiner. For the assessment of knee stability using the navigation system, manual tests were performed again before ACL reconstruction. Navigation data were recorded as anteroposterior (AP displacement of the tibia for the Lachman and anterior drawer tests, and both AP displacement and tibial rotation for the pivot shift test. Results Navigation data of each clinical grade were as follows; Lachman test grade 1+: 10.0 mm, grade 2+: 13.2 ± 3.1 mm, grade 3+: 14.5 ± 3.3 mm, anterior drawer test grade 1+: 6.8 ± 1.4 mm, grade 2+: 7.4 ± 1.8 mm, grade 3+: 9.1 ± 2.3 mm, pivot shift test grade 1+: 3.9 ± 1.8 mm/21.5° ± 7.8°, grade 2+: 4.8 ± 2.1 mm/21.8° ± 7.1°, and grade 3+: 6.0 ± 3.2 mm/21.1° ± 7.1°. There were positive correlations between clinical grading and AP displacement in the Lachman, and anterior drawer tests. Although positive correlations between clinical grading and AP displacement in pivot shift test were found, there were no correlations between clinical grading and tibial rotation in pivot shift test. Conclusions In response to AP force, the navigation system can provide the surgeon with correct objective data for knee laxity in ACL deficient knees. During the pivot shift test, physicians may grade according to the displacement of the tibia, rather than rotation.

  13. Search for single top quarks in the tau + jets channel using 4.8 fb-1 of pp- collision data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abazov, V.M.; et al., [Unknown; Ancu, L.S.; de Jong, S.J.; Filthaut, F.; Galea, C.F.; Hegeman, J.G.; Houben, P.; Meijer, M.M.; Svoisky, P.; van den Berg, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first direct search for single top quark production using reconstructed tau leptons in the final state. The search is based on 4.8 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected in p (p) over bar collisions at root s= 1.96 TeV with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We

  14. Floods of July 4-8, 1969, in north-central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ronald I.; Webber, Earl E.; Ellis, Davis W.

    1971-01-01

    The storm of July 4-5, 1969, in north-central Ohio was an unprecedented event; never before has such intense and widespread precipitation been recorded for a summer storm in Ohio (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1969). More than 14 inches of rainfall in less than 24 hours were observed at several places. In areal extent more than 4 inches of rainfall occurred on about 6,000 square miles. Record-breaking floods were observed at many places in north-central Ohio. Of the 50 sites for which the peak discharge was determined 40 are located on unregulated streams. The peak discharge at five of the 40 sites was four times as large as the discharge of the 50-year flood and the peak discharge for 17 sites was more than twice as large as that of the 50-year flood. Severe losses in terms of lives and property damage were experienced; 41 deaths and more than $66 million in property damage were attributed to the rainstorm, accompanying wind, and resulting floods. This report summarizes peak stages and (or) discharges at 55 sites including five reservoirs, in upper Muskingum River basin, in lower Sandusky River basin, and in the Huron River, Vermilion River, and Black River basins.

  15. Phonological Working Memory in 4-8 Year-Old Persian Children Who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One language-related area that has recently received more attention from researchers working in the field of stuttering is phonological working memory. This article aimed to identify phonological skills of working memory in children with stuttering in comparison with normal children, and to obtain the relationship between the increase in the number of syllables in nonwords and the mean percentage of error in non-word repetition in both groups, then to compare them with each other. Methods: Thirty children participated in the study, 15 children who stutter and 15 normal children which were matched by age, gender and socio-economic status. Cases of this study were recruited by non random convenience sampling. The research data collection was based on non-word repetition test. The test included 40 non-words. Independent t-tests and linear regression were used for data analysis. Results: Results revealed that in all cases the mean percentage of error was higher in children who stutter than normal children, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Also the mean percentage error did not show a regular increase by increasing the number of syllables in the non-words. So that, in both groups of the study the highest mean percentage of error was related to single-syllable non-words then three-syllable and two-syllable ones. Conclusion: The results of the present research from previous researches support the view that children with stuttering may have some degree of delay and slow in phonological working memory abilities when compared to normal children. It is proposed that in future more researches could be done in more samples, in different age groups of children and adults who stutter.

  16. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gambino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M=4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M=4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics.

  17. Nonlinear absorption properties of some 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkylphthalocyanines and their metallated derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    BLAU, WERNER

    2003-01-01

    PUBLISHED The third-order nonlinear optical properties of a series of 15 unmetallated and metallated 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkylphthalocyanines have been investigated. The palladium-metallated compound is the strongest nonlinear absorber of the series, but, due to its comparatively high linear absorption coefficient, it exhibits a relatively low ratio of excited- to ground-state absorption cross-sections (?) when compared to the other compounds. The highest values for ? were found for d...

  18. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  19. Associations between parental feeding practices, problem food behaviours and dietary intake in New Zealand overweight children aged 4-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszard, Jillian J; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Taylor, Rachael W

    2015-04-01

    Parents report that children's eating behaviours are a major barrier to providing them with a healthy diet. Links between problem eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are not well established and have not previously been examined in overweight children. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between problem food behaviours, dietary intake and parental feeding practices of overweight children aged 4-8 years. Participants were recruited for a lifestyle intervention (n 203). At baseline, children's BMI was measured and parents completed comprehensive questionnaires about the feeding practices they used, the problem food behaviours their children exhibited and the foods their child consumed. A fussy eating scale was developed and associations were determined using correlations and regression analysis, including interactions. Dunedin, New Zealand. Overweight children aged 4-8 years. Healthy eating guidance and monitoring by parents were related to the consumption of fewer unhealthy foods (B=-0·4, P=0·001 and B=-0·4, Pfoods (B = 0·5, Pfood intake less (Pfood-restrictive parents ate more fruit and vegetables (B=2·9, Pfood environment might be beneficial for the diet and food behaviours of young overweight children.

  20. Isolation, structure elucidation and antibacterial activity of methyl-4,8-dimethylundecanate from the marine actinobacterium Streptomyces albogriseolus ECR64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, Durairaj; Vijayakumar, Ramasamy; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Alam Khan, Md Khurshid

    2018-05-25

    Around 120 actinobacterial colonies were isolated from various regions of marine East coast region of Tamil Nadu, India. Among them, 33 were morphologically distinct and they were preliminarily screened for their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and Aeromonas hydrophila by cross-streak plate technique. Among the isolated, the isolate ECR64 exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against fish pathogenic bacteria. The crude bioactive compounds were extracted from the isolate ECR64 using different organic solvents which exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Separation and purification of the bioactive compounds were made by column chromatography which yielded 27 fractions and were re-chromatographed to obtain the active compound. Ultra violet (UV), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral studies were used to predict the structure of the active compound which was identified as methyl-4,8-dimethylundecanate. The potential isolate ECR64 was identified as Streptomyces albogriseolus by phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic (16S rRNA gene sequence) analyses. The identified compound methyl-4,8-dimethylundecanate can be used as potential and alternative drug in disease management of aquaculture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Establisment of biflavenoids as synthons for higher oligomers: rearrangements of a (4,8)-biflavenoid as model for the phlobaphenenereaction. Daarstelling van biflavanoiede as sintone vir hoer oligomere: omskakelings van 'n (4,8)-biflavanoied as model vir die flobafeenreaksie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botes, A L

    1983-11-01

    The typical tetraflavenoid from the core wood Acacia mearnsii(wattle) is composed of a (-)-bifisetinidol- and (-)-fisetinidol unit coupled to the nucleophilic A-ring (C/sub 8/ or C/sub 6/) of a (+)-catechyn unit. This study is aimed at the development of methods for yielding of (4,6)-type biflavenoids for the utilization as synthons for oligomer tannins and comprise primary the following two approaches: The direct biomimetic synthesis during which the C/sub 4/ carbenium ion from a flavan-3,4-diol react with a 4-8 mol excess of the nucleophilic flavan-3-ol, was on a 1:1 mol base re-investigated. The second approach comprises C/sub 3/-2,4-dihydroxybenzylation of (+)-catechyn, followed by interflavenoid coupling at C/sub 6/ and subsequently selective removal of the C/sub 8/-substituent to supply (4,6)-biflavenoids, C/sub 8/ of (+)-catechyn is indeed in 70% yield with the 2,4-dihydroxybenzylation group protected whereafter regiospesific (4,6)-interflavenoid coupling with (+)-mollisacacidin was likewise successfully executed. The relative bond strenghts of C/sub 6/- and C/sub 8/-substituents on the (+)-catechyn unit are qualitatively determined by acid hydrolysis of the model compounds 8-(2,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-(+)-catechyn; 6-((-)-fisetinidol)-(+)-catechyn; 8((-)-fisetinidol)-(+)-catechyn; (+)-catechyn-(4..cap alpha.. ->6)-(+)-catechyn and (+)-catechyn-(4..cap alpha.. -> 8)-(+)-catechyn. The /sup 1/H nmr spectrum of the crystalline (H/sub 2/O)-free phenolic (4,8)-3,4-cis-biflavenoid made the determination of natural biflavenoid conformations possible for the first time.

  2. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service; however, maintenance therapy itself is not covered as part of these services. (c) Occupational... increase respiratory function, such as graded activity services; these services include physiologic... rehabilitation plan of treatment, including physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, speech...

  3. The new TOYOTA 4.8L V10 petrol high performance engine for LEXUS LFA super car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Takamitsu; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Keisuke; Nagai, Masakatsu; Uchida, Takahiro [Toyota Motor Corporation (Japan); Maruyama, Heiji [Yamaha Motor Corporation (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    The new 1LR-GUE V10 high performance engine was designed exclusively for the Lexus LFA super car (below picture). Achieving the speed and performance of a true super car was merely the starting point. The engine was developed to create a feeling of infinite acceleration potential. Response is instant and based on close understanding of driver's reactions. Vehicle handling provides unsurpassed response and feedback with ideal transient torque characteristics and marvelous sound with unique design. The performance of this engine was accomplished by combining world-class high revolution speed and high power (per liter). The new 4.8L engine produces 412kW (560hp) at 8700rpm and redline is 9000rpm (fuel cut-off speed is 9500rpm). It meets the latest emission standard Euro V and achieves good fuel consumption with a wide range stoechiometric air fuel ratio, till speeds up to 240km/h. (orig.)

  4. The Implementation of a 2/4/8 Antennas Configurable Diversity OFDM Receiver for Mobile HDTV Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two pre-FFT adaptive array (AA antenna combiners and a post-FFT carrier diversity (CD combiner are integrated with a Japan Terrestrial digital TV (ISDB-T OFDM receiver using 90 nm 7M1P CMOS process. A 2/4/8-antenna diversity receiver can be configured and a low-cost 4 antenna diversity reception system can be realized in one LSI by making use of the AA-CD two-stage diversity combining method. Mobile reception performance is increased by 1.63 times using a denoise filter circuit and SPLINE interpolator under urban 6-path Rayleigh fading (TU6 model with 2-antenna post-FFT carrier diversity (2CD combing mode. The die area is 49 mm2 and the power consumption is 310 mW.

  5. Naphthalene Bis(4,8-diamino-1,5-dicarboxyl)amide Building Block for Semiconducting Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Brian J; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Manley, Eric F; Fabiano, Simone; Mouat, Aidan R; Chen, Lin X; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2017-10-18

    We report a new naphthalene bis(4,8-diamino-1,5-dicarboxyl)amide (NBA) building block for polymeric semiconductors. Computational modeling suggests that regio-connectivity at the 2,6- or 3,7-NBA positions strongly modulates polymer backbone torsion and, therefore, intramolecular π-conjugation and aggregation. Optical, electrochemical, and X-ray diffraction characterization of 3,7- and 2,6-dithienyl-substituted NBA molecules and corresponding isomeric NBA-bithiophene copolymers P1 and P2, respectively, reveals the key role of regio-connectivity. Charge transport measurements demonstrate that while the twisted 3,7-NDA-based P1 is a poor semiconductor, the planar 2,6-functionalized NBA polymers (P2-P4) exhibit ambipolarity, with μ e and μ h of up to 0.39 and 0.32 cm 2 /(V·s), respectively.

  6. Alternative Grading Systems. The Practitioner, Vol. III, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, Nancy; Thomson, Scott

    After examining some of the pros and cons of traditional grading, the demands colleges make on grading practices, and the responses of people interested in grading, a number of examples of operating alternative systems are given. The alternatives include a dual (pass/withdraw grading in some courses, traditional grading in others) system, a…

  7. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  8. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  9. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  10. Triglycerides are a predictive factor for arterial stiffness: a community-based 4.8-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Ye, Ping; Cao, Ruihua; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Wenkai; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Yongyi; Wu, Hongmei

    2016-05-18

    Epidemiological studies have disclosed an independent effect of triglycerides on coronary heart disease despite achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals with statin therapy. Arterial stiffness has been increasingly recognized as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerotic disease. The association between triglycerides and arterial stiffness is not well characterized. We aimed to determine the relationship between triglycerides and arterial stiffness in a community-based longitudinal sample from Beijing, China. We related levels of plasma TGs to measures of arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV] and carotid-radial PWV) in 1447 subjects (mean age, 61.3 years) from a community-based population in Beijing, China. After a median follow-up interval of 4.8 years, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that TGs were independently associated with carotid-femoral PWV (β = 0.747, P triglyceride levels were significantly associated with decreases in carotid-femoral PWV, indicating that achieving low TG levels may be an additional therapeutic consideration in subjects with atherosclerotic disease.

  11. Narrow-band 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16 and 24 cycles/360o angular frequency filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas M.L.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured human frequency response functions for seven angular frequency filters whose test frequencies were centered at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16 or 24 cycles/360º using a supra-threshold summation method. The seven functions of 17 experimental conditions each were measured nine times for five observers. For the arbitrarily selected filter phases, the maximum summation effect occurred at test frequency for filters at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 cycles/360º. For both 16 and 24 cycles/360º test frequencies, maximum summation occurred at the lower harmonics. These results allow us to conclude that there are narrow-band angular frequency filters operating somehow in the human visual system either through summation or inhibition of specific frequency ranges. Furthermore, as a general result, it appears that addition of higher angular frequencies to lower ones disturbs low angular frequency perception (i.e., 1, 2, 3 and 4 cycles/360º, whereas addition of lower harmonics to higher ones seems to improve detection of high angular frequency harmonics (i.e., 8, 16 and 24 cycles/360º. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of coupled radial and angular frequency filters in face perception using an example where narrow-band low angular frequency filters could have a major role.

  12. Recently Quenched Galaxies at z = 0.2–4.8 in the COSMOS UltraVISTA Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Akie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki, E-mail: ichikawa@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    We present a new analysis of the stellar mass function and morphology of recently quenched galaxies (RQGs), whose star formation has been recently quenched for some reason. The COSMOS2015 catalog was exploited to select those galaxies at 0.2 < z < 4.8, over 1.5 deg{sup 2} of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) UltraVISTA field. This is the first time that RQGs are consistently selected and studied in such a wide range of redshift. We find increasing number density of RQGs with time in a broad mass range at z > 1, while low-mass RQGs start to grow very rapidly at z < 1. We also demonstrate that the migration of RQGs may largely drive the evolution of the stellar mass function of passive galaxies. Moreover, we find that the morphological type distribution of RQGs are intermediate between those of star-forming and passive galaxies. These results indicate that RQGs represent a major transitional phase of galaxy evolution, in which star-forming galaxies turn into passive galaxies, accompanied by the build up of spheroidal component.

  13. 186Re-1,4,8,11-tetraaza cyclotetradecyl-1,4,8,11-tetramethylene phosphonic acid: a novel agent for possible use in metastatic bone-pain palliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Kanchan; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Unni, P.R.; Sarma, H.D.; Chaudhari, P.R.; Unnikrishnan, T.P.; Pillai, M.R.A.

    2001-01-01

    In connection with our work on the development of 186 Re-tetra-phosphonates with optimum properties for use in bone pain palliation, a novel cyclic tetraphosphonate derivative, has been synthesized, complexed with 186 Re and evaluated with promising results. The ligand, which consists of a cyclic array of tetra-aminomethylphosphonate groups, was synthesized using orthophosphorus acid, 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and formaldehyde. The labeling conditions with 186 Re have been standardized under varying reaction conditions to give maximum yield. In a reaction volume of 1 mL, maximum complexation yield of 98% was observed at pH 2 using 0.1 mg Re (37-370 MBq) for a ligand concentration at 9x10 -2 M/L, under heating at 100 deg. C for 30 min with 2 mg of stannous chloride. The complex was found to be stable for 6 days with RC purity remaining ∼97%. The complex was characterized by paper chromatography in saline and acetone, wherein the R f exhibited were 0.9 and 0, respectively. Biodistribution studies of the complex were performed in male Wistar rats. Activity in femur which was observed to be 1.8%/g (equivalent to about 23% of the injected activity in skeleton) at 3 h post injection remained almost constant up to 48 h. Minimum activity was observed in blood and other soft tissues. The complex showed major renal clearance. Scintigraphic images in rabbits after injecting 70-100 MBq of 186 Re-CTMP and using a dual head gamma camera were observed to be superior to 186 Re-HEDP, prepared by a procedure standardized by us. Insignificant activity was observed in other vital organs. The results suggest the suitability of the complex for further evaluation in higher animals for bone pain palliation

  14. Exercises may be as efficient as subacromial decompression in patients with subacromial stage II impingement: 4-8-years' follow-up in a prospective, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2006-01-01

    with graded physiotherapy and exercises or arthroscopic subacromial decompression. Outcomes were proportion of time per year with income transfers (indexed 0-1), including total transfers (marginalization), sick leave and disability pension obtained from the registry at the Ministry of Work. Self......-reported function, working capability, employment status and global improvement were obtained by questionnaire in September 2004. The main outcomes are given as differences in development from baseline. RESULTS: Seventy-nine (88%) responded to the questionnaire and registry data were obtained from 81. After 1 year...

  15. Interpretations of systematic errors in the NCEP Climate Forecast System at lead times of 2, 4, 8, ..., 256 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Song

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The climatology of mean bias errors (relative to 1-day forecasts was examined in a 20-year hindcast set from version 1 of the Climate Forecast System (CFS, for forecast lead times of 2, 4, 8, 16, ... 256 days, verifying in different seasons. Results mostly confirm the simple expectation that atmospheric model biases should be evident at short lead (2–4 days, while soil moisture errors develop over days-weeks and ocean errors emerge over months. A further simplification is also evident: surface temperature bias patterns have nearly fixed geographical structure, growing with different time scales over land and ocean. The geographical pattern has mostly warm and dry biases over land and cool bias over the oceans, with two main exceptions: (1 deficient stratocumulus clouds cause warm biases in eastern subtropical oceans, and (2 high latitude land is too cold in boreal winter. Further study of the east Pacific cold tongue-Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ complex shows a possible interaction between a rapidly-expressed atmospheric model bias (poleward shift of deep convection beginning at day 2 and slow ocean dynamics (erroneously cold upwelling along the equator in leads > 1 month. Further study of the high latitude land cold bias shows that it is a thermal wind balance aspect of the deep polar vortex, not just a near-surface temperature error under the wintertime inversion, suggesting that its development time scale of weeks to months may involve long timescale processes in the atmosphere, not necessarily in the land model. Winter zonal wind errors are small in magnitude, but a refractive index map shows that this can cause modest errors in Rossby wave ducting. Finally, as a counterpoint to our initial expectations about error growth, a case of non-monotonic error growth is shown: velocity potential bias grows with lead on a time scale of weeks, then decays over months. It is hypothesized that compensations between land and ocean errors may

  16. Mealtime behavior among siblings and body mass index of 4-8 year olds: a videotaped observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Miller, Alison L; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-07-15

    Being a last-born child and having a sister have been associated with higher body mass index (BMI). Encouragement to eat that overrides children's self-regulation has been reported to increase the risk of obesogenic eating behaviors. This study sought to test the hypothesis that encouragement to eat during mealtime from older siblings and sisters mediates associations of being last-born or having a sister with higher BMI. Children aged 4-8 years (n = 75) were videotaped while eating a routine evening meal at home with one sibling present. Encouragement to eat (defined as direct prompts to eat or general positive statements about food) delivered to the index child (IC) from the sibling was coded from the videotape. Path analysis was used to examine associations between IC's birth order, sibling's sex, encouragement counts, and IC's measured BMI z-score (BMIz). Being the younger sibling in the sibling dyad was associated with the IC receiving more encouragements to eat from the sibling (β: 0.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.59, 1.26, p eat from the sibling (β: 0.18, 95 % CI: -0.09, 0.47, p = 0.20). The IC receiving more encouragements to eat from the sibling was associated with lower IC BMIz (β: -0.06, 95 % CI: -0.12, 0.00, p = 0.05). Children were more likely to receive encouragements to eat from older siblings than younger siblings. Being the recipient of encouragements to eat from a sibling was associated with lower, not higher, child BMIz, which may reflect sibling modeling of maternal behavior. Future longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether encouragements to eat from siblings lead to increase in BMI over time. Encouragements from siblings may be a novel intervention target for obesity prevention.

  17. A case of atomic bomb survivor exhibiting a high frequency of peripheral blood TCRαβ+CD4-8-T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hirai, Yuko; Yamaoka, Mika; Morishita, Yukari; Tanabe, Kazumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Koyama, Kazuaki; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1990-01-01

    In a healthy A-bomb female survivor aged 47, a high incidence of TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cells (8.7%) was detected in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thirteen TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cell clones were established and were analyzed by using a T-cell receptor (TCR) β chain cDNA as a probe. These clones were different from each other in TCR gene reconstitution pattern, surface phenotype, and cytotoxic activity. These findings indicated multi-clonal proliferation of TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cell. (N.K.)

  18. The Effect of Picture Exchange Communication System and Speech Therapy on Communication Development of 4-8 Years Old Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pour-Ismaili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compares the effect of speech therapy and picture exchange communication system (PECS on communication development of 4-8 year old autistic children. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental and comparison study. In this study 10 subjects including PECS and speech therapy groups were selected using the available sampling method on the base of including and excluding criteria. Both groups were matched according to age and developmental indices of Niusha scale. Dependent variables were listening, receptive language, expressive language, cognition, speech and social communication. Intervention was applied for both groups similarly divided in 40 minute sessions 3 times a weak for 3 months. Our parameters were evaluated by Niusha development scale before and after interventions. The results were analyzed clinically and statistically by sum-ranks willkokson and rank- signed willkokson. Results: Post test comparison between the two groups revealed that the members of PECS group had a more progress in listening, receptive language, cognition and social communication skills rather than speech therapy group. But these differences were not significant statistically and T(sum ranks was between critical values. Conclusion: considering the results, it could be concluded that PECS is a effective strategy to train non-verbal autistic children. Moreover it could be used as a supplement teaching method beside other therapeutic method such as speech therapy.

  19. Mental health and school dropout across educational levels and genders: a 4.8-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Cathrine F; Bilgrav, Line; Frandsen, Louise Sjørslev; Overgaard, Charlotte; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Nielsen, Berit; Bøggild, Henrik

    2016-09-15

    Education is a key determinant of future employment and income prospects of young people. Poor mental health is common among young people and is related to risk of dropping out of school (dropout). Educational level and gender might play a role in the association, which remains to be studied. Mental health was measured in 3146 Danish inhabitants aged 16-29 years using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and examined across genders and educational levels. For students, educational level at baseline was used; for young people who were not enrolled in school at baseline (non-students), the highest achieved educational level was used. The risk of dropout in students was investigated in administrative registers over a 4.8-year period (1(st) March 2010-31(th) December 2014). Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for mental health and in relation to dropout in logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, parental education, parental income and ethnicity. Poor mental health was present in 24 % (n = 753) of the participants, 29 % (n = 468) in females and 19 % (n = 285) in males (p mental health than males (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.5-2.2). Among the students the lowest risk was found at the elementary level (OR = 1.3, CI = 0.8-2.3), while students in higher education had a statistically significantly higher risk (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.2-2.9). The lowest-educated non-students had the highest OR of poor mental health (OR = 3.3, CI = 2.1-5.4). Dropout occurred in 8 % (n = 124) of the students. Poor mental health was associated to dropout in vocational (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.0-3.2) and higher education (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.0-4.2). For males in higher education, poor mental health was a predictor of dropout (OR = 5.2, CI = 1.6-17.3), which was not seen females in higher education (OR = 1.2, CI = 0.5-3.1). Poor mental health was significantly associated to

  20. A 3.1-4.8 GHz transmitter with a high frequency divider in 0.18 μm CMOS for OFDM-UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Renliang; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2009-01-01

    A fully integrated low power RF transmitter for a WiMedia 3.1-4.8 GHz multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband system is presented. With a separate transconductance stage, the quadrature up-conversion modulator achieves high linearity with low supply voltage. The co-design of different resonant frequencies of the modulator and the differential to single (D2S) converter ensures in-band gain flatness. By means of a series inductor peaking technique, the D2S converter obtains 9 dB more gain without extra power consumption. A divided-by-2 divider is used for carrier signal generation. The measurement results show an output power between -10.7 and -3.1 dBm with 7.6 dB control range, an OIP3 up to 12 dBm, a sideband rejection of 35 dBc and a carrier rejection of 30 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process with an area of 1.74 mm 2 and only consumes 32 mA current (at 1.8 V) including the test associated parts. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. A 3.1-4.8 GHz transmitter with a high frequency divider in 0.18 {mu}m CMOS for OFDM-UWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Renliang; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning, E-mail: jyren@fudan.edu.c [Micro/Nano Science and Innovation Platform, State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A fully integrated low power RF transmitter for a WiMedia 3.1-4.8 GHz multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband system is presented. With a separate transconductance stage, the quadrature up-conversion modulator achieves high linearity with low supply voltage. The co-design of different resonant frequencies of the modulator and the differential to single (D2S) converter ensures in-band gain flatness. By means of a series inductor peaking technique, the D2S converter obtains 9 dB more gain without extra power consumption. A divided-by-2 divider is used for carrier signal generation. The measurement results show an output power between -10.7 and -3.1 dBm with 7.6 dB control range, an OIP3 up to 12 dBm, a sideband rejection of 35 dBc and a carrier rejection of 30 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 {mu}m RF CMOS process with an area of 1.74 mm{sup 2} and only consumes 32 mA current (at 1.8 V) including the test associated parts. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. Mental health and school dropout across educational levels and genders: a 4.8-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine F. Hjorth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is a key determinant of future employment and income prospects of young people. Poor mental health is common among young people and is related to risk of dropping out of school (dropout. Educational level and gender might play a role in the association, which remains to be studied. Methods Mental health was measured in 3146 Danish inhabitants aged 16–29 years using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and examined across genders and educational levels. For students, educational level at baseline was used; for young people who were not enrolled in school at baseline (non-students, the highest achieved educational level was used. The risk of dropout in students was investigated in administrative registers over a 4.8–year period (1st March 2010–31th December 2014. Odds ratios (OR and 95 % confidence intervals (CI were calculated for mental health and in relation to dropout in logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, parental education, parental income and ethnicity. Results Poor mental health was present in 24 % (n = 753 of the participants, 29 % (n = 468 in females and 19 % (n = 285 in males (p < 0.0001. The prevalence differed from 19 to 39 % across educational levels (p < 0.0001. Females had a statistically significantly higher adjusted risk of poor mental health than males (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.5–2.2. Among the students the lowest risk was found at the elementary level (OR = 1.3, CI = 0.8–2.3, while students in higher education had a statistically significantly higher risk (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.2–2.9. The lowest-educated non-students had the highest OR of poor mental health (OR = 3.3, CI = 2.1–5.4. Dropout occurred in 8 % (n = 124 of the students. Poor mental health was associated to dropout in vocational (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.0–3.2 and higher education (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.0–4.2. For males in higher

  3. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  4. Flow-cytometric measurement of CD4-8- T cells bearing T-cell receptor αβ chains, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hirai, Yuko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1992-09-01

    In this study we detected rare, possibly abnormal, T cells bearing CD3 surface antigen and T-cell receptor (TCR) αβ chains but lacking both CD4 and CD8 antigens (viz., TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - cells, as determined by flow cytometry). The TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cells were detected at a mean frequency of 0.63 ± 0.35 % (mean ± standard deviation) in peripheral blood TCRαβ + cells of 119 normal persons. Two unusual cases besides the 119 normal persons showed extremely elevated frequencies of TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cells, viz., approximately 5 % to 10 % and 14 % to 19 % in whole TCRαβ + cells. Both individuals were males who were otherwise physiologically quite normal with no history of severe illness, and these high frequencies were also observed in blood samples collected 2 or 8 years prior to the current measurements. The TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cells of the two individuals were found to express mature T-cell markers such as CD2,3, and 5 antigens, as well as natural killer (NK) cell markers, viz., CD11b, 16, 56, and 57 antigens, when peripheral blood lymphocytes were subjected to three-color flow cytometry. Lectin-dependent or redirected antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicities were observed for both freshly sorted TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - cells and in vitro established clones. Nevertheless, NK-like activity was not detected. Further, Southern blot analysis of TCRβ and γ genes revealed identical rearrangement patterns for all the TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - clones established in vitro. These results suggest that the TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cells from these two mean exhibit unique characteristics and proliferate clonally in vivo. (author)

  5. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  6. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  7. Age-Related Grade Inflation Expectancies in a University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Loffredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation is a recognized problem in higher education in the United States. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in discrepancies between student reports of their expected grade in each course and their expectations for general university grading practices were explored in a survey of 166 (mostly female participants at a small upper-division university. Results revealed that while a small minority of students agreed that grading systems in college should only include A or B grades, a large majority of students expected A or B grades. Thus, student discrepancies between their expectations for grading systems and their expected class grades were in line with expectations that they should receive inflated grades. Results also revealed statistically significant age differences in grade expectation with students older than the age of 55 expecting lower grades relative to their younger counterparts.

  8. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  9. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif

    2014-01-01

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  10. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  11. Therapeutic effects of visual standard channel combined with F4.8 visual puncture super-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy on multiple renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenyu; Gao, Yanjun; Yang, Wenzeng; Zhao, Chunli; Ma, Tao; Shi, Xiaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of visual standard channel combined with F4.8 visual puncture super-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SMP) on multiple renal calculi. The clinical data of 46 patients with multiple renal calculi treated in Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University from October 2015 to September 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 28 males and 18 females aged from 25 to 65 years old, with an average of 42.6. The stone diameters were 3.0-5.2 cm, (4.3 ± 0.8) cm on average. F4.8 visual puncture-assisted balloon expansion was used to establish a standard channel. After visible stones were removed through nephroscopy combined with ultrasound lithotripsy, the stones of other parts were treated through F4.8 visual puncture SMP with holmium laser. Indices such as the total time of channel establishment, surgical time, decreased value of hemoglobin, phase-I stone clearance rate and surgical complications were summarized. Single standard channel was successfully established in all cases with the assistance of F4.8 visual puncture, of whom 24 were combined with a single microchannel, 16 were combined with double microchannels, and six were combined with three microchannels. All patients were placed with nephrostomy tube which was not placed in the microchannels. Both F5 double J tubes were placed after surgery. The time for establishing a standard channel through F4.8 visual puncture was (6.8 ± 1.8) min, and that for establishing a single F4.8 visual puncture microchannel was (4.5 ± 0.9) min. The surgical time was (92 ± 15) min. The phase-I stone clearance rate was 91.3% (42/46), and the decreased value of hemoglobin was (12.21 ± 2.5) g/L. There were 8 cases of postoperative fever which was relieved after anti-inflammatory treatment. Four cases had 0.5-0.8 cm of stone residue in the lower calyx, and all stones were discharged one month after surgery by in vitro shock wave lithotripsy combined with position nephrolithotomy, without stone

  12. Growth, structure and spectral properties of Dy3+-doped Li3Ba2La3(MoO4)8 crystal for potential use in solid-state yellow lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Mingjun; Wu, Mingyan; Zhou, Weiwei; Zhou, Xiaojing; Wei, Bo; Wang, Guofu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dy 3+ :Li 3 Ba 2 La 3 (MoO 4 ) 8 crystal was grown by the top seeded solution growth method. • The morphology, structure and spectral properties of the crystal were studied. • The main spectroscopic parameters were calculated by J–O theory and F–L formula. • The fluorescence dynamics was analyzed based on the Inokuti–Hirayama (I–H) model. • Comparisons with other reported crystals were made and the prospect was concluded. - Abstract: Dy 3+ :Li 3 Ba 2 La 3 (MoO 4 ) 8 crystal has been grown by the top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method from a flux of Li 2 MoO 4 and its morphology, structure and spectral properties were investigated. The crystal crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the space group C2/c, and the unit cell parameters are a = 5.3091(5), b = 13.0211(11), c = 19.3301(15), β = 90.891(7)°, V = 1336.1(2) Å 3 . Based on the Judd–Ofelt (J–O) theory and the Füchtbauer–Ladenburg (F–L) formula, the main spectroscopic parameters of Dy 3+ :Li 3 Ba 2 La 3 (MoO 4 ) 8 crystal, including the intensity parameters Ω t (t = 2, 4, 6), spontaneous emission probabilities, radiative lifetimes and emission cross sections were calculated and analyzed. The room temperature decay curve was analyzed through the frame work of the Inokuti–Hirayama (I–H) model and the results shows that electric dipole–dipole interaction is responsible for the energy transfer processes in Dy 3+ :Li 3 Ba 2 La 3 (MoO 4 ) 8 crystal

  13. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  14. A Study on the Validity of a Computer-Based Game to Assess Cognitive Processes, Reward Mechanisms, and Time Perception in Children Aged 4-8 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peijnenborgh, Janneke Caw; Hurks, Petra Pm; Aldenkamp, Albert P; van der Spek, Erik D; Rauterberg, Gwm; Vles, Johan Sh; Hendriksen, Jos Gm

    2016-09-22

    A computer-based game, named Timo's Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo's Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 96 normally developing children aged 4-8 years and 40 children with ADHD were assessed using the game. Clinical validity was investigated by examining the effects of age on performances within the normally developing children, as well as performance differences between the healthy controls and the ADHD group. Our analyses in the normally developing children showed developmental effects; that is, older children made fewer inhibition mistakes (r=-.33, P=.001), had faster (and therefore better) reaction times (r=-.49, PADHD group or the normally developing group: 78% (76/97) of the children were correctly classified as having ADHD or as being in the normally developing group. The classification results showed that 72% (41/57) children in the control group were correctly classified, and 88% (35/40) of the children in the ADHD group were correctly classified as having ADHD. Sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.69) of Timo's Adventure were satisfying. Computer-based games seem to be a valid tool to assess specific strengths and weaknesses in young children with ADHD.

  15. A monolithic 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM UWB transceiver in 0.18-μm CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Renliang; Jiang Xudong; Yao Wang; Yang Guang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Jianqin; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2010-01-01

    A monolithic RF transceiver for an MB-OFDM UWB system in 3.1-4.8 GHz is presented. The transceiver adopts direct-conversion architecture and integrates all building blocks including a gain controllable wideband LNA, a I/Q merged quadrature mixer, a fifth-order Gm-C bi-quad Chebyshev LPF/VGA, a fast-settling frequency synthesizer with a poly-phase filter, a linear broadband up-conversion quadrature modulator, an active D2S converter and a variable-gain power amplifier. The ESD protected transceiver is fabricated in Jazz Semiconductor's 0.18-μm RF CMOS with an area of 6.1 mm 2 and draws a total current of 221 mA from 1.8-V supply. The receiver achieves a maximum voltage gain of 68 dB with a control range of 42 dB in 6 dB/step, noise figures of 5.5-8.8 dB for three sub-bands, and an in-band/out-band IIP3 better than -4 dBm/+9 dBm. The transmitter achieves an output power ranging from -10.7 to -3 dBm with gain control, an output P 1dB better than -7.7 dBm, a sideband rejection about 32.4 dBc, and LO suppression of 31.1 dBc. The hopping time among sub-bands is less than 2.05 ns. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. A monolithic 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM UWB transceiver in 0.18-{mu}m CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Renliang; Jiang Xudong; Yao Wang; Yang Guang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Jianqin; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning, E-mail: jyren@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A monolithic RF transceiver for an MB-OFDM UWB system in 3.1-4.8 GHz is presented. The transceiver adopts direct-conversion architecture and integrates all building blocks including a gain controllable wideband LNA, a I/Q merged quadrature mixer, a fifth-order Gm-C bi-quad Chebyshev LPF/VGA, a fast-settling frequency synthesizer with a poly-phase filter, a linear broadband up-conversion quadrature modulator, an active D2S converter and a variable-gain power amplifier. The ESD protected transceiver is fabricated in Jazz Semiconductor's 0.18-{mu}m RF CMOS with an area of 6.1 mm{sup 2} and draws a total current of 221 mA from 1.8-V supply. The receiver achieves a maximum voltage gain of 68 dB with a control range of 42 dB in 6 dB/step, noise figures of 5.5-8.8 dB for three sub-bands, and an in-band/out-band IIP3 better than -4 dBm/+9 dBm. The transmitter achieves an output power ranging from -10.7 to -3 dBm with gain control, an output P{sub 1dB} better than -7.7 dBm, a sideband rejection about 32.4 dBc, and LO suppression of 31.1 dBc. The hopping time among sub-bands is less than 2.05 ns. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Identification of a novel biomarker candidate, a 4.8-kDa peptide fragment from a neurosecretory protein VGF precursor, by proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from children with acute encephalopathy using SELDI-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujino Osamu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute encephalopathy includes rapid deterioration and has a poor prognosis. Early intervention is essential to prevent progression of the disease and subsequent neurologic complications. However, in the acute period, true encephalopathy cannot easily be differentiated from febrile seizures, especially febrile seizures of the complex type. Thus, an early diagnostic marker has been sought in order to enable early intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel marker candidate protein differentially expressed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children with encephalopathy using proteomic analysis. Methods For detection of biomarkers, CSF samples were obtained from 13 children with acute encephalopathy and 42 children with febrile seizure. Mass spectral data were generated by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS technology, which is currently applied in many fields of biological and medical sciences. Diagnosis was made by at least two pediatric neurologists based on the clinical findings and routine examinations. All specimens were collected for diagnostic tests and the remaining portion of the specimens were used for the SELDI-TOF MS investigations. Results In experiment 1, CSF from patients with febrile seizures (n = 28, patients with encephalopathy (n = 8 (including influenza encephalopathy (n = 3, encephalopathy due to rotavirus (n = 1, human herpes virus 6 (n = 1 were used for the SELDI analysis. In experiment 2, SELDI analysis was performed on CSF from a second set of febrile seizure patients (n = 14 and encephalopathy patients (n = 5. We found that the peak with an m/z of 4810 contributed the most to the separation of the two groups. After purification and identification of the 4.8-kDa protein, a 4.8-kDa proteolytic peptide fragment from the neurosecretory protein VGF precursor (VGF4.8 was identified as a novel biomarker for encephalopathy. Conclusions

  18. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  19. Grade Level and Gender Differences in a School-Based Reading Tutoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…

  20. Effect of Utilization of Silicide Fuel with the Density 4.8 gU/cc on the Kinetic Parameters of RSG-GAS Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto; Sembiring, Tagor M.; Pinem, Surian

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the RSG-GAS reactor using silicide fuel element of 2.96 gU/cc. For increasing reactor operation time, its planning to change to higher density fuel. The kinetic calculation of silicide core with density 4.8 gU/cc has been carried out, since it has an influence on the reactor operation safety. The calculated kinetic parameters are the effective delayed neutron fraction, the delayed neutron decay constant, prompt neutron lifetime and feedback reactivity coefficient very important for reactor operation safety. the calculation is performed in 2-dimensional neutron diffusion-perturbation method using modified Batan-2DIFF code. The calculation showed that the effective delayed neutron fraction is 7. 03256x10 -03 , total delay neutron time constant is 7.85820x10 -02 s -1 and the prompt neutron lifetime is 55.4900 μs. The result of prompt neutron lifetime smaller 10 % compare with silicide fuel of 4.8 gU/cc. The calculated results showed that all of the feedback reactivity coefficient silicide core 4.8 gU/cc is negative. Totally, the feedback reactivity coefficient of silicide fuel of 4.8 gU/cc is 10% less than that of silicide fuel of 2.96 gU/cc. The results shown that kinetic parameters result decrease compared with the silicide core with density 2.96 gU/cc, but no significant influence in the RSG-GAS reactor operation. (author)

  1. Radio continuum processes in clusters of galaxies; Proceedings of the Workshop, Green Bank, WV, Aug. 4-8, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'dea, C.P.; Uson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of clusters of galaxies are examined in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include radio surveys of clusters, accretion flows, wide-angle-tail radio sources, the interaction of radio sources with the intracluster medium, diffuse emission in clusters, cluster dynamics, and the environment of powerful radio sources. Particular attention is given to a local perspective on galaxies in rich clusters, X-ray observations of clusters, VLA observations of distant clusters, the halo of Vir A at 327 MHz, Exosat observations of the Vir Cluster, accretion flows in elliptical galaxies, jet disruption in wide-angle-tail radio galaxies, beam trajectories in the intracluster medium, the Suniaev-Zel'dovich effect, dark matter in clusters, and the H I environment of high-redshift quasars

  2. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  3. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Comparing 2 Whiplash Grading Systems to Predict Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Bagherian, Alireza; Mickelsen, Patrick K; Wagner, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Two whiplash severity grading systems have been developed: Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders (QTF-WAD) and the Croft grading system. The majority of clinical studies to date have used the modified grading system published by the QTF-WAD in 1995 and have demonstrated some ability to predict outcome. But most studies include only injuries of lower severity (grades 1 and 2), preventing a broader interpretation. The purpose of this study was assess the ability of these grading systems to predict clinical outcome within the context of a broader injury spectrum. This study evaluated both grading systems for their ability to predict the bivalent outcome, recovery, within a sample of 118 whiplash patients who were part of a previous case-control designed study. Of these, 36% (controls) had recovered, and 64% (cases) had not recovered. The discrete bivariate distribution between recovery status and whiplash grade was analyzed using the 2-tailed cross-tabulation statistics. Applying the criteria of the original 1993 Croft grading system, the subset comprised 1 grade 1 injury, 32 grade 2 injuries, 53 grade 3 injuries, and 32 grade 4 injuries. Applying the criteria of the modified (QTF-WAD) grading system, there were 1 grade 1 injury, 89 grade 2 injuries, and 28 grade 3 injuries. Both whiplash grading systems correlated negatively with recovery; that is, higher severity grades predicted a lower probability of recovery, and statistically significant correlations were observed in both, but the Croft grading system substantially outperformed the QTF-WAD system on this measure. The Croft grading system for whiplash injury severity showed a better predictive measure for recovery status from whiplash injuries as compared with the QTF-WAD grading system.

  5. Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Various Molecules Based on the 4,8,12-trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyrene System With an Evaluation of the Effect Differing Molecular Substitution Patterns Has on the Space Group Symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faldt, André; Krebs, Frederik C; Thorup, Niels

    1997-01-01

    of opposite chirality are present within the unit cell, Finally compound 13 crystallises in a centrosymmetric space group. The room temperature pyroelectric coefficient of 3 has been determined, The spatial extent of the trioxatriangulene ground system has been perturbed by chemical substitution......4,8,12-Trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo [cd,mn]pyrene (3),2,6,10-tri-tert-butyl-4,8,12 -trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo [cd,mn]pyrene (11) and 2,6,10-tri-tert-butyl-4,8,12-trioxa-12c -methyl-4,8,12,12c -tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyrene (12)have been synthesised and their crystal structures...... and the effect: of the substitutions upon the space group symmetry of the chemical derivative has been uncovered by X-ray structural resolution, The non-centrosymmetric point group symmetry of the molecules is reflected in a non-centrosymmetric space group symmetry whenever the spatial perturbations do...

  6. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  7. UV-continuum slopes of >4000 z ∼ 4-8 galaxies from the HUDF/XDF, HUDF09, ERS, CANDELS-SOUTH, and CANDELS-NORTH fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I.; Franx, M.; Smit, R.; Illingworth, G. D.; Oesch, P. A.; Gonzalez, V.; Magee, D.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Trenti, M.

    2014-01-01

    We measure the UV-continuum slope β for over 4000 high-redshift galaxies over a wide range of redshifts z ∼ 4-8 and luminosities from the HST HUDF/XDF, HUDF09-1, HUDF09-2, ERS, CANDELS-N, and CANDELS-S data sets. Our new β results reach very faint levels at z ∼ 4 (–15.5 mag: 0.006 L z=3 ∗ ), z ∼ 5 (–16.5 mag: 0.014 L z=3 ∗ ), and z ∼ 6 and z ∼ 7 (–17 mag: 0.025 L z=3 ∗ ). Inconsistencies between previous studies led us to conduct a comprehensive review of systematic errors and develop a new technique for measuring β that is robust against biases that arise from the impact of noise. We demonstrate, by object-by-object comparisons, that all previous studies, including our own and those done on the latest HUDF12 data set, suffered from small systematic errors in β. We find that after correcting for the systematic errors (typically Δβ ∼ 0.1-0.2) all β results at z ∼ 7 from different groups are in excellent agreement. The mean β we measure for faint (–18 mag: 0.1 L z=3 ∗ ) z ∼ 4, z ∼ 5, z ∼ 6, and z ∼ 7 galaxies is –2.03 ± 0.03 ± 0.06 (random and systematic errors), –2.14 ± 0.06 ± 0.06, –2.24 ± 0.11 ± 0.08, and –2.30 ± 0.18 ± 0.13, respectively. Our new β values are redder than we have reported in the past, but bluer than other recent results. Our previously reported trend of bluer β's at lower luminosities is confirmed, as is the evolution to bluer β's at high redshifts. β appears to show only a mild luminosity dependence faintward of M UV,AB ∼ –19 mag, suggesting that the mean β asymptotes to ∼–2.2 to –2.4 for faint z ≥ 4 galaxies. At z ∼ 7, the observed β's suggest non-zero, but low dust extinction, and they agree well with values predicted in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations.

  8. UV-continuum slopes of >4000 z ∼ 4-8 galaxies from the HUDF/XDF, HUDF09, ERS, CANDELS-SOUTH, and CANDELS-NORTH fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I.; Franx, M.; Smit, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Illingworth, G. D.; Oesch, P. A.; Gonzalez, V.; Magee, D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Van Dokkum, P. G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Trenti, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    We measure the UV-continuum slope β for over 4000 high-redshift galaxies over a wide range of redshifts z ∼ 4-8 and luminosities from the HST HUDF/XDF, HUDF09-1, HUDF09-2, ERS, CANDELS-N, and CANDELS-S data sets. Our new β results reach very faint levels at z ∼ 4 (–15.5 mag: 0.006 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}), z ∼ 5 (–16.5 mag: 0.014 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}), and z ∼ 6 and z ∼ 7 (–17 mag: 0.025 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}). Inconsistencies between previous studies led us to conduct a comprehensive review of systematic errors and develop a new technique for measuring β that is robust against biases that arise from the impact of noise. We demonstrate, by object-by-object comparisons, that all previous studies, including our own and those done on the latest HUDF12 data set, suffered from small systematic errors in β. We find that after correcting for the systematic errors (typically Δβ ∼ 0.1-0.2) all β results at z ∼ 7 from different groups are in excellent agreement. The mean β we measure for faint (–18 mag: 0.1 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}) z ∼ 4, z ∼ 5, z ∼ 6, and z ∼ 7 galaxies is –2.03 ± 0.03 ± 0.06 (random and systematic errors), –2.14 ± 0.06 ± 0.06, –2.24 ± 0.11 ± 0.08, and –2.30 ± 0.18 ± 0.13, respectively. Our new β values are redder than we have reported in the past, but bluer than other recent results. Our previously reported trend of bluer β's at lower luminosities is confirmed, as is the evolution to bluer β's at high redshifts. β appears to show only a mild luminosity dependence faintward of M {sub UV,AB} ∼ –19 mag, suggesting that the mean β asymptotes to ∼–2.2 to –2.4 for faint z ≥ 4 galaxies. At z ∼ 7, the observed β's suggest non-zero, but low dust extinction, and they agree well with values predicted in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations.

  9. A pulse radiolysis study of the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with trans-dihydroxo(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)chromium(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moensted, O.; Nord, G.; Pagsberg, P.

    1987-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals react rapidly with the title chromium(III) complex. In weakly alkaline solution, around pH≅ the product rearranges by a first-order process followed by a second-order process. This sequence is interpreted as the formation of a chromium(IV) complex which then forms a μ-peroxochromium(III) dimer. The dimer decomposes by a two-electron oxidation of the macrocyclic ligan with the concomitant formation of a double bond. In more strongly basic solution and also in dilute acid, the decay kinetics are more complicated. Supplementary measurements using trans-difluoro(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)Chromium(III), which does not contain coordinated hydroxide, and cis-dihydroxo(rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)-chromium(III), for which dimerization is sterically hindered, support the above interpretation of the consecutive reactions for the title complex. (author)

  10. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  11. The structure of carbon nanotubes formed of graphene layers L4-8, L5-7, L3-12, L4-6-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, K. E.; Belenkov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    We geometrically calculate the optimized structure of nanotubes based on the graphene layers, using the method of molecular mechanics MM+. It was found that only the nanotubes, based on the graphene layers L4-8, L5-7, L3-12, L4-6-12, have a cylindrical form. Calculations of the sublimation energy, carried out using the semi-empirical quantum-mechanic method PM3, show that energy increases with the increase of nanotube diameters.

  12. One-pot synthesis of 4,8-dibromobenzo[1,2-c;4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Teck Lip; Li, Hairong; Wei, Fengxia; Tan, Ke Jie; Kloc, Christian; Lam, Yeng Ming; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Grimsdale, Andrew C

    2010-08-06

    A one-step synthesis of 4,8-dibromobenzo[1,2-c;4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole with use of 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene tetrahydrobromide and thionyl bromide in good yield is reported. This unit can then be used in the synthesis of low bandgap materials via palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions. The approach offers a quick and easy way to prepare low bandgap materials as compared to the current literature methods.

  13. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24 h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72 h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced. PMID:26858565

  14. Processing hot-dip galvanized AHSS grades: a challenging task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, A.; Hebesberger, T.; Tragl, E.; Traint, S.; Faderl, J.; Angeli, G.; Koesters, K. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    High-strength thin sheet steel grades have gained a considerable market share. At present a very strong demand has been observed for DP (dual-phase), CP (complex phase) and TRIP grades, which are often summarized as advanced high-strength steel grades (AHSS). The potential benefits of applying AHSS grades were impressively demonstrated in the ULSAC-AVC project, in which a remarkable reduction in mass and an increase in stiffness and crash safety were achieved by using a very high share of AHSS steel grades. The present contribution concentrates on hot-dip galvanized AHSS thin sheet grades. The hot-dip galvanizeability of such grades is critically discussed after an overview is provided of the metallurgy of AHSS grades, including microstructure, mechanical properties, phase transformations and required alloy design. Based on these fundamentals, the processing of AHSS grades in the hot-dip galvanizing line is discussed and the resulting properties presented. (orig.)

  15. Graded activity: legacy of the sanatorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C

    1993-08-01

    Occupational therapists in all areas of practice grade therapeutic activities to help patients progress toward their goals. It is proposed in this paper that the concept of graded activity originated in German tuberculosis sanatoria in the late 1800s, when patients were required to walk on graded (sloped) land for exercise. British physician Marcus Paterson included work, as well as walking, in his graduated exercise program for tuberculosis patients and was honored for this innovation at the founding meeting of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (NSPOT). George Barton, Susan Tracy, and Herbert Hall were among the NSPOT members who contributed to the development of graded activity as a principle in occupational therapy intervention. The military rehabilitation programs established during World War I provided additional impetus, and by the mid-1920s, graded activity was recognized as central to the profession.

  16. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  17. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  18. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  19. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  20. Synthesis and Properties of Biodegradable Copolymers of 9-Phenyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro-[5,5]undcane-3-one and Ethylene Ethyl Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XU; Zhi Lan LIU; Ren Xi ZHUO

    2006-01-01

    Novel biodegradable copolymer poly(CC-co-EEP) was synthesized by ring-opening copolymerization of cyclic carbonate 9-phenyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro-[5, 5]undcane-3-one (CC)and ethylene ethyl phosphate (EEP). The obtained poly (CC-co-EEP)s were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). In vitro hydrolytic degradation of the copolymers were investigated in phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.4).Hydrophilic phosphate units apparently improved the degradability of poly(carbonate-phosphate).

  1. Neutronic Analysis of the RSG-GAS Compact Core without CIP Silicide 3.55 g U/cc and 4.8 g U/cc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jati S; Lily S; Tukiran S

    2004-01-01

    Fuel conversion from U 3 O 8 -Al to U 3 Si 2 -Al 2.96 g U/cc density in the RSG-GAS core had done successfully step by step since 36 th core until 44 th core. So that, since the 45 th core until now (48 th core) had been using full of silicide 2.96 g U/cc. Even though utilization program of silicide fuel with high density (3.55 g U/cc and 4.8 g U/cc) and optimize operation of RSG-GAS core under research. Optimalitation of core with increasing operation cycle have been analyzing about compact core. The mean of compact core is the RSG-GAS core with decrease number of IP or CIP position irradiation. In this research, the neutronic calculation to cover RSG-GAS core and RSG-GAS core without CIP that are using U 3 Si 2 -Al 2.96 g U/cc, 3.55 g U/cc and 4.8 g U/cc had done. Two core calculation done at 15 MW power using SRAC-ASMBURN code. The calculation result show that fuel conversion from 2.96 g U/cc density to 3.55 g U/cc and 4.8 g U/cc will increasing cycle length for both RSG-GAS core and RSG-GAS compact core without CIP. However, increasing of excess reactivity exceeded from nominal value of first design that 9.2%. Change of power peaking factor is not show significant value and still less than 1.4. Core fuelled with U 3 Si 2 -Al 4.8 g U/cc density have maximum discharge burn-up which exceeded from licensing value (70%). RSG-GAS compact core without CIP fuelled U 3 Si 2 -Al 2.96 g U/cc have longer cycle operation then RSG-GAS core and fulfil limitation neutronic parameter at the first design value. (author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Ni(II) complex with 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Latifah M.; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.; Ismail, Wafiuddin; Yamin, Bohari M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Nickel(II) complex have been synthesized by treating a 14-membered ring tetraaza macrocyclic compound, 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium, bromide (Me{sub 6}N{sub 4}H{sub 4})Br{sub 2} with nickel acetate in metanol. The complex was characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), and single crystal diffraction (X-ray). The nickel atom coordinates through four nitrogen atoms in the ligand. Square planar geometry has been proposed for this complex.

  3. Fragment charge and energy distributions in the 1.8-4.8 GeV 3He + natAg, 197Au reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, D.S.; Foxford, E.R.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1995-01-01

    Moving source fits have been performed for IMFs as a function of observables related to collision violence in the 1.8-4.8 GeV 3 He + nat Ag, l97 Au reactions. The systematic behavior of the source properties and fragment charge distributions will be reviewed. The evolution of the spectral Coulomb parameters provides evidence for nuclear expansion prior to multifragmentation, suggesting a breakup density of p/p o ∼ 1/3. The charge distributions will be examined in terms of power-law fits and moment analyses

  4. Limits on charmed-meson production in e+e- annihilation at 4.8-GeV center-of-mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.

    1975-01-01

    Data from e + e - annihilation into hadrons at 4.8 GeV center-of-mass energy were used to search for charmed mesons in the mass range 1.5 to 4.0 GeV/c 2 . Narrow peaks in the invariant-mass distributions for K -+ π +- , K 0 /sub s/π + π - , π + π - , K + K - , K -+ , π +- π +- , K 0 /sub s/π +- , K 0 /sub s/K +- , and π + π - π +- were sought. Upper limits are presented for the inclusive production cross section times the branching ratio for charmed mesons having these decay modes. 2 figures, 1 table

  5. Extraction-spectrophotometric study of ruthenium (4) and osmium (4,8) reaction with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzoxazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in acetate buffer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomakina, L N; Ignat' eva, T I; Busev, A I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1978-03-01

    The complex formation of Ru(4) and Os(4, 8) with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI), 2-mercaptobenzoxazole (MBO) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) has been studied spectrophotometrically in acetate buffer solutions. As it has been shown earlier, Os and Ru react with the reagents in the oxidation state of three . Compound polinuclear structures of Ru and Os with MBI and MBO are suggested. A spectrophotometric procedure has been developed of determining Ru and Os (>=10/sup -4/%) with MBO in natural and industrial materials after selective absorption of the tetraoxides during distillation.

  6. Girls' Spatial Skills and Arithmetic Strategies in First Grade as Predictors of Fifth-Grade Analytical Math Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Beth M.; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Pollock, Amanda; Fineman, Bonnie; Pezaris, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal pathways leading from early spatial skills in first-grade girls to their fifth-grade analytical math reasoning abilities (N = 138). First-grade assessments included spatial skills, verbal skills, addition/subtraction skills, and frequency of choice of a decomposition or retrieval strategy on the…

  7. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Laser-Clad (Co, Ni61.2B26.2Si7.8Ta4.8 Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that a quaternary Co61.2B26.2Si7.8Ta4.8 alloy is a good glass former and can be laser-clad to an amorphous composite coating with superior hardness and wear resistance. In this paper, alloys with varying Ni contents to substitute for Co are coated on the surface of #45 carbon steel using a 5-kW CO2 laser source for the purpose of obtaining protective coatings. In contrast to the quaternary case, the clad layers are characterized by a matrix of α-(Fe, Co, Ni solid solution plus CoB, Co3B, and Co3Ta types of precipitates. The cladding layer is divided into four regions: Near-surface dendrites, α-(Fe, Co, Ni solid solution plus dispersed particles in the middle zone, columnar bonding zone, and heat-affected area that consists of martensite. The hardness gradually decreases with increasing Ni content, and the maximum hardness occurs in the middle zone. Both the friction coefficient and wear volume are minimized in the alloy containing 12.2% Ni. Compared with the previous cobalt-based quaternary alloy Co61.2B26.2Si7.8Ta4.8, the addition of the Ni element reduces the glass-forming ability and henceforth the hardness and wear resistance of the clad layers.

  8. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  9. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  10. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  11. Maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators: specialists` meeting, O-Arai Engineering Center, Japan, 4-8 June 1984. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-07-01

    The Specialists` Meeting on "Maintenance and Repair of LMFBR Steam Generators" was held in Oarai, Japan, from 4-8 June 1984. The meeting was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the recommendation of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors and was hosted by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the experience accumulated in various countries on the general design philosophy of LMFBR steam generators from the view point of maintenance and repair, in-service inspection of steam generator tube bundles, identification and inspection of failed tubes and the cleaning and repairing of failed steam generators. The following main topical areas were discussed by participants: national review presentations on maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators - design philosophy for maintenance and repair; research and development work on maintenance and repair; and experience on steam generator maintenance and repair.

  12. 4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.; Duran, Jose R.; Janjua, Bilal; Wang, Huai-Yung; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chi, Yu-Cheih; Ng, Tien Khee; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Lin, Gong-Ru; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) employing 450-nm TO-9 packaged and fiberpigtailed laser diode (LD) directly encoded with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM-OFDM) data. A record data rate of up to 4.8 Gbit/s over 5.4-m transmission distance is achieved. By encoding the full 1.2-GHz bandwidth of the 450-nm LD with a 16-QAM-OFDM data, an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 16.5%, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15.63 dB and a bit error rate (BER) of 2.6 × 10-3, well pass the forward error correction (FEC) criterion, were obtained. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  13. 4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2015-08-26

    We experimentally demonstrate an underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) employing 450-nm TO-9 packaged and fiberpigtailed laser diode (LD) directly encoded with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM-OFDM) data. A record data rate of up to 4.8 Gbit/s over 5.4-m transmission distance is achieved. By encoding the full 1.2-GHz bandwidth of the 450-nm LD with a 16-QAM-OFDM data, an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 16.5%, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15.63 dB and a bit error rate (BER) of 2.6 × 10-3, well pass the forward error correction (FEC) criterion, were obtained. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  14. Inclusive momentum and angular distributions from electron positron annihilation at √s = 3.0, 3.8, and 4.8 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1975-05-01

    Inclusive features of multi-hadron final states produced in the annihilations of electrons and positrons are presented. Data were taken at the colliding beam machine, SPEAR, at center-of-mass energies 3.0 GeV, 3.8 GeV, and 4.8 GeV. Reaction products were detected in an approximately 20 m 3 collection of spark chambers and counters, cylindrically arranged, in an axial magnetic field of approximately 4 KG, around the e + e - intersection region. Distributions of single-particle momenta and production angle and two-particle correlations are presented and compared with dynamical models. The results are in disagreement with expectations based on the successful parton--quark model of hadron structure. No generally satisfactory interpretation is available. (U.S.)

  15. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  16. Analysis of gamma dose for 4,8 gU/cm3 density silicide core at the RSG-GAS reactor using MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardani

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety analysis should be done following of substitution of fuel density of 2.96 gU/cc to density of 4,8 gU/cc silicide fuels for the RSG-GAS reactor. MCNP-5 code has been used to perform gamma dose calculation of the RSG-GAS reactor. Gamma radiation source at reactor consists of capture gamma rays, prompt fission gamma rays, and gamma rays of decay of fission and activation products. The strength of the prompt fission gamma rays is obtained by gamma releases of fission process of U-235 and reactor power of 30 MWt., during 46,6 days operation. Radiation dose is calculated at the experimental hall by detection point at the surface of outer of biological shielding and the operation hall by detection point at the top of the pool. The calculation is conducted at reactor on the normal operation and on the worst postulated accident causing the water level at the pool decreases. Calculation result shows that the biggest source strength of gamma rays come from the decay process. The highest calculated dose at the experiment hall is 4,07x10 -3 μSv/h, far from the maximum external dose permitted 25 μSv/h. The highest calculated dose at the operation hall is 19.98 μSv/h. Even though the calculated dose is still acceptable but this is close to the maximum permitted dose for worker. It concluded that loading of 4,8 gU/cc silicide fuel for the RSG-GAS still safe. (author)

  17. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  18. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  19. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  20. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  1. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  2. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  3. Tumor grade-related thallium-201 uptake in chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.C.; Demir, Y.; Ozkal, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma, especially discrimination between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma, may be difficult pathologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma and to investigate whether there was a correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade. We retrospectively evaluated 121 patients with pathologically proven bone and soft tissue tumors diagnosed between the years 1999 and 2007. All patients were followed by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Working Group in our hospital. Twenty-three patients, mean age 44±15 (range 17-72) years, with a diagnosis of cartilaginous tumors were included. Increased Tl-201 uptake at the lesion sites greater than background was evaluated as malignant tumor. For the pathologic classification, a grading system (grade 1-3) based on the histopathologic findings was used. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there was any correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. There were 7 enchondromas and 16 chondrosarcomas. Four of 16 patients with chondrosarcoma had lesions pathologically classified as grade 3, 5 as grade 2, and 7 had grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Increased Tl-201 uptake was observed in all patients with grade 3 chondrosarcoma and 2 patients with grade 2 chondrosarcoma. Of 10 patients with chondrosarcoma, 3 grade 2 chondrosarcomas and 7 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, there was no Tl-201 uptake in the tumor region. A significant correlation was found between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma (p=0.002, r=0.71). Only a few reports in literature have demonstrated false negative results in low-grade chondrosarcoma. Tl-201 uptake was related to tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. If there is a possibility of chondrosarcoma, Tl-201 scintigraphy should be reported with caution. (author)

  4. Concrete manufacture with un-graded recycled aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Alan; Coventry, Kathryn; Graham, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether concrete that includes un-graded recycled aggregates can be manufactured to a comparable strength to concrete manufactured from virgin aggregates. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A paired comparison test was used to evaluate the difference between concrete made with virgin aggregates (plain control) and concrete including recycled waste. Un-graded construction demolition waste and un-graded ground glass were used as aggregate...

  5. Electrical and gas sensing properties of novel cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(III) phthalocyanines carrying ethyl 7-oxy-4,8-dimethylcoumarin-3-propanoate moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksoy, Baybars; Aygün, Meryem; Çapkin, Aylin; Dumludağ, Fatih; Bulut, Mustafa

    The synthesis of metallophthalocyanines (M = Co, Cu, Mn) bearing four ethyl 7-oxy-4,8-dimethylcoumarin-3-propanoate moieties was performed. These novel compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR, UV-vis and mass spectral data. DC and AC electrical properties of the films of metallophthalocyanines were investigated in the temperature range of 295-523 K. AC measurements were performed in the frequency range of 40-105 Hz. Activation energy values of the films took place between 0.55 eV-0.93 eV. Impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that bulk resistance decreases with increasing temperature, indicating semiconductor properties. DC conductivity results also supported this result. Their gas sensing properties were also investigated for the vapors of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), n-butyl acetate (200-3200 ppm) and ammonia (7000-56000 ppm) between temperatures 25-100°C. Sensitivity and response times of the films for the tested vapors were reported. The results were found to be reversible and sensitive to the vapors of n-butyl acetate and ammonia. It was found that Mn(OAc)Pc showed better sensitivity than CoPc and CuPc for n-butyl acetate vapors at all measured vapor concentrations and temperatures. Mn(OAc)Pc also showed better sensitivity than CoPc and CuPc for ammonia vapors at 22°C. Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(III)OAc phthalocyanines bearing four ethyl 7-oxy-4,8-dimethyl-coumarin-3-propanoate moieties were prepared and characterized. DC and AC (40-105 Hz) electrical properties of the films of metallophthalocyanines were investigated in the temperature range of 295-523 K. Impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that bulk resistance decreases with increasing temperature indicating semiconductor property. Their gas sensing properties were also investigated for the vapors of VOCs, n-butyl acetate (200-3200 ppm) and ammonia (7000-56000 ppm) between temperatures 25-100°C.

  6. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  7. Chemical and photochemical properties of a ruthenium nitrosyl complex with the N-monosubstituted cyclam 1-(3-Propylammonium)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Kleber Q.; Tfouni, Elia

    2010-01-01

    The amine-functionalized trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(1-pramcyH)](PF 6 ) 3 complex (1-pramcyH = 1-(3-propylammonium)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) was synthesized from trans-[Ru Cl(tfms) (1-pramcyH)](tfms) 2 (tfms trifluoromethanesulfonate) in acidic aqueous solution in the presence of nitric oxide (NO). The complex was characterized by elemental, spectroscopic (UV-Vis, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR) and electrochemical analyses. Two pKa values (7.0 and 8.2) were estimated for trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(1-pramcyH)](PF 6 ) 3 and were assigned to one of the cyclam nitrogen protons and to the protonated aminopropyl group. Reduction of trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(1-pramcyH)] 3+ results in rapid loss of chloride followed by slower loss of NO, while irradiation of the complex in aqueous deaerated conditions suggests photochemical labilization of NO. The quantum yields for NO photoaquation decrease as the irradiation wavelength increases, being noticeable only at λ irr 3+ , which contains an aminopropyl substituted cyclam, parallels that reported for the analogous complex with the unsubstituted ligand, but differs from that described for the complex in which carboxypropyl is the substituent. (author)

  8. Chemical and photochemical properties of a ruthenium nitrosyl complex with the N-monosubstituted cyclam 1-(3-Propylammonium)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Kleber Q.; Tfouni, Elia, E-mail: eltfouni@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The amine-functionalized trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(1-pramcyH)](PF{sub 6}){sub 3} complex (1-pramcyH = 1-(3-propylammonium)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) was synthesized from trans-[Ru Cl(tfms) (1-pramcyH)](tfms){sub 2} (tfms trifluoromethanesulfonate) in acidic aqueous solution in the presence of nitric oxide (NO). The complex was characterized by elemental, spectroscopic (UV-Vis, IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) and electrochemical analyses. Two pKa values (7.0 and 8.2) were estimated for trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(1-pramcyH)](PF{sub 6}){sub 3} and were assigned to one of the cyclam nitrogen protons and to the protonated aminopropyl group. Reduction of trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(1-pramcyH)]{sup 3+} results in rapid loss of chloride followed by slower loss of NO, while irradiation of the complex in aqueous deaerated conditions suggests photochemical labilization of NO. The quantum yields for NO photoaquation decrease as the irradiation wavelength increases, being noticeable only at lambda{sub irr} < 370 nm, and increase as pH increases. The behavior of trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(1-pramcyH)]{sup 3+}, which contains an aminopropyl substituted cyclam, parallels that reported for the analogous complex with the unsubstituted ligand, but differs from that described for the complex in which carboxypropyl is the substituent. (author)

  9. [sup 57]Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of the ferrocene molecular reorientation in AlPO[sub 4]-5 and AlPO[sub 4]-8 frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, A.; Nicholson, D.G. (Department of Chemistry, University of Trondheim, Dragvoll (Norway)); Parish, R.V.; Wright, J.P. (Department of Chemistry, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    [sup 57]Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic studies were carried out on ferrocene guest molecules in some microporous aluminium phosphate host lattices in order to investigate their behaviour in the aluminium phosphate channels. The 300 K spectra show broad single lines with isomer shifts of 0.39 and 0.41 mm s[sup -1] relative to iron for AlPO[sub 4]-5:ferrocene and AlPO[sub 4]-8:ferrocene inclusion compounds, respectively. The absence of quadrupole splittings for these materials contrasts with the large quadrupole splitting observed for ferrocene itself at the same temperature. The low-temperature spectrum (20 K) for AlPO[sub 4]-5:ferrocene shows a doublet with quadrupole splitting of 2.37 mm s[sup -1] and an isomer shift of 0.55 mm s[sup -1]. The collapse of the quadrupole splitting at room temperature is consistent with the ferrocene molecules rotating within the channels. (au).

  10. A 20 mW, 4.8 Gbit/sec, SEU robust serializer in 65nm for read-out of data from LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felici, D; Bonacini, S; Marchioro, A; Moreira, P; Bertazzoni, S; Ottavi, M

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a sub 1-W SerDes for future LHC read-out systems is of paramount importance for building new low-mass inner detectors for HL-LHC. This work reports on the design of two alternative architectures for the serializer block within a high speed transmitter with the objective of achieving a power consumption of less than 30 mW at the operating speed of 4.8 Gbit/sec. Two alternative architectures are implemented using a commercial 65nm LP-CMOS technology. The architectures used are a ''simple TMR'' and a ''code-protected'' one, and are meant to investigate different strategies to handle SEUs. While using the same technology and flip-flops, the simple TMR architecture results in a consumption of 30 mW, the code-protected one of 19 mW, which are better than 1/4 of the power used in state-of-the-art rad-hard serializers. Early data on robustness to SEU effects are also presented

  11. Antioxidant, antiapoptotic and amino acid balance regulating activities of 1,7-dihydroxy-3,4,8-trimethoxyxanthone against dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Yuan Zheng

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis represents the consequences of a sustained wound healing response to chronic liver injury which could be caused by viral, autoimmune, drugs, and so on. Unfortunately, there was no effective therapy available for liver fibrosis in clinic. In this study, we identified the anti-fibrotic effects of 1,7-dihydroxy-3,4,8-trimethoxyxanthone (ZYC-1 on the dimethylnitrosamine (DMN-induced rat model. ZYC-1 was isolated from Swertia punicea Hemsl and was administrated to DMN-induced rat model. ZYC decreased the hyaluronic acid (HA, type IV collagen (CIV and hydroxyproline (Hyp levels and inhibited the expression of α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-1β. The anti-fibrotic effect of ZYC-1 was also confirmed by Sirius Red staining. Finally, we identified 42 differentially expressed proteins by using proteomics analysis after ZYC-1 treatment, of which 17 were up-regulated and 25 were down-regulated. These Most of the 42 proteins are involved in the oxidative stress pathway, the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway and the amino acid metabolism pathway. Our study presented the first elucidated mechanisms of xanthone on liver fibrosis in vivo. This study pointed out that ZYC-1 may be used as a lead compound for hepatofibrosis treatment.

  12. Activated carbon modified with 4-(8-hydroxyquinoline-azo)benzamidine for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace lead from environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, H.; Chang, X.; Hu, Z.; Yang, K.; He, Q.; Zhang, L.; Tu, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon was chemically modified with 4-(8-hydroxyquinoline-azo)benzamidine and used for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of Pb(II) in environmental samples by solid-phase extraction prior to the measurement by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The effects of pH, shaking time, eluent concentration and volume, sample flow rate and potential interfering ions were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor was 100, the detection limits is 0. 43 ng mL -1 , and the relative standard deviations are <2. 1% (n = 8). The adsorption capacity of the sorbent is 53. 58 mg of lead(II) per gram of the material. The sorbent was successfully applied to the preconcentration of trace Pb(II) in the reference materials GBW 08301 (river sediment) and GBW 08302 (Tibet soil). The recovery of lead(II) from Yellow river water, Huangshui water, and tap water is in range of 99. 3-101. 6%. (author)

  13. Children aged 4-8 years treated with parent training and child therapy because of conduct problems: generalisation effects to day-care and school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo

    2006-10-01

    In this study, generalisation effects to day-care/school settings were examined in an outpatient clinic sample of 127 children aged 4-8 years treated because of oppositional conduct problems in the home with parent training (PT) and parent training combined with child therapy (CT) ("Incredible Years"). Before treatment all children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) for home problems, and met criteria for a possible or a confirmed diagnosis of either an oppositional defiant (ODD) or a conduct (CD) disorder. Further, 83% of the children showed clinical levels of conduct problems both at home and in day-care/school before treatment. Although most children improved at home, the majority still showed clinical levels of conduct problems in day-care/school settings after treatment and 1-year later. Combined PT and CT produced the most powerful and significant generalisation effects across the treatment period, however these improvements were not maintained 1-year later for most areas. The results of the present study, therefore, underline the need to target conduct problems not only exhibited at home but also in day-care/school settings, and to develop strategies to maintain positive generalisation effects after treatment for this age and problem-group.

  14. Double negative (CD3+ 4- 8- TCR alphabeta splenic cells from young NOD mice provide long-lasting protection against type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Duncan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Double negative CD3(+4(-8(- TCR alphabeta splenic cells (DNCD3 can suppress the immune responses to allo and xenografts, infectious agents, tumors, and some autoimmune disorders. However, little is known about their role in autoimmune diabetes, a disease characterized by the reduction of insulin production subsequent to destruction of pancreatic beta-cells by a polyclonal population of self-reactive T-cells. Herein, we analyzed the function and phenotype of DNCD3 splenic cells in young NOD mice predisposed to several autoimmune disorders among which, the human-like autoimmune diabetes.DNCD3 splenic cells from young NOD mice (1 provided long-lasting protection against diabetes transfer in NOD/Scid immunodeficient mice, (2 proliferated and differentiated in the spleen and pancreas of NOD/Scid mice and pre-diabetic NOD mice into IL-10-secreting T(R-1 like cells in a Th2-like environment, and (3 their anti-diabetogenic phenotype is CD3(+(CD4(-CD8(-CD28(+CD69(+CD25(low Foxp3(- iCTLA-4(-TCR alphabeta(+ with a predominant Vbeta13 gene usage.These findings delineate a new T regulatory component in autoimmune diabetes apart from that of NKT and CD4(+CD25(high Foxp3(+T-regulatory cells. DNCD3 splenic cells could be potentially manipulated towards the development of autologous cell therapies in autoimmune diabetes.

  15. Oxidation of iodide and iodine on birnessite (delta-MnO2) in the pH range 4-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Sébastien; von Gunten, Urs; Sahli, Elisabeth; Nicolau, Rudy; Gallard, Hervé

    2009-08-01

    The oxidation of iodide by synthetic birnessite (delta-MnO(2)) was studied in perchlorate media in the pH range 4-8. Iodine (I(2)) was detected as an oxidation product that was subsequently further oxidized to iodate (IO(3)(-)). The third order rate constants, second order on iodide and first order on manganese oxide, determined by extraction of iodine in benzene decreased with increasing pH (6.3-7.5) from 1790 to 3.1M(-2) s(-1). Both iodine and iodate were found to adsorb significantly on birnessite with an adsorption capacity of 12.7 microM/g for iodate at pH 5.7. The rate of iodine oxidation by birnessite decreased with increasing ionic strength, which resulted in a lower rate of iodate formation. The production of iodine in iodide-containing waters in contact with manganese oxides may result in the formation of undesired iodinated organic compounds (taste and odor, toxicity) in natural and technical systems. The probability of the formation of such compounds is highest in the pH range 5-7.5. For pH iodine is quickly oxidized to iodate, a non-toxic and stable sink for iodine. At pH >7.5, iodide is not oxidized to a significant extent.

  16. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  17. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  18. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bayou Choctaw Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Park, Byoung; Rudeen, D.K.; Eldredge, L.L.; Wynn, K.; Checkai, D.; Osborne, G.; Moore, D.

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 15 wells at the Bayou Choctaw site, with each active well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  19. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 31 wells at the West Hackberry site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  20. 2014 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 47 wells at the Bryan Mound site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site.

  1. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  2. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  3. GEANT 4.8.2, 9.2 and 9.4 simulations versus experimental proton energy loss in thick absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseev, Ivan; Schelin, Hugo R.; Ahmann, Francielle; Milhoretto, Edney; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: evseev@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yevseyeva, Olga; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Ievsieieva, Ievgeniia, E-mail: yevseveva@iprj.uerj.b, E-mail: joaquim@iprj.uerj.b [Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Modelagem Computacional; Hormaza, Joel M., E-mail: jmesa@ibb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias; Diaz, Katherin S. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Havana (Cuba); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are a powerful tool to estimate the proton energy loss and straggling in medical applications. The physics of proton interaction with matter for thick absorbers (like a human body) has a well-established theory for the so-called Bethe-Bloch domain, and the basic principles of Monte Carlo simulation for such processes are well known since the middle of the past century. However, in spite of GEANT4 has been validated against proton stopping powers from the NIST PSTAR, the evolution of the code leads to some result instability within the various code releases. In this work, we present the recent results for the comparison of our GEANT4 simulations against experimental proton energy loss for some thick absorbers. All the simulations were performed using the GEANT4 Hadrontherapy Advanced Example. The GEANT4 versions 4.8.2, 4.9.2, and 4.9.4 were tested with different simulation parameters, such as varied cut values. In addition to the Standard model, some other models for the electromagnetic processes from the GEANT4 Low Energy Extension Pack were tested as well. Experimental data were taken from for polyethylene, and from for aluminum and gold absorbers. The theoretical predictions for the spectra were calculated using the self-consistent Gaussian solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation in the Fokker-Plank form. In order to compare the GEANT4 simulations with other popular codes, the same spectra were simulated by TRIM/SRIM2011 and MCNPX2.4.0. The simultaneous comparison of the results obtained for different materials at various initial proton energies were done using the reduced calibration curve approach. (author)

  4. On the Development of an Al4.8 wt% Cu Alloy Obtained from Recycled Aluminum Cans Designed for Thixoforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Miller Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has focused on the development of a new aluminum alloy containing 4.8 wt% of Cu alloy obtained from recycled aluminium cans designed for thixoforming process. After the step of melting and solidification of the alloy in a metallic permanent mold, samples were solution heat treated at 525°C for times ranging from 2 h to 48 h, quenched in water and followed by natural aging. Results have shown the evolution of hardness so from them solubilization solution heat treatment was chosen for 24 h. The best condition for aging was 190°C during 3 h. With this data pieces were thixoforged at 580°C and 615°C corresponding, respectively, to solid fraction (fs of 0.8 and 0.6. The optimized T6 temper was applied and tensile tests were performed. The mechanical properties obtained are compatible with those obtained for consolidated alloys processed in semisolid state (SS and after T6 temper hardness increases from 95 HB to 122 HB and the best results were a tensile strength of 324 MPa ± 10 MPa, yield strength of 257 MPa ± 18 MPa, and an elongation of 7.1%  ±  1%. For alloys designed for thixoforming process, these results are in accordance with what was expected whereas globular microstructure, high ductility, and good performance under cyclic conditions are desirable.

  5. Mechanical Drawing: Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Eighty-five behavioral objectives and related evaluation items for mechanical drawing in grades 7 through 12 are presented. Each sample contains the objective, test items, and means for judging the adequacy of the response. The following categories are included: (1) basic drafting skills; (2) beginning lettering; (3) drawing; (4) orthographic…

  6. Graded-Lie-algebra cohomology and supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, R.; Fre, P.; Regge, T.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed explanations of the cohomology invoked in the group-manifold approach to supergravity is given. The Chevalley cohomology theory of Lie algebras is extended to graded Lie algebras. The scheme of geometrical theories is enlarged so to include cosmological terms and higher powers of the curvature. (author)

  7. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  8. Construction Industry Related Mathematics: Seventh Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Scott

    The field tested construction industry-related mathematics unit is intended to familiarize seventh grade students with various facets of the construction industry, including the various occupations available and the mathematical abilities and other skills and training necessary to pursue an occupation in the industry. The final set of activities…

  9. Graded associative conformal algebras of finite type

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider graded associative conformal algebras. The class of these objects includes pseudo-algebras over non-cocommutative Hopf algebras of regular functions on some linear algebraic groups. In particular, an associative conformal algebra which is graded by a finite group $\\Gamma $ is a pseudo-algebra over the coordinate Hopf algebra of a linear algebraic group $G$ such that the identity component $G^0$ is the affine line and $G/G^0\\simeq \\Gamma $. A classification of simple...

  10. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1 whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2 whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. Methods/Design 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition. Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI ≥ CDC 85th will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the

  11. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Brown, Deirdre; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jill; Cox, Adell; Rose, Elaine A; Taylor, Barry J; Meredith-Jones, Kim; Treacy, Lee; Ross, Jim; William, Sheila M

    2010-05-24

    Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1) whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2) whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition). Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI > or = CDC 85th) will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour) will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist) to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the family via telephone and in

  12. The Changing Landscape of Grading Systems in US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven B.; Leidman, Mary Beth; Longcore, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The following study explores the landscape of grading systems utilised in higher education, focusing on the frequency of different types of assessment scales (including Straight Letter, Plus/Minus, and other alternative policies). Although numerous studies have explored the relationship between university grading system and student behaviour,…

  13. 7 CFR 958.9 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... thereon. The term size also includes any of the sizes recognized by the onion trade in the production area. ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Grade means any of the officially established grades of onions, and size means any of the officially...

  14. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same processing method) were discriminated using -Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) coupled with pattern recognition methods including principal component analysis (PCA), canonical discriminant analysis ...

  15. Grade Non-Disclosure. NBER Working Paper No. 17465

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel; Smetters, Kent

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents and explains the existence of grade non-disclosure policies in Masters in Business Administration programs, why these policies are concentrated in highly-ranked programs, and why these policies are not prevalent in most other professional degree programs. Related policies, including honors and minimum grade requirements, are…

  16. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  17. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies associated with acute and chronic grade III and grade V acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gunnar; Millett, Peter J; Tahal, Dimitri S; Al Ibadi, Mireille; Lill, Helmut; Katthagen, Jan Christoph

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies with acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III and V. Patients who underwent arthroscopically-assisted stabilization of acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III or grade V between 01/2007 and 12/2015 were identified in the patient databases of two surgical centres. Gender, age at index surgery, grade of acromioclavicular joint injury (Rockwood III or Rockwood V), and duration between injury and index surgery (classified as acute or chronic) were of interest. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies were noted and their treatment was classified as debridement or reconstructive procedure. A total of 376 patients (336 male, 40 female) were included. Mean age at time of arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction surgery was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Overall, 201 patients (53%) had one or more concomitant glenohumeral pathologies. Lesions of the biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff were the most common. Forty-five patients (12.0%) had concomitant glenohumeral pathologies that required an additional repair. The remaining 156 patients (41.5%) received a debridement of their concomitant pathologies. Rockwood grade V compared to Rockwood grade III (p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.7), and chronic compared to acute injury were significantly associated with having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology (p = 0.019; odds ratio 1.7). The probability of having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology was also significantly associated with increasing age (p acromioclavicular joint injury of either grade III or V. Twenty-two percent of these patients with concomitant glenohumeral pathologies received an additional dedicated repair procedure. Although a significant difference in occurrence of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies was seen between Rockwood grades III and V, and between acute and chronic lesions, increasing age was identified as the most dominant predictor. Level IV, case series.

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test scores corresponding to modified Medical Research Council grades among COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus COPD patients, the percentages of patients classified into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores COPD patients.

  19. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  20. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  1. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  2. Analysis of DTI-Derived Tensor Metrics in Differential Diagnosis between Low-grade and High-grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Chao-Yong; Xu, Quan; Sun, Jun; Chen, Huiyou; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yin, Xindao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It is critical and difficult to accurately discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas preoperatively. This study aimed to ascertain the role of several scalar measures in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, especially the axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), and linear tensor (Cl) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas (21 low-grade and 32 high-grade) were included. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and DTI were performed in all patients. The AD, RD, Cp, Cs, and Cl values in the tumor zone, peritumoral edema zone, white matter (WM) adjacent to edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were calculated. The DTI parameters and tumor grades were statistically analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. Results: The DTI metrics in the affected hemisphere showed significant differences from those in the NAWM, except for the AD values in the tumor zone and the RD values in WM adjacent to edema in the low-grade groups, as well as the Cp values in WM adjacent to edema in the high-grade groups. AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema revealed significant differences between the low- and high-grade gliomas. The areas under the curve (Az) of all three metrics were greater than 0.5 in distinguishing low-grade from high-grade gliomas by ROC curve analysis, and the best DTI metric was Cs in WM adjacent to edema (Az: 0.692). Conclusion: AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema will provide additional information to better classify gliomas and can be used as non-invasive reliable biomarkers in glioma grading.

  3. Functionally graded biomimetic energy absorption concept development for transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Mechanics of a functionally graded cylinder subject to static or dynamic axial loading is considered, including a potential application as energy absorber. The mass density and stiffness are power functions of the radial coordinate as may be the case...

  4. 7. Arab Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Sana'a (YE). 4-8 Dec 2004, Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for research dealing with the applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture. In addition it includes studies on nuclear and radiation chemistry, nuclear physics, and radiobiology. This proceeding is published in three parts

  5. A study on the validity of a computer-based game to assess cognitive processes, reward mechanisms, and time perception in children aged 4-8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenborgh, J.C.A.W.; Hurks, P.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; van der Spek, E.D.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Vles, J.S.H.; Hendriksen, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A computer-based game, named Timo's Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes

  6. Long-lasting enhancement of synaptic excitability of CA1/subiculum neurons of the rat ventral hippocampus by vasopressin and vasopressin(4-8)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Chepkova, A.N.; French, P.; Wied, D. de; Ontskul, A.H.; Ramakers, G.M.J.; Skrebitski, V.G.; Urban, I.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is axonally distributed in many brain structures, including the ventral hippocampus. Picogram quantities of VP injected into the hippocampus improve the passive avoidance response of rats, presumably by enhancing memory processes. Vasopressin is metabolized by the brain tissue into

  7. Upper Grades Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, David; Beane, Pam

    1983-01-01

    Presents programming ideas using LOGO, activity for converting flowchart into a computer program, and a Pascal program for generating music using paddles. Includes the article "Helping Computers Adapt to Kids" by Philip Nothnagle; a program for estimating length of lines is included. (JN)

  8. Experimental Study of 1.55-μm EML-Based Optical IM/DD PAM-4/8 Short Reach Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Gaiarin, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally evaluate high-speed intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) transmissions with a 1.55-μm broadband electro-absorption modulated laser and pulse amplitude modulations (PAM). We demonstrate 80 Gb/s/λ PAM-4 and 96 Gb/s/λ PAM-8 transmissions with low-complexity digital...... equalizers at the receiver. Performance comparison with different types of equalizers are performed, including linear symbol-spaced feed-forward equalizer (FFE), fractional (half-symbol) spaced FFE and decision feedback equalizer (DFE), with different tap number. It is found that for both cases, a 6-tap...... symbol-spaced FFE is sufficient to achieve a stable performance with bit-error-rate below the 7% overhead hard decision forward error correction (7%-OH HD-FEC) threshold over a 4 km standard single mode fiber link. Practical considerations including comparison between adaptive and static equalizer...

  9. Modeling Erlang's Ideal Grading with Multirate BPP Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Glabowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete methodology for modeling gradings (also called non-full-availability groups servicing single-service and multi-service traffic streams. The methodology worked out by the authors makes it possible to determine traffic characteristics of various types of gradings with state-dependent call arrival processes, including a new proposed structure of the Erlang’s Ideal Grading with the multirate links. The elaborated models of the gradings can be used for modeling different systems of modern networks, for example, the radio interfaces of the UMTS system, switching networks carrying a mixture of different multirate traffic streams, and video-on-demand systems. The results of the analytical calculations are compared with the results of the simulation data for selected gradings, which confirm high accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  10. A study on the validity of a computer-based game to assess cognitive processes, reward mechanisms, and time perception in children aged 4-8 years

    OpenAIRE

    Peijnenborgh, Janneke; Hurks, PM Petra; Aldenkamp, AP Albert; Spek, van der, ED Erik; Rauterberg, GWM Matthias; Vles, JSH Johan; Hendriksen, JGM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo?s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo?s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hy...

  11. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  12. Nuclear grade and necrosis predict prognosis in malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lauren E; Karrison, Theodore; Ananthanarayanan, Vijayalakshmi; Gallan, Alexander J; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Alchami, Fouad S; Attanoos, Richard; Brcic, Luka; Butnor, Kelly J; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Kadota, Kyuichi; Klampatsa, Astero; Stang, Nolween Le; Lindenmann, Joerg; Litzky, Leslie A; Marchevsky, Alberto; Medeiros, Filomena; Montero, M Angeles; Moore, David A; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Roggli, Victor L; Sauter, Jennifer L; Sharma, Anupama; Sheaff, Michael; Travis, William D; Vigneswaran, Wickii T; Vrugt, Bart; Walts, Ann E; Tjota, Melissa Y; Krausz, Thomas; Husain, Aliya N

    2018-04-01

    A recently described nuclear grading system predicted survival in patients with epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. The current study was undertaken to validate the grading system and to identify additional prognostic factors. We analyzed cases of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma from 17 institutions across the globe from 1998 to 2014. Nuclear grade was computed combining nuclear atypia and mitotic count into a grade of I-III using the published system. Nuclear grade was assessed by one pathologist for three institutions, the remaining were scored independently. The presence or absence of necrosis and predominant growth pattern were also evaluated. Two additional scoring systems were evaluated, one combining nuclear grade and necrosis and the other mitotic count and necrosis. Median overall survival was the primary endpoint. A total of 776 cases were identified including 301 (39%) nuclear grade I tumors, 354 (45%) grade II tumors and 121 (16%) grade III tumors. The overall survival was 16 months, and correlated independently with age (P=0.006), sex (0.015), necrosis (0.030), mitotic count (0.001), nuclear atypia (0.009), nuclear grade (<0.0001), and mitosis and necrosis score (<0.0001). The addition of necrosis to nuclear grade further stratified overall survival, allowing classification of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma into four distinct prognostic groups: nuclear grade I tumors without necrosis (29 months), nuclear grade I tumors with necrosis and grade II tumors without necrosis (16 months), nuclear grade II tumors with necrosis (10 months) and nuclear grade III tumors (8 months). The mitosis-necrosis score stratified patients by survival, but not as well as the combination of necrosis and nuclear grade. This study confirms that nuclear grade predicts survival in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma, identifies necrosis as factor that further stratifies overall survival, and validates the grading system across multiple

  13. Histopathologic grading of anaplasia in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pia R; Specht, Charles S; Hubbard, G Baker; Wells, Jill R; Lynn, Michael J; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Jun; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the degree of tumor anaplasia has prognostic value by evaluating its correlation with high-risk histopathologic features and clinical outcomes in a series of retinoblastoma patients. Retrospective clinicopathologic study. The clinical and pathologic findings in 266 patients who underwent primary enucleation for retinoblastoma were reviewed. The histologic degree of anaplasia was graded as retinocytoma, mild, moderate, or severe as defined by increasing cellular pleomorphism, number of mitoses, nuclear size, and nuclear hyperchromatism. Nuclear morphometric characteristics were measured. The clinical and pathologic data of 125 patients were compared using Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival. Fisher exact test and multivariate regression were used to analyze the association between anaplasia grade and high-risk histologic features. Increasing grade of anaplasia was associated with decreased overall survival (P = .003) and increased risk of metastasis (P = .0007). Histopathologic features that were associated with anaplasia included optic nerve invasion (P anaplasia grading as predictors of distant metastasis and death showed that high-risk histopathology was statistically significant as an independent predictor (P = .01 for metastasis, P = .03 for death) but anaplasia was not (P = .63 for metastasis, P = .30 for death). In the absence of high-risk features, however, severe anaplasia identified an additional risk for metastasis (P = .0004) and death (P = .01). Grading of anaplasia may be a useful adjunct to standard histopathologic criteria in identifying retinoblastoma patients who do not have high-risk histologic features but still have an increased risk of metastasis and may need adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  15. Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Jamal, S.; Mamoon, N.; Luqman, M.; Anwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections. Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly. Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision. (author)

  16. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  17. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  18. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  19. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  20. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    In November, 2014, 65 prostate cancer pathology experts, along with 17 clinicians including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists from 19 different countries gathered in a consensus conference to update the grading of prostate cancer, last revised in 2005. The major conclusions were: (1) Cribriform glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (2) Glomeruloid glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (3) Grading of mucinous carcinoma of the prostate should be based on its underlying growth pattern rather than grading them all as pattern 4; and (4) Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma should not be assigned a Gleason grade and a comment as to its invariable association with aggressive prostate cancer should be made. Regarding morphologies of Gleason patterns, there was clear consensus on: (1) Gleason pattern 4 includes cribriform, fused, and poorly formed glands; (2) The term hypernephromatoid cancer should not be used; (3) For a diagnosis of Gleason pattern 4, it needs to be seen at 10x lens magnification; (4) Occasional/seemingly poorly formed or fused glands between well-formed glands is insufficient for a diagnosis of pattern 4; (5) In cases with borderline morphology between Gleason pattern 3 and pattern 4 and crush artifacts, the lower grade should be favored; (6) Branched glands are allowed in Gleason pattern 3; (7) Small solid cylinders represent Gleason pattern 5; (8) Solid medium to large nests with rosette-like spaces should be considered to represent Gleason pattern 5; and (9) Presence of unequivocal comedonecrosis, even if focal is indicative of Gleason pattern 5. It was recognized by both pathologists and clinicians that despite the above changes, there were deficiencies with the Gleason system. The Gleason grading system ranges from 2 to 10, yet 6 is the lowest score currently assigned. When patients are told that they have a Gleason score 6 out

  1. Cracks in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, H.-A.; Balke, H.; Fett, T.; Hofinger, I.; Kirchhoff, G.; Munz, D.; Neubrand, A.; Semenov, A.S.; Weiss, H.-J.; Yang, Y.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found to develop in several distinct stages: vertical cracking→delamination→blistering→spalling. This sequence can be understood as an effect of progressive shrinkage due to sintering and high-temperature creep during thermal cycling, which increases the energy-release rate for vertical cracks which subsequently turn into delamination cracks. The results of finite element modeling, taking into account the TBC damage mechanisms, are compatible with experimental data. An increase of interface fracture toughness due to grading and a decrease due to ageing have been measured in a four-point bending test modified by a stiffening layer. Correlation with the damage observed in cyclic heating is discussed. It is explained in which way grading is able to reduce the damage

  2. Grading sacroiliitis with emphasis on MRI imaging; Grading der Sakroiliitis mit Betonung der MRT-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurik, A.G.; Egund, N. [The Department of Radiology R, Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark)

    2004-03-01

    Cross-sectional imaging techniques play a decisive role in identification, localization, and characterization of alterations in the sacroiliac joint during the early stage of seronegative spondylarthropathy (SpA). Although several studies showed that the diagnostic capabilities of MRI and CT are superior to those of conventional radiography, they have not yet become established and accepted as methods for evaluating the grade of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in contrast to conventional radiography. The lack of acceptance for MRI and/or CT methods for evaluating and grading changes in the sacroiliac joint makes it difficult to include the results of these procedures in classifying the grade of SpA. Moreover, grading the changes in the sacroiliac joint in SpA with a method more sensitive than conventional radiography will be of prime importance in assessing treatment, e.g., the efficacy of new biological therapeutic agents directed against the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}). An overview of the available grading methods is provided and MRI and CT techniques are presented. (orig.) [German] Schnittbildverfahren spielen bei der Identifizierung, Lokalisation und Charakterisierung von Veraenderungen des Sakroiliakalgelenks (SIG) im Fruehstadium der seronegativen Spondylarthropathie (SpA) eine entscheidende Rolle. Obwohl mehrere Studien zeigten, dass der diagnostische Wert der MRT und CT jenem der konventionellen Radiographie ueberlegen ist, hat sich das Schnittbildverfahren als Mittel zur Evaluierung des Grades der ankylosierenden Spondylitis (AS) im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Radiographie noch nicht etabliert und durchgesetzt. Dieses Fehlen eines akzeptierten MRT- und/oder CT-Verfahrens zur Evaluierung und zum Grading der Veraenderungen am SIG macht es schwierig, die Ergebnisse dieser Verfahren bei der Einstufung des Grades der AS-Veraenderungen und Erarbeitung von Diagnosekriterien fuer andere Formen der SpA einzubeziehen. Ausserdem wird das Grading der SIG

  3. CD4:8 ratio >5 is associated with a dominant naive T-cell phenotype and impaired physical functioning in CMV-seropositive very elderly people: results from the BELFRAIL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Wim; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Vaes, Bert; Van Pottelbergh, Gijs; Degryse, Jean-Marie; Pawelec, Graham; Hamprecht, Klaus; Theeten, Heidi; Matheï, Catharina

    2015-02-01

    A subset of older people is at increased risk of hospitalization and dependency. Emerging evidence suggests that immunosenescence reflected by an inverted CD4:8 ratio and cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity plays an important role in the pathophysiology of functional decline. Nevertheless, the relation between CD4:8 ratio and functional outcome has rarely been investigated. Here, CD4:8 ratio and T-cell phenotypes of 235 community-dwelling persons aged ≥81.5 years in the BELFRAIL study and 25 younger persons (mean age 28.5 years) were analyzed using polychromatic flow cytometry. In the elderly persons, 7.2% had an inverted CD4:8 ratio, which was associated with CMV seropositivity, less naive, and more late-differentiated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, 32.8% had a CD4:8 ratio >5, a phenotype associated with a higher proportion of naive T cells and absent in young donors. In CMV seropositives, this subgroup had lower proportions of late-differentiated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and weaker anti-CMV immunoglobulin G reactivity. This novel naive T-cell-dominated phenotype was counterintuitively associated with a higher proportion of those with impaired physical functioning in the very elderly people infected with CMV. This underscores the notion that in very elderly people, not merely CMV infection but also the state of its accompanying immune dysregulation is of crucial importance with regard to physical impairment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  5. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  6. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease......Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...

  7. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...... of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease...

  8. The relationship between childhood weight, dental caries and eating practices in children aged 4-8 years in Australia, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, M; Skouteris, H; Millar, L

    2012-12-01

    The association between overweight/obesity and dental caries in children is contentious with studies variously reporting positive or negative associations between the two conditions. Since 1995, Australia has experienced a rise in the prevalence of both conditions in its children. This study investigated the association between child weight, diet and dental problems in a nationally representative sample. Data from 4149 children (51.5% male) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) were used. The LSAC is a longitudinal study collecting data from a large representative cohort of Australian children; data from the first three waves were included with children aged 4-5 years, 6-7 years, and 8-9 years. Multivariate cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between child weight, diet and dental problems. Overweight/obesity was associated with sweet drink consumption and dental problems associated with consumption of fatty foods and sweet drinks. Underweight was associated with dental problems cross-sectionally, but both underweight and overweight at age 6-7 years predicted dental problems at age 8-9 years. Dental caries and body weight are influenced by diet. Overweight children may be consuming less fatty food but appear to be consuming more sweet drinks than normal-weight children, which can lead to both increased weight and dental caries. Dietary interventions designed to reduce the development of dental caries may also reduce the development and maintenance of overweight. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Grading standards, prepared by the Configuration Management Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, G.; Donahue, S.; Frank, J.; Perkins, B.; Wrye, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the grading methodology used by the organization to determine the required levels of configuration management for all controlled elements that are part of the nuclear facility and its operation. The goal is to have a flexible grading system that accurately reflects the overall operational environment. The grading methodology should identify which items, processes, and information should be incorporated into facility baselines as controlled elements; and specify the level of formality that should be applied to activities that employ or impact these controlled elements. Evaluation categories include the following: radiological damage to workers; toxicological damage to workers; industrial safety; environmental damage; property damage; facility availability; cost effect; reputation; and commitments

  10. The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology...... as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way....

  11. Contemporary management of high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hao-Wen; Morgan, Erin R; Mason, Warren P

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gliomas, including glioblastoma, are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Despite intensive efforts to develop new therapies for these diseases, treatment options remain limited and prognosis is poor. Recently, there have been important advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of glioma, leading to refinements in our diagnostic and management approach. There is new evidence to guide the treatment of elderly patients. A multitude of new agents have been investigated, including targeted therapies, immunotherapeutics and tumor-treating fields. This review summarizes the key findings from this research, and presents a perspective on future opportunities to advance the field.

  12. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

    2013-07-01

    Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma.

  13. Receipt of special education services following elementary school grade retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael; Guppy, Nicole; Young, Robin; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2009-06-01

    To estimate the proportion of children who receive an Individualized Education Program (IEP) following grade retention in elementary school. Longitudinal cohort study. Children retained in kindergarten or first (K/1) grade and third grade, presumably for academic reasons, were followed up through fifth grade. Presence or absence of an IEP. A total of 300 children retained in K/1 and 80 retained in third grade were included in the study. Of the K/1 retainees, 68.9% never received an IEP during the subsequent 4 to 5 years; of the third-grade retainees, 72.3% never received an IEP. Kindergarten/first-grade retainees in the highest quintile for socioeconomic status and those with suburban residence were less likely to receive an IEP than retained children in all other socioeconomic status quintiles (adjusted odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.62) and in rural communities (0.16; 0.06-0.44). Among K/1 retainees with persistently low academic achievement in math and reading, as assessed by standardized testing, 38.2% and 29.7%, respectively, never received an IEP. Most children retained in K/1 or third grade for academic reasons, including many of those who demonstrated sustained academic difficulties, never received an IEP during elementary school. Further studies are important to elucidate whether retained elementary schoolchildren are being denied their rights to special education services. In the meantime, early-grade retention may provide an opportunity for pediatricians to help families advocate for appropriate special education evaluations for children experiencing school difficulties.

  14. Facing Contrast-Enhancing Gliomas: Perfusion MRI in Grade III and Grade IV Gliomas according to Tumor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Luisa Di Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumoral neoangiogenesis characterizes high grade gliomas. Relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV, calculated with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (PWI, allows for the estimation of vascular density over the tumor bed. The aim of the study was to characterize putative tumoral neoangiogenesis via the study of maximal rCBV with a Region of Interest (ROI approach in three tumor areas—the contrast-enhancing area, the nonenhancing tumor, and the high perfusion area on CBV map—in patients affected by contrast-enhancing glioma (grades III and IV. Twenty-one patients were included: 15 were affected by grade IV and 6 by grade III glioma. Maximal rCBV values for each patient were averaged according to glioma grade. Although rCBV from contrast-enhancement and from nonenhancing tumor areas was higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (5.58 and 2.68; 3.01 and 2.2, resp., the differences were not significant. Instead, rCBV recorded in the high perfusion area on CBV map, independently of tumor compartment, was significantly higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (7.51 versus 3.78, P=0.036. In conclusion, neoangiogenesis encompasses different tumor compartments and CBV maps appear capable of best characterizing the degree of neovascularization. Facing contrast-enhancing brain tumors, areas of high perfusion on CBV maps should be considered as the reference areas to be targeted for glioma grading.

  15. Association of parents' and children's physical activity and sedentary time in Year 4 (8-9) and change between Year 1 (5-6) and Year 4: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Thompson, Janice L; Lawlor, Deborah A; Sebire, Simon J

    2017-08-17

    Parents could be important influences on child physical activity and parents are often encouraged to be more active with their child. This paper examined the association between parent and child physical activity and sedentary time in a UK cohort of children assessed when the children were in Year 1 (5-6 years old) and in Year 4 (8-9 years old). One thousand two hundred twenty three children and parents provided data in Year 4 and of these 685 participated in Year 1. Children and parents wore an accelerometer for five days including a weekend. Mean minutes of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) were derived. Multiple imputation was used to impute all missing data and create complete datasets. Linear regression models examined whether parent MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4 and at Year 1 predicted child MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4. Change in parent MVPA and sedentary time was used to predict change in child MVPA and sedentary time between Year 1 and Year 4. Imputed data showed that at Year 4, female parent sedentary time was associated with child sedentary time (0.13, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.27 mins/day), with a similar association for male parents (0.15, 95% CI = -0.02 to 0.32 mins/day). Female parent and child MVPA at Year 4 were associated (0.16, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.23 mins/day) with a smaller association for male parents (0.08, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.17 mins/day). There was little evidence that either male or female parent MVPA at Year 1 predicted child MVPA at Year 4 with similar associations for sedentary time. There was little evidence that change in parent MVPA or sedentary time predicted change in child MVPA or sedentary time respectively. Parents who were more physically active when their child was 8-9 years old had a child who was more active, but the magnitude of association was generally small. There was little evidence that parental activity from three years earlier predicted child activity at age 8-9, or

  16. Vasorelaxant and Hypotensive Effects of an Ethanolic Extract of Eulophia macrobulbon and Its Main Compound 1-(4′-Hydroxybenzyl-4,8-Dimethoxyphenanthrene-2,7-Diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthinee Wisutthathum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacological studies demonstrated the potential for Eulophia species to treat inflammation, cancer, and cardio-metabolic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of ethanolic Eulophia macrobulbon (EM extract and its main phenanthrene on rat isolated mesenteric artery and to investigate the hypotensive effect of EM.Methods: The vasorelaxant effects of EM extract or phenanthrene and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated on second-order mesenteric arteries from Sprague Dawley rats. In addition, the acute hypotensive effect was evaluated in anesthetized rats infused with cumulative concentrations of the EM extract.Results: Both EM extract (10-4–1 mg/ml and phenanthrene (10-7–10-4 M relaxed endothelium-intact arteries, an effect that was partly reduced by endothelium removal (p < 0.001. A significant decrease in the relaxant effect of the extract and the phenanthrene was observed with L-NAME and apamin/charybdotoxin in endothelium-intact vessels, and with iberiotoxin in denuded vessels. SNP (sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was significantly enhanced by EM extract and phenanthrene. By contrast, ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one, 4-aminopyridine and glibenclamide (endothelium-denuded vessels and indomethacin (endothelium-intact vessels had no effect. In calcium-free solution, both the EM extract and phenanthrene inhibited extracellular Ca2+-induced contraction in high KCl and phenylephrine (PE pre-contracted rings. They also inhibited the intracellular Ca2+ release sensitive to PE. The acute infusion of EM extract (20 and 70 mg/kg induced an immediate and transient dose-dependent hypotensive effect.Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of EM tubers and its main active compound, 1-(4′-hydroxybenzyl-4,8-dimethoxyphenanthrene-2,7-diol (phenanthrene induced vasorelaxant effects on rat resistance vessels, through pleiotropic effects including endothelium-dependent effects (NOS

  17. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  18. Affix Meaning Knowledge in First Through Third Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Forty students at each grade level completed an assessment battery that included measures of phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, reading comprehension, and affix meaning knowledge. On the AMT, 1st-grade students were significantly less accurate than 2nd- and 3rd-grade students; there was no significant difference in performance between the 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Regression analyses revealed that the AMT accounted for 8% unique variance of students' performance on word-level reading measures and 6% unique variance of students' performance on the reading comprehension measure, after age, phonological awareness, and receptive vocabulary were explained. These results provide initial information on the development of affix meaning knowledge via an explicit measure in 1st- through 3rd-grade students and demonstrate that affix meaning knowledge uniquely contributes to the development of reading abilities above other known literacy predictors. These findings provide empirical support for how students might use morphological problem solving to read unknown multimorphemic words successfully.

  19. Increased frequency of CD4-8-T cells bearing T-cell receptor αβ chains in peripheral blood of atomic bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoichiro Kusunoki; Seishi Kyoizumi; Yuko Hirai; Shoichiro Fujita; Mitoshi Akiyama

    1994-01-01

    A rare T-cell subpopulation, CD4 -z 8 - αβ cells, may be differentiated through a pathway (or pathways) different from the pathway(s) of conventional CD4+ or CD8+ cells. In the present study, the frequencies of CD4 - 8 - T cells in peripheral-blood αβ T cells in 409 atomic bomb survivors were determined to investigate late effects of radiation on the composition of human T-cell subpopulations. The frequency of CD4 - 8 - αβ T-cell decreased significantly with the subject's age and was higher in females than males. A significant increase in the frequency was found in the survivors exposed to more than 1.5Gy, suggesting that the previous radiation exposure altered differentiation and development of T cells. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may...

  2. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  3. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 16. Comparisons of root resorption and resorption craters after the application of light and heavy continuous and controlled orthodontic forces for 4, 8, and 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetyangkul, Anchalee; Türk, Tamer; Elekdağ-Türk, Selma; Jones, Allan S; Petocz, Peter; Cheng, Lam L; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2011-03-01

    Orthodontic force duration can affect the severity of root resorption. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the amounts of root resorption volumetrically after the application of controlled light and heavy forces in the buccal direction for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The sample consisted of 54 maxillary first premolars in 36 patients (mean age, 14.9 years; 21 girls, 15 boys) who required first premolar extractions as part of their orthodontic treatment. The teeth were allocated into 3 groups that varied in the duration of force application: 4, 8, or 12 weeks. The right or left first premolars were randomly selected to receive 2 levels of forces. A light buccally directed orthodontic force of 25 g was applied to the experimental tooth on 1 side, while a heavy orthodontic force of 225 g was applied on the contralateral premolar. At the end of the experimental period, the teeth were extracted and scanned with the microcomputed-tomography x-ray system. Resorption crater analysis was performed with specially designed software for direct volumetric measurements. Significant differences in the extent of root resorption were found between 4, 8, and 12 weeks of force application (P resorption in the longer force duration groups. The light force produced significantly less root resorption than did the heavy force. After 4, 8, or 12 weeks of buccally directed orthodontic forces applied on the maxillary first premolars, the volumes of root resorption craters were found to be related to the duration and the magnitude of the forces. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available -3146. [50] X. Jin, L. Wu, L. Guo, H. Yu, and Y. Sun, ?Experimental investigation of the mixed-mode crack propagation in ZrO2/NiCr functionally graded materials,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 76(12), (2009), pp. 1800-1810. [51] Z. Cheng, D. Gao... by stable crack growth,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.72(15), (2005), pp. 2359-2372. [47] Z.-H. Jin, and R.H. Dodds Jr, ?Crack growth resistance behavior of a functionally graded material: computational studies,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics...

  5. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  6. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-10-30

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  7. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  8. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  9. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas at dynamic enhanced CT: comparison between grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma and grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, Kyung Won; Byun, Jae Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ki Byung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon; Hong, Seung-Mo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To identify the CT features in differentiating grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas from grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumours. This study included 161 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Pathology slides were reviewed to determine the tumour grade. CT image analysis included size, pattern, calcification, margin, pancreatic duct dilatation, bile duct dilatation, vascular invasion, arterial enhancement ratio, and portal enhancement ratio. We used 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm as cutoff values of tumour size and 0.9 and 1.1 of enhancement ratio to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Pathology analysis identified 167 lesions in 161 patients. 154 lesions (92 %) were grade 1/2 and 13 (8 %) were grade 3. Portal enhancement ratio (< 1.1) showed high sensitivity and specificity 92.3 % and 80.5 %, respectively in differentiating grade 3 from grade 1/2. It showed the highest odds ratio (49.60), followed by poorly defined margin, size (> 3 cm), bile duct dilatation, and vascular invasion. When at least two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing grade 3 were 92.3 % (12/13) and 87.7 % (135/154), respectively. By using specific CT findings, grade 3 can be differentiated from grade 1/2 with a high diagnostic accuracy leading to an appropriate imaging staging. (orig.)

  10. Associations of rs3918242 and rs2285053 MMP-9 and MMP-2 polymorphisms with the risk, severity, and short- and long-term complications of degenerative mitral valve diseases: a 4.8-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Allegra, Alberto; Crapanzano, Floriana; Pisano, Calogera; Triolo, Oreste Fabio; Argano, Vincenzo; Candore, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative forms of mitral valve diseases (MVDs) are very complex pathologies. Thus, it is difficult to make generalizations about the disease pathways or genetic risk factors contributing to these diseases. However, a key role of metalloproteinases (MMPs) in their pathophysiology is emerging. Thus, we performed for the first time a perspective study to assess eventual associations of some functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes with the MVD risk, symptom severity, and short- and long-term (4.8 years) complications. For this purpose, 90 patients and two control groups were genotyped for rs3918242, rs243865, and rs2285053 MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene SNPs, and systemic levels of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) and two enzymes were quantified and correlated to genotypes of MMP-2 and MMP-9 SNPs studied. In addition, associations between these SNPs and symptom severity and short- and long-term (4.8 years) complications were evaluated. Interestingly, rs3918242 MMP-9 and rs2285053 MMP-2 SNPs were significantly represented in cases than two control groups and were associated with a higher MVD risk, as demonstrated using dominant/recessive models. Cases stratified for NYHA symptoms and particularly those NYHA III+IV with rs3918242 CT+TT MMP-9 and rs2285053CT+TT genotypes also showed higher severity related to significant higher systemic levels of MMP enzymes and pro-ANP at enrolment and 4.8 follow-up times. In addition, cases with these genotypes and particularly those NYHA III+IV had a very significant percentage of complications, particularly at the 4.8 follow-up. Surprisingly, 20% of patient controls developed MVD at 4.8-year follow-up and were carriers of these genotypes. Thus, the associations observed seem to suggest that the two SNPs might represent useful biomarkers and targets for preventing and monitoring MVDs and developing personalized treatments, consenting a more appropriate management and outcome. Copyright © 2016

  11. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  12. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  13. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  14. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  15. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  16. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  17. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  18. A better norm-referenced grading using the standard deviation criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    The commonly used norm-referenced grading assigns grades to rank-ordered students in fixed percentiles. It has the disadvantage of ignoring the actual distance of scores among students. A simple norm-referenced grading via standard deviation is suggested for routine educational grading. The number of standard deviation of a student's score from the class mean was used as the common yardstick to measure achievement level. Cumulative probability of a normal distribution was referenced to help decide the amount of students included within a grade. RESULTS of the foremost 12 students from a medical examination were used for illustrating this grading method. Grading by standard deviation seemed to produce better cutoffs in allocating an appropriate grade to students more according to their differential achievements and had less chance in creating arbitrary cutoffs in between two similarly scored students than grading by fixed percentile. Grading by standard deviation has more advantages and is more flexible than grading by fixed percentile for norm-referenced grading.

  19. Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Louise; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have a v...... effective in discriminating between tumour progression and radiation necrosis. The research into biomarkers is currently limited with regards to their applications in LGA diagnostics, and therefore further studies including larger patient populations are needed.......Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have...... as the course of disease. The current literature seems to support the idea that treatment with radical tumour resection, where possible, yields better long term outcome for patients with LGA. However, adjuvant therapy is often necessary. Administering early postoperative radiotherapy to patients with partially...

  20. Interference studies with two hospital-grade and two home-grade glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Martha E; Baskin, Leland B; Braakman, Sandy; Presti, Steven; Dubois, Jeffrey; Shirey, Terry

    2009-10-01

    Interference studies of four glucose meters (Nova Biomedical [Waltham, MA] StatStrip [hospital grade], Roche Diagnostics [Indianapolis, IN] Accu-Chek Aviva [home grade], Abbott Diabetes Care [Alameda, CA] Precision FreeStyle Freedom [home grade], and LifeScan [Milpitas, CA] SureStep Flexx [hospital grade]) were evaluated and compared to the clinical laboratory plasma hexokinase reference method (Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer). These meters were chosen to reflect the continuum of care from hospital to home grade meters commonly seen in North America. Within-run precision was determined using a freshly prepared whole blood sample spiked with concentrated glucose to give three glucose concentrations. Day-to-day precision was evaluated using aqueous control materials supplied by each vendor. Common interferences, including hematocrit, maltose, and ascorbate, were tested alone and in combination with one another on each of the four glucose testing devices at three blood glucose concentrations. Within-run precision for all glucose meters was glucose meters. Ascorbate caused differences (percentage change from a sample without added interfering substances) of >5% with pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ)-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies (Aviva and Freestyle) and the glucose oxidase-based Flexx meter. Maltose strongly affected the PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based meter systems. When combinations of interferences (ascorbate, maltose, and hematocrit mixtures) were tested, the extent of the interference was up to 193% (Aviva), 179% (FreeStyle), 25.1% (Flexx), and 5.9% (StatStrip). The interference was most pronounced at low glucose (3.9-4.4 mmol/L). All evaluated glucose meter systems demonstrated varying degrees of interference by hematocrit, ascorbate, and maltose mixtures. PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies showed greater susceptibility than glucose oxidase-based systems. However, the modified glucose oxidase-based amperometric method (Nova StatStrip) was

  1. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  2. A Multidisciplinary Process Curriculum in Environmental Education, Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This second grade curriculum guide is based on a multidisciplinary approach to environmental education. The guide includes activities, guidelines for field trip planning, and a resource section. The guide deals with the subjects of plants, soil, and litter. Each subject section includes activities based on the physical characteristics, man's use,…

  3. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  4. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  5. Effect of protracted whole-body gamma irradiation with 6.7 Gy and 4.8 Gy (700 and 500 R) on trypsin inhibition activity of blood, cervical mucus and on morphological structure of cervix in ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, M.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnar, P.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of changes in the trypsin inhibition activities (TIA) of blood plasma, cervical mucus and the morphological structure of the cervix was studied in ewes exposed to 60 Co radiation for seven and five days, the radiation doses being 6.7 Gy and 4.8 Gy, respectively. During exposure, the group of ewes irradaited with 4.8 Gy was given the Roboran vitamin addition and following irradiation ampicillin (5250 mg). TIA was determined from retardation of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate N-alpha-tosyl-p-nitroanilide by bovine trypsin; the TIA was expressed as the percentage of inhibited trypsin. Almost all the studied TIA values of blood plasma and cervical mucus were increased in the irradiated animals, the range being from 103.1 to 155.0% of the levels for non-irradiated ewes. A reduction was recorded only in the total TIA of blood plasma in the group irradiated with a dose of 6.7 Gy (83.1% of the values for non-irradiated animals). In the group of animals irradiated with 4.8 Gy and non Roboran administered, the TIA of cervical mucus was observed to decrease to 92.4%. It was found during the study of changes in the proportion of glands in the stroma and changes in epithelium thickness in the mucous membrane of the cervix uteri that the irradiated ewes had the epithelium thickness reduced to 95.3% to 65.5% and that their stromal gland number decreased to 75.4% to 79.7% of that recorded in non-irradiated animals. It was only in the group given the Roboran supplement that an increase to 123.7% of the gland number for untreated ewes was recorded on the tenth day after termination of the irradiation

  6. Awarding global grades in OSCEs: evaluation of a novel eLearning resource for OSCE examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Gerard J; Johnston, Jenny; Thomson, Clare; McGlade, Kieran

    2012-01-01

    A novel online resource has been developed to aid OSCE examiner training comprising a series of videos of OSCE performances that allow inter-examiner comparison of global grade decisions. To evaluate this training resource in terms of usefulness and ability to improve examiner confidence in awarding global grades in OSCEs. Data collected from the first 200 users included global grades awarded, willingness to change grades following peer comparison and confidence in awarding grades before and after training. Most (86.5%) agreed that the resource was useful in developing global grade scoring ability in OSCEs, with a significant improvement in confidence in awarding grades after using the training package (p<0.001). This is a useful and effective online training package. As an adjunct to traditional training it offers a practical solution to the problem of availability of examiners.

  7. Meiotic and pedigree segregation analyses in carriers of t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) differing in localization of breakpoint positions at 4p subband 4p16.3 and 4p16.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, Alina T; Zollino, Marcella; Wiland, Ewa; Panasiuk, Barbara; Iwanowski, Piotr S; Murdolo, Marina; Śmigiel, Robert; Sąsiadek, Maria; Pilch, Jacek; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare meiotic segregation in sperm cells from two carriers with t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) reciprocal chromosome translocations (RCTs), differing in localization of the breakpoint positions at the 4p subband-namely, 4p16.3 (carrier 1) and 4p16.1 (carrier 2)-and to compare data of the pedigree analyses performed by direct method. Three-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm cells and FISH mapping for the evaluation of the breakpoint positions, data from pedigrees, and direct segregation analysis of the pedigrees were performed. Similar proportions of normal/balanced and unbalanced sperm cells were found in both carriers. The most common was an alternate type of segregation (about 52 % and about 48 %, respectively). Unbalanced adjacent I and adjacent II karyotypes were found in similar proportions about 15 %. The direct segregation analysis (following Stengel-Rutkowski) of the pedigree of carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was performed and results were compared with the data of the pedigree segregation analysis obtained earlier through the indirect method. The probability of live-born progeny with unbalanced karyotype for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was moderately high at 18.8 %-comparable to the value obtained using the indirect method for the same carriership, which was 12 %. This was, however, markedly lower than the value of 41.2 % obtained through the pedigree segregation indirect analysis estimated for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.3;p23.1), perhaps due to the unique composition of genes present within the 4p16.1-4p 16.3 region. Revealed differences in pedigree segregation analysis did not correspond to the very similar profile of meiotic segregation patterns presented by carrier 1 and carrier 2. Most probably, such discordances may be due to differences in embryo survival rates arising from different genetic backgrounds.

  8. Kinetic analysis by DSC of the cationic curing of mixtures of DGEBA and 6,6-dimethyl (4,8-dioxaspiro[2.5]octane-5,7-dione)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Lidia [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Ramis, Xavier [Laboratori de Termodinamica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Salla, Josep Maria [Laboratori de Termodinamica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: salla@mmt.upc.edu; Mantecon, Ana; Serra, Angels [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2007-11-25

    The kinetics of the thermal cationic cure reaction of mixtures in different proportions of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) with 6,6-dimethyl (4,8-dioxaspiro[2.5]octane-5,7-dione) (MCP) initiated by ytterbium or lanthanum triflates or using a conventional initiator, BF{sub 3}.MEA was investigated. The non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments at a controlled heating rate was used for obtaining the kinetic parameters of the reactive systems. BF{sub 3}.MEA and lanthanide triflates initiated curing systems follow a complete different kinetic model. Among lanthanide triflates, ytterbium is the most active initiator.

  9. Kinetic analysis by DSC of the cationic curing of mixtures of DGEBA and 6,6-dimethyl (4,8-dioxaspiro[2.5]octane-5,7-dione)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Ramis, Xavier; Salla, Josep Maria; Mantecon, Ana; Serra, Angels

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of the thermal cationic cure reaction of mixtures in different proportions of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) with 6,6-dimethyl (4,8-dioxaspiro[2.5]octane-5,7-dione) (MCP) initiated by ytterbium or lanthanum triflates or using a conventional initiator, BF 3 .MEA was investigated. The non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments at a controlled heating rate was used for obtaining the kinetic parameters of the reactive systems. BF 3 .MEA and lanthanide triflates initiated curing systems follow a complete different kinetic model. Among lanthanide triflates, ytterbium is the most active initiator

  10. Ultrasound promoted one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-4,8-dihydropyrano[3,2-b]pyran-3-carbonitrile scaffolds in aqueous media: a complementary 'green chemistry' tool to organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banitaba, Sayed Hossein; Safari, Javad; Khalili, Shiva Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    A green and simple approach to assembling of 2-amino-4,8-dihydropyrano[3,2-b]pyran-3-carbonitrile scaffolds via three-component reaction of kojic acid, malononitrile, and aromatic aldehydes in aqueous media under ultrasound irradiation is described. The combinatorial synthesis was achieved for this methodology with applying ultrasound irradiation while making use of water as green solvent. In comparison to conventional methods, experimental simplicity, good functional group tolerance, excellent yields, short routine, and selectivity without the need for a transition metal or base catalyst are prominent features of this green procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaplasia and grading in medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Burger, Peter C

    2003-07-01

    The variable clinical outcomes of medulloblastoma patients have prompted a search for markers with which to tailor therapies to individuals. In this review, we discuss clinical, histological and molecular features that can be used in such treatment customization, focusing on how histopathological grading can impact both patient care and research on the molecular basis of CNS embryonal tumors. Medulloblastomas span a histological spectrum ending in overtly malignant large cell/anaplastic lesions characterized by increased nuclear size, marked cytological anaplasia, and increased mitotic and apoptotic rates. These "high-grade" lesions make up approximately one quarter of medulloblastomas, and recur and metastasize more frequently than tumors lacking anaplasia. We believe anaplastic change represents a type of malignant progression common to many medulloblastoma subtypes and to other CNS embryonal lesions as well. Correlation of these histological changes with the accumulation of genetic events suggests a model for the histological and molecular progression of medulloblastoma.

  12. Gradings on simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Elduque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

  13. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Memorization techniques: Using mnemonics to learn fifth grade science terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juan O.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mnemonic instruction could assist students in learning fifth-grade science terminology more effectively than traditional-study methods of recall currently in practice The task was to examine if fifth-grade students were able to learn a mnemonic and then use it to understand science vocabulary; subsequently, to determine if students were able to remember the science terms after a period of time. The problem is that in general, elementary school students are not being successful in science achievement at the fifth grade level. In view of this problem, if science performance is increased at the elementary level, then it is likely that students will be successful when tested at the 8th and 10th grade in science with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in the future. Two research questions were posited: (1) Is there a difference in recall achievement when a mnemonic such as method of loci, pegword method, or keyword method is used in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary as compared to the traditional-study method? (2) If using a mnemonic in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary was effective on recall achievement, would this achievement be maintained over a span of time? The need for this study was to assist students in learning science terms and concepts for state accountability purposes. The first assumption was that memorization techniques are not commonly applied in fifth-grade science classes in elementary schools. A second assumption was that mnemonic devices could be used successfully in learning science terms and increase long term retention. The first limitation was that the study was conducted on one campus in one school district in South Texas which limited the generalization of the study. The second limitation was that it included random assigned intact groups as opposed to random student assignment to fifth-grade classroom groups.

  15. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  16. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  17. PA03.13. Effect of triphaladi rasayana along with yoga therapy on low grade non hodgkins lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade non hodgkins lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, MS Surya; Sarasa, TP

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: 1. To find out the effect of Thriphaladi Rasayana along with Yoga Therapy on low grade Non Hodgkins Lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma. 2. To apply a less costly, less morbid, well accepted method of treatment on NHL. 3.To find a simple method to increase the immunity. 4.To try a drug which is easy to prepare? Method: Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Sample of 30 patients age range 25 75 years with histologicaly proven NonHodgkins lymphoma, attending the M.O.I.O.P of the regional cancer centre during a period of 18 months. Groups1) Low grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma 2) Resistant intermediate &High grade NonHodgkins lymphoma (failed chemotherapy) were taken. Procedure : 2 groups were given Triphaladhi Rasayana (15 grams of powder with ghee and honey) twice dailymorning& at bed time with milk as anupana for period of 1month along with selected yoga asanas and niyama? Result: Symptoms included were fever, night sweats, weight loss, lymph nodes enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. In low grade symptom relief was noted in almost all cases. Lymph node changes notedLow grade5 2% (complete remission), 38% (partial remission), 10% (no change), intermediate35% (CR), 52% (PR) & 13% (NC), High grade67% (CR), 33%(PR). Hepatomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate 90.9% & high grade100%. Splenomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate72.72% & high grade80% Over all remission status of 30 patientscomplete remission30%, partial remission 30% & no change30%? Conclusion: Thriphaladirasayana along with Yoga therapy is very effective in Low grade NonHodgkins lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade Non hodgkins Lymphoma?

  18. Effects of a Nutrition Education Program on the Dietary Behavior and Nutrition Knowledge of Second-Grade and Third-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J.; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M.

    2005-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public…

  19. Measure of uncertainty in regional grade variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Kaymak, U.; Melin, P.; Castillo, O.; Gomez Ramirez, E.; Kacprzyk, J.; Pedrycz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Because the geological events are neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the geological investigations are characterized by particularly high uncertainties. This paper presents a hybrid methodology for measuring of uncertainty in regional grade variability. In order to evaluate the fuzziness in grade

  20. Pharmacokinetic MRI of the prostate. Parameters for differentiating low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Taupitz, M.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Luedemann, L.; Rost, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate whether pharmacokinetic MRI parameters ''perfusion, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), interstitial volume, permeability, extraction coefficient, delay, and dispersion'' allow the differentiation of low-grade (Gleason score ≤ 6) and high-grade (Gleason score ≥ 7) prostate cancer. Materials and method: forty-two patients with prostate cancer verified by biopsy (PSA 2.7 to 31.4ng/ml) and scheduled for prostatectomy underwent MRI at 1.5 Tesla using the dynamic contrast-enhanced inversion-prepared dual-contrast gradient echo sequence (temporal resolution, 1.65 s) and a combined endorectal body phased array coil. Parametric maps were computed using a sequential 3-compartment model and the corresponding post-processing algorithms. A total of 41 areas of prostate cancer (15 low-grade, 26 high-grade cancers) in 32 patients were able to be correlated with the prostatectomy specimens and were included in the analysis. Results: low-grade prostate cancers had a higher mean blood volume (1.76% vs. 1.64%, p = 0.039), longer MTT (6.39 s vs. 3.25 s, p -1 vs. 3.86 min -1 , p = 0.011) than high-grade cancers. No statistically significant difference was found for perfusion (p = 0.069), interstitial volume (p = 0.849), extraction coefficient (p = 0.615), delay (p = 0.489), and dispersion (p = 0.306). (orig.)

  1. The grading management of the quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaozheng; Han Shufang; Yu Bei; Tian Xuehang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the quality assurance grading management of the items, services and technology process on nuclear power plants (nuclear island, conventional island, BOP), such as the requirements and aim in the related code, guide, technical document, the requirements for the related units, the grading principle and grading, the considering method for the differences of QA requirements of the each QA grand, as well as the status and propositions in the QA grading management in China. (authors)

  2. Metal recovery from high-grade WEEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    . The modeled metallurgical treatment facility included a Kaldo plant, a converter aisle, an anode refinery and a precious metal refinery. The metallurgic treatment showed significant environmental savings when credited the environmental load from avoided production of the same amount of metals by mining...... and refining of ore. The resource recovery per tonne of high-grade WEEE ranged from 2 g of palladium to 386 kg of iron. Quantified in terms of person-equivalents the recovery of palladium, gold, silver, nickel and copper constituted the major environmental benefit of the recovery of metals from WEEE....... These benefits are most likely underestimated in the model, since we did not find adequate data to include all the burdens from mining and refining of ore; burdens that are avoided when metals are recovered from WEEE. The processes connected to the pre-treatment of WEEE were found to have little environmental...

  3. The pathologist's mean grade is constant and individualizes the prognostic value of bladder cancer grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Bas W G; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Ooms, Bert C M; Kirkels, Wim J; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boevé, Egbert R; Jöbsis, Adriaan C; van der Kwast, Theo H

    2010-06-01

    A new grading system for bladder cancer (BCa) was adopted in 2004 to reduce observer variability and provide better prognostic information. We compared the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 systems for observer variability and prognosis. Slides of 173 primary non-muscle-invasive BCa were reviewed two times by four pathologists. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using κ statistics. We determined the mean grade (eg, G1/low malignant potential is 1 grade point, G2/low grade is 2 grade points) of the pathologists per grading cycle. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied for prediction of recurrence and progression. For WHO 2004 and 1973 grading, the agreement between the pathologists was 39-74% (κ: 0.14-0.58) and 39-64% (κ: 0.15-0.41), respectively. The intraobserver agreement varied from 71% to 88% (κ: 0.55-0.81). The mean grade of a pathologist was constant (difference below 0.1 grade point) irrespective of the grading system. Conversely, mean-grade differences among the pathologists were high, up to 0.7 grade point. The mean grades for the WHO 2004 system were 0.3-0.5 grade point higher than those of WHO 1973. Mean grade distinguished low and high graders among the pathologists and was strongly linked with risk of progression in each grade category. The variation in mean grade among individual pathologists exceeded the grade shift caused by WHO 2004 grading. Knowledge of the pathologist's mean grade allows a better assessment of the prognostic value of grading. Mean grade has the potential to become a tool for quality assurance in pathology. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  5. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  6. Forecasting and recruitment in graded manpower systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Wessels, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a generalized Markov model is introduced to describe the dynamic behaviour of an individual employee in a graded Manpower system. Characteristics like the employee's grade, his educational level, his age and the time spent in his actual grade, can be incorporated in the Markov model.

  7. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  8. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  9. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  10. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee-Jin, E-mail: parkhiji@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo, E-mail: samskim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Yeon, E-mail: parkhiji@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh-Hyuck, E-mail: nhpark904@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yeon, E-mail: zzzz3@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Jung, E-mail: yoonchoi99@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyun-Jun, E-mail: ostrich-13@hanmail.net [Department of Occupational Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-ku, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography.

  11. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Hyun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography

  12. Differentiation between grade 3 and grade 4 articular cartilage defects of the knee: Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted versus fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Sun Ki (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: whjee@catholic.ac.kr; Koh, In-Jun (Dept. of Joint Reconstruction Center, Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea)); Kim, Jung-Man (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Fat-suppressed (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FS three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo imaging such as spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence have been established as accurate methods for detecting articular cartilage defects. Purpose: To retrospectively compare the diagnostic efficacy between FS PD-weighted and FS 3D gradient-echo MRI for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects of the knee with arthroscopy as the standard of reference. Material and Methods: Twenty-one patients who had grade 3 or 4 cartilage defects in medial femoral condyle at arthroscopy and knee MRI were included in this study: grade 3, >50% cartilage defects; grade 4, full thickness cartilage defects exposed to the bone. Sagittal FS PD-weighted MR images and FS 3D gradient-echo images with 1.5 T MR images were independently graded for the cartilage abnormalities of medial femoral condyle by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. Inter-observer agreement in grading of cartilage was assessed using ? coefficients. Results: Arthroscopy revealed grade 3 defects in 17 patients and grade 4 defects in 4 patients in medial femoral condyles. For FS 3D gradient-echo images grade 3 defects were graded as grade 3 (n=15) and grade 4 (n=2), and all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. However, for FS PD-weighted MR images all grade 3 defects were misinterpreted as grade 1 (n=1) and grade 4 (n=16), whereas all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. FS 3D gradient-echo MRI could differentiate grade 3 from grade 4 defects (P=0.003), whereas FS PD-weighted imaging could not (P=1.0). Inter-observer agreement was substantial (?=0.70) for grading of cartilage using FS PD-weighted imaging, whereas it was moderate (?=0.46) using FS 3D gradient-echo imaging. Conclusion: FS 3D gradient-echo MRI is more helpful for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage

  13. Controlling Thermal Conduction by Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qin; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Manipulating thermal conductivities are fundamentally important for controlling the conduction of heat at will. Thermal cloaks and concentrators, which have been extensively studied recently, are actually graded materials designed according to coordinate transformation approaches, and their effective thermal conductivity is equal to that of the host medium outside the cloak or concentrator. Here we attempt to investigate a more general problem: what is the effective thermal conductivity of graded materials? In particular, we perform a first-principles approach to the analytic exact results of effective thermal conductivities of materials possessing either power-law or linear gradation profiles. On the other hand, by solving Laplace’s equation, we derive a differential equation for calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a material whose thermal conductivity varies along the radius with arbitrary gradation profiles. The two methods agree with each other for both external and internal heat sources, as confirmed by simulation and experiment. This work provides different methods for designing new thermal metamaterials (including thermal cloaks and concentrators), in order to control or manipulate the transfer of heat. Support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11725521, by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality under Grant No. 16ZR1445100

  14. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  15. High grade glioma: Imaging combined with pathological grade defines management and predicts prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, Neil G.; Lynch, Andrew G.; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Price, Stephen J.; Jones, Phil H.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Xuereb, John H.; Pohl, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is ambiguity in pathological grading of high grade gliomas within the WHO 2000 classification, especially those with predominant oligodendroglial differentiation. Patients and methods: All adult high grade gliomas treated radically, 1996-2005, were assessed. Cases in which pathology was grade III but radiology suggested glioblastoma (GBM) were classified as 'grade III/IV'; their pathology was reviewed. Results: Data from 245 patients (52 grade III, 18 grade III/IV, 175 GBM) were analysed using a Cox Proportional Hazards model. On pathology review, features suggestive of more aggressive behaviour were found in all 18 grade III/IV tumours. Oligodendroglial components with both necrosis and microvascular proliferation were present in 7. MIB-1 counts for the last 8 were all above 14%, mean 27%. Median survivals were: grade III 34 months, grade III/IV 10 months, GBM 11 months. Survival was not significantly different between grade III/IV and GBM. Patients with grade III/IV tumours had significantly worse outcome than grade III, with a hazard of death 3.7 times higher. Conclusions: The results highlight the current inconsistency in pathological grading of high grade tumours, especially those with oligodendroglial elements. Patients with histological grade III tumours but radiological appearances suggestive of GBM should be managed as glioblastoma

  16. Association of Grade Configuration with School Climate for 7th and 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marisa; Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan

    2017-01-01

    Educational authorities have questioned whether middle schools provide the best school climate for 7th and 8th grade students, and proposed that other grade configurations such as K-8th grade schools may provide a better learning environment. The purpose of this study was to compare 7th and 8th grade students' perceptions of 4 key features of…

  17. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  18. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  19. Grade III or Grade IV Hypertensive Retinopathy with Severely Elevated Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Henderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertensive retinopathy describes a spectrum of retinal changes in patients with elevated blood pressure (BP. It is unknown why some patients are more likely to develop acute ocular end-organ damage than others with similar BP. We examined risk factors for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency in the emergency department (ED and compared healthcare utilization and mortality between patients with and without grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy.Methods: A preplanned subanalysis of patients who presented to a university hospital ED with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg and who enrolled in the Fundus Photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the ED study was performed. Bilateral nonmydriatic ocular fundus photographs, vital signs, and demographics were obtained at presentation. Past medical history, laboratory values, healthcare utilization, and mortality were ascertained from medical record review at least 8 months after initial ED visit.Results: Twenty-one patients with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg, 7 of whom (33% had grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, were included. Patients with retinopathy were significantly younger than those without (median 33 vs 50 years, P = 0.02. Mean arterial pressure (165 vs 163 mmHg was essentially equal in the 2 groups. Patients with retinopathy had substantially increased but nonsignificant rates of ED revisit (57% vs 29%, P = 0.35 and hospital admission after ED discharge (43% vs 14%, P = 0.28. One of the patients with retinopathy died, but none without.Conclusion: Younger patients may be at higher risk for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency. Chronic compensatory mechanisms may have not yet developed in these younger patients. Alternatively, older patients with retinopathy may be underrepresented secondary to increased mortality among these patients at a younger age (survivorship bias. Further research is needed to

  20. Effects of Repeated Intraperitoneal Injection of Pharmaceutical-grade and Nonpharmaceutical-grade Corn Oil in Female C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jennifer S; Chen, Patty H; Boyd, Kelli L

    2017-11-01

    Due to potential adverse effects on animal wellbeing, the use of nonpharmaceutical-grade substances in animal research must be scientifically justified in cases where a pharmaceutical-grade version of the substance exists. This requirement applies to all substances, including vehicles used to solubilize experimental drugs. To date, no studies have evaluated the direct effect of the pharmaceutical classification of a compound on animal wellbeing. In this study, we evaluated intraperitoneal administration of pharmaceutical-grade corn oil, nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil, and saline in female C57BL/6J mice. Compounds were administered every 48 h for a total of 4 injections. Mice were evaluated clinically by using body weight, body condition score, visual assessment score, CBC, and serum chemistries. Animals were euthanized at 24 h and 14 d after the final injection. Inflammation of the peritoneal wall and mesenteric fat was assessed microscopically by using a semiquantitative scoring system. Saline-dosed groups had lower pathology scores at both time points. At day 21, pharmaceutical-grade corn oil had a significantly higher pathology score compared with nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil. No other significant differences between the corn oil groups were observed. The use of nonpharmaceutical grade corn oil did not result in adverse clinical consequences and is presumed safe to use for intraperitoneal injection in mice. Differences in inflammation between the 2 groups suggest that the use of either pharmaceutical-grade or nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil should be consistent within a study.

  1. Influence of Tönnis Grade on Outcomes of Arthroscopic Management of Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Bardowski, Elizabeth A; Jones, Kay S

    2018-05-19

    To define the outcomes of arthroscopic correction of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) based on Tönnis findings within a previously reported patient population, including a comparative analysis of Tönnis grade 0 and 1 versus grade 2 changes. Outcomes (modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS]) of a previously published study of arthroscopic correction of FAI were correlated with Tönnis grade. The inclusion criteria were the first 100 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic FAI correction with minimum 2-year follow-up. These procedures were performed between December 2003 and May 2006. Grades were determined independently by 2 experienced clinicians. Tönnis grades 0 and 1 were compared with Tönnis grade 2. Independent variables of sex and age were also evaluated. The average age of the entire group was 34.7 years (range, 13-76 years), with 66 male and 34 female patients. Of the patients, 17 had Tönnis grade 0, 49 had Tönnis grade 1, 29 had Tönnis grade 2, and 4 had Tönnis grade 3 (1 unknown). The average mHHS improvement for Tönnis grade 0 was 20.6 points; Tönnis grade 1, 22.2 points; Tönnis grade 2, 14.9 points; and Tönnis grade 3, 18.8 points. The improvement was statistically (P 8 points) significant across all Tönnis grades. There was no difference (P = .077) between Tönnis grades 0 and 1 (21.8 points) versus grade 2 (14.9 points). There was no difference based on sex or age. These data support that statistically and clinically meaningful successful patient-reported outcomes (mHHS) at 2 years can be encountered even in the presence of Tönnis grade 2 radiographic features. Neither age nor sex was an indicator of poorer results within similar Tönnis grades. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A proposed grading system for standardizing tumor consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Yashar, Parham; Robison, Aaron; Winer, Jesse; Khalessi, Alexander; Mack, William J; Giannotta, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    Tumor consistency plays an important and underrecognized role in the surgeon's ability to resect meningiomas, especially with evolving trends toward minimally invasive and keyhole surgical approaches. Aside from descriptors such as "hard" or "soft," no objective criteria exist for grading, studying, and conveying the consistency of meningiomas. The authors designed a practical 5-point scale for intraoperative grading of meningiomas based on the surgeon's ability to internally debulk the tumor and on the subsequent resistance to folding of the tumor capsule. Tumor consistency grades and features are as follows: 1) extremely soft tumor, internal debulking with suction only; 2) soft tumor, internal debulking mostly with suction, and remaining fibrous strands resected with easily folded capsule; 3) average consistency, tumor cannot be freely suctioned and requires mechanical debulking, and the capsule then folds with relative ease; 4) firm tumor, high degree of mechanical debulking required, and capsule remains difficult to fold; and 5) extremely firm, calcified tumor, approaches density of bone, and capsule does not fold. Additional grading categories included tumor heterogeneity (with minimum and maximum consistency scores) and a 3-point vascularity score. This grading system was prospectively assessed in 50 consecutive patients undergoing craniotomy for meningioma resection by 2 surgeons in an independent fashion. Grading scores were subjected to a linear weighted kappa analysis for interuser reliability. Fifty patients (100 scores) were included in the analysis. The mean maximal tumor diameter was 4.3 cm. The distribution of overall tumor consistency scores was as follows: Grade 1, 4%; Grade 2, 9%; Grade 3, 43%; Grade 4, 44%; and Grade 5, 0%. Regions of Grade 5 consistency were reported only focally in 14% of heterogeneous tumors. Tumors were designated as homogeneous in 68% and heterogeneous in 32% of grades. The kappa analysis score for overall tumor consistency

  3. Prognostic significance of multiple kallikreins in high-grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drucker, Kristen L.; Gianinni, Caterina; Decker, Paul A.; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2015-01-01

    Kallikreins have clinical value as prognostic markers in a subset of malignancies examined to date, including kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) in prostate cancer. We previously demonstrated that kallikrein 6 is expressed at higher levels in grade IV compared to grade III astrocytoma and is associated with reduced survival of GBM patients. In this study we determined KLK1, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8, KLK9 and KLK10 protein expression in two independent tissue microarrays containing 60 grade IV and 8 grade III astrocytoma samples. Scores for staining intensity, percent of tumor stained and immunoreactivity scores (IR, product of intensity and percent) were determined and analyzed for correlation with patient survival. Grade IV glioma was associated with higher levels of kallikrein-immunostaining compared to grade III specimens. Univariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that elevated KLK6- or KLK7-IR was associated with poor patient prognosis. In addition, an increased percent of tumor immunoreactive for KLK6 or KLK9 was associated with decreased survival in grade IV patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that patients with KLK6-IR < 10, KLK6 percent tumor core stained < 3, or KLK7-IR < 9 had a significantly improved survival. Multivariable analysis indicated that the significance of these parameters was maintained even after adjusting for gender and performance score. These data suggest that elevations in glioblastoma KLK6, KLK7 and KLK9 protein have utility as prognostic markers of patient survival. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1566-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  4. Seizure prognosis of patients with low-grade tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and

  5. A Novel Candidate Molecule in Pathological Grading Of Gliomas: ELABELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artas, Gokhan; Ozturk, Sait; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Gonen, Murat; Artas, Hakan; Aydin, Suleyman; Erol, Fatih Serhat

    2018-04-06

    This study aimed to investigate the possible role of ELABELA (ELA) in the histopathological grading of gliomas. We retrospectively assessed pathological specimens of patients who underwent surgery for intracranial space-occupying lesions. Only primary glioma specimens were included in this study. We enrolled 11 patients histologically diagnosed with low-grade glioma and 22 patients with high-grade glioma. The ELA antibody was applied to 4-6-µm-thick sections obtained from paraffin blocks. Histoscores were calculated using the distribution and intensity of staining immunoreactivity. An independent sample t-test was used for two-point inter-group assessments, whereas one-way analysis of variance was used for the other assessments. P 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The histoscores of the control brain, low-grade glioma, and high-grade glioma tissues were found to be 0.08, 0.37, and 0.92, respectively. The difference in ELA immunoreactivity between the control brain tissue and glioma tissue was statistically significant (p 0.05). In addition, a statistically significant increase was observed in ELA immunoreactivity in high-grade glioma tissues compared with that in low-grade glioma tissues (p 0.05). ELA has an angiogenetic role in the progression of glial tumors. ELA, which is an endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor, activates the apelinergic system and causes the progression of glial tumors. Further studies with a large number of patients are necessary to investigate the angiogenetic role of ELA in glial tumors.

  6. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Passenger Safety, Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains four lessons and an appendix of school bus safety tips for use in grade 3. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  7. Second-Grade Journeys on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Stenberg, Linda; Beilke, Patricia F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a curriculum used in a second grade classroom to expose the predominantly white students to the culture and experiences of African Americans through a study of slavery and the Underground Railroad. Includes a bibliography of African folk tales and literature related to the African American experience. (SLD)

  8. Podcasting in an Eighth-Grade American History Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see how students used podcasts in an eighth-grade American history unit and the value they placed on them as an educational tool. The 6-week study was conducted in a suburban middle school in a district that is part of a large metropolitan area in Texas. Participants included 29 students and 2 eighth-grade…

  9. Risk factors, ulcer grade and management outcome of diabetic foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors, ulcer grade and management outcome of diabetic foot ulcers in a Tropical Tertiary Care Hospital. ... Data documented included age, gender, type of DM, duration of DM, risk factors of DFU, duration of DFU ... 85.2% had type 2 DM.

  10. Creating a Ninth-Grade Community of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study analyzed how one large high school created a community of care for ninth-grade students. Data were collected during the 2006-2007 school year, including observations, individual interviews, and focus group interviews of 1 female teacher and 9 of her students. Findings suggest the Freshman Focus teachers and program…

  11. [Poetry: Literature Curriculum, Grades Five and Six; Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    This curriculum guide is intended to introduce fifth and sixth grade children to the study of poetry. Separate units include discussion of, suggested activities for, and questions about (1) metrics and scansion; (2) rhyme scheme and stanza; (3) diction, denotation and connotation, and onomatopoeia; (4) rhyme (end rhyme, masculine and feminine…

  12. Cultures of the Western World. Grade Ten. Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Chester School District, PA.

    This curriculum guide presents nine units for the study of western cultures in the tenth grade. The units contain up to 13 lessons each and comprise a two-semester course. Content includes ancient Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Reformation, Great Britain, France as a case study of revolution, Russia, and nationalism and the…

  13. Connecting with the Arts: A Workshop for Middle Grades Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenberg Media, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Connecting with the Arts: A Workshop for Middle Grades Teachers" is a video workshop for middle school teachers of the arts and other subjects. The workshop includes eight hour-long video programs and a companion workshop guide and Web site. The workshop shows middle school teachers why and how to integrate the arts (dance, music, theatre, and…

  14. Adapting Music for the Ninth Grade Mixed Chorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses how the ninth grader's vocal development, personality development and musical preferences create unique problems in selecting music for ninth grade choirs. Suggestions are made for adapting published choral music. A list of sacred, secular and Christmas music is included. (KC)

  15. Secondary Textbook Review: English, Grades Nine through Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This book is intended as a resource for teachers and curriculum developers who select textbooks for secondary English courses. It includes a compilation of 32 factual textbook reviews obtained from the application of a review instrument, which was based on the California "Model Curriculum Standards: Grades Nine through Twelve, English…

  16. Rheology and extrusion of low-grade paper and sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Tim Scott; Stefan Zauscher; Daniel J. Klingenberg

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses efforts to characterize the rheological properties of pulps that include low-grade wastepapers and papermill sludges to determine their potential for extrusion and conversion into useful products. We investigated apparent changes in viscosity associated with the addition of typical inorganic paper fillers (calcium carbonate, kaolin clay, and...

  17. Kinder Lernen Deutsch Materials Evaluation Project: Grades K-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Teachers of German.

    The Kinder Lernen Deutsch (Children Learn German) project, begun in 1987, is designed to promote German as a second language in grades K-8. The project is premised on the idea that the German program will contribute to the total development of the child and the child's personality. Included in this guide are a selection of recommended core…

  18. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad, E-mail: aishah-fuzi@yahoo.com; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj, E-mail: hafizhj@ukm.edu.my; Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader, E-mail: alasbahibandar@gmail.com [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  19. Electronic spectroscopy and ligand-field analysis of cis-carbonato (rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) chromium(III) chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ha; Oh, In-Gyung; Linder, Rolf; Schoenherr, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The absorption spectra of microcrystalline salts of cis-[Cr(cycb)(O 2 CO)] + (cycb=rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) have been measured between 13,000 and 50,000 cm -1 at temperatures down to 2 K. The vibrational intervals of the electronic ground state were extracted by recording emission and far-IR spectra. The zero-phonon line in the sharp-line absorption spectrum splits into two components by 144 cm -1 . The nine electronic bands due to spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions were assigned. Using the observed transitions, a ligand-field analysis has been performed to probe the ligand-field properties of carbonato group in the chromium(III) complex. It is found that the carbonato oxygen has moderately strong σ- and π-donor properties toward chromium(III) ion

  20. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  1. What are the differentiating clinical and MRI-features of enchondromas from low-grade chondrosarcomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); University Hospital Birmingham, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Parry, M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Vaiyapuri, S. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Musculoskeletal Pathology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate the role of clinical assessment, conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in differentiating enchondromas from chondrosarcomas of long bone. The following clinical and MRI findings were assessed: age, gender, pain, pain attributable to lesion, tumour location, tumour length, presence, depth of endosteal scalloping, bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, cortical destruction, periosteal reaction, bone expansion, macroscopic fat, calcification, soft tissue mass, haemorrhage, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Clinical and MRI findings were compared with histopathological grading. Sixty patients with central chondroid tumours were included (27 enchondromas, 10 cartilaginous lesions of unknown malignant potential, 15 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 8 high-grade chondrosarcomas). Pain attributed to lesion, tumour length, endosteal scalloping > 2/3, cortical destruction, bone expansion and soft tissue mass were differentiating features between enchondromas and grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI could not differentiate enchondromas from grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Previously reported imaging signs of chondrosarcomas are useful in the diagnosis of grade 1 lesions but have lower sensitivity than in higher grade lesions. Deep endosteal scalloping is the most sensitive imaging sign of grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Pain due to the lesion is an important clinical sign of grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is not useful in differentiating enchondromas from grade 1 chondrosarcomas. (orig.)

  2. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.

  3. New testing options for diagnosing and grading dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2014-06-01

    To describe new options for diagnosis and severity grading of dry eye disease. Perspective on technological advancements to identify tear dysfunction and their value in diagnosing and grading dry eye disease. Evidence is presented on new and evolving technologies to measure tear stability, composition, and meniscus height and their role in dry eye diagnosis and therapeutic efficacy grading is assessed. Evolving concepts regarding pathogenesis and new technologies to evaluate the tears and ocular surface have improved the ability to diagnose, classify, and grade the severity of dry eye disease. New technologies include noninvasive imaging of tear stability and tear meniscus height as a measure of tear volume and tear composition (osmolarity, lacrimal factors, inflammatory mediators, growth and differentiation factors). Approved tests, such as tear osmolarity and tear imaging, are being integrated into clinical practice and may eventually supplant certain traditional tests that have greater variability and less sensitivity. Other tests, such as molecular assays of tears and conjunctival cells, are currently being used in studies investigating pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanism of action. They may eventually translate to routine clinical practice. New technologies have emerged that can noninvasively evaluate the tears and measure disease-associated compositional changes. These tests are being integrated into clinical practice and therapeutic trials for diagnosis, classification, and severity grading of dry eye disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-02-24

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  5. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-01-01

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  6. Grading of Cerebral Glioma with Multiparametric MR Imaging and {sup 18}F-FDG-PET: Concordance and Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Choi, Seung Hong; Yun, Tae Jin; Song, Yong Sub [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Won Jun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Yong [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Kee-Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate concordance rates and predictive values in concordant cases among multiparametric MR techniques and FDG-PET to grade cerebral gliomas. Multiparametric MR imaging and FDG-PET were performed in 60 consecutive patients with cerebral gliomas (12 low-grade and 48 high-grade gliomas). As the dichotomic variables, conventional MRI, minimum apparent diffusion coefficient in diffusion-weighted imaging, maximum relative cerebral blood volume ratio in perfusion-weighted imaging, choline/creatine ratio and (lipid and lactate)/creatine ratio in MR spectroscopy, and maximum standardised uptake value ratio in FDG-PET in low- and high-grade gliomas were compared. Their concordance rates and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) in concordant cases were obtained for the various combinations of multiparametric MR techniques and FDG-PET. There were significant differences between low- and high-grade gliomas in all techniques. Combinations of two, three, four, and five out of the five techniques showed concordance rates of 77.0 ± 4.8 %, 65.5 ± 4.0 %, 58.3 ± 2.6 % and 53.3 %, PPV in high-grade concordant cases of 97.3 ± 1.7 %, 99.1 ± 1.4 %, 100.0 ± 0 % and 100.0 % and NPV in low-grade concordant cases of 70.2 ± 7.5 %, 78.0 ± 6.0 %, 80.3 ± 3.4 % and 80.0 %, respectively. Multiparametric MR techniques and FDG-PET have a concordant tendency in a two-tiered classification for the grading of cerebral glioma. If at least two examinations concordantly indicated high-grade gliomas, the PPV was about 95 %. (orig.)

  7. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

  8. 77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... defects. The new grades will replace the current ones and promote the orderly and efficient marketing of ginseng in an evolving global economy. Other changes will include a revised General Section, new... to determine and complement the new grades. DATES: Effective Date: May 7, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  9. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Guide to Implementation, Grades 4-5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This implementation guide is intended to support the Grade 4 to Grade 6 portion of the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program (the program of studies). It was developed primarily for teachers, yet it includes information that may be useful for administrators and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for and implement the new Chinese…

  10. In Pursuit of the Elusive Elixir: Predictors of First Grade Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robin

    Multivariate sets of predictor variables including both cognitive and social variables, different types of preschool experiences, and family environment variables were used to predict the first-grade reading achievement of 144 first-grade boys and girls. Measures for the predictor variables had been taken at school entry and at the end of the…

  11. Extent of resection and timing of surgery in adult low grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mirza, Farhan; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2017-06-01

    Low grade glioma is a group of WHO grade II tumours including diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. Strong evidence exists in literature now to support early surgery and higher extent of safe resection in improving outcomes. In this review, we are highlighting some of the important studies done in the last few years specifically addressing timing of surgery and extent of resection.

  12. Dialogue and Exchange of Information about Grade Inflation Can Counteract Its Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Cooper, Eric K.; Gawelek, Mary Ann; Butela, Kristin; Johnson, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This investigation documents an intervention that successfully counteracted a grade inflation trend at a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the eastern United States. The intervention produced a significant drop in grades awarded by full-time faculty, but not by adjunct faculty who were not yet included in the intervention. Institutional…

  13. Benefits of Single-Gender Education: Perceptions of Middle Grade Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattress, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study used descriptive statistics to evaluate data obtained from 179 middle grade teachers, grades 5-9, currently working in a single-gender environment, including public, private, and charter schools, with regard to the academic and behavioral benefits of single-gender education. The study used a survey created by Dr. John Fry…

  14. Punjabi Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Guide to Implementation, Grades 4-5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This implementation guide is intended to support the Grade 4 to Grade 6 portion of the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-Year Program (the program of studies.) It was developed primarily for teachers, yet it includes information that may be useful for administrators and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for and implement the new Punjabi…

  15. Grade-Level Retention in Texas Public Schools, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This annual report provides information for the 2015-16 school year on grade-level retention in the Texas public school system. Data on retention are provided by student characteristics, including grade level; race/ethnicity; gender; degree of English proficiency; and economic, at-risk, immigrant, migrant, and overage statuses. Data also are…

  16. Eighth Grade Social Studies. An Experimental Program in Geography and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, James; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 8. SUBJECT MATTER: Geography and Anthropology. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material includes descriptions of geography and anthropology as disciplines, the basic course objectives, techniques for evaluating objectives and a student self-evaluation form. The guide covers six units: 1) "What Kind of…

  17. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  18. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence-Free Survival after Radical Prostatectomy Triggered by Grade Reclassification during Active Surveillance and in Men Newly Diagnosed with Similar Grade Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Clarissa P; Landis, Patricia; Carter, H Ballentine; Epstein, Jonathan I; Mamawala, Mufaddal

    2017-09-01

    We compared biochemical recurrence between men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy triggered by grade reclassification and men diagnosed with similar grade disease treated with immediate radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the records of men who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2015 at our institution. We identified 4 groups, including 94 and 56 men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy following reclassification to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) or greater (grade groups 2 or greater) and Gleason 7 (3 + 4) (grade group 2), and 3,504 and 1,979 in the immediate prostatectomy group diagnosed with grade group 2 or greater and 2, respectively. Biochemical recurrence was assessed by Kaplan-Meir analysis and a multivariable Cox model. Men on active surveillance had a lower incidence of biochemical recurrence than men in the immediate radical prostatectomy groups for biopsy grade groups 2 or greater and 2 (each p <0.05). One, 5 and 10-year biochemical recurrence-free survival for men in the active surveillance group vs the immediate radical prostatectomy group was 97.9% vs 85.5%, 76.6% vs 65.1% and 69.0% vs 54.2% in biopsy grade groups 2 or greater (p = 0.009) and 96.4% vs 91.2%, 89.6% vs 74.0% and 89.6% vs 63.9%, respectively, in biopsy grade group 2 (p = 0.071). For biopsy grade groups 2 or greater there was no significant difference in the risk of biochemical recurrence between the groups after adjusting for age, biopsy extent of cancer and prostate specific antigen density. Patients on active surveillance reclassified to grade groups 2 or greater are at no greater risk for treatment failure than men newly diagnosed with similar grades. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Processing of low-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1975-01-01

    Four types of low grade ores are studied. Low grade ores which must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. It allows to obtain solutions or preconcentrates which may be delivered at the nearest plant. Normal grade ores contained in a low amplitude deposit which can be processed using leaching as far as the operation does not need any large expensive equipment. Medium grade ores in medium amplitude deposits to which a simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. Low grade ores in large deposits. The processing possibilities leading to use in place leaching are explained. The operating conditions of the method are studied (leaching agent, preparation of the ore deposit to obtain a good tightness with regard to the hydrological system and to have a good contact between ore and reagent) [fr

  20. Processing of low grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1978-10-01

    Four types of low-grade ores are studied: (1) Low-grade ores that must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal-grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. (2) Normal-grade ores contained in low-amplitude deposits. They can be processed using in-place leaching as far as the operation does not need any large and expensive equipment. (3) Medium-grade ores in medium-amplitude deposits. A simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. (4) Low-grade ores in large deposits. The report explains processing possibilities leading in most cases to the use of in-place leaching. The operating conditions of this method are laid out, especially the selection of the leaching agents and the preparation of the ore deposit

  1. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P bullied (P bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  2. Mining the high grade McArthur River uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, B.W.

    2002-01-01

    The McArthur River deposit, discovered in 1988, is recognized as the world's largest, highest grade uranium deposit, with current mineable reserves containing 255 million lb U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 17.33% U 3 O 8 . In addition the project has resources of 228 million pounds U 3 O 8 averaging 12.02% U 3 O 8 . Mining this high-grade ore body presents serious challenges in controlling radiation and in dealing with high water pressures. Experience from the underground exploration programme has provided the information needed to plan the safe mining of the massive Pelite ore zone, which represents the most significant source of ore discovered during the underground drilling programme, with 220 million pounds of U 3 O 8 at an average grade in excess of 17%. Non-entry mining will be used in the high-grade ore zones. Raise boring will be the primary method to safely extract the ore, with all underground development in waste rock to provide radiation shielding. Water will be controlled by grouting and perimeter freezing. The ore cuttings from the raise boring will be ground underground and pumped to surface as slurry, at an average daily production of 150 tonnes. The slurry will be transported to the Key Lake mill and diluted to 4% before processing. The annual production is projected to be 18 million lb U 3 O 8 . The paper focuses on the activities undertaken since discovery, including the initiation of the raise bore mining method utilized to safely mine this high grade ore body. Radiation protection, environmental protection and worker health and safety are discussed in terms of both design and practical implementation. (author)

  3. "RMP Evaluations, Course Easiness, and Grades: Are They Related?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Rizvi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the student evaluations of the instructors at the RateMyProfessors.com (RMP website and the average grades awarded by those instructors. As of Spring 2012, the RMP site included evaluations of 538 full-and part-time instructors at the College of Staten Island (CSI. We selected the evaluations of the 419 instructors who taught at CSI for at least two semesters from Fall 2009 to Spring 2011 and had at least ten evaluations. This research indicates that there is a strong correlation between RMP's overall evaluation and easiness scores. However, the perceived easiness of an instructor/course does not always result in higher grades for students. Furthermore, we found that the instructors who received high overall evaluation and easiness scores (4.0 to 5.0 at the RMP site do not necessarily award high grades. This is a very important finding as it disputes the argument that instructors receive high evaluations because they are easy or award high grades. On the other hand, instructors of the courses that are perceived to be difficult (RMP easiness score of 3.0 or less are likely to be tough graders. However, instructors who received moderate overall evaluation and easiness scores (between 3.0 and 4.0 the RMP site had a high correlation between these scores and average grade awarded by those instructors. Finally, our research shows that the instructors in non-STEM disciplines award higher grades than the instructors in STEM disciplines. Non-STEM instructors also received higher overall evaluations than their STEM counterparts and non-STEM courses were perceived easier by the students than STEM courses.

  4. Nano-network with dual temperature and pH responsiveness based on copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-undecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriac, Aurica P.; Nita, Loredana E.; Nistor, Manuela T.

    2011-01-01

    This study refers to the synthesis of a nano-network with dual temperature and pH responsiveness based on the 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) copolymers with a comonomer with spiroacetal moiety and crosslinking capacity, namely 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-undecane (U). The copolymers were synthesized by radical emulsion polymerization, using 4,4′-azobis(cyanopentanoic acid) as initiator, in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate as tensioactive agent and poly(vinyl alcohol) as protective colloid. Three copolymer variants were taken into study resulted from the different ratio between the comonomers (HEMA/U), which was about 98/2, 95/5, and 90/10, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and thermal analysis. The copolymers sensitivity was evidenced by studying the evolution of the hydrodynamic radius and zeta potential of the polymeric particles as a function of pH. Thus, the particles size increases with the comonomer amount, from 193 nm in case of the homopolymer up to 253 nm for the copolymer with maximum content of the comonomer (10%). The increase of the particle hydrodynamic radius with the growth of temperature was also put into evidence.Graphical Abstract

  5. The preparation and characterization of Cu(II complexes with N,N’,N”,N’”-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(semi/thiosemicarbazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA VUCKOVIC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new Cu(II mixed-ligand complexes with octadentate N,N’,N”,N’”-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (tpmc and potentially pentadentate ligands 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(semicarbazone (DAPsc2 or 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(thiosemicarbazone (DAPtsc2 were prepared. The general formulas: [Cu4 DAPsc2(tpmc2]ClO48·5CH3COCH3·H2O and [Cu2 DAPtsc2(tpmc](ClO44·7C2H5OH were proposed on the basis of elemental analyses and conductometric measurements. The complexes were characterized by magnetic measurement, electronic absorption and IR spectroscopy. For the dinuclear complex, an exo coordination of Cu(II with four nitrogens from tpmc and m-bonded DAPtsc2 through sulfurs and possibly terminal hydrazinic (azomethine nitrogens is assumed. For the tetranuclear complex, it is supposed that one DAPsc2 bridges two [Cu2 tpmc]4+ units using oxygens and terminal hydrazinic nitrogens as ligators. Finally, some antibacterial activity of the complexes was found.

  6. Nano-network with dual temperature and pH responsiveness based on copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-undecane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Aurica P.; Nita, Loredana E.; Nistor, Manuela T.

    2011-12-01

    This study refers to the synthesis of a nano-network with dual temperature and pH responsiveness based on the 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) copolymers with a comonomer with spiroacetal moiety and crosslinking capacity, namely 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-undecane (U). The copolymers were synthesized by radical emulsion polymerization, using 4,4'-azobis(cyanopentanoic acid) as initiator, in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate as tensioactive agent and poly(vinyl alcohol) as protective colloid. Three copolymer variants were taken into study resulted from the different ratio between the comonomers (HEMA/U), which was about 98/2, 95/5, and 90/10, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and thermal analysis. The copolymers sensitivity was evidenced by studying the evolution of the hydrodynamic radius and zeta potential of the polymeric particles as a function of pH. Thus, the particles size increases with the comonomer amount, from 193 nm in case of the homopolymer up to 253 nm for the copolymer with maximum content of the comonomer (10%). The increase of the particle hydrodynamic radius with the growth of temperature was also put into evidence.

  7. Amorphous phase formation in the Cu_3_6Zr_5_9A_l_5 and Cu_4_8Zr_4_3A_l_9 ternary alloys studied by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Schimidt, C.S.; Lima, L.V.; Domingues, G.M.B.; Bastos, I.N.

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous alloys presents better mechanical and physical properties than its crystalline counterparts. However, there is a scarce understanding on structure - properties relationship in this class of materials. This paper presents the results of the molecular dynamics application to obtain an atomistic description of melting, solidification and the glass forming ability in the ternary Cu_3_6Zr_5_9A_l_5 and Cu_4_8Zr_4_3A_l_9 alloys. In the study we used the EAM potential and different cooling rates, β = 0.1, 1 and 100 K/ps to form the amorphous phase in a system consisting of 32,000 atoms by using the free code LAMMPS. The solidus and liquidus temperatures, on a heating rate of the 5 K/ps, were obtained. Also, on the cooling down step, it was observed that the glass transition temperature (T_g) decreases as cooling rate increases. The structural evolution was analyzed through the radial distribution functions and Voronoi polyhedra. Furthermore, it was determined the evolution of viscosity upper T_g, as well as the fragility (m) parameter for each amorphous alloy. The thermal parameters of the simulation obtained are compared with those of the experiments. (author)

  8. Lens subluxation grading system: predictive value for ectopia lentis surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Waiswol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a classification system to grade ectopia lentis and to assess its usefulness as a predictor for surgical outcomes. Methods: Fifty-one eyes of 28 patients with either simple (19 patients or Marfan syndrome-associated ectopia lentis (nine patients with variable degrees of subluxation were operated on. Lens subluxation intensity was graded according to the lens subluxation grading system (LSGS from grade 1 (lens on the whole pupillary area up to grade 4 (lens absent from the pupillary area. Thirty eyes underwent cataract extraction (“dry” aspiration with endocapsular ring and in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Twenty-one eyes underwent cataract extraction (“dry” aspiration with scleral fixation of the IOL. The predictive value of the LSGS was assessed by analyzing the post-operative outcomes, including visual acuity (VA, endothelial cell loss, and complications for each grade on the grading system. Rresults: Patients were classified into grade 1 (19.6%, grade 2 (51% and grade 3 (29.4%. Post-operative VA was lower for eyes with larger degrees of subluxation. The higher the subluxation grade, the higher the endothelial cell loss, as well as, the frequency of vitreous loss and surgical time. Higher subluxation grades prevented optimal surgical outcomes with endocapsular ring and in-the-bag IOL implantation. Cconclusions: The LSGS provides an estimate of the surgical success of ectopia lentis. Adequate standardization of lens subluxation is crucial for understanding studies dealing with the surgical correction of this disorder.

  9. In-service behavior of creep strength enhanced ferritic steels Grade 91 and Grade 92 – Part 1 parent metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    In creep strength enhanced ferritic steels, such as Grade 91 and Grade 92, control of both composition and heat treatment of the parent steel is necessary to avoid producing components which have creep strength below the minimum expected by applicable ASME and other International Codes. These efforts are required to ensure that the steel develops a homogeneous fully tempered martensitic microstructure, with the appropriate distribution of precipitates and the required dislocation substructure. In-service creep related problems with Grade 91 steel have been reported associated with factors such as incorrect microstructure and heat treatment, welded connections in headers and piping, dissimilar metal welds as well as the manufacture and performance of castings. Difficulties associated with remediation of in-service damage include challenges over detection and removal of damaged material as well as the selection and qualification of appropriate methodologies for repair. Since repeated heat treatment leads to continued tempering, and a potential degradation of properties, specific procedures for performing and then lifing repair welds are a key aspect of Asset Management. This paper presents a summary of in-service experience with Grade 91 steel and outlines approaches for repair welding. Highlights: ► The steel alloy known as Grade 91 is widely used to fabricate critical pressure part components. ► Designers favor Grade 91 because it provides superior elevated temperature strength at substantially lower cost than the austenitic stainless steels. ► Service experience has confirmed that early failures can occur. ► Life management solutions involved attention to detail at Purchase, during design and all stages of fabrication.

  10. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  11. [Reproducibility of Fuhrman nuclear grade: advantages of a two-grade system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneux, Hervé; Lindner, Véronique; Lang, Hervé; Massfelder, Thierry; Meyer, Nicolas; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2006-06-01

    The Fuhrman nuclear grade is the reference histoprognostic grading system routinely used all over the world for renal cell carcinoma. Studies measuring the inter-observer and intra-observer concordance of Fuhrman grade show poor results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. These variations are due to a certain degree of subjectivity of the pathologist in application of the definition of tumour grade, particularly nuclear grade. Elements able to account for this subjectivity in renal cell carcinoma are identified from a review of the literature. To improve the reliability of nuclear grade, the territory occupied by the highest grade must be specified and the grades should probably be combined. At the present time, regrouping of grade 1 and 2 tumours as low grade and grade 3 and 4 tumours as high grade would achieve better reproducibility, while preserving the prognostic: value for overall survival. The development of new treatment modalities and their use in adjuvant situations will imply the use of reliable histoprognostic factors to specify, indications.

  12. Teachers grading practices : an analysis of the reliability of teacher-assigned grade point average (GPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, R. M.; van de Grift, W. J. C. M.; van Veen, K.

    2015-01-01

    In previous research, teachers report that they use a hodgepodge of factors when grading students. This has led researchers to suspect that teacher-assigned grades are inflated by teacher-student interactions; the hodgepodge hypothesis. Teachers also are reported to differ in grading leniency; the

  13. The Impact of Early Exposure of Eighth Grade Math Standards on End of Grade Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tonjai E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Cumberland County Schools district-wide issue surrounding the disproportional performance of eighth grade Math I students' proficiency scores on standardized end-of-grade and end-of-course assessments. The study focused on the impact of the school district incorporating eighth grade math standards in…

  14. Are Flunkers Social Outcasts? A Multilevel Study of Grade Retention Effects on Same-Grade Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school's proportion of retained students on these friendships and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel…

  15. Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

  16. Matriculation Research Report: Incomplete Grades; Data & Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joe

    The policy on incomplete grades at California's College of the Canyons states that incompletes may only be given under circumstances beyond students' control and that students must make arrangements with faculty prior to the end of the semester to clear the incomplete. Failure to complete an incomplete may result in an "F" grade. While…

  17. The Leap into 4th Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  18. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  19. Perceptions of restaurateurs on quality grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Roberson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A restaurateur's strategic focus is to maximise wealth for the owner(s. To achieve wealth maximisation, a restaurateur could implement one or more of the following strategies: focus strategy, cost-leadership strategy and/or differentiation strategy. A management intervention a restaurateur could implement to achieve this is quality differentiation. Grading of an establishment will assist a restaurateur in becoming a market leader. Currently there no national restaurant grading system exists in South Africa. As support and participation of restaurateurs in any future quality grading system are essential, it is imperative to test their perceptions of the implementation of a quality grading scale. The aim of this paper is to gather the perceptions of restaurateurs of an envisaged scale that could be used to grade independent full-service restaurants. In this study the researcher tested the perceptions of restaurateurs using nine possible outcomes of implementing quality grading in the independent fullservice restaurant segment. The outcomes to be tested were presented to restaurateurs in a questionnaire uploaded on "survey monkey". This was emailed to 3 286 restaurateurs and 265 responses were received. Respondents who were positive regarding grading indicated that they were enthusiastic about the impact grading would have on international tourism, as well as the fact that it could contribute to an increase in the value of their establishments.

  20. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet the following requirements: (1) Well dried, or...

  1. Contraction of graded su(2) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, M.K.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Inoenu-Wigner contraction scheme is extended to Lie superalgebras. The structure and representations of extended BRS algebra are obtained from contraction of the graded su(2) algebra. From cohomological consideration, we demonstrate that the graded su(2) algebra is the only superalgebra which, on contraction, yields the full BRS algebra. (orig.)

  2. What's ahead in automated lumber grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses how present scanning technologies are being applied to automatic lumber grading. The presentation focuses on 1) what sensing and scanning devices are needed to measure information for accurate grading feature detection, 2) the hardware and software needed to efficiently process this information, and 3) specific issues related to softwood lumber...

  3. Liberal Grading Improves Evaluations But Not Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Ross; Sarmiento, Robert F.

    Two grading distributions--a liberal and a more stringent curve--were compared between two sections of an undergraduate psychology course. The two classes were team taught and treated as similarly as possible. Four unit exams and an optional final were administered, with one section consistently receiving a more lenient grade distribution. No…

  4. Examining First Grade Teachers' Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the first grade teachers' practices of handwriting instructions in terms of teaching, evaluation and handwriting difficulties. From qualitative research patterns, phenomenology was used. The study was applied to the 54 First grade teachers who work at central Burdur and Burdur county centre primary education…

  5. Extrauterine Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Chen

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma typically has an indolent clinical course and favorable prognosis. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or progesterone therapy should be considered for the management of residual or recurrent low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.

  6. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  7. Consumer Preference for Graded Maple Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Sendak

    1978-01-01

    The three grades of maple syrup and a commercial table syrup containing artificial flavor and 3 percent pure maple syrup were evaluated by 1,018 women in four cities. The results indicate that differences in preference for flavor are related to how close the respondents are to a maple syrup-production region. Differences in preference among grades of pure maple syrup...

  8. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  9. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  10. Safety Review related to Commercial Grade Digital Equipment in Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yeongjin; Park, Hyunshin; Yu, Yeongjin; Lee, Jaeheung

    2013-01-01

    The upgrades or replacement of I and C systems on safety system typically involve digital equipment developed in accordance with non-nuclear standards. However, the use of commercial grade digital equipment could include the vulnerability for software common-mode failure, electromagnetic interference and unanticipated problems. Although guidelines and standards for dedication methods of commercial grade digital equipment are provided, there are some difficulties to apply the methods to commercial grade digital equipment for safety system. This paper focuses on regulatory guidelines and relevant documents for commercial grade digital equipment and presents safety review experiences related to commercial grade digital equipment in safety system. This paper focuses on KINS regulatory guides and relevant documents for dedication of commercial grade digital equipment and presents safety review experiences related to commercial grade digital equipment in safety system. Dedication including critical characteristics is required to use the commercial grade digital equipment on safety system in accordance with KEPIC ENB 6370 and EPRI TR-106439. The dedication process should be controlled in a configuration management process. Appropriate methods, criteria and evaluation result should be provided to verify acceptability of the commercial digital equipment used for safety function

  11. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Nelson, Joel B.; Egevad, Lars; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Vickers, Andrew J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.; Eastham, James A.; Wiklund, Peter; Han, Misop; Reddy, Chandana A.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Nyberg, Tommy; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    accurate grade stratification than current systems, simplified grading system of five grades, and lowest grade is 1, as opposed to 6, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of PCa. Patient summary We looked at outcomes for prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy and validated a new grading system with more accurate grade stratification than current systems, including a simplified grading system of five grades and a lowest grade is 1, as opposed to 6, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of PCa. PMID:26166626

  12. Over 15 MA/cm2 of critical current density in 4.8 µm thick, Zr-doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor at 30 K, 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic, Goran; Pratap, Rudra; Xu, Aixia; Galstyan, Eduard; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-05-03

    An Advanced MOCVD (A-MOCVD) reactor was used to deposit 4.8 µm thick (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes with 15 mol% Zr addition in a single pass. A record-high critical current density (J c ) of 15.11 MA/cm 2 has been measured over a bridge at 30 K, 3T, corresponding to an equivalent (I c ) value of 8705 A/12 mm width. This corresponds to a lift factor in critical current of ~11 which is the highest ever reported to the best of author's knowledge. The measured critical current densities at 3T (B||c) and 30, 40 and 50 K, respectively, are 15.11, 9.70 and 6.26 MA/cm 2 , corresponding to equivalent Ic values of 8705, 5586 and 3606 A/12 mm and engineering current densities (J e ) of 7068, 4535 and 2928 A/mm 2 . The engineering current density (J e ) at 40 K, 3T is 7 times higher than that of the commercial HTS tapes available with 7.5 mol% Zr addition. Such record-high performance in thick films (>1 µm) is a clear demonstration that growing thick REBCO films with high critical current density (J c ) is possible, contrary to the usual findings of strong J c degradation with film thickness. This achievement was possible due to a combination of strong temperature control and uniform laminar flow achieved in the A-MOCVD system, coupled with optimization of BaZrO 3 nanorod growth parameters.

  13. Disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in Westinghouse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.A.; Adams, M.

    1998-03-01

    The authors have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. They have designed three transition Cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. They found that four-loop Westinghouse reactors such as the Vogtle power plant are capable of handling up to 45 percent weapons-grade MOX loading without any modifications. The authors have also designed two kinds of weapons-grade MOX assemblies with three enrichments per assembly and four total enrichments. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods were used in all the MOX feed assemblies, some burned MOX assemblies, and some LEU feed assemblies. Integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) was used in the rest of the LEU feed assemblies. The average discharge burnup of MOX assemblies was over 47,000 MWD/MTM, which is more than enough to meet the open-quotes spent fuel standard.close quotes One unit is capable of consuming 0.462 MT of weapons-grade plutonium per year. Preliminary analyses showed that important reactor physics parameters for the three transitions cycles are comparable to those of LEU cores including boron levels, reactivity coefficients, peaking factors, and shutdown margins. Further transient analyses will need to be performed

  14. Computer generated holography with intensity-graded patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Conti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer Generated Holography achieves patterned illumination at the sample plane through phase modulation of the laser beam at the objective back aperture. This is obtained by using liquid crystal-based spatial light modulators (LC-SLMs, which modulate the spatial phase of the incident laser beam. A variety of algorithms are employed to calculate the phase modulation masks addressed to the LC-SLM. These algorithms range from simple gratings-and-lenses to generate multiple diffraction-limited spots, to iterative Fourier-transform algorithms capable of generating arbitrary illumination shapes perfectly tailored on the base of the target contour. Applications for holographic light patterning include multi-trap optical tweezers, patterned voltage imaging and optical control of neuronal excitation using uncaging or optogenetics. These past implementations of computer generated holography used binary input profile to generate binary light distribution at the sample plane. Here we demonstrate that using graded input sources, enables generating intensity graded light patterns and extend the range of application of holographic light illumination. At first, we use intensity-graded holograms to compensate for LC-SLM position dependent diffraction efficiency or sample fluorescence inhomogeneity. Finally we show that intensity-graded holography can be used to equalize photo evoked currents from cells expressing different level of chanelrhodopsin2 (ChR2, one of the most commonly used optogenetics light gated channels, taking into account the non-linear dependence of channel opening on incident light.

  15. Grade IV fibrosis interferes in biliary drainage after Kasai procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzedas-Netto, A A; Chinen, E; de Oliveira, D F; Pasquetti, A F; Azevedo, R A; da Silva Patricio, F F; Cury, E K; Gonzalez, A M; Vicentine, F P P; Martins, J L

    2014-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the most common cause of liver transplantation in children. The earlier the treatment is done, the better the prognosis. The aim is to evaluate the impact of late diagnosis in children with BA, including the histopathological findings and success rate of biliary drainage in patients submitted to hepatic portoenterostomy (HPE). A retrospective study of cases of BA in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) between 1998-2011. We found 63 cases of BA; of these, 42 underwent HPE and 21 were referred for liver transplantation. Clinic and pathologic data were evaluated. The HPE was performed with a mean age of 86.5 days, with 16.6% having the operation at 60 days or earlier; 59.2% between 61 and 90 days; and 23.8% after 90 days. Successful biliary drainage occurred in 31% of surgeries, Mean days when HPE drained was 69.1 days, and 94.3 days when the surgery did not drain (P = .05). All patients who were successfully drained, did not have grade IV fibrosis on histology. In cases in which surgery was performed after 60 days that had not drained, 25% had grade IV fibrosis on biopsy (P = .0469). The age of HPE relates to better prognosis of the disease. It was found that the rate of grade IV fibrosis is higher in no drainage patients. All patients with grade IV fibrosis had no biliary drainage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A pedagogical approach to socially just relations in a Grade 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zayd

    namely sustainable development, equity (including equality) and economic development, ... working towards education for social justice in an Economics Grade 11 classroom is a ...... Mansfield, OH: Book Masters. ... Harvard University Press.

  17. Pain Relief: Make Consistency the Cornerstone of Your Policy on Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth E.; Wendel, Frederick C.

    1988-01-01

    An effective school board policy on grading needs to include the following six components: (1) philosophy; (2) definition of terms; (3) line of responsibility; (4) legal review; (5) academic achievement and behavioral skills reported separately; and (6) policy review. (MLF)

  18. Implementing the Standards. Teaching Discrete Mathematics in Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Eric W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discrete mathematics are defined briefly. A course in discrete mathematics for high school students and teaching discrete mathematics in grades 7 and 8 including finite differences, recursion, and graph theory are discussed. (CW)

  19. Automated tone grading of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalina Hernández, J.C.; Fernández Ramón, G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of a natural stone processing plant is subject to the intrinsic variability of the stone blocks that constitute its raw material, which may cause problems of lack of uniformity in the visual appearance of the produced material that often triggers complaints from customers. The best way to tackle this problem is to classify the product according to its visual features, which is traditionally done by hand: an operator observes each and every piece that comes out of the production line and assigns it to the closest match among a number of predefined classes, taking into account visual features of the material such as colour, texture, grain, veins, etc. However, this manual procedure presents significant consistency problems, due to the inherent subjectivity of the classification performed by each operator, and the errors caused by their progressive fatigue. Attempts to employ automated sorting systems like the ones used in the ceramic tile industry have not been successful, as natural stone presents much higher variability than ceramic tiles. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop classification systems specifically designed for the treatment of the visual parameters that distinguish the different types of natural stone. This paper describes the details of a computer vision system developed by AITEMIN for the automatic classification of granite pieces according to their tone, which provides an integral solution to tone grading problems in the granite processing and marketing industry. The system has been designed to be easily trained by the end user, through the learning of the samples established as tone patterns by the user. [es

  20. The research reported in this article was conducted from a socio-environmental perspective on learners’ school readiness when entering Grade 1, as well as their school performance in Grade 1 and again in Grade 4. The relation between school readiness and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna van Zyl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this article was conducted from a socio-environmental perspective on learners’ school readiness when entering Grade 1, as well as their school performance in Grade 1 and again in Grade 4. The relation between school readiness and performance in Home Language and Numeracy in Grade 1, and performance in the same learning areas in Grade 4 were investigated by means of a longitudinal quantitative study. One school in the Free State province was purposefully selected. The Aptitude Test for School Beginners (ASB was implemented to capture school readiness, including school maturity and levels of development in physical, cognitive, emotional, social and normative domains. Results confirm that school readiness significantly correlated with academic performance of the respondents in Grade 1 as well as with their school performance in Grade 4.

  1. GRADE INFLATION: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. CARUTH,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: Ø student evaluations of professors, Ø student teacher dynamics, Ø merit-based financial aid, and Ø student expectations. Ø Among the reasons for higher student grades on the part of professors are: Ø fear of student evaluations, Ø avoidance of bad relations with students, Ø below average teaching skills,Ø lack of experience, Ø a lack of clearly stated objectives, and Ø job security. While grades are not a perfect answer to assessing student performance in a course they are still the best answer we have for evaluating students. In order to evaluate students more accurately, universities must identify the problems in grading and grading practices. Once this is accomplished new practices can be designed and policies implemented.

  2. Power calculation of grading device in desintegrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, V. S.; Semikopenko, I. A.; Vavilov, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    This article describes the analytical method of measuring the secondary power consumption, necessitated by the installation of a grading device in the peripheral part of the grinding chamber in the desintegrator. There is a calculation model for defining the power input of the disintegrator increased by the extra power demand, required to rotate the grading device and to grind the material in the area between the external row of hammers and the grading device. The work has determined the inertia moments of a cylindrical section of the grading device with armour plates. The processing capacity of the grading device is adjusted to the conveying capacity of the auger feeder. The grading device enables one to increase the concentration of particles in the peripheral part of the grinding chamber and the amount of interaction between particles and armour plates as well as the number of colliding particles. The perforated sections provide the output of the ground material with the proper size granules, which together with the effects of armour plates, improves the efficiency of grinding. The power demand to rotate the grading device does not exceed the admissible value.

  3. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  4. Five strands of math tasks big book : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Included are challenging problem-solving tasks which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  5. Five strands of math drills big book : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Included are warm-up and timed drill activities which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  6. Standard specification for nuclear-grade beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements of nuclear-grade beryllium oxide (BeO) powder to be used in fabricating nuclear components. This specification does not include requirements for health and safety. It recognizes the material as a Class B poison and suggests that producers and users become thoroughly familiar with and comply to applicable federal, state and local regulations and handling guidelines. Special tests and procedures are given

  7. The performance of Norwegian investment grade bond funds

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Hjalmar Laudal; Kamalanathan, Sayanthan

    2016-01-01

    The following thesis examines the performance of Norwegian investment grade bond mutual funds in the period from January 2011 to January 2016. In this study we addresstwo important issues. Firstly, by applying a CAPM model framework, we examine whether funds are able to outperform passive portfolios. Due to the lack of appropriate benchmarks for evaluation in the Norwegian market, we construct and include a bond index in our analysis. Across several different model specifi...

  8. Prognostic relevance of gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma: gemistocytic component and MR imaging features compared to non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Ho Sung; Lee, Ji Ye; Jung, Seung Chai; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soo Jeong [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To determine if gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (GemA) and its MR imaging characteristics are associated with a shorter time-to-progression (TTP) compared with non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (non-GemA). We enrolled 78 patients who were followed up more than 5 years (29 pathologically proven GemA and 49 non-GemA) during a 10-year period. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and MR imaging features were analyzed as possible prognostic factors of high-grade transformation, and multivariate analysis of TTP was performed using Cox proportional modeling. GemA showed more frequent high-grade features than non-GemA, including diffusion restriction (P <.001), increased choline/creatine (P =.02), and increased choline/NAA ratio (P =.015). Patients with GemA had a significantly shorter median TTP (53.1 vs 68 months; P <.001). A gemistocytic histopathology (hazard ratio = 3.42; P =.015) and low ADC (hazard ratio = 3.61; P =.001) were independently associated with a shorter TTP. GemA can present with MR imaging findings mimicking high-grade glioma at initial diagnosis and transforms to high-grade disease earlier than non-GemA. Low ADC on DWI might be useful in stratifying the risk of progression in patients with grade II astrocytoma. (orig.)

  9. Automated egg grading system using computer vision: Investigation on weight measure versus shape parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Ahmad Fakhri Ab; Suhaila Sabarudin, Siti; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Ghani, Ahmad Shahrizan Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Chicken egg is a source of food of high demand by humans. Human operators cannot work perfectly and continuously when conducting egg grading. Instead of an egg grading system using weight measure, an automatic system for egg grading using computer vision (using egg shape parameter) can be used to improve the productivity of egg grading. However, early hypothesis has indicated that more number of egg classes will change when using egg shape parameter compared with using weight measure. This paper presents the comparison of egg classification by the two above-mentioned methods. Firstly, 120 images of chicken eggs of various grades (A–D) produced in Malaysia are captured. Then, the egg images are processed using image pre-processing techniques, such as image cropping, smoothing and segmentation. Thereafter, eight egg shape features, including area, major axis length, minor axis length, volume, diameter and perimeter, are extracted. Lastly, feature selection (information gain ratio) and feature extraction (principal component analysis) are performed using k-nearest neighbour classifier in the classification process. Two methods, namely, supervised learning (using weight measure as graded by egg supplier) and unsupervised learning (using egg shape parameters as graded by ourselves), are conducted to execute the experiment. Clustering results reveal many changes in egg classes after performing shape-based grading. On average, the best recognition results using shape-based grading label is 94.16% while using weight-based label is 44.17%. As conclusion, automated egg grading system using computer vision is better by implementing shape-based features since it uses image meanwhile the weight parameter is more suitable by using weight grading system.

  10. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: lj94172350@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: ejhwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  11. Graded Alternating-Time Temporal Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faella, Marco; Napoli, Margherita; Parente, Mimmo

    Graded modalities enrich the universal and existential quantifiers with the capability to express the concept of at least k or all but k, for a non-negative integer k. Recently, temporal logics such as μ-calculus and Computational Tree Logic, Ctl, augmented with graded modalities have received attention from the scientific community, both from a theoretical side and from an applicative perspective. Both μ-calculus and Ctl naturally apply as specification languages for closed systems: in this paper, we add graded modalities to the Alternating-time Temporal Logic (Atl) introduced by Alur et al., to study how these modalities may affect specification languages for open systems.

  12. Elevation of the correlation between cerebral blood volume and permeability surface from CT perfusion images with glioma grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Bei; Ling Huawei; Zhang Huan; Song Qi; Dong Haipeng; Chen Kemin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between cerebral blood volume and permeability surface by using multislice CT perfusion imaging with glioma grade. Methods: Ninteen patients with gliomas underwent conventional MR and multislice CT perfusion imaging preoperatively. These patients were divided into low grade and high grade groups which were correspond to WHO II grade gliomas and WHO III or IV grade gliomas respectively. CT data were transferred to on-line working station and processed to obtain time-signal curves, color perfusion maps and calculated perfusion parameters, including cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTF) and permeability surfaces (PS) in tumoral parenchyma. Kruskal-Wallis test and correlation of CBV and PS was assessed by using SPSS 11.0 software. Results: The median of CBV and PS in low-grade and high-grade glioma were 2.7, 6.5 ml/100 g; 0.389, 12.810 ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 respectively, corresponding t value were 12.907 13.500 with P<0.05. Pearson correlations between CBV and PS were as follows: in low-grade group, r=-0.058, in high-grade group, r=0.648. Conclusion: Both CBV and PS have obvious correlation with glioma grade. The correlation between CBV and PS in low-grade glioma was weaker, probably because of the focal high vascularity in oligodendroglioma. (authors)

  13. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  14. Composites of Upgraded Metallurgical Grade (UMG) Si with Photovoltaic (PV) Grade Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovel, Harold; Prettyman, Kevin; Krause, Rainer; Dipankar, Roy

    2015-03-27

    At the beginning of this project 125 wafers of UMG material blended with non-UMG were obtained in the various blends; 50/50,70/30,80/20. 90/10 and 100% UMG. Solar grade , non-UMG material was used for comparison. Many techniques for starting substrate evaluation were used including lifetime, resitivity, SEM, IPCMS. Some degree of gettering was implemented by lengthening the time of phosphorous diffusion. The UMG/solar blends resulted in 14.5% -15% efficiencies, and even 100% UMG showed 14.5% values, not less than standard cells manufactured at the time and an encouraging result for the prospects of using UMG material due to the lower $/watt. A later decline in the cost of Si and an emphasis on reaching higher efficiencies in general led to a vanishing interest in the use of UMG.

  15. Are the uterine serous carcinomas underdiagnosed? Histomorphologic and immunohistochemical correlates and clinical follow up in high-grade endometrial carcinomas initially diagnosed as high-grade endometrioid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaomin; Hinson, Jeff L; Matnani, Rahul; Cibull, Michael L; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G

    2018-02-01

    Histologic subclassification of high-grade endometrial carcinomas can sometimes be a diagnostic challenge when based on histomorphology alone. Here we utilized immunohistochemical markers to determine the immunophenotype in histologically ambiguous high-grade endometrial carcinomas that were initially diagnosed as pure or mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma, aiming to determine the utility of selected immunohistochemical panel in accurate classification of these distinct tumor types, while correlating these findings with the clinical outcome. A total of 43 high-grade endometrial carcinoma cases initially classified as pure high-grade endometrioid carcinoma (n=32), mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma/serous carcinoma (n=9) and mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma/clear cell carcinoma (n=2) were retrospectively stained with a panel of immunostains, including antibodies for p53, p16, estrogen receptor, and mammaglobin. Clinical follow-up data were obtained, and stage-to-stage disease outcomes were compared for different tumor types. Based on aberrant staining for p53 and p16, 17/43 (40%) of the high-grade endometrial carcinoma cases initially diagnosed as high-grade endometrioid carcinoma were re-classified as serous carcinoma. All 17 cases showed negative staining for mammaglobin, while estrogen receptor was positive in only 6 (35%) cases. The remaining 26 cases of high-grade endometrioid carcinoma showed wild-type staining for p53 in 25 (96%) cases, patchy staining for p16 in 20 (77%) cases, and were positive for mammaglobin and estrogen receptor in 8 (31%) and 19 (73%) cases, respectively, thus the initial diagnosis of high-grade endometrioid carcinoma was confirmed in these cases. In addition, the patients with re-classified serous carcinoma had advanced clinical stages at diagnosis and poorer overall survival on clinical follow-up compared to that of the remaining 26 high-grade endometrioid carcinoma cases. These results indicate that selected

  16. Cost effective nuclear commercial grade dedication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maletz, J.J.; Marston, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new computerized database method to create/edit/view specification technical data sheets (mini-specifications) for procurement of spare parts for nuclear facility maintenance and to develop information that could support possible future facility life extension efforts. This method may reduce cost when compared with current manual methods. The use of standardized technical data sheets (mini-specifications) for items of the same category improves efficiency. This method can be used for a variety of tasks, including: Nuclear safety-related procurement; Non-safety related procurement; Commercial grade item procurement/dedication; Evaluation of replacement items. This program will assist the nuclear facility in upgrading its procurement activities consistent with the recent NUMARC Procurement Initiative. Proper utilization of the program will assist the user in assuring that the procured items are correct for the applications, provide data to assist in detecting fraudulent materials, minimize human error in withdrawing database information, improve data retrievability, improve traceability, and reduce long-term procurement costs

  17. A prediction model for the grade of liver fibrosis using magnetic resonance elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuka, Yusuke; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Abe, Hayato; Matsumoto, Naoki; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Haradome, Hiroki; Sugitani, Masahiko; Tsuji, Shingo; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2017-11-28

    Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) has recently become available for assessment of liver fibrosis. We aimed to develop a prediction model for liver fibrosis using clinical variables, including LSM. We performed a prospective study to compare liver fibrosis grade with fibrosis score. LSM was measured using magnetic resonance elastography in 184 patients that underwent liver resection, and liver fibrosis grade was diagnosed histologically after surgery. Using the prediction model established in the training group, we validated the classification accuracy in the independent test group. First, we determined a cut-off value for stratifying fibrosis grade using LSM in 122 patients in the training group, and correctly diagnosed fibrosis grades of 62 patients in the test group with a total accuracy of 69.3%. Next, on least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis in the training group, LSM (r = 0.687, P prediction model. This prediction model applied to the test group correctly diagnosed 32 of 36 (88.8%) Grade I (F0 and F1) patients, 13 of 18 (72.2%) Grade II (F2 and F3) patients, and 7 of 8 (87.5%) Grade III (F4) patients in the test group, with a total accuracy of 83.8%. The prediction model based on LSM, ICGR15, and platelet count can accurately and reproducibly predict liver fibrosis grade.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ESOPHAGITIS GRADES AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Fernanda Saboya; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernandao; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes; Ribeiro, Irma Cláudia Saboya; Bertoldi, Andressa de Souza; Batistão, Venessa Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori infection (HP) is related to the development of gastric lesions and lymphoma; however, it is not known if there is a relation with gastroesophageal reflux disease and reflux esophagitis. To evaluate HP's relationship with esophagitis in patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, being evaluated 9576 patients undergoing outpatient endoscopic examination during the period between January and December 2015. Were included patients with any esophageal alteration at the examination; greater than 18; of both genders; independent of the complaint or the reason for the examination, illness or drug use. Were excluded those with active bleeding during the examination and in use of anticoagulants. The variables gender, age, esophagitis and result of the urease test, were studied. For statistical analysis was used the Epi Info software 7.1.5.2. Most of the samples consisted of women and the overall average age was 46.54±16.32 years. The presence of infection was balanced for gender: 1204 (12.56%) women and 952 (13.92%) men. Relating degree of esophagitis HP- and HP+ was observed that the type A was the most common (58.79%, n=1460); 604 (24.32%) had grade B; 334 (13.45%) grade C, and 85 (3.42%) grade D. In the relation between the grade of esophagitis with gender, esophagitis A was predominant in women and present in 929 (63.33%), followed by type B, 282 (46.68%), 136 C (40.71%) and D 30 (35.29%). In men 531 (36.36%) showed type A, 322 (53.31%) B, 198 (59.28%) C, and 55 (64.70%) D. Among the groups 40-50 and over 60 years there was a significant difference in whether have or not have HP+. There is no significant difference between HP infection and the different grades of esophagitis. A infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori (HP) é relacionada com o desenvolvimento de lesões e linfoma gástricos; porém, ainda não se sabe ao certo se há relação dele com a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e esofagite

  19. ENERGY STAR Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers that...

  20. High Performance Graded Index Polymer Optical Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garito, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    ...) plastic optical fibers (POF) and graded index (GI) POFs are reported. A set of criteria and analyses of physical parameters are developed in context to the major issues of POF applications in short-distance communication systems...

  1. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children (N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks – one narrative and two expository prompts. Children’s written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:25642118

  3. Statistical Content in Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickle, Maria Consuelo Capiral

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the treatment and scope of statistical concepts in four, widely-used, contemporary, middle grades mathematics textbook series: "Glencoe Math Connects," "Prentice Hall Mathematics," "Connected Mathematics Project," and "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project." There were three…

  4. Doubly graded sigma model with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, J.

    1986-08-01

    Using the Hull-Witten construction we show how to introduce torsion to the doubly graded sigma model. This construction enables us to find a link between this model and the ten-dimensional supergravity theory in superspace. (Auth.)

  5. Graded contractions of Jordan algebras and of their representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashuba, Iryna; Patera, JirI

    2003-01-01

    Contractions of Jordan algebras and Jordan superalgebras which preserve a chosen grading are defined and studied. Simultaneous grading of Jordan algebras and their representation spaces is used to develop a theory of grading, preserving contractions of representations of Jordan algebras

  6. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 – 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...

  7. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  8. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  9. Fatigue Characterization of Functionally Graded Metallic Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    Functionally graded components exhibit spatial variations of mechanical properties in contrast with, and as an alternative to, purely homogeneous components. A large class of graded materials, however, are in fact mostly homogeneous materials with property variations (chemical or mechanical) restricted to a specific area or layer produced by applying for example a coating or by introducing sub-surface residual stresses. However, it is also possible to obtain graded materials with a smooth transition of mechanical properties along the entire component, for example in a 40 mm component. This is possible, for example, by using centrifugal casting technique or incremental melting and solidification technique. In this paper we will study fully metallic functionally graded components with a smooth gradient, focusing on fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue propagation will be assessed in the direction parallel to the gradation (in different homogeneous layers of the functionally graded component) to assess what would be fatigue crack propagation on the direction perpendicular to the gradation. Fatigue crack growth rate (standard mode I fatigue crack growth) will be correlated to the mode I stress intensity factor range. Other mechanical properties of different layers of the component (Young's modulus) will also be considered in this analysis. The effect of residual stresses along the component gradation on crack propagation will also be taken into account. A qualitative analysis of the effects of some important features, present in functionally graded materials, will be made based on the obtained results

  10. Clinical grade adult stem cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Goebel, W Scott; Woods, Erik J

    2009-07-01

    There has been a great deal of scientific interest recently generated by the potential therapeutic applications of adult stem cells in human care but there are several challenges regarding quality and safety in clinical applications and a number of these challenges relate to the processing and banking of these cells ex-vivo. As the number of clinical trials and the variety of adult cells used in regenerative therapy increases, safety remains a primary concern. This has inspired many nations to formulate guidelines and standards for the quality of stem cell collection, processing, testing, banking, packaging and distribution. Clinically applicable cryopreservation and banking of adult stem cells offers unique opportunities to advance the potential uses and widespread implementation of these cells in clinical applications. Most current cryopreservation protocols include animal serum proteins and potentially toxic cryoprotectant additives (CPAs) that prevent direct use of these cells in human therapeutic applications. Long term cryopreservation of adult stem cells under good manufacturing conditions using animal product free solutions is critical to the widespread clinical implementation of ex-vivo adult stem cell therapies. Furthermore, to avoid any potential cryoprotectant related complications, reduced CPA concentrations and efficient post-thaw washing to remove CPA are also desirable. The present review focuses on the current strategies and important aspects of adult stem cell banking for clinical applications. These include current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs), animal protein free freezing solutions, cryoprotectants, freezing & thawing protocols, viability assays, packaging and distribution. The importance and benefits of banking clinical grade adult stem cells are also discussed.

  11. Magnetic resonance perfusion for differentiating low-grade from high-grade gliomas at first presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrigo, Jill M; Fountain, Daniel M; Provenzale, James M; Law, Eric K; Kwong, Joey Sw; Hart, Michael G; Tam, Wilson Wai San

    2018-01-22

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability. Occasionally, high-grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO Grade III and IV) may have the same MRI appearance as LGGs. Taking a watch-and-wait approach could be detrimental for the patient if the tumour progresses quickly. Advanced imaging techniques are increasingly used in clinical practice to predict the grade of the tumour and to aid clinical decision of when to intervene surgically. One such advanced imaging technique is magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion, which detects abnormal haemodynamic changes related to increased angiogenesis and vascular permeability, or "leakiness" that occur with aggressive tumour histology. These are reflected by changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) expressed as rCBV (ratio of tumoural CBV to normal appearing white matter CBV) and permeability, measured by K trans . To determine the diagnostic test accuracy of MR perfusion for identifying patients with primary solid and non-enhancing LGGs (WHO Grade II) at first presentation in children and adults. In performing the quantitative analysis for this review, patients with LGGs were considered disease positive while patients with HGGs were considered disease negative.To determine what clinical features and methodological features affect the accuracy of MR perfusion. Our search strategy used two concepts: (1) glioma and the various histologies of interest, and (2) MR perfusion. We used structured search strategies appropriate for each database searched, which included: MEDLINE

  12. PREVENTION OF SPINAL DISORDERS IN CHILDRENI- IV GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejаn Gojković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem physical activities children younger school-age children, with the basic tasks research is construction kinesitherapy adequate prevention and avoid postural disorders spinal column, optimal ontogenetic level morphological( anthropological development.The main objective research is contents teaching physical education as well as and content that can be put in regular program teaching physical education with the basic task prevention potential and eliminate disorders spinal column, with auxiliary a harmonious biological development. The entities from which he was carried out sample size for this research is defined as population students male primary schools I- IV grade.The first and basic condition was that they are included in teaching physical education in the course of this research sample is taked 400 respondents.-according to the manner elections respondents sample was targeted selected.were taken I- IV grade elementary schools in Bijeljina, Teslic, Foca and Pale.

  13. Grading of shoulder ulcerations in sows by biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Barington, Krisitane

    2014-01-01

    legislation, stating that sows with shoulder ulcers grade 3 or 4 must be kept loose and have access to soft bedding. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if biopsies from the center of a shoulder ulcer can be used to point out animals for which an intervention must be initiated. Postmortem......, a punch biopsy was sampled from the center of the ulceration or from the tissue overlaying the tuber spina scapula. Afterward, the shoulders were cross-sectioned and evaluated grossly and histologically (“gold standard”). In total, 121 shoulders were included in the study, and the diagnostic value...... of a punch biopsy in grading shoulder ulcerations was evaluated. The results showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 0.98, a positive likelihood ratio of 38.36, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22. The agreement between the cross-section evaluation and the punch biopsy was found to be 0...

  14. Emerging industrial processes for low grade rare earth mineral concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, Karin; Ho, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Historically rare earth recovery has mainly been derived from the processing of monazite, bastnasite and xenotime containing ores amenable to beneficiation, yielding high grade mineral concentrates. A notable exception is the recovery of heavy rare earths from ionic clays in Southern China. Recently, projects are being proposed to treat a range of mineral concentrates which tend to be lower grade with wide ranging modal mineralogy for rare earths and associated gangue minerals. This has a significant impact on processing routes. This paper discusses processes proposed for emerging rare earth producers and how different projects have responded to particular challenges including: Control of phosphorous due to the presence of xenotime or monazite type minerals; Control of phosphorous due to the presence of rare earth containing apatite; Rare earth recovery from polymetallic ores; Control of radionuclides in rare earth processing, etc.

  15. SVM-based glioma grading. Optimization by feature reduction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, Frank G.; Schad, Lothar R.; Emblem, Kyrre E.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Oslo Univ. Hospital

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the predictive power of feature reduction analysis approaches in support vector machine (SVM)-based classification of glioma grade. In 101 untreated glioma patients, three analytic approaches were evaluated to derive an optimal reduction in features; (i) Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), (ii) principal component analysis (PCA) and (iii) independent component analysis (ICA). Tumor grading was performed using a previously reported SVM approach including whole-tumor cerebral blood volume (CBV) histograms and patient age. Best classification accuracy was found using PCA at 85% (sensitivity = 89%, specificity = 84%) when reducing the feature vector from 101 (100-bins rCBV histogram + age) to 3 principal components. In comparison, classification accuracy by PCC was 82% (89%, 77%, 2 dimensions) and 79% by ICA (87%, 75%, 9 dimensions). For improved speed (up to 30%) and simplicity, feature reduction by all three methods provided similar classification accuracy to literature values (∝87%) while reducing the number of features by up to 98%. (orig.)

  16. Molecular events leading to HPV-induced high grade neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia M. Wilting

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is initiated by high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (hrHPV and develops via precursor stages, called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. High-grade CIN lesions are considered true precancerous lesions when the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are aberrantly expressed in the dividing cells. This results in abolishment of normal cell cycle control via p53 and pRb degradation. However, it has become clear that these viral oncogenes possess additional oncogenic properties, including interference with the DNA methylation machinery and mitotic checkpoints. Identification of the resulting molecular events leading to high-grade neoplasia will 1 increase our understanding of cervical carcinogenesis, 2 yield biomarkers for early diagnosis, and 3 identify therapeutic targets for HPV-induced (pre cancerous lesions.This review will briefly summarise current advances in our understanding of the molecular alterations in the host cell genome that occur during HPV-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. Statistical Outlier Detection for Jury Based Grading Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Rosas, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that was developed to identify statistical outliers from the scores of grading jury members in a large project-based first year design course. The background and requirements for the outlier detection system are presented. The outlier detection algorithm...... and the follow-up procedures for score validation and appeals are described in detail. Finally, the impact of various elements of the outlier detection algorithm, their interactions, and the sensitivity of their numerical values are investigated. It is shown that the difference in the mean score produced...... by a grading jury before and after a suspected outlier is removed from the mean is the single most effective criterion for identifying potential outliers but that all of the criteria included in the algorithm have an effect on the outlier detection process....

  18. Efficacy of a protocol including heparin ointment for treatment of multikinase inhibitor-induced hand-foot skin reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-ri; Yang, Chi-rei; Cheng, Chen-li; Ho, Hao-chung; Chiu, Kun-yuan; Su, Chung-Kuang; Chen, Wen-Ming; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Chen, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Cheng-Kuang; Ou, Yen-chuan

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a protocol including topical heparin therapy for hand-foot skin reactions (HFSR) during multikinase (MKI) treatment. We prospectively collected 26 patients who had HFSRs during treatment with the MKIs, sunitinib, sorafenib, or axitinib. The age distribution ranged from 46 to 87 years, with a mean of 66 years. The distribution of HFSR severity was 12 patients with grade 1, 12 with grade 2, and 2 with grade 3. A heparin-containing topical ointment treatment, combined with hand-foot shock absorbers and skin moisturizers, was used at the lesion sites. Changes in the grade of HFSR, MKI dosage, and interruptions of MKI therapy were recorded. The results showed that 66.7% of grade 1 patients were cured of disease, 83.3% of grade 2 patients had improved symptoms, and both grade 3 patients (100%) had improved symptoms and were downgraded to grade 2. Four (15.4%) patients required reduction of MKI dosage, but there were no treatment interruptions or dropouts. Our protocol is beneficial in promoting resolution of HFSRs induced by MKIs. Further validation in large control studies should be investigated.

  19. Grade differences in reading motivation among Hong Kong primary and secondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-Ling

    2009-12-01

    Most previous studies in Western societies have demonstrated a general decline in school motivation. However, it is not clear whether motivational decline occurs uniformly for all students. The moderating effects of individual and cultural differences on students' motivational decline need to be further explored. This study aimed to examine the grade differences in students' reading motivation, including self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and social motivation, in a Chinese educational context. Grade by gender and grade by school-average achievement interactions were also checked to explore the role of individual differences in students' motivational changes. A total of 1,794 students (860 boys and 934 girls) volunteered to take part in this study, of whom 648 were Grade 4-6 students from 11 primary schools, 627 were Grade 7-9 students from 12 junior secondary schools, and 519 Grade 10-11 students from 6 senior secondary schools. A Chinese version of the Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (CRMQ) was administered to all participants during regular class periods by their teachers. Reliability analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were first undertaken to assess the psychometric quality of the CRMQ. Then, multisample CFA was conducted to examine whether the factor structure of the CRMQ was equivalent across students at different grade levels. Grade differences in various reading motivation constructs as well as grade x gender and grade x school-average achievement interactions were examined using multiple-indicator-multiple-causes modelling. The findings of this study supported the reliability and the factor structure of the CRMQ in measuring the reading motivation of Chinese students at different grade levels. The factor pattern of the CRMQ was invariant across primary, junior secondary, and senior secondary students in multisample CFA. As far as the scores on the four reading motivation constructs were concerned, students scored

  20. Thermal fatigue behavior of US and Russian grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L.; Dombrowski, D.E.; Guiniatouline, R.N.; Kupriynov, I.B.

    1996-01-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 KW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 degrees C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stress in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m 2 . Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S-300F-H, Sr-200, I-400, extruded high purity. HIP'd sperical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe 12 . Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be(SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis

  1. Characterization of Anisotropic Behavior for High Grade Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Huo, Chunyong; Ji, Lingkang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jiming; Ma, Qiurong

    With the developing requirement of nature gas, the property needs of steel for pipe line are higher and higher, especially in strength and toughness. It is necessary to improve the steel grade in order to ensure economic demand and safety. However, with the rise of steel grade, the differences on properties in different orientations (anisotropic behaviors) become more and more obvious after the process of hot rolling, which may affect the prediction of fracture for the pipes seriously (Thinking of isotropic mechanical properties for material in traditional predict way). In order to get the reason for anisotropic mechanics, a series of tests are carried out for high grade steel pipes, including not only mechanical properties but also microstructures. Result indicates that there are obviously anisotropic behaviors for high grade steel pipes in two orientations (rolling orientation and transverse orientation). Strength is better in T orientation because Rm is higher and Rt 0.5 rises more in T orientation, and toughness is better in L orientation because of the higher Akv and SA in L orientation under a same temperature. Banded structures are formed in T orientation, and the spatial distribution of inclusion and precipitated phases are different in T, L and S orientation. The anisotropic arrangement for the matrix in space (banded structures), which is formed after the process of hot rolling, may affect the mechanical properties in different orientation. Moreover, the elasticity modulus of particles is different from the elasticity modulus of matrix, deformation between particles and matrix may cause stress concentration, and damage forms in this place. Because of the different distribution of particles in space, the level of damage is anisotropic in different orientations, and the anisotropic mechanical properties occur finally. Therefore, the anisotropic mechanical properties are determined by the anisotropic microstructures, both the anisotropic of matrix and the

  2. GRADE: Assessing the quality of evidence in environmental and occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rebecca L; Thayer, Kristina A; Bero, Lisa; Bruce, Nigel; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Ghersi, Davina; Guyatt, Gordon; Hooijmans, Carlijn; Langendam, Miranda; Mandrioli, Daniele; Mustafa, Reem A; Rehfuess, Eva A; Rooney, Andrew A; Shea, Beverley; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Sutton, Patrice; Wolfe, Mary S; Woodruff, Tracey J; Verbeek, Jos H; Holloway, Alison C; Santesso, Nancy; Schünemann, Holger J

    2016-01-01

    There is high demand in environmental health for adoption of a structured process that evaluates and integrates evidence while making decisions and recommendations transparent. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework holds promise to address this demand. For over a decade, GRADE has been applied successfully to areas of clinical medicine, public health, and health policy, but experience with GRADE in environmental and occupational health is just beginning. Environmental and occupational health questions focus on understanding whether an exposure is a potential health hazard or risk, assessing the exposure to understand the extent and magnitude of risk, and exploring interventions to mitigate exposure or risk. Although GRADE offers many advantages, including its flexibility and methodological rigor, there are features of the different sources of evidence used in environmental and occupational health that will require further consideration to assess the need for method refinement. An issue that requires particular attention is the evaluation and integration of evidence from human, animal, in vitro, and in silico (computer modeling) studies when determining whether an environmental factor represents a potential health hazard or risk. Assessment of the hazard of exposures can produce analyses for use in the GRADE evidence-to-decision (EtD) framework to inform risk-management decisions about removing harmful exposures or mitigating risks. The EtD framework allows for grading the strength of the recommendations based on judgments of the certainty in the evidence (also known as quality of the evidence), as well as other factors that inform recommendations such as social values and preferences, resource implications, and benefits. GRADE represents an untapped opportunity for environmental and occupational health to make evidence-based recommendations in a systematic and transparent manner. The objectives of this article are

  3. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  4. First experiences in treatment of low-grade glioma grade I and II with proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauswald, Henrik; Rieken, Stefan; Ecker, Swantje; Kessel, Kerstin A; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively assess feasibility and toxicity of proton therapy in patients with low-grade glioma (WHO °I/II). Proton beam therapy only administered in 19 patients (median age 29 years; 9 female, 10 male) for low-grade glioma between 2010 and 2011 was reviewed. In 6 cases proton therapy was performed due to tumor progression after biopsy, in 8 cases each due to tumor progression after (partial-) resection, and in 5 cases due to tumor progression after chemotherapy. Median total dose applied was 54 GyE (range, 48,6-54 GyE) in single fractions of median 1.8 GyE. Median clinical target volume was 99 cc (range, 6–463 cc) and treated using median 2 beams (range, 1–2). Proton therapy was finished as planned in all cases. At end of proton therapy, 13 patients showed focal alopecia, 6 patients reported mild fatigue, one patient with temporal tumor localization concentration deficits and speech errors and one more patient deficits in short-term memory. Four patients did not report any side effects. During follow-up, one patient presented with pseudo-progression showing worsening of general condition and brain edema 1–2 months after last irradiation and restitution after 6 months. In the present MR imaging (median follow-up 5 months; range 0–22 months) 12 patients had stable disease, 2 (1) patients partial (complete) remission, one more patient pseudo-progression (differential diagnosis: tumor progression) 4 weeks after irradiation without having had further follow-up imaging so far, and one patient tumor progression approximately 9 months after irradiation. Regarding early side effects, mild alopecia was the predominant finding. The rate of alopecia seems to be due to large treatment volumes as well as the anatomical locations of the target volumes and might be avoided by using multiple beams and the gantry in the future. Further evaluations including neuropsychological testing are in preparation

  5. Differentiating high-grade from low-grade chondrosarcoma with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja-Young; Choi, Jung-Ah; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Moon, Kyung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Han-Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the MR imaging features that differentiate between low-grade chondrosarcoma (LGCS) and high-grade chondrosarcoma (HGCS) and to determine the most reliable predictors for differentiation. MR images of 42 pathologically proven chondrosarcomas (28 LGCS and 14 HGCS) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 13 male and 29 female patients with an age range of 23-72 years (average age 51 years). On MR images, signal intensity, specific morphological characteristics including entrapped fat, internal lobular architecture, and outer lobular margin, soft tissue mass formation and contrast enhancement pattern were analysed. MR imaging features used to identify LGCS and HGCS were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. On T1-weighted images, a central area of high signal intensity, which was not seen in LGCS, was frequently observed in HGCS (n = 5, 36%) (p < 0.01). Entrapped fat within the tumour was commonly seen in LGCS (n = 26, 93%), but not in HGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). LGCS more commonly (n = 24, 86%) preserved the characteristic internal lobular structures within the tumour than HGCSs (n = 4, 29%) (p < 0.01). Soft tissue formation was more frequently observed in HGCS (n = 11, 79%) than in LGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). On gadolinium-enhanced images, large central nonenhancing areas were exhibited in only two (7.1%) of LGCS, while HGCS frequently (n = 9, 64%) had a central nonenhancing portion (p < 0.01). Results of multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that soft tissue formation and entrapped fat within the tumour were the variables that could be used to independently differentiate LGCS from HGCS. There were several MR imaging features of chondrosarcoma that could be helpful in distinguishing HGCS from LGCS. Among them, soft tissue mass formation favoured the diagnosis of HGCS, and entrapped fat within the tumour was highly indicative of LGCS. (orig.)

  6. Differentiating high-grade from low-grade chondrosarcoma with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja-Young; Choi, Jung-Ah; Kang, Heung Sik; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, Han-Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the MR imaging features that differentiate between low-grade chondrosarcoma (LGCS) and high-grade chondrosarcoma (HGCS) and to determine the most reliable predictors for differentiation. MR images of 42 pathologically proven chondrosarcomas (28 LGCS and 14 HGCS) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 13 male and 29 female patients with an age range of 23-72 years (average age 51 years). On MR images, signal intensity, specific morphological characteristics including entrapped fat, internal lobular architecture, and outer lobular margin, soft tissue mass formation and contrast enhancement pattern were analysed. MR imaging features used to identify LGCS and HGCS were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. On T1-weighted images, a central area of high signal intensity, which was not seen in LGCS, was frequently observed in HGCS (n = 5, 36%) (p < 0.01). Entrapped fat within the tumour was commonly seen in LGCS (n = 26, 93%), but not in HGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). LGCS more commonly (n = 24, 86%) preserved the characteristic internal lobular structures within the tumour than HGCSs (n = 4, 29%) (p < 0.01). Soft tissue formation was more frequently observed in HGCS (n = 11, 79%) than in LGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). On gadolinium-enhanced images, large central nonenhancing areas were exhibited in only two (7.1%) of LGCS, while HGCS frequently (n = 9, 64%) had a central nonenhancing portion (p < 0.01). Results of multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that soft tissue formation and entrapped fat within the tumour were the variables that could be used to independently differentiate LGCS from HGCS. There were several MR imaging features of chondrosarcoma that could be helpful in distinguishing HGCS from LGCS. Among them, soft tissue mass formation favoured the diagnosis of HGCS, and entrapped fat within the tumour was highly indicative of LGCS. (orig.)

  7. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-furnace carbon black is produced by pyrolysis of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons or their mixtures. The oil feedstock for the production of oil-furnace carbon black is mainly composed of high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons, which are residues of petroleum cracking, while the gaseous raw material is commonly natural gas. Most of the oil-furnace carbon black production (> 99 % is used as a reinforcing agent in rubber compounds. Occasionally, oil-furnace carbon blacks are used in contact with other rubber compounds and fillers that have different pigments, particularly with the color white. It has been observed that frequently a migrating rubber soluble colorant would enter the white or light colored rubber composition from the adjacent carbon black filled rubber, resulting in a highly undesirable staining effect. Methods for determining non-oxidized residue on the surface of the oil-furnace carbon black include extraction of carbon black with the appropriate organic solvent, and measuring the color of the organic solvent by means of a colorimeter on 425 nm (ASTM D 1618-99. Transmittance values of 85 % or more are indicative of a practically non-staining carbon black, while transmittance values below 50 % generally lead to a carbon black with pronounced staining characteristics. Many oil-furnace carbon blacks, particularly those with a larger particle size (dp > 50 nm which are produced by pyrolysis, have strongly adsorbed non-reacted oil on their surfaces. Upon incorporation in a rubber compound, the colored materials are gradually dissolved by the rubber matrix and migrate freely into adjacent light colored rubber compounds, causing a highly objectionable staining effect. Adjusting furnace parameters in the industrial process of producing specific soft grades of carbon black cannot obtain minimal values of toluene discoloration. The minimal value of toluene discoloration is very important in special applications. Therefore, after-treatment of

  8. Outerbridge Grade IV Cartilage Lesions in the Hip Identified at Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Nowak, Douglas D; Briggs, Karen K; Patterson, Diana C; Philippon, Marc J

    2016-05-01

    To determine factors associated with grade IV cartilage defects in the hip in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy with joint pain. Data from consecutive patients who underwent hip arthroscopy performed by a single surgeon over a period of 4 years were included in this study. The study group included 1,097 patients (491 women and 606 men; mean age, 37 years) who underwent hip arthroscopy for pain, had no prior hip surgery, and were aged 18 years or older. Preoperative radiographs, patient demographic characteristics, and operative details were used to identify risk factors for cartilage defects. Grade IV chondral defects were present in 308 of 1,097 hips (28%). Isolated chondral lesions were more frequently observed on the acetabulum (76%) than on the femoral head (24%). Defects of the acetabulum were more commonly anterosuperior (94.7%) and less commonly posterolateral (5.3%). Patients with less than 2 mm of joint space on preoperative radiographs were 8 times more likely to have a grade IV lesion than those with more than 2 mm. Men were more likely than women to have grade IV lesions (35% v 19%, P = .0001); patients with grade IV lesions were older than those without (42 years v 34 years, P = .0001). Hips with grade IV lesions had significantly higher alpha angles than those without (74° v 70°, P = .0001). Patients with grade IV defects reported a longer duration of symptoms than those without (37 months v 27 months, P = .007). Independent risk factors for the presence of grade IV chondral defects were less than 2 mm of joint space, male gender, increasing age, larger alpha angle, and longer duration of symptoms. Grade IV chondral defects in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were associated with decreased joint space, increased time from symptom onset to arthroscopy, male gender, and larger alpha angles associated with femoroacetabular impingement. Level IV, prognostic case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by

  9. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  10. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  11. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  12. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  13. Social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings indicated that teachers generally perceived the SSIS-CIP as a socially valid and feasible intervention for primary grades; however, teachers' ratings regarding ease of implementation and relevance and sequence demonstrated differences across grade levels in the second year of implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO 2 fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle

  15. Arterial spin-labeling assessment of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity as a predictor of histologic grade of astrocytic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtner, J; Schöpf, V; Schewzow, K; Kasprian, G; Weber, M; Woitek, R; Asenbaum, U; Preusser, M; Marosi, C; Hainfellner, J A; Widhalm, G; Wolfsberger, S; Prayer, D

    2014-03-01

    Pulsed arterial spin-labeling is a noninvasive MR imaging perfusion method performed with the use of water in the arterial blood as an endogenous contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the inversion time with the largest difference in normalized intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. Thirty-three patients with gliomas, histologically classified as low-grade (n = 7) or high-grade astrocytomas (n = 26) according to the World Health Organization brain tumor classification, were included. A 3T MR scanner was used to perform pulsed arterial spin-labeling measurements at 8 different inversion times (370 ms, 614 ms, 864 ms, 1114 ms, 1364 ms, 1614 ms, 1864 ms, and 2114 ms). Normalized intratumoral signal intensity was calculated, which was defined by the signal intensity ratio of the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue for all fixed inversion times. A 3-way mixed ANOVA was used to reveal potential differences in the normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. The difference in normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas obtained the most statistically significant results at 370 ms (P = .003, other P values ranged from .012-.955). The inversion time by which to differentiate high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas by use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity was 370 ms in our study. The normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values at this inversion time mainly reflect the labeled intra-arterial blood bolus and therefore could be referred to as normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity. Our data indicate that the use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values allows differentiation between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas and thus may serve as a new, noninvasive marker for astrocytoma grading.

  16. Role of Nuclear Morphometry in Breast Cancer and its Correlation with Cytomorphological Grading of Breast Cancer: A Study of 64 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Anamika; Jain, Manjula; Shukla, Shailaja; Andley, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method of diagnosis of breast mass. Cytoprognostic grading in breast cancers is important to identify high-grade tumors. Computer-assisted image morphometric analysis has been developed to quantitate as well as standardize various grading systems. To apply nuclear morphometry on cytological aspirates of breast cancer and evaluate its correlation with cytomorphological grading with derivation of suitable cutoff values between various grades. Descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study. This study included 64 breast cancer cases (29 of grade 1, 22 of grade 2, and 13 of grade 3). Image analysis was performed on Papanicolaou stained FNAC slides by NIS -Elements Advanced Research software (Ver 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included 5 nuclear size, 2 shape, 4 texture, and 2 density parameters. Nuclear size parameters showed an increase in values with increasing cytological grades of carcinoma. Nuclear shape parameters were not found to be significantly different between the three grades. Among nuclear texture parameters, sum intensity, and sum brightness were found to be different between the three grades. Nuclear morphometry can be applied to augment the cytology grading of breast cancer and thus help in classifying patients into low and high-risk groups.

  17. Identification of astrocytoma associated genes including cell surface markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon, Kathy; Edwards, Jennifer B; Eberhart, Charles G; Riggins, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Despite intense effort the treatment options for the invasive astrocytic tumors are still limited to surgery and radiation therapy, with chemotherapy showing little or no increase in survival. The generation of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) profiles is expected to aid in the identification of astrocytoma-associated genes and highly expressed cell surface genes as molecular therapeutic targets. SAGE tag counts can be easily added to public expression databases and quickly disseminated to research efforts worldwide. We generated and analyzed the SAGE transcription profiles of 25 primary grade II, III and IV astrocytomas [1]. These profiles were produced as part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project's SAGE Genie [2], and were used in an in silico search for candidate therapeutic targets by comparing astrocytoma to normal brain transcription. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used for the validation of selected candidate target genes in 2 independent sets of primary tumors. A restricted set of tumor-associated genes was identified for each grade that included genes not previously associated with astrocytomas (e.g. VCAM1, SMOC1, and thymidylate synthetase), with a high percentage of cell surface genes. Two genes with available antibodies, Aquaporin 1 and Topoisomerase 2A, showed protein expression consistent with transcript level predictions. This survey of transcription in malignant and normal brain tissues reveals a small subset of human genes that are activated in malignant astrocytomas. In addition to providing insights into pathway biology, we have revealed and quantified expression for a significant portion of cell surface and extra-cellular astrocytoma genes

  18. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Discriminating Low-Grade From High-Grade Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.K.; Kobus, T.; Litjens, G.J.S.; Hambrock, T.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Maas, M.C.; Scheenen, T.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and validate the optimal combination of parameters derived from 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging for discriminating low-grade from high-grade prostate cancer (PCa).The study was

  19. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. Does Grade Inflation Affect the Credibility of Grades? Evidence from US Law School Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2009-01-01

    While the nature and causes of university grade inflation have been extensively studied, little empirical research on the consequence of this phenomenon is currently available. The present study uses data for 48 US law schools to analyze admission decisions in 1995, 2000, and 2007, a period during which university grade inflation appears to have…

  1. Grades and Incentives: Assessing Competing Grade Point Average Measures and Postgraduate Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael A.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Albert H.

    2016-01-01

    In many educational settings, students may have an incentive to take courses where high grades are easier to achieve, potentially corroding student learning, evaluation of student achievement, and the fairness and efficiency of post-graduation labor outcomes. A grading system that takes into account heterogeneity of teacher standards and student…

  2. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). Subjects were 103 patients with ACD including 40 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 20 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and 43 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale consists of the following 3 graded groups of clinical observations: the 100-point-grade group (100 points for each observation) includes active giant papillae, gelatinous infiltrates of the limbus, exfoliative epithelial keratopathy, shield ulcer and papillary proliferation at lower palpebral conjunctiva; the 10-point-grade group (10 points for each observation) includes blepharitis, papillary proliferation with velvety appearance, Horner-Trantas spots, edema of bulbal conjunctiva, and superficial punctate keratopathy; and the 1-point-grade group (1 point for each observation) includes papillae at upper palpebral conjunctiva, follicular lesion at lower palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of bulbal conjunctiva, and lacrimal effusion. The total points in each grade group were determined as the severity score of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. The median severity scores of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale in VKC, AKC and AC were 243 (range: 12-444), 32.5 (11-344), and 13 (2-33), respectively. The severity score of each ACD disease type was significantly different (P Kruskal-Wallis test). The severity of each type of ACD was classified as severe, moderate, or mild according to the severity score. The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale is a useful clinical tool for grading the severity of each type of ACD.

  3. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett E. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  4. The molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2012-12-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas include pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). As technologies in pharmacologic neo-adjuvant therapy continue to progress and as molecular characteristics are progressively recognized as potential markers of both clinically significant tumor subtypes and response to therapy, interest in the biology of these tumors has surged. An updated review of the current knowledge of the molecular biology of these tumors is needed. We conducted a Medline search to identify published literature discussing the molecular biology of grade I astrocytomas. We then summarized this literature and discuss it in a logical framework through which the complex biology of these tumors can be clearly understood. A comprehensive review of the molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas is presented. The past several years have seen rapid progress in the level of understanding of PA in particular, but the molecular literature regarding both PA and SEGA remains nebulous, ambiguous, and occasionally contradictory. In this review we provide a comprehensive discussion of the current understanding of the chromosomal, genomic, and epigenomic features of both PA and SEGA and provide a logical framework in which these data can be more readily understood.

  5. High-grade surface osteosarcoma of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Kuniko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Kinoshita, Naoe [Nagasaki University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Nagasaki (Japan); Kumagai, Kenji; Shindo, Hiroyuki [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagasaki (Japan); Uetani, Masataka [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Radiology and Radiation Biology, Nagasaki (Japan); Ishida, Tsuyoshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kohnodai Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Department of Molecular Bone and Cartilage Pathology, Hard Tissue Genome Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    A 32-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of mild pain in the right ring finger. Radiographs and CT revealed a calcified lesion with cortical erosion on the surface of the proximal aspect of the right ring finger proximal phalanx. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the lesion showed low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and slight enhancement with gadolinium. Clinically, it was diagnosed as a benign bone-forming lesion such as florid reactive periostitis, and excision was accordingly performed. However, histological examination revealed proliferation of atypical osteoblastic cells among irregularly arranged osteoid seams. Taking the imaging findings into account, a pathological diagnosis of high-grade surface osteosarcoma was established. In general, bone- and cartilage-forming lesions of the hands and feet are benign. Osteosarcoma of short tubular bones in the hands and feet is extremely rare; moreover, high-grade surface osteosarcoma is one of the rarest subtypes of osteosarcoma. Nonetheless, high-grade surface osteosarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis, particularly if the radiological findings or clinical course are not entirely typical of a more common benign process, to avoid incorrect clinicoradiological and pathological diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. High-grade surface osteosarcoma of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kuniko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Kinoshita, Naoe; Kumagai, Kenji; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Uetani, Masataka; Ishida, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of mild pain in the right ring finger. Radiographs and CT revealed a calcified lesion with cortical erosion on the surface of the proximal aspect of the right ring finger proximal phalanx. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the lesion showed low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and slight enhancement with gadolinium. Clinically, it was diagnosed as a benign bone-forming lesion such as florid reactive periostitis, and excision was accordingly performed. However, histological examination revealed proliferation of atypical osteoblastic cells among irregularly arranged osteoid seams. Taking the imaging findings into account, a pathological diagnosis of high-grade surface osteosarcoma was established. In general, bone- and cartilage-forming lesions of the hands and feet are benign. Osteosarcoma of short tubular bones in the hands and feet is extremely rare; moreover, high-grade surface osteosarcoma is one of the rarest subtypes of osteosarcoma. Nonetheless, high-grade surface osteosarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis, particularly if the radiological findings or clinical course are not entirely typical of a more common benign process, to avoid incorrect clinicoradiological and pathological diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Resource Handbook--Space Beyond the Earth. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; space. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four units: 1) the sun, earth, and moon; 2) stars and planets; 3) exploring space; 4) man's existence in space. Each unit includes initiatory and developmental activities. There are also sections on evaluation, vocabulary,…

  8. Emergent Gender Roles within Tween Popular Culture: Perspectives from Mexican American Students in a Fifth-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina, Heriberto; Soto-Ramirez, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    This study examines fifth-grade Mexican American students' beliefs about emergent gender roles. We used participant-observation methodology to conduct research on six focal-student participants selected from the general fifth-grade population at an elementary school located in the Southwestern United States. Collected data included focal-student…

  9. Pollution: Problems and Solutions. Grade Nine, Unit One, 9.1 Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Sandra; Campbell, Bruce

    The ninth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) studies the economic and political realities of the inner city. This document, the first unit of the 9th grade section, deals with the ecological crises involving pollution and its causes. Specific problems include air pollution, pesticides, herbicides,…

  10. The Relationship of Mental Pressure with Optimism and Academic Achievement Motivation among Second Grade Male High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…

  11. Teacher-to-Teacher Consultation: Facilitating Consistent and Effective Intervention across Grade Levels for Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Matthew J.; Dupaul, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher-to-teacher consultation (TTC) is an extension of standard behavioral consultation that seeks to transfer an established and effective intervention across a grade-level transition by including teachers from both grade levels as conjoint consultees at the beginning of the second school year. The purpose of the current study was to determine…

  12. Behind the Final Grade in Hybrid v. Traditional Courses: Comparing Student Performance by Assessment Type, Core Competency, and Course Objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lisa Z.

    2012-01-01

    There are many different delivery methods used by institutions of higher education. These include traditional, hybrid, and online course offerings. The comparisons of these typically use final grade as the measure of student performance. This research study looks behind the final grade and compares student performance by assessment type, core…

  13. Social Validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings…

  14. Examining Master Schedule Practices in Rio Grande Valley Schools: Effects on Student Attendance, Discipline, and Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriaga, Benito T.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the master schedule design on student attendance, discipline, and grade point averages. Unexcused and excused absences, minor and major infraction, and grade point averages in three high schools during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years were included in the study. The purpose was to examine if any difference…

  15. Grading Scale of Radiographic Findings in the Pubic Bone and Symphysis in Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besjakov, J.; Scheele, C. von; Ekberg, O.; Gentz, C. F.; Westlin, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Radiographic abnormalities in the pubic bone and symphysis are often seen in athletes with groin pain. The aim was to create a grading scale of such radiologic changes. Material and Methods: Plain radiography of the pelvic ring including the pubic bone and the symphysis was performed in 20 male athletes, age 19-35, with long-standing uni- or bilateral groin pain. We used two control groups: Control group 1: 20 healthy age-matched men who had undergone radiologic examination of the pelvis due to trauma. Control group 2: 120 adults (66 men and 54 women) in 9 age groups between 15 and 90 years of age. These examinations were also evaluated for interobserver variance. Results and Conclusion: The grading scale was based on the type and the amount of the different changes, which were classified as follows: No bone changes (grade 0), slight bone changes (grade 1), intermediate changes (grade 2), and advanced changes (grade 3). The grading scale is easy to interpret and an otherwise troublesome communication between the radiologist and the physician was avoided. There was a high interobserver agreement with a high kappa value (0.8707). Male athletes with long-standing groin pain had abnormal bone changes in the symphysis significantly more frequently and more severely (p>0.001) than their age-matched references. In asymptomatic individuals such abnormalities increased in frequency with age both in men and women

  16. BAURAN PEMASARAN PRODUK BARU PELUMAS FOOD GRADE GREASE BERBAHAN DaSAR MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maksum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grease with food grade specification is essentially required on food processing production activities.  The purpose of this study is to develop a new product marketing mix for food grade grease, i.e 1 product priority, 2 pricing priority, 3 distribution priority and 4 advertising priority. This Research was conducted in Sub District Purbalingga and Padamara, Purbalingga regency with respondent SMEs food processing. Analysis of the determination of marketing mix that includes product, price, advertising and distribution using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Sampling was purposive random sampling method with a population of 64 SMEs so drawn sample of 20 respondents. Result of the study showed the marketing mix priority which were: (1 advertising priority for the new food grade grease product with an ads that could attract the attention of consumers in order to made the consumers interested, tried, and bought the new food grade lubricating grease products. (2 Price priority for the new food grade grease products which was by determining the moderate prices to compete the competitors' prices while still maintained a high quality. (3 Product priority for new food grade grease product which was producing a qualified product which could withstand the wear of the engine, green colour of the product, a 350 g size packs with a rectangular shape packaging labels. (4 Distribution priority for the new food grade grease product which was a short distribution channels through mobile vendors so that the consumers were able to save costs, and got the product fast and easily

  17. Grading of Chinese Cantonese Sausage Using Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Chemometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Aiping; Zhu, Susu; He, Yong; Zhang, Chu

    2017-01-01

    Fast and accurate grading of Chinese Cantonese sausage is an important concern for customers, organizations, and the industry. Hyperspectral imaging in the spectral range of 874–1734 nm, combined with chemometric methods, was applied to grade Chinese Cantonese sausage. Three grades of intact and sliced Cantonese sausages were studied, including the top, first, and second grades. Support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF) techniques were used to build two different models. Second derivative spectra and RF were applied to select optimal wavelengths. The optimal wavelengths were the same for intact and sliced sausages when selected from second derivative spectra, while the optimal wavelengths for intact and sliced sausages selected using RF were quite similar. The SVM and RF models, using full spectra and the optimal wavelengths, obtained acceptable results for intact and sliced sausages. Both models for intact sausages performed better than those for sliced sausages, with a classification accuracy of the calibration and prediction set of over 90%. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging combined with chemometric methods could be used to grade Chinese Cantonese sausages, with intact sausages being better suited for grading. This study will help to develop fast and accurate online grading of Cantonese sausages, as well as other sausages. PMID:28757578

  18. Grading as a Sadomasochistic Activity or an Erotic Benevolent Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjarks, Larry D.

    Numerous research studies have been conducted concerning the negative aspects of grading: the low correlations between academic success (high grades) and later vocational or professional success, possible sadomasochistic motives of teachers in awarding grades, and grade assignment resulting from the teacher's sense of duty or responsibility to…

  19. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  20. Effects of Instructions on Theme Grading: Grammatical vs. Holistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follman, John; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Twelve college seniors in an English methods course were assigned to three treatment groups, Grammatical, Holistic, and Both. Each group received different instructions but graded the same 10 themes. Themes graded for grammatical errors received lower grades than the same themes graded holistically. (NH)

  1. What Is Wrong with Grade Inflation (If Anything)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finefter-Rosenbluh, Ilana; Levinson, Meira

    2015-01-01

    Grade inflation is a global phenomenon that has garnered widespread condemnation among educators, researchers, and the public. Yet, few have deliberated over the ethics of grading, let alone the ethics of grade inflation. The purpose of this paper is to map out and examine the ethics of grade inflation. By way of beginning, we clarify why grade…

  2. 7 CFR 70.105 - Procedures for appeal gradings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conducting the appeal grading. Whether defrosting poultry or rabbit carcasses for other types of appeals will... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for appeal gradings. 70.105 Section 70.105... PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Appeal of A Grading Or...

  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

  4. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Service [Doc. AMS-FV-10-0047] United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower AGENCY: Agricultural... Standards for Grades of Cauliflower. AMS is reviewing all fresh fruit and vegetable grade standards for... provisions for grading purple, orange or green cauliflower. The proposed revision will amend the color...

  5. Chinese handwriting performance in preterm children in grade 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Hong, Rong-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Background First graders born prematurely perform poorly on handwriting speed and legibility. However, whether there are specific legibility factors in which preterm children demonstrate difficulty remains unknown. In addition, handwriting performance beyond the first grade and the influence of sex on handwriting performance in preterm children are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of prematurity and sex on multiple dimensions of handwriting in grade two and to identify the contributors to performance. Methods Sixty-three preterm (34 boys and 29 girls) and 67 full-term (27 boys and 40 girls) peers in grade two were included. Class teachers were asked to complete the Chinese Handwriting Evaluation Form. A subgroup of 39 preterm children received assessments on intelligence, visual perception, tactile and kinesthetic sensation, and fine motor skills. Their inattention behavior was rated using a maternal self-report with a behavioral scale. Results Boys born prematurely exhibited poorer performance in the speed dimension than full-term boys (p = 0.008), whereas there was comparable performance in the two groups of girls (p = 0.221). In the dimensions related to legibility, preterm boys (32.4%) had a higher percentage of children with difficulty in the construction dimension than the other groups (preterm girls: 6.9%, full-term boys: 7.4%, full-term girls: 5.0%). However, no group difference was found in the dimensions of accuracy and directionality. Of the sensory-perceptual-motor factors, attention was the most significant predictor of accuracy in performance (p = 0.046) and speed dimensions (p = 0.001) in preterm children. Conclusions Boys appear to be vulnerable to the adverse impacts of preterm birth in terms of performance in the dimensions of speed and construction in grade two. Based on the significant contribution of attention to handwriting performance in preterm children, assessment and intervention in the area of attention is strongly

  6. Nonoperative management for patients with grade IV blunt hepatic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago Thiago

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The treatment of complex liver injuries remains a challenge. Nonoperative treatment for such injuries is increasingly being adopted as the initial management strategy. We reviewed our experience, at a University teaching hospital, in the nonoperative management of grade IV liver injuries with the intent to evaluate failure rates; need for angioembolization and blood transfusions; and in-hospital mortality and complications. Methods This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a single large trauma centre in Brazil. All consecutive, hemodynamically stable, blunt trauma patients with grade IV hepatic injury, between 1996 and 2011, were analyzed. Demographics and baseline characteristics were recorded. Failure of nonoperative management was defined by the need for surgical intervention. Need for angioembolization and transfusions, in-hospital death, and complications were also assessed Results Eighteen patients with grade IV hepatic injury treated nonoperatively during the study period were included. The nonoperative treatment failed in only one patient (5.5% who had refractory abdominal pain. However, no missed injuries and/or worsening of bleeding were observed during the operation. None of the patients died nor need angioembolization. No complications directly related to the liver were observed. Unrelated complications to the liver occurred in three patients (16.7%; one patient developed a tracheal stenosis (secondary to tracheal intubation; one had pleural effusion; and one developed an abscess in the pleural cavity. The hospital length of stay was on average 11.56 days. Conclusions In our experience, nonoperative management of grade IV liver injury for stable blunt trauma patients is associated with high success rates without significant complications.

  7. Nonoperative management for patients with grade IV blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Thiago Messias; Tavares Pereira, Bruno Monteiro; Araujo Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues; Godinho, Mauricio; Nascimento, Bartolomeu; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira

    2012-08-22

    The treatment of complex liver injuries remains a challenge. Nonoperative treatment for such injuries is increasingly being adopted as the initial management strategy. We reviewed our experience, at a University teaching hospital, in the nonoperative management of grade IV liver injuries with the intent to evaluate failure rates; need for angioembolization and blood transfusions; and in-hospital mortality and complications. This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a single large trauma centre in Brazil. All consecutive, hemodynamically stable, blunt trauma patients with grade IV hepatic injury, between 1996 and 2011, were analyzed. Demographics and baseline characteristics were recorded. Failure of nonoperative management was defined by the need for surgical intervention. Need for angioembolization and transfusions, in-hospital death, and complications were also assessed Eighteen patients with grade IV hepatic injury treated nonoperatively during the study period were included. The nonoperative treatment failed in only one patient (5.5%) who had refractory abdominal pain. However, no missed injuries and/or worsening of bleeding were observed during the operation. None of the patients died nor need angioembolization. No complications directly related to the liver were observed. Unrelated complications to the liver occurred in three patients (16.7%); one patient developed a tracheal stenosis (secondary to tracheal intubation); one had pleural effusion; and one developed an abscess in the pleural cavity. The hospital length of stay was on average 11.56 days. In our experience, nonoperative management of grade IV liver injury for stable blunt trauma patients is associated with high success rates without significant complications.

  8. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ' work; point out any problems in organization or grammar; and suggest the steps necessary to complete the paper. They then go over the peer review form with the writer, referring any questions or disagreements to the instructor. It is most helpful if the instructor can also read and comment on the draft. General comments on the level of detail included and any problems with the reasoning come more appropriately from the instructor than from peers. The paper is then revised and handed in on the following week. The final draft is accompanied by a summary of revisions and copies of all peer reviews. Students are graded on peer reviews and summaries of revisions and cover letters, as well as on the final paper. Acknowledgments The molecular modeling workstations and associated software were purchased with funding from NSF, Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement program, grant DUE-9350843 to AJW, with matching funds from Wellesley College. Some of the equipment for protein purification was funded by a grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to Wellesley College. The authors are grateful to Paul Reisberg for helpful discussions in the early stages of this project and to Margaret Merritt for a critical review of the manuscript. Literature Cited 1. Blake, C. C. F.; Jonhson, L. N.; Mair, G. A.; North, A. C. T.; Phillips. D. C.; Sarma, V. R. Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. B 1967, 167, 378 - 388. 2. Hendrickson, H. S.; Giannini, J. L.; Bergstrom, J. P.; Johnson, S. N.; Leland, P. A. Biochem. Educ. 1995, 23, 14 - 17. 3. Miranker, A., Robinson, C. V.; Radford, S. E.; Aplin, R. T.; Dobson, C. M. Science 1993, 262, 896 - 900. 4. Turner, M. A.; Howell, P. L. Prot. Sci. 1995, 4, 442 - 449. 5. Radmacher, M.; Fritz, M.; Hansma, H. G.; Hansma, P. Science 1994, 265, 1577 - 1579. 6. Shugar, D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1952, 8, 302 - 309. 7. Bradford, M. M. Anal. Biochem. 1976, 72, 248 - 254. 8. Strang, R. H. C. In Practical Biochemistry for Colleges; Wood, E. J., Ed.; Pergamon: Oxford

  9. Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudnos, E.

    1992-01-01

    The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C

  10. Graded thermal insulation layer systems; Gradierte Waermedaemmschichtsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leushake, U.; Krell, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung

    1996-12-31

    Graded thermal insulation systems reduce local stresses between two layers. Grading usually involves a concentration variation in a second phase but may also involve variations of the microstructure or chemical composition. The contribution discusses the application of this technique for thermal protection of turbine blades in aircraft propulsion systems. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe gradierter Waermeschichtsysteme ist es moeglich die lokalen Spannungen zwischen zwei Schichten zu verringern. Die Gradierung umfasst meistens eine Variation des Gehaltes einer zweiten Phase, kann aber auch die Variation der Mikrostruktur oder der chemischen Zusammensetzung beinhalten. In diesem Beitrag wird auf die Anwendung als thermischer Schutz von Turbinenschaufeln fuer Flugtriebwerke eingegangen.

  11. Studies on high grade cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of attempts in the United Kingdom to improve the results of treatment of high grade (grade 3, 4) supra-tentorial astrocytomas is presented. The radiosensitizer misonidazole failed to improve the results of post-surgical radiotherapy, however, multivariate analysis of data from these patients has provided a prognostic index of use in defining good and poor prognosis patients. An overview study of adjuvant nitrosourea therapy trials has shown a small significant advantage for the chemotherapy. A study of chemosensitization by benznidazole of CCNU treatment of patients in relapse failed to demonstrate any effect. 13 references

  12. Graded photonic crystals by optical interference holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of graded photonic crystals in dye doped dichromate gelatin emulsions using an optical interference holographic technique. The gradedness is achieved by imposing a gradient form factor in the interference intensity resulting from the absorption of the dye in the dichromate gelatin. Wider and deeper photonic bandgaps are observed for the dyed samples as compared to the un-dyed samples. Our method could open up a new direction in fabricating graded photonic crystals which cannot be achieved easily using other techniques. (paper)

  13. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  14. Interactive whiteboards in third grade science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Grier

    Strategies have been put into place to affect improvement in science achievement, including the use of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in science instruction. IWBs enable rich resources, appropriate pacing, and multimodal presentation of content deemed as best practices. Professional development experiences, use of resources, instructional practices, and changes in professional behavior in science teachers were recorded. Also recorded were differences in the engagement and motivation of students in IWB classrooms versus IWB-free classrooms and observed differences in students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration. Using a mixed-method research design quantitative data were collected to identify achievement levels of the target population on the assumption that all students, regardless of ability, will achieve greater mastery of science content in IWB classrooms. Qualitative data were collected through observations, interviews, videotapes, and a survey to identify how IWBs lead to increased achievement in third grade classrooms and to develop a record of teachers' professional practices, and students' measures of engagement and motivation. Comparative techniques determined whether science instruction is more effective in IWB classroom than in IWB-free classrooms. The qualitative findings concluded that, compared to science teachers who work in IWB-free settings, elementary science teachers who used IWBs incorporated more resources to accommodate learning objectives and the varied abilities and learning styles of their students. They assessed student understanding more frequently and perceived their classrooms as more collaborative and interactive. Furthermore, they displayed willingness to pursue professional development and employed different engagement strategies. Finally, teachers who used IWBs supported more instances of critical thinking and problem-solving. Quantitative findings concluded that students of all ability levels were more motivated

  15. Grade Retention in Primary Education Is Associated with Quarter of Birth and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Betancor, Sara M; López-Puig, Alexis J

    2016-01-01

    Grade retention is still common practice in some countries though longstanding experience tells us that it is a highly criticised practice for its unclear benefits, its important costs for the educational systems and its relation with school dropout. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyse which variables increase the probability of being retained in primary education differentiating between being retained in second or in fourth grade, and paying special attention to the role of the socioeconomic status of the families. By knowing which analysed variables are related to grade retention, and how, we may offer some suggestions to reduce it. We use a national dataset with more observations for Spain than any other international ones, called 'Evaluación General de Diagnóstico', conducted in Spain in 2009 with the participation of 28708 students of fourth grade of primary education from 874 schools, considered to be representative for every Spanish autonomous region. This assessment focused on four competences and includes information about the learning context collected through questionnaires for students, families, school management and teachers. Estimating different multilevel random-intercept logistic regressions we obtain the following three main findings: 1) the existence of a 'quarter of birth' effect, that nearly doubles the probability of grade retention in second grade of primary -compared to the probability of grade retention in fourth grade-, for the youngest students of their same age cohort (OR = 1.93 vs. OR = 1.53, both peducation level influences more than the fathers' one -especially in second grade (OR = 0.20 vs. OR = 0.45, both p0.05)-.

  16. Complications of nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Rosemary A; Moore, John B; Niles, Sarah E; Holcomb, John B; Moore, Ernest E; Cothren, C Clay; Hartwell, Elizabeth; Moore, Frederick A

    2005-11-01

    Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries is highly successful. Complications associated with high-grade injuries, however, have not been well characterized. The purpose of the present study was therefore to define hepatic-related complications and associated treatment modalities in patients undergoing nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries. Three hundred thirty-seven patients from two regional Level I trauma centers with grade 3 to 5 blunt hepatic injuries during a 40-month period were reviewed. Complications and treatment of hepatic-related complications in patients not requiring laparotomy in the first 24 hours were identified. Of 337 patients with a grade 3 to 5 injury, 230 (68%) were managed nonoperatively. There were 37 hepatic-related complications in 25 patients (11%); 63% (5 of 8) of patients with grade 5 injuries developed complications, 21% (19 of 92) of patients with grade 4 injuries, but only 1% (1 of 130) of patients with grade 3 injuries. Complications included bleeding in 13 patients managed by angioembolization (n = 12) and laparotomy (n = 1), liver abscesses in 2 patients managed with computed tomography-guided drainage (n = 2) and subsequent laparotomy (n = 1). In one patient with bleeding, hepatic necrosis followed surgical ligation of the right hepatic artery and required delayed hepatic lobectomy. Sixteen biliary complications were managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and stenting (n = 7), drainage (n = 5), and laparoscopy (n = 4). Three patients had suspected abdominal sepsis and underwent a negative laparotomy, whereas an additional three patients underwent laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. Nonoperative management of high-grade liver injuries can be safely accomplished. Mortality is low; however, complications in grade 4 and 5 injuries should be anticipated and may require a combination of operative and nonoperative management strategies.

  17. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    group (p = 0.45). Moreover, the average mark was higher among the international students (mean = 10.3, on the seven-point grading scale) than in the Danish speaking classes (mean = 9.1). CONCLUSION: The seven-point grading scale seems to motivate students to yield a better performance; hence tiered......INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1......,037 examinations in three medical subjects, we investigated the difference in the test scores between the spring- and autumn semester. In the spring semester, the students could either pass or fail the subject (pass/fail) while in the following autumn semester, the students were assessed by tiered grading (seven...

  18. Technical Meeting on Grading of the Application of Management System Requirements. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this Technical Meeting are threefold: - to share international experiences and lessons learned, as well as exchange views on best practices and strategies to overcome the difficulties encountered; - to review and discuss the draft technical report on 'Grading the Application of Management System Requirements, to allow the participants to contribute to the improvement of the document and to enrich it with practical examples; and - to strengthen the international networking of specialists in the field. The topics covered during the meeting will include: - Examples and case studies presented by participants from countries with nuclear facilities (mainly focused on NPPs, and, where appropriate, from research reactors, fuel cycle and waste management facilities) on grading the application of management system requirements and lessons learned. - Reviewing and improving the final draft of a technical report on 'Grading the Application of Management System Requirements', which will supersede the previous guidance: Grading of Quality Assurance Requirement: A Manual (Technical Reports Series No. 328)

  19. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 2nd graders and 974 3rd graders. Participants were assessed using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) Passage Comprehension subtest. Results from this study further illuminate the significant relationships between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and grade-specific guidelines for appropriate error rate levels. Low oral reading fluency and high error rates predict the level of passage comprehension performance. For second grade students below benchmark, a fall assessment error rate of 28% predicts that student comprehension performance will be below average. For third grade students below benchmark, the fall assessment cut point is 14%. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. CCDC 1440984: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 4,8-bis(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)-2,6-dihexyl[1,3]thiazolo[5,4-f][1,3]benzothiazole

    KAUST Repository

    Conboy, Gary; Spencer, Howard J.; Angioni, Enrico; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L.; Findlay, Neil J.; Coles, Simon J.; Wilson, Claire; Pitak, Mateusz B.; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Skabara, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  1. CCDC 1440981: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 2,6-dihexyl-4,8-bis(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)[1,3]thiazolo[5,4-f][1,3]benzothiazole

    KAUST Repository

    Conboy, Gary; Spencer, Howard J.; Angioni, Enrico; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L.; Findlay, Neil J.; Coles, Simon J.; Wilson, Claire; Pitak, Mateusz B.; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Skabara, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  2. CCDC 1440983: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 4,8-bis(1-benzothiophen-2-yl)-2,6-dihexyl[1,3]thiazolo[5,4-f][1,3]benzothiazole

    KAUST Repository

    Conboy, Gary; Spencer, Howard J.; Angioni, Enrico; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L.; Findlay, Neil J.; Coles, Simon J.; Wilson, Claire; Pitak, Mateusz B.; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Skabara, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  3. CCDC 1440982: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 4,8-bis(1-benzofuran-2-yl)-2,6-dihexyl[1,3]thiazolo[5,4-f][1,3]benzothiazole

    KAUST Repository

    Conboy, Gary; Spencer, Howard J.; Angioni, Enrico; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L.; Findlay, Neil J.; Coles, Simon J.; Wilson, Claire; Pitak, Mateusz B.; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Skabara, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  4. CCDC 1009378: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 2,4,8,10-tetra-t-butyl-6-(4-t-butylphenyl)-5,7-dihydroindolo[2,3-b]carbazole chloroform solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Ding; Lee, Sangsu; Zheng, Bin; Sun, Zhe; Zeng, Wangdong; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Furukawa, Ko; Kim, Dongho; Webster, Richard D.; Wu, Jishan

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  5. CCDC 1017115: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 6-butyl-4,8-bis(thiophen-2-yl)-5H-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-f]isoindole-5,7(6H)-dione

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian B.; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Treat, Neil D.; Schroeder, Bob C.; Donaghey, Jenny E.; White, Andrew J. P.; Stingelin, Natalie; McCulloch, Iain

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  6. Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma with low-grade malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, D.C.; Bertoni, F.; Beabout, J.W.; Campanacci, M.

    1984-01-01

    In a review of cases of fibrous cartilaginous dysplasia of bone, five of fibrocartilaginous lesions were found to be different in clinical behavior and radiographic and morphologic features from the others. We have named these previously undescribed tumors ''fibrocartilaginous mesenchymomas with low-grade malignancy in the fibrous elements.'' (orig.)

  7. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  8. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compressive behaviour of a new class of sandwich composite made up of jute fiber reinforced epoxy skins and piece-wise linear fly ash reinforced functionally graded (FG) rubber core is investigated in flat-wise mode. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified ...

  9. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  10. Teacher Grading Decisions: Influences, Rationale, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnath, Joshua P.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study applied a decision-making theoretical framework to an investigation of teacher grading in a large urban school district in California. A sample of 251 high school teachers of core subjects were surveyed, and 15 teachers participated in four focus group interviews in order provide data on the influences, rationale, and…

  11. High grade magnesium from waste bittern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Yamani, I.S.; Farah, M.Y.; Isaac, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The production of high grade magnesia for nuclear purposes from sea water by use of both aqueous and gaseous ammonia has been described. The effect of precipitating conditions on the settling rate and magnesium recovery, was thoroughly examined. Ammonia gas approach was recommended and justified

  12. Lumber stress grades and design properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; David W. Green

    1999-01-01

    Lumber sawn from a log, regardless of species and size, is quite variable in mechanical properties. Pieces may differ in strength by several hundred percent. For simplicity and economy in use, pieces of lumber of similar mechanical properties are placed in categories called stress grades, which are characterized by (a) one or more sorting criteria, (b) a set of...

  13. Better utilization of low-grade woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    The objective of this paper is threefold: to outline briefly some of the avenues of approach so far employed in utilizing low-grade wood, to comment on the economic aspects of the problem, and finally, to speculate about what developments the future might bring to the field of utilization.

  14. Does Relative Grading help Male Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czibor, Eszter; Onderstal, Sander; Sloof, Randolph

    The provision of non-pecuniary incentives in education is a topic that has received much scholarly attention lately. Our paper contributes to this discussion by investigating the effectiveness of grade incentives in increasing student performance. We perform a direct comparison of the two most co...

  15. Ia diastolic dysfunction: an echocardiographic grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Anil; Mookadam, Farouk; Hakim, Fayaz A; Mulroy, Eoin; Saadiq, Rayya; Doherty, Mairead; Cha, Stephen; Seward, James; Wilansky, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate that a distinct group of patients with Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction who do not conform to present ASE/ESE diastolic grading exists. Echocardiographic and demographic data of the Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction were extracted and compared with that of Grades I and II in 515 patients. The mean of age of the cohort was 75 ± 9 years and body mass index did not differ significantly between the 3 groups (P = 0.45). Measurements of left atrial volume index (28.58 ± 7 mL/m(2) in I, 33 ± 10 mL/m(2) in Ia, and 39 ± 12 mL/m(2) in II P Ia, and 79 ± 15 msec in II P Ia, and 217 ± 57 msec in II P Ia, and 22 ± 8 in II), and lateral E/e' (8 ± 3 in I, 15 ± 6 in Ia, and 18 ± 9 in II P Ia compared with I and II. These findings remained significant even after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, and smoking. Patients with echocardiographic characteristics of relaxation abnormality (E/A ratio of Ia group. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available . This paper describes the development of an automated analysis process and software that can run a multitude of separation scenarios. A key enabler for this software is the development of a quantitative grading algorithm that scores the outcome of each release...

  17. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  18. Algebra task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  19. Geometry task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  20. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical ...

  1. Elementary construction of graded lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.; Rittenberg, V.

    1977-06-01

    We show how the definitions of the classical Lie groups have to be modified in the case where Grassmann variables are present. In particular, we construct the general linear, the special linear and the orthosymplectic graded Lie groups. Special attention is paid to the question of how to formulate an adequate 'unitarity condition'. (orig.) [de

  2. Developing Middle Grades Students' MP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassell, Janet; Stobaugh, Rebecca; Sheffield, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Middle grades are a critical time for capturing the interest and imagination and developing the potential of mathematically promising students. This is a time for students to make sense of mathematics, build a solid foundation and enthusiasm, and set the course for the highest levels of mathematics in the future. This is a time to explore their…

  3. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  4. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  5. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…

  6. Comparison between two differential graded algebras in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    76

    A differential calculus on a “space” means the specification of a differential graded algebra (dga), often interpreted as space of forms. In classical geometry the “space” is a manifold and we have the de-Rham dga, whereas in noncommutative geometry a “space” is described by a triple called spectral triple. A spectral triple is ...

  7. Helping Your Kid Make the Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Sandy

    Research indicates that students' activities and relationships with their parents predict grades more surely than parental education, family income, ethnicity, sex, and family structure. Children with extremely permissive parents do not do well and children with extremely authoritarian parents do worse. Inconsistent parenting is even more strongly…

  8. Influence of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Molecular Weight Grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    weight grades (K4M and K15M) on drug release from diclofenac sodium matrix tablets. Methods: Tablets containing diclofenac ... Keywords: Matrix, Diclofenac sodium, HPMC, Erosion, Water uptake. Received: 12 January 2011 .... incorporating the structure and geometric characteristics of the release device and n is.

  9. 7 CFR 29.6018 - Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade. 29.6018 Section 29.6018 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... to other characteristics when they are of sufficient importance to be treated separately. ...

  10. Examining Teacher Grades Using Rasch Measurement Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Jennifer; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present an approach to questionnaire design within educational research based on Guttman's mapping sentences and Many-Facet Rasch Measurement Theory. We designed a 54-item questionnaire using Guttman's mapping sentences to examine the grading practices of teachers. Each item in the questionnaire represented a unique student…

  11. Communications and Media: Grade 7. Cluster II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Communications and Media." It is divided into six units: advertising, film and photography, radio and television, journalism and publishing, library and periodicals, and transocean communications. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the…

  12. Environmental Education. Teacher's Handbook, Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Prepared for use in the 5th grade, this teacher's handbook consists of 19 science units dealing with environmental education. Topics are ecology, language arts, rocks and fossils, soil, noise pollution, Nashville pioneers and American Indians, conservation, waste and litter, water pollution, compass and mapping, plants and trees, use of the…

  13. Reliability Estimates for Undergraduate Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate grade point average (GPA) is a commonly employed measure in educational research, serving as a criterion or as a predictor depending on the research question. Over the decades, researchers have used a variety of reliability coefficients to estimate the reliability of undergraduate GPA, which suggests that there has been no consensus…

  14. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  15. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  16. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  17. Grading Practices and Distributions Across Internal Medicine Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Sara B; Torre, Dario M; DeFer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Clerkship evaluation and grading practices vary widely between U.S. medical schools. Grade inflation continues to exist, and grade distribution is likely to be different among U.S. medical schools. Increasing the number of available grades curtails "grade inflation." A national survey of all Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine members was administered in 2011. The authors assessed key aspects of grading. Response rate was 76%. Among clerkship directors (CDs), 61% of respondents agreed that grade inflation existed in the internal medicine clerkship at their school, and 43% believed that it helped students obtain better residency positions. With respect to grading practices, 79% of CDs define specific behaviors needed to achieve each grade, and 36% specify an ideal grade distribution. In addition, 44% have a trained core faculty responsible for evaluating students, 35% describe formal grading meetings, and 39% use the Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME) scheme. Grading scales were described as follows: 4% utilize a pass/fail system, 13% a 3-tier (e.g., Honors/Pass/Fail), 45% 4-tier, 35% 5-tier, and 4% 6+-tier system. There was a trend to higher grades with more tiers available. Grade inflation continues in the internal medicine clerkship. Almost half of CDs feel that this practice assists students to obtain better residency positions. A minority of programs have a trained core faculty who are responsible for evaluation. About one third have formal grading meetings and use the RIME system; both have been associated with more robust and balanced grading practices. In particular, there is a wide variation between schools in the percentage of students who are awarded the highest grade, which has implications for residency applications. Downstream users of clinical clerkship grades must be fully aware of these variations in grading in order to appropriately judge medical student performance.

  18. Modified Graded Repair of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks in Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Jai Ho; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective Complete sellar floor reconstruction is critical to avoid postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage during transsphenoidal surgery. Recently, the pedicled nasoseptal flap has undergone many modifications and eventually proved to be valuable and efficient. However, using these nasoseptal flaps in all patients who undergo transsphenoidal surgery, including those who had none or only minor CSF leakage, appears to be overly invasive and time-consuming. Methods Patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal tumor surgery within a 5 year-period were reviewed. Since 2009, we classified the intraoperative CSF leakage into grades from 0 to 3. Sellar floor reconstruction was tailored to each leak grade. We did not use any tissue grafts such as abdominal fat and did not include any procedures of CSF diversions such as lumbar drainage. Results Among 200 cases in 188 patients (147 pituitary adenoma and 41 other pathologies), intraoperative CSF leakage was observed in 27.4% of 197 cases : 14.7% Grade 1, 4.6% Grade 2a, 3.0% Grade 2b, and 5.1% Grade 3. Postoperative CSF leakage was observed in none of the cases. Septal bone buttress was used for Grade 1 to 3 leakages instead of any other foreign materials. Pedicled nasoseptal flap was used for Grades 2b and 3 leakages. Unused septal bones and nasoseptal flaps were repositioned. Conclusion Modified classification of intraoperative CSF leaks and tailored repair technique in a multilayered fashion using an en-bloc harvested septal bone and vascularized nasoseptal flaps is an effective and reliable method for the prevention of postoperative CSF leaks. PMID:26279811

  19. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Cozzolino, Daniel; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-08

    Measuring chemical composition is a common approach to support decisions about allocating foods and beverages to grades related to market value. Red wine is a particularly complex beverage, and multiple compositional attributes are needed to account for its sensory properties, including measurement of key phenolic components such as anthocyanins, total phenolics, and tannin, which are related to color and astringency. Color has been shown to relate positively to red wine grade; however, little research has been presented that explores the relationship between astringency-related components such as total phenolic or tannin concentration and wine grade. The aim of this research has been to investigate the relationship between the wine grade allocations of commercial wineries and total phenolic and tannin concentrations, respectively, in Australian Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Total phenolic and tannin concentrations were determined using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and then compared to wine grade allocations made by winemaker panels during the companies' postvintage allocation process. Data were collected from wines produced by one Australian wine company over the 2005, 2006, and 2007 vintages and by a further two companies in 2007 (total wines = 1643). Statistical analysis revealed a positive trend toward higher wine grade allocation and wines that had higher concentrations of both total phenolics and tannin, respectively. This research demonstrates that for these companies, in general, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines allocated to higher market value grades have higher total phenolics and higher tannin concentrations and suggests that these compositional parameters should be considered in the development of future multiparameter decision support systems for relevant commercial red wine grading processes. In addition, both tannin and total phenolics would ideally be included because although, in general, a positive relationship

  20. Voxel-based clustered imaging by multiparameter diffusion tensor images for glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inano, Rika; Oishi, Naoya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Shibata, Sumiya; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common intra-axial primary brain tumour; therefore, predicting glioma grade would influence therapeutic strategies. Although several methods based on single or multiple parameters from diagnostic images exist, a definitive method for pre-operatively determining glioma grade remains unknown. We aimed to develop an unsupervised method using multiple parameters from pre-operative diffusion tensor images for obtaining a clustered image that could enable visual grading of gliomas. Fourteen patients with low-grade gliomas and 19 with high-grade gliomas underwent diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before tumour resection. Seven features including diffusion-weighted imaging, fractional anisotropy, first eigenvalue, second eigenvalue, third eigenvalue, mean diffusivity and raw T2 signal with no diffusion weighting, were extracted as multiple parameters from diffusion tensor imaging. We developed a two-level clustering approach for a self-organizing map followed by the K-means algorithm to enable unsupervised clustering of a large number of input vectors with the seven features for the whole brain. The vectors were grouped by the self-organizing map as protoclusters, which were classified into the smaller number of clusters by K-means to make a voxel-based diffusion tensor-based clustered image. Furthermore, we also determined if the diffusion tensor-based clustered image was really helpful for predicting pre-operative glioma grade in a supervised manner. The ratio of each class in the diffusion tensor-based clustered images was calculated from the regions of interest manually traced on the diffusion tensor imaging space, and the common logarithmic ratio scales were calculated. We then applied support vector machine as a classifier for distinguishing between low- and high-grade gliomas. Consequently, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic