WorldWideScience

Sample records for graded mass systems

  1. Small Renal Masses in Close Proximity to the Collecting System and Renal Sinus Are Enriched for Malignancy and High Fuhrman Grade and Should Be Considered for Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Andres F; Toussi, Amir; Amin, Milon; Hrebinko, Ronald L; Gayed, Bishoy A; Parwani, Anil V; Maranchie, Jodi K

    2018-02-05

    Recent reports show a correlation between renal tumor radiographic characteristics and pathologic features. We hypothesize that a more central location within the relatively hypoxic renal medulla might confer a more aggressive tumor phenotype. To test this, radiographic tumor characteristics were compared with tumor grade and histology. We retrospectively reviewed renal masses anatomic features with incidence of malignancy and high nuclear grade. A total of 334 renal tumors had information available for analysis. Univariate analysis showed that increasing endophycity and proximity to the collecting system (anatomical variable predictive of malignancy (odds ratio [OR], 3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-12.05; P = .04) and high nuclear grade (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.44-5.51; P = .003). Malignancy and high tumor grade occur with much greater frequency when tumors are located deep in the kidney, in close proximity to the collecting system and renal sinus. Ninety-six percent of small renal masses in this region were cancers and nearly half were Fuhrman Grade 3 or 4, suggesting that these small centrally located tumors should be targeted for early intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A study on the digital image transfer application mass chest X-ray system up-grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Park, Jong Sam; Lee, Jon Il

    2003-01-01

    By converting movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles into digital systems and upgrading it to share information with the hospital's medical image information system, excellencies have been confirmed as a result of installing and running this type of system and are listed hereinafter. Upgrading analog systems, such as indirect mass chest X-ray devices dependent on printed film, to digital systems allows them to be run and managed much more efficiently, contributing to the increase in the stability and the efficiency of the system. Unlike existing images, communication based on DICOM standards allow images to be compatible with the hospital's outer and inner network PACS systems, extending the scope of the radiation departments information system. Assuming chest-exclusive indirect mass chest X-rays, a linked development of CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis, Detector) becomes possible. By applying wireless Internet, Web-PACS for movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles will become possible. Research in these fields must continue and if the superior image quality and convenience of digital systems are confirmed, I believe that the conversion of systems still dependent on analog images to modernized digital systems is a must

  3. Grading system to categorize breast MRI using BI-RADS 5th edition: a statistical study of non-mass enhancement descriptors in terms of probability of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Tatsunori; Yamada, Takayuki; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Fujiwara, Keishi; Okamoto, Satoko; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2018-03-01

    To analyze the association of breast non-mass enhancement descriptors in the BI-RADS 5th edition with malignancy, and to establish a grading system and categorization of descriptors. This study was approved by our institutional review board. A total of 213 patients were enrolled. Breast MRI was performed with a 1.5-T MRI scanner using a 16-channel breast radiofrequency coil. Two radiologists determined internal enhancement and distribution of non-mass enhancement by consensus. Corresponding pathologic diagnoses were obtained by either biopsy or surgery. The probability of malignancy by descriptor was analyzed using Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The probability of malignancy by category was analyzed using Fisher's exact and multi-group comparison tests. One hundred seventy-eight lesions were malignant. Multivariate model analysis showed that internal enhancement (homogeneous vs others, p probability of malignancy (p < 0.0001). The three-grade criteria and categorization by sum-up grades of descriptors appear valid for non-mass enhancement.

  4. Biomarker discovery in high grade sarcomas by mass spectrometry imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates a detailed biomarker discovery Mass Spectrometry Imaging workflow for histologically heterogeneous high grade sarcomas. Panels of protein and metabolite signatures were discovered either distinguishing different histological subtypes or stratifying high risk patients with poor survival.

  5. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  6. Forecasting and recruitment in graded manpower systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Wessels, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a generalized Markov model is introduced to describe the dynamic behaviour of an individual employee in a graded Manpower system. Characteristics like the employee's grade, his educational level, his age and the time spent in his actual grade, can be incorporated in the Markov model.

  7. High-grade myxofibrosarcoma-presented as a large mass of right upper arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Vitthalrao Jagtap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxofibrosarcoma is one of the rare soft tissue sarcomas. We present a case of a 65-year-old male having large soft tissue mass over right upper arm associated with surface ulceration. On histopathological study tumor was diagnosed as myxofibrosarcoma - high grade according to modified FNCLCC grading system. Like many other tumors of connective tissue, soft tissue sarcoma exhibits high recurrence. In our case, tumor showed features of high grade with local recurrence, large size; however, no evidence of metastasis was noted. For this unpredictable clinical behavior, we are presenting this case.

  8. Minimum critical mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)

  9. Study of thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in exponential mass graded lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Tejal N. [Bhavan' s Sheth R.A. College of Science, Khanpur, Ahmedabad 380 001, Gujarat (India); Gajjar, P.N., E-mail: pngajjar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009, Gujarat (India)

    2012-01-09

    Concept of exponential mass variation of oscillators along the chain length of N oscillators is proposed in the present Letter. The temperature profile and thermal conductivity of one-dimensional (1D) exponential mass graded harmonic and anharmonic lattices are studied on the basis of Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) β model. Present findings conclude that the exponential mass graded chain provide higher conductivity than that of linear mass graded chain. The exponential mass graded anharmonic chain generates the thermal rectification of 70–75% which is better than linear mass graded materials, so far. Thus instead of using linear mass graded material, the use of exponential mass graded material will be a better and genuine choice for controlling the heat flow at nano-scale. -- Highlights: ► In PRE 82 (2010) 040101, use of mass graded material as a thermal devices is explored. ► Concept of exponential mass graded material is proposed. ► The rectification obtained is about 70–75% which is better than linear mass graded materials. ► The exponential mass graded material will be a better choice for the thermal devices at nano-scale.

  10. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  11. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm mimicking an adnexal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian, Daniel Alin; Grama, Florin Andrei; Becheanu, Gabriel; Pop, Anamaria; Popa, Ileana; Şurlin, Valeriu; Stănilescu, Sorin; Bratu, Ana Magdalena; Burcoş, Traean

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant epithelial neoplasm of the appendix, an uncommon disorder encountered in clinical practice, which poses a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report a particular case in which the appendix was abnormally located in the pelvis, mimicking an adnexal mass. Therefore, it was difficult to make the preoperative diagnosis on clinical examination, imaging studies and laboratory tests and we discovered the lesion during the diagnostic laparoscopy. No lymphadenopathy or mucinous ascites were found. The case was completely handled via the laparoscopic approach keeping the appendix intact during the operation. The frozen section, the detailed histopathology overview as well as multiple immunostaining with a complex panel of markers report diagnosed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) with no invasion of the wall. No adjuvant therapy was considered needed. At a one-year follow-up oncological assessment, the patient was free of disease. In women with cystic mass in the right iliac fossa an appendiceal mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Laparoscopic appendectomy can represent an adequate operation for the appendiceal mucinous neoplasm if the histological report is clear and surgical precautionary measures are taken.

  12. Alternative Grading Systems. The Practitioner, Vol. III, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, Nancy; Thomson, Scott

    After examining some of the pros and cons of traditional grading, the demands colleges make on grading practices, and the responses of people interested in grading, a number of examples of operating alternative systems are given. The alternatives include a dual (pass/withdraw grading in some courses, traditional grading in others) system, a…

  13. Graded thermal insulation layer systems; Gradierte Waermedaemmschichtsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leushake, U.; Krell, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung

    1996-12-31

    Graded thermal insulation systems reduce local stresses between two layers. Grading usually involves a concentration variation in a second phase but may also involve variations of the microstructure or chemical composition. The contribution discusses the application of this technique for thermal protection of turbine blades in aircraft propulsion systems. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe gradierter Waermeschichtsysteme ist es moeglich die lokalen Spannungen zwischen zwei Schichten zu verringern. Die Gradierung umfasst meistens eine Variation des Gehaltes einer zweiten Phase, kann aber auch die Variation der Mikrostruktur oder der chemischen Zusammensetzung beinhalten. In diesem Beitrag wird auf die Anwendung als thermischer Schutz von Turbinenschaufeln fuer Flugtriebwerke eingegangen.

  14. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  15. Comparing 2 Whiplash Grading Systems to Predict Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Bagherian, Alireza; Mickelsen, Patrick K; Wagner, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Two whiplash severity grading systems have been developed: Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders (QTF-WAD) and the Croft grading system. The majority of clinical studies to date have used the modified grading system published by the QTF-WAD in 1995 and have demonstrated some ability to predict outcome. But most studies include only injuries of lower severity (grades 1 and 2), preventing a broader interpretation. The purpose of this study was assess the ability of these grading systems to predict clinical outcome within the context of a broader injury spectrum. This study evaluated both grading systems for their ability to predict the bivalent outcome, recovery, within a sample of 118 whiplash patients who were part of a previous case-control designed study. Of these, 36% (controls) had recovered, and 64% (cases) had not recovered. The discrete bivariate distribution between recovery status and whiplash grade was analyzed using the 2-tailed cross-tabulation statistics. Applying the criteria of the original 1993 Croft grading system, the subset comprised 1 grade 1 injury, 32 grade 2 injuries, 53 grade 3 injuries, and 32 grade 4 injuries. Applying the criteria of the modified (QTF-WAD) grading system, there were 1 grade 1 injury, 89 grade 2 injuries, and 28 grade 3 injuries. Both whiplash grading systems correlated negatively with recovery; that is, higher severity grades predicted a lower probability of recovery, and statistically significant correlations were observed in both, but the Croft grading system substantially outperformed the QTF-WAD system on this measure. The Croft grading system for whiplash injury severity showed a better predictive measure for recovery status from whiplash injuries as compared with the QTF-WAD grading system.

  16. Comparative evaluation of six cytological grading systems in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Robinson′s grading system is simple, more objective and reproducible, and demonstrated the best concordance with histological grading. So, Robinson′s system should be used routinely for breast carcinoma aspirates.

  17. [Reproducibility of Fuhrman nuclear grade: advantages of a two-grade system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneux, Hervé; Lindner, Véronique; Lang, Hervé; Massfelder, Thierry; Meyer, Nicolas; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2006-06-01

    The Fuhrman nuclear grade is the reference histoprognostic grading system routinely used all over the world for renal cell carcinoma. Studies measuring the inter-observer and intra-observer concordance of Fuhrman grade show poor results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. These variations are due to a certain degree of subjectivity of the pathologist in application of the definition of tumour grade, particularly nuclear grade. Elements able to account for this subjectivity in renal cell carcinoma are identified from a review of the literature. To improve the reliability of nuclear grade, the territory occupied by the highest grade must be specified and the grades should probably be combined. At the present time, regrouping of grade 1 and 2 tumours as low grade and grade 3 and 4 tumours as high grade would achieve better reproducibility, while preserving the prognostic: value for overall survival. The development of new treatment modalities and their use in adjuvant situations will imply the use of reliable histoprognostic factors to specify, indications.

  18. Preliminary work in developing sawbolt grading systems for white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; Everette D. Rast

    1971-01-01

    This paper is principally a description of one technique used in the development of white oak (Quercus alba L.) sawbolt grades--not a final sawbolt grading system for the species over its range. This technique can be used by anyone in developing other bolt-grade specifications or in refining the system presented in this paper.

  19. Comparison of the reliability of two hydronephrosis grading systems: The Society for Foetal Urology grading system vs. the Onen grading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.-Y.; Kim, M.-J.; Yoon, C.S.; Lee, M.S.; Han, K.H.; Lee, M.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the reliability of the conventional ultrasonography grading system for hydronephrosis as suggested by the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) in 1993 and that developed by Onen in 2007. Materials and methods: One hundred and eighty kidneys in 90 paediatric patients were assessed by four radiologists using each of the two grading systems twice. The SFU system was graded 0–4 (0 = no hydronephrosis; 1 = visualized only renal pelvis; 2 = plus a few caliceal dilatation; 3 = all calyceal dilatation; 4 = plus parenchymal thinning). The Onen system was graded 0–4 (0 = no hydronephrosis; 1 = only renal pelvic dilatation; 2 = plus caliceal dilatation; 3 = plus 50% renal parenchymal loss). Cohen's kappa statistic was used to estimate intra- and interobserver agreement. The weighted least-squares approach was used to compare the intra-observer agreement, and bootstrapping was used to compare the interobserver agreement between the two systems. Results: Intra-observer agreement was substantial to almost perfect in both the SFU (κ 0.79–0.95) and the Onen (κ 0.66–0.97) grading system without difference. The overall interobserver agreement was substantial in both the SFU (κ 0.61–0.68) and the Onen (κ 0.66–0.76) grading system. However, interobserver agreement was fair to moderate for SFU grades 1 and 2 and Onen grades 2 and 3. Conclusion: Both the SFU and Onen grading system are reliable with good intra- and interobserver agreement. However, decreased interobserver agreement was demonstrated for SFU grades 1 and 2 and Onen grades 2 and 3

  20. Functionally graded biomimetic energy absorption concept development for transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Mechanics of a functionally graded cylinder subject to static or dynamic axial loading is considered, including a potential application as energy absorber. The mass density and stiffness are power functions of the radial coordinate as may be the case...

  1. Dynamics of Variable Mass Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Fidelis O.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of mass loss on the attitude behavior of spinning bodies in flight. The principal goal is to determine whether there are circumstances under which the motion of variable mass systems can become unstable in the sense that their transverse angular velocities become unbounded. Obviously, results from a study of this kind would find immediate application in the aerospace field. The first part of this study features a complete and mathematically rigorous derivation of a set of equations that govern both the translational and rotational motions of general variable mass systems. The remainder of the study is then devoted to the application of the equations obtained to a systematic investigation of the effect of various mass loss scenarios on the dynamics of increasingly complex models of variable mass systems. It is found that mass loss can have a major impact on the dynamics of mechanical systems, including a possible change in the systems stability picture. Factors such as nozzle geometry, combustion chamber geometry, propellant's initial shape, size and relative mass, and propellant location can all have important influences on the system's dynamic behavior. The relative importance of these parameters on-system motion are quantified in a way that is useful for design purposes.

  2. Development of an automatic visual grading system for grafting seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subo Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a visual grading system of vegetable grafting machine was developed. The study described key technology of visual grading system of vegetable grafting machine. First, the contrasting experiment was conducted between acquired images under blue background light and natural light conditions, with the blue background light chosen as lighting source. The Visual C++ platform with open-source computer vision library (Open CV was used for the image processing. Subsequently, maximum frequency of total number of 0-valued pixels was predicted and used to extract the measurements of scion and rootstock stem diameters. Finally, the developed integrated visual grading system was experimented with 100 scions and rootstock seedlings. The results showed that success rate of grading reached up to 98%. This shows that selection and grading of scion and rootstock could be fully automated with this developed visual grading system. Hence, this technology would be greatly helpful for improving the grading accuracy and efficiency.

  3. [The WHO/ISUP grading system for renal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, H

    2016-07-01

    Histological tumor grading is an accepted prognostic parameter of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In 2012, the International Society of Urologic Pathologists (ISUP) proposed a novel grading system for RCC, mainly based on the evaluation of nucleoli: grade 1 tumors have nucleoli that are inconspicuous and basophilic at ×400 magnification; grade 2 tumors have nucleoli that are clearly visible at ×400 magnification and eosinophilic; grade 3 tumors have clearly visible nucleoli at ×100 magnification; and grade 4 tumors have extreme pleomorphism or rhabdoid and/or sarcomatoid morphology. This grading system was validated for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. At the same time, the ISUP proposed not grading chromophobe renal cell carcinomas according to this system. At a consensus conference in Zurich the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the ISUP grading system; thus, the WHO/ISUP grading system is now going to be implemented internationally. The ISUP/WHO grading system has not been validated as a prognostic parameter for other tumor subtypes, but can be used for descriptive purposes.

  4. The Changing Landscape of Grading Systems in US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven B.; Leidman, Mary Beth; Longcore, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The following study explores the landscape of grading systems utilised in higher education, focusing on the frequency of different types of assessment scales (including Straight Letter, Plus/Minus, and other alternative policies). Although numerous studies have explored the relationship between university grading system and student behaviour,…

  5. Systems of neutrinos with mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, S.R. de

    1984-01-01

    From the formalism of relativistic kinetic theory and the weak interaction Lagrangian the volume viscosity of a massive neutrino system is derived. Its value is calculated as a function of the neutrino mass and the temperature. Its role in the way of expanding or contraction of neutrino clouds in the universe is discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Fractal Behavior Of Gleason And Srigley Grading Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Serbanescu

    2016-06-01

    In-class variation was 0.045 using the box-counting algorithm and 0.048 using the R-VA algorithm for Gleason grading system and 0.161 using the box-counting algorithm and 0.178 using the R-VA algorithm for Srigley grading system. Inter-class variation was, for Gleason grading system 13/28 using the box-counting algorithm and 20/28 using the R-VA algorithm while for the Srigley grading system was 3/6 using the box-counting algorithm and 5/6 using the R-VA algorithm respectively. Srigley grading system seems to perform better than Gleason’s on inter-class variation, but has lower performance on in-class variation. Nevertheless, we must note that there is a large difference between the two systems regarding the number of classes. The FD computed with the R-VA algorithm has better discrimination results than the one computed with the box-counting algorithm in both grading systems, thus proving once again the R-VA’s performance [3].

  7. Design of Control System for Kiwifruit Automatic Grading Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Zuo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The kiwifruit automatic grading machine is an important machine for postharvest processing of kiwifruit, and the control system ensures that the machine realizes intelligence. The control system for the kiwifruit automatic grading machine designed in this paper comprises a host computer and a slave microcontroller. The host computer provides a visual grading interface for the machine with a LabVIEW software, the slave microcontroller adopts an STC89C52 microcontroller as its core, and C language is used to write programs for controlling a position sensor module, push-pull type electromagnets, motor driving modules and a power supply for controlling the operation of the machine as well as the rise or descend of grading baffle plates. The ideal control effect is obtained through test, and the intelligent operation of the machine is realized.

  8. Hawaiian hydrogen mass transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.W.; Russell, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a joint effort between the scientific and business communities; to create, make and have hydrogen fuel become the primary fuel of the future. Hawaii has abundant, unharnessed renewable resources yet imports almost all of its fuel. Initiating hydrogen production and industrial application in conjunction with a prototype pilot project such as this mass transit system would not only accomplish the joining of science and business but give an environmentally safe energy alternative to the state and people of Hawaii and hopefully the world

  9. Strategy to safety grade systems replacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimler, M.; Sullivan, K.E.; Trebincevic, I.

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants is characterized by the need to satisfy the requirements of safety, reliability and man-machine ergonomics. Today digital instrumentation and control systems meet these requirements and the trend in Europe is towards full digital based nuclear power plant control systems. This paper describes Siemens (KWU) experience in nuclear power plants and development in trends within Europe. Topics which are the subject of major concern to NPP operators addressed in this paper are: human performance factors - man-machine interface; operating philosophy; safety, availability and reliability. Other aspects addressed are: Siemens open-quotes defense in depthclose quotes concept, description of Siemens digital I ampersand C systems, safety requirements and systems, I ampersand C qualification, control room ergonomics, information systems and retrofitting experience

  10. A new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Ali; Taşdelen, Neslihan; Fırat, Zeynep

    2017-04-01

    Background Chondromalacia patellae is a very common disorder. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to investigate patellar cartilage lesions, there is no descriptive MRI-based grading system for chondromalacia patellae. Purpose To propose a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding high resolution images which might be useful in precisely reporting and comparing knee examinations in routine daily practice and used in predicting natural course and clinical outcome of the patellar cartilage lesions. Material and Methods High resolution fat-saturated proton density (FS PD) images in the axial plane with corresponding T2 mapping images were reviewed. A detailed MRI grading system covering the deficiencies of the existing gradings has been set and presented on these images. Two experienced observers blinded to clinical data examined 44 knee MR images and evaluated patellar cartilage changes according to the proposed grading system. Inter- and intra-rater validity testing using kappa statistics were calculated. Results A descriptive and detailed grading system with corresponding FS PD and T2 mapping images has been presented. Inter-rater agreement was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.89). Intra-rater agreements were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.91) for observer A and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.70-0.88) for observer B (k-values). Conclusion We present a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding images and good inter- and intra-rater agreement which might be useful in reporting and comparing knee MRI examinations in daily practice and may also have the potential for using more precisely predicting prognosis and clinical outcome of the patients.

  11. A new grading system for analyzing pediatric cholesteatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Akira; Ashimori, Naoki; Tsurita, Minako; Ban, Akihiro

    2007-01-01

    We developed a new grading system to understand the complicated pathological changes of cholesteatoma in comparison to those of chronic otitis media. This grading system, based on the extent of the cholesteatoma and the surrounding pathlogical changes, is able to simply express the entire pathological condition of the ear with cholesteatoma. Using this grading system, we analyzed the ears of 48 children with cholesteatoma, who underwent tympanoplasty over the past ten years. Their ages ranged from 2 to 15 years with an average age of 8.5 years. The attic and mesotympanic cholesteatomas were associated with greater pathological changes than those observed in postero-superior quadrant cholesteatomas. The degree of the pathological change in the area surrounding the cholesteatoma appears to correlate with the degree of extention of the cholesteatoma. This system is thus considered to be useful for evaluating the improvement in the pathological conditions before and after surgery in patients with cholesteatoma. (author)

  12. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said; Sharaf, Abdel Hameed; Serry, Mohamed Yousef; Sedky, Sherif Salah

    2014-01-01

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  13. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said

    2014-02-04

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  14. Formal specifications for safety grade systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.; Smith, B.T.; Wojcik, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the findings of a study into the application of formal methods to the specification of a safety system for an operating nuclear reactor. They developed a formal specification that is used to verify and validate that no unsafe condition will result from action or inaction of the system. For this reason, the specification must facilitate thinking about, talking about, and implementing the system. In fact, the specification must provide a bridge between people (designers, engineers, policy makers) and diverse implementations (hardware, software, sensors, power supplies) at all levels. For a specification to serve as an effective linkage, it must have the following properties: (1) completeness, (2) conciseness, (3) unambiguity, and (4) communicativeness. In this paper they describe the development of a specification that has three properties. This development is based on the use of formal methods, i.e., methods that add mathematical rigor to the development, analysis and operation of computer systems and to applications based thereon (Neumann). They demonstrate that a specification derived from a formal basis facilitates development of the design and its subsequent verification

  15. Property ($T$) for groups graded by root systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Mikhail; Kassabov, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The authors introduce and study the class of groups graded by root systems. They prove that if \\Phi is an irreducible classical root system of rank \\geq 2 and G is a group graded by \\Phi, then under certain natural conditions on the grading, the union of the root subgroups is a Kazhdan subset of G. As the main application of this theorem the authors prove that for any reduced irreducible classical root system \\Phi of rank \\geq 2 and a finitely generated commutative ring R with 1, the Steinberg group {\\mathrm St}_{\\Phi}(R) and the elementary Chevalley group \\mathbb E_{\\Phi}(R) have property (T). They also show that there exists a group with property (T) which maps onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank \\geq 2, thereby providing a "unified" proof of expansion in these groups.

  16. UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

    2003-05-12

    The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

  17. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha; Li, Yafeng

    2017-10-10

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  18. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide powder and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Total Carbon by Combustion and Gravimetry 7-17 Total Boron by Titrimetry 18-28 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 29-38 Chloride and Fluoride Separation by Pyrohydrolysis 39-45 Chloride by Constant-Current Coulometry 46-54 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 55-63 Water by Constant-Voltage Coulometry 64-72 Impurities by Spectrochemical Analysis 73-81 Soluble Boron by Titrimetry 82-95 Soluble Carbon by a Manometric Measurement 96-105 Metallic Impurities by a Direct Reader Spectrometric Method 106-114

  19. Curriculum Development for Enhancing Grade Nine Students' Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernthaisong, Preeyanan; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the development of a curriculum for enhancing grade 9 students' cognitive skills using a curriculum based on Systems Thinking Process. There were 3 phases: 1) studying of the problem; 2) development of tentative curriculum; and 3) implementation of the curriculum in a pilot study. The samples were 32…

  20. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan; Merkies, Ingemar Sergio José; Barreira, A. A.; Bennett, D.; van den Bergh, P. Y. K.; Bril, V.; Devigili, G.; Hadden, R. D.; Hahn, A. F.; Hartung, H.-P.; Hughes, R. A. C.; Illa, I.; Katzberg, H.; Léger, J.-M.; Lewis, R. A.; Lunn, M. P. T.; Nascimento, O. J. M.; Nobile-Orazio, E.; Padua, L.; Pouget, J.; Reilly, M. M.; van Schaik, I.; Smith, B.; de Visser, M.; Walk, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal

  1. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Vanhoutte (Els); C.G. Faber (Carin); S.I. van Nes (Sonja); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); D.R. Cornblath (David); A.J. Kooj (Anneke); E.A. Cats (Elisabeth); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); N.C. Notermans (Nicolette); W.L. van der Pol (Ludo); M.C.E. Hermans; N.A.M.E. van der Beek (Nadine); K.C. Gorson (Kenneth); M. Eurelings (Marijke); L. Engelsman (Lyda); H. Boot (Hendrik); R.J. Meijer (Ron); G. Lauria (Giuseppe); C. Tennant (Christopher); I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the

  2. A revision of the Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic grading system with special consideration to grade II laryngoscopic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain khan Z

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to provide adequate respiration for the patient. The most vital element in providing functional respiration is the airway. No anesthetic is safe unless diligent efforts are devoted to maintaining an intact functional airway. Difficult intubation had been classified into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy by Cormack and Lehane in 1984. This grading system has been in use to evaluate and manage those patients with difficult airway by anesthesiologists. In clinical state, grades III and IV are quite rare, so the need for a modified Cormack and Lehane grading system was felt. The use of a modified Cormack-Lehane scoring system of laryngoscopic views during direct laryngoscopy, was previously examined in the Western population. Koh and his co-workers had examined this modified Cormack and Lehane grading system in Asian population in a study in Singapore General Hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate this scoring system in Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross sectional study, a modified version of the Cormack and Lehane grading system was evaluated in 300 patients requiring tracheal intubation. In the modified system, grade II (only part of the glottis is visible was divided into IIa (part of the cords is visible and IIb (only the arytenoids or the very posterior origin of the cords are visible. Difficult intubation was defined as requiring more than one laryngoscopy or the use of special equipments.Results: Sixty eight patients (22.7% were scored as grade IIa and 32 (7.7% as grade IIb. The prevalence of difficult intubation in grade IIb was significantly higher than patients in group IIa (47.8% vs. 2.9% respectively, Fisher's exact test, p= 0.001Conclusion: The modified grading system provides more information than the original Cormack and Lehane system."n 

  3. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  4. Unstable mass outflow from a binary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, K [Tokyo Univ., Mitaka (Japan). Tokyo Astronomical Observatory; Sugimoto, D

    1976-12-01

    A contact binary system which fills the outer Lagrangian lobe is unstable against the mass loss from the second Lagrangian point. The effect of the mass loss on the remaining system is studied for several typical cases. It is shown that the separation between the components at the periastron decreases with a high rate in most cases; therefore, the system continues to lose mass once gas begins to flow out from the second Lagrangian point.

  5. Heat and mass transfer of a second grade magnetohydrodynamic fluid over a convectively heated stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidas Das

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work is concerned with heat and mass transfer of an electrically conducting second grade MHD fluid past a semi-infinite stretching sheet with convective surface heat flux. The analysis accounts for thermophoresis and thermal radiation. A similarity transformations is used to reduce the governing equations into a dimensionless form. The local similarity equations are derived and solved using Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique together with Runge–Kutta sixth order integration scheme. Results for various flow characteristics are presented through graphs and tables delineating the effect of various parameters characterizing the flow. Our analysis explores that the rate of heat transfer enhances with increasing the values of the surface convection parameter. Also the fluid velocity and temperature in the boundary layer region rise significantly for increasing the values of thermal radiation parameter.

  6. Defence in depth by 'Leittechnique' systems with graded intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the past, only two types of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems were in use in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG): safety systems and operational systems. Present nuclear power plant 'Leittechnique' systems in the FRG have been expanded from this 'black-and-white' status to multiple-grade systems with respect to safety, qualification requirements and intelligence. The extensive experience of the past has encouraged the rule-making committees - representing all parties working in the nuclear field - to differentiate between the protection limitations and condition limitations of the reactor protection system on one hand and the information systems (including the accident monitoring and alarm system) of different safety importance on the other, assuming additional extensive application of non-safety-grade operational Leittechnique systems. These definitions of categories are in accordance with international practice and enable designers to apply 'echelons of defence', composed of equipment of all categories, in accordance with 'defence-in-depth' concepts. They also simplify the introduction of computerized equipment, especially in the lower safety categories. Status, background and reasons of the introduction, as well as typical defence-in-depth modes, of the first running Leittechnique system of this kind (in the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant) and especially their different tasks in disturbance handling are described. The international situation and future developments are briefly characterized. (author)

  7. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    In November, 2014, 65 prostate cancer pathology experts, along with 17 clinicians including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists from 19 different countries gathered in a consensus conference to update the grading of prostate cancer, last revised in 2005. The major conclusions were: (1) Cribriform glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (2) Glomeruloid glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (3) Grading of mucinous carcinoma of the prostate should be based on its underlying growth pattern rather than grading them all as pattern 4; and (4) Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma should not be assigned a Gleason grade and a comment as to its invariable association with aggressive prostate cancer should be made. Regarding morphologies of Gleason patterns, there was clear consensus on: (1) Gleason pattern 4 includes cribriform, fused, and poorly formed glands; (2) The term hypernephromatoid cancer should not be used; (3) For a diagnosis of Gleason pattern 4, it needs to be seen at 10x lens magnification; (4) Occasional/seemingly poorly formed or fused glands between well-formed glands is insufficient for a diagnosis of pattern 4; (5) In cases with borderline morphology between Gleason pattern 3 and pattern 4 and crush artifacts, the lower grade should be favored; (6) Branched glands are allowed in Gleason pattern 3; (7) Small solid cylinders represent Gleason pattern 5; (8) Solid medium to large nests with rosette-like spaces should be considered to represent Gleason pattern 5; and (9) Presence of unequivocal comedonecrosis, even if focal is indicative of Gleason pattern 5. It was recognized by both pathologists and clinicians that despite the above changes, there were deficiencies with the Gleason system. The Gleason grading system ranges from 2 to 10, yet 6 is the lowest score currently assigned. When patients are told that they have a Gleason score 6 out

  8. A New Grading System for the Management of Antenatal Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Joana; Parekh, Rulan S; Piscione, Tino D; Hassouna, Tarek; Figueroa, Victor; Gonima, Paula; Vargas, Isis; Farhat, Walid; Rosenblum, Norman D

    2015-10-07

    Standard clinical assessments do not predict surgical intervention in patients with a moderate degree of upper tract hydronephrosis. This study investigated whether combined measures of renal calyceal dilation and anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis at the first postnatal ultrasound better predict surgical intervention beyond standard assessments of the APD or Society of Fetal Urology (SFU) grading system. A retrospective cohort of 348 children with antenatal hydronephrosis followed from 2003 to 2013 were studied. Using Cox regression, the risk for surgery by APD, SFU, and combined grading on the basis of the first postnatal ultrasound was calculated. The predictive capability of each grading system for surgery was determined by calculating the positive likelihood ratio (LR+). The combination of APD≥6-9 mm and diffuse caliectasis had a hazard ratio (HR) of 19.5 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.94 to 96.9) versus 0.59 (95% CI, 0.05 to 6.53) for APD≥6-9 mm alone and a similar risk of 8.9 for SFU grade 3 (95% CI, 3.84 to 20.9). The combination of APD≥9-15 mm and diffuse caliectasis had an HR of 18.7 (95% CI, 4.36 to 80.4) versus 1.75 (95% CI, 0.29 to 10.5) for APD≥9-15 mm alone. The LR+ for surgery for diffuse caliectasis and APD≥6-9 mm was higher than for APD≥6-9 mm alone (HR=2.62; 95% CI, 0.87 to 7.94 versus HR=0.04; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.32) and was higher for APD≥9-15 mm and diffuse caliectasis than APD≥9-15 mm alone (HR=2.0; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.45 versus HR=0.14; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.43). Both combined groups of moderate hydronephrosis (APD≥6-9 mm or ≥9-15 mm with diffuse caliectasis) had only slightly higher LR+ than SFU grade 3 (HR=1.89; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.05). These results suggest a grading system combining APD and diffuse caliectasis distinguishes those children with moderate degrees of upper tract hydronephrosis that are at higher risk of surgery. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard covers analytical procedures to determine compliance of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to specifications. The following methods are described in detail: uranium by ferrous sulfate reduction-potassium dichromate titrimetry and by ignition gravimetry; specific gravity by pycnometry; free acid by oxalate complexation; thorium by the Arsenazo(III) (photometric) method; chromium by the diphenylcarbazide (photometric) method; molybdenum by the thiocyanate (photometric) method; halogens separation by steam distillation; fluorine by specific ion electrode; halogen distillate analysis: chloride, bromide and iodide by amperometric microtitrimetry; bromine by the fluorescein (photometric) method; sulfate sulfur by (photometric) turbidimetry; phosphorus by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; silicon by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; carbon by persulfate oxidation-acid titrimetry; nonvolatile impurities by spectrography; volatile impurities by rotating-disk spark spectrography; boron by emission spectrography; impurity elements by spark source mass spectrography; isotopic composition by multiple filament surface-ionization mass spectrometry; uranium-232 by alpha spectrometry; total alpha activity by direct alpha counting; fission product activity by beta and gamma counting; entrained organic matter by infrared spectrophotometry

  10. Statistical Outlier Detection for Jury Based Grading Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Rosas, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that was developed to identify statistical outliers from the scores of grading jury members in a large project-based first year design course. The background and requirements for the outlier detection system are presented. The outlier detection algorithm...... and the follow-up procedures for score validation and appeals are described in detail. Finally, the impact of various elements of the outlier detection algorithm, their interactions, and the sensitivity of their numerical values are investigated. It is shown that the difference in the mean score produced...... by a grading jury before and after a suspected outlier is removed from the mean is the single most effective criterion for identifying potential outliers but that all of the criteria included in the algorithm have an effect on the outlier detection process....

  11. Lens subluxation grading system: predictive value for ectopia lentis surgical outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Waiswol; Niro Kasahara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present a classification system to grade ectopia lentis and to assess its usefulness as a predictor for surgical outcomes. Methods: Fifty-one eyes of 28 patients with either simple (19 patients) or Marfan syndrome-associated ectopia lentis (nine patients) with variable degrees of subluxation were operated on. Lens subluxation intensity was graded according to the lens subluxation grading system (LSGS) from grade 1 (lens on the whole pupillary area) up to grade 4 (lens absent fro...

  12. Reliability of injury grading systems for patients with blunt splenic trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, D. C.; van der Vlies, C. H.; Scheerder, M. J.; de Haan, R. J.; Beenen, L. F. M.; Goslings, J. C.; van Delden, O. M.

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used grading system for blunt splenic injury is the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) organ injury scale. In 2007 a new grading system was developed. This 'Baltimore CT grading system' is superior to the AAST classification system in predicting the need for

  13. Relationships of nuclear, architectural and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grading systems in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toptaş, Tayfun; Peştereli, Elif; Bozkurt, Selen; Erdoğan, Gülgün; Şimşek, Tayup

    2018-03-01

    To examine correlations among nuclear, architectural, and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grading systems, and their relationships with lymph node (LN) involvement in endometrioid endometrial cancer. Histopathology slides of 135 consecutive patients were reviewed with respect to tumor grade and LN metastasis. Notable nuclear atypia was defined as grade 3 nuclei. FIGO grade was established by raising the architectural grade (AG) by one grade when the tumor was composed of cells with nuclear grade (NG) 3. Correlations between the grading systems were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, and relationships of grading systems with LN involvement were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Correlation analysis revealed a significant and strongly positive relationship between FIGO and architectural grading systems (r=0.885, p=0.001); however, correlations of nuclear grading with the architectural (r=0.535, p=0.165) and FIGO grading systems (r=0.589, p=0.082) were moderate and statistically non-significant. Twenty-five (18.5%) patients had LN metastasis. LN involvement rates differed significantly between tumors with AG 1 and those with AG 2, and tumors with FIGO grade 1 and those with FIGO grade 2. In contrast, although the difference in LN involvement rates failed to reach statistical significance between tumors with NG 1 and those with NG 2, it was significant between NG 2 and NG 3 (p=0.042). Although all three grading systems were associated with LN involvement in univariate analyses, an independent relationship could not be established after adjustment for other confounders in multivariate analysis. Nuclear grading is significantly correlated with neither architectural nor FIGO grading systems. The differences in LN involvement rates in the nuclear grading system reach significance only in the setting of tumor cells with NG 3; however, none of the grading systems was an independent predictor of LN involvement.

  14. TSUNAMI analysis of the applicability of proposed experiments to reactor-grade and weapons-grade mixed-oxide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Hopper, Calvin M.; Elam, Karla R.

    2005-01-01

    The applicability of proposed critical experiments for the criticality code validation of a series of prototypic reactor-grade and weapons-grade mixed-oxide systems has been assessed with the TSUNAMI methodology from SCALE 5. The application systems were proposed by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety MOX Experimental Needs Working Group. Forty-eight application systems were conceived to envelope the range of conditions in processing and fabrication of reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX fuel. The applicability of 303 existing critical benchmarks to each of the 48 applications was assessed, and validation coverage was found to be lacking for certain applications. Two series of proposed critical experiments were also considered in this analysis. The TSUNAMI analysis has revealed that both series of proposed experiments are applicable to numerous configurations of the reactor-grade and weapons-grade systems. A detailed assessment of which experiments were revealed by TSUNAMI to be most applicable to specific prototypic fuel processing systems has been performed. (author)

  15. Dynamics of mechanical systems with variable mass

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The book presents up-to-date and unifying formulations for treating dynamics of different types of mechanical systems with variable mass. The starting point is overview of the continuum mechanics relations of balance and jump for open systems from which extended Lagrange and Hamiltonian formulations are derived. Corresponding approaches are stated at the level of analytical mechanics with emphasis on systems with a position-dependent mass and at the level of structural mechanics. Special emphasis is laid upon axially moving structures like belts and chains, and on pipes with an axial flow of fluid. Constitutive relations in the dynamics of systems with variable mass are studied with particular reference to modeling of multi-component mixtures. The dynamics of machines with a variable mass are treated in detail and conservation laws and the stability of motion will be analyzed. Novel finite element formulations for open systems in coupled fluid and structural dynamics are presented.

  16. The applicability of a weight loss grading system in cancer cachexia: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnildhaug, Ola Magne; Blum, David; Wilcock, Andrew; Fayers, Peter; Strasser, Florian; Baracos, Vickie E; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Kaasa, Stein; Laird, Barry; Solheim, Tora S

    2017-10-01

    A body mass index (BMI) adjusted weight loss grading system (WLGS) is related to survival in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of the WLGS by confirming its prognostic validity, evaluating its relationship to cachexia domains, and exploring its ability to predict cachexia progression. An international, prospective observational study of patients with incurable cancer was conducted. For each patient, weight loss grade was scored 0-4. Weight loss grade 0 represents a high BMI with limited weight loss, progressing through to weight loss grade 4 representing low BMI and a high degree of weight loss. Survival analyses were used to confirm prognostic validity. Analyses of variance were used to evaluate the relationship between the WLGS and cachexia domains [anorexia, dietary intake, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and physical and emotional functioning]. Cox regression was used to evaluate if the addition of cachexia domains to the WLGS improved prognostic accuracy. Predictive ability of cachexia progression was assessed by estimating proportion of patients progressing to a more advanced weight loss grade. One thousand four hundred six patients were analysed (median age 66 years; 50% female, 63% KPS ≤ 70). The overall effect of the WLGS on survival was significant as expressed by change in -2 log likelihood (P cachexia domains significantly deteriorated with increasing weight loss grade, and deterioration was greatest for dietary intake, with a difference corresponding to 0.87 standard deviations between weight loss grades 0 and 4. The addition of KPS, anorexia, and physical and emotional functioning improved the prognostic accuracy of the WLGS. Likelihood of cachexia progression was greater in patients with weight loss grade 2 (39%) than that with weight loss grade 0 (19%) or 1 (22%). The WLGS is related to survival, cachexia domains, and the likelihood of progression. Adding certain cachexia domains to the WLGS

  17. Data-driven system to predict academic grades and dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Sergi; Puertas, Eloi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the role of a tutor is more important than ever to prevent students dropout and improve their academic performance. This work proposes a data-driven system to extract relevant information hidden in the student academic data and, thus, help tutors to offer their pupils a more proactive personal guidance. In particular, our system, based on machine learning techniques, makes predictions of dropout intention and courses grades of students, as well as personalized course recommendations. Moreover, we present different visualizations which help in the interpretation of the results. In the experimental validation, we show that the system obtains promising results with data from the degree studies in Law, Computer Science and Mathematics of the Universitat de Barcelona. PMID:28196078

  18. Visual application of the American Board of Orthodontics Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Steven A; Freer, Terry J

    2005-05-01

    Assessment of treatment outcomes has traditionally been accomplished using the subjective opinion of experienced clinicians. Reduced subjectivity in the assessment of orthodontic treatment can be achieved with the use of an occlusal index. To implement an index for quality assurance purposes is time-consuming and subject to the inherent error of the index. Quality assessment of orthodontic treatment on a routine basis has been difficult to implement in private practice. To investigate whether a clinician can accurately apply the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System by direct visual inspection instead of measuring individual traits. A random sample of 30 cases was selected, including pretreatment and post-treatment upper and lower study casts and panoramic radiographs. The cases were examined and scored with the standardized measuring gauge according to the protocol provided by the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO). The records were re-examined 6 weeks later and the individual traits scored by visual inspection (VI). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment ABO gauge and VI scores. This study suggests that occlusal traits defined by the ABO Objective Grading System can be accurately assessed by visual inspection. The VI score provides a simple and convenient method for critical evaluation of treatment outcome by a clinician.

  19. Heat and mass transfer on a MHD third grade fluid with partial slip flow past an infinite vertical insulated porous plate in a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baoku, I.G.; Olajuwon, B.I.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the flow of a MHD third grade fluid, heat and mass transfer in a porous medium with partial slip flow regime. ► We examine the effects of pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and species concentration distributions. ► The values momentum and thermal boundary layers increase with increasing third grade parameter β. ► The consequences of increasing the permeability parameter m and partial slip parameter λ give rise to fluid velocity. ► The magnetic field parameter H decreases the momentum boundary layer and increases the concentration boundary layer. -- Abstract: The influence of third grade, partial slip and other thermophysical parameters on the steady flow, heat and mass transfer of viscoelastic third grade fluid past an infinite vertical insulated plate subject to suction across the boundary layer has been investigated. The space occupying the fluid is porous. The momentum equation is characterized by a highly nonlinear boundary value problem in which the order of the differential equation exceeds the number of available boundary conditions. An efficient numerical scheme of midpoint technique with Richardson’s extrapolation is employed to solve the governing system of coupled nonlinear equations of momentum, energy and concentration. Numerical calculations were carried out for different values of various interesting non-dimensional quantities in the slip flow regime with heat and mass transfer and were shown with the aid of figures. The values of the wall shear stress, the local rate of heat and mass transfers were obtained and tabulated. The analysis shows that as the fluid becomes more shear thickening, the momentum boundary layer decreases but the thermal boundary layer increases; the magnetic field strength is found to decrease with an increasing temperature distribution when the porous plate is insulated. The consequences of increasing the permeability parameter and Schmidt number decrease both the momentum

  20. Obesity, Fat Mass and Immune System: Role for Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Francisco

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation associated with a dysfunctional fat mass. Adipose tissue is now considered an extremely active endocrine organ that secretes cytokine-like hormones, called adipokines, either pro- or anti-inflammatory factors bridging metabolism to the immune system. Leptin is historically one of most relevant adipokines, with important physiological roles in the central control of energy metabolism and in the regulation of metabolism-immune system interplay, being a cornerstone of the emerging field of immunometabolism. Indeed, leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system and leptin has been shown to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. This review discusses the latest data regarding the role of leptin as a mediator of immune system and metabolism, with particular emphasis on its effects on obesity-associated metabolic disorders and autoimmune and/or inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  1. Online mass storage system detailed requirements document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for an online high density magnetic tape data storage system that can be implemented in a multipurpose, multihost environment is set forth. The objective of the mass storage system is to provide a facility for the compact storage of large quantities of data and to make this data accessible to computer systems with minimum operator handling. The results of a market survey and analysis of candidate vendor who presently market high density tape data storage systems are included.

  2. ALBI versus Child-Pugh grading systems for liver function in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Seong K; Yim, Sun Y; Suh, Sang J; Jung, Young K; Kim, Ji H; Seo, Yeon S; Yim, Hyung J; Yeon, Jong E; Byun, Kwan S; Um, Soon H

    2018-04-01

    The prognostic performance of the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as an objective method of assessing liver function was investigated. Data from 2099 patients with HCC in Korea were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The discriminative performance of ALBI grade was compared with Child-Pugh (C-P) grade for different stages or treatments. The median follow up duration was 16.2 months (range: 1.0-124.9). The median survival times were 49.7 months for C-P grade A (65.8%), 12.4 months for C-P grade B (25.5%), and 4.2 months for C-P grade C (8.6%) (P < 0.001). The median survival times were 84.2 months for ALBI grade 1 (32.8%), 25.5 months for ALBI grade 2 (53.5%), and 7.7 months for ALBI grade 3 (13.7%) (P < 0.001). In early UICC stages, ALBI grade showed better discriminative performance than C-P grade. In curative treatments, ALBI grade also showed better discriminative performance than C-P grade (Harrell's C: 0.624 (C-P grade) vs 0.667 [ALBI grade]). ALBI grade provided better prognostic performance in survival analysis and better distribution of the grades than C-P grade in HCC, suggesting that ALBI grade could be a good alternative grading system for liver function in patients with HCC. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Findings of the inspection grading system on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloria Doloressa

    2011-01-01

    The use of industrial radiography techniques evolve rapidly and widely. Various jobs in industry require the examination of welding techniques / connecting pipes and metal construction. The use of industrial radiography is one type of utilization of nuclear energy must get control so that its use does not cause harmful impacts to worker safety, community, and environment. Regulations is done through inspections, in order to supervise the observance of the terms in the licensing and legislation in the field of nuclear safety. The main purpose of inspection is to ensure the utilization of radiation sources of radiation have been used with. Findings of the inspection is a decline in the performance of licensees in meeting safety requirements. The Grading System to the findings of the inspection needs to be done to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of inspection, and it is expected that the company can improve the management of radiation safety. (author)

  4. Reliability of injury grading systems for patients with blunt splenic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, D C; van der Vlies, C H; Scheerder, M J; de Haan, R J; Beenen, L F M; Goslings, J C; van Delden, O M

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used grading system for blunt splenic injury is the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) organ injury scale. In 2007 a new grading system was developed. This 'Baltimore CT grading system' is superior to the AAST classification system in predicting the need for angiography and embolization or surgery. The objective of this study was to assess inter- and intraobserver reliability between radiologists in classifying splenic injury according to both grading systems. CT scans of 83 patients with blunt splenic injury admitted between 1998 and 2008 to an academic Level 1 trauma centre were retrospectively reviewed. Inter and intrarater reliability were expressed in Cohen's or weighted Kappa values. Overall weighted interobserver Kappa coefficients for the AAST and 'Baltimore CT grading system' were respectively substantial (kappa=0.80) and almost perfect (kappa=0.85). Average weighted intraobserver Kappa's values were in the 'almost perfect' range (AAST: kappa=0.91, 'Baltimore CT grading system': kappa=0.81). The present study shows that overall the inter- and intraobserver reliability for grading splenic injury according to the AAST grading system and 'Baltimore CT grading system' are equally high. Because of the integration of vascular injury, the 'Baltimore CT grading system' supports clinical decision making. We therefore recommend use of this system in the classification of splenic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

  6. Will Instructors Save Time Using a Specifications Grading System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Grace Prescott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Specifications Grading: Restoring Rigor, Motivating Students, and Saving Faculty Time; Linda Nilson and Claudia J. Stranny; (2014. Stylus Publishing, Sterling, VA. 184 pages.

  7. Computerized mass spectrometer data system at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.; Dupzyk, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The data systems on the three mass spectrometers at LLL are computer-controlled, pulse-counting systems synchronized to a repeatedly swept magnetic field. The data are accumulated in the memory of the computer or in a Nuclear Data ND 180 in a multi-scaler mode of operation. This mode of data acquisition allows a continuous check of the background stability and makes tune-up easier. But the main benefit is a reduction in the required ion emission rate stability. By the use of standards to set the system dead time, we have been able to utilize the sensitivity of a pulse counting system without the expense of exotic equipment

  8. Mass spectrometer data system at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The data systems on the three mass spectrometers at LLL are computer-controlled, pulse-counting systems synchronized to a repeatedly-swept magnetic field. The data are accumulated in the memory of the computer or in a Nuclear Data ND 180 in a multi-scaler mode of operation. This mode of sweeping allows a continuous check of the background stability and makes tune-up easier. But the main benefit is a reduction in the required ion emission rate stability. By the use of standards to set the system dead time, we have been able to utilize the sensitivity of a pulse counting system without the expense of exotic equipment

  9. Anatomic features of enhancing renal masses predict malignant and high-grade pathology: a preoperative nomogram using the RENAL Nephrometry score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutikov, Alexander; Smaldone, Marc C; Egleston, Brian L; Manley, Brandon J; Canter, Daniel J; Simhan, Jay; Boorjian, Stephen A; Viterbo, Rosalia; Chen, David Y T; Greenberg, Richard E; Uzzo, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    Counseling patients with enhancing renal mass currently occurs in the context of significant uncertainty regarding tumor pathology. We evaluated whether radiographic features of renal masses could predict tumor pathology and developed a comprehensive nomogram to quantitate the likelihood of malignancy and high-grade pathology based on these features. We retrospectively queried Fox Chase Cancer Center's prospectively maintained database for consecutive renal masses where a Nephrometry score was available. All patients in the cohort underwent either partial or radical nephrectomy. The individual components of Nephrometry were compared with histology and grade of resected tumors. We used multiple logistic regression to develop nomograms predicting the malignancy of tumors and likelihood of high-grade disease among malignant tumors. Nephrometry score was available for 525 of 1750 renal masses. Nephrometry score correlated with both tumor grade (p renal mass. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CT grading systems as a predictor of successful nonoperative treatment of splenic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umlas, S.L.; Cronan, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Selective nonoperative management of splenic trauma yields benefits with regard to preservation of the body's defense systems. This paper evaluates the capability of CT grading systems to predict successful non- operative management of splenic trauma in children and adults. Fifty-six patients with documented splenic injury were assessed with CT following standard trauma protocols. Each of these CT scans were graded according to the three recently proposed splenic trauma systems. The charts of these patients were then reviewed, and correlations between the CT grade and the clinical outcome were determined for each of these three grading systems

  11. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  12. Quantitative assessment of graded burn wounds using a commercial and research grade laser speckle imaging (LSI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponticorvo, A.; Rowland, R.; Yang, B.; Lertsakdadet, B.; Crouzet, C.; Bernal, N.; Choi, B.; Durkin, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Burn wounds are often characterized by injury depth, which then dictates wound management strategy. While most superficial burns and full thickness burns can be diagnosed through visual inspection, clinicians experience difficulty with accurate diagnosis of burns that fall between these extremes. Accurately diagnosing burn severity in a timely manner is critical for starting the appropriate treatment plan at the earliest time points to improve patient outcomes. To address this challenge, research groups have studied the use of commercial laser Doppler imaging (LDI) systems to provide objective characterization of burn-wound severity. Despite initial promising findings, LDI systems are not commonplace in part due to long acquisition times that can suffer from artifacts in moving patients. Commercial LDI systems are being phased out in favor of laser speckle imaging (LSI) systems that can provide similar information with faster acquisition speeds. To better understand the accuracy and usefulness of commercial LSI systems in burn-oriented research, we studied the performance of a commercial LSI system in three different sample systems and compared its results to a research-grade LSI system in the same environments. The first sample system involved laboratory measurements of intralipid (1%) flowing through a tissue simulating phantom, the second preclinical measurements in a controlled burn study in which wounds of graded severity were created on a Yorkshire pig, and the third clinical measurements involving a small sample of clinical patients. In addition to the commercial LSI system, a research grade LSI system that was designed and fabricated in our labs was used to quantitatively compare the performance of both systems and also to better understand the "Perfusion Unit" output of commercial systems.

  13. Revisions of the Learning Mastery Systems for the Harper and Row Grades One and Two and the Macmillan Bank Street Grade One Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Jacqueline; And Others

    The revisions on the Learning Mastery Systems (LMSs) for the Harper & Row grade-one and grade-two and the Macmillan Bank Street grade-one reading programs are outlined in this document. A rationale for the revisions is presented. An LMS is a set of materials and procedures prepared by the southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) as an…

  14. Nuclear molecular structure in heavy mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctaedius, T.; Bargholtz, C.

    1989-04-01

    A study is made of nuclear molecular configurations involving one heavy mass partner. The stability of these configurations to mass flow and to fission is investigated as well as their population in fusion reactions. It is concluded that shell effects in combination with the effects of angular momentum may be important in stabilizing certain configurations. A possible relation of these configurations to the so called superdeformed states is pointed out. The spectrum of rotational and vibrational trasitions within molecular configurations is investigated. For sufficiently mass-asymmetric systems the engergies of vibrational transitions are comparable to the neutron separation energy. Gamma radiation from such transitions may then be observable above the background of statistical transitions. The gamma spectrum and the directional distribution of the radioation following fusion reactions with 12 C and 16 O are calculated. (authors)

  15. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.4 This test method covers the determination of chlorine and fluorine in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide. With a 1 to 10-g sample, concentrations of 5 to 200 g/g of chlorine and 1 to 200 μg/g of fluorine are determined without interference. 1.5 This test method covers the determination of moisture in uranium dioxide samples. Detection limits are as low as 10 μg. 1.6 This test method covers the determination of nitride nitrogen in uranium dioxide in the range from 10 to 250 μg. 1.7 This test method covers the spectrographic analysis of nuclear-grade UO2 for the 26 elements in the ranges indicated in Table 2. 1.8 For simultaneous determination of trace ele...

  16. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  17. Web-Based Problem-Solving Assignment and Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Giles; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    In engineering courses with very specific learning objectives, such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, it is conventional to reinforce concepts and principles with problem-solving assignments and to measure success in problem solving as an indicator of student achievement. While the modern-day ease of copying and searching for online solutions can undermine the value of traditional assignments, web-based technologies also provide opportunities to generate individualized well-posed problems with an infinite number of different combinations of initial/final/boundary conditions, so that the probability of any two students being assigned identical problems in a course is vanishingly small. Such problems can be designed and programmed to be: single or multiple-step, self-grading, allow students single or multiple attempts; provide feedback when incorrect; selectable according to difficulty; incorporated within gaming packages; etc. In this talk, we discuss the use of a homework/exam generating program of this kind in a single-semester course, within a web-based client-server system that ensures secure operation.

  18. An endoscopic mucosal grading system is predictive of leak in stapled rectal anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha-Bhaskar, Sarath; Jafari, Mehraneh D; Hanna, Mark; Koh, Christina Y; Inaba, Colette S; Mills, Steven D; Carmichael, Joseph C; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2018-04-01

    Anastomotic leak is a devastating postoperative complication following rectal anastomoses associated with significant clinical and oncological implications. As a result, there is a need for novel intraoperative methods that will help predict anastomotic leak. From 2011 to 2014, patient undergoing rectal anastomoses by colorectal surgeons at our institution underwent prospective application of intraoperative flexible endoscopy with mucosal grading. Retrospective review of patient medical records was performed. After creation of the colorectal anastomosis, application of a three-tier endoscopic mucosal grading system occurred. Grade 1 was defined as circumferentially normal appearing peri-anastomotic mucosa. Grade 2 was defined as ischemia or congestion involving 30% of the colon or rectal mucosa or ischemia/congestion involving both sides of the staple line. From 2011 to 2014, a total of 106 patients were reviewed. Grade 1 anastomoses were created in 92 (86.7%) patients and Grade 2 anastomoses were created in 10 (9.4%) patients. All 4 (3.8%) Grade 3 patients underwent immediate intraoperative anastomosis takedown and re-creation, with subsequent re-classification as Grade 1. Demographic and comorbidity data were similar between Grade 1 and Grade 2 patients. Anastomotic leak rate for the entire cohort was 12.2%. Grade 1 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 9.4% (9/96) and Grade 2 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 40% (4/10). Multivariate logistic regression associated Grade 2 classification with an increased risk of anastomotic leak (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.21-13.63, P = 0.023). Endoscopic mucosal grading is a feasible intraoperative technique that has a role following creation of a rectal anastomosis. Identification of a Grade 2 or Grade 3 anastomosis should provoke strong consideration for immediate intraoperative revision.

  19. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  20. Organizing the Cellular and Molecular Heterogeneity in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by Mass Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bendall SC, Sung P, Nolan GP, Arvin AM. Single-cell mass cytometry analysis of human tonsil T cell remodeling by varicella zoster virus. Cell Rep...Perspectives on Flow Cytometry 2013, September 20, 2013, Mass Cytometry and Cell Cycle, Mexico City, Mexico (by Web Conference) Nolan: Nuclear

  1. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  2. Grading system for migrated lumbar disc herniation on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging. An agreement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.; Jeong, T.S. [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, T.; Jeon, J.Y. [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    Migrated lumbar disc herniations (LDHs) in the sagittal plane are common. Disc migration grading can be applied as a useful measurement tool in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome evaluation of migrated LDH. No study has evaluated the reliability of migrated LDH grading. We evaluated the reliability and functionality of the current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading system for migrated LDH. We assessed a six-level grading system developed based on sagittal MRI and graded according to the direction (rostral and caudal) and degree (low, high, and very high) of disc migration. One-hundred and one migrated LDHs treated with minimally invasive endoscopic discectomy were analyzed independently by two experienced radiologists. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were assessed by kappa statistics. The most common migrated LDH grade was grade 4 (30.94%; caudal, low-grade migration). Rostral and caudal migrations were more common in the upper and lower lumbar levels, respectively. Interobserver agreement in the grading of migrated LDH was good at both the first (kappa = 0.737) and second assessment (kappa = 0.657). The intraobserver agreement for reader 1 was very good (kappa = 0.827) and for reader 2 was good (kappa = 0.620). The current grading system for migrated LDH was found to be reliable and functional with good interobserver and intraobserver agreement. It may be useful in the interpretation of disc migration patterns and outcomes of various minimally invasive surgical procedures. (orig.)

  3. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Nelson, Joel B.; Egevad, Lars; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Vickers, Andrew J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.; Eastham, James A.; Wiklund, Peter; Han, Misop; Reddy, Chandana A.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Nyberg, Tommy; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite revisions in 2005 and 2014, the Gleason prostate cancer (PCa) grading system still has major deficiencies. Combining of Gleason scores into a three-tiered grouping (6, 7, 8–10) is used most frequently for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The lowest score, assigned 6, may be misunderstood as a cancer in the middle of the grading scale, and 3 + 4 = 7 and 4 + 3 = 7 are often considered the same prognostic group. Objective To verify that a new grading system accurately produces a smaller number of grades with the most significant prognostic differences, using multi-institutional and multimodal therapy data. Design, setting, and participants Between 2005 and 2014, 20 845 consecutive men were treated by radical prostatectomy at five academic institutions; 5501 men were treated with radiotherapy at two academic institutions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Outcome was based on biochemical recurrence (BCR). The log-rank test assessed univariable differences in BCR by Gleason score. Separate univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards used four possible categorizations of Gleason scores. Results and limitations In the surgery cohort, we found large differences in recurrence rates between both Gleason 3 + 4 versus 4 + 3 and Gleason 8 versus 9. The hazard ratios relative to Gleason score 6 were 1.9, 5.1, 8.0, and 11.7 for Gleason scores 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9–10, respectively. These differences were attenuated in the radiotherapy cohort as a whole due to increased adjuvant or neoadjuvant hormones for patients with high-grade disease but were clearly seen in patients undergoing radiotherapy only. A five–grade group system had the highest prognostic discrimination for all cohorts on both univariable and multivariable analysis. The major limitation was the unavoidable use of prostate-specific antigen BCR as an end point as opposed to cancer-related death. Conclusions The new PCa grading system has these benefits: more

  4. The Impact of Framing Effect on Student Preferences for University Grading Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.

    2009-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 2000; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) work in decision-making was applied to student preferences for grading practices. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 framing conditions related to how a university course might be graded: a 100 point system, a percentage system, and an open…

  5. Studies on classifying Indian coals. Part II. A new system for grading and pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluri, S.G.; Shrikhande, S.K.; Rao, S.K.; Haque, R.

    1985-07-01

    The new system is self-complete through grading to pricing. It grades non-coking coal by moisture and ash contents. Coking coal is graded by GKLT coke type and ash content. Volatile matter content is used as a supporting indexer, where necessary. Through the grade data, a coal is evaluated into a single numeral which depicts the coaly matter content and its nature or effectiveness. This value, called effective coaly matter, is converted to a relative rupee value or price index/price. Pragmatics and versatility of the system are discussed.

  6. Mass Properties for Space Systems Standards Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Current Verbiage in S-120 Applies to Dry Mass. Mass Margin is difference between Required Mass and Predicted Mass. Performance Margin is difference between Predicted Performance and Required Performance. Performance estimates and corresponding margin should be based on Predicted Mass (and other inputs). Contractor Mass Margin reserved from Performance Margin. Remaining performance margin allocated according to mass partials. Compliance can be evaluated effectively by comparison of three areas (preferably on a single sheet). Basic and Predicted Mass (including historical trend). Aggregate potential changes (threats and opportunities) which gives Mass Forecast. Mass Maturity by category (Estimated/Calculated/Actual).

  7. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  8. A proposed grading system for standardizing tumor consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Yashar, Parham; Robison, Aaron; Winer, Jesse; Khalessi, Alexander; Mack, William J; Giannotta, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    Tumor consistency plays an important and underrecognized role in the surgeon's ability to resect meningiomas, especially with evolving trends toward minimally invasive and keyhole surgical approaches. Aside from descriptors such as "hard" or "soft," no objective criteria exist for grading, studying, and conveying the consistency of meningiomas. The authors designed a practical 5-point scale for intraoperative grading of meningiomas based on the surgeon's ability to internally debulk the tumor and on the subsequent resistance to folding of the tumor capsule. Tumor consistency grades and features are as follows: 1) extremely soft tumor, internal debulking with suction only; 2) soft tumor, internal debulking mostly with suction, and remaining fibrous strands resected with easily folded capsule; 3) average consistency, tumor cannot be freely suctioned and requires mechanical debulking, and the capsule then folds with relative ease; 4) firm tumor, high degree of mechanical debulking required, and capsule remains difficult to fold; and 5) extremely firm, calcified tumor, approaches density of bone, and capsule does not fold. Additional grading categories included tumor heterogeneity (with minimum and maximum consistency scores) and a 3-point vascularity score. This grading system was prospectively assessed in 50 consecutive patients undergoing craniotomy for meningioma resection by 2 surgeons in an independent fashion. Grading scores were subjected to a linear weighted kappa analysis for interuser reliability. Fifty patients (100 scores) were included in the analysis. The mean maximal tumor diameter was 4.3 cm. The distribution of overall tumor consistency scores was as follows: Grade 1, 4%; Grade 2, 9%; Grade 3, 43%; Grade 4, 44%; and Grade 5, 0%. Regions of Grade 5 consistency were reported only focally in 14% of heterogeneous tumors. Tumors were designated as homogeneous in 68% and heterogeneous in 32% of grades. The kappa analysis score for overall tumor consistency

  9. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  10. Safety Review related to Commercial Grade Digital Equipment in Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yeongjin; Park, Hyunshin; Yu, Yeongjin; Lee, Jaeheung

    2013-01-01

    The upgrades or replacement of I and C systems on safety system typically involve digital equipment developed in accordance with non-nuclear standards. However, the use of commercial grade digital equipment could include the vulnerability for software common-mode failure, electromagnetic interference and unanticipated problems. Although guidelines and standards for dedication methods of commercial grade digital equipment are provided, there are some difficulties to apply the methods to commercial grade digital equipment for safety system. This paper focuses on regulatory guidelines and relevant documents for commercial grade digital equipment and presents safety review experiences related to commercial grade digital equipment in safety system. This paper focuses on KINS regulatory guides and relevant documents for dedication of commercial grade digital equipment and presents safety review experiences related to commercial grade digital equipment in safety system. Dedication including critical characteristics is required to use the commercial grade digital equipment on safety system in accordance with KEPIC ENB 6370 and EPRI TR-106439. The dedication process should be controlled in a configuration management process. Appropriate methods, criteria and evaluation result should be provided to verify acceptability of the commercial digital equipment used for safety function

  11. The kinetic of mass loss of grades A and B of melted TNT by isothermal and non-isothermal gravimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretedal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and activation energy of mass loss of two grades of melted TNT explosive, grade A and grade B, with freezing points of 80.57 and 78.15 °C, respectively, were studied by isothermal and non-isothermal gravimetric methods. In isothermal method, the mass loss of samples in containers of glass and aluminum was followed in temperatures of 80, 90 and 100 °C. The kinetic of the mass loss of the samples in the aluminum container was higher than the kinetic of it in the glass container that can be related to the effects of heat transfer and catalytic of aluminum metal. Also, the presence of impurities in grade B was due to increasing of kinetic of mass loss of it versus grade A. The non-isothermal curves were obtained in range of 30–330 °C at heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 °C⋅min−1. The TG/DTG data were used for determination of activation energy (Ea of mass loss of TNT samples upon degradation by using Ozawa, Kissinger, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS methods as model free methods. The activation energies of grades of A and B of TNT was obtained 99–120 and 66–70 kJ mol−1, respectively. The lower values of activation energy of the degradation reaction of grade B confirm the effect of impurities in the kinetics of mass loss of this grade. Keywords: TNT, Isothermal, Non-isothermal, Kinetic, Mass loss

  12. The Interface Between Redundant Processor Modules Of Safety Grade PLC Using Mass Storage DPRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Jae; Song, Seong Hwan; No, Young Hun; Yun, Dong Hwa; Park, Gang Min; Kim, Min Gyu; Choi, Kyung Chul; Lee, Ui Taek

    2010-01-01

    Processor module of safety grade PLC (hereinafter called as POSAFE-Q) developed by POSCO ICT provides high reliability and safety. However, POSAFEQ would have suffered a malfunction when we think taking place of abnormal operation by exceptional environmental. POSAFE-Q would not able to conduct its function normally in such case. To prevent these situations, the necessity of redundant processor module has been raised. Therefore, redundant processor module, NCPU-2Q, has been developed which has not only functions of single processor module with high reliability and safety but also functions of redundant processor

  13. Mass loss from interacting close binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The three well-defined classes of evolved binary systems that show evidence of present and/or past mass loss are the cataclysmic variables, the Algols, and Wolf-Rayet stars. It is thought that the transformation of supergiant binary systems into the very short-period cataclysmic variables must have been a complex process. The new evidence that has recently been obtained from the far ultraviolet spectra that a certain subclass of the Algols (the Serpentids) are undergoing fairly rapid evolution is discussed. It is thought probable that the remarkable mass outflow observed in them is connected with a strong wind powered by accretion. The origin of the circumbinary clouds or flat disks that probably surround many strongly interacting binaries is not clear. Attention is also given to binary systems with hot white dwarf or subdwarf components, such as the symbiotic objects and the BQ stars; it is noted that in them both components may be prone to an enhanced stellar wind.

  14. Lens subluxation grading system: predictive value for ectopia lentis surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Waiswol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a classification system to grade ectopia lentis and to assess its usefulness as a predictor for surgical outcomes. Methods: Fifty-one eyes of 28 patients with either simple (19 patients or Marfan syndrome-associated ectopia lentis (nine patients with variable degrees of subluxation were operated on. Lens subluxation intensity was graded according to the lens subluxation grading system (LSGS from grade 1 (lens on the whole pupillary area up to grade 4 (lens absent from the pupillary area. Thirty eyes underwent cataract extraction (“dry” aspiration with endocapsular ring and in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Twenty-one eyes underwent cataract extraction (“dry” aspiration with scleral fixation of the IOL. The predictive value of the LSGS was assessed by analyzing the post-operative outcomes, including visual acuity (VA, endothelial cell loss, and complications for each grade on the grading system. Rresults: Patients were classified into grade 1 (19.6%, grade 2 (51% and grade 3 (29.4%. Post-operative VA was lower for eyes with larger degrees of subluxation. The higher the subluxation grade, the higher the endothelial cell loss, as well as, the frequency of vitreous loss and surgical time. Higher subluxation grades prevented optimal surgical outcomes with endocapsular ring and in-the-bag IOL implantation. Cconclusions: The LSGS provides an estimate of the surgical success of ectopia lentis. Adequate standardization of lens subluxation is crucial for understanding studies dealing with the surgical correction of this disorder.

  15. Precise Masses in the WASP-47 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Mortier, Annelies; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; López-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Bouchy, François; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cosentino, Rosario; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Dumusque, Xavier; Fiorenzano, Aldo; Harutyunyan, Avet; Johnson, John Asher; Lorenzi, Vania; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Pedani, Marco; Pepe, Francesco; Piotto, Giampaolo; Phillips, David; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    We present precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47, a star known to host a hot Jupiter, a distant Jovian companion, and, uniquely, two additional transiting planets in short-period orbits: a super-Earth in a ≈19 hr orbit, and a Neptune in a ≈9 day orbit. We analyze our observations from the HARPS-N spectrograph along with previously published data to measure the most precise planet masses yet for this system. When combined with new stellar parameters and reanalyzed transit photometry, our mass measurements place strong constraints on the compositions of the two small planets. We find that, unlike most other ultra-short-period planets, the inner planet, WASP-47 e, has a mass (6.83 ± 0.66 {M}\\oplus ) and a radius (1.810 ± 0.027 {R}\\oplus ) that are inconsistent with an Earth-like composition. Instead, WASP-47 e likely has a volatile-rich envelope surrounding an Earth-like core and mantle. We also perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the orbital inclination of WASP-47 c, the outer Jovian planet. This planet likely orbits close to the plane of the inner three planets, suggesting a quiet dynamical history for the system. Our dynamical constraints also imply that WASP-47 c is much more likely to transit than a geometric calculation would suggest. We calculate a transit probability for WASP-47 c of about 10%, more than an order of magnitude larger than the geometric transit probability of 0.6%.

  16. Automated egg grading system using computer vision: Investigation on weight measure versus shape parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Ahmad Fakhri Ab; Suhaila Sabarudin, Siti; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Ghani, Ahmad Shahrizan Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Chicken egg is a source of food of high demand by humans. Human operators cannot work perfectly and continuously when conducting egg grading. Instead of an egg grading system using weight measure, an automatic system for egg grading using computer vision (using egg shape parameter) can be used to improve the productivity of egg grading. However, early hypothesis has indicated that more number of egg classes will change when using egg shape parameter compared with using weight measure. This paper presents the comparison of egg classification by the two above-mentioned methods. Firstly, 120 images of chicken eggs of various grades (A–D) produced in Malaysia are captured. Then, the egg images are processed using image pre-processing techniques, such as image cropping, smoothing and segmentation. Thereafter, eight egg shape features, including area, major axis length, minor axis length, volume, diameter and perimeter, are extracted. Lastly, feature selection (information gain ratio) and feature extraction (principal component analysis) are performed using k-nearest neighbour classifier in the classification process. Two methods, namely, supervised learning (using weight measure as graded by egg supplier) and unsupervised learning (using egg shape parameters as graded by ourselves), are conducted to execute the experiment. Clustering results reveal many changes in egg classes after performing shape-based grading. On average, the best recognition results using shape-based grading label is 94.16% while using weight-based label is 44.17%. As conclusion, automated egg grading system using computer vision is better by implementing shape-based features since it uses image meanwhile the weight parameter is more suitable by using weight grading system.

  17. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman

    2017-09-01

    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  18. Prospective validation of a surgical complications grading system in a cohort of 2114 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeh, Haggi; Cohen, Oded; Mizrahi, Ido; Hamburger, Tamar; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Abu-Wasel, Bassam; Alaiyan, Bilal; Freund, Herbert R; Eid, Ahmed; Nissan, Aviram

    2014-05-01

    We recently reported a grading system for surgical complications. This system proved to have a high sensitivity for recording minor but meaningful complications prolonging hospital stay in patients after colorectal surgery. We aimed to prospectively validate the complication grading system in a general surgery department over 1 year. All surgical procedures and related complications were prospectively recorded between January 1st and December 31st, 2009. Surgical complications were graded on a severity scale of 1-5. The system classifies short-term outcome by grade emphasizing intensity of therapy required for treatment of the defined complication. During the study period, 2114 patients underwent surgery. Elective and oncological surgeries were performed in 1606 (76%) and 465 (22%) patients, respectively. There were 422 surgical complications in 304 (14%) patients (Grade 1/2: 203 [67%]; Grade 3/4: 90 [29%]; Grade 5: 11 [4%]). Median length of stay correlated significantly with complication severity: 2.3 d for no complication, 6.2 and 11.8 d for Grades 1/2 and 3/4, respectively (P 2 (OR 2.07, P Grade (OR 1.85, P = 0.001), oncological (OR 2.82, P 120 min (OR 2.08, P grading surgical complications permits standardized reporting of surgical morbidity according to the severity of impact. Prospective validation of this system supports its use in a general surgery setting as a tool for surgical outcome assessment and quality assurance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Organizing the Cellular and Molecular Heterogeneity in High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by Mass Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    about more informed changes to treatment modalities. To accomplish this vision with HG-SOC, we are using a single cell technology , mass cytometry... extracted from the composite MST. Clusters are represented as bubbles, the size of which corresponds to the number of cells in the cluster. The level of...Fantl WJ, Nolan GP. Transient partial permeabilization with saponin enables cellular barcoding prior to surface marker staining. Cytometry A. 2014 Dec;85

  20. Possible mass distributions in the nebulae of other solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    The supernova shell fragmentation model of solar system formation - previously shown to be successful in describing the mass distribution of our solar system - is used to calculate the mass distributions of other solar nebulae. (Auth.)

  1. Rock mass classification system : transition from RMR to GSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is expected to replace the rock mass rating : (RMR) system with the Geological Strength Index (GSI) system for classifying and estimating : engineering properties of rock masses. This transition is motivat...

  2. Evaluation of anatomic and morphologic nomogram to predict malignant and high-grade disease in a cohort of patients with small renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrodia, Aditya; Harrow, Brian; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Olweny, Ephrem O; Faddegon, Stephen; Yin, Gang; Tan, Yung Khan; Han, Woong Kyu; Lotan, Yair; Margulis, Vitaly; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a nomogram using the RENAL Nephrometry Score (RENAL-NS) that was developed to characterize masses as benign vs. malignant and high vs. low grade in our patients with small renal masses treated with partial nephrectomy (PN). The nomogram was previously developed and validated in patients with widely variable tumor sizes. Retrospective review of PN performed between 1/2003 and 7/2011. Imaging was reviewed by a urologic surgeon for RENAL-NS. Final pathology was used to classify tumors as benign or malignant and low (I/II) or high (III/IV) Fuhrman grade. Patient age, gender, and RENAL score were entered into the nomogram described by Kutikov et al. to determine probabilities of cancer and high-grade disease. Area under the curve was determined to assess agreement between observed and expected outcomes for prediction of benign vs. malignant disease and for prediction of high- vs. low-grade or benign disease. A total of 250 patients with 252 masses underwent PN during the study period; 179/250 (71.6%) had preoperative imaging available. RENAL-NS was assigned to 181 masses. Twenty-two percent of tumors were benign. Eighteen percent of tumors were high grade. Area under the curve was 0.648 for predicting benign vs. malignant disease and 0.955 for predicting low-grade or benign vs. high-grade disease. The RENAL-NS score nomogram by Kutikov does not discriminate well between benign and malignant disease for small renal masses. The nomogram may potentially be useful in identifying high-grade tumors. Further validation is required where the nomogram probability and final pathologic specimen are available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A cerebral arteriovenous malformation grading system for gamma knife radiosurgery with the aim of early obliteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Hirato, Masafumi; Yokoe, Takao; Iino, Yuichi; Ohye, Chihiro; Shibazaki, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    Bleeding in the latency period before obliteration considerably worsens the prognosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Bleeding risk should be considered and total obliteration should performed as early as possible. In this study we investigated factors related to early obliteration following Gamma Knife radiosurgery and proposed a grading system for AVMs. Forty-six patients with cerebral AVMs followed angiographically within twelve months after Gamma Knife radiosurgery were analyzed. Four factors, volume, type (categorized by our own method), location, and marginal dose were found to be correlated with early obliteration rate. We scored these factors, and categorized the scores into a grade O to 6 Gamma Knife Score (GKS), and evaluated the obliteration rate of each grade. The total obliteration rate in twelve months according to grade was: grades 0 and 1, 61.9%; grades 2 and 3, 36.0%, grades 4 and 5, 16.7%. AVMs with a low GKS (grades 0 and 1) had a high early obliteration rate and seemed suitable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Since early obliteration is difficult to obtain in the high grade group, endovascular surgery should be considered to reduce the GKS before Gamma Knife radiosurgery. (author)

  4. An evaluation of the lamb and mutton carcase grading system in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), Prima B (57%), Top C .... using a 15- and 18-point scale respectively. ... The average 'car- case thickness' (kg/cm) increased when carcase mass in- creased. This was most evident for carcases in the overfat grades, i.e. Lamb 2, B2 and C2.

  5. Chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides [(U,Pu)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Mixed oxide, a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides, is used as a nuclear-reactor fuel in the form of pellets. The plutonium content may be up to 10 wt %, and the diluent uranium may be of any U-235 enrichment. In order to be suitable for use as a nuclear fuel, the material must meet certain criteria for combined uranium and plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content. Analytical procedures used to determine if mixed oxides comply with specifications are: uranium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by amperometric titration with iron (II); nitrogen by distillation spectrophotometry using Nessler reagent; carbon (total) by direct combustion-thermal-conductivity; total chlorine and fluorine by pyrohydrolysis; sulfur by distillation-spectrophotometry; moisture by the coulometric, electrolytic moisture analyzer; isotopic composition by mass spectrometry; rare earths by copper spark spectroscopy; trace impurities by carrier distillation spectroscopy; impurities by spark-source mass spectrography; total gas in reactor-grade mixed dioxide pellets; tungsten by dithiol-spectrophotometry; rare earth elements by spectroscopy; plutonium-238 isotopic abundance by alpha spectrometry; uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis by mass spectrometry; oxygen-to-metal atom ratio by gravimetry

  6. Agreement between the Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0 and the House-Brackmann Grading System in Patients with Bell Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Park, Moon Suh; Byun, Jae Yong; Chung, Ji Hyun; Na, Se Young; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    We have analyzed the correlation between the House-Brackmann (HB) scale and Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0 (FNGS 2.0) in patients with Bell palsy, and evaluated the usefulness of the new grading system. Sixty patients diagnosed with Bell palsy from May 2009 to December 2010 were evaluated using the HB scale and FNGS 2.0 scale during their initial visit, and after 3 and 6 weeks and 3 months. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.908 (P=0.000) and the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) was 0.912 (P<0.05). ICC and SCC displayed differences over time, being 0.604 and 0.626, respectively, at first visit; 0.834 and 0.843, respectively, after 3 weeks; 0.844 and 0.848, respectively, after 6 weeks; and 0.808 and 0.793, respectively, after 3 months. There was a significant difference in full recovery, depending on the scale used (HB, P=0.000; FNGS 2.0, P<0.05). The exact agreements between regional assessment and FNGS 2.0 for the mouth, eyes, and brow were 72%, 63%, and 52%, respectively. FNGS 2.0 shows moderate agreement with HB grading. Regional assessment, rather than HB grading, yields stricter evaluation, resulting in better prognosis and determination of grade.

  7. Modeling the Motion of an Increasing Mass System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, William; Harrington, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Problems on the dynamics of changing mass systems often call for the more general form of Newton's second law Fnet = dp/dt. These problems usually involve situations where the mass of the system decreases, such as in rocket propulsion. In contrast, this experiment examines a system where the mass "increases" at a constant rate and the net force…

  8. A digital squarer system for positive mass identification on the ARL ion microprobe mass analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, K.N.; Grant, L.D.V.; Rawsthorne, E.D.; Strydom, H.J.; Gries, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The original analogue squarer for mass scale linearisation in the Ion Microprobe Mass Analyser (IMMA) has been replaced by a programmable digital squarer system which permits reliable mass number identification throughout the tested range 1 to 240. The digital squarer provides signals to both a digital direct reading mass number display and to an X-Y recorder where it provides a linear mass scale correct to within 0,3 mass units. An additional output to a computer can provide binary or BCD mass number data

  9. Tomato grading system using machine vision technology and neuro-fuzzy networks (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izadi

    2016-04-01

    . This values were 70.7, 82.0, 95.7 and 75.5% for size, color, health and final system respectively. For achieving all ability of ANFIS in classifing we done the above measuring after training of machine. The results were 80.9, 89.5, 95.7 and 81% for size, color, health and final system respectively, that indicate the accuracy of the system is raised by 10%. A validation step is done in this study. The accuracy of the system is measured versus a human expert. The classification was done with 60 samples. The accuracies of machine were 75.9, 83.8, 94.2 and 76.5%. Analysis of results with qui-square test indicated that there is no significant difference between machine results and human expert choices.The validation process proved that system is useful in this purpose. Conclusions: This research was about evaluating of using machine vision and ANFIS in grading machines and done in off-line mode. The research was redirected to the following general conclusions: 1. To obtain an estimate of tomatoes, sample sizes were measured by using calipers and machine vision, the results showed that this system can be used to obtain dimensions. 2. For the purpose of size grading, the small diameter and the surface area of the image was used whichyielded 67% and 62% accuracy for determining the mass, in comparison the ANFIS system performance was precisely 81%. 3. For the purpose of color grading, red and green were used which is a better description of quality. For this the ANFIS system was used for color grading and it performed at 89.5%. 4. For the purpose of sample selection grading (dividing the rotten from the good, optical robot was used. The outcome of system ANFIS and the optical robots had the same results of selection at 95%. 5. In an aggregate or globally, the criteria from the above was used as an input for the grading and classification. Based on these inputs, the ultimate output was consequently categorized into 8 groups. The precision of the division or the selection was

  10. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  11. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    These analytical procedures are designed to show whether a given material meets the purchaser's specifications as to plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content. The following procedures are described in detail: plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by amperometric titration with iron(II); free acid by titration in an oxalate solution; free acid by iodate precipitation-potentiometric titration method; uranium by Arsenazo I spectrophotometric method; thorium by thorin spectrophotometric method; iron by 1,10-phenanthroline spectrophotometric method; chloride by thiocyanate spectrophotometric method; fluoride by distillation-spectrophotometric method; sulfate by barium sulfate turbidimetric method; isotopic composition by mass spectrometry; americium-241 by extraction and gamma counting; americium-241 by gamma counting; gamma-emitting fission products, uranium, and thorium by gamma-ray spectroscopy; rare earths by copper spark spectrochemical method; tungsten, niobium (columbium), and tantalum by spectrochemical method; simple preparation by spectrographic analysis for general impurities

  12. Grading the "good" body: a poststructural feminist analysis of body mass index initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbensky-Kerber, Anne

    2011-06-01

    This article analyzes discourse surrounding Arkansas's legislation requiring public schools to measure students' body mass index (BMI) annually and to send the scores to parents on children's report cards. Using poststructural feminist sensibilities, I explore the tensions experienced by parents, children, educators, and policymakers as this mandate was debated and implemented. The discourse illuminates salient issues about disproportionate disparities in health status that exist in communities with fewer resources, and the potentially unintended gendered consequences of health policies. I explain three dominant threads of discourse: How the economic costs of childhood obesity opened a policy window for the legislation; the presence of tensions between freedom and social control; and how BMI discourses inscribe ideological visions of bodies. Ultimately, the analysis offers insight into the discursive nature of policymaking and how class and gender are implicated in health interventions.

  13. Technical Meeting on Grading of the Application of Management System Requirements. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this Technical Meeting are threefold: - to share international experiences and lessons learned, as well as exchange views on best practices and strategies to overcome the difficulties encountered; - to review and discuss the draft technical report on 'Grading the Application of Management System Requirements, to allow the participants to contribute to the improvement of the document and to enrich it with practical examples; and - to strengthen the international networking of specialists in the field. The topics covered during the meeting will include: - Examples and case studies presented by participants from countries with nuclear facilities (mainly focused on NPPs, and, where appropriate, from research reactors, fuel cycle and waste management facilities) on grading the application of management system requirements and lessons learned. - Reviewing and improving the final draft of a technical report on 'Grading the Application of Management System Requirements', which will supersede the previous guidance: Grading of Quality Assurance Requirement: A Manual (Technical Reports Series No. 328)

  14. Developing seventh grade students' systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students' systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students' systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students' systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students' knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students' ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems' components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students' systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials.

  15. Differentiating mass from density: The effect of modeling and student dialogue in a sixth-grade classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deich, Martha L.

    The concept of density can be difficult to learn. In the middle grades, students characteristically conflate mass and density, and even after instruction many students do not distinguish them consistently (Smith, Maclin, Grosslight, & Davis, 1997). Few develop a conceptualization of density that accounts for the implications of changing mass, volume, temperature, and/or state. My work looks specifically at how students make sense of the relationship between mass and volume as they refine their understanding of density. The concept of density is challenging to teach. Traditional methods of teaching density in middle-school classrooms typically involve either the measurement of an object's mass and volume and the subsequent calculation of the ratio of the two quantities, or the observation of different materials in water to learn about their buoyancy. Unfortunately, as Carol Smith and her colleagues have documented (1985, 1992, 1997), these approaches leave many students stuck in their "commonsense frameworks" that merge mass and density into one concept. Teachers need better ways to teach density. Hence I designed an intervention to study the effects of some possibly more effective ways to teach density. I developed and taught a complex intervention (Brown, 1992) featuring student modeling, extensive student dialogue on data and data analyses, formative assessments, the substitution of hands-on inquiry for mathematical problem sets, and multiple thought experiments. The hallmarks of the intervention were modeling and student dialogue, and the research question I posed was: Does classroom practice that encourages modeling with open-ended discourse help students differentiate between the concepts of mass and density? I patterned my research on a Smith study of density instruction in eighth grade (Smith, Maclin, Grosslight, & Davis, 1997), which had a quasiexperimental research design that compared the results of teaching density differently in two classrooms. I

  16. Developing Seventh Grade Students’ Systems Thinking Skills in the Context of the Human Circulatory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students’ systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students’ systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students’ systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students’ knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students’ ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems’ components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students’ systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948

  17. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

  18. Visual MRI grading system to evaluate atrophy of the supeaspinatus muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Hong, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Ja Young; Kim, Sae Hoon; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the interobserver reproducibility and diagnostic feasibility of a visual grading system for assessing atrophy of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three independent radiologists retrospectively evaluated the occupying ratio of the supraspinatus muscle in the supraspinatus fossa on 192 shoulder MRI examinations in 188 patients using a 3-point visual grading system (1, ≥ 60%; 2, 30-59%; 3, < 30%) on oblique sagittal T1-weighted images. The inter-reader agreement and the agreement with the reference standard (3-point grades according to absolute occupying ratio values quantitatively measured by directly contouring the muscles on MRI) were analyzed using weighted kappa. The visual grading was applied by a single reader to a group of 100 consecutive patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair to retrospectively determine the association between the visual grades at preoperative state and postsurgical occurrences of retear. The inter-reader weighted kappa value for the visual grading was 0.74 when averaged across three reader pairs (0.70-0.77 for individual reader pairs). The weighted kappa value between the visual grading and the reference standard ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. There was a significant difference in retear rates of the rotator cuff between the 3 visual grades of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI in univariable analysis (p < 0.001), but not in multivariable analysis (p = 0.026). The 3-point visual grading system may be a feasible method to assess the severity of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI and assist in the clinical management of patients with rotator cuff tear.

  19. Visual MRI grading system to evaluate atrophy of the supeaspinatus muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Hong, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Ja Young; Kim, Sae Hoon; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the interobserver reproducibility and diagnostic feasibility of a visual grading system for assessing atrophy of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three independent radiologists retrospectively evaluated the occupying ratio of the supraspinatus muscle in the supraspinatus fossa on 192 shoulder MRI examinations in 188 patients using a 3-point visual grading system (1, ≥ 60%; 2, 30-59%; 3, < 30%) on oblique sagittal T1-weighted images. The inter-reader agreement and the agreement with the reference standard (3-point grades according to absolute occupying ratio values quantitatively measured by directly contouring the muscles on MRI) were analyzed using weighted kappa. The visual grading was applied by a single reader to a group of 100 consecutive patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair to retrospectively determine the association between the visual grades at preoperative state and postsurgical occurrences of retear. The inter-reader weighted kappa value for the visual grading was 0.74 when averaged across three reader pairs (0.70-0.77 for individual reader pairs). The weighted kappa value between the visual grading and the reference standard ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. There was a significant difference in retear rates of the rotator cuff between the 3 visual grades of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI in univariable analysis (p < 0.001), but not in multivariable analysis (p = 0.026). The 3-point visual grading system may be a feasible method to assess the severity of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI and assist in the clinical management of patients with rotator cuff tear.

  20. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  1. Genetic-neuro-fuzzy system for grading depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashish

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aim of this study is to develop a software prototype tool for grading and diagnosing depression that will help general physicians for first hand applications. Identification of key symptoms responsible for depression is also another important issue considered in this study. It involves collection of data taken from patients through doctors. Due to several reasons, collection of data in Indian scenario is extremely difficult and thus this tool will be very handy and useful for general physicians working at remote locations. Also, it is possible to collect a data pool through this software model. An intelligent Neuro-Fuzzy model is developed for this purpose. Performance of the said model has been optimized through two approaches. In Approach 1, where a back-propagation algorithm has been considered and in Approach 2, Genetic Algorithm has been used. The model is trained with 78 data and validated with 10 data. Approach 2 superseded Approach 1 in terms of diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, it can be said that the soft computing-based diagnostic models could assist the doctors to make informed decisions. Data for training and validation for this purpose has been collected during 2004–2005 from a Government mental hospital in India.

  2. Computer aided analysis of prostate histopathology images to support a refined Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Sadimin, Evita; Foran, David J.; Qi, Xin

    2017-02-01

    The Gleason grading system used to render prostate cancer diagnosis has recently been updated to allow more accurate grade stratification and higher prognostic discrimination when compared to the traditional grading system. In spite of progress made in trying to standardize the grading process, there still remains approximately a 30% grading discrepancy between the score rendered by general pathologists and those provided by experts while reviewing needle biopsies for Gleason pattern 3 and 4, which accounts for more than 70% of daily prostate tis- sue slides at most institutions. We propose a new computational imaging method for Gleason pattern 3 and 4 classification, which better matches the newly established prostate cancer grading system. The computer- aided analysis method includes two phases. First, the boundary of each glandular region is automatically segmented using a deep convolutional neural network. Second, color, shape and texture features are extracted from superpixels corresponding to the outer and inner glandular regions and are subsequently forwarded to a random forest classifier to give a gradient score between 3 and 4 for each delineated glandular region. The F1 score for glandular segmentation is 0.8460 and the classification accuracy is 0.83+/-0.03.

  3. Development and Assessment of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center’s Surgical Secondary Events Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Vivian E.; Selby, Luke V.; Sovel, Mindy; Disa, Joseph J.; Hoskins, William; DeMatteo, Ronald; Scardino, Peter; Jaques, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studying surgical secondary events is an evolving effort with no current established system for database design, standard reporting, or definitions. Using the Clavien-Dindo classification as a guide, in 2001 we developed a Surgical Secondary Events database based on grade of event and required intervention to begin prospectively recording and analyzing all surgical secondary events (SSE). Study Design Events are prospectively entered into the database by attending surgeons, house staff, and research staff. In 2008 we performed a blinded external audit of 1,498 operations that were randomly selected to examine the quality and reliability of the data. Results 1,498 of 4,284 operations during the 3rd quarter of 2008 were audited. 79% (N=1,180) of the operations did not have a secondary event while 21% (N=318) of operations had an identified event. 91% (1,365) of operations were correctly entered into the SSE database. 97% (129/133) of missed secondary events were Grades I and II. Three Grade III (2%) and one Grade IV (1%) secondary event were missed. There were no missed Grade 5 secondary events. Conclusion Grade III – IV events are more accurately collected than Grade I – II events. Robust and accurate secondary events data can be collected by clinicians and research staff and these data can safely be used for quality improvement projects and research. PMID:25319579

  4. A proposed angioarchitecture grading system related to embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Bing; Wang Yirong; Li Tielin; Duan Chuanzhi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the risk of embolization of brain AVMs, study the angioarchitectural factors affecting the difference of embolization level, and to establish the angioarchitecture grading system for embolization of brain AVMs. Methods: The clinical data, angioarchitectural features, embolism complication and embolism level were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to determine if any of the variables was predictive of a poor outcome of embolization (death or permanent neurological deficit), and if any of the variables was predictive of the percentage obliteration achieved by embolization. Based on the above results, we established the angioarchitecture grading system. Results: Endovascular procedures for embolization were performed 324 times in 189 patients during an 11-year period. Embolization was performed using N-butyl cyanoacrylate. In those patients, 3 (1.6%) died and 5(2.6%) had a permanent neurological deficit as a result of the embolization. The AVMs were given a score from 0 to 5 based on the size, number of the first grade feeding artery, and number of the second grade feeding artery. The assigned scores were as follows: nidus size (AVF=0, <30 mm=1, ≥30 mm=2), number of the first grade feeding artery (1=0, 2-3=1, ≥4=2)and number of the second grade feeding artery(≤3=0, ≥4=1). Angiographic results based on percentage obliteration were grouped into four categories: complete, 80%-99%, 50%-79%, and 0%-50%. In the AVMs with angioarchitecture scores 0-1, 24(77.4% )of 31 were fully embolised, with scores of 4-5, none of the 101 were fully embolised, 82(81.2%)were below 50% embolization percentage. The correlation between the angioarchitecture grading system and the embolization percentage was strong (κ= 0.736, P<0.05). Conclusions: The angioarchitecture grading system predicts the embolization percentage perfectly. The lower the scores, the higher the possibility of fully embolization is; the higher the scores

  5. Expression of monellin in a food-grade delivery system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yan, Da-zhong; Zhao, Sheng-jun

    2015-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods have caused much controversy. Construction of a food-grade delivery system is a desirable technique with presumptive impact on industrial applications from the perspective of bio-safety. The aim of this study was to construct a food-grade delivery system for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to study the expression of monellin from the berries of the West African forest plant Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii in this system. A food-grade system for S. cerevisiae was constructed based on ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-mediated homologous recombination to enable high-copy-number integration of the expression cassette inserted into the rDNA locus. A copper resistance gene (CUP1) was used as the selection marker for yeast transformation. Because variants of transformants containing different copy numbers at the CUP1 locus can be readily selected after growth in the presence of elevated copper levels, we suggest that this system would prove useful in the generation of tandemly iterated gene clusters. Using this food-grade system, a single-chain monellin gene was heterologously expressed. The yield of monellin reached a maximum of 675 mg L(-1) . This system harbors exclusively S. cerevisiae DNA with no antibiotic resistance genes, and it should therefore be appropriate for safe use in the food industry. Monellin was shown to be expressed in this food-grade delivery system. To our knowledge, this is the first report so far on expression of monellin in a food-grade expression system in S. cerevisiae. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Radiative transfer equation for graded index medium in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Zhang, L.; Tan, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In graded index medium, the ray goes along a curved path determined by Fermat principle, and the curved ray-tracing is very difficult and complex. To avoid the complicated and time-consuming computation of curved ray trajectory, the methods not based on ray-tracing technique need to be developed for the solution of radiative transfer in graded index medium. For this purpose, in this paper the streaming operator along a curved ray trajectory in original radiative transfer equation for graded index medium is transformed and expressed in spatial and angular ordinates and the radiative transfer equation for graded index medium in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems are derived. The conservative and the non-conservative forms of radiative transfer equation for three-dimensional graded index medium are given, which can be used as base equations to develop the numerical simulation methods, such as finite volume method, discrete ordinates method, and finite element method, for radiative transfer in graded index medium in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems

  7. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee-Jin, E-mail: parkhiji@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo, E-mail: samskim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Yeon, E-mail: parkhiji@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh-Hyuck, E-mail: nhpark904@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yeon, E-mail: zzzz3@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Jung, E-mail: yoonchoi99@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyun-Jun, E-mail: ostrich-13@hanmail.net [Department of Occupational Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-ku, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography.

  8. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Hyun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography

  9. Standard test method for determination of impurities in nuclear grade uranium compounds by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of 67 elements in uranium dioxide samples and nuclear grade uranium compounds and solutions without matrix separation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elements are listed in Table 1. These elements can also be determined in uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH), uranium hexafluoride (UF6), triuranium octoxide (U3O8) and uranium trioxide (UO3) if these compounds are treated and converted to the same uranium concentration solution. 1.2 The elements boron, sodium, silicon, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and iron can be determined using different techniques. The analyst's instrumentation will determine which procedure is chosen for the analysis. 1.3 The test method for technetium-99 is given in Annex A1. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish ...

  10. Leadership Strategies in Implementation of High-School Standards-Based Grading Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzl, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    This multi-site case study examined leadership strategies used during successful implementation of standards-based grading systems in three Wisconsin high schools. It found that leaders' reported commitment, patience, and persistence showed evidence of sustainable, high-functioning systems. It drew two main conclusions: first, school leaders need…

  11. Ready to Assemble: Grading State Higher Education Accountability Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeman, Chad; Carey, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    States need strong higher education systems, now more than ever. In the tumultuous, highly competitive 21st century economy, citizens and workers need knowledge, skills, and credentials in order to prosper. Yet many colleges and universities are falling short. To give all students the best possible postsecondary education, states must create…

  12. [GRADE system: classification of quality of evidence and strength of recommendation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Flores-Pastor, Benito; Soria-Aledo, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition and classification of scientific evidence, and subsequent formulation of recommendations constitute the basis for the development of clinical practice guidelines. There are several systems for the classification of evidence and strength of recommendations; the most commonly used nowadays is the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system (GRADE). The GRADE system initially classifies the evidence into high or low, coming from experimental or observational studies; subsequently and following a series of considerations, the evidence is classified into high, moderate, low or very low. The strength of recommendations is based not only on the quality of the evidence, but also on a series of factors such as the risk/benefit balance, values and preferences of the patients and professionals, and the use of resources or costs. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Toylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.

  14. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L.; Roemer, Frank W.; Bahr, Roald; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Crema, Michel D.; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different MRI grading and classification systems for acute hamstring injuries are overall reliable. • Reliability for the subcategories within these MRI grading and classification systems remains, however, unclear. - Abstract: Objective: To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Methods: Male athletes (n = 40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5 days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. Results: We observed ‘substantial’ to ‘almost perfect’ intra- (κ range 0.65–1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77–1.00) with percentage agreement 83–100% and 88–100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range −0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. Conclusions: The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated ‘substantial' to ‘almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear.

  15. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug, E-mail: arnlaug.wangensteen@nih.no [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Tol, Johannes L., E-mail: johannes.tol@aspetar.com [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Amsterdam Center for Evidence Sports Medicine, Academic Medical Center (Netherlands); The Sports Physician Group, OLVG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roemer, Frank W. [Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bahr, Roald [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Dijkstra, H. Paul [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Crema, Michel D. [Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Saint-Antoine Hospital, University Paris VI, Paris (France); Farooq, Abdulaziz [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Guermazi, Ali [Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Three different MRI grading and classification systems for acute hamstring injuries are overall reliable. • Reliability for the subcategories within these MRI grading and classification systems remains, however, unclear. - Abstract: Objective: To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Methods: Male athletes (n = 40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5 days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. Results: We observed ‘substantial’ to ‘almost perfect’ intra- (κ range 0.65–1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77–1.00) with percentage agreement 83–100% and 88–100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range −0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. Conclusions: The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated ‘substantial' to ‘almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear.

  16. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides ((U, Pu)O2)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides, (U, Pu)O2, powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Uranium in the Presence of Pu by Potentiometric Titration Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron (II) Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 7 to 14 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion-Thermal Conductivity 15 to 26 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 27 to 34 Sulfur by Distillation-Spectrophotometry 35 to 43 Moisture by the Coulometric, Electrolytic Moisture Analyzer 44 to 51 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earths by Copper Spark Spectroscopy 52 to 59 Trace Impurities by Carrier Distillation Spectroscopy 60 to 69 Impurities by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 70 to 76 Total Gas in Reactor-Grade Mixed Dioxide P...

  17. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    OpenAIRE

    Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identific...

  18. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Criticality Alarm System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's criticality alarm system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item. PFP's Criticality Alarm System includes the nine criticality alarm system panels and their associated hardware. This includes all parts up to the first breaker in the electrical distribution system. Specific system boundaries and justifications are contained in HNF-SD-CP-SDD-003, ''Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Detectors and Alarms Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope.'' The procurement requirements associated with the system necessitates procurement of some system equipment as Commercial Grade Items in accordance with HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services.''

  19. Post-Mission Quality Assurance Procedure for Survey-Grade Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstinga, A. P.; Friess, P.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners) and a Position and Orientation System (POS), designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as "mapping-grade" or "survey-grade" depending on the system's attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management) while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA) procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s) to the IMU body frame) as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges). As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  20. Isolated orbital mass as the primary presentation of a triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a systemic follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao Yi; Lu, Xinyan; Raparia, Kirtee; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2018-06-01

    Triple-hit lymphoma is a highly aggressive B-cell lymphoma. We report a case of triple-hit lymphoma transformed from systemic follicular lymphoma (FL) after 9-year remission and presented primarily as an isolated orbital mass without systemic symptoms or lymphadenopathy. A 58-year-old female presented with intermittent vertical binocular diplopia, left upper eyelid swelling and pain and was found to have a 2.9 cm orbital mass. Histological section revealed a CD10-positive large B-cell lymphoma, consistent with transformation of FL. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis demonstrated rearrangements involving C-MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6 genes, indicating a high grade, triple-hit lymphoma. Triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a low-grade lymphoma may initially present as an isolated orbital mass without systemic evidence of transformation. Early recognition of double or triple-hit lymphomas is important since these patients require aggressive chemotherapy.

  1. Developing and Organizing a Trauma System and Mass Casualty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective trauma system may potentially manage mass casualty incidence ... Israel has a unique trauma system of organizing and managing an emergency event, ... Wisdom, motivation and pragmatism of the Israeli model may be useful to ...

  2. The Necessity of a Graded Tariff System between Crude Oil and Oil Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.R. [SK Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    Even though the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products has been continuously insisted by oil refining companies since the export and import liberalization of 1997, and its necessity has been admitted by the government, press, and academia, the expanded implementation of the graded tariff system has not been yet realized. Some people says that the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products is a kind of desperate plans, which oil refining companies suggests to stop the importing companies' rapid growth, so it will eventually restrict the competition of the domestic oil market due to the withering of importing companies. However, the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products should have been enforced in 1997 as a complementary measure of the import liberalization like other industries or the advanced countries' cases. It is the basic tariff principle that the low tariff is levied on raw materials and the high tariff on final products in order to protect domestic industry. The remaining things are just to form the sympathy and to agree socially for the reorganization of tariff structure in the reasonable way. It is not desirable to make a fool mistake such as a proverb; t is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has bolted. owing to the unreasonable tariff system.

  3. Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Carolyn; Skinner, Christopher; Parkhurst, John; Wood, Allison; Snyder, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately…

  4. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L; Roemer, Frank W; Bahr, Roald; Dijkstra, H Paul; Crema, Michel D; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Male athletes (n=40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. We observed 'substantial' to 'almost perfect' intra- (κ range 0.65-1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77-1.00) with percentage agreement 83-100% and 88-100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range -0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated 'substantial' to 'almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Guidelines for guideline developers: a systematic review of grading systems for medical tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gopalakrishna, Gowri; Langendam, Miranda W.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of systems have been developed to grade evidence and develop recommendations based on the available evidence. However, development of guidelines for medical tests is especially challenging given the typical indirectness of the evidence; direct evidence of the effects of testing on patient

  6. Construction of a food-grade multiple-copy integration system for Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, K.; Bolhuis, A.; Venema, G.; Kok, J.

    A food-grade vector system was developed that allows stable integration of multiple plasmid copies in the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis. The vector consists of the plus origin of replication (Ori(+)) of the lactococcal plasmid pWV01, the sucrose genes of the lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus

  7. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Reinders, Jan J.; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in

  8. MEASURING THE MASS OF SOLAR SYSTEM PLANETS USING PULSAR TIMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, D. J.; Hobbs, G. B.; Manchester, R. N.; Edwards, R. T.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Backer, D. C.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Van Straten, W.; Coles, W.; Demorest, P. B.; Ferdman, R. D.; Purver, M. B.; Folkner, W. M.; Hotan, A. W.; Kramer, M.; Lommen, A. N.; Nice, D. J.; Stairs, I. H.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision pulsar timing relies on a solar system ephemeris in order to convert times of arrival (TOAs) of pulses measured at an observatory to the solar system barycenter. Any error in the conversion to the barycentric TOAs leads to a systematic variation in the observed timing residuals; specifically, an incorrect planetary mass leads to a predominantly sinusoidal variation having a period and phase associated with the planet's orbital motion about the Sun. By using an array of pulsars (PSRs J0437-4715, J1744-1134, J1857+0943, J1909-3744), the masses of the planetary systems from Mercury to Saturn have been determined. These masses are consistent with the best-known masses determined by spacecraft observations, with the mass of the Jovian system, 9.547921(2) x10 -4 M sun , being significantly more accurate than the mass determined from the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, and consistent with but less accurate than the value from the Galileo spacecraft. While spacecraft are likely to produce the most accurate measurements for individual solar system bodies, the pulsar technique is sensitive to planetary system masses and has the potential to provide the most accurate values of these masses for some planets.

  9. Analysis of Damped Mass-Spring Systems for Sound Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways of synthesizing sound on a computer. The method that we consider, called a mass-spring system, synthesizes sound by simulating the vibrations of a network of interconnected masses, springs, and dampers. Numerical methods are required to approximate the differential equation of a mass-spring system. The standard numerical method used in implementing mass-spring systems for use in sound synthesis is the symplectic Euler method. Implementers and users of mass-spring systems should be aware of the limitations of the numerical methods used; in particular we are interested in the stability and accuracy of the numerical methods used. We present an analysis of the symplectic Euler method that shows the conditions under which the method is stable and the accuracy of the decay rates and frequencies of the sounds produced.

  10. Mass storage system by using broadcast technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Manabe, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Morita, Youhei; Nozaki, Tadao; Sasaki, Takashi; Watase, Yoshiyuko; Yamasaki, Tokuyuki

    1996-01-01

    There are many similarities between data recording systems for high energy physics and broadcast systems; the data flow is almost one-way, requires real-time recording; requires large-scale automated libraries for 24-hours operation, etc. In addition to these functional similarities, the required data-transfer and data-recording speeds are also close to those for near future experiments. For these reasons, we have collaborated with SONY Broadcast Company to study the usability of broadcast devices for our data storage system. Our new data storage system consists of high-speed data recorders and tape-robots which are originally based on the digital video-tape recorder and the tape-robot for broadcast systems. We are also studying the possibility to use these technologies for the online data-recording system for B-physics experiment at KEK. (author)

  11. Automated grading of wood-slabs. The development of a prototype system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Conradsen, Knut

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for automatically grading small beechwood slabs. The method involves two classification steps: the first step detects defects based on local visual texture; the second step utilizes the relative distribution of defects to perform a final grading assessment. At a major...... as much as possible. A vast range of types of defects has to be considered when the grading is done. This and the fact that wood is a 'natural' material means it is not easily described using ordinary vision systems. The proposed method assumes a 3-D feature space which depends on local texture......-based measures of 'lightness', 'speckle' and 'dark deviation'. These measures are calculated for each pixel in an image of a slab. The feature space is separated into 12 decision regions corresponding to 12 'defect types'; these 'defects' are labeled as clear wood, wavy grain, split, black knots, ingrown bark...

  12. The Fuhrman grading system has no prognostic value in patients with nonsarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Sandra; Janssen, Martin; Roos, Frederik C; Becker, Frank; Steinestel, Julie; Abbas, Mahmoud; Steinestel, Konrad; Wegener, Gerd; Siemer, Stefan; Thüroff, Joachim W; Hofmann, Rainer; Stöckle, Michael; Schrader, Mark; Hartmann, Arndt; Hasenfus, Andrea; Kuczyk, Markus A; Junker, Kerstin; Schrader, Andres J

    2014-12-01

    The prognostic value of the Fuhrman nuclear grading system has been questioned for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) because this subtype frequently displays nuclear and nucleolar pleomorphism. The present study reevaluates this grading system in a series of patients with nonsarcomatoid chRCC. We identified 176 patients (3.6%) with nonsarcomatoid chRCC in a total of 4897 patients who underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma at 5 centers in Germany between 1990 and 2010. The mean follow-up was 51.1 months. The 3 groups (G1 versus G2 versus G3/4) were comparable in terms of age, sex, tumor diameter, and lymph node metastasis. They only differed significantly in tumor stage (P = .01) and the incidence of synchronous visceral metastasis (P = .04). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were 84.4% for G1 (n = 32), 84.3% for G2 (n = 108), and 74.1% for G3/4 tumors (n = 33) (P = .58). Accordingly, multivariate analysis including age, sex, tumor stage, and metastatic disease did not identify Fuhrman grading as an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with chRCC (P = .4). We were able to demonstrate in a large multicenter cohort that the Fuhrman grading system does not qualify as a prognostic tool in patients with chRCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on mass transfer in electrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstroem, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    The first part is of an introductory nature. It contains a description of the methods used, a discussion of the physics of electrochemical cells with a liquid electrolyte, and a summary of the different studies made, including both those which have been reported in papers, and those which have not. Contributions with novel aspects include (* a derivation of the electro-neutrality condition from Maxwell`s equations of electrodynamics, and **) an argument in favour of the use of mass-averaged velocity in ion transport expressions. The second part focuses on specific cases. It consists of seven research papers which give a more detailed presentation of the main studies 40 refs, 6 figs

  14. Performance analysis of a compact and low-cost mapping-grade mobile laser scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julge, Kalev; Vajakas, Toivo; Ellmann, Artu

    2017-10-01

    The performance of a low-cost, self-contained, compact, and easy to deploy mapping-grade mobile laser scanning (MLS) system, which is composed of a light detection and ranging sensor Velodyne VLP-16 and a dual antenna global navigation satellite system/inertial navigation system SBG Systems Ellipse-D, is analyzed. The field tests were carried out in car-mounted and backpack modes for surveying road engineering structures (such as roads, parking lots, underpasses, and tunnels) and coastal erosion zones, respectively. The impact of applied calculation principles on trajectory postprocessing, direct georeferencing, and the theoretical accuracy of the system is analyzed. A calibration method, based on Bound Optimization BY Quadratic Approximation, for finding the boresight angles of an MLS system is proposed. The resulting MLS point clouds are compared with high-accuracy static terrestrial laser scanning data and survey-grade MLS data from a commercially manufactured MLS system. The vertical, horizontal, and relative accuracy are assessed-the root-mean-square error (RMSE) values were determined to be 8, 15, and 3 cm, respectively. Thus, the achieved mapping-grade accuracy demonstrates that this relatively compact and inexpensive self-assembled MLS can be successfully used for surveying the geometry and deformations of terrain, buildings, road, and other engineering structures.

  15. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI) gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Arcan, Chrisa; Smyth, Mary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and wei...

  16. Usage of Commercial Grade Programmable Digital Systems in Safety Related Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains methods and conditions, which if completely and correctly fulfilled, enable an operating NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) licensed and operating in accordance with the US codes and US regulatory requirements to use a commercial grade programmable digital device (PLC - Programmable Digital Controller, digital controller, digital computer or process computer) in a safety related application in a NPP. In mid 80's, when an intensive construction cycle of the new NPPs in the U.S.A. was completed, many equipment manufacturers either disappeared from the market or they abandoned their product lines that were designed and manufactured under 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B quality assurance program. The quality assurance as defined by 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B comprises all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a Structure, System or Component (SSC) will perform satisfactorily in service . The operating NPPs faced the problem related to the availability of qualified equipment, components and spare parts. The US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) recognized that problem timely (Oct. 1978 revision of 10CFR21) and required a commercial grade item to be dedicated before it could be used as a basic component. A special process named Dedication of CGI - Commercial Grade Items if conducted properly, provides reasonable assurance that a commercial grade item to be used as a basic component will perform its intended safety related function and, in this respect, is deemed equivalent to an item designed and manufactured under 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B. After that, the Dedication of CGI has been widely used mostly for relatively simple mechanical, electrical, and IandC components and spare parts. In order to provide guidance to the dedication process, EPRI has issued two documents (EPRI NP-5652 and Supplemental Guidance for EPRI NP-5652). All nuclear power plants, which comply with the US nuclear regulatory requirements, hindered as

  17. [Prostate cancer. Part 2: Review of the various tumor grading systems over the years 1966-2015 and future perspectives of the new grading of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpap, B; Bubendorf, L; Kristiansen, G

    2016-02-01

    The continued development of methods in needle biopsies and radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer has given special emphasis to the question of the prognostic relevance of the various systems of grading. The classical purely histological grading system of Gleason has been modified several times in the past decades and cleared the way for a new grading system by the prognostic grading of Epstein. Assessment of the old and also modified combined histological and cytological grading of Mostofi, the World health Organization (WHO) and the urologic-pathological working group of prostate cancer in connection with the Gleason grading (combined Gleason-Helpap grading), has led to considerably improved rates of concordance between biopsy and radical prostatectomy and to improved estimations of prognosis beside its contribution to the development of a more practicable grading system for clinical use.

  18. Polychannel Systems for Mass Digital Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    years additional systems similar to ours have become operational, including X*Press, Main- stream Data, and Stargate . X*Press Information Services...cities in the United States, and Stargate uses the satellite TV station WTBS to transmit electronic bulletin boards to remote com- puter sites

  19. Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchuk, Igor V

    2009-01-01

    The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD.

  20. Model-Based Systems Engineering Approach to Managing Mass Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seung H.; Bayer, Todd J.; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Christopher; Lam, Doris

    2012-01-01

    When designing a flight system from concept through implementation, one of the fundamental systems engineering tasks ismanaging the mass margin and a mass equipment list (MEL) of the flight system. While generating a MEL and computing a mass margin is conceptually a trivial task, maintaining consistent and correct MELs and mass margins can be challenging due to the current practices of maintaining duplicate information in various forms, such as diagrams and tables, and in various media, such as files and emails. We have overcome this challenge through a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach within which we allow only a single-source-of-truth. In this paper we describe the modeling patternsused to capture the single-source-of-truth and the views that have been developed for the Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) project, a mission concept study, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  1. Research on high-performance mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Wang Lu; Huang Qiulan; Zheng Wei

    2010-01-01

    With the enlargement of scientific experiments, more and more data will be produced, which brings great challenge to storage system. Large storage capacity and high data access performance are both important to Mass storage system. This paper firstly reviews some kinds of popular storage systems including network storage system, SAN-based sharing system, WAN File system, object-based parallel file system, hierarchical storage system and cloud storage systems. Then some key technologies are presented. Finally, this paper takes BES storage system as an example and introduces its requirements, architecture and operation results. (authors)

  2. Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

    2013-08-20

    A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

  3. A GPU Accelerated Spring Mass System for Surgical Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Jesper; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing demand for surgical simulators to dofast and precise calculations of tissue deformation to simulateincreasingly complex morphology in real-time. Unfortunately, evenfast spring-mass based systems have slow convergence rates for largemodels. This paper presents a method to accele...... to accelerate computation of aspring-mass system in order to simulate a complex organ such as theheart. This acceleration is achieved by taking advantage of moderngraphics processing units (GPU)....

  4. Building a mass storage system for physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, H.; Loken, S.

    1991-03-01

    The IEEE Mass Storage Reference Model and forthcoming standards based on it provide a standardized architecture to facilitate designing and building mass storage systems, and standard interfaces so that hardware and software from different vendors can interoperate in providing mass storage capabilities. A key concept of this architecture is the separation of control and data flows. This separation allows a smaller machine to provide control functions, while the data can flow directly between high-performance channels. Another key concept is the layering of the file system and the storage functions. This layering allows the designers of the mass storage system to focus on storage functions, which can support a variety of file systems, such as the Network File System, the Andrew File System, and others. The mass storage system provides location-independent file naming, essential if files are to be migrated to different storage devices without requiring changes in application programs. Physics data analysis applications are particularly challenging for mass storage systems because they stream vast amounts of data through analysis applications. Special mechanisms are required, to handle the high data rates and to avoid upsetting the caching mechanisms commonly used for smaller, repetitive-use files. High data rates are facilitated by direct channel connections, where, for example, a dual-ported drive will be positioned by the mass storage controller on one channel, then the data will flow on a second channel directly into the user machine, or directly to a high capacity network, greatly reducing the I/O capacity required in the mass storage control computer. Intelligent storage allocation can be used to bypass the cache devices entirely when large files are being moved

  5. Microstructure characterization of a food-grade U-type microemulsion system by differential scanning calorimetry and electrical conductivity techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Que, Fei; Feng, Fengqin

    2013-12-01

    The microstructure transitions of a food-grade U-type microemulsion system containing glycerol monolaurate and propionic acid at a 1:1 mass ratio as oil phase and Tween 80 as surfactant were investigated along a water dilution line at a ratio of 80:20 mass% surfactant/oil phase, based on a previously studied phase diagram. From the water thermal behaviours detected by differential scanning calorimetry, three structural regions are identified along the dilution line. In the first region, all water molecules are confined to the water core of the reverse micelles, leading to the formation of w/o microemulsion. As the water content increases, the water gains mobility, transforms into bicontinuous in the second region, and finally the microemulsion become o/w in the third region. The thermal transition points coincide with the structural phase transitions by electrical conductivity measurements, indicating that the structural transitions occur at 35 and 65 mass% of water along the dilution line. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass transfer with chemical reaction in multiphase systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, E.

    1983-01-01

    These volumes deal with the phenomenon of 'mass transfer with chemical reaction' which is of industrial, biological and physiological importance. In process engineering, it is encountered both in separation processes and in reaction engineering and both aspects are covered here in four sections: introduction; gas-liquid system; liquid-liquid system; and gas-liquid-solid system

  7. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yonghao; Li Deming; Chen Maobai; Lu Xiangshun

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS (super-sensitive mini-cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer) is described together with the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having been operating for five years, which provides a basis for consideration of improvements to the injection system. An optimized injection system with an analytical magnet added prior to the minicyclotron has been proposed and calculated

  8. A portable, automated, inexpensive mass and balance calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Clark, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Reliable mass measurements are essential for a nuclear production facility or process control laboratory. DOE Order 5630.2 requires that traceable standards be used to calibrate and monitor equipment used for nuclear material measurements. To ensure the reliability of mass measurements and to comply with DOE traceable requirements, a portable, automated mass and balance calibration system is used at the Savannah River Plant. Automation is achieved using an EPSON HX-20 notebook computer, which can be operated via RS232C interfacing to electronic balances or function with manual data entry if computer interfacing is not feasible. This economical, comprehensive, user-friendly system has three main functions in a mass measurement control program (MMCP): balance certification, calibration of mass standards, and daily measurement of traceable standards. The balance certification program tests for accuracy, precision, sensitivity, linearity, and cornerloading versus specific requirements. The mass calibration program allows rapid calibration of inexpensive mass standards traceable to certified Class S standards. This MMCP permits daily measurement of traceable standards to monitor the reliability of balances during routine use. The automated system verifies balance calibration, stores results for future use, and provides a printed control chart of the stored data. Another feature of the system permits three different weighing routines that accommodate our need for varying degrees of reliability in routine weighing operations. 1 ref

  9. A portable, automated, inexpensive mass and balance calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Clark, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Reliable mass measurements are essential for a nuclear production facility or process control laboratory. DOE Order 5630.2 requires that traceable standards be used to calibrate and monitor equipment used for nuclear material measurements. To ensure the reliability of mass measurements and to comply with DOE traceability requirements, a portable, automated mass and balance calibration system is used at the Savannah River Plant. Automation is achieved using an EPSON HX-20 notebook computer, which can be operated via RS232C interfacing to electronic balances or function with manual data entry if computer interfacing is not feasible. This economical, comprehensive, user-friendly system has three main functions in a mass measurement control program (MMCP): balance certification, calibration of mass standards, and daily measurement of traceable standards. The balance certification program tests for accuracy, precision, sensitivity, linearity, and cornerloading versus specific requirements. The mass calibration program allows rapid calibration of inexpensive mass standards traceable to certified Class S standards. This MMCP permits daily measurement of traceable standards to monitor the reliability of balances during routine use. The automated system verifies balance calibration, stores results for future use, and provides a printed control chart of the stored data. Another feature of the system permits three different weighing routines that accommodate their need for varying degrees of reliability in routine weighing operations

  10. Neonates with reduced neonatal lung function have systemic low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L.K.; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and adults with asthma and impaired lung function have been reported to have low-grade systemic inflammation, but it is unknown whether this inflammation starts before symptoms and in particular whether low-grade inflammation is present in asymptomatic neonates with reduced...... lung function. ObjectiveWe sought to investigate the possible association between neonatal lung function and biomarkers of systemic inflammation.  Methods: Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL8 (IL-8) were measured at age 6 months in 300 children.......  Results: The neonatal forced expiratory volume at 0.5 seconds was inversely associated with hs-CRP (β-coefficient, −0.12; 95% CI, −0.21 to −0.04; P approach, including hs-CRP, IL-6...

  11. A parametric study of a humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system using low grade heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.F.; Han, D.; Yue, C.; Pu, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The HDH desalination system coupling with the waste heat plate LGHC is proposed. • Performance of the desalination system and the plate LGHC is presented. • Influence from the operation pressure on the system performance is investigated. • Gained investment ratio is proposed to characterize the desalination system consumption. - Abstract: Humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system is applicable to recover the low grade heat source to heat the seawater before the humidifier. In the paper, plate heat exchangers are integrated to recover the waste heat from the exhaust in the water heated closed air open water (CAOW) HDH desalination system. The performance of the HDH desalination system as well as the plate type of low grade heat collector (LGHC) is investigated at different operation pressures. Gain investment ratio (GIR) is proposed and defined to depict the overall consumption of the whole system. The simulation results show that the modified heat capacity ratio of the dehumidifier (HCRd) is vital for the performance of the HDH desalination system as well as the plate LGHC with a top value of gain output ratio (GOR) at the balance point, HCRd = 1, and the maximum GOR, GOR = 2.44, results from the raised pressure of p = 0.15 MPa. Furthermore, taking the cost for the heat transfer surface area of the LGHC and the air and seawater pipes into consideration, it is revealed that the conditions, HCRd > 1, are more economical due to the increase of GIR, which indicates the profit of unit consumption is more significant.

  12. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Dilation Classification System for Grading Postnatal Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodhod, Amr; Capolicchio, John-Paul; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherif, Eid; El-Doray, Abd El-Alim; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the reliability and validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system as a new grading system for postnatal hydronephrosis. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients who presented with hydronephrosis from 2008 to 2013. We included patients diagnosed prenatally and those with hydronephrosis discovered incidentally during the first year of life. We excluded cases involving urinary tract infection, neurogenic bladder and chromosomal anomalies, those associated with extraurinary congenital malformations and those with followup of less than 24 months without resolution. Hydronephrosis was graded postnatally using the Society for Fetal Urology system, and then the management protocol was chosen. All units were regraded using the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system and compared to the Society for Fetal Urology system to assess reliability. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system in predicting hydronephrosis resolution and surgical intervention. A total of 490 patients (730 renal units) were eligible to participate. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system was reliable in the assessment of hydronephrosis (parallel forms 0.92). Hydronephrosis resolved in 357 units (49%), and 86 units (12%) were managed by surgical intervention. The remainder of renal units demonstrated stable or improved hydronephrosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the likelihood of surgical intervention was predicted independently by Urinary Tract Dilation classification system risk group, while Society for Fetal Urology grades were predictive of likelihood of resolution. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system is reliable for evaluation of postnatal hydronephrosis and is valid in predicting surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients

  14. Allergic Sensitization at School Age is a Systemic Low-grade Inflammatory Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L.; Stokholm, J.; Schoos, A.-M. M.

    2017-01-01

    allergic sensitization. Methods High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) were measured in plasma at age 6 months (N = 214) and 7 years (N = 277) in children from the Copenhagen Prospective...... sensitization in school-aged children suggesting systemic low-grade inflammation as a phenotypic characteristic of this early-onset NCD....

  15. Development of Necessary Technology for localizing of Nuclear Safety Grade I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Jung Tack

    2010-08-01

    Through KNICS and Nu-Tech 2012, a MMIS(Man-Machine Interface System) package for nuclear plants was localized and is expected to be applied to SUN 1,2 plants. This study is aimed to support the application of the MMIS package including the following technologies that meet strengthened regulation requirements and enhanced utility's performance requirements to nuclear plants. - Dedication to safety-grade computers and real time operating systems - The broadband communication network for safety information - Application of the automatic test for safety systems - Application of programmable logic controllers to nuclear plants - Development strategy for an integrated SW development tool for control device

  16. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  17. POST-MISSION QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE FOR SURVEY-GRADE MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kerstinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners and a Position and Orientation System (POS, designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as “mapping-grade” or “survey-grade” depending on the system’s attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s to the IMU body frame as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges. As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  18. Long-term occlusal changes assessed by the American Board of Orthodontics' model grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszkler, Robert M; Preston, Charles B; Saltaji, Humam; Tabbaa, Sawsan

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term posttreatment changes in all criteria of the American Board of Orthodontics' (ABO) model grading system. We used plaster models from patients' final and posttreatment records. Thirty patients treated by 1 orthodontist using 1 bracket prescription were selected. An initial discrepancy index for each subject was performed to determine the complexity of each case. The final models were then graded using the ABO's model grading system immediately at posttreatment and postretention. Statistical analysis was performed on the 8 criteria of the model grading system, including paired t tests and Pearson correlations. An alpha of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The average length of time between the posttreatment and postretention records was 12.7 ± 4.4 years. It was shown that alignment and rotations worsened by postretention (P = 0.014), and a weak statistically significant correlation at posttreatment and postretention was found (0.44; P = 0.016). Both marginal ridges and occlusal contacts scored less well at posttreatment. These criteria showed a significant decrease in scores between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), but the correlations were not statistically significant. The average total score showed a significant decrease between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), partly because of the large decrease in the previous 2 criteria. Higher scores for occlusal contacts and marginal ridges were found at the end of treatment; however, those scores and the overall scores for the 30 subjects improved in the postretention phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings indicated that teachers generally perceived the SSIS-CIP as a socially valid and feasible intervention for primary grades; however, teachers' ratings regarding ease of implementation and relevance and sequence demonstrated differences across grade levels in the second year of implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Relationship of School Absenteeism with Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status among Fourth-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Devlin, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data from a school-based study concerning fourth-grade children's dietary recall accuracy were linked with data from the South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE) through the South Carolina Budget and Control Board Office of Research and Statistics (ORS) to investigate the relationships of children's school absenteeism with body…

  1. Mass distribution law of systems of protocluster fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraioli, F; Virgopia, N [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1979-02-01

    Starting from the hypothesis of coalescence through inelastic collisions of small fast moving interstellar gas clouds, an attempt has been made to study the evolutionary mass distribution of a system of fragments simulating a protocluster. The assumption of a mass spectrum with a continuous injection of newly formed entities into the primeval system, and the condition of gravitational reduction of the impact cross-section, have been considered. Comparisons of numerical experiments with the mass spectrum in some well-known young galactic clusters, confirm the mass distribution power-law already obtained by other authors. The empirical Schmidt's law concerning the rate of star formation is also confirmed. The hypothesis of the universal validity of the luminosity function, should not be 'a priori' rejected.

  2. Susceptibility Imaging in Glial Tumor Grading; Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) System and 32 Channel Head Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Omer; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a velocity compensated, high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo sequence that uses magnitude and filtered-phase data. SWI seems to be a valuable tool for non-invasive evaluation of central nervous system gliomas. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio is one of the best noninvasive methods for glioma grading. Degree of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) on SWI correlates with rCBV ratio and histopathological grade. This study investigated the effectiveness of ITSS grading and rCBV ratio in preoperative assessment. Thirty-one patients (17 males and 14 females) with histopathogical diagnosis of glial tumor undergoing routine cranial MRI, SWI, and perfusion MRI examinations between October 2011 and July 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. All examinations were performed using 3T apparatus with 32-channel head coil. We used ITSS number for SWI grading. Correlations between SWI grade, rCBV ratio, and pathological grading were evaluated. ROC analysis was performed to determine the optimal rCBV ratio to distinguish between high-grade and low-grade glial tumors. There was a strong positive correlation between both pathological and SWI grading. We determined the optimal rCBV ratio to discriminate between high-grade and low-grade tumors to be 2.21. In conclusion, perfusion MRI and SWI using 3T MR and 32-channel head coil may provide useful information for preoperative glial tumor grading. SWI can be used as an accessory to perfusion MR technique in preoperative tumor grading.

  3. Buffer mass test - data aquisition and data processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagvall, B.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes data aquisition and data processing systems used for the Buffer Mass Test at Stripa. A data aquisition system, designed mainly to provide high reliability, in Stripa produces raw-data log tapes. Copies of these tapes are mailed to the computer center at the University of Luleaa for processing of raw-data. The computer systems in Luleaa offer a wide range of processing facilities: large mass storage units, several plotting facilities, programs for processing and monitoring of vast amounts of data, etc.. (Author)

  4. An improved data acquisition system for isotopic ratio mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, T.K.; Reddy, B.; Nazare, C.K.; Handu, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    Isotopic ratio mass spectrometers designed and fabricated to measure the isotopic ratios with a precision of better than 0.05%. In order to achieve this precision, the measurement system consisting of ion signal to voltage converters, analog to digital converters, and data acquisition electronics should be at least one order better than the overall precision of measurement. Using state of the art components and techniques, a data acquisition system, which is an improved version of the earlier system, has been designed and developed for use with multi-collector isotopic ratio mass spectrometers

  5. Measuring Listening Comprehension Skills of 5th Grade School Students with the Help of Web Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Demiral, Hilmi; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is "Web Based Listening Scale". In the process of the study,…

  6. The Most Preferred and Effective Reviewer of L2 Writing among Automated Grading System, Peer Reviewer and Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Min-Hsiu

    2017-01-01

    Who is the most preferred and deemed the most helpful reviewer in improving student writing? This study exercised a blended teaching method which consists of three currently prevailing reviewers: the automated grading system (AGS, a web-based method), the peer review (a process-oriented approach), and the teacher grading technique (the…

  7. Reproducibility of the acute rejection diagnosis in human cardiac allografts. The Stanford Classification and the International Grading System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Nielsen, B

    1993-01-01

    Transplantation has become an accepted treatment of many cardiac end-stage diseases. Acute cellular rejection accounts for 15% to 20% of all graft failures. The first grading system of acute cellular rejection, the Stanford Classification, was introduced in 1979, and since then many other grading...

  8. Social Validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings…

  9. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  10. Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochman, Nathan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

  11. Mass memory formatter subsystem of the adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-09-01

    The Mass Memory Formatter was developed as part of the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) to control a 2.4-megabit mass memory. The data from a Memory Controlled Processor is formatted before it is stored in the memory and reformatted during the readout mode. The data is then transmitted to a NOVA 2 minicomputer-controlled magnetic tape recorder for storage. Techniques and circuits are described

  12. A Food-Grade Cloning System for Industrial Strains of Lactococcus lactis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kim I.; Larsen, Rasmus; Kibenich, Annette; Junge, Mette P.; Johansen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported the construction of a food-grade cloning vector for Lactococcus using the ochre suppressor, supB, as the selective marker. This vector, pFG1, causes only a slight growth inhibition in the laboratory strain MG1363 but is unstable in the industrial strains tested. As supB suppresses both amber and ochre stop codons, which are present in 82% of all known lactococcal genes, this undesirable finding may result from the accumulation of elongated mistranslated polypeptides. Here, we report the development of a new food-grade cloning vector, pFG200, which is suitable for overexpressing a variety of genes in industrial strains of Lactococcus lactis. The vector uses an amber suppressor, supD, as selectable marker and consists entirely of Lactococcus DNA, with the exception of a small polylinker region. Using suppressible pyrimidine auxotrophs, selection and maintenance are efficient in any pyrimidine-free medium including milk. Importantly, the presence of this vector in a variety of industrial strains has no significant effect on the growth rate or the rate of acidification in milk, making this an ideal system for food-grade modification of industrially relevant L. lactis strains. The usefulness of this system is demonstrated by overexpressing the pepN gene in a number of industrial backgrounds. PMID:10742196

  13. Investigating mass transfer in symbiotic systems with hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Karovska, Margarita; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate gravitationally focused wind accretion in binary systems consisting of an evolved star with a gaseous envelope and a compact accreting companion. We study the mass accretion and formation of an accretion disk around the secondary caused by the strong wind from the primary late-type component using global 2D and 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations. In particular, the dependence on the mass accretion rate on the mass loss rate, wind temperature and orbital parameters of the system is considered. For a typical slow and massive wind from an evolved star the mass transfer through a focused wind results in rapid infall onto the secondary. A stream flow is created between the stars with accretion rates of a 2-10% percent of the mass loss from the primary. This mechanism could be an important method for explaining periodic modulations in the accretion rates for a broad range of interacting binary systems and fueling of a large population of X-ray binary systems. We test the plausibility of these accretion flows indicated by the simulations by comparing with observations of the symbiotic CH Cyg variable system.

  14. Use of a Graded Approach in the Application of the Management System Requirements for Facilities and Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3, The Management System for Facilities and Activities, defines the requirements for establishing, implementing, assessing and continually improving a management system that integrates safety, health, environmental, security, quality and economical elements. It details the need to grade the application of the management system requirements to ensure that resources are deployed and appropriate controls are applied on the basis of the consideration of: the significance and complexity of each product or activity; the hazards and the magnitude of the potential impact (risks) associated with the safety, health, environmental, security, quality and economical elements of each product or activity; and the possible consequences if a product fails or an activity is carried out incorrectly. The grading of the application of the requirements detailed in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3 is especially essential when they are implemented in smaller facilities and activities. The grading is done to ensure that the management system for smaller facilities and activities are suitably tailored to the hazards and the magnitude of the potential impact of the facilities and activities. Detailed guidance on how the grading requirements of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3 can be met and how to ensure that grading is performed in a consistent manner can be found in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-3.1, Application of the Management System for Facilities and Activities. In addition, it contains guidance on systematic grading methods which will reduce the likelihood and consequences of improper grading. This publication provides an overview of grading fundamentals, the grading process, the role of classification in the process and the typical controls that can be graded. It also provides practical guidance and examples of grading as required by IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3 to develop and apply a method of grading

  15. Novel grading system for quantification of cystic macular lesions in Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliesoraityte, Ieva; Peto, Tunde; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose Alain

    2015-12-10

    To evaluate novel grading system used to quantify optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans for cystic macular lesions (CML) in Usher syndrome (USH) patients, focusing on CML associated alterations in MOY7A and USH2A mutations. Two readers evaluated 76 patients' (mean age 42 ± 14 years) data prospectively uploaded on Eurush database. OCT was used to obtain high quality cross-sectional images through the fovea. The CML was graded as none, mild, moderate or severe, depending on the following features set: subretinal fluid without clearly detectable CML boundaries; central macular thickness; largest diameter of CML; calculated mean of all detectable CML; total number of detectable CML; retinal layers affected by CML. Intra-and inter-grader reproducibility was evaluated. CML were observed in 37 % of USH eyes, while 45 % were observed in MYO7A and 29 % in USH2A cases. Of those with CML: 52 % had mild, 22 % had moderate and 26 % had severe changes, respectively. CML were found in following retinal layers: 50 % inner nuclear layer, 44 % outer nuclear layer, 6 % retinal ganglion cell layer. For the inter-grader repeatability analysis, agreements rates for CML were 97 % and kappa statistics was 0.91 (95 % CI 0.83-0.99). For the intra-grader analysis, agreement rates for CML were 98 %, while kappa statistics was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.92-0.99). The novel grading system is a reproducible tool for grading OCT images in USH complicated by CML, and potentially could be used for objective tracking of macular pathology in clinical therapy trials.

  16. Independent V and V for Safety Grade I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Dong Young

    2010-08-01

    Through KNICS and Nu-Tech 2012, a MMIS(Man-Machine Interface System) package for nuclear plants was localized and is expected to be applied to SUN 1,2 plants. This study is aimed to support the application of the MMIS package including the following technologies that meet strengthened regulation requirements and enhanced utility's performance requirements to nuclear plants. - Dedication to real time operating system for safety-grade computers - V and V of the broadband communication network for safety information - Independent V and V for application of programmable logic controllers to nuclear plants - Development strategy for an integrated SW development tool for control devices

  17. Independent V and V for Safety Grade I and C System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Dong Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Through KNICS and Nu-Tech 2012, a MMIS(Man-Machine Interface System) package for nuclear plants was localized and is expected to be applied to SUN 1,2 plants. This study is aimed to support the application of the MMIS package including the following technologies that meet strengthened regulation requirements and enhanced utility's performance requirements to nuclear plants. - Dedication to real time operating system for safety-grade computers - V and V of the broadband communication network for safety information - Independent V and V for application of programmable logic controllers to nuclear plants - Development strategy for an integrated SW development tool for control devices

  18. Performance of resistance grading system at 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility, BARC-TIFR, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Ram; Matkar, U.V.; Ekambaram, M.; Lokare, R.N.; Yadav, M.L.; Gore, J.A.; Kulkarni, S.G.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Kale, R.M.; Karande, J.N.; Kurup, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The 14UD Pelletron Accelerator has been in operation for last sixteen years, progressively with increased efficiency. Since inception the accelerator was operating in slit control mode, however, with the installation of a TPS system, it is now possible to operate the accelerator in GVM mode even with ion beam of low intensities. Recently all the column and tube corona points were replaced by resistances. This has helped in low voltage operation of accelerator. In this paper we will discuss in detail the performance of new Terminal Potential Stabiliser system, particularly, our experience resistance grading, at the Pelletron Accelerator. (author)

  19. Development of Necessary Technology for Safety Grade I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Young; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Jung Tack

    2010-08-01

    Through KNICS and Nu-Tech 2012, a MMIS(Man-Machine Interface System) package for nuclear plants was localized and is expected to be applied to SUN 1,2 plants. This study is aimed to support the application of the MMIS package including the following technologies that meet strengthened regulation requirements and enhanced utility's performance requirements to nuclear plants. - Dedication to safety-grade computers - The broadband communication network for safety information - Application of the automatic test for safety systems - Application of programmable logic controllers to nuclear plant

  20. Dynamics of Mass Transfer in Wide Symbiotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star and a compact accreting companion as a function of mass loss rate and orbital parameters. In particular, we study winds from late-type stars that are gravitationally focused by a companion in a wide binary system using hydrodynamical simulations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an evolved star there is a stream flow between the stars with accretion rates of a few percent of the mass loss from the primary. Mass transfer through a focused wind is an important mechanism for a broad range of interacting binary systems and can explain the formation of Barium stars and other chemically peculiar stars.

  1. Automated grading system for evaluation of ocular redness associated with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez JD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available John D Rodriguez,1 Patrick R Johnston,1 George W Ousler III,1 Lisa M Smith,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USABackground: We have observed that dry eye redness is characterized by a prominence of fine horizontal conjunctival vessels in the exposed ocular surface of the interpalpebral fissure, and have incorporated this feature into the grading of redness in clinical studies of dry eye.Aim: To develop an automated method of grading dry eye-associated ocular redness in order to expand on the clinical grading system currently used.Methods: Ninety nine images from 26 dry eye subjects were evaluated by five graders using a 0–4 (in 0.5 increments dry eye redness (Ora CalibraTM Dry Eye Redness Scale [OCDER] scale. For the automated method, the Opencv computer vision library was used to develop software for calculating redness and horizontal conjunctival vessels (noted as "horizontality". From original photograph, the region of interest (ROI was selected manually using the open source ImageJ software. Total average redness intensity (Com-Red was calculated as a single channel 8-bit image as R − 0.83G − 0.17B, where R, G and B were the respective intensities of the red, green and blue channels. The location of vessels was detected by normalizing the blue channel and selecting pixels with an intensity of less than 97% of the mean. The horizontal component (Com-Hor was calculated by the first order Sobel derivative in the vertical direction and the score was calculated as the average blue channel image intensity of this vertical derivative. Pearson correlation coefficients, accuracy and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC were calculated after regression and standardized regression of the dataset.Results: The agreement (both Pearson's and CCC among investigators using the OCDER scale was 0.67, while the agreement of investigator to computer was 0.76. A multiple

  2. Automated grading system for evaluation of ocular redness associated with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, John D; Johnston, Patrick R; Ousler, George W; Smith, Lisa M; Abelson, Mark B

    2013-01-01

    We have observed that dry eye redness is characterized by a prominence of fine horizontal conjunctival vessels in the exposed ocular surface of the interpalpebral fissure, and have incorporated this feature into the grading of redness in clinical studies of dry eye. To develop an automated method of grading dry eye-associated ocular redness in order to expand on the clinical grading system currently used. Ninety nine images from 26 dry eye subjects were evaluated by five graders using a 0-4 (in 0.5 increments) dry eye redness (Ora Calibra™ Dry Eye Redness Scale [OCDER]) scale. For the automated method, the Opencv computer vision library was used to develop software for calculating redness and horizontal conjunctival vessels (noted as "horizontality"). From original photograph, the region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the open source ImageJ software. Total average redness intensity (Com-Red) was calculated as a single channel 8-bit image as R - 0.83G - 0.17B, where R, G and B were the respective intensities of the red, green and blue channels. The location of vessels was detected by normalizing the blue channel and selecting pixels with an intensity of less than 97% of the mean. The horizontal component (Com-Hor) was calculated by the first order Sobel derivative in the vertical direction and the score was calculated as the average blue channel image intensity of this vertical derivative. Pearson correlation coefficients, accuracy and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were calculated after regression and standardized regression of the dataset. The agreement (both Pearson's and CCC) among investigators using the OCDER scale was 0.67, while the agreement of investigator to computer was 0.76. A multiple regression using both redness and horizontality improved the agreement CCC from 0.66 and 0.69 to 0.76, demonstrating the contribution of vessel geometry to the overall grade. Computer analysis of a given image has 100% repeatability and zero

  3. Performance Analysis of a Grid-Connected Upgraded Metallurgical Grade Silicon Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of their low cost, photovoltaic (PV cells made from upgraded metallurgical grade silicon (UMG-Si are a promising alternative to conventional solar grade silicon-based PV cells. This study investigates the outdoor performance of a 1.26 kW grid-connected UMG-Si PV system over five years, reporting the energy yields and performance ratio and estimating the long-term performance degradation rate. To make this investigation more meaningful, the performance of a mono-Si PV system installed at the same place and studied during the same period of time is presented for reference. Furthermore, this study systematizes and rationalizes the necessity of a data selection and filtering process to improve the accuracy of degradation rate estimation. The impact of plane-of-array irradiation threshold for data filtering on performance ratio and degradation rate is also studied. The UMG-Si PV system’s monthly performance ratio after data filtering ranged from 84% to 93% over the observation period. The annual degradation rate was 0.44% derived from time series of monthly performance ratio using the classical decomposition method. A comparison of performance ratio and degradation rate to conventional crystalline silicon-based PV systems suggests that performance of the UMG-Si PV system is comparable to that of conventional systems.

  4. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  5. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension.

  6. Dynamical limits on dark mass in the outer solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.W.; Quinlan, G.D.; Tremaine, S.

    1991-01-01

    Simplified model solar systems with known observational errors are considered in conducting a dynamical search for dark mass and its minimum detectable amount, and in determining the significance of observed anomalies. The numerical analysis of the dynamical influence of dark mass on the orbits of outer planets and comets is presented in detail. Most conclusions presented are based on observations of the four giant planets where the observational errors in latitude and longitude are independent Gaussian variables with a standard deviation. Neptune's long orbital period cannot be predicted by modern ephemerides, and no evidence of dark mass is found in considering this planet. Studying the improvement in fit when observations are fitted to models that consider dark mass is found to be an efficient way to detect dark mass. Planet X must have a mass of more than about 10 times the minimum detectable mass to locate the hypothetical planet. It is suggested that the IRAS survey would have already located the Planet X if it is so massive and close that it dynamically influences the outer planets. Orbital residuals from comets are found to be more effective than those from planets in detecting the Kuiper belt. 35 refs

  7. Automated Grading System for Evaluation of Superficial Punctate Keratitis Associated With Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, John D; Lane, Keith J; Ousler, George W; Angjeli, Endri; Smith, Lisa M; Abelson, Mark B

    2015-04-01

    To develop an automated method of grading fluorescein staining that accurately reproduces the clinical grading system currently in use. From the slit lamp photograph of the fluorescein-stained cornea, the region of interest was selected and punctate dot number calculated using software developed with the OpenCV computer vision library. Images (n = 229) were then divided into six incremental severity categories based on computed scores. The final selection of 54 photographs represented the full range of scores: nine images from each of six categories. These were then evaluated by three investigators using a clinical 0 to 4 corneal staining scale. Pearson correlations were calculated to compare investigator scores, and mean investigator and automated scores. Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods and between investigators. Pearson's correlation between investigators was 0.914; mean CCC between investigators was 0.882. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that scores assessed by investigator 3 were significantly higher than those of investigators 1 and 2 (paired t-test). The predicted grade was calculated to be: Gpred = 1.48log(Ndots) - 0.206. The two-point Pearson's correlation coefficient between the methods was 0.927 (P < 0.0001). The CCC between predicted automated score Gpred and mean investigator score was 0.929, 95% confidence interval (0.884-0.957). Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate bias. The difference in SD between clinical and automated methods was 0.398. An objective, automated analysis of corneal staining provides a quality assurance tool to be used to substantiate clinical grading of key corneal staining endpoints in multicentered clinical trials of dry eye.

  8. A HOME-BASED MASSED PRACTICE SYSTEM FOR PEDIATRIC NEUROREHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel low-cost human-computer interface (HCI system for home-based massed practice for children with upper limb impairment due to brain injury. Successful massed practice, a type of neurorehabilitation, may be of value for children with brain injury because it facilitates impaired limb use. Use of automated, home-based systems could provide a practical means for massed practice. However, the optimal strategy to deliver and monitor home-based massed practice is still unclear. We integrated motion sensor, video game, and HCI software technologies to create a useful home-based massed practice at targeted joints. The system records joint angle and number of movements using a low-cost custom hand-held sensor. The sensor acts as an input device to play video games. We demonstrated the system’s functionality and provided preliminary observations on usage by children with brain injury, including joint motion and muscle activation.

  9. High-speed potato grading and quality inspection based on a color vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordam, Jacco C.; Otten, Gerwoud W.; Timmermans, Toine J. M.; van Zwol, Bauke H.

    2000-03-01

    A high-speed machine vision system for the quality inspection and grading of potatoes has been developed. The vision system grades potatoes on size, shape and external defects such as greening, mechanical damages, rhizoctonia, silver scab, common scab, cracks and growth cracks. A 3-CCD line-scan camera inspects the potatoes in flight as they pass under the camera. The use of mirrors to obtain a 360-degree view of the potato and the lack of product holders guarantee a full view of the potato. To achieve the required capacity of 12 tons/hour, 11 SHARC Digital Signal Processors perform the image processing and classification tasks. The total capacity of the system is about 50 potatoes/sec. The color segmentation procedure uses Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in combination with a Mahalanobis distance classifier to classify the pixels. The procedure for the detection of misshapen potatoes uses a Fourier based shape classification technique. Features such as area, eccentricity and central moments are used to discriminate between similar colored defects. Experiments with red and yellow skin-colored potatoes have shown that the system is robust and consistent in its classification.

  10. A study on the establishment of safety assessment guidelines of commercial grade item dedication in digitalized safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H. S.; Kim, B. R.; Oh, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Because of obsolescing the components used in safety related systems of nuclear power plants, decreasing the number of suppliers qualified for the nuclear QA program and increasing maintenance costs of them, utilities have been considering to use commercial grade digital computers as an alternative for resolving such issues. However, commercial digital computers use the embedded pre-existing software, including operating system software, which are not developed by using nuclear grade QA program. Thus, it is necessary for utilities to establish processes for dedicating digital commercial grade items. A regulatory body also needs guidance to evaluate the digital commercial products properly. This paper surveyed the regulations and their regulatory guides, which establish the requirements for commercial grade items dedication, industry standards and guidances applicable to safety related systems. This paper provides some guidelines to be applied in evaluating the safety of digital upgrades and new digital plant protection systems in Korea

  11. Grade Point Average System of Assessment: the Implementation Peculiarities in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Sazonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the specificity, as well as flaws and faults of implementing the Grade Point Average (GPA system of students’ personal assessment in Russian higher schools. Nowadays, the above system is regarded as the basic functional element of educational process organization at the world’s leading universities. The author summarizes the foreign experience and demonstrates the advantages of the GPA system in comparison with the traditional domestic scale of assessment: full records of student’s assessment, objectivity, activation of responsibility for the results achieved, and self-control motivation. The standard GPA model is demonstrated, its application systemizing both the Russian and European requirements to the higher school graduates. The author suggests his own version of the assessment scale estimating and comparing the quality of education in Russian universities and worldwide. The research findings can be of interest to the specialists in the sphere of quality measurement and educational management. 

  12. Neuropathic pain. Redefinition and a grading system for clinical and research purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treede, R.-D.; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Campbell, J.N.

    2008-01-01

    potentially tissue-damaging stimuli. Pain may also arise by activity generated within the nervous system without adequate stimulation of its peripheral sensory endings. For this type of pain, the International Association for the Study of Pain introduced the term neuropathic pain, defined as "pai...... evidence from a neurologic examination. This grading system is proposed for clinical and research purposes....... initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system." While this definition has been useful in distinguishing some characteristics of neuropathic and nociceptive types of pain, it lacks defined boundaries. Since the sensitivity of the nociceptive system is modulated by its adequate...... activation (e.g., by central sensitization), it has been difficult to distinguish neuropathic dysfunction from physiologic neuroplasticity. We present a more precise definition developed by a group of experts from the neurologic and pain community: pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease...

  13. Mass transfer dynamics in double degenerate binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, M; Rosswog, S; Brueggen, M

    2009-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the mass transfer dynamics prior to the gravitational wave-driven merger of a double white dwarf system. Recently, there has been some discussion about the dynamics of these last stages, different methods seemed to provide qualitatively different results. While earlier SPH simulations indicated a very quick disruption of the binary on roughly the orbital time scale, more recent grid-based calculations find long-lived mass transfer for many orbital periods. Here we demonstrate how sensitive the dynamics of this last stage is to the exact initial conditions. We show that, after a careful preparation of the initial conditions, the reportedly short-lived systems undergo mass transfer for many dozens of orbits. The reported numbers of orbits are resolution-biased and therefore represent only lower limits to what is realized in nature. Nevertheless, the study shows convincingly the convergence of different methods to very similar results.

  14. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry system for measurement of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pibida, L.; McMahon, C.A.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Bushaw, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    A resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) system has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for sensitive and selective determination of radio-cesium in the environment. The overall efficiency was determined to be 4x10-7 with a combined (laser and mass spectrometer) selectivity of 108 for both 135Cs and 137Cs with respect to 133Cs. RIMS isotopic ratio measurements of 135Cs/ 137Cs were performed on a nuclear fuel burn-up sample and compared to measurements on a similar system at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and to conventional thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Results of preliminary RIMS investigations on a freshwater lake sediment sample are also discussed

  15. Mass production system and technology of NbTi superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutsuka, Toshiro; Monju, Yoshiyuki; Tatara, Isamu; Noguchi, Masataka; Yokochi, Katsuhiro; Matsubara, Mitsuharu.

    1984-01-01

    A mass production system for NbTi superconductors is described, involving vacuum arc melting of the alloys, hot hydrostatic extrusion of the composite billets and special drawing and stranding techniques for the rods and wires. The qualities required for superconducting wires are assured by a variety of instrument measurement and inspection techniques drawn from accumulated cryogenic experiences. (author)

  16. Designing of Holistic Mathematic Education Model Based-"System Among" at Low Grade Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, R.; Fauzan, A.; Iswari, M.; Khaidir, A.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model of Holistic Mathematics Education (HME) among systems based on low-grade primary school students so that students have a solid foundation when entering a higher behavior. This type of research is desaign research developed by Plomp to have three stages, namely the preliminary research, development or prototyping phase, and assessement Phase. This research resulted in a model Holistic Mathematics Education (HME) -based system is among the primary school students low grade consists of 10 stages, namely 1) Recap through the neighborhood, 2) Discussion groups by exploiting the environment, 3) Demonstration Group, 4) Exercise individuals, 5) mathematical modeling, 6) Demonstration of individuals, 7) Reflections, 8) impressions and messages, and giving meaning, 9) Celebrations and 10) A thorough assessment. Furthermore, this model also produces 7 important components that should be developed teacher, namely 1) constructivism, 2) the nature of nature, 3) independence, 4) parable, 5) inquiry, 6) cooperation, and 7) strengthening. This model will produce a model in the form of books, student books and teacher's guide book as a support system that can help users in its application.

  17. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). Subjects were 103 patients with ACD including 40 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 20 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and 43 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale consists of the following 3 graded groups of clinical observations: the 100-point-grade group (100 points for each observation) includes active giant papillae, gelatinous infiltrates of the limbus, exfoliative epithelial keratopathy, shield ulcer and papillary proliferation at lower palpebral conjunctiva; the 10-point-grade group (10 points for each observation) includes blepharitis, papillary proliferation with velvety appearance, Horner-Trantas spots, edema of bulbal conjunctiva, and superficial punctate keratopathy; and the 1-point-grade group (1 point for each observation) includes papillae at upper palpebral conjunctiva, follicular lesion at lower palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of bulbal conjunctiva, and lacrimal effusion. The total points in each grade group were determined as the severity score of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. The median severity scores of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale in VKC, AKC and AC were 243 (range: 12-444), 32.5 (11-344), and 13 (2-33), respectively. The severity score of each ACD disease type was significantly different (P Kruskal-Wallis test). The severity of each type of ACD was classified as severe, moderate, or mild according to the severity score. The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale is a useful clinical tool for grading the severity of each type of ACD.

  18. Grading the severity of soft tissue changes associated with metal-on-metal hip replacements: reliability of an MR grading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Helen; Cahir, John G.; Goodwin, Richard W. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Toms, Andoni Paul [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich (United Kingdom); Wimhurst, James; Nolan, John F. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) soft tissue reactions or aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) are being recognised using metal artefact reduction (MAR) MR with increasing frequency following the advent of second generation metal-on-metal bearings, but there is no standardised technique for reporting of MR appearances in this disease. The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of a grading system designed for scoring the severity of MoM disease on MRI. MRI examinations of 73 hips in 59 patients were retrospectively selected and then anonymised, randomised and reviewed by three independent observers (musculoskeletal radiologists). Each MR examination was scored as either A: normal, B: infection, C1: mild MoM disease, C2: moderate MoM disease or C3: severe MoM disease according to pre-defined criteria. Kappa correlation statistics were used to compare the observations. There was substantial agreement among all three observers; the correlation coefficient between the two most experienced observers was {kappa} = 0.78 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.68-0.88] and when compared with the least experienced observer coefficients were {kappa} = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.57-0.80) and {kappa} = 0.66 (95% CI: 0.54-0.78). The strongest correlation occurred for grades A, C2 and C3. The weakest correlations occurred for grades B and C1. The grading system described in this study is reliable for evaluating ALVAL in MoM prostheses using MR but is limited in differentiating mild disease from infection. (orig.)

  19. Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system. Whichever method of VIA prediction of fabrication yield is used, a single predicted value of fabrication yield for every carcass removes an impediment to the implementation of a value-based pricing system. Additionally, a VIA method of predicting carcass yield has the advantage over the current INAC classification system in that estimates would be produced by an instrument rather than by packing plant personnel, which would appeal to cattle producers. Results from the tenderness phase of the study indicated that the CVS BeefCam output variable for marbling was not (P > 0.05) able to segregate steer and heifer carcasses into groups that differed in WBSF values. In addition, the results of segregating steer and heifer carcasses according to muscle color output variables indicate that muscle maturity and skeletal maturity were useful for segregating carcasses according to differences in WBSF values of their steaks (P > 0.05). Use of VIA to predict beef carcass fabrication yields could improve accuracy and reduce subjectivity in comparison

  20. An ATLAS event with a high mass dijet system

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    Event with a high mass dijet system: the invariant mass of the two highest-pT jets is 2.55 TeV. The highest pT jet has a pT of 420 GeV, and an eta of -1.51, the second leading jet has pT of 320 GeV and an eta of 2.32. Jet momenta are calibrated according to the "EM+JES" scheme. No other jets are found with pT above 20 GeV. Event collected on 4 July 2010.

  1. Neonatal and pediatric regionalized systems in pediatric emergency mass critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Wanda D; Krug, Steven E; Kanter, Robert K; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Brantley, Mary D; Chung, Sarita; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2011-11-01

    legal, operational, and information systems to provide effective pediatric mass critical care through: 1) predisaster/mass casualty planning, management, and assessment with input from child health professionals; 2) close cooperation, agreements, public-private partnerships, and unique delivery systems; and 3) use of existing public health data to assess pediatric populations at risk and to model graded response plans based on increasing patient volume and acuity.

  2. Performance study on a low-temperature absorption–compression cascade refrigeration system driven by low-grade heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yingjie; Chen, Guangming; Wang, Qin; Han, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ning; Deng, Shiming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An absorption–compression system for low-temperature is developed and analyzed. • Cooling capacity, compression power, and discharge temperature are all improved. • At −170 °C, giving 200 W low-grade cooling capacity, COP increases by 28.6%. • Simulation results are verified experimentally, showing good agreement. - Abstract: This paper presents a performance study on a low-temperature absorption–compression cascade refrigeration system (LACRS), which consists of an absorption subsystem (AS) and a vapor compression auto-cascade subsystem (CS). In the system, low-grade heat of AS is used to subcool the CS, which can obtain cold energy at −170 °C. A simulation study is carried out to investigate the effects of evaporating temperature and low-grade cooling capacity on system performance. The study results show that as low-grade cooling capacity from the AS is provided to the CS, high-grade cooling capacity increases, compressor power consumption decreases, and the COP of the CS therefore increases. Comparing with compression auto-cascade cycle, the largest COP improvement of LACRS is about 38%. The model is verified by experimental data. An additional high-grade cooling capacity is obtained experimentally at −170 °C. The study results presented in this paper not only demonstrate the excellent performance of the LACRS, but also provide important guidance to further system design, and practical application.

  3. High-performance mass storage system for workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive

  4. Isolated orbital mass as the primary presentation of a triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a systemic follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yi Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Triple-hit lymphoma is a highly aggressive B-cell lymphoma. We report a case of triple-hit lymphoma transformed from systemic follicular lymphoma (FL after 9-year remission and presented primarily as an isolated orbital mass without systemic symptoms or lymphadenopathy. Observations: A 58-year-old female presented with intermittent vertical binocular diplopia, left upper eyelid swelling and pain and was found to have a 2.9 cm orbital mass. Histological section revealed a CD10-positive large B-cell lymphoma, consistent with transformation of FL. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH analysis demonstrated rearrangements involving C-MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6 genes, indicating a high grade, triple-hit lymphoma. Conclusions and importance: Triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a low-grade lymphoma may initially present as an isolated orbital mass without systemic evidence of transformation. Early recognition of double or triple-hit lymphomas is important since these patients require aggressive chemotherapy. Keywords: Lymphoma, Triple-hit lymphoma, Orbital mass

  5. Use of Data Mining to Reveal Body Mass Index (BMI): Patterns among Pennsylvania Schoolchildren, Pre-K to Grade 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    YoussefAgha, Ahmed H.; Lohrmann, David K.; Jayawardene, Wasantha P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health eTools for Schools was developed to assist school nurses with routine entries, including height and weight, on student health records, thus providing a readily accessible data base. Data-mining techniques were applied to this database to determine if clinically signi?cant results could be generated. Methods: Body mass index…

  6. Kindergarten Self-Regulation as a Predictor of Body Mass Index and Sports Participation in Fourth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Genevieve; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Pagani, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying early precursors of body mass index (BMI) and sports participation represents an important concern from a public health perspective and can inform the development of preventive interventions. This article examines whether kindergarten child self-regulation, as measured by classroom engagement and behavioral regulation, predicts healthy…

  7. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  8. Collapse of white dwarfs in low mass binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isern, J.; Canal, R.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Hernanz, M.; Labay, J.

    1987-01-01

    Low-mass binary X-ray sources and cataclysmic variables are composed of a compact star plus a non-degenerate star with a mass of the order of 1 M sun . In the first case, the degenerate star is a neutron star. In the second case, the star is a white dwarf. The similarities of both systems are so high that it is worthwhile to look for the possibility of obtaining a neutron star from the collapse of a white dwarf that accretes matter. The present work shows that massive, initially cold white dwarfs can collapse non-explosively if they accrete mass at a rate greater than 1.0E-7 M sun per year. (Author)

  9. Correlation of the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) System with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS): Introduction of the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sean N.; Kallu, Raj R.; Barnard, Chase K.

    2016-11-01

    Underground gold mines in Nevada are exploiting increasingly deeper ore bodies comprised of weak to very weak rock masses. The Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system is widely used at underground gold mines in Nevada and is applicable in fair to good-quality rock masses, but is difficult to apply and loses reliability in very weak rock mass to soil-like material. Because very weak rock masses are transition materials that border engineering rock mass and soil classification systems, soil classification may sometimes be easier and more appropriate to provide insight into material behavior and properties. The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is the most likely choice for the classification of very weak rock mass to soil-like material because of its accepted use in tunnel engineering projects and its ability to predict soil-like material behavior underground. A correlation between the RMR and USCS systems was developed by comparing underground geotechnical RMR mapping to laboratory testing of bulk samples from the same locations, thereby assigning a numeric RMR value to the USCS classification that can be used in spreadsheet calculations and geostatistical analyses. The geotechnical classification system presented in this paper including a USCS-RMR correlation, RMR rating equations, and the Geo-Pick Strike Index is collectively introduced as the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR). It is the authors' hope that this system will aid in the classification of weak rock masses and more usable design tools based on the RMR system. More broadly, the RMR-USCS correlation and the W-RMR system help define the transition between engineering soil and rock mass classification systems and may provide insight for geotechnical design in very weak rock masses.

  10. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  11. Food grade microemulsion systems: canola oil/lecithin:n-propanol/water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Soleiman; Radi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the capability of a natural surfactant, lecithin, and the influence of ionic strength, pH, and temperature on some properties of a food grade microemulsion system were evaluated. For this purpose, the pseudoternary phase diagrams of canola oil/lecithin:n-propanol/water microemulsions in the presence of different salts (NaCl and CaCl2), ionic strengths, pHs, and temperatures were constructed. Our findings showed that the presence of salts slightly increased the W/O areas on the phase diagrams, whereas pH variation was not effective on the microemulsion formation. The expansion of microemulsion areas with temperature indicated the greater triglycerides solubilization capacity of lecithin based microemulsions at higher temperatures. These findings revealed the efficiency of lecithin-based microemulsion system for solubilization of triglycerides which can potentially be used for extraction of edible vegetable oils particularly canola oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seismic qualification of a commercial grade emergency diesel generator system in high seismic zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohsin R.; Chen, Wayne W.H.; Chu, Winnie S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the seismic qualification of a commercially procured emergency diesel generator (EDG) system for use in a nuclear power plant. Response spectrum analyses of finite element models, validated using in situ vibration test data, were performed to qualify the skid and floor mounted mechanical components whose functional capacity and structural integrity can be analyzed. Time history analyses of these models were also performed to obtain the amplified response spectra for seismic testing of small valves, electrical and electro-mechanical components whose functional capacity can not be analyzed to establish the seismic qualification. The operational loads were obtained by in-plant vibration monitoring. Full scale shake table testing was performed for auxiliary electrical cabinets. It is concluded that with some minor structural modifications, a commercial grade EDG system can be qualified for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants located in high seismic zones. (author)

  13. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.

  14. Correlation of Body Mass Index and Serum Parameters With Ultrasonographic Grade of Fatty Change in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abangah, Ghobad; Yousefi, Atefeh; Asadollahi, Rouhangiz; Veisani, Yousef; Rahimifar, Paria; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease in the western population and expanding disease in the world. Pathological changes in fatty liver are like alcohol liver damage, which can lead to end-stage liver disease. The prevalence of NAFLD in obese or overweight people is higher than general population, and it seems that people with high Body Mass Index (BMI) or abnormality in some laboratory tests are more susceptible for severe fatty liver and high grade of NAFLD in ultrasonography (U.S). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of BMI and laboratory tests with NAFLD in ultrasonography. During a multi-step process, we selected two-hundred and thirteen cases from four hundred and eighteen patients with NAFLD. Laboratory tests performed included: ALT, AST, FBS, Triglyceride and cholesterol levels, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C antibody, ceruloplasmin, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation, ferritin, AMA, ANA, ANTI LKM1, serum protein electrophoresis, TSH, anti TTG (IgA). BMI and ultrasonography for 213 patients were performed, and then data was analyzed. These parameters and grades of ultrasonography were compared with the values obtained using one way ANOVA. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of ultrasonography grade. The Statistical Package for the Social Science program (SPSS, version 16.0) was used for data analysis. Two-hundred and thirteen cases including 140 male and 73 female, were studied. In general, 72.3% of patients were overweight and obese. Post-hoc tests showed that only BMI (P < 0.001) and TG (P < 0.011) among variables had statistically significant associations with ultrasonography grade (USG), and ordinal logistic regression model showed that BMI and AST were the best predictors. Our results suggest that in patients with NAFLD, BMI and TG are most effective factors in severity of fatty liver disease and ultrasonography grade (USG). On the other hand, BMI as a

  15. Applying Hamming Code to Memory System of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) Processor Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Hwang, Sungjae; Park, Gangmin

    2013-01-01

    If some errors such as inverted bits occur in the memory, instructions and data will be corrupted. As a result, the PLC may execute the wrong instructions or refer to the wrong data. Hamming Code can be considered as the solution for mitigating this mis operation. In this paper, we apply hamming Code, then, we inspect whether hamming code is suitable for to the memory system of the processor module. In this paper, we applied hamming code to existing safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q). Inspection data are collected and they will be referred for improving the PLC in terms of the soundness. In our future work, we will try to improve time delay caused by hamming calculation. It will include CPLD optimization and memory architecture or parts alteration. In addition to these hamming code-based works, we will explore any methodologies such as mirroring for the soundness of safety grade PLC. Hamming code-based works can correct bit errors, but they have limitation in multi bits errors

  16. Applying Hamming Code to Memory System of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) Processor Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehee; Hwang, Sungjae; Park, Gangmin [POSCO Nuclear Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    If some errors such as inverted bits occur in the memory, instructions and data will be corrupted. As a result, the PLC may execute the wrong instructions or refer to the wrong data. Hamming Code can be considered as the solution for mitigating this mis operation. In this paper, we apply hamming Code, then, we inspect whether hamming code is suitable for to the memory system of the processor module. In this paper, we applied hamming code to existing safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q). Inspection data are collected and they will be referred for improving the PLC in terms of the soundness. In our future work, we will try to improve time delay caused by hamming calculation. It will include CPLD optimization and memory architecture or parts alteration. In addition to these hamming code-based works, we will explore any methodologies such as mirroring for the soundness of safety grade PLC. Hamming code-based works can correct bit errors, but they have limitation in multi bits errors.

  17. UCP1 -3826 A>G polymorphism affects weight, fat mass, and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in grade III obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Carolina Ferreira; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Rus Perez; Brochado, Maria Jose Franco; de Oliveira, Bruno Parenti; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; Marchini, Julio Sergio; dos Santos, Jose Ernesto; Salgado Junior, Wilson; Silva Junior, Wilson Araujo; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether or not the UCP1 -3826 A>G polymorphism is associated with obesity and related metabolic disorders in grade III obese patients. 150 obese patients (body mass index ≥35 kg/m(2)) who were candidates for bariatric surgery were studied. Weight (kg), body mass index (kg/m(2)); fat free mass (kg), fat mass (kg), energy intake (kcal), level of physical activity, plasma levels of glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerols, and the prevalence of comorbidities associated with obesity were collected from medical records. Polymorphism rs1800592 genotyping was performed through allelic discrimination method in real time polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan predesigned SNP Genotyping Assays kits. The t test was done to determine if genotypes of each polymorphism are associated with anthropometric and body composition variables. Linear regression models were used for age, sex, height, physical activity, and energy intake in weight and body composition variations (P 150 individuals (47.2 ± 10.5 y, 80% women) the distribution of AA, AG, and GG was 41.3%, 45.3%, and 13.4%, respectively. Weight and body fat were lower in individuals who were carriers of a mutated allele G. It was observed that mutated homozygotes (GG) had a lower frequency of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with those of wild allele (AA+AG). UCP1 -3826 A>G polymorphism is associated with weight, body fat mass, and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese individuals candidates for bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of a uniform anatomic grading system to measure disease severity in eight emergency general surgical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Marie L; Agarwal, Suresh; Muskat, Peter; Ross, Steven; Savage, Stephanie; Schuster, Kevin; Tominaga, Gail T; Shafi, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Emergent general surgical diseases encompass a broad spectrum of anatomy and pathophysiology, creating challenges for outcomes assessment, research, and surgical training. The goal of this study was to measure anatomic disease severity for eight emergent general surgical diseases using the uniform grading system of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Committee on Patient Assessment and Outcomes of AAST applied the previously developed uniform grading system to eight emergent general surgical diseases using a consensus of experts. It was then reviewed and approved by the Board of Managers of AAST. Severity grades for eight commonly encountered emergent general surgical conditions were created: breast abscess, esophageal perforation, infectious colitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, perirectal abscess, pleural space infections, soft tissue infections, and surgical site infections. The range of grades from I through V, reflect progression from mild disease, limited to within the organ itself, to widespread severe disease. This article provides a uniform grading system for measuring anatomic severity of eight emergent general surgical diseases. Consistent adoption of these grades could improve standardization for quality assurance, outcomes research, and surgical training.

  19. Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles on pre- and postoperative CT arthrography (CTA): is the Goutallier grading system reliable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eugene; Choi, Jung-Ah; Kang, Heung Sik; Oh, Joo Han; Ahn, Soyeon; Hong, Sung Hwan; Chai, Jee Won

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate fatty degeneration (FD) of rotator cuff muscles on CTA using Goutallier's grading system and quantitative measurements with comparison between pre- and postoperative states. IRB approval was obtained for this study. Two radiologists independently reviewed pre- and postoperative CTAs of 43 patients (24 males and 19 females, mean age, 58.1 years) with 46 shoulders confirmed as full-thickness tears with random distribution. FD of supraspinatus, infraspinatus/teres minor, and subscapularis was assessed using Goutallier's system and by quantitative measurements of Hounsfield units (HUs) on sagittal images. Changes in FD grades and HUs were compared between pre- and postoperative CTAs and analyzed with respect to preoperative tear size and postoperative cuff integrity. The correlations between qualitative grades and quantitative measurements and their inter-observer reliabilities were also assessed. There was statistically significant correlation between FD grades and HU measurements of all muscles on pre- and postoperative CTA (p 0.05). The average dose-length product (DLP, mGy . cm) was 365.2 mGy . cm (range, 323.8-417.2 mGy . cm) and estimated average effective dose was 5.1 mSv. Goutallier grades correlated well with HUs of rotator cuff muscles. Reliability was excellent for both systems, except for FD grade of IST/TM muscles, which may be more reliably assessed using quantitative measurements. (orig.)

  20. A quadrupole mass spectrometer system for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.

    1987-12-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor for nuclear safeguards-related surveillance of a pilot-scale gas centrifuge plant is described. This monitor utilises a quadrupole mass spectrometer to measure the isotopic composition of UF 6 in the feed and product gas streams. Details of the design and construction are given, and several difficulties are identified and discussed. Finally, the performance of this system is illustrated with typical results

  1. Correlation between Rock mass rating, Q-system and Rock mass index based on field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Amine

    2018-01-01

    The proposed regression models reveal strong correlations between RMR, Q and RMi indexes with high values of accuracy coefficients so that they can be used to estimate the “CPB3” underground rock mass quality for the range of RMR between 30% and 80%. The developed mathematical formulations of the geomechanicalindexes will certainly offer an effective tool to geologist and geotechnical professionals in the decision-making process, preliminary design phase, stability problems and suggestions of the required supporting system and techniques without the expense of more resources or time.

  2. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Boron by Titrimetry 7 to 13 Separation of Boron for Mass Spectrometry 14 to 19 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 20 to 23 Separation of Halides by Pyrohydrolysis 24 to 27 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 28 to 30 Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 31 to 33 Trace Elements by Emission Spectroscopy 34 to 46 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (F...

  3. Extended Lagrangian formalism for rheonomic systems with variable mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mušicki Đorđe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the extended Lagrangian formalism for the rheonomic systems (Dj. Mušicki, 2004, which began with the modification of the mechanics of such systems (V. Vujičić, 1987, is extended to the systems with variable mass, with emphasis on the corresponding energy relations. This extended Lagrangian formalism is based on the extension of the set of chosen generalized coordinates by new quantities, suggested by the form of nonstationary constraints, which determine the position of the frame of reference in respect to which these generalized coordinates refer. As a consequence, an extended system of the Lagrangian equations is formulated, accommodated to the variability of the masses of particles, where the additional ones correspond to the additional generalized coordinates. By means of these equations, the energy relations of such systems have been studied, where it is demonstrated that here there are four types of energy conservation laws. The obtained energy laws are more complete and natural than the corresponding ones in the usual Lagrangian formulation for such systems. It is demonstrated that the obtained energy laws, are in full accordance with the energy laws in the corresponding vector formulation, if they are expressed in terms of the quantities introduced in this formulation of mechanics. The obtained results are illustrated by an example: the motion of a rocket, which ejects the gasses backwards, while this rocket moves up a straight line on an oblique plane, which glides uniformly in a horizontal direction.

  4. Systemic low-grade inflammation in post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speer K

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Speer,1 Dominic Upton,2 Stuart Semple,1,3 Andrew McKune1–4 1Discipline of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 2Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 4Discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa Abstract: Studies examining post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD have either emphasized a relationship between PTSD and a systemically pro-inflammatory state or identified a link between PTSD and chronic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence for a relationship between individuals with PTSD and systemic low-grade inflammation that has been proposed to underlie chronic disease development in this population. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature (January 2006 to April 2017 in accordance with the PRISMA statement in the following four databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus with Full Text. The search strategy was limited to articles published in peer-reviewed journals and to human studies. Nine studies measuring systemic inflammation and discussing its role in chronic disease development were selected for inclusion in this review. The association between markers of systemic inflammation and PTSD was evaluated by the measurement of a variety of systemic inflammatory markers including acute-phase proteins, complement proteins, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, natural killer cells, and white blood cells. In general, systemic inflammatory biomarkers were elevated across the studies in the PTSD groups. There is evidence that PTSD is underpinned by the presence of a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. This inflammation may be the mechanism associated with increased risk for chronic disease in the PTSD population. From

  5. Upgrading and downgrading of prostate cancer from biopsy to radical prostatectomy: incidence and predictive factors using the modified Gleason grading system and factoring in tertiary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J; Pierorazio, Phillip M

    2012-05-01

    Prior studies assessing the correlation of Gleason score (GS) at needle biopsy and corresponding radical prostatectomy (RP) predated the use of the modified Gleason scoring system and did not factor in tertiary grade patterns. To assess the relation of biopsy and RP grade in the largest study to date. A total of 7643 totally embedded RP and corresponding needle biopsies (2004-2010) were analyzed according to the updated Gleason system. All patients underwent prostate biopsy prior to RP. The relation of upgrading or downgrading to patient and cancer characteristics was compared using the chi-square test, Student t test, and multivariable logistic regression. A total of 36.3% of cases were upgraded from a needle biopsy GS 5-6 to a higher grade at RP (11.2% with GS 6 plus tertiary). Half of the cases had matching GS 3+4=7 at biopsy and RP with an approximately equal number of cases downgraded and upgraded at RP. With biopsy GS 4+3=7, RP GS was almost equally 3+4=7 and 4+3=7. Biopsy GS 8 led to an almost equal distribution between RP GS 4+3=7, 8, and 9-10. A total of 58% of the cases had matching GS 9-10 at biopsy and RP. In multivariable analysis, increasing age (pfactoring in multiple variables including the number of positive cores and the maximum percentage of cancer per core, the concordance indexes were not sufficiently high to justify the use of nomograms for predicting upgrading and downgrading for the individual patient. Almost 20% of RP cases have tertiary patterns. A needle biopsy can sample a tertiary higher Gleason pattern in the RP, which is then not recorded in the standard GS reporting, resulting in an apparent overgrading on the needle biopsy. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stochastic stationary response of a variable-mass system with mass disturbance described by Poisson white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Wantao; Han, Qun

    2017-05-01

    Variable-mass systems have received widespread attention and show prominent significance with the explosive development of micro- and nanotechnologies, so there is a growing need to study the influences of mass disturbances on systems. This paper is devoted to investigating the stochastic response of a variable-mass system subject to weakly random excitation, in which the mass disturbance is modeled as a Poisson white noise. Firstly, the original system is approximately replaced by the associated conservative system with small disturbance based on the Taylor expansion technique. Then the stationary response of the approximate system is obtained by applying the stochastic averaging method. At last, a representative variable-mass oscillator is worked out to illustrate the effectiveness of the analytical solution by comparing with Monte Carlo simulation. The relative change of mean-square displacement is used to measure the influences of mass disturbance on system responses. Results reveal that the stochastic responses are more sensitive to mass disturbance for some system parameters. It is also found that the influences of Poisson white noise as the mass disturbance on system responses are significantly different from that of Gaussian white noise of the same intensity.

  7. Self-tuning control algorithm design for vehicle adaptive cruise control system through real-time estimation of vehicle parameters and road grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Tahbaz-zadeh Moghaddam, Iman

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to design a self-tuning control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system that can adapt its behaviour to variations of vehicle dynamics and uncertain road grade. To this aim, short-time linear quadratic form (STLQF) estimation technique is developed so as to track simultaneously the trend of the time-varying parameters of vehicle longitudinal dynamics with a small delay. These parameters are vehicle mass, road grade and aerodynamic drag-area coefficient. Next, the values of estimated parameters are used to tune the throttle and brake control inputs and to regulate the throttle/brake switching logic that governs the throttle and brake switching. The performance of the designed STLQF-based self-tuning control (STLQF-STC) algorithm for ACC system is compared with the conventional method based on fixed control structure regarding the speed/distance tracking control modes. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm improves the performance of throttle and brake controllers, providing more comfort while travelling, enhancing driving safety and giving a satisfactory performance in the presence of different payloads and road grade variations.

  8. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianduan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and weight measured in four rounds of data collection (yielded three intervals: kindergarten, summer vacation, and first grade as part of a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start in a Northern Plains Indian Reservation. Demographic variables were collected at baseline from parent surveys. Growth velocities (Z-score units/year for BMI, weight, and height were estimated and compared for each interval using generalized linear mixed models. Results The children were taller and heavier than median of same age counterparts. Height Z-scores were positively associated with increasing weight status category. The mean weight velocity during summer was significantly less than during the school year. More rapid growth velocity in height during summer than during school year was observed. Obese children gained less adjusted-BMI in the first grade after gaining more than their counterparts during the previous two intervals. No statistically significant interval effects were found for height and BMI velocities. Conclusions There was no indication of a significant summer effect on children's BMI. Rather than seasonal or school-related patterns, the predominant pattern indicated by weight-Z and BMI-Z velocities might be related to age or maturation. Trial registration Bright Start: Obesity Prevention in American Indian Children Clinical Trial Govt ID# NCT00123032

  9. Establishment of quality system program for the manufacture of nuclear grade steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Toru

    1978-01-01

    Recently, the pressure vessels employed in the fields of nuclear power generation, petroleum refining, and chemical industry tend to be large size and high performance, therefore thick steel plates and forgings of high quality are demanded, and the establishment and maintenance of strict quality assurance system for material production are required. In Mizushima Works, Kawasaki Steel Corp., the installations for large forgings and thick plates were constructed from 1969 to 1976, and the researches on the development of production techniques were forwarded in parallel. A Quality System Certificate (Material) has been granted to Mizushima Works on March 11, 1977, by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for the manufacture of steel plates and forgings of nuclear grade. The quality system manual as the basis of quality assurance activities, the organization for quality assurance, its responsibility and authority, the discrimination of materials, the control of manufacturing processes, the qualification of workers in charge of nondestructive test, welding, heat treatment and others, the management of tests and inspections, the management of products with faults and repairing measures, and internal supervisory system are explained. The wide use of computers is novel in the field of quality system program. (Kako, I.)

  10. Fissionlike phenomena for systems with mass A=110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusch, B.

    1984-01-01

    We present a part of the considerable amount of data we obtained these last years in the study of composite systems of mass around 110. From the rotating liquid drop models, theses systems are known as nearly the most stable nuclei, i.e. angular momenta as large as 90 h can be fully absorbed. Only bombarding energies less than 8MeV/nucleon will be considered here avoiding therefore that imcomplete fusion, projectile fragmentation of other such mechanisms play a measurable role

  11. Revised definition of neuropathic pain and its grading system: an open case series illustrating its use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Schwab, Rainer; Müller, Harald; Stoeter, Peter; Dieterich, Marianne; Sommer, Clemens; Birklein, Frank; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2009-10-01

    The definition of neuropathic pain has recently been revised by an expert committee of the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain (NeuPSIG) as "pain arising as direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system," and a grading system of "definite," "probable," and "possible" neuropathic pain has been introduced. This open case series of 5 outpatients (3 men, 2 women; mean age 48 +/- 12 years) demonstrates how the grading system can be applied, in combination with appropriate confirmatory testing, to diagnosis neuropathic conditions in clinical practice. The proposed grading system includes a dynamic algorithm that enhances the physician's ability to determine with a greater level of certainty whether a pain condition is neuropathic. Its clinical use should be further validated in prospective studies.

  12. A DHT Key-Value Storage System with Carrier Grade Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guangyu; Chen, Jian; Gong, Hao; Fan, Lingyuan; Xue, Haiqiang; Lu, Qingming; Liang, Liang

    The Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology being widely adopted in today’s both academic research and practical service providing, has many potential advantages and achieves a great success in Information Technology scope. Recently some researchers have proposed that P2P inspired architecture also might be one choice for the telecom network evolution. Most of such works adopted structured P2P (DHT) as the basic solutions, but they seldom discussed how to eliminate the huge gap between the telecom underlay performance requirement and the performance of existed DHT which mainly originated from the Internet applications. This paper presents the design and implementation of SandStone, a DHT based key-value storage system with carrier grade performance, such as good scalability, strong consistency and high reliability, which could be deployed as the cornerstone in such new P2P inspired networking architectures.

  13. [Study of the Application of Mobile Medical Technology in Construction of Grading Diagnosis and Treatment System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenwu; Shen, Yihong; Zhen, Hui; Yang, Xiaohe; Hu, Kai

    2018-02-08

    The combination of mobile medical technology and the grading diagnosis and treatment system (GDTS) can stimulate the allocation of medical resources, reduce medical cost and improve public health significantly. Firstly we summarize development features of mobile medical technology in foreign and domestic market, then we study the application model of mobile medical application in GDTS with field research data and analyzes its advantage and shortage. Finally, we propose four measures for further developing mobile medical application in the GDTS:the government departments should formulate policies and industry standards of products as soon as possible to meet requirement of market; service providers should take the hospitals as core role to achieve mutual benefit and win-win situation; take the daily monitoring of chronic diseases as an entry point to build profitable business model; enhance publicity to promote public health awareness.

  14. Low grade heat driven adsorption system for cooling and power generation using advanced adsorbent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mousawi, Fadhel Noraldeen; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption system based on water and advanced physical adsorbents has the potential of producing cooling and power. • Adding an expander to physisorption system enhances efficiency by up to 11%. • MIL101Cr MOF can produce 95 W/kg and 1357 W/kg of specific power and cooling. • AQSOA Z02 can produce 73 W/kg and 640 W/kg of specific power and cooling. - Abstract: Globally there is abundance of low grade heat sources (around 150 °C) from renewables like solar energy or from industrial waste heat. The exploitation of such low grade heat sources will reduce fossil fuel consumption and CO_2 emissions. Adsorption technology offers the potential of using such low grade heat to generate cooling and power. In this work, the effect of using advanced adsorbent materials like AQSOA-Z02 (SAPO-34) zeolite and MIL101Cr Metal Organic Framework (MOF) at various operating conditions on power and cooling performance compared to that of commonly used silica-gel was investigated using water as refrigerant. A mathematical model for a two bed adsorption cooling cycle has been developed with the cycle modified to produce power by incorporating an expander between the desorber and the condenser. Results show that it is possible to produce power and cooling at the same time without affecting the cooling output. Results also show that for all adsorbents used as the heat source temperature increases, the cooling effect and power generated increase. As for increasing the cold bed temperature, this will decrease the cooling effect and power output except for SAPO-34 which shows slightly increasing trend of cooling and power output. As the condenser cooling temperature increases, the cooling effect and power output will decrease while for the chilled water temperature, the cooling load and power generated increased as the temperature increased. The maximum values of average specific power generation (SP), specific cooling power (SCP) and cycle efficiency are 73 W

  15. A pilot mass-storage system for KEK belle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Manabe, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Morita, Youhei; Nozaki, Tadao; Sasaki, Takashi; Watase, Yoshiyuko; Yamakasi, Tokuyuki

    1996-01-01

    A pilot mass-storage system for KEK Belle (B-meson Physics) experiment has been developed. This experiment requires a high speed and large data recording system. The required recording speed is about 3 MB/sec in average and 15 MB/sec at maximum. The required volume is more than 30 TB/year. We have developed a pilot system to study the high-speed and large volume data recording system which satisfies the above requirements. The system consists of (1) SONY-DIR 1000M data recorder with SCSI-2 Fast/Wide interface; the recording capability of the device is 16MB/sec art maximum. (2) SONY-DMS 24 tape robot (tape library) of which volume capacity is about 2 TB (3) high-speed TCP/IP network of HIPPI and (4) three workstations running under UNIX. For the system software, the CERN-SHIFT system has been installed for the study. Because that the tape device and the robot (tape library) system are completely part. The tape device and the robot (library) control path are directly connected to UNIX workstations. To achieve the required recording speed, we also developed an application interfaces for this tape server. We have made the user interface without using tape stating mechanism. This user interface reduces the overhead of the recording system has developed based on TCP/IP, so that the system is easy to expand and free from network media. (author)

  16. Comparative evaluation of the modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system on breast carcinoma aspirates and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA is a quick, minimally invasive procedure for evaluation of breast tumors. The Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR grade on histological sections is a well-established tool to guide selection of adjuvant systemic therapy. Grade evaluation is possible on cytology smears to avoid and minimize the morbidity associated with overtreatment of lower grade tumors. Aim : The aim was to test the hypothesis whether breast FNA from the peripheral portion of the lesion is representative of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade on histopathology as compared to FNA from the central portion. Materials and Methods : Fine-needle aspirates and subsequent tissue specimens from 45 women with ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified were studied. FNAs were performed under ultrasound guidance from the central as well as the peripheral third of the lesion for each case avoiding areas of necrosis/calcification. The SBR grading was compared on alcohol fixed aspirates and tissue sections for each case. Results : Comparative analysis of SBR grade on aspirates from the peripheral portion and histopathology by the Pearson chi-square test (χ2 =78.00 showed that it was statistically significant (P<0.001 with 93% concordance. Lower mitotic score on aspirates from the peripheral portion was observed in only 4 out of 45 (9% cases. The results of the Pearson chi-square test (χ2 = 75.824 with statistically significant (P=0.000. Conclusion : This prospective study shows that FNA smears from the peripheral portion of the lesion are representative of the grading performed on the corresponding histopathological sections. It is possible to score and grade by SBR system on FNA smears.

  17. An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Bouchy, François; Correia, Alexandre C M; Laskar, Jacques; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sivan, Jean-Pierre

    2006-05-18

    Over the past two years, the search for low-mass extrasolar planets has led to the detection of seven so-called 'hot Neptunes' or 'super-Earths' around Sun-like stars. These planets have masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth and are mainly found on close-in orbits with periods of 2-15 days. Here we report a system of three Neptune-mass planets with periods of 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days, orbiting the nearby star HD 69830. This star was already known to show an infrared excess possibly caused by an asteroid belt within 1 au (the Sun-Earth distance). Simulations show that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. Theoretical calculations favour a mainly rocky composition for both inner planets, while the outer planet probably has a significant gaseous envelope surrounding its rocky/icy core; the outer planet orbits within the habitable zone of this star.

  18. Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems as an Application of Mass Customisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Nielsen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing systems are today developed as engineer to order solutions tailored to producing a specific product or a limited product mix. Such dedicated systems are not consistent with market demands for rapid product changes, product variety, and customisation, which require flexibility...... and responsiveness of manufacturing systems. A Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) is aimed at possess such flexibility and responsiveness and is said to be the manufacturing paradigm of tomorrow. RMS is, though, not yet fully developed. A similarity between RMS and modular product families, known from Mass...... Customisation (MC), is seen and based on this similarity a potential to maturing RMS further by applying MC methods and techniques is identified. Based on literature surveys this paper analyses this potential by diagnosing gabs for RMS to succeed as a MC product. For each gab MC theory holds related methods...

  19. Designing modular manufacturing systems using mass customisation theories and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Hvilshøj, Mads; Madsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Today, manufacturing systems are developed as engineered to order (ETO) solutions tailored to produce a specific product or a limited product mix. However, such dedicated systems are not consistent with the current market demands for rapid product changes, high product variety, and customisation....... In response, modular manufacturing systems (MMS) are evolving, which are aimed to possess the required responsiveness and to be the manufacturing paradigm of mass customisation (MC). Hereby, MMS brings the development process of manufacturing systems against configured to order (CTO). Up to now, research...... in MMS has primarily focused on potential benefits, basic principles, and enabling technologies, while the approaches of actually designing and creating modular architectures have received less attention. A potential to fill these gaps by applying MC theories and methods is identified based...

  20. The NEEDS Data Base Management and Archival Mass Memory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, G. A.; Bryant, S. B.; Thomas, D. T.; Wagnon, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    A Data Base Management System and an Archival Mass Memory System are being developed that will have a 10 to the 12th bit on-line and a 10 to the 13th off-line storage capacity. The integrated system will accept packetized data from the data staging area at 50 Mbps, create a comprehensive directory, provide for file management, record the data, perform error detection and correction, accept user requests, retrieve the requested data files and provide the data to multiple users at a combined rate of 50 Mbps. Stored and replicated data files will have a bit error rate of less than 10 to the -9th even after ten years of storage. The integrated system will be demonstrated to prove the technology late in 1981.

  1. Association between body mass index, diet and dental caries in Grade 6 boys in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhayat, A; Ahmad, M S; Fadel, H T

    2016-12-12

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Saudi Arabia and although caries is associated with obesity, this association has not been investigated in Medina. This study aimed to determine the association between dental caries, body mass index (BMI) and dietary habits of 12-year-old boys from four geographically distinct schools in Medina. Mean BMI was 22.17 kg/m² (± 5.15); 41% had normal BMI, 25% were overweight and 30% were obese. The mean Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) score was 1.46 (± 2.04). Those in the normal BMI range had a significantly higher prevalence of caries (57%) and DMFT score (1.92) compared with the overweight and obese groups (P caries. Normal and underweight participants had an almost 2 times greater risk of developing caries compared with their overweight and obese counterparts. The children had poor dietary habits and there were no significant associations between dietary variables and caries.

  2. Role of the immune system in the peritoneal tumor spread of high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Katharina; Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Aust, Stefanie; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Meier, Samuel M; Gerner, Christopher; Grimm, Christoph; Horvat, Reinhard; Pils, Dietmar

    2016-09-20

    The immune system plays a critical role in cancer progression and overall survival. Still, it is unclear if differences in the immune response are associated with different patterns of tumor spread apparent in high grade serous ovarian cancer patients and previously described by us. In this study we aimed to assess the role of the immune system in miliary (widespread, millet-sized lesions) and non-miliary (bigger, exophytically growing implants) tumor spread. To achieve this we comprehensively analyzed tumor tissues, blood, and ascites from 41 patients using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, RNA sequencing, multiplexed immunoassays, and immunohistochemistry. Results showed that inflammation markers were systemically higher in miliary. In contrast, in non-miliary lymphocyte and monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the ascites was higher as well as the levels of PD-1 expression in tumor associated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells. Furthermore, in ascites of miliary patients more epithelial tumor cells were present compared to non-miliary, possibly due to the active down-regulation of anti-tumor responses by B-cells and regulatory T-cells. Summarizing, adaptive immune responses prevailed in patients with non-miliary spread, whereas in patients with miliary spread a higher involvement of the innate immune system was apparent while adaptive responses were counteracted by immune suppressive cells and factors.

  3. An Airborne Multispectral Imaging System Based on Two Consumer-Grade Cameras for Agricultural Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghai Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One camera captures normal color images, while the other is modified to obtain near-infrared (NIR images. The color camera is also equipped with a GPS receiver to allow geotagged images. A remote control is used to trigger both cameras simultaneously. Images are stored in 14-bit RAW and 8-bit JPEG files in CompactFlash cards. The second-order transformation was used to align the color and NIR images to achieve subpixel alignment in four-band images. The imaging system was tested under various flight and land cover conditions and optimal camera settings were determined for airborne image acquisition. Images were captured at altitudes of 305–3050 m (1000–10,000 ft and pixel sizes of 0.1–1.0 m were achieved. Four practical application examples are presented to illustrate how the imaging system was used to estimate cotton canopy cover, detect cotton root rot, and map henbit and giant reed infestations. Preliminary analysis of example images has shown that this system has potential for crop condition assessment, pest detection, and other agricultural applications.

  4. Grading-System-Dependent Volume Effects for Late Radiation-Induced Rectal Toxicity After Curative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Bergh, Alphons van den; Schilstra, Cornelis; Vlasman, Renske; Meertens, Harm; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between the dose distributions in the rectum and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC), Late Effects of Normal Tissue SOMA, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 graded rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer treated with RT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 124 patients who received three-dimensional conformal RT for prostate cancer to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. All patients completed questionnaires regarding rectum complaints before RT and during long-term follow-up. Late rectum Grade 2 or worse toxicity, according to RTOG/EORTC, LENT SOMA, and CTCAE v3.0 criteria, was analyzed in relation to rectal dose and volume parameters. Results: Dose-volume thresholds (V40 ≥65%, V50 ≥55%, V65 ≥45%, V70 ≥20%, and a rectum volume ≤140 cm 3 ), significantly discriminated patients with late Grade 0-1 and Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity, particularly using the LENT SOMA and CTCAE v3.0 systems. The rectum volume receiving ≥70 Gy (V70) was most predictive for late Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity with each of the grading systems. The associations were strongest, however, with use of the LENT SOMA system. Conclusions: Volume effects for late radiation-induced rectal toxicity are present, but their clinical significance depends on the grading system used. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of studies reporting on radiation-induced rectal toxicity

  5. The role of low-grade inflammation and metabolic flexibility in aging and nutritional modulation thereof: A systems biology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calçada, D.; Vianello, D.; Giampieri, E.; Sala, C.; Castellani, G.; Graaf, A.A. de; Kremer, S.H.A.; Ommen, B. van; Feskens, E.; Santoro, A.; Franceschi, C.; Bouwman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by the progressive functional decline of many interrelated physiological systems. In particular, aging is associated with the development of a systemic state of low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), and with progressive deterioration of metabolic

  6. Measurements of Critical Heat Flux using Mass Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Hyun; Chung Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In a severe accident, the reactor vessel is heated by the decay heat from core melts and the outer surface of reactor vessel is cooled by the natural convection of water pool. When the heat flux increases, boiling will start. Further increase of the heat flux may result in the CHF, which is generated by the bubble combinations. The CHF means that the reactor vessel was separated with coolant and wall temperature is raised rapidly. It may damage the reactor vessel. Also the CHF indicates the maximum cooling capability of the system. Therefore, the CHF has been used as a criterion for the regulatory and licensing. Mechanism of hydrogen vapor bubbles generated and combined can be simulated water bubbles mechanism. And also the both heat and mass transfer mechanism of CHF can be identified in the same methods. Therefore, the CHF phenomena can be simulated enough by mass transfer.

  7. Design of a ram accelerator mass launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Michael; Armerding, Calvin; Berschauer, Andrew; Christofferson, Erik; Clement, Paul; Gohd, Robin; Neely, Bret; Reed, David; Rodriguez, Carlos; Swanstrom, Fredrick

    1988-01-01

    The ram accelerator mass launch system has been proposed to greatly reduce the costs of placing acceleration-insensitive payloads into low earth orbit. The ram accelerator is a chemically propelled, impulsive mass launch system capable of efficiently accelerating relatively large masses from velocities of 0.7 km/sec to 10 km/sec. The principles of propulsion are based on those of a conventional supersonic air-breathing ramjet; however the device operates in a somewhat different manner. The payload carrying vehicle resembles the center-body of the ramjet and accelerates through a stationary tube which acts as the outer cowling. The tube is filled with premixed gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixtures that burn in the vicinity of the vehicle's base, producing a thrust which accelerates the vehicle through the tube. This study examines the requirement for placing a 2000 kg vehicle into a 500 km circular orbit with a minimum amount of on-board rocket propellant for orbital maneuvers. The goal is to achieve a 50 pct payload mass fraction. The proposed design requirements have several self-imposed constraints that define the vehicle and tube configurations. Structural considerations on the vehicle and tube wall dictate an upper acceleration limit of 1000 g's and a tube inside diameter of 1.0 m. In-tube propulsive requirements and vehicle structural constraints result in a vehicle diameter of 0.76 m, a total length of 7.5 m and a nose-cone half angle of 7 degrees. An ablating nose-cone constructed from carbon-carbon composite serves as the thermal protection mechanism for atmospheric transit.

  8. Test of the Center for Automated Processing of Hardwoods' Auto-Image Detection and Computer-Based Grading and Cutup System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1995-01-01

    Automated lumber grading and yield optimization using computer controlled saws will be plausible for hardwoods if and when lumber scanning systems can reliably identify all defects by type. Existing computer programs could then be used to grade the lumber, identify the best cut-up solution, and control the sawing machines. The potential value of a scanning grading...

  9. Prevalence of systemic co-morbidities in patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Though diabetes affects multiple organs, most studies highlight the occurence of only one complication in isolation. We conducted a hospital-based study to estimate the co-existence of significant systemic co-morbid conditions in patients with varying grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods : A total of 170 consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy were prospectively recruited for the study between June 2009 to June 2010 at a tertiary care eye centre in north India. Retinopathy was graded by fundus biomicroscopy and fundus photography and classified into three categories (mild-moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy requiring only laser and proliferative retinopathy requiring surgery. Nephropathy was classified by calculating the six variable estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR for all patients. Nerve conduction studies and clinical assessment were used to determine presence of neuropathy. Co-existence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease was also ascertained. Results : The percentages of patients with overt nephropathy in the three groups were 19.2, 38.0 and 41.2, respectively. Significant linear trends were observed for serum creatinine (P=0.004, albumin (P=0.017 and eGFR (P=0.030. A higher per cent had abnormal nerve conduction on electrophysiology than that diagnosed clinically (65.4 vs. 44.2, 76.0 vs. 40.0 and 64.8 vs. 48.6, respectively. The odds ratio (95% CI for co-existence of nephropathy, neuropathy, CVA (cerebrovascular accidents and PVD (peripheral vascular disease was 2.9, 0.9, 4.8 and 3.5, respectively. Independent of retinopathy severity, patients with clinically significant macular oedema (CSME had a higher percentage of nephropathy ( p0 < 0.005. Interpretation & conclusions : The co-existence of overt nephropathy, nerve conduction based neuropathy and macrovascular co-morbidity in patients with early grades of diabetic retinopathy was significant

  10. Performance evaluation of nuclear grade filters for the Trupact-I pressure equalization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, R.P.; Joseph, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of high-efficiency-particulate-air and ultra-low- penetration-air filters subjected to extreme environments of temperature, shock, pressure, and particulate loading was evaluated in a test program at the Sandia National Laboratories. The test program was initiated to evaluate the feasibility of using commercially available nuclear-grade filters in the filtered pressure equalization system of a contact-handled transuranic waste transport system, called TRUPACT-I. The filtered pressure equalization system of TRUPACT-I assures containment of the activity within the limits permitted by federal regulations and simultaneously equalizes the pressure between the cavity of the packaging and the environment, and minimizes the buildup of radiolytically generated gases. The filters were exposed to temperatures, pressures and stresses that exceed expected environments in normal and accident conditions of transport. The performance of the test filters was determined by measuring and quantifying filter efficiency and the Darcy constant. In addition, the integrity of the filter housing was evaluated using non-destructive helium leak testing. The details of the test program and results obtained from the tests are presented in this paper

  11. Optimizing a machine learning based glioma grading system using multi-parametric MRI histogram and texture features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Han, Yu; Sun, Ying-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Qiang; Han, Zi-Yang; Liu, Le-De; Hu, Bin-Quan; Qiu, Zi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2017-07-18

    Current machine learning techniques provide the opportunity to develop noninvasive and automated glioma grading tools, by utilizing quantitative parameters derived from multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. However, the efficacies of different machine learning methods in glioma grading have not been investigated.A comprehensive comparison of varied machine learning methods in differentiating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and high-grade gliomas (HGGs) as well as WHO grade II, III and IV gliomas based on multi-parametric MRI images was proposed in the current study. The parametric histogram and image texture attributes of 120 glioma patients were extracted from the perfusion, diffusion and permeability parametric maps of preoperative MRI. Then, 25 commonly used machine learning classifiers combined with 8 independent attribute selection methods were applied and evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) strategy. Besides, the influences of parameter selection on the classifying performances were investigated. We found that support vector machine (SVM) exhibited superior performance to other classifiers. By combining all tumor attributes with synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), the highest classifying accuracy of 0.945 or 0.961 for LGG and HGG or grade II, III and IV gliomas was achieved. Application of Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) attribute selection strategy further improved the classifying accuracies. Besides, the performances of LibSVM, SMO, IBk classifiers were influenced by some key parameters such as kernel type, c, gama, K, etc. SVM is a promising tool in developing automated preoperative glioma grading system, especially when being combined with RFE strategy. Model parameters should be considered in glioma grading model optimization.

  12. Standard test method for analysis of isotopic composition of uranium in nuclear-grade fuel material by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of the isotopic composition of uranium (U) in nuclear-grade fuel material. The following isotopic weight percentages are determined using a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (Q-ICP-MS): 233U, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. The analysis can be performed on various material matrices after acid dissolution and sample dilution into water or dilute nitric (HNO3) acid. These materials include: fuel product, uranium oxide, uranium oxide alloys, uranyl nitrate (UNH) crystals, and solutions. The sample preparation discussed in this test method focuses on fuel product material but may be used for uranium oxide or a uranium oxide alloy. Other preparation techniques may be used and some references are given. Purification of the uranium by anion-exchange extraction is not required for this test method, as it is required by other test methods such as radiochemistry and thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS). This test method is also described i...

  13. Mass Transport: Circulatory System with Emphasis on Nonendothermic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Dane A; Burggren, Warren W; Reiber, Carl L; Altimiras, Jordi; Rodnick, Kenneth J

    2016-12-06

    Mass transport can be generally defined as movement of material matter. The circulatory system then is a biological example given its role in the movement in transporting gases, nutrients, wastes, and chemical signals. Comparative physiology has a long history of providing new insights and advancing our understanding of circulatory mass transport across a wide array of circulatory systems. Here we focus on circulatory function of nonmodel species. Invertebrates possess diverse convection systems; that at the most complex generate pressures and perform at a level comparable to vertebrates. Many invertebrates actively modulate cardiovascular function using neuronal, neurohormonal, and skeletal muscle activity. In vertebrates, our understanding of cardiac morphology, cardiomyocyte function, and contractile protein regulation by Ca2+ highlights a high degree of conservation, but differences between species exist and are coupled to variable environments and body temperatures. Key regulators of vertebrate cardiac function and systemic blood pressure include the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and ventricular filling. Further chemical factors regulating cardiovascular function include adenosine, natriuretic peptides, arginine vasotocin, endothelin 1, bradykinin, histamine, nitric oxide, and hydrogen sulfide, to name but a few. Diverse vascular morphologies and the regulation of blood flow in the coronary and cerebral circulations are also apparent in nonmammalian species. Dynamic adjustments of cardiovascular function are associated with exercise on land, flying at high altitude, prolonged dives by marine mammals, and unique morphology, such as the giraffe. Future studies should address limits of gas exchange and convective transport, the evolution of high arterial pressure across diverse taxa, and the importance of the cardiovascular system adaptations to extreme environments. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:17-66, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John

  14. Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance

  15. Construction of the Classification and Grading Index System of Cultivated Land Based on the Viewpoint of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to objectively and reasonably evaluate the actual and potential value of cultivated land, both social and ecological values are introduced into the classification and grading index system of cultivated land based on the viewpoint of sustainable development, after considering the natural and economic values of cultivated land. Index system construction of the sustainable utilization of cultivated land should follow the principles of economic viability, social acceptability, and ecological protection. Classification of cultivated land should take into account the soil fertility of cultivated land. Then, grading of cultivated land is carried out from the practical productivity (or potential productivity) of cultivated land. According to the existing classification index system of cultivated land, the soil, natural and environmental factors in plains, mountains and hills are mainly modified in the classification index system of cultivated land. And index systems for the cultivated land classification in plains, mountains and hills are set up. The grading index system of cultivated land is established based on the economic viability (economic value), social acceptability (social value) and protection of cultivated land (ecological value). Quantitative expression of cultivated land grading index is also carried out.

  16. Availability analysis of safety grade multiple redundant controller used in advanced nuclear safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kwang Seop; Kim, Dong Hoon; Park, Gee Yong; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •The multiple redundant controller, SPLC is configured as the combination of DMR and TMR architecture. •We construct the Markov model of SPLC using the concept of the system unavailability rate. •To satisfy the availability requirement of safety grade controller, the fault coverage factor (FCF) should be ≥0.8 and the MTTR of each module should be ≤100 h when FCF is 0.9. •The availability of SPLC is better than that of PLC having iTMR architecture however it is poorer than iTMR considering the off-line test and inspection on the assumption that MTTR of each module is ≤200 h. -- Abstract: We analyze the availability of the Safety Programmable Logic Controller (SPLC) having multiple redundant architectures. In the SPLC, input/output and processor module are configured as triple modular redundancy (TMR), and backplane bus, power and communication modules are configured as dual modular redundancy (DMR). The voting logics for redundant architectures are based on the forwarding error detection. It means that the receivers perform the voting logics based on the status information of transmitters. To analyze the availability of SPLC, we construct the Markov model and simplify the model adopting the system unavailability rate. The results show that the fault coverage factor should be ≥0.8 and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) should be ≤100 h in order to satisfy the requirement that the availability of the safety grade PLC should be ≥0.995. Also we evaluate the availability of SPLC comparing to other PLCs such as simplex, processor DMR (pDMR) and independent TMR (iTMR) PLCs used in the existing nuclear safety systems. The availability of SPLC is higher than those of the simplex, pDMR but is lower than that of iTMR for one month which is the periodic off-line test and inspection. That’s why the number of redundant modules used in PLC is more dominant to increasing the availability than the number of fault masking methods such as voting logics used

  17. British athletics muscle injury classification: a reliability study for a new grading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, A.; Chakraverty, J.; Pollock, N.; Chakraverty, R.; Suokas, A.K.; James, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To implement and validate the newly proposed British athletics muscle injury classification in the assessment of hamstring injuries in track and field athletes and to analyse the nature and frequency of the discrepancies. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study analysing hamstring injuries in elite British athletes using the proposed classification system. Classification of 65 hamstring injuries in 45 high-level athletes by two radiologists at two time points 4 months apart to determine interrater variability, intrarater variability, and feasibility of the classification system was undertaken. Results: Interrater Kappa values of 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.92; p<0.0001) for Round 1 and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76–1.00; p<0.0001) for Round 2 of the review were observed. Percentages of agreement were 85% for Round 1 and 91% for Round 2. The intrarater Kappa value for the two reviewers were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63–0.88; p<0.0001) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.53–0.76; p<0.0001) and the average was 0.71 suggesting substantial overall agreement. The percentages of agreement were 82% and 72%, respectively. Conclusions: This classification system is straightforward to use and produces both reproducible and consistent results based on interrater and intrarater Kappa values with at least substantial agreement in all groups. Further work is ongoing to investigate whether individual grades within this classification system provide prognostic information and could guide clinical management. - Highlights: • This classification system is based on MRI parameters shown to have prognostic relevance. • It is simple to use, reproducible and clinically relevant which will enhance clinical practice. • Once clinicians are familiar with the classification inter & intrarater reliability will improve.

  18. Investigation of chloride-release of nuclear grade resin in PWR primary system coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaoning; Li Yunde; Li Jinghong; Lin Fangliang

    1997-01-01

    A new preparation technique is developed for making the low-chloride nuclear-grade resin by commercial resin. The chloride remained in nuclear grade resin may release to PWR primary coolant. The amount of released chloride is depended on the concentration of boron, lithium, other anion impurities, and remained chloride concentration in resin

  19. Efficient production of D-tagatose using a food-grade surface display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Wu, Lingtian; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Jing; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-16

    D-tagatose, a functional sweetener, is commonly transformed from D-galactose by L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI). In this study, a novel type of biocatalyst, L-AI from Lactobacillus fermentum CGMCC2921 displayed on the spore surface of Bacillus subtilis 168, was developed for producing D-tagatose. The anchored L-AI, exhibiting the relatively high bioactivity, suggested that the surface display system using CotX as the anchoring protein was successfully constructed. The stability of the anchored L-AI was significantly improved. Specifically, the consolidation of thermal stability representing 87% of relative activity was retained even at 80 °C for 30 min, which remarkably favored the production of D-tagatose. Under the optimal conditions, the robust spores can convert 75% D-galactose (100 g/L) into D-tagatose after 24 h, and the conversion rate remained at 56% at the third cycle. Therefore, this biocatalysis system, which could express the target enzyme on the food-grade vector, was an alternative method for the value-added production of D-tagatose.

  20. Grading of meningeal solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas: analysis of the prognostic value of the Marseille Grading System in a cohort of 132 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagno, Nicolas; Vogels, Rob; Appay, Romain; Colin, Carole; Mokhtari, Karima; Küsters, Benno; Wesseling, Pieter; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Flucke, Uta; Bouvier, Corinne

    2018-03-30

    The finding that meningeal solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) and meningeal hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are both characterized by NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion has pushed their inclusion in the WHO 2016 Classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) as different manifestations of the same entity. Given that the clinical behavior of the CNS SFT/HPC spectrum ranges from benign to malignant, it is presently unclear whether the grading criteria are still adequate. Here, we present the results of a study that analyzed the prognostic value of an updated version of the Marseille Grading System (MGS) in a retrospectively assembled cohort of 132 primary meningeal SFTs/HPCs with nuclear overexpression of STAT6. The median patient follow-up was 64 months (range 4-274 months); 73 cases (55%) were MGS I, 50 cases (38%) MGS II and 9 cases (7%) were MGS III. Progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were investigated using univariate analysis: the prognostic factors for PFS included MGS, extent of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and mitotic activity ≥5/10 high-power field (HPF). Moreover, MGS, radiotherapy, mitotic activity ≥5/10 HPF, and necrosis were the prognostic factors measured for DSS. In multivariate analysis, extent of surgery, mitotic activity ≥5/10 HPF, MGS I and MGS III were the independent prognostic factors measured for PFS while necrosis, MGS III and radiotherapy were the independent prognostic factors for DSS. In conclusion, our results show that assessing the malignancy risk of SFT/HPC should not rely on one single criterion like mitotic activity. Therefore, MGS is useful as it combines the value of different criteria. In particular, the combination of a high mitotic activity and necrosis (MGS III) indicates a particularly poor prognosis. © 2018 International Society of Neuropathology.

  1. Systems for 42 V mass-market automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Thomas A.

    With the introduction of the Toyota Crown Royal Saloon in August, 2001, 42 V automotive electrical systems made the transition from a technology for the future to present-day production. Nevertheless, there is widespread malaise in the 42 V technical community, stemming from a slower than expected introduction to the marketplace. This paper discusses some of the reasons for the slow adoption of this technology, and indicates a possible way forward. This paper looks beyond the initial uses of 42 V in limited-volume, high-end cars and light trucks, and discusses the prospects for 42 V in mass-market vehicles, given what is presently known about the technology. It is concluded that a case can be made for 42 V, even at some increment in cost. The motivation is improved fuel economy. The cost targets necessary for this benefit to be achieved are discussed, and new components being widely discussed as part of future electrical systems are evaluated for mass-market applications. New developments with higher potential are suggested.

  2. Automated spike preparation system for Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Clark, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is a method frequently employed to measure dissolved, irradiated nuclear materials. A known quantity of a unique isotope of the element to be measured (referred to as the ''spike'') is added to the solution containing the analyte. The resulting solution is chemically purified then analyzed by mass spectrometry. By measuring the magnitude of the response for each isotope and the response for the ''unique spike'' then relating this to the known quantity of the ''spike'', the quantity of the nuclear material can be determined. An automated spike preparation system was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to dispense spikes for use in IDMS analytical methods. Prior to this development, technicians weighed each individual spike manually to achieve the accuracy required. This procedure was time-consuming and subjected the master stock solution to evaporation. The new system employs a high precision SMI Model 300 Unipump dispenser interfaced with an electronic balance and a portable Epson HX-20 notebook computer to automate spike preparation

  3. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels.

  4. Utilizing Mass Customization Methods for Modular Manufacturing System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Jacobsen, Alexia; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Markets today have become dynamic and demand rapid product changes, product variety, and customized products. In order to operate under and taking advantages of such conditions requires, amongst other aspects, manufacturing processes robust to product changes - a contradiction to traditional...... manufacturing systems developed as dedicated engineer-to-order solutions, tailored to production of a specific product or a limited product assortment. In response, modular manufacturing concepts are evolving, which are aimed at possessing the needed responsiveness and aimed at being the manufacturing paradigm...... of Mass Customization (MC). Research focus has been on the basic principles and enabling technologies, while modular architectures and system design have received less attention. A potential to fill these gaps by applying selected design theories and methods of MC have been seen. Based on a communality...

  5. Design of mass flow rate measurement system for SST-1 superconducting magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varmora, P., E-mail: pvamora@ipr.res.in; Sharma, A.N.; Khristi, Y.; Prasad, U.; Patel, D.; Doshi, K.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Design of Venturi meter for SST-1 magnet system. • Details of Helium mass flow measurement system used in SST-1. • Instruments and measurement techniques for flow measurement. • VME based data acquisition system details and flow calculation and results from SST-1 campaigns. - Abstract: Superconducting Magnet System (SCMS) of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak – 1 (SST-1) is forced-flow cooled by a closed cycle 1.3 kW (at 4.5 K) class Helium Refrigerator cum Liquefier (HRL) system. An accurate measurement of helium mass flow rate in different coils is required to ensure the uniform cooling of the cold mass in the entire range of operating temperature (300 K to 4.5 K) and pressure (0.9–0.4 MPa). To meet this requirement, indigenously designed and fabricated venturi meters are installed on 27 different coils of SST-1 SCMS. A VME based Data Acquisition System (DAS) has been developed and used to acquire the flow measurement data from different flowmeters. The details of the design of venturi meter, its different measurement and signal conditioning components, the data acquisition system and the mass flow rate calculation method are described in this paper. The mass flow rate measurement data from cryogenic acceptance and SST-1 magnet commissioning experiments are also presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Design of mass flow rate measurement system for SST-1 superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmora, P.; Sharma, A.N.; Khristi, Y.; Prasad, U.; Patel, D.; Doshi, K.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of Venturi meter for SST-1 magnet system. • Details of Helium mass flow measurement system used in SST-1. • Instruments and measurement techniques for flow measurement. • VME based data acquisition system details and flow calculation and results from SST-1 campaigns. - Abstract: Superconducting Magnet System (SCMS) of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak – 1 (SST-1) is forced-flow cooled by a closed cycle 1.3 kW (at 4.5 K) class Helium Refrigerator cum Liquefier (HRL) system. An accurate measurement of helium mass flow rate in different coils is required to ensure the uniform cooling of the cold mass in the entire range of operating temperature (300 K to 4.5 K) and pressure (0.9–0.4 MPa). To meet this requirement, indigenously designed and fabricated venturi meters are installed on 27 different coils of SST-1 SCMS. A VME based Data Acquisition System (DAS) has been developed and used to acquire the flow measurement data from different flowmeters. The details of the design of venturi meter, its different measurement and signal conditioning components, the data acquisition system and the mass flow rate calculation method are described in this paper. The mass flow rate measurement data from cryogenic acceptance and SST-1 magnet commissioning experiments are also presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Assessment of a Chemotherapy Response Score (CRS) System for Tubo-Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma (HGSC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditzel, Helena M; Strickland, Kyle C; Meserve, Emily E

    2018-01-01

    A chemotherapy response score (CRS) system was recently described to assess the histopathologic response and prognosis of patients with tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The current study was performed as an independent assessment of this CRS syst...

  8. A Cluster Randomized Trial of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Cheng, Weiyi; Hart, Susan Crandall; Bellinger, Jillian

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal social skills program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007), for students in first grade. Classrooms from 6 elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment or business-as-usual control conditions.…

  9. Measuring Listening Comprehension Skills of 5th Grade School Students with the Help of Web Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahaddin Acat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is “Web Based Listening Scale”. In the process of the study, it was investigated that the level of differentiation listening skill and educational level of mother and father, family income level, Turkish Course grading note, the most popular and listened music genre. According to the results obtained that significant difference was found with listening skills and educational level of mother and father, family income level and the most popular and listened music genre. Also it was found that there is powerful relationship between listening skills and Turkish Course grading note. In the process of the research, it was observed the students used the web based system more attentive and motivated. Nevertheless, personalized measuring environment was provided by the web based system. Finally, it can be said that the web based systems can be used positively for language learning, teaching, and instruction, improving, measuring and assessing process.

  10. Validating "Value Added" in the Primary Grades: One District's Attempts to Increase Fairness and Inclusivity in Its Teacher Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Polasky, Sarah; Holloway-Libell, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    One urban district in the state of Arizona sought to use an alternative achievement test (i.e., the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress for Primary Grades (MAP)) to include more value-added ineligible teachers in the districts' growth and merit pay system. The goal was to allow for its K-2 teachers to be more…

  11. Implementation of an Automated Grading System with an Adaptive Learning Component to Affect Student Feedback and Response Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kevin; Janicki, Thomas; He, Ling; Patterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the development and implementation of an adaptive learning and grading system with a goal to increase the effectiveness and quality of feedback to students. By utilizing various concepts from established learning theories, the goal of this research is to improve the quantity, quality, and speed of feedback as it pertains…

  12. [Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of metabolic diseases: from the molecular evidence to the clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Pedroza, José Israel; González-Tapia, Luis Alonso; del Olmo-Gil, Esteban; Castellanos-Rodríguez, Diana; Escobedo, Galileo; González-Chávez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is characterised by high circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and increased macrophage infiltration in peripheral tissues. Most importantly, this inflammatory state does not involve damage or loss of function of the infiltrated tissue, which is a distinctive feature of the low-grade systemic inflammation. The term "meta-inflammation" has also been used to refer to the low-grade systemic inflammation due to its strong relationship with the development of cardio-metabolic diseases in obesity. A review is presented on the recent clinical and experimental evidence concerning the role of adipose tissue inflammation as a key mediator of low-grade systemic inflammation. Furthermore, the main molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory polarization of macrophages with the ability to infiltrate both the adipose tissue and the vascular endothelium via activation of toll-like receptors by metabolic damage-associated molecular patterns, such as advanced glycation-end products and oxidized lipoproteins, is discussed. Finally, a review is made of the pathogenic mechanisms through which the low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to develop insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, atherogenesis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in obese individuals. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of low-grade systemic inflammation in promoting cardio-metabolic diseases is necessary, in order to further design novel anti-inflammatory therapies that take into consideration clinical data, as well as the circulating levels of cytokines, immune cells, and metabolic damage-associated molecular patterns in each patient. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcomes of different Class II treatments : Comparisons using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci Cansunar, Hatice; Uysal, Tancan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of three different Class II treatment modalities followed by fixed orthodontic therapy, using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO-MGS). As a retrospective study, files of patients treated at postgraduate orthodontic  clinics in different cities in Turkey was randomly selected. From 1684 posttreatment records, 669 patients were divided into three groups: 269 patients treated with extraction of two upper premolars, 198 patients treated with cervical headgear, and 202 patients treated with functional appliances. All the cases were evaluated by one researcher using ABO-MGS. The χ (2), Z test, and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical evaluation (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in buccolingual inclination, overjet, occlusal relationship, and root angulation. However, there were significant differences in alignment, marginal ridge height, occlusal contact, interproximal contact measurements, and overall MGS average scores. The mean treatment time between the extraction and functional appliance groups was significantly different (p = 0.017). According to total ABO-MGS scores, headgear treatment had better results than functional appliances. The headgear group had better tooth alignment than the extraction group. Headgear treatment resulted in better occlusal contacts than the functional appliances and had lower average scores for interproximal contact measurements. Functional appliances had the worst average scores for marginal ridge height. Finally, the functional appliance group had the longest treatment times.

  14. AN APPLE GRADING SYSTEM ACCORDING TO EUROPEAN FRUIT QUALITY STANDARDS USING GABOR FILTER AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEYVAN ASEFPOUR VAKILIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of applications of machine learning methods in food engineering in recent decades, several intelligent methods have been introduced in fruit grading technology. In this study, an apple grading system is presented using image’s textural features extraction and artificial intelligence. The objective of this study was to simplify the use of Gabor filter in classification of two varieties of apple fruits (Golden Delicious and Red Delicious in four categories according to the European fruit quality standards. Using this filter, neural network classifier was trained for four category grading of the fruits. Two textural parameters were extracted from each obtained image: mean and variance of energy values of obtained image representing image’s luminous intensity and contrast, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the training of extracted features of about 350 fruits enabled the network to classify the test samples with appropriate accuracy. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed grading categories (‘Extra’, ‘Type 1’, ‘Type 2’ and ‘Rejected’ classes achieved acceptable recognition rates of about 89 % and 92 % overall accuracy for Golden Delicious and Red Delicious varieties, respectively. These experimental results show the appropriate application of proposed method in fast grading of apple fruits. Furthermore, proposed feature extraction and network training methods can be used efficiently in online applications.

  15. Regulation of lean mass, bone mass, and exercise tolerance by the central melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore P Braun

    Full Text Available Signaling via the type 4-melanocortin receptor (MC4R is an important determinant of body weight in mice and humans, where loss of function mutations lead to significant obesity. Humans with mutations in the MC4R experience an increase in lean mass. However, the simultaneous accrual of fat mass in such individuals may contribute to this effect via mechanical loading. We therefore examined the relationship of fat mass and lean mass in mice lacking the type-4 melanocortin receptor (MC4RKO. We demonstrate that MC4RKO mice display increased lean body mass. Further, this is not dependent on changes in adipose mass, as MC4RKO mice possess more lean body mass than diet-induced obese (DIO wild type mice with equivalent fat mass. To examine potential sources of the increased lean mass in MC4RKO mice, bone mass and strength were examined in MC4RKO mice. Both parameters increase with age in MC4RKO mice, which likely contributes to increases in lean body mass. We functionally characterized the increased lean mass in MC4RKO mice by examining their capacity for treadmill running. MC4R deficiency results in a decrease in exercise performance. No changes in the ratio of oxidative to glycolytic fibers were seen, however MC4RKO mice demonstrate a significantly reduced heart rate, which may underlie their impaired exercise performance. The reduced exercise capacity we report in the MC4RKO mouse has potential clinical ramifications, as efforts to control body weight in humans with melanocortin deficiency may be ineffective due to poor tolerance for physical activity.

  16. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    group (p = 0.45). Moreover, the average mark was higher among the international students (mean = 10.3, on the seven-point grading scale) than in the Danish speaking classes (mean = 9.1). CONCLUSION: The seven-point grading scale seems to motivate students to yield a better performance; hence tiered......INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1......,037 examinations in three medical subjects, we investigated the difference in the test scores between the spring- and autumn semester. In the spring semester, the students could either pass or fail the subject (pass/fail) while in the following autumn semester, the students were assessed by tiered grading (seven...

  17. Treatment delivery software for a new clinical grade ultrasound system for thermoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Petr; Moros, Eduardo G; Straube, William L; Myerson, Robert J

    2005-11-01

    A detailed description of a clinical grade Scanning Ultrasound Reflector Linear Array System (SURLAS) applicator was given in a previous paper [Med. Phys. 32, 230-240 (2005)]. In this paper we concentrate on the design, development, and testing of the personal computer (PC) based treatment delivery software that runs the therapy system. The SURLAS requires the coordinated interaction between the therapy applicator and several peripheral devices for its proper and safe operation. One of the most important tasks was the coordination of the input power sequences for the elements of two parallel opposed ultrasound arrays (eight 1.5 cm x 2 cm elements/array, array 1 and 2 operate at 1.9 and 4.9 MHz, respectively) in coordination with the position of a dual-face scanning acoustic reflector. To achieve this, the treatment delivery software can divide the applicator's treatment window in up to 64 sectors (minimum size of 2 cm x 2 cm), and control the power to each sector independently by adjusting the power output levels from the channels of a 16-channel radio-frequency generator. The software coordinates the generator outputs with the position of the reflector as it scans back and forth between the arrays. Individual sector control and dual frequency operation allows the SURLAS to adjust power deposition in three dimensions to superficial targets coupled to its treatment window. The treatment delivery software also monitors and logs several parameters such as temperatures acquired using a 16-channel thermocouple thermometry unit. Safety (in particular to patients) was the paramount concern and design criterion. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was applied to the applicator as well as to the entire therapy system in order to identify safety issues and rank their relative importance. This analysis led to the implementation of several safety mechanisms and a software structure where each device communicates with the controlling PC independently of the others. In case

  18. Explaining the Positive Relationship between Fourth-Grade Children’s Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A positive relationship exists between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain this relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals—energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. METHODS We observed children in grade 4 (N=465) eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on one to 4 days per child. We measured children’s weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). RESULTS BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m2 for every 100-kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. PMID:23517000

  19. Explaining the positive relationship between fourth-grade children's body mass index and energy intake at school-provided meals (breakfast and lunch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B

    2013-05-01

    A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. Fourth-grade children (N = 465) from Columbia, SC, were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on 1 to 4 days per child. Researchers measured children's weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m(2) for every 100 kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  20. The VISTA ZYJHKs photometric system: calibration from 2MASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, C.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Irwin, M. J.; González-Solares, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Lewis, J. R.; Emerson, J. P.; Hewett, P. C.; Yoldaş, A. K.; Riello, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the routine photometric calibration of data taken with the VISTA infrared camera (VIRCAM) instrument on the ESO Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) telescope. The broad-band ZYJHKs data are directly calibrated from Two Micron all Sky Survey (2MASS) point sources visible in every VISTA image. We present the empirical transformations between the 2MASS and VISTA, and Wide-Field Camera and VISTA, photometric systems for regions of low reddening. We investigate the long-term performance of VISTA+VIRCAM. An investigation of the dependence of the photometric calibration on interstellar reddening leads to these conclusions: (1) For all broad-band filters, a linear colour-dependent correction compensates the gross effects of reddening where E(B - V) < 5.0. (2) For Z and Y, there is a significantly larger scatter above E(B - V) = 5.0, and insufficient measurements to adequately constrain the relation beyond this value. (3) The JHKs filters can be corrected to a few per cent up to E(B - V) = 10.0. We analyse spatial systematics over month-long time-scales, both inter- and intradetector and show that these are present only at very low levels in VISTA. We monitor and remove residual detector-to-detector offsets. We compare the calibration of the main pipeline products: pawprints and tiles. We show how variable seeing and transparency affect the final calibration accuracy of VISTA tiles, and discuss a technique, grouting, for mitigating these effects. Comparison between repeated reference fields is used to demonstrate that the VISTA photometry is precise to better than ≃ 2 per cent for the YJHKs bands and 3 per cent for the Z bands. Finally, we present empirically determined offsets to transform VISTA magnitudes into a true Vega system.

  1. Physics design of fissile mass-flow monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattingly, J.K.; March-Leuba, J.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Uckan, T.

    1997-01-01

    The system measures the flow rate and uranium-235 content in liquid or gas streams; it does not penetrate the process piping. A moderated fission neutron source is used to periodicially introduce a burst of thermal neutrons into the fluid stream to induce fission; delayed gamma emissions from the resulting fission fragments are detected by high-efficiency scintillators downstream of the neutron source. The fluid flow rate is measure from the time between initiation of the thermal neutron burst and detection of the fission product gamma emissions, and the U-235 content is inferred from the intensity of the gamma burst detected. Design of the fissile mass flow monitor requires satisfaction of several competing constraints. Efficient operation of the monitor requires that source-induced fission rate and detection efficiency be maximized while the source-induced background rate is simultaneoulsy minimized. Near optical nuclear design of the system was achieved using numerous Monte Carlo calculations and measurements. This paper addresses calculational aspects of the physics design for the system applied to UF 6 gas

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry with a coupled tandem-linac system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    A coupled system provides higher energies, which allows one to extend AMS to hitherto untouched mass regions. Another important argument is that the complexity, although bothersome for the operation, increases the selectivity of detecting a particular isotope. The higher-energy argument holds for any heavy-ion accelerator which is capable of delivering higher energy than a tandem. The present use of tandem-linac combinations for AMS, rather than cyclotrons, linacs or combinations of these machines, has mainly to do with the fact that this technique was almost exclusively developed around tandem accelerators. Therefore the tandem-linac combination is a natural extension to higher energies. The use of negative ions has some particular advantages in suppressing background from unwanted elements that do not form stable negative ions (e.g., N, Mg, Ar). On the other hand, this limits the detection of isotopes to elements which do form negative ions. For particular problems it may therefore be advantageous to use a positive-ion machine. What really matters most for choosing one or the other machine is to what extent the entire accelerator system can be operated in a truly quantiative way from the ion source to the detection system. 20 references, 4 figures

  3. Position-dependent mass, finite-gap systems, and supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2016-05-01

    The ordering problem in quantum systems with position-dependent mass (PDM) is treated by inclusion of the classically fictitious similarity transformation into the kinetic term. This provides a generation of supersymmetry with the first-order supercharges from the kinetic term alone, while inclusion of the potential term allows us also to generate nonlinear supersymmetry with higher-order supercharges. A broad class of finite-gap systems with PDM is obtained by different reduction procedures, and general results on supersymmetry generation are applied to them. We show that elliptic finite-gap systems of Lamé and Darboux-Treibich-Verdier types can be obtained by reduction to Seiffert's spherical spiral and Bernoulli lemniscate in the presence of Calogero-like or harmonic oscillator potentials, or by angular momentum reduction of a free motion on some AdS2 -related surfaces in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm flux. The limiting cases include the Higgs and Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator models as well as a reflectionless model with PDM exploited recently in the discussion of cosmological inflationary scenarios.

  4. State-space modelling for the ejector-based refrigeration system driven by low grade energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Binqiang; Cai, Wenjian; Wang, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel global state-space model to describe the ejector-based refrigeration system, which includes the dynamics of the two heat exchangers and the static properties of ejector, compressor and expansion valve. Different from the existing methods, the proposed method introduces some intermediate variables into the dynamic modelling in developing reduced order models of the heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) based on the Number of Transfer Units (NTU) method. This global model with fewer dimensions is much simpler and can be more convenient for the real-time control system design, compared with other dynamic models. Finally, the proposed state-space model has been validated by dynamic response experiments on the ejector-based refrigeration cycle with refrigerant R134a.The experimental results indicate that the proposed model can predict well the dynamics of the ejector-based refrigeration system. - Highlights: • A low-order state-space model of ejector-based refrigeration system is presented. • Reduced-order models of heat exchangers are developed based on NTU method. • The variations of mass flow rates are introduced in multiple fluid phase regions. • Experimental results show the proposed model has a good performance

  5. Determination of the System Mass and the Individual Masses of Pluto and Charon from New Horizons Radio Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, M.; Paetzold, M.; Andert, T.; Bird, M. K.; Tyler, G. L.; Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Stern, A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.; Ennico Smith, K.; Olkin, C.

    2016-12-01

    One objective of the New Horizons Radio Science Experiment REX is the direct determination of the system mass and the individual masses of Pluto and Charon. About four weeks of two-way radio tracking centered around the closest approach of New Horizons to the Pluto system were processed. Major problems during the processing were the changes in spacecraft attitude by thrusters which applied extra Δv to the spacecraft motion masking partially the continuously perturbed motion caused by the attracting forces of the Pluto system members. The times of the spacecraft thruster activity are known but the applied Δv magnitude needed to be specifically adjusted. No two-way tracking was available during the flyby day on 14th July but slots of the REX one-way uplink observations cover the most important time near closest approach, these are for example the Pluto and Charon Earth occultation entries and exits. The REX data during the flyby day allowed to extract the individual masses of Pluto and Charon from the system mass at high precision. The relative errors of the mass determinations are below 0.02% and 0.2%, respectively. The masses of the 4 small satellites in the Pluto system could not be resolved.

  6. A very high performance stabilization system for large mass bolometerexperiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaboldi, C. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Universita di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Giachero, A., E-mail: Andrea.Giachero@mib.infn.it [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Universita di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Gotti, C. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Pessina, G. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Universita di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2011-10-01

    CUORE is a large mass bolometric experiment, composed of 988 crystals, under construction in Hall A of the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratories (LNGS). Its main aim is the study of neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. Each bolometer is a 760 g crystal of Tellurium dioxide on which a Nuclear Transmutation Doped Ge thermistor, Ge NTD, is glued with proper thermal contact. The stability of the system is mandatory over many years of data taking. To accomplish this requirement a heating resistor is glued on each detector across which a voltage pulse can be injected at will, to develop a known calibrated heating power. We present the design solution for a pulse generator system to be used for the injection of such a small and short voltage pulse across the heaters. This system is composed by different custom PCB boards each of them having multi-channel independent outputs completely remotely programmable from the acquisition system, in pulse width and amplitude, through an on-board ARM7 microcontroller. Pulse amplitudes must be selectable, in order to handle each detector on its full dynamic range. The resolution of the output voltage is 12 bits over 10 V range. An additional 4 steps programmable voltage attenuator is added at every output. The width of any pulse can range from 100{mu}s to 25.5 ms. The main features of the final system are: stability and precision in pulses generation (at the level of less than a ppm/{sup o}C), low cost (thanks to the use of commercial components) and compact implementation.

  7. AN INCREASE IN THE MASS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS AROUND LOWER-MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel, E-mail: mulders@lpl.arizona.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0–2.8 R{sub ⨁}) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger (>2.8 R{sub ⨁}) planets. We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass–radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complete for all spectral types, the average heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets increases roughly inversely with stellar mass from 4 M{sub ⨁} in F stars to 5 M{sub ⨁} in G and K stars to 7 M{sub ⨁} in M stars. This trend stands in stark contrast with observed protoplanetary disk masses that decrease toward lower mass stars, and provides a challenge for current planet formation models. Neither models of in situ formation nor migration of fully formed planets are consistent with these results. Instead, these results are indicative of large-scale inward migration of planetary building blocks—either through type-I migration or radial drift of dust grains—that is more efficient for lower mass stars, but does not result in significantly larger or smaller planets.

  8. AN INCREASE IN THE MASS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS AROUND LOWER-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-01-01

    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0–2.8 R ⨁ ) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger (>2.8 R ⨁ ) planets. We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass–radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complete for all spectral types, the average heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets increases roughly inversely with stellar mass from 4 M ⨁ in F stars to 5 M ⨁ in G and K stars to 7 M ⨁ in M stars. This trend stands in stark contrast with observed protoplanetary disk masses that decrease toward lower mass stars, and provides a challenge for current planet formation models. Neither models of in situ formation nor migration of fully formed planets are consistent with these results. Instead, these results are indicative of large-scale inward migration of planetary building blocks—either through type-I migration or radial drift of dust grains—that is more efficient for lower mass stars, but does not result in significantly larger or smaller planets

  9. Saccharomyces boulardii administration changes gut microbiota and reduces hepatic steatosis, low-grade inflammation, and fat mass in obese and type 2 diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Amandine; Matamoros, Sébastien; Geurts, Lucie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2014-06-10

    Growing evidence shows that gut microbes are key factors involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolic inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, gut microbiota modulations caused by selectively fermented oligosaccharides or probiotic bacteria constitute an interesting target in the physiopathology of obesity. However, to date, no probiotic yeast has been investigated in this context. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the most-studied probiotic yeast (i.e., Saccharomyces boulardii Biocodex) on obesity and associated metabolic features, such as fat mass development, hepatic steatosis, and low-grade inflammation, in obese mice. S. boulardii was administered daily by oral gavage to leptin-resistant obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks. We found that S. boulardii-treated mice exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory tone. Interestingly, these effects of S. boulardii on host metabolism were associated with local effects in the intestine. S. boulardii increased cecum weight and cecum tissue weight but also induced dramatic changes in the gut microbial composition at the phylum, family, and genus levels. These gut microbiota changes in response to S. boulardii may also be correlated with the host metabolism response. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that S. boulardii may act as a beneficial probiotic treatment in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. To date, no probiotic yeast have been investigated in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we found that type 2 diabetic and obese mice (db/db) treated with Saccharomyces boulardii exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory tone. These effects on host metabolism were associated with local effects in the intestine. Importantly, by using pyrosequencing, we found that S. boulardii treatment induces changes of the gut microbiota composition at the

  10. Gerotor and bearing system for whirling mass orbital vibrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett, James Ford; Westermark, Robert Victor; Turner, Jr., Joey Earl; Lovin, Samuel Scott; Cole, Jack Howard; Myers, Will

    2007-02-27

    A gerotor and bearing apparatus for a whirling mass orbital vibrator which generates vibration in a borehole. The apparatus includes a gerotor with an inner gear rotated by a shaft having one less lobe than an outer gear. A whirling mass is attached to the shaft. At least one bearing is attached to the shaft so that the bearing engages at least one sleeve. A mechanism is provided to rotate the inner gear, the mass and the bearing in a selected rotational direction in order to cause the mass, the inner gear, and the bearing to backwards whirl in an opposite rotational direction. The backwards whirling mass creates seismic vibrations.

  11. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Reinders, Jan J; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-10-01

    To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in favour of students with higher GPAs. We studied the students (n = 398) admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 1982 and 1983. Data concerning drop-out and study progress were derived from the student administration. Data about career development were obtained from annual interviews with graduates (n = 318) between 1993 and 2000. Literature searches yielded data concerning scientific performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. The variables 'gender' and 'cohort' and their interaction were included in the analyses to account for variation in the general level of the dependent variable and the effect of GPA on the dependent variable. GPA scores had no effect on drop-out rate. High GPA scores were associated with significantly less time to graduation, more chance of a preferred placement for specialist training and higher scientific output. GPA was not related to income. Gender differences were found for study duration and scientific output. Women graduated earlier and published less. The GPA of school-leaving examinations was found to be related to study success, career development and scientific performance. In this study the usual problem of restriction of range was shown to be absent. The weighted lottery procedure even resulted in an over-dispersion of candidates relative to the applicants. The resulting effect sizes were in agreement with those reported in other studies.

  12. Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles on pre- and postoperative CT arthrography (CTA): is the Goutallier grading system reliable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eugene; Choi, Jung-Ah; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeongi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 28 Yeongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Joo Han [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seongnam-si, Gyeongi-do (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Soyeon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seongnam-si, Gyeongi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 28 Yeongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jee Won [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 425 Shindaebang-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    To retrospectively evaluate fatty degeneration (FD) of rotator cuff muscles on CTA using Goutallier's grading system and quantitative measurements with comparison between pre- and postoperative states. IRB approval was obtained for this study. Two radiologists independently reviewed pre- and postoperative CTAs of 43 patients (24 males and 19 females, mean age, 58.1 years) with 46 shoulders confirmed as full-thickness tears with random distribution. FD of supraspinatus, infraspinatus/teres minor, and subscapularis was assessed using Goutallier's system and by quantitative measurements of Hounsfield units (HUs) on sagittal images. Changes in FD grades and HUs were compared between pre- and postoperative CTAs and analyzed with respect to preoperative tear size and postoperative cuff integrity. The correlations between qualitative grades and quantitative measurements and their inter-observer reliabilities were also assessed. There was statistically significant correlation between FD grades and HU measurements of all muscles on pre- and postoperative CTA (p < 0.05). Inter-observer reliability of fatty degeneration grades were excellent to substantial on both pre- and postoperative CTA in supraspinatus (0.8685 and 0.8535) and subscapularis muscles (0.7777 and 0.7972), but fair in infraspinatus/teres minor muscles (0.5791 and 0.5740); however, quantitative Hounsfield units measurements showed excellent reliability for all muscles (ICC: 0.7950 and 0.9346 for SST, 0.7922 and 0.8492 for SSC, and 0.9254 and 0.9052 for IST/TM). No muscle showed improvement of fatty degeneration after surgical repair on qualitative and quantitative assessments; there was no difference in changes of fatty degeneration after surgical repair according to preoperative tear size and post-operative cuff integrity (p > 0.05). The average dose-length product (DLP, mGy . cm) was 365.2 mGy . cm (range, 323.8-417.2 mGy . cm) and estimated average effective dose was 5.1 mSv. Goutallier grades

  13. Application of Lattice Boltzmann Methods in Complex Mass Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a novel computational fluid dynamics method that can easily handle complex and dynamic boundaries, couple local or interfacial interactions/reactions, and be easily parallelized allowing for simulation of large systems. While most of the current studies in LBM mainly focus on fluid dynamics, however, the inherent power of this method makes it an ideal candidate for the study of mass transfer systems involving complex/dynamic microstructures and local reactions. In this thesis, LBM is introduced to be an alternative computational method for the study of electrochemical energy storage systems (Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs)) and transdermal drug design on mesoscopic scale. Based on traditional LBM, the following in-depth studies have been carried out: (1) For EDLCs, the simulation of diffuse charge dynamics is carried out for both the charge and the discharge processes on 2D systems of complex random electrode geometries (pure random, random spheres and random fibers). Steric effect of concentrated solutions is considered by using modified Poisson-Nernst-Plank (MPNP) equations and compared with regular Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) systems. The effects of electrode microstructures (electrode density, electrode filler morphology, filler size, etc.) on the net charge distribution and charge/discharge time are studied in detail. The influence of applied potential during discharging process is also discussed. (2) For the study of dendrite formation on the anode of LIBs, it is shown that the Lattice Boltzmann model can capture all the experimentally observed features of microstructure evolution at the anode, from smooth to mossy to dendritic. The mechanism of dendrite formation process in mesoscopic scale is discussed in detail and compared with the traditional Sand's time theories. It shows that dendrite formation is closely related to the inhomogeneous reactively at the electrode-electrolyte interface

  14. The Correlation of Metacognition with Critical Thinking Skills of Grade XI Students on Human Excretion System Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Diella

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study is to reveal metacognition and critical thinking skill of students grade XI, and also the correlation between metacognition with crititical thinking skill on human excretion system. The participants of this study consist of 100 students from grade XI of five different high schools in Tasikmalaya. Correlational method was used in this study. Instruments which used to obtain the data consist of metacognition test and critical thinking test. The students' metacognition was captured with the essay item related to the human excretion system concept. The multiple choice-reason item and essay item was used to capture the critical thinking skills. The results showed that students’ score at metacognition and critical thinking have a low average. The results also proved that metacognition has a positive correlation and moderately strong with critical thinking skills

  15. Construction of a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering the endogenous toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Kang, Zhen; Cao, Wenlong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus subtilis as an important workhorse that has been widely used to produce enzymes and metabolites. To broaden its applications, especially in the food and feed industry, we constructed a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering its type II toxin-antitoxin system. The expression of the toxin EndoA, encoded by the chromosomal ydcE gene, was regulated by an endogenous, xylose-inducible promoter, while the ydcD gene, which encodes the unstable antitoxin EndoB, was inserted into a food-grade vector backbone, where its expression was driven by the native, constitutive promoter PylxM. By maintaining the xylose concentration above 2.0 g L(-1), this auto-regulated expression system was absolutely stable after 100 generations. Compared with traditional antibiotic-dependent expression systems, this novel expression system resulted in greater biomass and higher titers of desired products (enzymes or metabolites). Our results demonstrate that this stable, food-grade expression system is suitable for enzyme production and pathway engineering, especially for the production of food-grade enzymes and metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Goal: A Grading System That Demands Excellence on the Playing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the vast array of educational practices that are present in today's society, grading is one practice that has established a historical foundation and one that will continue to be an important aspect to the profession of education. This small scale study determined that both undergraduate and graduate learners, in one college instructor's…

  17. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1,037 e...

  18. Clinical significance of a proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joan Young; Hwang, Ji Hye; Kim, Dong Ik; Cho, Young Seok; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae

    2005-01-01

    We proposed a new lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade (LGr) system in extremity lymphedema, and investigated the association between the LGr and a long-term response to physical therapy in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage I. The subjects were 20 patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I, who underwent pre-treatment extremity lymphoscintigraphy using Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid, and were treated by complex decongestive physical therapy (CDPT). A proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system consisted of LGr 0 to LGr 4 according to the ilioinguinal nodal uptake, amount of dermal backflow, and uptake pattern of main and collateral lymphatics : LGr 0 = normal, LGr 1 = decreased lymphatic function without dermal backflow, LGr 2 = decreased lymphatic function with dermal backflow, LGr 3 = non - visualization of main lymphatics with dermal backflow, and LGr 4 = no significant lymphatic transport from injection site. LGr 2 was divided into 2A and 2B based on the amount of dermal backflow. A physician who is a lymphedema specialist determined the long-term outcome to CDPT with normalized response (NR), good response (GR) and poor response (PR) based on the change of edema volume reduction, skin status and occurrence of dermatolymphangioadenitis after the clinical follow-up for more than 1 year. Therapeutic responses were NR in 2 patients. GR in 9 patients and PR in 9 patients. Baseline LGrs were 1 in 7 patients, 2A in 4 patients, 2B in 5 patients, 3 in 2 patients, and 4 in 2 patients. There was a significant relationship between therapeutic response and LGr (p=0.003). In other words, 10 of 11 patients (91%) with LGr 1 or 2A showed NR. or GR. On the contrary, 8 of 9 patients (89%) with LGr 2B, 3 or 4 showed PR. Patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I had different lymphoscintigrpahic functional grades. This grade system may be useful to predict the response to physical therapy in such patients

  19. Clinical significance of a proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joan Young; Hwang, Ji Hye; Kim, Dong Ik; Cho, Young Seok; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We proposed a new lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade (LGr) system in extremity lymphedema, and investigated the association between the LGr and a long-term response to physical therapy in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage I. The subjects were 20 patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I, who underwent pre-treatment extremity lymphoscintigraphy using Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid, and were treated by complex decongestive physical therapy (CDPT). A proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system consisted of LGr 0 to LGr 4 according to the ilioinguinal nodal uptake, amount of dermal backflow, and uptake pattern of main and collateral lymphatics : LGr 0 = normal, LGr 1 = decreased lymphatic function without dermal backflow, LGr 2 = decreased lymphatic function with dermal backflow, LGr 3 = non - visualization of main lymphatics with dermal backflow, and LGr 4 = no significant lymphatic transport from injection site. LGr 2 was divided into 2A and 2B based on the amount of dermal backflow. A physician who is a lymphedema specialist determined the long-term outcome to CDPT with normalized response (NR), good response (GR) and poor response (PR) based on the change of edema volume reduction, skin status and occurrence of dermatolymphangioadenitis after the clinical follow-up for more than 1 year. Therapeutic responses were NR in 2 patients. GR in 9 patients and PR in 9 patients. Baseline LGrs were 1 in 7 patients, 2A in 4 patients, 2B in 5 patients, 3 in 2 patients, and 4 in 2 patients. There was a significant relationship between therapeutic response and LGr (p=0.003). In other words, 10 of 11 patients (91%) with LGr 1 or 2A showed NR. or GR. On the contrary, 8 of 9 patients (89%) with LGr 2B, 3 or 4 showed PR. Patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I had different lymphoscintigrpahic functional grades. This grade system may be useful to predict the response to physical therapy in such patients.

  20. Implementing RFID technology in a novel triage system during a simulated mass casualty situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Jorma; Simons, Tomi; Kuronen, Pentti; Tammela, Juha; Jalasvirta, Pertti; Nurmi, Jouni; Harkke, Ville; Castrén, Maaret

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the applicability of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and commercial cellular networks to provide an online triage system for handling mass casualty situations. This was tested by a using a pilot system for a simulated mass casualty situation during a military field exercise. The system proved to be usable. Compared to the currently used system, it also dramatically improves the general view of mass casualty situations and enhances medical emergency readiness in a military medical setting. The system can also be adapted without any difficulties by the civilian sector for the management of mass casualty disasters.

  1. Computer automation of an accelerator mass spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gressett, J.D.; Maxson, D.L.; Matteson, S.; McDaniel, F.D.; Duggan, J.L.; Mackey, H.J.; North Texas State Univ., Denton, TX; Anthony, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of trace impurities in electronic materials using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) requires efficient automation of the beam transport and mass discrimination hardware. The ability to choose between a variety of charge states, isotopes and injected molecules is necessary to provide survey capabilities similar to that available on conventional mass spectrometers. This paper will discuss automation hardware and software for flexible, high-sensitivity trace analysis of electronic materials, e.g. Si, GaAs and HgCdTe. Details regarding settling times will be presented, along with proof-of-principle experimental data. Potential and present applications will also be discussed. (orig.)

  2. Readmission after treatment of Grade 3 and 4 renal injuries at a Level I trauma center: Statewide assessment using the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Brian; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2016-03-01

    One criticism of the existing renal trauma research is the limited outpatient follow-up after index hospitalization. We assessed readmission rates following treatment for American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Grade 3 and 4 renal injury using the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System (CHARS). We evaluated all patients with AAST Grade 3 and 4 renal injuries admitted to Harborview Medical Center (HMC) between 1998 and 2010, the only Level 1 trauma center in Washington state. Grade 4 renal injuries were stratified by collecting system laceration (CSL) or segmental vascular injury. Data were abstracted from the CHARS database for readmissions to any Washington state hospital within 6 months of renal injury. Clinical variables, diagnoses, and procedures were queried based on DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes. A total of 477 Grade 3 and 159 Grade 4 renal injuries were initially treated at HMC. On admission, 111 patients required intervention: 75 (16%) of 477 Grade 3 and 36 (23%) of 159 Grade 4 injuries. Within 6 months of index hospitalization, 86 (18%) of 477 Grade 3 and 38 (24%) of 159 Grade 4 patients were readmitted to any Washington state hospital. Eighty percent of Grade 3 injuries and 66% of Grade 4 injuries returned to HMC compared with secondary hospitals (p = 0.08). At readmission, 19 (22%) of 86 Grade 3 and 16 (42%) of 38 Grade 4 injuries had a urologic diagnosis. Subsequent procedural intervention was required on readmission in 6 (7%) of 86 Grade 3 and 5 (13%) of 38 Grade 4 renal injuries (all CSL injuries). A subset of patients treated for Grade 3 and 4 renal trauma will be readmitted for further management. While urologic diagnoses and additional procedures may be low overall, readmission to outside hospitals may preclude accurate determination of renal trauma outcomes. Based on these data, patients with Grade 4 CSL injuries seem to be at the highest risk for readmission and to require a subsequent

  3. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Middle and High School Age Groupings (Grades 7-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  4. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Early and Late Elementary Age Groupings (Grades 1-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  5. Histological grading of papillary urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system and comparison with conventional grading systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, J. W. A.; Schapers, R. F. M.; Janssen-Heijnen, M. L. G.; Pauwels, R. P. E.; Newling, D. W.; ten Kate, F.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To test the prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP (World Health Organisation/International Society of Urologic Pathology) consensus classification system in Ta papillary urothelial neoplasms of the bladder. METHODS: The histological slides of 322 patients with a primary Ta tumour were

  6. Thermogravimetry-evolved gas analysis–mass spectrometry system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Thermal analysis is a widely used analytical technique for materials research. ... nique. This method can not distinguish the actual nature ... Among the different types of mass .... pressure and (iv) for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  7. Electronic drive and acquisition system for mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rembrandt Thomas (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad (Inventor); Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Darrach, Murray R. (Inventor); MacAskill, John (Inventor); Tran, Tuan (Inventor); Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Madzunkov, Stojan M. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor); Thomas, John L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention discloses a mixed signal RF drive electronics board that offers small, low power, reliable, and customizable method for driving and generating mass spectra from a mass spectrometer, and for control of other functions such as electron ionizer, ion focusing, single-ion detection, multi-channel data accumulation and, if desired, front-end interfaces such as pumps, valves, heaters, and columns.

  8. Distribution of mass in the planetary system and solar nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenschilling, S J [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1977-09-01

    A model 'solar nebula' is constructed by adding the solar complement of light elements to each planet, using recent models of planetary compositions. Uncertainties in this approach are estimated. The computed surface density varies approximately as rsup(-3/2). Mercury, Mars and the asteroid belt are anomalously low in mass, but processes exist which would preferentially remove matter from these regions. Planetary masses and compositions are generally consistent with a monotonic density distribution in the primordial solar nebula.

  9. Supporting second grade lower secondary school students’ understanding of linear equation system in two variables using ethnomathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyahidah, F.; Saputro, B. A.; Rubowo, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to know the students’ understanding of linear equation system in two variables using Ethnomathematics and to acquire learning trajectory of linear equation system in two variables for the second grade of lower secondary school students. This research used methodology of design research that consists of three phases, there are preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis. Subject of this study is 28 second grade students of Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) 37 Semarang. The result of this research shows that the students’ understanding in linear equation system in two variables can be stimulated by using Ethnomathematics in selling buying tradition in Peterongan traditional market in Central Java as a context. All of strategies and model that was applied by students and also their result discussion shows how construction and contribution of students can help them to understand concept of linear equation system in two variables. All the activities that were done by students produce learning trajectory to gain the goal of learning. Each steps of learning trajectory of students have an important role in understanding the concept from informal to the formal level. Learning trajectory using Ethnomathematics that is produced consist of watching video of selling buying activity in Peterongan traditional market to construct linear equation in two variables, determine the solution of linear equation in two variables, construct model of linear equation system in two variables from contextual problem, and solving a contextual problem related to linear equation system in two variables.

  10. Identification of neuropathic pain in patients with neck/upper limb pain: application of a grading system and screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampin, Brigitte; Briffa, Noelle Kathryn; Goucke, Roger; Slater, Helen

    2013-12-01

    The Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group (NeuPSIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain has proposed a grading system for the presence of neuropathic pain (NeP) using the following categories: no NeP, possible, probable, or definite NeP. To further evaluate this system, we investigated patients with neck/upper limb pain with a suspected nerve lesion, to explore: (i) the clinical application of this grading system; (ii) the suitability of 2 NeP questionnaires (Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale [LANSS] and the painDETECT questionnaire [PD-Q]) in identifying NeP in this patient cohort; and (iii) the level of agreement in identifying NeP between the NeuPSIG classification system and 2 NeP questionnaires. Patients (n = 152; age 52 ± 12 years; 53% male) completed the PD-Q and LANSS questionnaire and underwent a comprehensive clinical examination. The NeuPSIG grading system proved feasible for application in this patient cohort, although it required considerable time and expertise. Both questionnaires failed to identify a large number of patients with clinically classified definite NeP (LANSS sensitivity 22%, specificity 88%; PD-Q sensitivity 64%, specificity 62%). These lowered sensitivity scores contrast with those from the original PD-Q and LANSS validation studies and may reflect differences in the clinical characteristics of the study populations. The diagnostic accuracy of LANSS and PD-Q for the identification of NeP in patients with neck/upper limb pain appears limited. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF A WIDE, LOW-MASS MULTIPLE SYSTEM CONTAINING THE BROWN DWARF 2MASS J0850359+105716

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bochanski, John J.; Looper, Dagny L.; West, Andrew A.; Van der Bliek, Nicole S.

    2011-01-01

    We report our discovery of NLTT 20346 as an M5+M6 companion system to the tight binary (or triple) L dwarf 2MASS J0850359+105716. This nearby (∼31 pc), widely separated (∼7700 AU) quadruple system was identified through a cross-match of proper motion catalogs. Follow-up imaging and spectroscopy of NLTT 20346 revealed it to be a magnetically active M5+M6 binary with components separated by ∼2'' (50-80 AU). Optical spectroscopy of the components shows only moderate Hα emission corresponding to a statistical age of ∼5-7 Gyr for both M dwarfs. However, NLTT 20346 is associated with the XMM-Newton source J085018.9+105644, and based on X-ray activity the age of NLTT 20346 is between 250 and 450 Myr. Strong Li absorption in the optical spectrum of 2MASS J0850+1057 indicates an upper age limit of 0.8-1.5 Gyr, favoring the younger age for the primary. Using evolutionary models in combination with an adopted system age of 0.25-1.5 Gyr indicates a total mass for 2MASS J0850+1057 of 0.07 ± 0.02 M sun , if it is a binary. NLTT 20346/2MASS J0850+1057 joins a growing list of hierarchical systems containing brown dwarf binaries and is among the lowest binding energy associations found in the field. Formation simulations via gravitational fragmentation of massive extended disks have successfully produced a specific analog to this system.

  12. A mass transfer in heterogeneous systems by the adsorption method (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bošković-Vragolović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass transfer coefficient between: a liquid and single sphere and a liquid and column wall in packed and fluidized beds of a spherical inert particle have been studied experimentally using the adsorption method. The experiments were conducted in a column 40 mm in diameter for packed and fluidized beds, and in a two-dimensional column 140 mm×10 mm for the flow past single sphere. In all runs, the mass transfer rates were determined in the presence of spherical glass particles, 3 mm in diameter, for packed and fluidized beds. The mass transfer data were obtained by studying transfer for flow past single sphere, 20 mm in diameter. This paper discusses the possibilities of application of the adsorption method for fluid flow visualization. Local and average mass transfer coefficients were determined from the color intensity of the surface of the foils of silica gel. Correlations, Sh = f(Re and jD = f(Re, were derived using the mass transfer coefficient data.

  13. Posttreatment and retention outcomes with and without periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics assessed using ABO objective grading system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The posttreatment and retention outcomes following nonextraction orthodontic therapy, with and without corticotomy, were assessed using the American Board of Orthodontists objective grading system (OGS. Purpose: The purpose was to determine if the course of retention was any different following alveolar decortication and augmentation bone grafting, i.e., periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO. Materials and Methods: Study casts and panoramic radiographs of patients with and without PAOO (28 subjects each were selected on the basis of the following: (1 comprehensive nonextraction orthodontic treatment using straight wire edgewise appliances for Class I crowding, (2 availability of immediate posttreatment records and retention records at least 1 year post de-bracketing, and (3 use of Hawley removable retainers with similar wearing instructions. Results: Independent and paired t-test statistical testing revealed the following: (1 Posttreatment orthodontic outcomes were the same, with or without corticotomy. (2 During retention, 5 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the sample without corticotomy, and 6 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the group with corticotomy. (3 Retention outcome scores were lower (better for alignment and marginal ridges in the corticotomy-facilitated group. (4 The total score was significantly lower (better for the corticotomy group at retention and the increment of total score change decreased (improved significantly more during retention following corticotomy. Conclusions: The retention phase was more favorable following corticotomy because the amount of OGS total score change demonstrated a significantly improved retention outcome following PAOO therapy.

  14. Risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, C H; Liu, J; Feldman, S; Solomon, D H; Kim, S C

    2017-06-01

    Objective Prior studies suggest an increased risk of cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the relationship with immunosuppressive drugs is not well studied in US nationwide cohorts. We compared the risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus who started immunosuppressive drugs versus hydroxychloroquine. Methods We identified systemic lupus erythematosus patients initiating immunosuppressive drugs or hydroxychloroquine using claims data from two US commercial health plans and Medicaid (2000-2012). We used a validated claims-based algorithm to identify high-grade cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer. To account for potential confounders, including demographic factors, comorbidities, medication use, HPV vaccination status, and health care utilization, immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine initiators were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. We used inverse variance-weighted, fixed effect models to pool hazard ratios from the propensity score-matched Medicaid and commercial cohorts. Results We included 2451 matched pairs of immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine new users in the commercial cohort and 7690 matched pairs in Medicaid. In the commercial cohort, there were 14 cases of cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer among immunosuppressive drugs users and five cases among hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% CI 0.89-6.85, hydroxychloroquine = ref). In Medicaid, there were 46 cases among immunosuppressive drugs users and 29 cases in hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.78-1.98, hydroxychloroquine = ref). The pooled hazard ratio of immunosuppressive drugs was 1.40 (95% CI 0.92-2.12). Conclusion Among women with systemic lupus erythematosus, immunosuppressive drugs may be associated with a greater, albeit not statistically significant, risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared to patients receiving

  15. A Food-Grade Cloning System for Industrial Strains of Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Kim I.; Larsen, Rasmus; Kibenich, Annette; Junge, Mette P.; Johansen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported the construction of a food-grade cloning vector for Lactococcus using the ochre suppressor, supB, as the selective marker. This vector, pFG1, causes only a slight growth inhibition in the laboratory strain MG1363 but is unstable in the industrial strains tested. As supB suppresses both amber and ochre stop codons, which are present in 82% of all known lactococcal genes, this undesirable finding may result from the accumulation of elongated mistranslated polypeptide...

  16. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  17. Study of the slope-mass correlation in the low mass K. pi pi. system. [13 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie, R K; Cashmore, R J; Davier, M; Dunwoodie, W; Lasinski, T A; Leith, D W.G.S.; Stroynowski, R; Williams, S H [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Calif. (USA)

    1976-07-19

    The shape of the four-momentum transfer t' distribution in the reactions K/sup + -/p..-->..K/sup + -/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/p at 13 GeV/c is studied for various partial waves as a function of the K..pi pi.. mass. Strong variation of the slope with effective mass is observed for the dominant Jsup(P) = 1/sup +/ waves. For natural parity exchange it is found that, for K..pi pi.. masses up to 1.6 GeV, the slope of the t' distribution is decreasing with increasing spin of the excited system, B/sub 0/->B/sub 1/+>B/sub 2/+.

  18. Progress of the AVNG System - Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopics Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnikov, D.; Bulatov, M.; Jarikhine, I.; Lebedev, B.; Livke, A.; Modenov, A.; Morkin, A.; Razinkov, S.; Tsaregorodtsev, D.; Vlokh, A.; Yakovleva, S.; Elmont, T.H.; Langner, D.C.; MacArthur, D.W.; Mayo, D.R.; Smith, M.K.; Luke, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency @ 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPEC PLUS . The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 3 He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs.

  19. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS. The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  20. Critical masses of miniexplosion in fission-fusion hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliski, S [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki

    1976-01-01

    The critical mass of the fissionable material subjected to the explosive compression and the action of the neutron stream originating from the process of D-T fusion in the spherical cavity was estimated. High energy recovery from the fissionable material was obtained and the energy of the laser pulse was minimized.

  1. Mass Spectrometry Using Nanomechanical Systems: Beyond the Point-Mass Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, John E; Hanay, M Selim; Neumann, Adam P; Roukes, Michael L

    2018-03-14

    The mass measurement of single molecules, in real time, is performed routinely using resonant nanomechanical devices. This approach models the molecules as point particles. A recent development now allows the spatial extent (and, indeed, image) of the adsorbate to be characterized using multimode measurements ( Hanay , M. S. , Nature Nanotechnol. , 10 , 2015 , pp 339 - 344 ). This "inertial imaging" capability is achieved through virtual re-engineering of the resonator's vibrating modes, by linear superposition of their measured frequency shifts. Here, we present a complementary and simplified methodology for the analysis of these inertial imaging measurements that exhibits similar performance while streamlining implementation. This development, together with the software that we provide, enables the broad implementation of inertial imaging that opens the door to a range of novel characterization studies of nanoscale adsorbates.

  2. Three-dimensional Hydrodynamical Simulations of Mass Transfer in Binary Systems by a Free Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Abate, Carlo; Matrozis, Elvijs, E-mail: zwliu@ynao.ac.cn [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-09-10

    A large fraction of stars in binary systems are expected to undergo mass and angular momentum exchange at some point in their evolution, which can drastically alter the chemical and dynamical properties and fates of the systems. Interaction by stellar wind is an important process in wide binaries. However, the details of wind mass transfer are still not well understood. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of wind mass transfer in binary systems to explore mass-accretion efficiencies and geometries of mass outflows, for a range of mass ratios from 0.05 to 1.0. In particular, we focus on the case of a free wind, in which some physical mechanism accelerates the expelled wind material balancing the gravity of the mass-losing star with the wind velocity comparable to the orbital velocity of the system. We find that the mass-accretion efficiency and accreted specific angular momentum increase with the mass ratio of the system. For an adiabatic wind, we obtain that the accretion efficiency onto the secondary star varies from about 0.1% to 8% for mass ratios between 0.05 and 1.0.

  3. System Models of Information, Communication and Mass Communication: Revaluation of Some Basic Concepts of Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiio, Osmo A.

    A more unified approach to communication theory can evolve through systems modeling of information theory, communication modes, and mass media operations. Such systematic analysis proposes, as is the case care here, that information models be based upon combinations of energy changes and exchanges and changes in receiver systems. The mass media is…

  4. Software in windows for staple compounding system of microcomputer nuclear mass scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanting; Zhang Yongming; Wang Yu; Jin Dongping

    1998-01-01

    The software exploited in windows for staple compounding system of microcomputer nuclear mass scale is described. The staple compounding system is briefly narrated. The software structure and its realizing method are given

  5. Design and application of reconfigurable manufacturing systems in agile mass customization manufacturing environment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available processes. Many manufacturing techniques are based on the principles of Flexible Manufacturing and Dedicated Manufacturing for mass production. Reconfigurable Manufacturing System, (RMS), is a manufacturing system that can provide for Agile Manufacturing...

  6. Graded Fock-like representations for a system of algebraically interacting paraparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakoglou, Konstantinos; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    We will present and study an algebra describing a mixed paraparticle model, known in the bibliography as 'The Relative Parabose Set (RPBS)'. Focusing in the special case of a single parabosonic and a single parafermionic degree of freedom P (1,1) BF , we will construct a class of Fock-like representations of this algebra, dependent on a positive parameter p a kind of generalized parastatistics order. Mathematical properties of the Fock-like modules will be investigated for all values of p and constructions such as ladder operators, irreducibility (for the carrier spaces) and (Z 2 x Z 2 )-gradings (for both the carrier spaces and the algebra itself) will be established.

  7. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Ho [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system.

  8. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul; Choi, Kyu Ho; Byun, Hong Sik; Choi, Woo Suk

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system

  9. A cold mass support system based on the use of oriented fiberglass epoxy rods in bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Corradi, Carol A.; LaMantia, Roberto F.; Zbasnik, Jon P.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a cold mass support system that uses oriented fiberglass epoxy (other low heat leak oriented fiber material can also be used) rods. In the direction of the rods, where forces are carried in tension or compression, the support system is very stiff. In the other directions, the rods are subjected to bending stresses. When the support rods are put in bending the cold mass support is quite compliant. This type of support system can be used in situation where space for a cold mass support system is limited and where compliance can be tolerated in at least one direction. Break test data for 15.9-mm and 19.1-mm diameter oriented fiberglass rods is presented in this report. The cold mass supports for the DFBX distribution boxes are presented as an example of this type of cold mass support system

  10. Testing different brain metastasis grading systems in stereotactic radiosurgery: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group's RPA, SIR, BSBM, GPA, and modified RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Hirai, Tatsuo; Ono, Junichi; Saeki, Naokatsu; Miyakawa, Akifumi

    2012-12-01

    The authors conducted validity testing of the 5 major reported indices for radiosurgically treated brain metastases- the original Radiation Therapy Oncology Group's Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA), the Score Index for Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases (SIR), the Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BSBM), the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), and the subclassification of RPA Class II proposed by Yamamoto-in nearly 2500 cases treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), focusing on the preservation of neurological function as well as the traditional endpoint of overall survival. The authors analyzed data from 2445 cases treated with GKS by the first author (T.S.), the primary surgeon. The patient group consisted of 1716 patients treated between January 1998 and March 2008 (the Chiba series) and 729 patients treated between April 2008 and December 2011 (the Tokyo series). The interval from the date of GKS until the date of the patient's death (overall survival) and impaired activities of daily living (qualitative survival) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, while the absolute risk for two adjacent classes of each grading system and both hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. For overall survival, there were highly statistically significant differences between each two adjacent patient groups characterized by class or score (all p values RPA appeared to be better than the original RPA and GPA. The modified RPA subclassification, proposed by Yamamoto, is well balanced in scoring simplicity with respect to case number distribution and statistical results for overall survival. However, a new or revised grading system is necessary for predicting qualitative survival and for selecting the optimal treatment for patients with brain metastasis treated by GKS.

  11. Acute renal haemodynamic and renin-angiotensin system responses to graded renal artery stenosis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W P; Johnston, C I; Korner, P I

    1979-01-01

    1. The acute renal haemodynamic and renin-angiotensin system responses to graded renal artery stenosis were studied in chronically instrumented, unanaesthetized dogs. 2. Stenosis was induced over 30 sec by inflation of a cuff around the renal artery to lower distal pressure to 60, 40 or 20 mmHg, with stenosis maintained for 1 hr. This resulted in an immediate fall in renal vascular resistance, but over the next 5--30 min both resistance and renal artery pressure were restored back towards prestenosis values. Only transient increases in systemic arterial blood pressure and plasma renin and angiotensin levels were seen with the two milder stenoses. Despite restoration of renal artery pressure, renal blood flow remained reduced at all grades of stenosis. 3. Pre-treatment with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor or sarosine1, isoleucone8 angiotensin II greatly attenuated or abolished the restoration of renal artery pressure and renal vascular resistance after stenosis, and plasma renin and angiotensin II levels remained high. Renal dilatation was indefinitely maintained, but the normal restoration of resistance and pressure could be simulated by infusing angiotensin II into the renal artery. 4. The effective resistance to blood flow by the stenosis did not remain constant but varied with changes in the renal vascular resistance. PMID:219182

  12. Post orthodontic treatment stability measurement in dentoskeletal class I malocclusion based on the objective grading system index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Anthony Pasaribu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of orthodontic treatment results in dentoskeletal class I malocclusion treated with and without extraction of four premolars and to compare the stability of treatment result between those groups. Occlusal relationship after treatment and six-month post retention were measured on dental cast using The Objective Grading System Index at Orthodontic Specialist Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran. The analytic descriptive study was carried out on 30 samples that comprised 14 samples were treated without extraction of four premolars and 16 samples were treated with extraction of four premolars. ABO Measuring Gauge was used to measure seven variables: tooth alignment, the height of the marginal ridges, buccolingual inclination, occlusal relationships, occlusal contacts, overjet, and interproximal tooth contacts. The results were statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon rank test to test the difference of The Objective Grading System Index between posttreatment and postretension. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to determine the difference between the group with the extraction of four premolars and the group without extraction of four premolars. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The results of this study showed these following variables: tooth alignment, occlusal contacts, and overjet were unstable at the group with the extraction of four premolars, while only tooth alignment was found to be unstable in the group without extraction of the four premolars. Mann-Whitney U test did not show statistically significant difference in stability comparison test between the groups.

  13. Multi-level, automatic file management system using magnetic disk, mass storage system and magnetic tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Minoru; Asai, Kiyoshi

    1979-12-01

    A simple, effective file management system using magnetic disk, mass storage system (MSS) and magnetic tape is described. Following are the concepts and techniques introduced in this file management system. (1) File distribution and continuity character of file references are closely approximated by memory retention function. A density function using the memory retention function is thus defined. (2) A method of computing the cost/benefit lines for magnetic disk, MSS and magnetic tape is presented. (3) A decision process of an optimal organization of file facilities incorporating file demands distribution to respective file devices, is presented. (4) A method of simple, practical, effective, automatic file management, incorporating multi-level file management, space management and file migration control, is proposed. (author)

  14. Cache management of tape files in mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Ma Nan; Yu Chuansong; Chen Gang

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes the group-cooperative caching policy according to the characteristics of tapes and requirements of high energy physics domain. This policy integrates the advantages of traditional local caching and cooperative caching on basis of cache model. It divides cache into independent groups; the same group of cache is made of cooperating disks on network. This paper also analyzes the directory management, update algorithm and cache consistency of the policy. The experiment shows the policy can meet the requirements of data processing and mass storage in high energy physics domain very well. (authors)

  15. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina; Bocos-Bintintan, V

    2009-01-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  16. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bocos-Bintintan, V, E-mail: cornel.cuna@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, 3 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  17. The Nine-Step Minnesota Grading System for Eyebank Eyes With Age Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Approach to Study Disease Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy W; Liao, Albert; Robinson, Hershonna S; Palejwala, Neal V; Sprehe, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    To refine the Minnesota Grading System (MGS) using definitions from the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS) into a nine-step grading scale (MGS-9). A nine-step grading scale descriptive analysis using three key phenotypic features (total drusen area, increased, and decreased pigmentation) of human eyebank eyes that were graded according to definitions from the AREDS criteria in order to harmonize studies of disease progression for research involving human tissue. From 2005 through February 2017, we have analyzed 1159 human eyes, procured from two eyebanks. Each macula was imaged using high-resolution, stereoscopic color fundus photography with both direct- and transillumination. Fundus images were digitally overlaid with a grading template and triangulated for foveal centration. We documented and stratified risk for each globe by applying the AREDS nine-step grading scale to the key clinical features from the MGS-9. We found a good distribution within the MGS categories (1-9) with few level eight globes. Eyes were processed within 12.1 ± 6.3, hours from the time of death through imaging, dissection, and freezing or fixation. Applying the MGS-9 to 331 pairs (662 eyes were simultaneously graded), 84% were within one-grading step and 93% within two steps of the fellow eye. We also document reticular pseudodrusen, basal laminar drusen, and pattern dystrophy. The MGS nine-step grading scale enables researchers using human tissue to refine the risk assessment of donor tissue. This analysis will harmonize results among researchers when grading human tissue using MGS criteria. Most importantly, the MGS-9 links directly to the known risk for progression from the AREDS.

  18. Validation of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System for assessing the treatment outcomes of Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-Ying; Baumrind, Sheldon; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Wu, Wei-Zi; Ren, Chong; Weng, Xuan-Rong; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min

    2013-09-01

    Orthodontics in China has developed rapidly, but there is no standard index of treatment outcomes. We assessed the validity of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS) for the classification of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. We randomly selected 108 patients who completed treatment between July 2005 and September 2008 in 6 orthodontic treatment centers across China. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontists made subjective assessments of the end-of-treatment casts for each patient. Three examiners then used the ABO-OGS to measure the casts. Pearson correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted to evaluate the correspondence between the ABO-OGS cast measurements and the orthodontists' subjective assessments. The average subjective grading scores were highly correlated with the ABO-OGS scores (r = 0.7042). Four of the 7 study cast components of the ABO-OGS score-occlusal relationship, overjet, interproximal contact, and alignment-were statistically significantly correlated with the judges' subjective assessments. Together, these 4 accounted for 58% of the variability in the average subjective grading scores. The ABO-OGS cutoff score for cases that the judges deemed satisfactory was 16 points; the corresponding cutoff score for cases that the judges considered acceptable was 21 points. The ABO-OGS is a valid index for the assessment of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. By comparing the objective scores on this modification of the ABO-OGS with the mean subjective assessment of a panel of highly qualified Chinese orthodontists, a cutoff point for satisfactory treatment outcome was defined as 16 points or fewer, with scores of 16 to 21 points denoting less than satisfactory but still acceptable treatment. Cases that scored greater than 21 points were considered unacceptable. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Grading nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts using an objective scatter index measured with a double-pass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaseca, Meritxell; Romero, Maria José; Arjona, Montserrat; Luque, Sergio Oscar; Ondategui, Juan Carlos; Salvador, Antoni; Güell, José L; Artal, Pablo; Pujol, Jaume

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate objectively intraocular scattering in eyes with nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts by means of an objective scatter index (OSI) obtained from double-pass images. To compare the results with those obtained using clinical conventional procedures. In this prospective, observational, cross-sectional, non-consecutive case series study, 188 eyes with cataracts of 136 patients were analysed (123 eyes had nuclear, 41 eyes had cortical and 24 eyes had posterior subcapsular cataracts). The control group consisted of 117 eyes of 68 healthy patients. Patient examination included subjective refraction, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), cataract grade using the lens opacities classification system III (LOCS III) and OSI. We found a decrease in the BSCVA and an increase in the OSI with increasing cataract grade. Statistically significant differences were observed when the OSI of eyes without cataracts and those with different LOCS III were compared. The comparison between the OSI and LOCS III reported good percentages of agreement regarding the number of eyes classified in equivalent levels: 72.4% (nuclear cataracts), 86.6% (cortical cataracts) and 84.3% (posterior subcapsular cataracts). A non-linear regression model was applied between OSI and BSCVA, which resulted in the following multiple correlation coefficients: r=0.878 (nuclear), r=0.843 (cortical) and r=0.844 (posterior subcapsular). The results of the study showed that OSI is a useful parameter for evaluating large amounts of intraocular scattering that can be used, in combination with other conventional procedures, as a valuable tool in clinical practice to grade cataracts objectively.

  20. A Computer Vision System for Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber Using a Knowledge-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufacturers. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade. For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. Thus, accurately establishing the grade of a volume of hardwood lumber is very...

  1. The fabrication process of ceramic grade UO2 powder via fluorid system AUC and the treatment on AUC precipitation filtrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhong; Xu Kui; Li Zhiwan; Yi Wei; Tang Yueming; Li Guangrong; Lei Maolin; Cui Chuanjiang

    2006-10-01

    It is described about the technology of fabricating AUC powder by Circum-fluence Precipitation Reactor with Gas (CPRG) from UF 6 hydrolyzed liquid, manufacturing nuclear pure ceramic grade UO 2 powder via fluorid system AUC process with fluidized bed method, recovering U(VI) with ion exchange resin, depositing fluorin in an outflow of effusion wastewater from the ion exchange using calces. The primary control parameters on the fabricating AUC powder is study, it is discussed to character difference of AUC powder between fluorid system and nitrate. Result show that the composing the manufacture AUC powder is invariable by CORG, and that the AUC quality is consistent, and that by decomposition and reduction of AUC and stabilization of UO 2 powder with fluidized bed, through optimum technological parameters, the excellent UO 2 powder is obtained on the quality. (authors)

  2. Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M.; Ávila, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.

  3. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  4. Developing Seventh Grade Students' Understanding of Complex Environmental Problems with Systems Tools and Representations: a Quasi-experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganca Kucuk, Zerrin; Saysel, Ali Kerem

    2017-03-01

    A systems-based classroom intervention on environmental education was designed for seventh grade students; the results were evaluated to see its impact on the development of systems thinking skills and standard science achievement and whether the systems approach is a more effective way to teach environmental issues that are dynamic and complex. A quasi-experimental methodology was used to compare performances of the participants in various dimensions, including systems thinking skills, competence in dynamic environmental problem solving and success in science achievement tests. The same pre-, post- and delayed tests were used with both the comparison and experimental groups in the same public middle school in Istanbul. Classroom activities designed for the comparison group (N = 20) followed the directives of the Science and Technology Curriculum, while the experimental group (N = 22) covered the same subject matter through activities benefiting from systems tools and representations such as behaviour over time graphs, causal loop diagrams, stock-flow structures and hands-on dynamic modelling. After a one-month systems-based instruction, the experimental group demonstrated significantly better systems thinking and dynamic environmental problem solving skills. Achievement in dynamic problem solving was found to be relatively stable over time. However, standard science achievement did not improve at all. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the results, the weaknesses of the curriculum and educational implications.

  5. The evolution of the mass-transfer functions in liquid Yukawa systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S., E-mail: olga.vaulina@bk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The results of analytic and numerical investigation of mass-transfer processes in nonideal liquid systems are reported. Calculations are performed for extended 2D and 3D systems of particles that interact with a screened Yukawa-type Coulomb potential. The main attention is paid to 2D structures. A new analytic model is proposed for describing the evolution of mass-transfer functions in systems of interacting particles, including the transition between the ballistic and diffusion regimes of their motion.

  6. Reliability and mass analysis of dynamic power conversion systems with parallel or standby redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A combinatorial reliability approach was used to identify potential dynamic power conversion systems for space mission applications. A reliability and mass analysis was also performed, specifically for a 100-kWe nuclear Brayton power conversion system with parallel redundancy. Although this study was done for a reactor outlet temperature of 1100 K, preliminary system mass estimates are also included for reactor outlet temperatures ranging up to 1500 K.

  7. Reliability and mass analysis of dynamic power conversion systems with parallel of standby redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    A combinatorial reliability approach is used to identify potential dynamic power conversion systems for space mission applications. A reliability and mass analysis is also performed, specifically for a 100 kWe nuclear Brayton power conversion system with parallel redundancy. Although this study is done for a reactor outlet temperature of 1100K, preliminary system mass estimates are also included for reactor outlet temperatures ranging up to 1500 K.

  8. Developing Seventh Grade Students' Understanding of Complex Environmental Problems with Systems Tools and Representations: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganca Kucuk, Zerrin; Saysel, Ali Kerem

    2018-01-01

    A systems-based classroom intervention on environmental education was designed for seventh grade students; the results were evaluated to see its impact on the development of systems thinking skills and standard science achievement and whether the systems approach is a more effective way to teach environmental issues that are dynamic and complex. A…

  9. ESI mass spectrometry applied to enantiodiscrimination of chiral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagana, A.; Paladini, A.; Catone, D.; Giardini, A.; Filippi, A.; D'Ettole, A.; Speranze, M.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments with electrospray ionization coupled with mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) together with collisional induced dissociation (CID) were performed in order to study the affinity of chiral alfa-aminophosphonic acids towards first-group metals (Na, Li, K) in gaseous phase and how this can be affected by the ligands configuration. The results are discussed in the light of structure calculation performed by using an empirical force field. The CID fragmentation spectra of diastereomeric clusters containing (1-amino-2-methylpropyl)phosphonic acid enantiomers (P R , P S ), (S)-(+)-(1-aminoethyl)phosphonic acid (E S ) and a sodium ion ( [NaP R (E S ) 2 ] + and [NaP S (E S ) 2 ] + ) is given. (nevyjel)

  10. The relative importance of mass and wind data in the FGGE observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Jusem, J. C.; Pfaendtner, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of mass and wind data in numerical weather prediction is examined. The applicability of the mass and wind data on the skill of numerical weather prediction is evaluated by real data assimilation experiments using the the NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres analysis/forecast system of Baker (1983) and Kalnay et al. (1983). It is observed that the wind observations are important for small scales and in the tropics and that the wind observations are more accurate than mass observations.

  11. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  12. Coupled plasmon modes and their localization in graded plasmonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J.J.; Yakubo, K.; Yu, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmonic waves occur in the subwavelength scale with transverse confinement below the diffraction limit. In this work, we report results of longitudinal localization-delocalization transitions of coupled plasmon modes in graded chains of metallic nanodots. Two graded models are studied: graded index of refraction in the host medium and incremental spacing between the nanoparticles. The coupled plasmon modes in these graded systems exhibit strong localization, showing a tunable passband in finite size systems. These localized modes survive in presence of weak loss in the nanodots. To understand the localization mechanism, we construct equivalent systems of one-dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators, whose coupling strength or masses are gradually varied from one end to the other, with additional on-site potentials. Confining and transmitting electromagnetic energy in these structures may pave new way for many fruitful applications in plasmonics

  13. Performance Evaluation of Waterproofing Membrane Systems Subject to the Concrete Joint Load Behavior of Below-Grade Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Below-grade structures such as parking lots, underground subway tunnels, and basements are growing in scale and reaching deeper below-ground levels. In this type of environment, they become subject to higher water pressure. The concrete material of the structures is exposed to wet conditions for longer periods of time, which makes the proper adhesion of waterproofing membranes difficult. Joint movements from increased structural settlement, thermal expansion/shrinkage, and physical loads from external sources (e.g., vehicles make securing durable waterproofing challenging. While ASTM Guides, Korean Codes, and BS Practice Codes on below-grade waterproofing stress the importance of manufacturer specification for quality control, ensuring high quality waterproofing for the ever-changing scale of construction remains a challenge. This study proposes a new evaluation method and criteria which allow for the selection of waterproofing membranes based on specific performance attributes and workmanship. It subjects six different waterproofing membrane systems (installed on dry and wet surface conditioned mortar slab specimens with an artificial joint to different cyclic movement widths to 300 cycles in water to demonstrate that inadequate material properties and workmanship are key causes for leakages.

  14. Development of a pneumatic transport system for bulk transfer of metal grade uranium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Roy, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium oxide powder is a commonly handled ceramic powder in nuclear industries. Design of the powder transfer system is an important aspect because of some of its typical characteristics. Pneumatic transport system has been widely used in transferring powder from one place to another. A pneumatic transport system using vacuum has been presented in the paper. This is used for bulk transfer of UO 3 powder. The system consists of a cyclone separator and filter cloth at the top of the cyclone separator. The pneumatic transfer system provides high efficiency with sustainable performance and it is a compact, robust, handy and moveable unit. No degradation of the powder quality has been observed during transfer. The system provides highly efficient, easy and safe transfer of radioactive powder, better working environment for the operator. (author)

  15. Decision-support information system to manage mass casualty incidents at a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-El, Yaron; Tzafrir, Sara; Tzipori, Idan; Utitz, Liora; Halberthal, Michael; Beyar, Rafael; Reisner, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    Mass casualty incidents are probably the greatest challenge to a hospital. When such an event occurs, hospitals are required to instantly switch from their routine activity to conditions of great uncertainty and confront needs that exceed resources. We describe an information system that was uniquely designed for managing mass casualty events. The web-based system is activated when a mass casualty event is declared; it displays relevant operating procedures, checklists, and a log book. The system automatically or semiautomatically initiates phone calls and public address announcements. It collects real-time data from computerized clinical and administrative systems in the hospital, and presents them to the managing team in a clear graphic display. It also generates periodic reports and summaries of available or scarce resources that are sent to predefined recipients. When the system was tested in a nationwide exercise, it proved to be an invaluable tool for informed decision making in demanding and overwhelming situations such as mass casualty events.

  16. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. The biochemistry stoichiometry was developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady state system with wheat as the sole food source. The large scale dynamics of a materially closed (BLSS) computer model is described in a companion paper. An extension of this methodology can explore multifood systems and more complex biochemical dynamics while maintaining whole system closure as a focus.

  17. Low Mass Low Power Hall Thruster System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking electric propulsion systems capable of producing up to 20mN thrust, input power up to 1000W and specific impulse ranging from 1600-3500 seconds. The...

  18. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  19. Optimization of System Maturity and Equivalent System Mass for Exploration Systems Development Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnaye, Romulo; Tan, Weiping; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose; Sauser, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently pursuing the development of the next generation of human spacecraft and exploration systems throughout the Constellation Program. This includes, among others, habitation technologies for supporting lunar and Mars exploration. The key to these systems is the Exploration Life Support (ELS) system that composes several technology development projects related to atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management and habitation. The proper functioning of these technologies is meant to produce sufficient and balanced resources of water, air, and food to maintain a safe and comfortable environment for long-term human habitation and exploration of space.

  20. Full Two-Body Problem Mass Parameter Observability Explored Through Doubly Synchronous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alex Benjamin; Scheeres, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The full two-body problem (F2BP) is often used to model binary asteroid systems, representing the bodies as two finite mass distributions whose dynamics are influenced by their mutual gravity potential. The emergent behavior of the F2BP is highly coupled translational and rotational mutual motion of the mass distributions. For these systems the doubly synchronous equilibrium occurs when both bodies are tidally-locked and in a circular co-orbit. Stable oscillations about this equilibrium can be shown, for the nonplanar system, to be combinations of seven fundamental frequencies of the system and the mutual orbit rate. The fundamental frequencies arise as the linear periods of center manifolds identified about the equilibrium which are heavily influenced by each body’s mass parameters. We leverage these eight dynamical constraints to investigate the observability of binary asteroid mass parameters via dynamical observations. This is accomplished by proving the nonsingularity of the relationship between the frequencies and mass parameters for doubly synchronous systems. Thus we can invert the relationship to show that given observations of the frequencies, we can solve for the mass parameters of a target system. In so doing we are able to predict the estimation covariance of the mass parameters based on observation quality and define necessary observation accuracies for desired mass parameter certainties. We apply these tools to 617 Patroclus, a doubly synchronous Trojan binary and flyby target of the LUCY mission, as well as the Pluto and Charon system in order to predict mutual behaviors of these doubly synchronous systems and to provide observational requirements for these systems’ mass parameters

  1. Mass Medication Clinic (MMC) Patient Medical Assistant (PMA) System Training Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-2-0045 TITLE: Mass Medication Clinic (MMC) Patient ...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Mass Medication Clinic (MMC) Patient Medical Assistant (PMA) System Training Initiative 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-2...sections will describe the events, results, and accomplishments of this study. With validation through this project the Patient Medical Assistant

  2. Seed Storage Proteins as a System for Teaching Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry in Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Karl A.; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed,…

  3. Mass loss from OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alme, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the atmospheres of OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems indicates that when the stellar surface is close enough to the saddle in the gravitational potential to provide a mass transfer rate adequate to power a compact x-ray source, large-amplitude variations in the rate of mass flow occur. 9 references

  4. International society of neuropathology-haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, D.N.; Perry, A.; Burger, P.; Ellison, D.W.; Reifenberger, G.; Deimling, A. Von; Aldape, K.; Brat, D.; Collins, V.P.; Eberhart, C.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Fuller, G.N.; Giangaspero, F.; Giannini, C.; Hawkins, C.; Kleihues, P.; Korshunov, A.; Kros, J.M.; Lopes, M. Beatriz; Ng, H.K.; Ohgaki, H.; Paulus, W.; Pietsch, T.; Rosenblum, M.; Rushing, E.; Soylemezoglu, F.; Wiestler, O.; Wesseling, P.

    2014-01-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of

  5. Grading the Metrics: Performance-Based Funding in the Florida State University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Luke M.; Cavanaugh, Terence W.

    2016-01-01

    A policy analysis of Florida's 10-factor Performance-Based Funding system for state universities. The focus of the article is on the system of performance metrics developed by the state Board of Governors and their impact on institutions and their missions. The paper also discusses problems and issues with the metrics, their ongoing evolution, and…

  6. Methanol maps of low-mass protostellar systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Kempen, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    shows that strong CO depletion leads to a high gas-phase abundance of CH 3OH not just for the Serpens sources, but also for a larger sample of deeply embedded protostars. Conclusions. The observations illustrate the large-scale, low-level desorption of CH3OH from dust grains, extending out to and beyond...... on grain surfaces and is therefore a clean tracer of surface chemistry. Aims. Determining the physical and chemical structure of low-mass, young stellar objects, in particular the abundance structure of CH3OH, to investigate where and how CH3OH forms and how it is eventually released back to the gas phase...... source. None of the Serpens Class 0 sources show the high-K lines seen in several other Class 0 sources. The abundance is typically 10-9-10-8 with respect to H2 in the outer envelope, whereas "jumps" by factors of up to 102-103 inside the region where the dust temperature exceeds 100 K are not excluded...

  7. Electrostatic systems used for the multipassage magnetic mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C; Baril, M

    1987-08-15

    Improvement in the power of resolution is desirable in the multiplication of passages in magnetic fields; our guiding principle is to carry out the operation using a single magnetic prism. In the multipassage process the ions must first turn back after leaving the prism. This turnback is obtained by an electrostatic mirror. We obtain a large enough number of passages by placing two mirrors and two systems with time-varying roles at right angles. These systems are referred to as lens-mirror 1. When they act as mirrors, they enable the particles to circulate in a closed circuit; when they act as lenses, they enable the particles to enter the circuit or leave it. The coupling of two multipassage spectrometers is momentarily possible thanks to lens-mirror 2. The function change results from a change in electrode potential. The requirements for these electrostatic systems and their construction are studied.

  8. FISSION 2120: a program for assessing the need for engineered safety feature grade air cleaning systems in post accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G. Jr.; Michlewicz, D.; Thomas, J.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program FISSION 2120, has been developed to evaluate the need for various engineered Safety Feature grade air cleaning systems to mitigate radiation exposures resulting from accidential releases of radioactivity. Those systems which are generally investigated include containment sprays with chemical additives, containment fan coolers with charcoal filters, and negative pressure maintenance systems for double barrier containments with either one-pass filtration or recirculation with filtration. The program can also be used to calculate the radiation doses to control room personnel. This type of analysis is directed towards the various protection aspects of the emergency ventilation system and involves the modeling of the radiological source terms and the atmospheric transport of the radioactive releases. The modeling is enhanced by the inherent capability of the program to accommodate simultaneous release of activity from several sources and to perform a dose evaluation for a wide range of the design characteristics of control room emergency air filtration systems. Use of the program has resulted in considerable savings in the time required to perform such analyses and in the selection of the most cost-effective Engineered Safety Features

  9. For Better or Worse? System-Justifying Beliefs in Sixth-Grade Predict Trajectories of Self-Esteem and Behavior Across Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Erin B; Santos, Carlos E; Burson, Esther

    2017-06-19

    Scholars call for more attention to how marginalization influences the development of low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth and emphasize the importance of youth's subjective perceptions of contexts. This study examines how beliefs about the fairness of the American system (system justification) in sixth grade influence trajectories of self-esteem and behavior among 257 early adolescents (average age 11.4) from a diverse, low-income, middle school in an urban southwestern city. System justification was associated with higher self-esteem, less delinquent behavior, and better classroom behavior in sixth grade but worse trajectories of these outcomes from sixth to eighth grade. These findings provide novel evidence that system-justifying beliefs undermine the well-being of marginalized youth and that early adolescence is a critical developmental period for this process. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Developing and Organizing a Trauma System and Mass Casualty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Mar 2013 | Vol 3 | Issue 1 |. 85. Address for ... the topic on the Internet was done using relevant key words like trauma system and disaster management in Israel ... There was also a special session on artistic ... run policy is employed by the trauma response team that is.

  11. Sigma Orionis E as a mass-transfer binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, J.E.; Walborn, N.R.; Ugarte, P.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that this star, which was the first He-rich B star to be discovered, has been found to show a very broad and rapidly varying Hα emission feature. Spectroscopic, spectrophotometric and photometric observations made independently in December 1974 showed the star to be variable, with a period of about 1.19 days. Incomplete phase coverage in the data, as well as uncertainty about the nature of the periodicity, has, however, hampered the development of a model to account for the observations. The results of new continuous uvbyβ photometry carried out in December 1975 and January 1976 are here given, together with some possible interpretations. The observations were made using a single channel refrigerated pulse counting 1P21 photometer on the 0.4 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Differential photometric techniques were employed. The comparison star was HR1861, a uvby standard star with colours nearly identical with those of sigma Ori E. The resultant light and colour curves are reproduced, and show two distinct minima, which are discussed. An improved estimate of the period was obtained, and comparison with earlier data indicated that the period is reasonably stable over a two to three year interval. Some characteristics of the rather peculiar light curves are pointed out. The data are interpreted in terms of a mass transfer binary in which a collapsed white dwarf is surrounded by a rapidly rotating accretion disk containing a uv bright spot with energy provided by the impinging stream of gas from the other star. If this model is correct, high frequency optical monitoring might provide additional information. The implications of the model for current theories of stellar evolution in massive binaries are thought to be sufficiently significant to justify further extensive observations. (U.K.)

  12. Premise to implement a grading system to evaluate the sanitary level in food service establishments in Milan, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Razzini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory framework of the official controls on food safety, the criteria and methods from the planning of interventions in the field of official control to the management of information flows, and the standards described in the operation manual of the local competent authorities drafted by the Lombardy Region (2011 were evaluated. A questionnaire consisting of n. 10 questions with multiple answers draft in partnership with EPAM (the Association of Provincial Public Retail and catering businesses in Milan to n. 107 Food service establishments of Milan shows that 92% of managers approve the introduction of a grading system. The regulatory framework is planned to support the implementation of risk assignment, unfortunately the attribution of risk category of retail and catering businesses is still different among regions.

  13. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  14. Toward Mass Customization in the Age of Information: The Case for Open Engineering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Timothy W.; Lautenschlager, Uwe; Mistree, Farrokh

    1997-01-01

    In the Industrial Era, manufacturers used "dedicated" engineering systems to mass produce their products. In today's increasingly competitive markets, the trend is toward mass customization, something that becomes increasingly feasible when modern information technologies are used to create open engineering systems. Our focus is on how designers can provide enhanced product flexibility and variety (if not fully customized products) through the development of open engineering systems. After presenting several industrial examples, we anchor our new systems philosophy with two real engineering applications. We believe that manufacturers who adopt open systems will achieve competitive advantage in the Information Age.

  15. A study on assessment of bone mass from aluminum-equivalent image by digital imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duck; Choi, Eui Hwan

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluated the method for quantitative assessment of bone mass from aluminum-equivalent value of hydroxyapatite by using digital imaging system consisted of Power Macintosh 7200/120, 15-inch color monitor, and GT-9000 scanner with transparency unit. After aluminum-equivalent image made from correlation between aluminum thickness and grey scale, the accuracy of conversion to mass from aluminum-equivalent value was evaluated. Measured bone mass was compared with converted bone mass from aluminum-equivalent value of hydroxyapatite block by correlation formula between aluminum-equivalent value of hydroxy apatite block and hydroxyapatite mass. The results of this study were as follows : 1. Correlation between aluminum thickness and grey level for obtaining aluminum-equivalent image was high positively associated (r2=0.99). Converted masses from aluminum-equivalent value were very similar to measured masses. There was, statistically, no significant difference (P<0.05) between them. 2. Correlation between hydroxyapatite aluminum-equivalent and hydroxyapatite mass was shown to linear relation (r2 =0.95). 3. Converted masses from aluminum-equivalent value of 3 dry mandible segments were similar to measured masses. The difference between the exposure directions was not significantly different (P<0.05).

  16. A model to quantify the resilience of mass railway transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjetey-Bahun, Kpotissan; Birregah, Babiga; Châtelet, Eric; Planchet, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Traditional risk management approaches focus on perturbation events' likelihood and their consequences. However, recent events show that not all perturbation events can be foreseen. The concept of resilience has been introduced to measure not only the system's ability to absorb perturbations, but also its ability to rapidly recover from perturbations. In this work, we propose a simulation-based model for quantifying resilience in mass railway transportation systems by quantifying passenger delay and passenger load as the system's performance indicators. We integrate all subsystems that make up mass railway transportation systems (transportation, power, telecommunication and organisation subsystems) and their interdependencies. The model is applied to the Paris mass railway transportation system. The model's results show that since trains continue running within the system even by decreasing their speed, the system remains resilient. During the normal operation of the system as well as during perturbation, the model shows similarities with reality. The perturbation management plan that consists of setting up temporary train services on part of the impacted line while repairing the failed system's component is considered in this work. We also assess the extent to which some resilient system's capacities (i.e. absorption, adaptation and recovery) can increase the resilience of the system. - Highlights: • The need of resilience quantification models in sociotechnical systems. • We propose a simulation-based model. • This model is applied to Paris mass railway transportation system.

  17. Assessment of clinical outcomes of Roth and MBT bracket prescription using the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is always a need to assess whether small changes in bracket prescription can lead to visually detectable differences in tooth positions. However, with little clinical evidence to show advantages of any of the popularly used bracket systems, orthodontists are forced to make clinical decisions with little scientific guidance. Aim: To compare the orthodontic cases finished with Roth and MBT prescription using American Board of Orthodontics-Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS. Settings and Design: Department of Orthodontics, Post-graduate dental college, retrospective cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Forty patients selected were divided into two groups of 20 patients each finished with straight wire appliance using Roth and MBT prescription, respectively. The examiner ability was assessed and calibrated by one of the ABO certified clinician to grade cases using the OGS. Statistical Analysis: Unpaired student t-test was used and P < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results and Conclusions: MBT bracket group had a lower score of 2.60 points in buccolingual inclination and lower score of 1.10 points in occlusal contact category that was statistically significant when compared with Roth group. The difference in total ABO-OGS score was 2.65 points showing that the outcome for the MBT prescription was better than that of the Roth prescription, which is statistically significant, but with little or no clinical significance. It can be concluded that use of either one of the Roth and MBT bracket prescriptions have no impact to the overall clinical outcome and quality of treatment entirely depends on clinician judgment and experience.

  18. The Cold Mass Support System and the Helium Cooling System for the MICE Focusing Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Stephanie Q.; Green, Michael A.; Lau, Wing W.; Senanayake, Rohan S.; Witte, Holger

    2006-01-01

    The heart of the absorber focus coil (AFC) module for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) is the two-coil superconducting solenoid that surrounds the muon absorber. The superconducting magnet focuses the muons that are cooled using ionization cooling, in order to improve the efficiency of cooling. The coils of the magnet may either be run in the solenoid mode (both coils operate at the same polarity) or the gradient (the coils operate at opposite polarity). The AFC magnet cold mass support system is designed to carry a longitudinal force up to 700 kN. The AFC module will be cooled using three pulse tube coolers that produce 1.5 W of cooling at 4.2 K. One of the coolers will be used to cool the liquid (hydrogen or helium) absorber used for ionization cooling. The other two coolers will cool the superconducting solenoid. This report will describe the MICE AFC magnet. The cold mass supports will be discussed. The reasons for using a pulsed tube cooler to cool this superconducting magnet will also be discussed

  19. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and Solar Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Childress, Amy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hiibel, Sage [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Kim, Kwang [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Park, Chanwoo [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Wirtz, Richard [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Northern Nevada has abundant geothermal and solar energy resources, and these renewable energy sources provide an ample opportunity to produce economically viable power. Heat/mass exchangers are essential components to any energy conversion system. Improvements in the heat/mass exchange process will lead to smaller, less costly (more efficient) systems. There is an emerging heat transfer technology, based on micro/nano/molecular-scale surface science that can be applied to heat/mass exchanger design. The objective is to develop and characterize unique coating materials, surface configurations and membranes capable of accommodating a 10-fold increase in heat/mass exchanger performance via phase change processes (boiling, condensation, etc.) and single phase convective heat/mass transfer.

  20. Predicting mass loading as a function of pressure difference across prefilter/HEPA filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, V.J.; Klassen, J.F.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for predicting the mass loading and pressure drop effects on a prefilter/ HEPA filter system. The methodology relies on the use of empirical equations for the specific resistance of the aerosol loaded filter as a function of the particle diameter. These correlations relate the pressure difference across a filter to the mass loading on the filter and accounts for aerosol particle density effects. These predictions are necessary for the efficient design of new filtration systems and for risk assessment studies of existing filter systems. This work specifically addresses the prefilter/HEPA filter Airborne Activity Confinement Systems (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. In order to determine the mass loading on the system, it is necessary to establish the efficiency characteristics for the prefilter, the mass loading characteristics of the prefilter measured as a function of pressure difference across the prefilter, and the mass loading characteristics of the HEPA filter as a function of pressure difference across the filter. Furthermore, the efficiency and mass loading characteristics need to be determined as a function of the aerosol particle diameter. A review of the literature revealed that no previous work had been performed to characterize the prefilter material of interest. In order to complete the foundation of information necessary to predict total mass loadings on prefilter/HEPA filter systems, it was necessary to determine the prefilter efficiency and mass loading characteristics. The measured prefilter characteristics combined with the previously determined HEPA filter characteristics allowed the resulting pressure difference across both filters to be predicted as a function of total particle mass for a given particle distribution. These predictions compare favorably to experimental measurements (±25%)

  1. Conservation Laws for Partially Conservative Variable Mass Systems via d'Alembert's Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AFTAB Ahmed; NASEER Ahmed; QUDRAT Khan

    2008-01-01

    Conservation laws for partially conservative variable mass dynamical systems under symmetric infinitesimal transformations are determined. A generalization of Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle for a variable mass system in terms of asynchronous virtual variation is presented. The generalized Killing equations are obtained such that their solution yields the transformations and the associated conservation laws. An example illustrative of the theory is furnished at the end as well.

  2. Conservation Laws for Partially Conservative Variable Mass Systems via d'Alembert's Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Aftab; Ahmed, Naseer; Khan, Qudrat

    2008-01-01

    Conservation laws for partially conservative variable mass dynamical systems under symmetric infinitesimal transformations are determined. A generalization of Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle for a variable mass system in terms of asynchronous virtual variation is presented. The generalized Killing equations are obtained such that their solution yields the transformations and the associated conservation laws. An example illustrative of the theory is furnished at the end as well. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  3. The evolution of low-mass close binary systems. IV. 0.80 M/sub sun/+0.40 M/sub sun/: Catastrophic mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbink, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of both components of a 0.80 M/sub sun/+0.40 M/sub sun/ binary with initial separation 1.60 R/sub sun/ is presented. This system reaches mass transfer during core hydrogen burning in the primary. The primary has such a deep convective envelope that mass transfer proceeds on a dynamical time scale. Mass exchange is followed through the first 6.25 x 10 -3 M/sub sun/, by which time the transfer rate has reached 8.33 x 10 -4 M/sub sun/ yr -1 .It is shown that mass transfer on a dynamical time scale leads to supercritical accretion by the secondary component, and hence is presumably accompanied by extensive mass and angular momentum losses. Stability against such rapid mass transfer may impose severe limitations on the masses and mass ratios of cataclysmic variables

  4. Life Support Goals Including High Closure and Low Mass Should Be Reconsidered Using Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Recycling space life support systems have been built and tested since the 1960s and have operated on the International Space Station (ISS) since the mid 2000s. The development of space life support has been guided by a general consensus focused on two important related goals, increasing system closure and reducing launch mass. High closure is achieved by recycling crew waste products such as carbon dioxide and condensed humidity. Recycling directly reduces the mass of oxygen and water for the crew that must be launched from Earth. The launch mass of life support can be further reduced by developing recycling systems with lower hardware mass and reduced power. The life support consensus has also favored using biological systems. The goal of increasing closure using biological systems suggests that food should be grown in space and that biological processors be used for air, water, and waste recycling. The goal of reducing launch mass led to use of Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in life support advocacy and technology selection. The recent consensus assumes that the recycling systems architecture developed in the 1960s and implemented on ISS will be used on all future long missions. NASA and other project organizations use the standard systems engineering process to guide hardware development. The systems process was used to develop ISS life support, but it has been less emphasized in planning future systems for the moon and Mars. Since such missions are far in the future, there has been less immediate need for systems engineering analysis to consider trade-offs, reliability, and Life Cycle Cost (LCC). Preliminary systems analysis suggests that the life support consensus concepts should be revised to reflect systems engineering requirements.

  5. A modified Friedmann equation for a system with varying gravitational mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkavyi, Nick; Vasilkov, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detection of gravitational waves that take away 5 per cent of the total mass of two merging black holes points out on the importance of considering varying gravitational mass of a system. Using an assumption that the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of gravitational waves is not considered as a source of gravitational field, we analyse a perturbation of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric caused by the varying gravitational mass of a system. This perturbation leads to a modified Friedmann equation that contains a term similar to the `cosmological constant'. Theoretical estimates of the effective cosmological constant quantitatively corresponds to observed cosmological acceleration.

  6. A second-order, unconditionally positive, mass-conserving integration scheme for biochemical systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Bruggeman (Frank); H. Burchard; B. Kooi; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBiochemical systems are bound by two mathematically-relevant restrictions. First, state variables in such systems represent non-negative quantities, such as concentrations of chemical compounds. Second, biochemical systems conserve mass and energy. Both properties must be reflected in

  7. RSMASS-D nuclear thermal propulsion and bimodal system mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Marshall, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Two relatively simple models have been developed to estimate reactor, radiation shield, and balance of system masses for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion concept and a cermet-core power and propulsion (bimodal) concept. The approach was based on the methodology developed for the RSMASS-D models. The RSMASS-D approach for the reactor and shield sub-systems uses a combination of simple equations derived from reactor physics and other fundamental considerations along with tabulations of data from more detailed neutron and gamma transport theory computations. Relatively simple models are used to estimate the masses of other subsystem components of the nuclear propulsion and bimodal systems. Other subsystem components include instrumentation and control (I&C), boom, safety systems, radiator, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, and nozzle. The user of these models can vary basic design parameters within an allowed range to achieve a parameter choice which yields a minimum mass for the operational conditions of interest. Estimated system masses are presented for a range of reactor power levels for propulsion for the PBR propulsion concept and for both electrical power and propulsion for the cermet-core bimodal concept. The estimated reactor system masses agree with mass predictions from detailed calculations with xx percent for both models.

  8. Methodology to detect and quantify the presence of recycled PET in bottle-grade PET blends: mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romao, Wanderson; Franco, Marcos F.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Iglesias, Amadeu H.; Sanvido, Gustavo B.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Bueno, Maria I.M.S.; Maretto, Danilo A.; Poppi, Ronei J.; Paoli, Marco-Aurelio de

    2009-01-01

    New methodologies were developed to detect and to quantify the presence of the bottle-grade post-consumption PET (PET pc -btg) in the bottle-grade virgin PET (PET v -btg), preventing frauds and illegal uses of recycled PET pc -btg. MALDI-MS results together with PCA (principal component analysis) was used to classify the samples into several groups: intrinsic viscosity changes; processed and not submitted to some industrial process; wt % PET pc -btg in the PET v -btg; synthesis process change (manufacturer). From these results, it was possible to create a calibration model, that differentiated between PET v -btg and PET pc -btg resins. XRF results show that some manufacturers use one or more catalysts for PET v -btg synthesis, where our prediction model is valid only when the studied resin is known. We observed also that the Fe concentration in PET increase in as a function of the recycling process. Therefore, this variable could be used, in the future work, to create chemometric models including a higher number of variables. (author)

  9. An Introduction to the SI Metric System. Inservice Guide for Teaching Measurement, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook was designed to serve as a reference for teacher workshops that: (1) introduce the metric system and help teachers gain confidence with metric measurement, and (2) develop classroom measurement activities. One chapter presents the history and basic features of SI metrics. A second chapter presents a model for the measurement program.…

  10. An evaluation of the lamb and mutton carcase grading system in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the six fat classes of the classification system for carcase evaluation. Four subcutaneous fat .... Lamb carcases all age groups. (n = 40). (n = 104). Characteristic. X. SD. X. SD. Subcutaneous fat (%). 8,51. 3,51. 8,20. 3,31. Lean (%). 73,93. 3,07. 74,56. 3,14. Bone (%). 14,10 ..... Livestock breeding. Production and Marketing.

  11. Using Case-Based Reasoning to Improve the Quality of Feedback Provided by Automated Grading Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrilov, Angelo; Noelle, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Information technology is now ubiquitous in higher education institutions worldwide. More than 85% of American universities use e-learning systems to supplement traditional classroom activities while some have started offering Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs), which are completely online. An obvious benefit of these online tools is their…

  12. Development of oral food-grade delivery systems: current knowledge and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benshitrit, Revital Cohen; Levi, Carmit Shani; Tal, Sharon Levi; Shimoni, Eyal; Lesmes, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the development of new and efficient oral food delivery systems as tools to prevent disease and promote human health and well-being. Such vehicles are sought to protect bioactive ingredients added to food while controlling and targeting their release as they pass through the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review aims to summarize the key concepts of food delivery systems, their characterization and evaluation. Particularly, evaluation of their performance within the human GIT is discussed. To this end an overview of several in vivo and in vitro methods currently applied for the study of such systems is given. Although considered to be still in its infancy, this promising field of research is likely to infiltrate into real products through rational design. In order for such efforts to materialize into real products some challenges still need to be met and are discussed herein. Overall, it seems that adopting a comprehensive pharmacological approach and relevant cutting edge tools are likely to facilitate innovations and help elucidate and perhaps tailor delivery systems' behavior in the human GIT.

  13. Development of a desalination system driven by solar energy and low grade waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminshawy, Nabil A.S.; Siddiqui, Farooq R.; Sultan, Gamal I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Productivity increases significantly up to critical waste gas flow rate. • Productivity decreases for waste gas flow rate higher than critical flow rate. • Increasing evaporator inlet waste gas temperature increases productivity. • The proposed system coupled with combined cycle has a fuel saving 1844 kg/h. • The cost of potable water produced is 0.014 USD/L. - Abstract: Various thermal power systems emit flue gases containing significant amount of waste energy. The aim of this research is to recover a valuable amount of this energy to develop an efficient desalination system coupled with solar energy. Experiments were performed in the month of June 2014 at Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia (26°4′53″N, 43°58′32″E) for different hot air (waste gas) flow rates and evaporator inlet water temperature to study the effect on daily potable water productivity. The proposed setup comprised an evaporator, condenser, air blower, electric heaters, storage tank and evacuated tube solar collectors. It was found that increasing the hot air flow rate increases the water productivity up to the critical flow rate after which the productivity decreases. Analytical model was developed for this desalination setup and the results were compared to that obtained from experiments. The overall daily (9 AM–5 PM) potable water productivity of the proposed system is about 50 L for corresponding useful waste heat varying from 130 to 180 MJ/day and a global solar radiation on a horizontal surface ranging from 15 to 29 MJ/m 2 /day. Water is produced at the cost of 0.014 USD/L and the fuel saving equal to 1844 kg/h is achieved for the proposed desalination system

  14. Systems and methods for integrating ion mobility and ion trap mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya; Prost, Spencer A.

    2018-04-10

    Described herein are examples of systems and methods for integrating IMS and MS systems. In certain examples, systems and methods for decoding double multiplexed data are described. The systems and methods can also perform multiple refining procedures in order to minimize the demultiplexing artifacts. The systems and methods can be used, for example, for the analysis of proteomic and petroleum samples, where the integration of IMS and high mass resolution are used for accurate assignment of molecular formulae.

  15. Experimental study on interaction between a positive mass and a negative effective mass through a mass–spring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the interaction between a positive mass and a negative effective mass through a three-mass chain connected with elastic springs, a pair of masses is designed to have an effective negative mass, and it interacts with the third positive one as if an equivalent two-mass chain. The dynamics of the equivalent two-mass chain shows that the two bodies may be self-accelerated in same direction when the effective mass becomes negative, the experiment is also conducted to demonstrate this type of motion. We further show that the energy principle (Hamilton’s principle is applicable if the energy of the negative mass unit is properly characterized. The result may be relevant to composite with cells of effective negative mass, their interaction with matrix may lead to more richer unexpected macroscopic responses.

  16. Mass spectrometer provided with an optical system for separating neutron particles against charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeher, J R; Story, M S; Smith, R D

    1977-03-03

    This invention concerns a mass spectrometer with an ion focusing optical system that efficiently separates the charged and neutral particles. It concerns an apparatus that can be used in ionisation areas operating at relatively high pressure (> 10/sup -2/ Torr). The invention relates more particularly to a mass spectrometer with an inlet device for the samples to be identified, a sample ionisation system for forming charged and neutral particles, a mass analyser and an optical system for focusing the ions formed in the mass analyser. The optics include several conducting components of which at least one has sides formed of grids, in the direction of the axis, towards the analyser the optics forming a potential well along the axis. The selected charged particles are focused in the analyser and the remaining particles can escape by the openings in the conducting grids.

  17. System analysis and mass balance of a caloric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachermayer, E.; Rechberger, H.; Brunner, P.H.; Maderner, W.

    1995-05-01

    The present feasibility study analyses the possibilities of examining and presenting material and energy aspects of the interaction between the power plant and the region. A method has been worked out to establish an overall system called power plant and its periphery which combines the thermal power plant Voitsberg 3, the supplying coal mine Oberdorf, and the ash dumping site Karlschacht 2. One goal of this study was therefore, to find a way of combining the different steps 'mining' , 'power plant' , and 'ash dumping' to an overall system considering both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Another goal of the present feasibility study was to develop methods to consider the impacts of the power plant and its periphery to the environment and the use of resources. For this purpose the region is analysed from two different points of view: - the region defined by the 'product'; its size is defined by the number of inhabitants the power plant supplies with the product 'electricity'. The region defined by the area, in which the specific impacts of the power plant on air, water, soil etc. have to be examined; its size will therefore vary considerably according to the subject of investigation. Based on data provided by the power plant operators a rough estimate could be made to what extent the power plant is responsible for the air pollutant emissions in the region defined by the 'product'. According to these data the part of pollution caused by the power plant amounts to 10% for NOx and particulate matter, to 40% for SO 2 , and to 70% for CO 2 . Furthermore, it can be seen, that the material fluxes of selenium and mercury have to be surveyed in more detail. The ashes dumped in Karlschacht 2 contain a large amount of heavy metals, mainly arsenic, selenium, and mercury. These elements occur in a much higher concentration than in the earth crust. (author)

  18. Experimental system using an active method for the measurement of low alpha emitter grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, P.; Cance, M.

    1986-06-01

    The diversity of waste produced in France, the limitations of passive neutron measurements, the new safety requirements in the field of low level waste disposal have induced us to develop active neutron techniques. Two experimental pulsed neutron interrogation systems are described giving a sensitivity lower than 10 mg Pu 239 in 200 l drums. This project is the result of a close cooperation between the CEA, SGN and SODERN

  19. Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System Failures in Repair of Grade V Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.-H. Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System® (LARS® represents a popular synthetic anatomical reduction method for acromioclavicular joint dislocation by means of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. To our knowledge, no early failure has been documented in the literature. We present two unusual cases of LARS failure, one at four months after implant and the other at three weeks, without obvious causes, requiring re-do reconstruction, and discuss potential contributory factors.

  20. Food-grade micro-encapsulation systems that may induce satiety via delayed lipolysis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstens, Meinou N; Berton-Carabin, Claire C; de Vries, Renko; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A M; Schroën, Karin

    2017-07-03

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity requires new, effective prevention and treatment strategies. One approach to reduce energy intake is by developing novel foods with increased satiating properties, which may be accomplished by slowing down lipolysis to deliver substrates to the ileum, thereby enhancing natural gut-brain signaling pathways of satiety that are normally induced by meal intake. To develop slow release food additives, their processing in the gastrointestinal tract has to be understood; therefore, we start from a general description of the digestive system and relate that to in vitro modeling, satiety, and lipolytic mechanisms. The effects of physicochemical lipid composition, encapsulation matrix, and interfacial structure on lipolysis are emphasized. We give an overview of techniques and materials used, and discuss partitioning, which may be a key factor for encapsulation performance. Targeted release capsules that delay lipolysis form a real challenge because of the high efficiency of the digestive system; hardly any proof was found that intact orally ingested lipids can be released in the ileum and thereby induce satiety. We expect that this challenge could be tackled with structured o/w-emulsion-based systems that have some protection against lipase, e.g., by hindering bile salt adsorption and/or delaying lipase diffusion.

  1. Sampling for quality assurance of grading decisions in diabetic retinopathy screening: designing the system to detect errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Jim

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate various designs for a quality assurance system to detect and control human errors in a national screening programme for diabetic retinopathy. A computer simulation was performed of some possible ways of sampling the referral decisions made during grading and of different criteria for initiating more intensive QA investigations. The effectiveness of QA systems was assessed by the ability to detect a grader making occasional errors in referral. Substantial QA sample sizes are needed to ensure against inappropriate failure to refer. Detection of a grader who failed to refer one in ten cases can be achieved with a probability of 0.58 using an annual sample size of 300 and 0.77 using a sample size of 500. An unmasked verification of a sample of non-referrals by a specialist is the most effective method of internal QA for the diabetic retinopathy screening programme. Preferential sampling of those with some degree of disease may improve the efficiency of the system.

  2. A Tissue Systems Pathology Test Detects Abnormalities Associated with Prevalent High-Grade Dysplasia and Esophageal Cancer in Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley-Thorne, Rebecca J; Davison, Jon M; Prichard, Jeffrey W; Reese, Lia M; Zhang, Yi; Repa, Kathleen; Li, Jinhong; Diehl, David L; Jhala, Nirag C; Ginsberg, Gregory G; DeMarshall, Maureen; Foxwell, Tyler; Jobe, Blair A; Zaidi, Ali H; Duits, Lucas C; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Rustgi, Anil; Falk, Gary W

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for improved tools to detect high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus. In previous work, we demonstrated that a 3-tier classifier predicted risk of incident progression in Barrett's esophagus. Our aim was to determine whether this risk classifier could detect a field effect in nondysplastic (ND), indefinite for dysplasia (IND), or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) biopsies from Barrett's esophagus patients with prevalent HGD/EAC. We performed a multi-institutional case-control study to evaluate a previously developed risk classifier that is based upon quantitative image features derived from 9 biomarkers and morphology, and predicts risk for HGD/EAC in Barrett's esophagus patients. The risk classifier was evaluated in ND, IND, and LGD biopsies from Barrett's esophagus patients diagnosed with HGD/EAC on repeat endoscopy (prevalent cases, n = 30, median time to HGD/EAC diagnosis 140.5 days) and nonprogressors (controls, n = 145, median HGD/EAC-free surveillance time 2,015 days). The risk classifier stratified prevalent cases and non-progressor patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk classes [OR, 46.0; 95% confidence interval, 14.86-169 (high-risk vs. low-risk); P esophagus patients than pathologic variables. The results indicate that molecular and cellular changes associated with malignant transformation in Barrett's esophagus may be detectable as a field effect using the test. A tissue systems pathology test may provide an objective method to facilitate earlier identification of Barrett's esophagus patients requiring therapeutic intervention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 240-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems and maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AM CVn-type stars and ultra-compact X-ray binaries are extremely interesting semi-detached close binary systems in which the Roche lobe filling component is a white dwarf transferring mass to another white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole. Earlier theoretical considerations show that there is a maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems (qmax ≈ 2/3 below which the mass transfer is stable. In this paper we derive slightly different value for qmax and more interestingly, by applying the same procedure, we find the maximum expected white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries.

  4. Comparative evaluation of H&H and WFNS grading scales with modified H&H (sans systemic disease): A study on 1000 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Praneeth, Kokkula; Sodhi, Harsimrat Bir Singh; Pal, Sudhir Singh; Gaudihalli, Sachin; Khandelwal, N; Mukherjee, Kanchan K; Tewari, M K; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Mathuriya, S N

    2018-01-01

    The comparative studies on grading in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) had several limitations such as the unclear grading of Glasgow Coma Scale 15 with neurological deficits in World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), and the inclusion of systemic disease in Hunt and Hess (H&H) scales. Their differential incremental impacts and optimum cut-off values for unfavourable outcome are unsettled. This is a prospective comparison of prognostic impacts of grading schemes to address these issues. SAH patients were assessed using WFNS, H&H (including systemic disease), modified H&H (sans systemic disease) and followed up with Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 3 months. Their performance characteristics were analysed as incremental ordinal variables and different grading scale dichotomies using rank-order correlation, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden's J and multivariate analyses. A total of 1016 patients were studied. As univariate incremental variable, H&H sans systemic disease had the best negative rank-order correlation coefficient (-0.453) with respect to lower GOS (p H&H sans systemic disease had the greatest adjusted incremental impact of 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.91) against a lower GOS as compared to 0.6 (95% CI 0.45-0.74) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.42-0.68) for H&H and WFNS grades, respectively. In multivariate categorical analysis, H&H grades 4-5 sans systemic disease had the greatest impact on unfavourable GOS with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.06 (95% CI 3.94-9.32). To conclude, H&H grading sans systemic disease had the greatest impact on unfavourable GOS. Though systemic disease is an important prognostic factor, it should be considered distinctly from grading. Appropriate cut-off values suggesting unfavourable outcome for H&H and WFNS were 4-5 and 3-5, respectively, indicating the importance of neurological deficits in addition to level of consciousness.

  5. Principles and applications of a research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, J.E.; Risby, T.H.; Jurs, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    A research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system for a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been developed based on a centrally located departmental computer facility. An overview of the hardware and software system is presented, emphasizing the important aspects of on-line computer data acquisition and control and the design philosophy used in the development of the system. The application of the system is demonstrated by the g.c.-m.s. analysis of a mixture of four transition metal β-diketonates (Al, Cr, Rh, and Ru tris-1,1,1-trifluoro-pentane-2,4-dionate). This anaysis involved vacuum gas chromatography with a support-coated open tubular column and detection of the eluent by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate the data system capabilities and indicate the utility of the combined methodologies. (Auth.)

  6. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross

  7. Are particle rest masses variable: Theory and constraints from solar system experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Particle rest mass variation in spacetime is considered. According to Dicke, if this is the case various null experiments indicate that all masses vary in the same way. Their variation relative to the Planck-Wheeler mass defines a universal scalar rest-mass field. We construct the relativistic dynamics for this field based on very general assumptions. In addition, we assume Einstein's equations to be valid in Planck-Wheeler units. A special case of the theory coincides with Dicke's reformulation of Brans-Dicke theory as general relativity with variable rest masses. In the general case the rest-mass field is some power r of a scalar field which obeys an ordinary scalar equation with coupling to the curvature of strength q. The r and q are the only parameters of the theory. Comparison with experiment is facilitated by recasting the theory into units in which rest masses are constant, the Planck-Wheeler mass varies, and the metric satisfies the equations of a small subset of the scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. The results of solar system experiments, usually used to test general relativity, are here used to delimit the acceptable values of r and q. We conclude that if cosmological considerations are not invoked, then the solar system experiments do not rule out the possibility of rest-mass variability. That is, there are theories which agree with all null and solar system experiments, and yet contradict the strong equivalence principle by allowing rest masses to vary relative to the Planck-Wheeler mass. We show that the field theory of the rest-mass field can be quantized and interpreted in terms of massless scalar quanta which interact very weakly with matter. This explains why they have not turned up in high-energy experiments. In future reports we shall investigate the implications of various cosmological and astrophysical data for the theory of variable rest masses. The ultimate goal is a firm decision on whether rest masses vary or not

  8. A 100-W grade closed-cycle thermosyphon cooling system used in HTS rotating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Brice; Miki, Motohiro; Tsuzuki, Keita; Shinohara, Nobuyuki; Hayakawa, Hironao; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2012-06-01

    The cooling systems used for rotating High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) machines need a cooling power high enough to ensure a low temperature during various utilization states. Radiation, torque tube or current leads represent hundreds of watts of invasive heat. The architecture also has to allow the rotation of the refrigerant. In this paper, a free-convection thermosyphon using two Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocoolers is presented. The cryogen is mainly neon but helium can be added for an increase of the heat transfer coefficient. The design of the heat exchangers was first optimized with FEM thermal analysis. After manufacture, they were assembled for preliminary experiments and the necessity of annealing was studied for the copper parts. A single evaporator was installed to evaluate the thermal properties of such a heat syphon. The maximum bearable static heat load was also investigated, but was not reached even at 150 W of load. Finally, this cooling system was tested in the cooling down of a 100-kW range HTS rotating machine containing 12 Bi-2223 double-pancake coils (DPC).

  9. The κ Andromedae system: new constraints on the companion mass, system age, and further multiplicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkley, Sasha; David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile Cerro Calan, Las Condes (Chile); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Veicht, Aaron; Nilsson, Ricky [Astrophysics Department, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Kraus, Adam L. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Vasisht, Gautam; Cady, Eric; Roberts, Jennifer E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zimmerman, Neil [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dekany, Richard [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-12-20

    κ Andromedae is a B9IVn star at 52 pc for which a faint substellar companion separated by 55 ± 2 AU was recently announced. In this work, we present the first spectrum of the companion, 'κ And B,' using the Project 1640 high-contrast imaging platform. Comparison of our low-resolution YJH-band spectra to empirical brown dwarf spectra suggests an early-L spectral type. Fitting synthetic spectra from PHOENIX model atmospheres to our observed spectrum allows us to constrain the effective temperature to ∼2000 K as well as place constraints on the companion surface gravity. Further, we use previously reported log(g) and T {sub eff} measurements of the host star to argue that the κ And system has an isochronal age of 220 ± 100 Myr, older than the 30 Myr age reported previously. This interpretation of an older age is corroborated by the photometric properties of κ And B, which appear to be marginally inconsistent with other 10-100 Myr low-gravity L-dwarfs for the spectral type range we derive. In addition, we use Keck aperture masking interferometry combined with published radial velocity measurements to rule out the existence of any tight stellar companions to κ And A that might be responsible for the system's overluminosity. Further, we show that luminosity enhancements due to a nearly 'pole-on' viewing angle coupled with extremely rapid rotation is unlikely. κ And A is thus consistent with its slightly evolved luminosity class (IV), and we propose here that κ And, with a revised age of 220 ± 100 Myr, is an interloper to the 30 Myr Columba association with which it was previously associated. The photometric and spectroscopic evidence for κ And B combined with our reassessment of the system age implies a substellar companion mass of 50{sub −13}{sup +16} M {sub Jup}, consistent with a brown dwarf rather than a planetary-mass companion.

  10. Sonographic features of invasive ductal breast carcinomas predictive of malignancy grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Assessment of individual sonographic features provides vital clues about the biological behavior of breast masses and can assist in determining histological grade of malignancy and thereby prognosis. Aims: Assessment of individual sonographic features of biopsy proven invasive ductal breast carcinomas as predictors of malignancy grade. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of sonographic findings of 103 biopsy proven invasive ductal breast carcinomas. Materials and Methods: Tumor characteristics on gray-scale ultrasound and color flow were assessed using American College of Radiology (ACR Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS Atlas Fifth Edition. The sonographic findings of masses were individually correlated with their histopathologic grades. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test, ordinal regression, and Goodman and Kruskal tau test. Results: Breast mass showing reversal/lack of diastolic flow has a high probability of belonging to histological high grade tumor ( β 1.566, P 0.0001. The masses with abrupt interface boundary are more likely grade 3 ( β 1.524, P 0.001 in comparison to masses with echogenic halos. The suspicious calcifications present in and outside the mass is a finding associated with histologically high grade tumors. The invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs with complex solid and cystic echotexture are more likely to be of high histological grade ( β 1.146, P 0.04 as compared to masses with hypoechoic echotexture. Conclusions: Certain ultrasound features are associated with tumor grade on histopathology. If the radiologist is cognizant of these sonographic features, ultrasound can be a potent modality for predicting histopathological grade of IDCs of the breast, especially in settings where advanced tests such as receptor and molecular analyses are limited.

  11. Sonographic features of invasive ductal breast carcinomas predictive of malignancy grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kanika; Kumaresan, Meenakshisundaram; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Chandra, Tushar; Patil, Aruna; Menon, Maya

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of individual sonographic features provides vital clues about the biological behavior of breast masses and can assist in determining histological grade of malignancy and thereby prognosis. Assessment of individual sonographic features of biopsy proven invasive ductal breast carcinomas as predictors of malignancy grade. A retrospective analysis of sonographic findings of 103 biopsy proven invasive ductal breast carcinomas. Tumor characteristics on gray-scale ultrasound and color flow were assessed using American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) Atlas Fifth Edition. The sonographic findings of masses were individually correlated with their histopathologic grades. Chi square test, ordinal regression, and Goodman and Kruskal tau test. Breast mass showing reversal/lack of diastolic flow has a high probability of belonging to histological high grade tumor ( β 1.566, P 0.0001 ). The masses with abrupt interface boundary are more likely grade 3 ( β 1.524, P 0.001 ) in comparison to masses with echogenic halos. The suspicious calcifications present in and outside the mass is a finding associated with histologically high grade tumors. The invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) with complex solid and cystic echotexture are more likely to be of high histological grade ( β 1.146, P 0.04 ) as compared to masses with hypoechoic echotexture. Certain ultrasound features are associated with tumor grade on histopathology. If the radiologist is cognizant of these sonographic features, ultrasound can be a potent modality for predicting histopathological grade of IDCs of the breast, especially in settings where advanced tests such as receptor and molecular analyses are limited.

  12. Evidence for chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in individuals with agoraphobia from a population-based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Young N Wagner

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been linked to an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease in which inflammation plays a key pathogenic role. To date, no studies have looked at the association between proinflammatory markers and agoraphobia.In a random Swiss population sample of 2890 persons (35-67 years, 53% women, we diagnosed a total of 124 individuals (4.3% with agoraphobia using a validated semi-structured psychiatric interview. We also assessed socioeconomic status, traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., body mass index, hypertension, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, and health behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and other major psychiatric diseases (other anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, drug dependence which were treated as covariates in linear regression models. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers, statistically controlled for the baseline demographic and health-related measures, were determined at a mean follow-up of 5.5 ± 0.4 years (range 4.7 - 8.5.Individuals with agoraphobia had significantly higher follow-up levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.007 and tumor-necrosis-factor-α (p = 0.042 as well as lower levels of the cardioprotective marker adiponectin (p = 0.032 than their non-agoraphobic counterparts. Follow-up levels of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 did not significantly differ between the two groups.Our results suggest an increase in chronic low-grade inflammation in agoraphobia over time. Such a mechanism might link agoraphobia with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and needs to be tested in longitudinal studies.

  13. Engineering analysis of mass flow rate for turbine system control and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A computer code is written to predict the steam mass flow rate through valves. → A test device is built to study the steam flow characteristics in the control valve. → Mass flow based methodology eases the programming and experimental procedures. → The methodology helps express the characteristics of each device of a turbine system. → The results can commercially be used for design and operation of the turbine system. - Abstract: The mass flow rate is determined in the steam turbine system by the area formed between the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. For precise control the steam mass flow rate should be known given the stem lift. However, since the thermal hydraulic characteristics of steam coming from the generator or boiler are changed going through each device, it is hard to accurately predict the steam mass flow rate. Thus, to precisely determine the steam mass flow rate, a methodology and theory are developed in designing the turbine system manufactured for the nuclear and fossil power plants. From the steam generator or boiler to the first bunch of turbine blades, the steam passes by a stop valve, a control valve and the first nozzle, each of which is connected with piping. The corresponding steam mass flow rate can ultimately be computed if the thermal and hydraulic conditions are defined at the stop valve, control valve and pipes. The steam properties at the inlet of each device are changed at its outlet due to geometry. The Compressed Adiabatic Massflow Analysis (CAMA) computer code is written to predict the steam mass flow rate through valves. The Valve Engineered Layout Operation (VELO) test device is built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve with the CAMA input data. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected as reference. CAMA is expected to be commercially utilized to accurately design and operate the turbine system for fossil as well as nuclear power

  14. Middle School Math Acceleration and Equitable Access to Eighth-Grade Algebra: Evidence from the Wake County Public School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Shaun M.; Goodman, Joshua S.; Hill, Darryl V.; Litke, Erica G.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2015-01-01

    Taking algebra by eighth grade is considered an important milestone on the pathway to college readiness. We highlight a collaboration to investigate one district's effort to increase middle school algebra course-taking. In 2010, the Wake County Public Schools began assigning middle school students to accelerated math and eighth-grade algebra based…

  15. Acquiring research-grade ERPs on a shoestring budget: A comparison of a modified Emotiv and commercial SynAmps EEG system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Michael P; Clark, Gillian M; Hayden, Melissa J; Enticott, Peter G; Conduit, Russell; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-09-01

    This study compared the performance of a low-cost wireless EEG system to a research-grade EEG system on an auditory oddball task designed to elicit N200 and P300 ERP components. Participants were 15 healthy adults (6 female) aged between 19 and 40 (M = 28.56; SD = 6.38). An auditory oddball task was presented comprising 1,200 presentations of a standard tone interspersed by 300 trials comprising a deviant tone. EEG was simultaneously recorded from a modified Emotiv EPOC and a NeuroScan SynAmps RT EEG system. The modifications made to the Emotiv system included attaching research grade electrodes to the Bluetooth transmitter. Additional modifications enabled the Emotiv system to connect to a portable impedance meter. The cost of these modifications and portable impedance meter approached the purchase value of the Emotiv system. Preliminary analyses revealed significantly more trials were rejected from data acquired by the modified Emotiv compared to the SynAmps system. However, the ERP waveforms captured by the Emotiv system were found to be highly similar to the corresponding waveform from the SynAmps system. The latency and peak amplitude of N200 and P300 components were also found to be similar between systems. Overall, the results indicate that, in the context of an oddball task, the ERP acquired by a low-cost wireless EEG system can be of comparable quality to research-grade EEG acquisition equipment. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Method of Modeling Questions for Automated Grading of Students’ Responses in E-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gurchenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Problem relevance. The capability to check a solution of practical problems automatically is an important functionality of any learning management system (LMS. Complex types of questions, implying creative approach to problem solving are of particular interest. There are a lot of studies presenting automated scoring algorithms of students' answers, such as mathematical expressions, graphs, molecules, etc. However, the most common types of problems in the open LMS that are being actively implemented in Russian and foreign universities (Moodle, Sakai, Ilias etc. remain simple types of questions such as, for example, multiple choice.Study subject and goal. The purpose of study is to create a method that allows integrating arbitrary algorithms of answer scoring into any existing LMS, as well as its practical implementation in the form of an independent software module, which will handle questions in LMS.Method. The model for objects of type "algorithmic question" is considered. A unified format for storing objects of this type, allowing keeping their state, is developed. The algorithm is a set of variables, which defines the responses versus input data (or vice versa. Basis variables (input are selected pseudo-randomly from a predetermined range, and based on these values resulting variables (responses are calculated. This approach allows us to synthesize variations of the same question. State of the question is saved by means of "seed" of pseudo-random number generator. A set of algorithmic problems was used to build the lifecycle management functions, namely: initialization create (, rendering render (, and evaluation answer (. These functions lay the foundation for the Application Program Interface (API and allow us to control software module responsible for the questions in LMS.Practical results. This study is completed with the implementation of software module responsible for mapping the interaction with the student and automated

  17. Longitudinal Relationship of Low Leisure Satisfaction but not Depressive Symptoms With Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Dementia Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to further elucidate the biobehavioral mechanisms linking dementia caregiving with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that both elevated depressive symptoms and a behavioral correlate of depression, low leisure satisfaction, are associated with systemic inflammation. Method. We studied 121 elderly Alzheimer’s disease caregivers who underwent 4 annual assessments for depressive symptoms, leisure satisfaction, and circulating levels of inflammatory markers. We used mixed-regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic and health-relevant covariates to examine longitudinal relationships between constructs of interest. Results. There were inverse relationships between total leisure satisfaction and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; p = .047), interleukin-8 (IL-8; p leisure activities was related to higher levels of TNF-α (p = .045), IL-8 (p leisure activities was related only to higher IL-8 levels (p = .023). Depressive symptoms were not associated with any inflammatory marker (all p values > .17). Depressive symptoms did not mediate the relationship between leisure satisfaction and inflammation. Discussion. Lower satisfaction with leisure activities is related to higher low-grade systemic inflammation. This knowledge may provide a promising way of improving cardiovascular health in dementia caregivers through behavioral activation treatments targeting low leisure satisfaction. PMID:23650246

  18. Impact Of Low Grade Uranium Ores On The Echo System and the Workers of Phosphate Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of uranium present in phosphate rocks as an environmental factor in the ccho system and on the workers of Abu-Zaabal Phosphate Company subjected to the inhalation of big quantities of rock phosphate dust during the benefication of the ore and the production of the fertilizers. Besides. extra amount of uranium reach the workers also through two path ways.The first is direct through eating contaminated planted grown in the near by area.The second is indirect through eating animals fed with contaminated plants. The uranium content is estimated in the soil samples at different depths, water (irrigation and drainage), air samples and plant samples (shoot and root) in Berseem from the four directions, urine samples from twenty workers in charge of the processing of phosphate compared to twenty volunteers far from the contaminated area.The results showed an elevated values for phosphorus and uranium in the air, water. soil and plant (Berseem) around Abu Zaabal Factory and extending to about 2 km from all directions. Urine may be considered as a biological indicator medium for the uptake of uranium in uranium miners and the workers in charge of ore processing and can represent the major route of excretion for the absorbed metal. Significant differences were shown between the uranium level in the urine of workers group and the control group

  19. Asymptotic behavior of equilibrium states of reaction-diffusion systems with mass conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jann-Long; Morita, Yoshihisa; Shieh, Tien-Tsan

    2018-01-01

    We deal with a stationary problem of a reaction-diffusion system with a conservation law under the Neumann boundary condition. It is shown that the stationary problem turns to be the Euler-Lagrange equation of an energy functional with a mass constraint. When the domain is the finite interval (0 , 1), we investigate the asymptotic profile of a strictly monotone minimizer of the energy as d, the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the system, tends to zero. In view of a logarithmic function in the leading term of the potential, we get to a scaling parameter κ satisfying the relation ε : =√{ d } =√{ log ⁡ κ } /κ2. The main result shows that a sequence of minimizers converges to a Dirac mass multiplied by the total mass and that by a scaling with κ the asymptotic profile exhibits a parabola in the nonvanishing region. We also prove the existence of an unstable monotone solution when the mass is small.

  20. VHS-tape system for general purpose computer. For next generation mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, K.; Takano, M.; Shinohara, M.; Niki, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Hamada, T.; Ogawa, M.

    1994-07-01

    Mass storage is one of the key technology of next generation computer system. A huge amount of data is produced on a field of particle and nuclear physics. These data are raw data of experiments, analysis data, Monte Carlo simulations data, etc. We search a storage device for these data at the point of view of capacity, price, size, transfer speed, etc. We have selected a VHS-tape (12.7 mm-tape, helical scan) from many storage devices. Characteristics of the VHS-tape are as follows; capacity of 14.5 GB, size of 460 cm 3 , price of 1,000 yen (S-VHS tape for video use), and 1.996 MB/sec transfer speed at a sustained mode. Last year, we succeeded to operate the VHS-tape system on a workstation as a I/O device with read/write speed of 1.5 MB/sec. We have tested a VHS-tape system by connecting to the channel of the general purpose computer (Fujitsu M-780/10S) in our institute. We obtained a read and write speeds of 1.07 MB/sec and 1.72 MB/sec by FORTRAN test programs, respectively. Read speeds of an open reel tape and a 3480 type cassete tape by the same test programs are 1.13 MB/sec and 2.54 MB/sec, respectively. Speeds of write operation are 1.09 MB/sec and 2.54 MB/sec for the open reel and 3480 cassete tape, respectively. A start motion of the VHS-tape for read/write operations needs about 60 seconds. (author)

  1. Real-time analysis and display of reactor system mass inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, L.T.; Meachum, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    A mass inventory system (MIS) to evaluate, in real-time, the coolant distribution within the primary coolant system of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor has been developed. The computer-based system calculates and displays the coolant levels by two methods: using level measurements and performing a mass balance. The MIS is designed to provide up-to-date, intelligible information on the coolant distribution during any LOFT experiment. During LOFT experiments in which the primary coolant pumps are on, the method also provides void fraction information and the anticipated liquid level in the reactor vessel should the pumps be turned off

  2. Analysis of coupled mass transfer and sol-gel reaction in a two-phase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijns, H.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Pel, L.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The coupled mass transfer and chemical reactions of a gel-forming compound in a two-phase system were studied in detail. Tetra-methyl-ortho-silicate (TMOS) is often used as a precursor in sol-gel chemistry to produce silica gels in aqueous systems. TMOS can also be mixed with many hydrocarbons

  3. Contribution to Control of an Elastic Two-Mass System by Means of Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelmira Ferkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations of an elastic two-mass system with all known parameters may be suppressed by suitable feedback signal. An observer enables to estimate this feedback without measurement of load mechanism speed. This article contains application of genetic algorithms for identification of elastic system parameters and determination of corresponding observer feedback coefficients. Design correctness is verified by simulation.

  4. The interplay between the top quark mass and the structure of the Higgs system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passarino, G.

    1989-01-01

    Assuming precise knowledge of vector boson masses the top quark mass is predicted through its effect in radiative corrections, both in the minimal standard model and in some extensions of it. Deviations from minimality are parametrized in terms of an admixture of I=1/2 and I=1 Higgs particles in the limit of small vacuum expectation value for the triplet field. Effects due to the interplay between m t and the structure of the Higgs system are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Model validation using CFD-grade experimental database for NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems with water and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, Annalisa [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Petrov, Victor [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tompkins, Casey [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Nunez, Daniel [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2018-02-13

    This project has been focused on the experimental and numerical investigations of the water-cooled and air-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) designs. At this aim, we have leveraged an existing experimental facility at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), and we have designed and built a separate effect test facility at the University of Michigan. The experimental facility at UW has underwent several upgrades, including the installation of advanced instrumentation (i.e. wire-mesh sensors) built at the University of Michigan. These provides highresolution time-resolved measurements of the void-fraction distribution in the risers of the water-cooled RCCS facility. A phenomenological model has been developed to assess the water cooled RCCS system stability and determine the root cause behind the oscillatory behavior that occurs under normal two-phase operation. Testing under various perturbations to the water-cooled RCCS facility have resulted in changes in the stability of the integral system. In particular, the effects on stability of inlet orifices, water tank volume have and system pressure been investigated. MELCOR was used as a predictive tool when performing inlet orificing tests and was able to capture the Density Wave Oscillations (DWOs) that occurred upon reaching saturation in the risers. The experimental and numerical results have then been used to provide RCCS design recommendations. The experimental facility built at the University of Michigan was aimed at the investigation of mixing in the upper plenum of the air-cooled RCCS design. The facility has been equipped with state-of-theart high-resolution instrumentation to achieve so-called CFD grade experiments, that can be used for the validation of Computational Fluid Dynanmics (CFD) models, both RANS (Reynold-Averaged) and LES (Large Eddy Simulations). The effect of risers penetration in the upper plenum has been investigated as well.

  6. Mass outflow in the nearby proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhweiler, F.C.; Grady, C.A.; Kondo, Yoji

    1991-01-01

    Previous spectral studies of circumstallar dust around the nearby, candidate proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris, has detected only infalling gas. The lack of detectable mass outflow has been critical in the interpretation of the origin of the circumstellar gas and in our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pictoris system. IUE high-dispersion spectra are presented which show, in addition to infall, the presence of mass outflow, with a maximum observed outflow velocity of -60 km/s, and a corresponding instantaneous outflow rate of 1.1 x 10 to the -14th solar mass/yr, or 1.1 x 10 to the -11th Jupiter mass/yr. This mass outflow rate and terminal velocity are comparable to the magnitudes of mass infall rates and terminal velocities observed from late 1986 through early 1988. The implications of these observations on our understanding of the mechanisms producing infall from the surrounding circumstellar disk are discussed, as are the implications for our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pic system. 23 refs

  7. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overall system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1800 kg/cu m).

  8. A versatile triple radiofrequency quadrupole system for cooling, mass separation and bunching of exotic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettner, Emma; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Czok, Ulrich; Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Kinsel, Wadim; Petrick, Martin; Schäfer, Thorsten; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The combination of in-flight separation with a gas-filled stopping cell has opened a new field for experiments with exotic nuclei. For instance, at the SHIP/SHIPTRAP facility at GSI in Darmstadt high-precision mass measurements of rare nuclei have been successfully performed. In order to extend the reach of SHIPTRAP to exotic nuclei that are produced together with high rates of unwanted reaction products, a novel compact radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) system has been developed. It implements ion cooling, identification and separation according to mass numbers and bunching capabilities. The system has a total length of one meter only and consists of an RFQ cooler, an RFQ mass filter and an RFQ buncher. A mass resolving power (FWHM) of 240 at a transmission efficiency of 90% has been achieved. The suppression of contaminants from neighboring masses by more than four orders of magnitude has been demonstrated at rates exceeding 106 ions/s. A longitudinal emittance of 0.45 eV μs has been achieved with the RFQ buncher, which will enable improved time-of-flight mass spectrometry downstream of the device. With this triple RFQ system the measurement of e.g. N= Z nuclides in the region up to tin will become possible at SHIPTRAP. The technology is also well suited for other rare-isotope facilities with experimental setups behind a stopping cell, such as the fragment separator FRS with the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI.

  9. Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases : causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Nunez, Begona; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An

  10. How accurate are parental responses concerning their fourth-grade children's school-meal participation, and what is the relationship between children's body mass index and school-meal participation based on parental responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton-Aiken Amy E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article investigated (1 parental response accuracy of fourth-grade children's school-meal participation and whether accuracy differed by children's body mass index (BMI, sex, and race, and (2 the relationship between BMI and school-meal participation (based on parental responses. Methods Data were from four cross-sectional studies conducted from fall 1999 to spring 2003 with fourth-grade children from 13 schools total. Consent forms asked parents to report children's usual school-meal participation. As two studies' consent forms did not ask about lunch participation, complete data were available for breakfast on 1,496 children (51% Black; 49% boys and for lunch on 785 children (46% Black; 48% boys. Researchers compiled nametag records (during meal observations of meal participation on randomly selected days during children's fourth-grade school year for breakfast (average nametag days across studies: 7-35 and for lunch (average nametag days across studies: 4-10 and categorized participation as "usually" (≥ 50% of days or "not usually" ( Results Concerning breakfast participation and lunch participation, 74% and 92% of parents provided accurate responses, respectively. Parental response accuracy was better for older children for breakfast and lunch participation, and for Black than White children for lunch participation. Usual school-meal participation was significantly related to children's BMI but in opposite directions -- positively for breakfast and inversely for lunch. Conclusions Parental response accuracy of children's school-meal participation was moderately high; however, disparate effects for children's age and race warrant caution when relying on parental responses. The BMI results, which showed a relationship between school-meal participation (based on parental responses and childhood obesity, conflict with results from a recent article that used data from the same four studies and found no significant

  11. Characterization of adsorption uptake curves for both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film mass transfer controlling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonetaka, Noriyoshi; Fan, Huan-Jung; Kobayashi, Seiji; Su, Yang-Chih; Furuya, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    In general, the adsorption uptake curve (AUC) can be easily determined in either intraparticle diffusion or liquid film mass transfer dominating systems. However, for both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film mass transfer controlling systems, the characterization of AUC is much more complicated, for example, when relatively small adsorbent particles are employed. In addition, there is no analytical solution available for both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film mass transfer controlling systems. Therefore, this paper is trying to characterize AUC for both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film mass transfer controlling adsorption systems using the shallow bed reactor technique. Typical parameters influencing AUC include liquid film mass transfer coefficient (k F ), effective intraparticle diffusivity (D S ), influent concentration (c 0 ) and equilibrium parameters (such as Freundlich isotherm constants k and 1/n). These parameters were investigated in this research and the simulated results indicated that the ratio of k F /D S and Freundlich constant 1/n had impact on AUC. Biot number (Bi) was used to replace the ratio of k F /D S in this study. Bi represents the ratio of the rate of transport across the liquid layer to the rate of intraparticle diffusion. Furthermore, Bi is much more significant than that of 1/n for AUC. Therefore, AUC can be characterized by Bi. In addition, the obtained Bi could be used to determine D S and k F simultaneously. Both parameters (D S and k F ) are important for designing and operating fixed bed reactors.

  12. Biomarker discovery in low-grade breast cancer using isobaric stable isotope tags and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS) based quantitative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Pavel; Roumeliotis, Theodoros; Hrstka, Roman; Nenutil, Rudolf; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Garbis, Spiros D

    2009-01-01

    The present pilot study constitutes a proof-of-principle in the use of a quantitative LC-MS/MS based proteomic method for the comparative analysis of representative low-grade breast primary tumor tissues with and without metastases and metastasis in lymph node relative to the nonmetastatic tumor type. The study method incorporated iTRAQ stable isotope labeling, two-dimensional liquid chromatography, nanoelectrospray ionization and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry using the hybrid QqTOF platform (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS). The principal aims of this study were (1) to define the protein spectrum obtainable using this approach, and (2) to highlight potential candidates for verification and validation studies focused on biomarkers involved in metastatic processes in breast cancer. The study resulted in the reproducible identification of 605 nonredundant proteins (p biomarker discovery program.

  13. Low molecular mass chitosan as carrier for hydrodynamically balanced system for sustained delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    VERMA, ANURAG; BANSAL, ASHOK K.; GHOSH, AMITAVA; PANDIT, JAYANTA K.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan has become a focus of major interest in recent years due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Although this material has already been extensively investigated in the design of different types of drug delivery systems, it is still little explored for stomach specific drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the potential of low molecular mass chitosan (LMCH) as carrier for a hydrodynamically balanced system (HBS)...

  14. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clair Jorge Olivo; Carlos Alberto Agnolin; Priscila Flôres Aguirre; Cláudia Marques de Bem; Tiago Luís da Ros de Araújo; Michelle Schalemberg Diehl; Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant gra...

  15. Effect of mass variation on dynamics of tethered system in orbital maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Zhao, Guowei; Huang, Hai

    2018-05-01

    In orbital maneuvering, the mass variation due to fuel consumption has an obvious impact on the dynamics of tethered system, which cannot be neglected. The contributions of the work are mainly shown in two aspects: 1) the improvement of the model; 2) the analysis of dynamics characteristics. As the mass is variable, and the derivative of the mass is directly considered in the traditional Lagrange equation, the expression of generalized force is complicated. To solve this problem, the coagulated derivative is adopted in the paper; besides, the attitude dynamics equations derived in this paper take into account the effect of mass variation and the drift of orbital trajectory at the same time. The bifurcation phenomenon, the pendular motion angular frequency, and amplitudes of tether vibration revealed in this paper can provide a reference for the parameters and controller design in practical engineering. In the article, a dumbbell model is adopted to analyze the dynamics of tethered system, in which the mass variation of base satellite is fully considered. Considering the practical application, the case of orbital transfer under a transversal thrust is mainly studied. Besides, compared with the analytical solutions of librational angles, the effects of mass variation on stability and librational characteristic are studied. Finally, in order to make an analysis of the effect on vibrational characteristic, a lumped model is introduced, which reveals a strong coupling of librational and vibrational characteristics.

  16. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid endoscopic injection is effective in the treatment of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Manuela; Mohanan, Nochiparambil; Puri, Prem

    2013-05-01

    Endoscopic subureteral injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis or surgical treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. We evaluated the effectiveness of endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex collecting systems. A total of 123 children underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate or high grade vesicoureteral reflux using injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid into complete duplex systems between 2001 and 2010. Vesicoureteral reflux was diagnosed by voiding cystourethrogram, and dimercapto-succinic acid scan was performed to evaluate the presence of renal scarring. Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure and renal ultrasound thereafter every 2 years. Mean followup was 6.7 years. Complete duplex systems were unilateral in 110 patients and bilateral in 13. Reflux severity in the 136 refluxing units was grade II in 1 (0.7%), III in 52 (38.2%), IV in 61 (44.9%) and V in 22 (16.2%). Dimercapto-succinic acid scan revealed renal functional abnormalities in 63 children (51.2%). Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 93 ureters (68.4%), after a second injection in 35 (25.7%) and after a third injection in 8 (5.9%). Febrile urinary tract infection developed in 5 patients (4.1%) during followup. No patient required ureteral reimplantation or experienced significant complications. Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in eradicating intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex systems. We recommend this minimally invasive, 15-minute outpatient procedure as a viable option for treating intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex collecting systems

  17. Systemic sclerosis biomarkers discovered using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălănescu, Paul; Lădaru, Anca; Bălănescu, Eugenia; Băicuş, Cristian; Dan, Gheorghe Andrei

    2014-08-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease with incompletely known physiopathology. There is a great challenge to predict its course and therapeutic response using biomarkers. To critically review proteomic biomarkers discovered from biological specimens from systemic sclerosis patients using mass spectrometry technologies. Medline and Embase databases were searched in February 2014. Out of the 199 records retrieved, a total of 20 records were included, identifying 116 candidate proteomic biomarkers. Research in SSc proteomic biomarkers should focus on biomarker validation, as there are valuable mass-spectrometry proteomics studies in the literature.

  18. Modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry: A generalized expression for the ''reaction product vector'' for linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.; Weinberg, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized expression is developed that relates the ''reaction product vector'', epsilon exp(-iphi), to the kinetic parameters of a linear system. The formalism is appropriate for the analysis of modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry data and facilitates the correlation of experimental results to (proposed) linear models. A study of stability criteria appropriate for modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry experiments is also presented. This investigation has led to interesting inherent limitations which have not heretofore been emphasized, as well as a delineation of the conditions under which stable chemical oscillations may occur in the reacting system

  19. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Hischke, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System was established to assure a timely and authoritative method of acquiring, controlling, generating, and disseminating an official set of vehicle weights and mass properties data. This paper provides an overview of the system and its interaction with the various aspects of vehicle and component design, mission planning, hardware and software simulations and verification, and real-time mission support activities. The effect of vehicle configuration, design maturity, and consumables updates is discussed in the context of weight control.

  20. Dual-component video image analysis system (VIASCAN) as a predictor of beef carcass red meat yield percentage and for augmenting application of USDA yield grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, R C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E; Wise, J W; Clayton, R P; Smith, G C

    1999-11-01

    An improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCAN to 1) predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and 2) augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving accuracy of grade placement. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 240) were evaluated using VIASCAN, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before fabrication of carcasses to each of three fat-trim levels. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, VIASCAN estimates, and VIASCAN estimated ribeye area used to augment actual and expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, and hot carcass weight), respectively, 1) accounted for 51, 37, 46, and 55% of the variation in fabricated yields of commodity-trimmed subprimals, 2) accounted for 74, 54, 66, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals, and 3) accounted for 74, 54, 71, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of very closely trimmed subprimals. The VIASCAN system predicted fabrication yields more accurately than current online yield grading and, when certain VIASCAN-measured traits were combined with some USDA yield grade factors in an augmentation system, the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, at packing plant line speeds, to a level matching that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate.

  1. Food-grade host/vector expression system for Lactobacillus casei based on complementation of plasmid-associated phospho-beta-galactosidase gene lacG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, T M; Saris, P E J; Tynkkynen, S S H

    2003-01-01

    A new food-grade host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei based on lactose selection was constructed. The wild-type non-starter host Lb. casei strain E utilizes lactose via a plasmid-encoded phosphotransferase system. For food-grade cloning, a stable lactose-deficient mutant was constructed by deleting a 141-bp fragment from the phospho-beta-galactosidase gene lacG via gene replacement. The deletion resulted in an inactive phospho-beta-galactosidase enzyme with an internal in-frame deletion of 47 amino acids. A complementation plasmid was constructed containing a replicon from Lactococcus lactis, the lacG gene from Lb. casei, and the constitutive promoter of pepR for lacG expression from Lb. rhamnosus. The expression of the lacG gene from the resulting food-grade plasmid pLEB600 restored the ability of the lactose-negative mutant strain to grow on lactose to the wild-type level. The vector pLEB600 was used for expression of the proline iminopeptidase gene pepI from Lb. helveticus in Lb. casei. The results show that the food-grade expression system reported in this paper can be used for expression of foreign genes in Lb. casei.

  2. Evaluation of corrosiveness grade of the main pipeline system within the machine-room of the Cen Juragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho C, J.; Corvo P, F.

    1998-01-01

    It is realized a study of the corrosion process and the products formed over the carbon steel in different points of the machine-room of the Electronuclear plant of Juragua (Cuba) particularly in the pipelines considering the specific characteristics of corrosion under roof which has been less studied. The determination of corrosiveness grade was carried out by gravimetric methods (lost and gain weight) in the different coats of the machine-room not existing a correlation between them in according to results with those ones obtained by Infrared Spectroscopy, in which there is not a correlation between the band intensities (lepidocrocite/ goethite) and the corrosion; however both explain different parts of corrosive process. Also it is realized the corrosion products analysis by chemical methods and by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, obtaining the concentration of the major anions and cations of importance for the corrosion, not existing a meaning correlation between them and the corrosion velocity by what it was determined the absorption isotherms, obtaining as result a microporous structure in the formed oxides which was capable to retain and to absorb water and pollutants which could be this the main cause of corrosion. By analyzing the high concentration of iron and the low concentration of the remainder anions and cations it is possible to make the traditional chemical washes which are less expensive and greater effectiveness. All the obtained results are very important to assure the conditions of the pipelines systems installed at the presence of Government and Foreign organizations which are interested for the protection and conservation measures in the pipelines system. (Author)

  3. Composition-graded nanowire solar cells fabricated in a single process for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Derek; Liu, Zhicheng; Shelhammer, David; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2014-10-08

    Nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires have unique features that could enable novel optoelectronic applications such as novel solar cells. This paper aims to demonstrate one such recently proposed concept: Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Two cells with different band gaps were fabricated simultaneously in the same process on a single substrate using spatially composition-graded CdSSe alloy nanowires grown by the Dual-Gradient Method in a chemical vapor deposition system. CdSSe nanowire ensemble devices tested under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination achieved open-circuit voltages up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities as high as 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm(2) for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. The open-circuit voltages were roughly three times those of similar CdSSe film cells fabricated for comparison due to the superior optical quality of the nanowires. I-V measurements were also performed using optical filters to simulate spectrum-splitting. The open-circuit voltages and fill factors of the CdS-rich subcells were uniformly larger than the corresponding CdSe-rich cells for similar photon flux, as expected. This suggests that if all wires can be contacted, the wide-gap cell is expected to have greater output power than the narrow-gap cell, which is the key to achieving high efficiencies with spectrum-splitting. This paper thus provides the first proof-of-concept demonstration of simultaneous fabrication of MILAMB solar cells. This approach to solar cell fabrication using single-crystal nanowires for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics could provide a future low-cost high-efficiency alternative to the conventional high-cost high-efficiency tandem cells.

  4. Application of the mass-based UNIQUAC model to membrane systems: A critical revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovau, S.; Van der Bruggen, B.; Luis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► UNIQUAC model in mass-based terms is considered for the description of sorption equilibria in membrane systems. ► Model validation of molar and mass-based model is performed on simple (vapor + liquid) equilibrium. ► Discrepancy is found between molar and mass-based model, which is attributed to an incorrect conversion. ► Novel model based on correct thermodynamics is provided for future research. - Abstract: The UNIQUAC model is very suitable in describing (liquid + liquid) as well as (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for a wide range of systems. It can be extended to (solvent + polymer) systems for describing sorption equilibria. The original model is expressed in molar-based terms, but requires knowledge of structural parameters and molar masses of all components. Since these cannot always be easily determined for membranes, a conversion to mass-based terms is often performed, which eliminates this issue. Many studies use this model to calculate sorption equilibria in (solvent + polymer) systems. Nevertheless, in this work the conversion from molar to mass-based parameters is postulated to be erroneous. This even leads to an incorrect description of simple (vapor + liquid) equilibrium of pure liquid mixtures and hence it is advised not to use this model for further modeling of sorption equilibrium in (solvent + polymer) systems. In this paper, the errors in the conversion are pinpointed, and the effects it can have on the description of (vapor + liquid) equilibrium, if used improvident, are demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that in fact a simple and straightforward conversion can be performed. Finally, in the case when polymers are involved, an adaption and simplification to the model was successfully applied.

  5. Hepatobiliary phase images using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid-enhanced MRI as an imaging surrogate for the albumin–bilirubin grading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, Yasuo, E-mail: pcblue2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, 5-30 Fudegasaki, Tennouji-ku, Osaka, 543-8555 (Japan); Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, 920-0942 (Japan); Kobayashi, Satoshi, E-mail: satoshik@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, 920-0942 (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki, E-mail: ramiyati@mhs.mp.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, 920-0942 (Japan); Shiozaki, Toshiki, E-mail: shiozaki.toshiki@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, 5-30 Fudegasaki, Tennouji-ku, Osaka, 543-8555 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Objectives: To clarify the correlation between hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) and albumin–bilirubin (ALBI) grading system. Materials and methods: We evaluated 220 consecutive patients who underwent liver magnetic resonance imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA. Quantitative liver–spleen contrast ratio (Q-LSC) was calculated in HBP images approximately 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. To evaluate the degree of association between Q-LSC and ALBI grade, the Child–Pugh (C-P) score was used for comparison. Correlation coefficients were calculated, and median Q-LSC values were compared with the C-P scores and ALBI grades. The Steel–Dwass multiple comparison test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The correlation coefficient between Q-LSC and C-P score was −0.35, P < 0.0001, and the ALBI grade was −0.61, P < 0.0001. Q-LSC of overall median, C-P A, B, and C were 1.94, 1.91, 1.96, and 1.33, respectively. The differences between C-P A and C-P B, C-P B and C-P C, and C-P A and C-P C were P = 0.999, 0.126, and 0.149, respectively. Q-LSC of the overall median, ALBI grade 1, 2, and 3 were 1.94, 2.12, 1.69, and 1.30, respectively. The differences between ALBI grades 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 1 and 3 were P < 0.0001, P = 0.0466, and P = 0.0035, respectively. Q-LSC was better correlated and discriminated by ALBI grade than C-P score. Conclusion: A strong correlation was observed between Q-LSC of an HBP image with Gd-EOB-DTPA and ALBI grade; HBP imaging could be a surrogate for the ALBI grade.

  6. The influence of body mass index and gender on the impact attenuation properties of flooring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris; Laing, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    The biomechanical effectiveness of safety floors has never been assessed during sideways falls with human volunteers. Furthermore, the influence of body mass index (BMI) and gender on the protective capacity of safety floors is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test whether safety floors provide greater impact attenuation compared with traditional flooring, and whether BMI and gender modify their impact attenuation properties. Thirty participants (7 men and 7 women of low BMI; 7 men and 9 women of high BMI) underwent lateral pelvis release trials on 2 common floors and 4 safety floors. As a group, the safety floors reduced peak force (by up to 11.7%), and increased the time to peak force (by up to 25.5%) compared with a traditional institutional grade floor. Force attenuation was significantly higher for the low BMI group, and for males. Force attenuation was greatest for the low BMI males, averaging 26.5% (SD = 3.0) across the safety floors. These findings demonstrate an overall protective effect of safety floors during lateral falls on the pelvis, but also suggest augmented benefits for frail older adults (often with low body mass) who are at an increased risk of hip fracture.

  7. A High-mass Protobinary System with Spatially Resolved Circumstellar Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.; Bate, M.; Harries, T. J.; Hone, E.; Anugu, A. [School of Physics, Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Monnier, J. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); De Wit, W. J. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wittkowski, M., E-mail: skraus@astro.ex.ac.uk [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    High-mass multiples might form via fragmentation of self-gravitational disks or alternative scenarios such as disk-assisted capture. However, only a few observational constraints exist on the architecture and disk structure of high-mass protobinaries and their accretion properties. Here, we report the discovery of a close (57.9 ± 0.2 mas = 170 au) high-mass protobinary, IRAS17216-3801, where our VLTI/GRAVITY+AMBER near-infrared interferometry allows us to image the circumstellar disks around the individual components with ∼3 mas resolution. We estimate the component masses to ∼20 and ∼18 M {sub ⊙} and find that the radial intensity profiles can be reproduced with an irradiated disk model, where the inner regions are excavated of dust, likely tracing the dust sublimation region in these disks. The circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the binary separation vector, which indicates that the tidal forces did not have time to realign the disks, pointing toward a young dynamical age of the system. We constrain the distribution of the Br γ and CO-emitting gas using VLTI/GRAVITY spectro-interferometry and VLT/CRIRES spectro-astrometry and find that the secondary is accreting at a higher rate than the primary. VLT/NACO imaging shows L ′-band emission on (3–4)× larger scales than the binary separation, matching the expected dynamical truncation radius for the circumbinary disk. The IRAS17216-3801 system is ∼3× more massive and ∼5× more compact than other high-mass multiplies imaged at infrared wavelength and the first high-mass protobinary system where circumstellar and circumbinary dust disks could be spatially resolved. This opens exciting new opportunities for studying star–disk interactions and the role of multiplicity in high-mass star formation.

  8. Online evaluation of a commercial video image analysis system (Computer Vision System) to predict beef carcass red meat yield and for augmenting the assignment of USDA yield grades. United States Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, R C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    Objective quantification of differences in wholesale cut yields of beef carcasses at plant chain speeds is important for the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of a commercial video image analysis system, the Computer Vision System (CVS) to 1) predict commercially fabricated beef subprimal yield and 2) augment USDA yield grading, in order to improve accuracy of grade assessment. The CVS was evaluated as a fully installed production system, operating on a full-time basis at chain speeds. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 296) were evaluated using CVS, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before the fabrication of carcasses into industry-standard subprimal cuts. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, CVS estimated carcass yield, and CVS measured ribeye area in conjunction with expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, hot carcass weight) accounted for 67, 39, 64, and 65% of the observed variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals. The dual component CVS predicted wholesale cut yields more accurately than current online yield grading, and, in an augmentation system, CVS ribeye measurement replaced estimated ribeye area in determination of USDA yield grade, and the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, under packing plant conditions and speeds, to a level close to that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate of speed offline.

  9. A rare case report of bilateral testicular masses as an initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, systemic disease that rarely involves the genitourinary tract. Here, we present a case of a 40-year-old male presented with bilateral scrotal swelling. The scrotal ultrasound showed multiple echogenic masses bilaterally ranging between 3 mm and 15 mm involving both testicles. Enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes were detected on the abdominal computed tomography (CT. Surgical exploration of the testes with a frozen section analysis of the left testicular mass was carried out, and it revealed noncaseating granulomas. CT scan of the chest revealed the classic bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy with reticulonodular infiltrates. The final pathological diagnosis was systemic sarcoidosis with bilateral testicular involvement. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids resulted in complete resolution of the testicular mass and a significant decrease in the size of the hilar, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.

  10. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif

    2014-01-01

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  11. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  12. Revisiting the coupled-mass system and analogy with a simple band gap structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, L

    2006-01-01

    A great deal of insight can be gained from the analysis of coupled masses connected to springs in order to understand better the origin of band gaps in physical systems. The approach is based on the application of the superposition principle for finding the general solution in simple mechanical systems involving functions, which vary periodically with time. Graphs show that sums of periodic functions oscillating at different frequencies lead to an exchange of energy from one oscillator to another in a simple mechanical system of three objects connected by identical springs. A system of a large number of masses connected to springs having the same spring constant K is then considered and compared with a system in which the spring constants alternate from K to another value G when connecting one mass to another. Using the results found from the mechanical systems, an analogy of charge oscillations excited on both uniform and corrugated surfaces is presented. The results obtained attempt to expand understanding of the origin of the band gap occurring in some systems involving periodic motions

  13. PENTATRAP. A novel Penning-trap system for high-precision mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas

    2015-01-21

    The novel Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP aims at mass-ratio determinations of medium-heavy to heavy ions with relative uncertainties below 10{sup -11}. From the mass ratios of certain ion species, the corresponding mass differences will be determined with sub-eV/c{sup 2} uncertainties. These mass differences are relevant for neutrino-mass experiments, a test of special relativity and tests of bound-state QED. Means to obtain the required precision are very stable trapping fields, the use of highly-charged ions produced by EBITs, a non-destructive cyclotron-frequency determination scheme employing detectors with single-ion sensitivity and a five-trap tower, that allows for measurement schemes being insensitive to magnetic field drifts. Within this thesis, part of the detection electronics was set up and tested under experimental conditions. A single-trap setup was realized. A Faraday cup in the trap tower enabled the proper adjustment of the settings of the beamline connecting the EBIT and the Penning-trap system, resulting in the first trapping of ions at PENTATRAP. A stabilization of switched voltages in the beamline and detailed studies of ion bunch characteristics allowed for reproducible loading of only a few ions. Detection of the axial oscillation of the trapped ions gave hints that in some cases, even single ions had been trapped. Furthermore, valuable conclusions about necessary modifications of the setup could be drawn.

  14. A semilinear parabolic–elliptic chemotaxis system with critical mass in any space dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaru, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    We study radial solutions in a ball of R N of a semilinear, parabolic–elliptic Patlak–Keller–Segel system with a nonlinear sensitivity involving a critical power. For N = 2, the latter reduces to the classical ‘linear’ model, well known for its critical mass 8π. We show that a critical mass phenomenon also occurs for N ⩾ 3, but with a strongly different qualitative behaviour. More precisely, if the total mass of cells is smaller or equal to the critical mass M-bar , then the cell density converges to a regular steady state that is supported strictly inside the ball as time goes to infinity. In the case of the critical mass, this result is nontrivial since there exists a continuum of stationary solutions and is moreover in sharp contrast with the case N = 2 where infinite-time blow-up occurs. If the total mass of cells is larger than M-bar , then all radial solutions blow up in finite time. This actually follows from the existence (unlike for N = 2) of a family of self-similar, blowing-up solutions that are supported strictly inside the ball. (paper)

  15. Data acquisition and analysis system for the ion microprobe mass analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, D.M.; Cristy, S.S.

    1979-02-01

    A computer was interfaced to an ion microprobe mass analyzer for more rapid data acquisition and analysis. The interface is designed to allow data acquisition, independent of the computer. A large data analysis package was developed and implemented. Performance of the computerized system was evaluated and compared to manual operation

  16. Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno [University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-06-15

    Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R{sup 2}=0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k{sub L}a=4,652-1,9807 h{sup -1}.

  17. Making Citizens of the World: The Political Socialization of Youth in Formal Mass Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Fabrega, Rodrigo; Baker, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Unique cross-national data on adolescents' civic skills, knowledge, and political attitudes are used to examine the democratic processes of modern mass schooling, effects of national political systems, and patterns of youth political socialization in 27 nations. Compared to the generally weak reported effects on mathematics and reading…

  18. Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry System for Real-Time Gas and Moisture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, C.; Gillespie, Stacey; Ratzel, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A portable instrument incorporates both mass spectrometry and dew point measurement to provide real-time, quantitative gas measurements of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, along with real-time, quantitative moisture analysis. The Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry (PDP-MS) system comprises a single quadrupole mass spectrometer and a high vacuum system consisting of a turbopump and a diaphragm-backing pump. A capacitive membrane dew point sensor was placed upstream of the MS, but still within the pressure-flow control pneumatic region. Pressure-flow control was achieved with an upstream precision metering valve, a capacitance diaphragm gauge, and a downstream mass flow controller. User configurable LabVIEW software was developed to provide real-time concentration data for the MS, dew point monitor, and sample delivery system pressure control, pressure and flow monitoring, and recording. The system has been designed to include in situ, NIST-traceable calibration. Certain sample tubing retains sufficient water that even if the sample is dry, the sample tube will desorb water to an amount resulting in moisture concentration errors up to 500 ppm for as long as 10 minutes. It was determined that Bev-A-Line IV was the best sample line to use. As a result of this issue, it is prudent to add a high-level humidity sensor to PDP-MS so such events can be prevented in the future.

  19. A Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing (MASS) system for rapid roadway assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifeng; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Yinghong; McDaniel, J Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2013-05-08

    Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform on small-scale structures such as concrete slabs and pavements. Additional efforts have been made to replace the traditional surface-mounted transducers with non-contact acoustic transducers. Though some success has been achieved, most of these new approaches are inefficient because they require point-to-point measurements or off-line signal analysis. This article introduces a Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing system as MASS, which is an improved surface wave based implementation for measuring the subsurface profile of roadways. The compact MASS system is a 3-wheeled cart outfitted with an electromagnetic impact source, distance register, non-contact acoustic sensors and data acquisition/ processing equipment. The key advantage of the MASS system is the capability to collect measurements continuously at walking speed in an automatic way. The fast scan and real-time analysis advantages are based upon the non-contact acoustic sensing and fast air-coupled surface wave analysis program. This integration of hardware and software makes the MASS system an efficient mobile prototype for the field test.

  20. Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R 2 =0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k L a=4,652-1,9807 h -1

  1. On the graph and systems analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks with mass action kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recent progresses on the interplay between the graph theory and systems theory, we revisit the analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks described by mass action kinetics by reformulating it using the graph knowledge of the underlying networks. Based on this formulation, we

  2. A Coupled Korteweg-de Vries System and Mass Exchanges among Solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, P. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2000-01-01

    V and the solution of a linear equation with nonconstant coefficients. The coupled KdV system may be viewed as a phenomenological model for the sharing of mass among interacting solitons of the (one-component) KdV equation. Results for the scattering theory of solutions of the nonconstant coefficient linear equation...

  3. A Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing (MASS System for Rapid Roadway Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming L. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform on small-scale structures such as concrete slabs and pavements. Additional efforts have been made to replace the traditional surface-mounted transducers with non-contact acoustic transducers. Though some success has been achieved, most of these new approaches are inefficient because they require point-to-point measurements or off-line signal analysis. This article introduces a Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing system as MASS, which is an improved surface wave based implementation for measuring the subsurface profile of roadways. The compact MASS system is a 3-wheeled cart outfitted with an electromagnetic impact source, distance register, non-contact acoustic sensors and data acquisition/ processing equipment. The key advantage of the MASS system is the capability to collect measurements continuously at walking speed in an automatic way. The fast scan and real-time analysis advantages are based upon the non-contact acoustic sensing and fast air-coupled surface wave analysis program. This integration of hardware and software makes the MASS system an efficient mobile prototype for the field test.

  4. Next-generation satellite gravimetry for measuring mass transport in the Earth system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira Encarnação, J.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis is to identify the optimal set-up for future satellite gravimetry missions aimed at monitoring mass transport in the Earth’s system.The recent variability of climatic patterns, the spread of arid regions and associ- ated changes in the hydrological cycle, and

  5. Use of Multicriteria Valuation of Spatial Units in a System of Mass Real Estate Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kuburić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A model of mass valuation at the national level must be functional, practically applicable, consistent and adaptable to actual conditions and real estate market trends. A consideration of the influence of location on real estate value in a spatial unit, and a description of spatial units with a sufficient number of attributes to determine a connection between the value of these attributes and the average price of real estate in a spatial unit, are important tasks in modelling a system of mass real estate valuation. This paper, based on a test implementation of mass real estate valuation for an area covering a number of municipalities in the Republic of Serbia, offers conclusions on the suitability of the use of a mass valuation method grounded in the principles of logical aggregation and case based reasoning. The values of location characteristics, or factors of spatial unit valuation, were determined in spatial analyses employing GIS, according to an established system of multicriteria valuation. This approach ensures that a model-defined value is not stored as offline data, but that each time such data is needed, it can be determined following the proposed methodology, based on actual, updated data from the databases of official spatial data registries. Prior to this, it is necessary to meet all the required prerequisites, which include the distributed databases of official real estate data registries and other factors needed in the mass valuation procedure. Keywords: real estate valuation; spatial units; multicriteria analysis

  6. Unstable low-mass planetary systems as drivers of white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustill, Alexander J.; Villaver, Eva; Veras, Dimitri; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Bonsor, Amy

    2018-05-01

    At least 25 {per cent} of white dwarfs show atmospheric pollution by metals, sometimes accompanied by detectable circumstellar dust/gas discs or (in the case of WD 1145+017) transiting disintegrating asteroids. Delivery of planetesimals to the white dwarf by orbiting planets is a leading candidate to explain these phenomena. Here, we study systems of planets and planetesimals undergoing planet-planet scattering triggered by the star's post-main-sequence mass loss, and test whether this can maintain high rates of delivery over the several Gyr that they are observed. We find that low-mass planets (Earth to Neptune mass) are efficient deliverers of material and can maintain the delivery for Gyr. Unstable low-mass planetary systems reproduce the observed delayed onset of significant accretion, as well as the slow decay in accretion rates at late times. Higher-mass planets are less efficient, and the delivery only lasts a relatively brief time before the planetesimal populations are cleared. The orbital inclinations of bodies as they cross the white dwarf's Roche limit are roughly isotropic, implying that significant collisional interactions of asteroids, debris streams and discs can be expected. If planet-planet scattering is indeed responsible for the pollution of white dwarfs, many such objects, and their main-sequence progenitors, can be expected to host (currently undetectable) super-Earth planets on orbits of several au and beyond.

  7. Markov chain-based mass estimation method for loose part monitoring system and its performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hwan Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A loose part monitoring system is used to identify unexpected loose parts in a nuclear reactor vessel or steam generator. It is still necessary for the mass estimation of loose parts, one function of a loose part monitoring system, to develop a new method due to the high estimation error of conventional methods such as Hertz's impact theory and the frequency ratio method. The purpose of this study is to propose a mass estimation method using a Markov decision process and compare its performance with a method using an artificial neural network model proposed in a previous study. First, how to extract feature vectors using discrete cosine transform was explained. Second, Markov chains were designed with codebooks obtained from the feature vector. A 1/8-scaled mockup of the reactor vessel for OPR1000 was employed, and all used signals were obtained by impacting its surface with several solid spherical masses. Next, the performance of mass estimation by the proposed Markov model was compared with that of the artificial neural network model. Finally, it was investigated that the proposed Markov model had matching error below 20% in mass estimation. That was a similar performance to the method using an artificial neural network model and considerably improved in comparison with the conventional methods.

  8. Effect of diagnosis and treatment of clinical endometritis based on vaginal discharge score grading system in postpartum Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Hiroaki; Fujikura, Atsushi; Wijayagunawardane, Missaka M P; Vos, Peter L A M; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Takagi, Mitsuhiro

    2017-09-12

    In this study, the prevalence, effectiveness of diagnosis, and treatment based on vaginal discharge score (VDS) of clinical endometritis in cattle were evaluated. To detect clinical endometritis and classify its severity, vaginoscopy was performed during 21 to 60 days postpartum in 164 Holstein cows consisting of 229 lactations. Groups were defined using the 4-point VDS scale. Study groups included the following: non-endometritis (VDS=0; no/clear mucus; NEM group; n=168); mild endometritis, no treatment (VDS=1; mucus containing flecks of white/off-white pus; NTR group; n=30); and severe endometritis, treated with PGF2α (VDS≥2; discharge containing 50% pus, and fluid or uterine horn asymmetry; TEM group; n=31). Cows treated with PGF2α that did not recover (VDS≥1, n=5) received intrauterine procaine penicillin and streptomycin. Prevalence of clinical endometritis (VDS≥1) was 26.6%. The NTR group required significantly more artificial inseminations per pregnancy than NEM and TEM groups (2.8 ± 1.8 vs 2.0 ± 1.3, 1.9 ± 0.8, Pcows was higher in the NTR group compared to the NEM (P=0.012) and TEM (P=0.076) groups. In the TEM group, calving to first artificial insemination interval tended to be higher in cows treated 41 to 60 days postpartum than cows treated 29 to 40 days postpartum (97.2 ± 27.1 vs 74.4 ± 19.7, P=0.084). Our study suggests that cows with VDS=1 may require treatment to recover fertility. Diagnosis and treatment of clinical endometritis based on a VDS grading system may improve dairy herd reproductive performance.

  9. Mathematical modelling of the mass-spring-damper system - A fractional calculus approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Bernal Alvarado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fractional differential equation for the mass-spring-damper system in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type is considered. In order to be consistent with the physical equation, a new parameter is introduced. This parameter char­acterizes the existence of fractional components in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative and the new parameter is found. Different particular cases are analyzed

  10. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches th...

  11. ID-1 mass storage system for mainframe by using FDDI network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Y.; Fujii, H.; Inoue, E.; Kodama, H. Manabe, A.; Miyamoto, A.; Nomachi, M.; Watase, Y.; Yasu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have developed an ID-1 mass storage system as a distributed data server for Fujitsu mainframe computers. The system consists of a SONY ID-1 recorder DIR-1000, a tape robot system DMS-24 and a SCSI-II interface DFC-1500, which are connected to Spar Station 10 with an FDDI interface. The maximum speed of 7.5 Mbytes/sec is achieved for data transfer between Sparc Station 10 memory and DIR-1000 with a buffer size of 1 Mbytes. The system has been used successfully since last October to migrate more than 1 Tbytes data

  12. PROCESSES OF HEAT-MASS-TRANSFER IN APPARATUS OF SOLAR ABSORBING REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideology of development of the solar refrigeration systems and systems of air-conditioning, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution, is presented in the article. The processes of joint heat-mass-transfer are considered in the direct and indirect types of evaporated coolers taking into account the phenomenon of re-condensation of aquatic steams at the low temperature evaporated cooling of environments. The pre-liminary analysis of possibilities of the solar systems is executed as it applies in relation to the tasks of cooling of envi-ronments and air-conditioning systems.

  13. Balance Mass Flux and Velocity Across the Equilibrium Line in Ice Drainage Systems of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of balance mass flux and the depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross-section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. (The equilibrium line, which lies at approximately 1200 m elevation on the ice sheet, is the boundary between the area of net snow accumulation at higher elevations and the areas of net melting at lower elevations around the ice sheet.) Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS (European Remote Sensing) radar altimeter data. The net accumulation rate in the accumulation zone bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt/yr and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt/yr. (1 GigaTon of ice is 1090 kM(exp 3). The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt kM(exp -2)/yr and 0.111 km/yr, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. The ratio of the ice mass above the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6000 years for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

  14. Utilizing thermal building mass for storage in district heating systems: Combined building level simulations and system level optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, D. F.; Gianniou, P.; Münster, M.

    2018-01-01

    on the energy supply of district heating. Results showed that longer preheating time increased the possible duration of cut-off events. System optimization showed that the thermal mass for storage was used as intra-day storage. Flexible load accounted for 5.5%–7.7% of the total district heating demand...

  15. Immunoglobulin derived depositions in the nervous system: novel mass spectrometry application for protein characterization in formalin-fixed tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fausto J; Gamez, Jeffrey D; Vrana, Julie A; Theis, Jason D; Giannini, Caterina; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Parisi, Joseph E; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Pendlebury, William W; Bergen, H Robert; Dogan, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Proteinaceous deposits are occasionally encountered in surgically obtained biopsies of the nervous system. Some of these are amyloidomas, although the precise nature of other cases remains uncertain. We studied 13 cases of proteinaceous aggregates in clinical specimens of the nervous system. Proteins contained within laser microdissected areas of interest were identified from tryptic peptide sequences by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Immunohistochemical studies for immunoglobulin heavy and light chains and amyloidogenic proteins were performed in all cases. Histologically, the cases were classified into three groups: 'proteinaceous deposit not otherwise specified' (PDNOS) (n=6), amyloidoma (n=5), or 'intracellular crystals' (n=2). LC-MS/MS demonstrated the presence of lambda, but not kappa, light chain as well as serum amyloid P in all amyloidomas. lambda-Light-chain immunostaining was noted in amyloid (n=5), although demonstrable monotypic lymphoplasmacytic cells were seen in only one case. Conversely, in PDNOS kappa, but not lambda, was evident in five cases, both light chains being present in a single case. In three cases of PDNOS, a low-grade B-cell lymphoma consistent with marginal zone lymphoma was present in the brain specimen (n=2) or spleen (n=1). Lastly, in the 'intracellular crystals' group, the crystals were present within CD68+ macrophages in one case wherein kappa-light chain was found by LC-MS/MS only; the pathology was consistent with crystal-storing histiocytosis. In the second case, the crystals contained immunoglobulin G within CD138+ plasma cells. Our results show that proteinaceous deposits in the nervous system contain immunoglobulin components and LC-MS/MS accurately identifies the content of these deposits in clinical biopsy specimens. LC-MS/MS represents a novel application for characterization of these deposits and is of diagnostic utility in addition to standard immunohistochemical analyses.

  16. Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei-Ling; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Xie Yin-Li; Jia Li-Qun; Sun Xian-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion are studied. The determining equation of Lie symmetry of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion under the infinitesimal transformations of groups is given. The expression of generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced directly from Lie symmetry for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  17. The High-Level Interface Definitions in the ASTRI/CTA Mini Array Software System (MASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, V.; Tosti, G.; Schwarz, J.; Bruno, P.; Cefal‘A, M.; Paola, A. D.; Gianotti, F.; Grillo, A.; Russo, F.; Tanci, C.; Testa, V.; Antonelli, L. A.; Canestrari, R.; Catalano, O.; Fiorini, M.; Gallozzi, S.; Giro, E.; Palombara, N. L.; Leto, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.; Stringhetti, L.; Trifoglio, M.; Vercellone, S.; Astri Collaboration; Cta Consortium

    2015-09-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a Flagship Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, and led by INAF, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, of a Small Size Dual-Mirror Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. A second goal of the project is the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The ASTRI Mini Array Software System (MASS) is designed to support the ASTRI/CTA mini-array operations. MASS is being built on top of the ALMA Common Software (ACS) framework, which provides support for the implementation of distributed data acquisition and control systems, and functionality for log and alarm management, message driven communication and hardware devices management. The first version of the MASS system, which will comply with the CTA requirements and guidelines, will be tested on the ASTRI SST-2M prototype. In this contribution we present the interface definitions of the MASS high level components in charge of the ASTRI SST-2M observation scheduling, telescope control and monitoring, and data taking. Particular emphasis is given to their potential reuse for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  18. Construction, characterization and applications of a compact mass-resolved low-energy ion beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.M.; Feng, X.; Bello, I.; Sant, S.; Foo, K.K.; Lawson, R.P.W.

    1991-01-01

    A compact mass-resolved low-energy ion beam system has been constructed in which ions are extracted from a Colutron ion source, focused by an einzel lens, mass-selected by a Wien filter, refocused by a second einzel lens into an ultrahigh vacuum target chamber, and finally decelerated with a five-electrode lens. The design of the deceleration lens was assisted by computer simulation including space-charge effects with an ion trajectory software (CHDEN). The system performance has been characterized with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an energy analyzer along the beam axis. For example, argon ions can be transported at keV and decelerated to 10 eV with an energy spread of ±0.5 eV. The total current measured by a Faraday cage at the exit of the deceleration lens in the energy range of 10-200 eV is about 1-5 μA. The ion current density was higher than 100 μA/cm 2 at 50 eV but decreased to 10-20 μA/cm 2 at 10 eV. The mass resolution was estimated to be 40 under the present operation configuration. The system has been used to produce interesting results in both ion beam etching and deposition. (orig.)

  19. GJ 3236: A NEW BRIGHT, VERY LOW MASS ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM DISCOVERED BY THE MEARTH OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Latham, David W.; Torres, Guillermo; Blake, Cullen H.; Burke, Christopher J.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fueresz, Gabor; Mink, Douglas J.; Nutzman, Philip; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.; Calkins, Michael L.; Falco, Emilio E.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Starr, Dan L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of eclipses in GJ 3236, a bright (I = 11.6), very low mass binary system with an orbital period of 0.77 days. Analysis of light and radial velocity curves of the system yielded component masses of 0.38 ± 0.02 M sun and 0.28 ± 0.02 M sun . The central values for the stellar radii are larger than the theoretical models predict for these masses, in agreement with the results for existing eclipsing binaries, although the present 5% observational uncertainties limit the significance of the larger radii to approximately 1σ. Degeneracies in the light curve models resulting from the unknown configuration of surface spots on the components of GJ 3236 currently dominate the uncertainties in the radii, and could be reduced by obtaining precise, multiband photometry covering the full orbital period. The system appears to be tidally synchronized and shows signs of high activity levels as expected for such a short orbital period, evidenced by strong Hα emission lines in the spectra of both components. These observations probe an important region of mass-radius parameter space around the predicted transition to fully convective stellar interiors, where there are a limited number of precise measurements available in the literature.

  20. Clinical Validation of the 2005 ISUP Gleason Grading System in a Cohort of Intermediate and High Risk Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila F Faraj

    Full Text Available In 2005, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP introduced several modifications to the original Gleason system that were intended to enhance the prognostic power of Gleason score (GS. The objective of this study was to clinically validate the 2005 ISUP Gleason grading system for its ability to detect metastasis. We queried our institutional RP database for men with NCCN clinically localized intermediate to high-risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP between 1992 and 2010 with no additional treatment until the time of metastatic progression. A case-cohort design was utilized. A total of 333 available RP samples were re-reviewed and GS was reassigned per the 2005 ISUP Gleason system. Cumulative incidence of metastasis was 0%, 8.4%, 24.5% and 44.4% among specimens that were downgraded, unchanged, had one point GS increase and two point GS increase, respectively. The hazard ratio for metastasis raised in GS 8 and 9 compared to GS 7 from 2.77 and 5.91 to 3.49 and 9.31, respectively. The survival c-index of GS increased from 0.70 to 0.80 when samples were re-graded at 5 years post RP. The c-index of the reassigned GS was higher than the original GS (0.77 vs 0.64 for predicting PCSM at 10 years post RP. The regraded GS improved the prediction of metastasis and PCSM. This validates the updated Gleason grading system using an unambiguous clinical endpoint and highlights the need for reassignment of Gleason grading according to 2005 ISUP system when considering comparisons of novel biomarkers to clinicopathological variables in archival cohorts.