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Sample records for graded levator hinge

  1. Cohesive cracked-hinge model for simulation of fracture in one-way slabs on grade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Olesen, John Forbes

    2017-01-01

    Numerical analysis of slab on grade structures subjected to mechanical loads is a complex matter often requiring computationally expensive models. In order to develop a simplified and general concept for non-linear analysis of slab on grade structures, this paper presents a cohesive cracked......-hinge model aimed at the analysis of the bending fracture of the cemented material. The model is based on the fracture mechanics concepts of the fictitious crack model with a linear stress–crack opening relationship. Moreover, the paper presents a two-parameter spring foundation model applied to realistically...

  2. Concrete Hinges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the 20th century concrete hinges developed by Freyssinet and Mesnager were widely tested and implemented in concrete structures. The concrete hinges were used a great deal in closed-spandrel arch bridges. Since such a bridge type has not been competitive for the past 40 years......, the research in concrete hinges has not evolved significantly in that period. But introducing a new state-of-the-art concrete arch bridge solution (Pearl-Chain arches invented at the Technical University of Denmark) creates a necessity of a concrete hinge research based on modern standards. Back when research....... The present paper uses the prior research results to optimize a test-setup for concrete hinge testing by means of a universal method taking into account the application of the hinge in an arch structure. 3D CAD is utilized in all steps of the planning to reduce errors during assembly of the parts in the test...

  3. Concrete Hinges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the 20th century concrete hinges developed by Freyssinet and Mesnager were widely tested and implemented in concrete structures. The concrete hinges were used a great deal in closed-spandrel arch bridges. Since such a bridge type has not been competitive for the past 40 years....... The present paper uses the prior research results to optimize a test-setup for concrete hinge testing by means of a universal method taking into account the application of the hinge in an arch structure. 3D CAD is utilized in all steps of the planning to reduce errors during assembly of the parts in the test...

  4. Bone-prosthesis composite with rotating hinged-knee prosthesis in limb salvage surgery for high-grade sarcoma around the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Shun; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Wei-Ming; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Bone prosthesis composite (BPC) had been widely-used in reconstruction after wide excision of malignant tumors around the knee. However, implant selection for BPC remains a dilemma. Forty-one patients with high-grade malignant bone tumors around the knee who underwent excision and reconstruction with BPC and rotating hinged knee (RHK) prosthesis were included. The mean follow-up time was 54 months (range, 31-78 months). The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Rating score was 93.4% (range, 73-100%). The mean range of motion was 125°. Complications included 2 local recurrences, 2 nonunions, and 1 peri-prosthetic fracture. The reconstruction with BPC using the RHK prosthesis provided consistently good functional results with a low complication rate. The RHK prosthesis is a promising choice for BPC reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Levator muscles pf the anus (levator ani). Normal or pathological cytoarchitecture of endorectal biopsies in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canon, E; Timmermans, L M

    1989-01-01

    The structure and ultrastructure of normal or pathological needle biopsies of the human levator ani are studied. Disturbances of the muscular cyto-architecture: cellular degeneration with infiltration of glycogen and disorganization of the myofibrillar A, I and Z stripes are shown. The comparison between the histological data and the clinical results demonstrates that the quality of the levator ani is not always clearly defined by the clinic. The muscular biopsy reaches its main interest when in physical reeducation or in surgical correction of the incontinence, some doubt remains on the clinical value of the levator ani.

  6. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  7. Effects of age on levator function and morphometry of the levator hiatus in women with pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weemhoff, Mirjam; Shek, Ka Lai; Dietz, Hans P

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiological data supports the hypothesis that ageing is a risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse. In this study, we intended to determine the effect of age on levator function and morphometry in women with pelvic floor disorders. Three hundred seventy-five patients underwent an interview, physical examination and transperineal ultrasound. Clinical assessment included palpation using the Modified Oxford Scale. Ultrasonography was performed to diagnose levator defects and assess levator hiatal morphometry. Pelvic floor muscle strength was weakly associated with patient age (r = -0.25, p accounting for the confounders parity and levator defects. Morphometry of the levator hiatus was weakly positively correlated with age. Ageing seems to have a limited effect on contractility and distensibility of the pelvic floor muscle. The small effect of ageing results in reduced contraction strength and increased hiatal diameters. This effect is partly confounded by parity and levator defects.

  8. Outcomes of levator resection in blepharoptosis patients with grafted corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Ji Sun; Doh, Sang Hee; Kim, Man Soo; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2010-09-01

    To present the surgical results of, and postoperative complications after, resection of the levator aponeurosis as a treatment for aponeurotic blepharoptosis in patients with grafted corneas. Nine eyes with grafted corneas displaying aponeurotic blepharoptosis were investigated. Undercorrective resection of levator aponeurosis was performed on all nine patients. The margin reflex distance 1 (MRD1) values prior to the operation and at 7 days and 6 months after the operation were compared. The postoperative MRD1 values of patients with both poor and fair levator function were also evaluated. Differences in visual acuity and visual field before and after surgery were also assessed. The MRD1 values at 7 days and 6 months after the surgery were higher than before surgery, and there was no difference between the MRD1 values of patients with poor and fair levator function at these time points. Levator function 6 months after surgery improved compared with that before surgery. Neither visual acuity nor the visual field changed after the blepharoptosis surgery. There was no preoperative corneal problem in any patient, and postoperative corneal erosion in some patients resolved with only conservative care. In blepharoptosis patients with grafted corneas, the undercorrection of blepharoptosis by levator resection showed satisfactory surgical results regardless of levator function status (poor or fair), and did not adversely affect the survival of grafted corneas.

  9. Surgical repair of bilateral levator ani muscles with ultrasound guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2013-07-01

    Separation of the levator ani muscles from pubic bone is a common major levator trauma that may occur in vaginal delivery and is associated with pelvic floor dysfunctions. We describe a novel ultrasound-guided technique to repair these muscles. A 33-year-old woman presented with a history of difficult vaginal delivery and complaint of numbness and weakness of the vagina. In evaluation, bilateral levator defects were diagnosed by physical examination, three-dimensional endovaginal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. With ultrasound guidance the detached ends of muscles were tagged and sutured to their insertion points at the pubic bone. The patient's normal anatomy was restored with the return to normal pelvic floor tone. A follow-up ultrasound showed restored levator anatomy at 3 months.

  10. Flexible Hinges in Bacterial Chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaladevi, Narahari; Bunyak, Filiz; Stalla, David; White, Tommi A; Hazelbauer, Gerald L

    2018-03-01

    Transmembrane bacterial chemoreceptors are extended, rod-shaped homodimers with ligand-binding sites at one end and interaction sites for signaling complex formation and histidine kinase control at the other. There are atomic-resolution structures of chemoreceptor fragments but not of intact, membrane-inserted receptors. Electron tomography of in vivo signaling complex arrays lack distinct densities for chemoreceptor rods away from the well-ordered base plate region, implying structural heterogeneity. We used negative staining, transmission electron microscopy, and image analysis to characterize the molecular shapes of intact homodimers of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar rendered functional by insertion into nanodisc-provided E. coli lipid bilayers. Single-particle analysis plus tomography of particles in a three-dimensional matrix revealed two bend loci in the chemoreceptor cytoplasmic domain, (i) a short, two-strand gap between the membrane-proximal, four-helix-bundle HAMP (histidine kinases, adenylyl cyclases, methyl-accepting chemoreceptors, and phosphatases) domain and the membrane-distal, four-helix coiled coil and (ii) aligned glycines in the extended, four-helix coiled coil, the position of a bend noted in the previous X-ray structure of a receptor fragment. Our images showed HAMP bends from 0° to ∼13° and glycine bends from 0° to ∼20°, suggesting that the loci are flexible hinges. Variable hinge bending explains indistinct densities for receptor rods outside the base plate region in subvolume averages of chemotaxis arrays. Bending at flexible hinges was not correlated with the chemoreceptor signaling state. However, our analyses showed that chemoreceptor bending avoided what would otherwise be steric clashes between neighboring receptors that would block the formation of core signaling complexes and chemoreceptor arrays. IMPORTANCE This work provides new information about the shape of transmembrane bacterial chemoreceptors, crucial

  11. Numerical Correlation of Levator Advancement in Preoperative Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, Valeria; Collawn, Sherry S; Pierce, Evelina N; Mousa, Mina S; Yang, Jennifer H; Davison, Peter N; Jospitre, Elodie C

    2017-06-01

    Several procedures have been proposed for the treatment of eyelid ptosis, and both levator advancement and levator plication are widely used to shorten the levator palpebrae superioris. The purpose of this study was to quantify perioperative lid measurements in patients undergoing bilateral levator aponeurosis advancements to aid in preoperative planning. Between July 2014 and June 2016, the authors performed a retrospective analysis of all bilateral upper eyelid levator advancement procedures for ptosis performed by the senior surgeon. There are a total of 21 patients (6 men and 15 women) with a mean age of 63 years (range, 48-79 years). The average time at follow-up was 5.3 months, with a range of 1 to 26 months. In this retrospective study, we collected data on presurgical measurements including marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1), surgical technique used (symmetrical/asymmetrical levator advancement) with millimeters of advancement used, and postsurgical measurements. We found that on average, an advancement of 4 mm led to an improvement in MRD1 of 2.26 mm (n = 14), and advancement of 5 mm led to an improvement in MRD1 of 2.74 mm (n = 15). Patients also reported improvements in their quality of life. Our results may be used to guide clinicians in preoperative planning.

  12. Analysis of Levator Function and Ptosis Severity in Involutional Blepharoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Ti; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chang, Chih-Hau; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lee, Su-Shin; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lai, Chung-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Involutional blepharoptosis is the most common type of acquired blepharoptosis. The etiology is believed to be the degeneration of the levator aponeurosis, and levator superioris muscle function was believed to be normal. However, there are a few studies analyzing levator function (LF) in involutional blepharoptosis. Our study aimed to access the LF abnormality in involutional blepharoptosis and analyze the correlation between LF and ptosis severity in involutional blepharoptosis in Taiwan. We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent ptosis correction surgery between October 2011 and December 2015 after receiving a diagnosis of involutional blepharoptosis. This study examined patient sex and age, preoperative LF, margin reflex distance of the upper eyelid (MRD1), and ptosis severity. Linear regression was performed for statistical analysis. Levator muscle specimen was sent for pathologic examination. We analyzed 231 eyelids of 126 patients. Average MRD1 was 0.43 ± 2.15 mm. Average LF was 14.30 ± 2.51 mm. Overall, 77.1% (178/231) of involutional blepharoptotic eyelids had normal LF (more than 12 mm). Forty-three (18.6%) of 231 were good (10-12 mm), and 10 (4.3%) of 231 were fair (6-9 mm). No patients with poor levator function (≤5 mm) were observed in our case series. A positive correlation between LF and MRD1 was observed after statistical analysis. On average, a 0.6-mm reduction in LF was observed for each 1.0-mm decrease in MRD1. Fat infiltration in levator muscle is observed both grossly and microscopically in most cases with varied degrees. Levator function and MRD1 were positively correlated in patients with involutional blepharoptosis. In our study, 77.1% (178/231) of eyelids had normal levator function, which meant there was 23.0% (53/231) of eyelids had abnormal LF, in contrast to current literature. Fat infiltration was common in our series. In Asian involutional blepharoptosis, LF was not always excellent and it had positive correlation

  13. Role of Algorithm-Based Levator Aponeurectomy in Small-Incision External Ptosis Surgery for Involutional Ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Daniel J; Rubinstein, Tal J; Sires, Bryan S

    2017-12-01

    External surgical treatment of involutional ptosis with normal levator function is challenging owing to lack of an established algorithm. Developing an algorithm-based technique could improve postoperative results while limiting intraoperative inefficiencies. To investigate the postoperative success of an algorithmic external levator aponeurosis resection technique for aponeurotic ptosis with good levator function. This retrospective cohort study included patients with involutional ptosis and normal levator function who were treated from July 1, 2015, through November 30, 2016, at a private ophthalmic plastic surgery clinic. The technique involved a small incision in the eyelid crease, with dissection through the orbital septum to expose the levator aponeurosis. The leading edge of the aponeurosis was then clamped to a medical-grade spring scale to standardize the stress on the eyelid between patients. Two millimeters of aponeurosis were resected for every 1 mm of desired ptosis correction. Two sutures were then placed to connect the aponeurosis to the tarsus at predetermined locations. Preoperative predicted (goal) vs actual margin reflex distance-1 (MRD1). Twenty-six eyelids of 15 patients (6 men and 9 women; mean [SD] age, 65 years [range, 17-84 years]) met inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up was 189 days (range, 63-343 days). The mean preoperative MRD1 was 0.44 mm (range, -0.5 to 2 mm; 95% CI, 0.18-0.70 mm) compared with the final mean MRD1 of 3.2 mm (range, 2.5-4.0 mm; 95% CI, 3.1-3.4 mm; P MRD1 was 3.4 mm (range, 2.5-4.0 mm; 95% CI, 3.2-3.5 mm). The final MRD1 of all eyelids was within 1 mm of the goal MRD1. The mean surgical time per eyelid was 14.6 minutes (range, 10.5-34.0 minutes). Twelve eyelids (46%) did not have intraoperative suture adjustments. In correcting aponeurotic ptosis, a small-incision levator aponeurectomy incorporating an algorithm and consistent stress on the aponeurosis during resection achieves the goal MRD1 efficiently. The

  14. Structural abnormalities in the levator palpebrae superioris muscle in patients with congenital blepharoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iljin, Aleksandra; Zielinska, Anna; Karasek, Michal; Zielinski, Andrzej; Omulecka, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate structural and ultrastructural abnormalities of the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) complex in patients with congenital blepharoptosis. Samples of the LPS complex were obtained from patients operated on for congenital blepharoptosis between 2000 and 2001 and studied under light microscopy (15 cases) and electron microscopy (9 cases). Findings of light microscopy evaluation of the LPS complex correlated closely with the clinical grading of congenital blepharoptosis-hypoplasia, decreased number and varying diameter of muscle fibers, and fibrous tissue hyperplasia in the endomysium and perimysium. The Müller's muscle preserved a normal appearance. Mild blepharoptosis revealed proliferation of collagen fibers on electron microscopy. Moderate blepharoptosis showed abnormal distribution of myofibrils and distortion of the tubular system and mitochondria in addition to the changes observed in mild blepharoptosis. Severe blepharoptosis showed mitochondria loss, cytoplasm thinning, and homogenous fiber areas in addition to the changes observed in mild and moderate blepharoptosis. The clinical degree of severity of congenital blepharoptosis correlates positively with the degree of histopathologic changes in the levator palpebrae superioris muscle.

  15. Changes in Sunken Eyes Combined with Blepharoptosis after Levator Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Mawatari, MD, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions:. The principal aim of levator resection is to improve upper eyelid height and visual fields; however, this technique can alter the location of the eyebrow and upper orbital fat. The effects fill the hollowness of the upper eyelid and can remarkably improve sunken eyes.

  16. Histological evaluation of levator palpebralis superior muscle in patients with congenital blepharoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Söker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine levator palpebralis superior muscle histologically in patients with congenital blepharoptosis and to investigate the relationship between these findings and age, sex and degree of blefaroptosis in this patient group.Materials and methods: Levator muscle of 13 patients with congenital ptosis, who had applied to Dicle University Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Clinic and had undergone levator palpebralis superior muscle resection between january 2009-january 2010, has been examined histopathologically in Histology and Embriology Deparment. During preoperative period, ptosis amount, levator function (LF, tear functions, Bell’s phenomenon and jaw-winking phenomenon were evaluated. All patients underwent resection of levator palpebralis superior muscle. Received postoperative levator muscle was examined by light microscopy.Results: The average age of 9 (69.2% male and 4 (30.8% female cases were 10.61 ± 4.77 (4- 19 years. In histological examination, the quality and quantity of the levator muscle fibrils have been assessed. There was no relationship detected between histological features of levator palpebralis superior muscle and patient’s age and gender (p>0.05. Patients with weak levator palpebralis superior muscle were detected to have fatty degeneration histologically. The higher the levator palpebralis superior muscle function revealed decreased fatty degeneration and increased skeletal muscle fibrils.Conclusion: More ultrastructural studies in larger populations are needed to support the relationship between structure and function of levator palpebralis superior muscle in patients with congenital blepharoptosis.

  17. Levator resection with suspensory ligament of the superior fornix suspension for correction of pediatric congenital ptosis with poor levator function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Liu, Z; Tian, Q; Niu, H; Liu, F; Wang, X; Xiu, Y; Dong, N

    2016-11-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the surgical outcome of levator resection with suspensory ligament of the superior fornix (SLSF) suspension in severe congenital ptosis with poor levator function (LF).Patients and methodsThe medical records of 25 patients who underwent levator resection with SLSF suspension between March 2011 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had severe congenital ptosis (>4 mm) and poor LF (MRD1) measured -0.30±0.11 mm. The average postoperative MRD1 measured 3.1±1.25 mm at the last follow-up visit. There was a statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative MRD1 values (P<0.001). Excellent cosmetic results occurred in 14 patients, good cosmetic results occurred in eight patients and poor cosmetic results did not occur. Three patients (12%) underwent reoperation for residual ptosis. No serious postoperative complications occurred.ConclusionLevator resection with SLSF suspension is very effective in the treatment of severe congenital ptosis with poor LF. This surgery technique results in high functional and cosmetic successes in the long term.

  18. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J. S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitted

  19. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients,

  20. The contribution of the levator ani nerve and the pudendal nerve to the innervation of the levator ani muscles; a study in human fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallner, Christian; van Wissen, Julia; Maas, Cornelis P.; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F.; Deruiter, Marco C.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The contributions of the pudendal and levator ani nerves to the innervation of the levator ani muscle (LAM) are disputed. Because of the relatively large size of the nerves in early life, we investigated this issue in human fetuses. METHODS: (Immuno)histochemically stained serial

  1. Prolonged Second Stage of Labor and Levator Ani Muscle Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Marsoosi, Vajihe; Jamal, Ashraf; Eslamian, Laleh; Oveisi, Sonia; Abotorabi, Shokohossadat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of pregnancy and vaginal delivery on the pelvic floor and levatorani morphology and function. Methods: Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Tertiary care teaching hospital. Population. 75 primigravid women were recruited for assessment at 6 weeks postpartum compared with 25 nulliparous women. Hiatal morphology and levator ani muscle avulsion were assessed by 4-dimensional translabial ultrasound examination. The volume achievement obtained by ultrasound wa...

  2. Evaluation on levator ani muscle injuries after vaginal delivery with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Gong Shuigen; Zhang Weiguo; Chen Jinhua; Tan Yong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MRI finding of female normal levator ani muscle and the levator ani muscle injuries and to evaluate the correlation between childbirth and levator ani muscle injuries. Methods: One hundred asymptomatic nulliparous women (control group) and 200 vaginally primiparous women (study group) were selected as the object of this study. Moreover, the study group was divided into two subgroups: group A (100 cases) with stress incontinence, group B (100 cases) without clinical symptoms. Multiplanar proton density magnetic resonance images were obtained at 0.5 cm intervals from these study individuals. All images were used to analyze the differentiation of MRI features between normal levator ani muscle and levator ani muscle injuries. Results: No levator ani injuries were identified in the control group. Fifty-four primiparous women (27%) had visible injuries in their levator ani muscles, 42 in group A and 12 in group B. Injuries were identified in the puborectalis muscle in 49 cases and in the iliococcygeus muscle in 5 cases(χ 2 =41.447, P<0.01). Within the puborectalis muscle, both unilateral and bilateral partial defects were usually found. Iliococcygeus injuries showed that the iliococcygeus muscle was atrophied in MR images. Conclusion: Vaginal delivery was an important cause of the levator ani muscle injuries which could result in pelvic floor dysfunction and pelvic organs prolapsed. MRI was an effective examination method of the levator ani muscle injuries. (authors)

  3. Management of Senile Ptosis with Levator Muscle Resection Using the Putterman Clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Putterman clamp, a muscle clamp, is commonly used in conjunctival müllerectomies. We report 3 cases of senile ptosis repaired with levator muscle resection using the Putterman clamp. The redundant levator aponeurosis was removed with electrocautery after clamping with the Putterman clamp. The levator muscle was refixed to the tarsus with three 4-0 Vicryl stitches after adjusting the height of the eyelid fissure. No intraoperative difficulties were encountered. Ecchymosis and edema were limited in the immediate postoperative period. No complications were noted during the follow-up. The benefits of using the Putterman clamp in levator muscle resection are illustrated in these cases. PMID:27482474

  4. Under-through levator complex plication for correction of mild to moderate congenital ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Pyo; Song, Seung Yong; Cho, In Chang

    2014-01-01

    Congenital ptosis is most commonly of mild to moderate severity, with good to fair levator function. The appropriate procedures for this condition are levator resection or levator aponeurosis approaches. Among the latter, the levator plication method has received little attention because of a relatively high rate of ptosis recurrence secondary to weak adhesion. In this study, the authors described and retrospectively analyzed the results of an alternative plication technique, the "under-through levator complex plication" method. This method differs from conventional levator plication primarily by the posterior part of the levator complex being advanced to the tarsal plate to produce strong adhesion. Five hundred and ten eyelids of 255 consecutive patients who underwent the under-through levator complex plication for congenital bilateral symmetrical ptosis were included in this study. Final outcomes were assessed at more than 5 months after surgery. The mean preoperative and postoperative marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) were 1.73 and 3.71 mm, respectively, and the mean amount of levator plication for every 1-mm increase in MRD1 was 3.31 mm. After the levator complex was plicated by the amount planned preoperatively, 65.1% of eyelids were at the target height. After subsequent intraoperative adjustments of the amount of plication, the overall surgery success rate was 94.5%. Recurrent ptosis due to relapse was not observed. The newly described surgical technique has overcome the limitations of conventional levator plication, by increasing the success rate and markedly reducing the relapse rate, while preserving the advantages of the conventional technique.

  5. Small incision transcutaneous levator aponeurotic repair for blepharoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Michael; Holds, John B; Sakamoto, Douglas K; Vick, Valerie L; Hartstein, Morris E

    2004-06-01

    Patients presenting with blepharoptosis due to disinsertion or thinning of the levator aponeurosis require surgical repair. A minimally invasive approach directed specifically at the levator aponeurotic anatomic defect may provide benefits to the patient. Proposed advantages of a small eyelid incision (8-13 mm) include less local anesthetic and tissue distortion, less ecchymosis and edema, decreased operative times, a shortened recovery period, and improved surgical results. We describe our results with the use of a small incision ptosis repair in select patients. A retrospective chart review between January 2000 and September 2001 included 91 patients and 118 eyelids with blepharoptosis due to aponeurotic disinsertion, corrected by a minimally invasive approach. The small incision technique comprised levator aponeurotic resection and advancement. Pre- and postoperative upper eyelid marginal reflex distances (MRD1), eyelid contour, need for reoperation, and complications (overcorrection, undercorrection, hematoma, and infection) were recorded. The average preoperative MRD1 measured 0.5 +/- 1.1 mm, with a range of -2.0 to 2.5 mm. The average postoperative MRD1 measured 2.6 +/- 0.8 mm, with a range of 1 to 5.5 mm (P < 0.0001). Of the 118 eyelids corrected by a small incision technique, there were 4 overcorrections, 3 undercorrections, 1 failure, 1 postoperative ptosis procedure of the contralateral upper eyelid secondary to Hering's law ptosis, and 4 patients requesting surgical treatment of dermatochalasis. No symptomatic dry eye, exposure keratopathy, or other complication resulted in association with the overcorrections. No contour abnormalities, infections, hematomas, or other complications were noted. Our experience suggests that utilization of a small skin incision is safe, precise, and efficient and allows for more rapid recovery from surgery. The authors note a decreased incidence of reoperation and postoperative complaints compared with historical larger

  6. Outcomes of Levator Resection at Tertiary Eye Care Center in Iran: A 10-Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abbas; Salour, Hossein; Aletaha, Maryam; Yazdani, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess outcomes of levator resection for the surgical correction of congenital and acquired upper lid ptosis in patients with fair to good levator function and evaluation of the relationship between demographic data and success of this operation. Methods In a retrospective study, medical records of patients with blepharoptosis who had undergone levator resection over a 10-year period and were followed for at least 3 months were reviewed. Results Overall, 136 patients including 60 (44.1%) male and 76 (55.9%) female subjects with a mean age of 20 ± 13.8 years (range, 2 to 80 years) were evaluated, of whom 120 cases (88.2%) had congenital ptosis and the rest had acquired ptosis. The overall success rate after the first operation was 78.7%. The most common complication after the first operation was undercorrection in 26 cases (19.1%), which was more prevalent among young patients (p = 0.06). Lid fissure and margin reflex distance (MRD1) also increased after levator resection (p MRD1, lid fissure and spherical equivalent were not predictive of surgical outcomes of levator resection. Conclusions Levator resection has a high rate of success and few complications in the surgical treatment of congenital and acquired upper lid ptosis with fair to good levator function. Reoperation can be effective in most cases in which levator resection has been performed. PMID:22323877

  7. Innervation of the pelvic floor muscles: a reappraisal for the levator ani nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallner, Christian; Maas, Cornelis P.; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Deruiter, Marco C.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the clinical anatomy of the levator ani nerve and its topographical relationship with the pudendal nerve. METHODS: Ten female pelves were dissected and a pudendal nerve blockade was simulated. The course of the levator ani nerve and pudendal nerve was described

  8. Defined carriers for synthetic antigens: Hinge Peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Jan; Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Hulačová, Hana; Maloň, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2005), s. 68 ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids and Proteins /9./. 08.08.2005-12.08.2005, Gert Lubec] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : synthetic carrier * antigen * hinge peptide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. Muller's muscle resection for ptosis and relationship with levator and Muller's muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Rajat; Maheshwari, Sejal

    2011-06-01

    Results of Muller's muscle resection in patients with ptosis and its relationship with levator and Muller's muscle function. Prospective review of medical records of all pateints who underwent open sky Mullerectomy for correction of upper eyelid ptosis. The study period was from January 2008 to July 2009. Levator function, MRD1, Phenylepherine test result and extent of ptosis correction were recorded. Excised muscle tissue in few cases were subjected to histopathology. In 11 patients who underwent 13 mullerectomy procedures for correction of upper eyelid ptosis, MRD1 increased an average by 2.54 mm. The amount of ptosis correction was 4.28 mm in pateints with either good levator function and/or Muller's action and 1mm in patients where both responses to phenylepherine and levator functions were poor. Histopathology revealed both straited and smooth muscle tissue in the excised specimens in all cases. Mullerectomy porbably involves plication of the posterior layer of the levator aponeurosis. Results of Muller's muscle resection is good in patients with good levator function and/or good Mullers action and poor if both Muller and levator function are poor.

  10. Hinge(ga) Brand - tõhusaim relv mõrtsukate ja varaste vastu / Hinge Brand ; interv. Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brand, Hinge, 1940-2007

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu 40 aastat prokuröriametit pidanud ja pensionile siirduva Hinge Brandiga. Lisatud: Hinge Brandi CV ning Põhja ringkonnaprokuratuuri erisasjade prokuröri Jüri Kasesalu, siseministeeriumi arendusjuhi Lauri Taburi ja keskkriminaalpolitsei politseijuhtivinspektori Margus Maasepa kommentaarid

  11. Association between levator hiatal dimensions on ultrasound during first pregnancy and mode of delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, G. A.; Schweitzer, K. J.; van Hoogenhuijze, N. E.; van der Vaart, C. H.

    Objectives To determine the association between levator hiatal dimensions, measured using transperineal ultrasound, in women during their first pregnancy and the subsequent mode of delivery, stratified by the indication for intervention. Methods In this prospective observational study, 280

  12. The relationship between postpartum levator ani muscle avulsion and signs and symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, K. van; Sultan, A.H.; Thakar, R.; Schwertner-Tiepelmann, N.; Kluivers, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between postpartum levator ani muscle (LAM) avulsion and signs and/or symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). DESIGN: Observational longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: District General University Hospital, UK. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Primigravida at 36

  13. Levator co-activation is a significant confounder of pelvic organ descent on Valsalva maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornö, A K; Dietz, H P

    2007-09-01

    A Valsalva maneuver is used clinically and on imaging in order to determine female pelvic organ prolapse. We have examined the potential confounding effect of levator co-activation at the time of a Valsalva maneuver and the impact of repetition with biofeedback instruction. Fifty nulliparous women at 36-38 weeks' gestation received 3D/4D translabial ultrasound investigation in the dorsal resting position after bladder emptying. Valsalva maneuvers were recorded initially and after repeated attempts with visual biofeedback both during the maneuver and after, with the operator demonstrating findings on the ultrasound monitor, in order to abolish levator co-activation. Offline analysis was subsequently undertaken. Significant differences between first and optimal Valsalva maneuver were found for bladder neck position, bladder neck descent, hiatal sagittal diameter and hiatal area on Valsalva. In a minority of women (22/50) we observed a reduction in the sagittal hiatal diameter on first Valsalva maneuver, indicating levator co-activation. A reduction in sagittal diameter was seen in only 11/50 after instruction. Levator co-activation was associated with significantly lower bladder neck descent. The Valsalva maneuver is frequently accompanied by a pelvic floor muscle contraction. Levator co-activation may be a substantial confounder, reducing pelvic organ descent. Without repetition and digital, auditory or visual biofeedback, women may not perform a correct Valsalva maneuver. Biofeedback markedly reduces the likelihood of levator co-activation but does not abolish it completely. Copyright 2007 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Evading pre-existing anti-hinge antibody binding by hinge engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hok Seon; Kim, Ingrid; Zheng, Linda; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y. Gloria; Spiess, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigen-binding fragments (Fab) and F(ab′)2 antibodies serve as alternative formats to full-length anti-bodies in therapeutic and immune assays. They provide the advantage of small size, short serum half-life, and lack of effector function. Several proteases associated with invasive diseases are known to cleave antibodies in the hinge-region, and this results in anti-hinge antibodies (AHA) toward the neoepitopes. The AHA can act as surrogate Fc and reintroduce the properties of the Fc that are otherwise lacking in antibody fragments. While this response is desired during the natural process of fighting disease, it is commonly unwanted for therapeutic antibody fragments. In our study, we identify a truncation in the lower hinge region of the antibody that maintains efficient proteolytic cleavage by IdeS protease. The resulting neoepitope at the F(ab′)2 C-terminus does not have detectable binding of pre-existing AHA, providing a practical route to produce F(ab′)2 in vitro by proteolytic digestion when the binding of pre-existing AHA is undesired. We extend our studies to the upper hinge region of the antibody and provide a detailed analysis of the contribution of C-terminal residues of the upper hinge of human IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 to pre-existing AHA reactivity in human serum. While no pre-existing antibodies are observed toward the Fab of IgG2 and IgG4 isotype, a significant response is observed toward most residues of the upper hinge of human IgG1. We identify a T225L variant and the natural C-terminal D221 as solutions with minimal serum reactivity. Our work now enables the production of Fab and F(ab′)2 for therapeutic and diagnostic immune assays that have minimal reactivity toward pre-existing AHA. PMID:27606571

  15. Budi Iman Santoso Assessment (BISA: a model for predicting levator ani injury after vaginal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi I. Santoso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been no attempts or studies to integrate various risk factors that can be utilized to predict levator ani injury caused by vaginal delivery. This study was aimed to establish an index measurement system by using various risk factors for predicting levator ani injury in vaginal delivery.Methods: A prospective cohort was conducted at two hospitals in Jakarta between 2010 and 2011. The subjects were nulipara pregnant women without levator ani injury during pregnancy and vaginal birth. Levator ani injury was evaluated using 4D USG during pregnancy and three months after delivery. The variables studied were age, body mass index, mode of delivery, fetal birth weight, episiotomy, perineum rupture and duration of second stage labor. Prediction model was analyzed using logistic regression analysis.Results: There were 182 recruited subjects of which 124 subjects were eligible and only 104 subjects could be analyzed. Incidence of levator ani injury at three months after delivery was 15.4% (95% CI: 8.6-23%. Two prediction models were obtained. The first consisted of fetal birth weight (OR= 5.36, 95% CI: 1.08-26.59, episiotomy (OR= 5.41, 95% CI: 0.94-31.18, and duration of second stage labor (OR= 15.27, 95% CI: 3.15-73.96. The second model consisted of duration of second stage labor (OR= 9.51, 95% CI: 1.23-68.10 and perineum rupture (OR= 142.70, 95% CI: 14.13-1440.78.Conclusion: Fetal birth weight, episiotomy and duration of second stage labor could predict levator ani injury for model 1; while the variables of prediction for model 2 were duration of second stage labor and perineum rupture. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:102-7Keywords: Levator ani, prediction model

  16. Precision Hinge Actuator for Advanced Telescope Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CTD proposes to investigate the deployment repeatability and microdynamic stability of a hinge and demonstration this repeatability in a deployable mirror test...

  17. The development of a new femoral brace hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D J; Rowley, D I; Halstead, A; Robinson, P

    1987-08-01

    Mechanical and clinical trials have been performed on a new design of femoral fracture brace-the Protectair hinge system. The hinge, constructed from polythene, aluminium, stainless steel and nylon, incorporates some novel features; pre-bent hinge arms, detachable headplates and a unique knee joint mechanism. Mechanical tests under various stress states have shown the hinge to be of sufficient strength. Biomechanical tests on volunteer subjects have indicated that the unique combination of good knee flexion and prevention of knee hyperextension will be of clinical value. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Variability of the pubic arch architecture and its influence on the minimal levator hiatus area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Machiorlatti, Michael; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the association between the minimal levator hiatus (MLH) area at rest with its surrounding soft-tissue and bony structures in nulliparous asymptomatic women with a normal levator ani muscle. A subanalysis was undertaken of a prospective study of the appearance of the levator ani in asymptomatic nulliparous women conducted between September 2010 and September 2011. The subanalysis included women with a normal levator ani muscle. Three-dimensional ultrasonography volumes were used to obtain pelvic floor measurements. The analysis included 56 women with mean age of 43.0±13.4years. The mean MLH area was 13.1±1.8cm(2) (range 9.0-17.3). The pubic arch angle had no influence on the MLH area (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.13). Height and pubic arch length were positively correlated with the MLH area (r=0.26 [P=0.52] and r=0.50 [P<0.001], respectively). The MLH size of nulliparous women varied widely and was positively correlated with the height and pubic arch length of the women. Therefore, caution is warranted when interpreting the MLH area as an indicator of a levator ani defect or a predictor of pelvic organ prolapse without taking a woman's pelvic bone characteristics into account. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictive images of postoperative levator resection outcome using image processing software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawatari, Yuki; Fukushima, Mikiko

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of processed images to predict postoperative appearance following levator resection. Analysis involved 109 eyes from 65 patients with blepharoptosis who underwent advancement of levator aponeurosis and Müller's muscle complex (levator resection). Predictive images were prepared from preoperative photographs using the image processing software (Adobe Photoshop ® ). Images of selected eyes were digitally enlarged in an appropriate manner and shown to patients prior to surgery. Approximately 1 month postoperatively, we surveyed our patients using questionnaires. Fifty-six patients (89.2%) were satisfied with their postoperative appearances, and 55 patients (84.8%) positively responded to the usefulness of processed images to predict postoperative appearance. Showing processed images that predict postoperative appearance to patients prior to blepharoptosis surgery can be useful for those patients concerned with their postoperative appearance. This approach may serve as a useful tool to simulate blepharoptosis surgery.

  20. Evaluation of Polybutylate-Coated Braided Polyester (Ethibond) Sutures for Levator-Advancement Blepharoptosis Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulish, Michael; Pikkel, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of polybutylate-coated braided polyester (Ethibond* 5-0) suture for levator aponeurosis suturing to the anterior tarsal surface in involutional blepharoptosis repair surgery. Methods. Ten consecutive patients (16 eyes) with acquired blepharoptosis which resulted from levator aponeurosis dehiscence with good levator function had gone through surgery and were followed up for, at least, one year. Results. There was no significant change between postoperative MRD1 measurements. No serious complications, such as infection of the sutures, inflammation, granuloma formation or ptosis recurrence, were registered. Conclusion. Polybutylate-coated braided polyester (Ethibond* 5-0) suture is a safe and effective material for involutional blepharoptosis repair surgery. PMID:24558592

  1. God of the hinge: treating LGBTQIA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Annie

    2017-11-01

    This paper looks at systems of gender within the context of analysis. It explores the unique challenges of individuation faced by transsexual, transgender, gender queer, gender non-conforming, cross-dressing and intersex patients. To receive patients generously we need to learn how a binary culture produces profound and chronic trauma. These patients wrestle with being who they are whilst simultaneously receiving negative projections and feeling invisible. While often presenting with the struggles of gender conforming individuals, understanding the specifically gendered aspect of their identity is imperative. An analyst's unconscious bias may lead to iatrogenic shaming. The author argues that rigorous, humble inquiry into the analyst's transphobia can be transformative for patient, analyst, and the work itself. Analysis may, then, provide gender-variant patients with their first remembered and numinous experience of authentic connection to self. Conjuring the image of a hinge, securely placed in the neutral region of a third space, creates a transpositive analytic temenos. Invoking the spirit of the Trickster in the construction of this matrix supports the full inclusion of gender-variant patients. Nuanced attunement scaffolds mirroring and the possibility of play. Being mindful that gender is sturdy and delicate as well as mercurial and defined enriches the analyst's listening. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Predictive images of postoperative levator resection outcome using image processing software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawatari Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuki Mawatari,1 Mikiko Fukushima2 1Igo Ophthalmic Clinic, Kagoshima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Life Science, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, Japan Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of processed images to predict postoperative appearance following levator resection.Methods: Analysis involved 109 eyes from 65 patients with blepharoptosis who underwent advancement of levator aponeurosis and Müller’s muscle complex (levator resection. Predictive images were prepared from preoperative photographs using the image processing software (Adobe Photoshop®. Images of selected eyes were digitally enlarged in an appropriate manner and shown to patients prior to surgery.Results: Approximately 1 month postoperatively, we surveyed our patients using questionnaires. Fifty-six patients (89.2% were satisfied with their postoperative appearances, and 55 patients (84.8% positively responded to the usefulness of processed images to predict postoperative appearance.Conclusion: Showing processed images that predict postoperative appearance to patients prior to blepharoptosis surgery can be useful for those patients concerned with their postoperative appearance. This approach may serve as a useful tool to simulate blepharoptosis surgery. Keywords: levator resection, blepharoptosis, image processing, Adobe Photoshop® 

  3. Appearance of the levator ani muscle subdivisions in magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, Rebecca U; Hsu, Yvonne; Kearney, Rohna; Stein, Tamara; Umek, Wolfgang H; DeLancey, John O L

    2006-05-01

    Identify and describe the separate appearance of 5 levator ani muscle subdivisions seen in axial, coronal, and sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan planes. Magnetic resonance scans of 80 nulliparous women with normal pelvic support were evaluated. Characteristic features of each Terminologia Anatomica-listed levator ani component were determined for each scan plane. Muscle component visibility was based on pre-established criteria in axial, coronal, and sagittal scan planes: 1) clear and consistently visible separation or 2) different origin or insertion. Visibility of each of the levator ani subdivisions in each scan plane was assessed in 25 nulliparous women. In the axial plane, the puborectal muscle can be seen lateral to the pubovisceral muscle and decussating dorsal to the rectum. The course of the puboperineal muscle near the perineal body is visualized in the axial plane. The coronal view is perpendicular to the fiber direction of the puborectal and pubovisceral muscles and shows them as "clusters" of muscle on either side of the vagina. The sagittal plane consistently demonstrates the puborectal muscle passing dorsal to the rectum to form a sling that can consistently be seen as a "bump." This plane is also parallel to the pubovisceral muscle fiber direction and shows the puboperineal muscle. The subdivisions of the levator ani muscle are visible in MRI scans, each with distinct morphology and characteristic features.

  4. The natural history of levator avulsion one year following childbirth: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, K. van; Thakar, R.; Sultan, A.H.; Hout, J. in't; Kluivers, K.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the natural history of levator avulsion in primipara 1 year postpartum and correlate this to pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). DESIGN: Observational longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: District General University Hospital. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Nullipara at 36 weeks of gestation,

  5. Surgical correction of myogenic ptosis using a modified levator resection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Pan, Ye; Ding, Juan; Sun, Chunhua

    2015-12-01

    This report describes our experience using a modified anterior levator resection approach in myogenic ptosis patients and presents the results from a consecutive series of patients treated with this method. This was a retrospective case series study. Forty-one patients with moderate and severe myogenic ptosis were included. All patients underwent a modified anterior levator resection approach under local anesthesia. The procedure involved exposing Whitnall's ligament, dissecting and resecting the underlying levator muscle from Whitnall's ligament, and leaving the aponeurosis intact. All patients underwent pre- and postoperative photography, and final outcomes were assessed after a minimum of 6 months. Outcome measures included pre- and post-marginal reflex distance (MRD1), symmetry of height, contour, and complications. Forty-one patients undergoing 56 procedures were included. The mean age of the patients was 15 (13-18) years. The mean postoperative MRD1 was 3.45 mm. Thirty-four patients achieved their desired lid height and contour, and 7 patients had undercorrection, including 1 patient with 2 mm of asymmetry, with a final success rate of 83% (34/41 patients). Our modified anterior levator resection approach had a high success rate and is particularly suitable for patients with moderate and severe myogenic ptosis. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Levator claviculae muscle presenting as a hard clavicular mass: imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Santiago, F.; Lopez Milena, G.; Tristan Fernandez, J.M.; Chamorro Santos, C.

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of levator claviculae muscle presenting clinically as a hard mass in the clavicular area due to angular deformity of this bone. To our knowledge, this is the first report where the anomalous muscle shows this clinical presentation. (orig.)

  7. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  8. [Moving Mirror Scanning System Based on the Flexible Hinge Support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Feng, Fei; Wang, Fu-bei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve moving mirror drive of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, we design a dynamic scanning system based on flexible hinge support. Using the flexible hinge support way and the voice coil motor drive mode. Specifically, Using right Angle with high accuracy high stability type flexible hinge support mechanism support moving mirror, dynamic mirror can be moved forward and backward driven by voice coil motor reciprocating motion, DSP control system to control the moving mirror at a constant speed. The experimental results show that the designed of moving mirror scanning system has advantages of stability direction, speed stability, superior seismic performance.

  9. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  10. Numerical study of the influence of the hinge gap width on the hinge flow fields of bileaflet mechanical heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Helene; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2008-11-01

    Previous clinical and in-vitro studies have shown that the complex non-physiologic hemodynamics occurring in the hinge region of bileaflet mechanical heart valves promotes blood cell damage and thrombus formation. Modifying the hinge design could improve the flow and thus reduce the associated blood cell trauma. This study aims at investigating numerically the effect of the hinge gap width on the flow field. The governing equations are solved using a Cartesian sharp interface immersed boundary method coupled with a hybrid staggered/non staggered control volume approach. The hinge dimensions are obtained from MicroComputed Tomography of a clinical valve. The leaflet motion and inlet velocity profile are imposed based on the Fluid-Structure Interaction simulations of the bulk flow of a valve placed under aortic physiologic conditions. 3D pulsatile flows through two hinge designs are presented along with their Lagrangian analysis. The hinge gap width is shown to have a strong influence on the flow, and thus on blood cell trauma.

  11. A Promising Modified Procedure for Upper Eyelid Retraction-Associated Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: Transconjunctival Lateral Levator Aponeurectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHATAVI, Fatima; NASROLLAHI, Kobra; ZANDI, Alireza; PANAHI, Maryam; MORTAZAVI, Mahshid; POURAZIZI, Mohsen; RANJBAR-OMIDI, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Upper eyelid retraction is a characteristic feature of thyroid eye disease, including Graves’ orbitopathy. In this study, a new surgical technique for correction of lid retraction secondary to Graves’ orbitopathy is described. Sixteen eyelids of patients older than 18 years old underwent surgical correction for moderate to severe lid retraction secondary to Graves’ orbitopathy. In this procedure, levator aponeurectomy was performed via a transconjunctival approach. Upper marginal reflex distance (MRD1) was measured before the surgery and at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the surgery. MRD1 was reduced significantly from preoperatively (mean: 7.84 mm) to 1 week after the surgery (mean: 3.59 mm) (P MRD1 was 5.09 mm and 5.10 mm, respectively, showing that lid retraction was improved significantly (P < 0.001). Lateral levator aponeurectomy via the transconjunctival approach is a simple, scar-less, quick procedure that has optimal stable outcome. PMID:29367934

  12. A Promising Modified Procedure for Upper Eyelid Retraction-Associated Graves' Ophthalmopathy: Transconjunctival Lateral Levator Aponeurectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatavi, Fatima; Nasrollahi, Kobra; Zandi, Alireza; Panahi, Maryam; Mortazavi, Mahshid; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Ranjbar-Omidi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Upper eyelid retraction is a characteristic feature of thyroid eye disease, including Graves' orbitopathy. In this study, a new surgical technique for correction of lid retraction secondary to Graves' orbitopathy is described. Sixteen eyelids of patients older than 18 years old underwent surgical correction for moderate to severe lid retraction secondary to Graves' orbitopathy. In this procedure, levator aponeurectomy was performed via a transconjunctival approach. Upper marginal reflex distance (MRD1) was measured before the surgery and at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the surgery. MRD1 was reduced significantly from preoperatively (mean: 7.84 mm) to 1 week after the surgery (mean: 3.59 mm) (P MRD1 was 5.09 mm and 5.10 mm, respectively, showing that lid retraction was improved significantly (P < 0.001). Lateral levator aponeurectomy via the transconjunctival approach is a simple, scar-less, quick procedure that has optimal stable outcome.

  13. Cosmetic outcome of three sutures levator aponeurosis tuck procedure in congenital ptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the results of three sutures aponeurosis tuck procedure in patients with congenital ptosis. Twenty-four eyes of 20 patients (13 males and 7 females) with congenital ptosis were included in the study. All these lids had either good or fair levator function. Amount of ptosis in all lids were measured before surgery and their mean calculated. Single surgeon performed the three sutures levator aponeurosis tuck procedure on all these lids. Degree of ptosis, after surgery was measured on multiple occasions and mean of measures of last follow-up was calculated. At this stage, the patients' satisfaction level was also documented. Mean amount of ptosis was 3.25 +- 0.99 mm before surgery and 0.33 +- 0.56 mm after surgery (p < 0.0001). Satisfaction level of 18 (90%) patients was 70-90%, while in 2 (10%) patients it was 50-60%. (author)

  14. Effects of local anesthesia with bupivacaine plus epinephrine on blepharoptosis and levator palpebrae muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghai, Gholam Hoseyn; Vazirnia, Maryam; Poormatin, Rama; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of local anesthesia with bupivacaine plus epinephrine on the extent of blepharoptosis and levator palpebrae muscle function. : In this prospective interventional case series, patients with blepharoptosis who were candidates for aponeurotic surgery were included. After initial preparations in the operating room, a total of 1 ml of a mixture of bupivacaine 0.5% plus epinephrine 1:100,000 were injected into the upper eyelid. The margin reflex distance 1 (MRD1) and the extent of levator muscle function were measured before and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after injection. A total of 36 eyes including 21 men (58.3%) and 15 women (41.7%) with an average age of 41.81 ± 23.09 (17-83 years) were studied. There were 21 eyes with myogenic and 15 eyes with aponeurotic blepharoptosis. The mean MRD1 was 1.18 ± 1.06 mm before injection and -0.02 ± 0.85, 0.52 ± 0.98, 0.98 ± 1.05, and 1.02 ± 1.06 mm at 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after injections, respectively. The changes in the MRD1 measurements were statistically significant at all time points. The MRD1 values decreased during the first 2 minutes after injection in 88.8% of eyes, but returned to initial value after 15 minutes in 84.3%. The change in the levator muscle function measurements was statistically significant at 2 and 5 minutes after injections; however, the differences were clinically negligible. : The local anesthesia of the eyelid with 1 ml bupivacaine plus epinephrine causes a temporary increase of blepharoptosis within the first few minutes with minimal effect on levator muscle function measurements.

  15. A Promising Modified Procedure for Upper Eyelid Retraction-Associated Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: Transconjunctival Lateral Levator Aponeurectomy

    OpenAIRE

    KHATAVI, Fatima; NASROLLAHI, Kobra; ZANDI, Alireza; PANAHI, Maryam; MORTAZAVI, Mahshid; POURAZIZI, Mohsen; RANJBAR-OMIDI, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Upper eyelid retraction is a characteristic feature of thyroid eye disease, including Graves’ orbitopathy. In this study, a new surgical technique for correction of lid retraction secondary to Graves’ orbitopathy is described. Sixteen eyelids of patients older than 18 years old underwent surgical correction for moderate to severe lid retraction secondary to Graves’ orbitopathy. In this procedure, levator aponeurectomy was performed via a transconjunctival approach. Upper marginal reflex dista...

  16. The role of the levator ani muscle in evacuation, sexual performance and pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, A

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the role of the levator ani muscle (LAM) in evacuation, sexual performance and pelvic floor disorders. The LAM fixes the vesical neck, anorectal junction and vaginal fornices to the side wall of the pelvis by means of the suspensory sling and hiatal ligament. On contraction it shares in the mechanism of evacuation (urination, defecation). During the sexual act vaginal distension by the erect penis evokes the vaginolevator and vaginopuborectalis reflexes, with a resulting LAM contraction. The LAM also contracts upon stimulation of the clitoris or cervix uteri, an action mediated through clitoromotor and cervicomotor reflexes. LAM contraction leads to upper vagina ballooning, which acts as receptacle for semen collection, to uterine elevation and straightening and to elongation and narrowing of the vagina. These actions enhance the sexual response and prepare the uterus and vagina for the reproductive process. During ejaculation LAM contraction facilitates semen ejection. Levator subluxation and sagging leads to levator dysfunction syndrome, which may present as pudendal canal syndrome.

  17. Comparison of two- and three-point sutures for advancing the levator aponeurosis in Asian eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Yoon, J S; Jang, S Y

    2015-09-01

    To compare the functional and cosmetic outcomes of two- and three-point sutures for advancing the levator aponeurosis in blepharoptosis surgery on Asians. This retrospective study examined 60 Asian patients with blepharoptosis who had undergone advancement of the levator aponeurosis: 34 patients (46 eyelids) had ptosis correction using the two-point suture technique and 26 patients (41 eyelids) had ptosis correction using the three-point suture technique. The postoperative marginal reflex distance (MRD1), lid height difference, and eyelid contour were evaluated. Twenty-seven (79.4%) of the 34 patients in the two-point group and 19 (73.1%) of 26 patients in the three-point group had a postoperative MRD1 of 2-4 mm, lids within 0.5 mm of each other, and a satisfactory eyelid contour; this difference was not significant. The rate of reoperation did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two- and three-point sutures for advancing the levator aponeurosis were equally effective for correcting blepharoptosis in Asians.

  18. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2014-08-20

    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  19. Hinge Dimension: An Exploration of Enaction in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franinovic, Karmen; Wilson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of technologically mediated enactive experience with and within architectural contexts, and the ways in which it may affect our relationships to constructed surroundings. We present the conceptual ideas and design development of the Hinge Dimension project...

  20. Flutter of cantilevered interconnected beams with variable hinge positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivasigamani, A.; McCarthy, J. M.; John, S.; Watkins, S.; Trivailo, P.; Coman, F.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, flutter of slender, high-compliance cantilever beams in a fluid flow is discussed. Parametric factors that influence the critical flutter speed of these beams are examined theoretically, and experimentally validated. A relationship between the lowest bending-mode frequency of the beam and its critical flutter speed is established. A single ideal, revolute hinge with zero torsional stiffness is introduced at differing positions along the beam, so as to alter the effective natural frequency of the beam, and the effect of the hinge presence on the first few bending modes is analytically determined. A computational modal analysis is conducted in ANSYS® MechanicalTM and the results match well with analytical results, despite the difference in numerical schemes utilised between the two models. Experiments are then carried out in a smooth-flow wind tunnel to observe the critical flutter speed of these hinged beams. It is found that the critical flutter speed and oscillatory mode shape changes based on the hinge position. The experimental results are compared with the analytical and computational outcomes. Application of these connected bodies in the field of energy harvesting from fluid flow is discussed and the working principle of these harvesters is explained.

  1. Levator lengthening technique using cartilage or fascia graft for paralytic lagophthalmos in facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ayato; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Natori, Yuhei; Senda, Daiki; Tanaka, Rica; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Lid loading using gold weights has been commonly used to treat paralytic lagophthalmos (PL); however, the procedure has a relatively high complication rate and the availability of these plates varies among social circumstances. We used a levator lengthening (LL) technique, which originally elongated the levator aponeurosis by inserting a fascia graft between the edge of the levator aponeurosis and the tarsal plate. However, because this procedure tends to result in a wide residual lagophthalmos, we changed the graft material from fascia to conchal cartilage. In this study, we describe in detail our experience with LL using the cartilage graft. LL was performed in 18 patients with PL. Fascia grafts were used in seven patients and cartilage grafts in 11. Static reconstructions of the lower eyelid and eyebrow were also performed in most patients. Efficacy was evaluated from patient reports of ocular symptoms and by measuring the palpebral fissure width at opening and closing for both eyes. All patients experienced improved ophthalmological symptoms, which were more apparent in cartilage cases. The average palpebral fissure at eyelid closure was 1.8 mm in cartilage cases and 4.0 mm in fascia cases. In cases where an eyebrow lift was concurrently performed, the residual lagophthalmos became wider in fascia grafting but remained acceptable in cartilage grafting. LL is a simple and useful procedure for treating PL with higher efficacy when a cartilage graft is used. However, the level of the upper eyelid can be easily adjusted by changing the fixation position of the cartilage. Additional experience is required to obtain more consistent outcomes. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prokurör nägi inimliku jõhkruse piiritust / Hinge Brand ; interv. Tiiu Põld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brand, Hinge, 1940-2007

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu ametist lahkuva prokurör Hinge Brandiga. Lisatud: Hinge Brandi CV; Hinge Brandi osavõtul peetud kõmulisemad mõrvaprotsessid. Kommenteerivad Aivar Pilv, Elmar Vaher, Alar Kirs, Eda Murak, Dilaila Nahkur-Tammiksaar

  3. Influence of hinge point on flexible flap aerodynamic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H Y; Ye, Z; Wu, P; Li, C

    2013-01-01

    Large scale wind turbines lead to increasing blade lengths and weights, which presents new challenges for blade design. This paper selects NREL S809 airfoil, uses the parameterized technology to realize the flexible trailing edge deformation, researches the static aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoil with flexible deformation, and the dynamic aerodynamic characteristics in the process of continuous deformation, analyses the influence of hinge point position on flexible flap aerodynamic performance, in order to further realize the flexible wind turbine blade design and provides some references for the active control scheme. The results show that compared with the original airfoil, proper trailing edge deformation can improve the lift coefficient, reduce the drag coefficient, and thereby more efficiently realize flow field active control. With hinge point moving forward, total aerodynamic performance of flexible flap improves. Positive swing angle can push the transition point backward, thus postpones the occurrence of the transition phenomenon

  4. Levator Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon Cancer on the Rise Among Gen Xers, Millennials (News) Thick Middle May Raise Risk of Some ... Colon Cancer on the Rise Among Gen Xers, Millennials News HealthDay Thick Middle May Raise Risk of ...

  5. Levator Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concerts ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures 3D Models Images Infographics Audio Pronunciations The One-Page Manual of Health Quizzes ... Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures 3D Models Images Infographics Audio Pronunciations The One-Page Manual of Health Quizzes ...

  6. Epidermal growth factor and active caspase-3 expression in the levator ani muscle of dogs with and without perineal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, J F; Argüelles, J C; Iglesias-Núñez, M; Oliveira, K S; De La Muela, M Sánchez

    2011-07-01

    To perform a histological and immunohistochemical study of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha and their receptor, as well as the apoptotic signal active caspase-3 in the levator ani muscle of dogs with and without perineal hernia. Biopsy specimens of the levator ani muscle were obtained from 25 dogs with perineal hernia and 4 non-affected dogs and were processed for Masson and immunohistochemical staining. The affected dogs exhibited myopathological features, internalised nuclei, destruction and abnormal size of muscle fibres, which were replaced by collagen. The immunohistochemical study revealed active caspase-3, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in the levator ani. Compared to the healthy muscle, transforming growth factor-alpha staining intensity was lower in the affected muscle, whereas epidermal growth factor receptor and active caspase-3 staining were higher. Pelvic diaphragm muscle weakening is the leading cause of perineal hernia in the dog. Survival and death signals expressed in these muscles may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. This study reports epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemical expression in the skeletal muscle and suggests that perineal hernia in the dog is accompanied by levator ani muscle atrophy, increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, caspase-3 activation, and decreased expression of transforming growth factor-alpha. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Stretching position can affect levator scapular muscle activity, length, and cervical range of motion in people with a shortened levator scapulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Yoon, Jang-Whon; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Kim, Bo-Been

    2017-07-01

    Levator scapulae (LS) muscle stretching exercises are a common method of lengthening a shortened muscle; however, the appropriate stretching position for lengthening the LS in people with a shortened LS remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different stretching exercise positions on the LS and introduce effective stretching exercise methods to clinicians. Twenty-four university students (12 men, 12 women) with a shortened LS were recruited. LS muscle activity, LS index (LSI), and cervical range of motion (ROM) were measured pre (baseline) and post three different stretching exercise positions (sitting, quadruped, and prone). The LSI and cervical ROM exceeded the minimal detectable change and had significant changes. The LSI was greater in the sitting position than at the baseline (p = 0.01), quadruped position (p Stretching the LS in the sitting position was the most effective exercise for improving LS muscle length and cervical ROM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Significance of Early Postoperative Eyelid Position on Late Postoperative Result in Mueller's Muscle Conjunctival Resection and External Levator Advancement Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Jennifer; Ugradar, Shoaib; Goldberg, Robert; Joshi, Naresh; Rootman, Daniel B

    2018-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether advancement of the levator aponeurosis in external levator resection surgery or Mueller's muscle and conjunctiva in Mueller's muscle conjunctival resection (MMCR) surgery has a differential effect on variation in eyelid position during the postoperative period. In this retrospective observational cohort study, 2 groups of patients were defined. The first underwent MMCR surgery without tarsectomy by surgeon 1. The second underwent external levator resection without dissection posterior to the levator aponeurosis by surgeon 2. Marginal reflex distance (MRD1) was calculated based on digital photographs at baseline, 1 week postoperatively and at 3-month follow up. The primary outcome measure was change in MRD1 over time. The secondary outcome was defined as the proportion of patients with minimal early postoperative change (change of MRD1 less than 0.5 mm at 1 week postoperatively). Repeated measures analysis of variance, t test, and chi-square analyses were performed. Of the 114 eyes in the sample, there were 68 in the MMCR group and 46 in the external levator resection group. A significant interaction between group and time was noted (p MRD1 over time was different between the groups. Bonferroni corrected multiple comparisons yielded significant differences between each time point for MMCR surgery (p MRD1 was noted for the external levator resection group from the early to late postoperative visit. Comparing each time point across groups revealed significantly lower MRD1 for the MMCR group at the early postoperative visit (p MRD1 did not significantly differ between the groups. Regarding the secondary outcome, patients undergoing MMCR surgery were 3.7× as likely to demonstrate MRD1 at week 1 (p MRD1 increase >1 mm from the early postoperative to the late postoperative time points. Both external levator resection and MMCR can effectively elevate the eyelid in cases of primary involutional ptosis, and have similar

  9. [Localization and registration of the hinge axis in black Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, K D; N'Guessan, K S; N'Dindin, C; Bamba, A

    2003-06-01

    The study of the cinematic method using "SAM" and "Quick Axis of FAG" added to mandibular condyle palpation for the hinge axis limited points, show that the Black Africans mandibular condyle rotation axis position is higher (3.5 mm) and backer (2 mm) than the Caucasians. The axial points are located to between 11 and 12 mm in front of the tragus and between 7 and 8 mm below on the perpendicular line to the furrow defining the tragus superior side to the Ectocanthus.

  10. Characterization of flexure hinges for the French watt balance experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinot Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the French watt balance experiment, the translation and rotation functions must have no backlash, no friction, nor the need for lubricants. In addition errors in position and movement must be below 100 nm. Flexure hinges can meet all of these criteria. Different materials, profile shapes and machining techniques have been studied. The flexure pivots have been characterized using three techniques: 1 an optical microscope and, if necessary, a SEM to observe the surface inhomogeneities; 2 a mass comparator to determine the bending stiffness of unloaded pivots; 3 a loaded beam oscillating freely under vacuum to study the dynamic behavior of loaded pivots.

  11. Mid-term Results of Rotating Hinged Knee Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Buyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In surgeries on patients with advanced ligament instabilities or severe bone defects rotating hinged knee prostheses are one of a limited number of appropriate options. The objective of our study is to evaluate the mid-term functional results and complications of several surgeries using this form of prothesis. Material and Method: The rotating hinged knee prosthesis (RHKP was applied to 23 knees of 19 patients in primary or revision surgeries at our instution between February 2009 and December 2011. Following their operations, patients underwent several retrospective evaluations to assess surgical success. The average follow-up period for the patients was 54 months. The average age of the patients at their last follow-up was 75. Results: The average Special Surgery Knee Scores, Knee Society Knee Scores, and Knee Society Functional Scores were 44, 27, and 18, respectively, before the surgery; and 83, 92, and 70 in the final post-surgery follow-ups. In addition, the average range of motion increased from the pre-operative level of 76 to 101 degrees at the final evaluation. Two patients had per-operative rupture of the patellar tendon, and four patients had various complications after the surgery, including periprosthetic fracture, deep infection, aseptic loosening, and patellofemoral instability. Discussion: Primary or revision knee arthroplasty using RKHP can be successful in cases with advanced ligament instability or severe bone defects; however, increased complication rates should be kept in mind.

  12. Comparison of the puborectal muscle on MRI in women with POP and levator ani defects with those with normal support and no defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLancey, John O L; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare puborectal muscle integrity and bulk in women with both major levator ani (LA) defects on MRI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) to women with normal LA muscle and normal support.......The objective of this study was to compare puborectal muscle integrity and bulk in women with both major levator ani (LA) defects on MRI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) to women with normal LA muscle and normal support....

  13. Dexmedetomidine-based monitored conscious sedation combined local anesthesia for levator resection in a 10-year-old child with Marcus Gunn jaw-winking synkinesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Ye; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Levator resection has become a routine procedure for patients with severe Marcus Gunn jaw-winking synkinesis (MGJWS). To optimize the surgical outcome, adult patients need to be kept awake, or easily aroused and responsive to verbal commands during the operation. However, levator resection is commonly performed under general anesthesia in pediatric patients. In the present case, we described a successful anesthetic protocol of conscious sedation with local anesthesia for l...

  14. Deployment Testing of Flexible Composite Hinges in Bi-Material Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan F.; Trease, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Composites have excellent properties for strength, thermal stability, and weight. However, they are traditionally highly rigid, and when used in deployable structures require hinges bonded to the composite material, which increases complexity and opportunities for failure. Recent research in composites has found by adding an elastomeric soft matrix, often silicone instead of an epoxy, the composite becomes flexible. This work explores the deployment repeatability of silicone matrix composite hinges which join rigid composite beams. The hinges were found to have sub-millimeter linear deployment repeatability, and sub-degree angular deployment repeatability. Also, an interesting relaxation effect was discovered, as a hinges deployment error would decrease with time.

  15. Impact of Plastic Hinge Properties on Capacity Curve of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Shatarat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis is becoming recently the most practical tool for nonlinear analysis of regular and irregular highway bridges. The nonlinear behaviour of structural elements in this type of analysis can be modeled through automated-hinge or user-defined hinge models. The nonlinear properties of the user-defined hinge model for existing highway bridges can be determined in accordance with the recommendations of the Seismic Retrofit Manual by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-SRM. Finite element software such as the software SAP2000 offers a simpler and easier approach to determine the nonlinear hinge properties through the automated-hinge model which are determined automatically from the member material and cross section properties. However, the uncertainties in using the automated-hinge model in place of user-defined hinge model have never been addressed, especially for existing and widened bridges. In response to this need, pushover analysis was carried out for four old highway bridges, of which two were widened using the same superstructure but with more attention to seismic detailing requirements. The results of the analyses showed noticeable differences in the capacity curves obtained utilizing the user-defined and automated-hinge models. The study recommends that bridge design manuals clearly ask bridge designers to evaluate the deformation capacities of existing bridges and widened bridges using user-defined hinge model that is determined in accordance with the provisions of the FHWA-SRM.

  16. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.; (RPI); (IIT); (SDSU); (Vermont)

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  17. Modal Characteristics of Novel Wind Turbine Rotors with Hinged Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongya; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2018-03-01

    The vibration problems of the wind turbine rotors have drawn public attention as the size of wind turbine has increased incredibly. Although various factors may cause the vibration problems, the flexibility is a big threat among them. Therefore, ensuring the high stiffness of the rotors by adopting novel techniques becomes a necessity. The study was a further investigation of several novel designs regarding the dynamic behaviour and the influencing mechanism. The modal testing experiments were conducted on a traditional blade and an isolated blade with the hinged rods mounted close to the root. The results showed that the rod increased both the modal frequency and the damping of the blade. More studies were done on the rods’ impact on the wind turbine rotor with a numerical model, where dimensionless parameters were defined to describe the configuration of the interveined and the bisymmetrical rods. Their influences on the modal frequencies of the rotor were analyzed and discussed.

  18. In vivo visualization of the levator ani muscle subdivisions using MR fiber tractography with diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Pascal; Delmas, Vincent; Buy, Jean-Noël; Rahmouni, Alain; Vadrot, Dominique; Deux, Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the levator ani complex architecture is of major clinical relevance. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) fiber tractography with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a tool for the three-dimensional (3D) representation of normal subdivisions of the levator ani. Ten young nulliparous female volunteers underwent DTI at 1.5 T MR imaging. Diffusion-weighted axial sequence of the pelvic floor was performed with additional T2-weighted multiplanar sequences for anatomical reference. Fiber tractography for visualization of each Terminologia Anatomica-listed major levator ani subdivision was performed. Numeric muscular fibers extracted after tractography were judged as accurate when localized within the boundaries of the muscle, and inaccurate when projecting out of the boundaries of the muscle. From the fiber tracking of each subdivision the number of numeric fibers (inaccurate and accurate) and a score (from 3 to 0) of the adequacy of the 3D representation were calculated. All but two volunteers completed the protocol. The mean number of accurate fibers was 17 ± 2 for the pubovisceralis, 14 ± 6 for the puborectalis and 1 ± 1 for the iliococcygeus. The quality of the 3D representation was judged as good (score = 2) for the pubovisceralis and puborectalis, and inaccurate (score = 0) for the iliococcygeus. Our study is the first step to a 3D visualization of the three major levator ani subdivisions, which could help to better understand their in vivo functional anatomy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  19. Congenital ptosis and blefarophimosis: retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of correction with levator resection and frontalis suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, R; Piozzi, E; Lanfranchi, A L; Baruffaldi Preis, F W

    2011-01-01

    treatment of congenital ptoses and blepharophimoses relies on levator resections and frontalis suspensions. Several techniques of levator resection have been described in literature, some of them include tarsal resections and resections of the Müller muscle. Nevertheless a gold treatment have not been detected yet. Frontalis suspension is performed when levator muscle is not functional or when ptosis is severe. The suspension could be carried out with several materials: ePTFE, silicon rods, poly-propylene, nylon, braided poliester, but the preferable material is considered the autologous fascia lata. this study was designate to determine retrospectively if the indications of surgery are correct, considering age, severity of pathology, relapses and complications. An analysis of demographic data and outcomes for each technique is performed. in this study we analyze case series of 33 pediatric patients affected by congenital ptosis and blepharophimosis congenital syndrome, surgically treated from 2000 to 2008 in the ophtalmic pediatric surgery department at the Niguarda Hospital of Milan. A literature review was also performed. the mean age at presentation was 4.13. The diagnosis was precocious in most cases and often helped by some recognizable clinical signs: compensatory head posture (48.5%), anisometropia (36.4%), astigmatism (48.5%), strabismus (36.4%) and amblyopia (15.2%). Most of patients was treated with frontalis suspension (57.6%) and their age was significatively lower than patients treated with levator resection. No difference about complications and recurrence was reported between the two techniques. Complications and recurrence amount to 39.4%. these results are in line with other studies in literature. A precociuos treatment is able to reduce the incidence of amblyopia from 34% to 8%. The choice of the treatment (resection Vs suspension) has to consider the age of the patient, the severity of ptosis and avaibility of fascia lata. Nevertheless no

  20. Automatic segmentation method of pelvic floor levator hiatus in ultrasound using a self-normalizing neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmati, Ester; Hu, Yipeng; Sindhwani, Nikhil; Dietz, Hans Peter; D'hooge, Jan; Barratt, Dean; Deprest, Jan; Vercauteren, Tom

    2018-04-01

    Segmentation of the levator hiatus in ultrasound allows the extraction of biometrics, which are of importance for pelvic floor disorder assessment. We present a fully automatic method using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to outline the levator hiatus in a two-dimensional image extracted from a three-dimensional ultrasound volume. In particular, our method uses a recently developed scaled exponential linear unit (SELU) as a nonlinear self-normalizing activation function, which for the first time has been applied in medical imaging with CNN. SELU has important advantages such as being parameter-free and mini-batch independent, which may help to overcome memory constraints during training. A dataset with 91 images from 35 patients during Valsalva, contraction, and rest, all labeled by three operators, is used for training and evaluation in a leave-one-patient-out cross validation. Results show a median Dice similarity coefficient of 0.90 with an interquartile range of 0.08, with equivalent performance to the three operators (with a Williams' index of 1.03), and outperforming a U-Net architecture without the need for batch normalization. We conclude that the proposed fully automatic method achieved equivalent accuracy in segmenting the pelvic floor levator hiatus compared to a previous semiautomatic approach.

  1. Supramaximal levator resection for unilateral congenital ptosis: cosmetic and functional results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio A V; Akaishi, Patricia M S; Mendonça, Ana K T S; Bernadini, Francesco; Devoto, Martin; Garcia, Denny M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the cosmetic and functional results of a large series of patients with unilateral congenital ptosis without spontaneous compensatory ipsilateral frontalis hyperaction who underwent supramaximal levator resection (SMLPSr). A multicenter retrospective review of 35 children (14 girls and 21 boys) of mean age 5.5±3.6 SD years with unilateral congenital ptosis who underwent surgery in 3 different countries: Italy, n=8; Argentina, n=11; and Brazil, n=16. Preoperative evaluation included measurements of upper eyelid margin reflex distance (MRD1) and levator palpebrae superioris muscle excursion, assessment of frontalis hyperaction, and ocular motility examination. At least 6 months postoperatively, photographs were used to measure the upper eyelid contour of OU. The spontaneous blinking amplitude and downward eyelid saccades of OU were quantified in a subset of 14 patients. Quantitative comparison among the 3 centers was performed with nonparametric 1-way analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis). Paired t tests were used to compare the pre- and postoperative measurements, and p valueMRD1 of the operated eyes increased from 0.5±1.1 SD mm to 3.4±0.84 SD mm (t=15.9; p<0.000001), consequently the eyelid positional asymmetry decreased from 3.1±1.21 mm to 0.1±0.86 SD mm (t=16.5; p≤0.000001). Twenty-nine percent of eyelids had mild contour abnormalities and 31.4% showed some degree of lash ptosis. Spontaneous blinks were abnormal in 93% of the cases (eyelids). The amplitude of the abnormal blinks ranged from 12.9% to 65.4% (mean=37.1%) of the contralateral eyelids. Downward eyelid saccades were reduced in 79% of the eyelids. The amplitudes the saccades ranged from 2.2% to 84.6% (mean=54.8%). In unilateral congenital ptosis, SMLPSr effectively reduces the positional asymmetry between eyelids. Mild contour abnormalities and lash ptosis are the main complications of the surgery. Postoperatively, spontaneous blinks and downward saccades were reduced in most eyelids

  2. Radar Interferometry Detection of Hinge Line Migration on Rutford Ice Stream and Carlson Inlet, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) Interferometry is employed to map the hinge line, or limit of tidal flexing, of Rutford Ice Stream and Carlson Inlet, Antarctica, and detect its migration between 1992 and 1996. The hinge line is mapped using a model fit from an elastic beam theory.

  3. Hinge-free topology optimization with embedded translation-invariant differentiable wavelet shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, G. H.; Kim, Y. Y.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2004-01-01

    In topology optimization applications for the design of compliant mechanisms, the formation of hinges is typically encountered. Often such hinges are unphysical artifacts that appear due to the choice of discretization spaces for design and analysis. The objective of this work is to present a new...

  4. Multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexure hinges made of superelastic materials is a promising candidate to enhance the movability of compliant mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on the multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge. The objective is to determine a set of optimal geometric parameters that maximizes the motion range and the relative compliance of the flexure hinge and minimizes the relative rotation error during the deformation as well. Firstly, the paper presents a new type of ellipse-parabola shaped flexure hinge which is constructed by an ellipse arc and a parabola curve. Then, the static responses of superelastic flexure hinges are solved via non-prismatic beam elements derived by the co-rotational approach. Finite element analysis (FEA and experiment tests are performed to verify the modeling method. Finally, a multi-objective optimization is performed and the Pareto frontier is found via the NSGA-II algorithm.

  5. A Structurally Variable Hinged Tetrahedron Framework from DNA Origami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized polyhedral wire-frame objects hold a wide range of potential applications both as structural scaffolds as well as a basis for synthetic nanocontainers. The utilization of DNA as basic building blocks for such structures allows the exploitation of bottom-up self-assembly in order to achieve molecular programmability through the pairing of complementary bases. In this work, we report on a hollow but rigid tetrahedron framework of 75 nm strut length constructed with the DNA origami method. Flexible hinges at each of their four joints provide a means for structural variability of the object. Through the opening of gaps along the struts, four variants can be created as confirmed by both gel electrophoresis and direct imaging techniques. The intrinsic site addressability provided by this technique allows the unique targeted attachment of dye and/or linker molecules at any point on the structure's surface, which we prove through the superresolution fluorescence microscopy technique DNA PAINT.

  6. Can we evaluate the levator ani after Kegel exercise in women with pelvic organ prolapse by transperineal elastography? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meng; Zhang, Xuyin; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Wenping; Hua, Keqin

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stiffness variation of the levator ani in patients with stage I/II pelvic organ prolapse (POP) before and after Kegel exercises by transperineal elastography. A total of 20 patients who were diagnosed with staged I/II POP underwent conventional transperineal ultrasound and elastography. For each patient, the levator ani was located and evaluated in the state of Valsalva. After Kegel exercises for 12 weeks, transperineal ultrasound and elastography were repeated. The elasticity images were assessed using a four-point scale scoring system. Of the 20 cases, four had an elastography score of 1, 14 had a score of 2, two had a score of 3, and no cases had a score of 4 in the levator ani before Kegel exercises. After Kegel exercises, one had an elastography score of 1, two had a score of 2, 15 had a score of 3, and two cases had a score of 4. The mean elastography score was statistically significantly higher for the levator ani after Kegel exercises (2.90 ± 0.48) than for the baseline score (1.90 ± 0.29) (p = 0.025). Transperineal elastography was an effective and useful tool in the evaluation of the levator ani in patients with POP-Q stage I/II before and after Kegel exercises.

  7. Numerical investigation of the performance of three hinge designs of bileaflet mechanical heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Hélène A; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2010-11-01

    Thromboembolic complications (TECs) of bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are believed to be due to the nonphysiologic mechanical stresses imposed on blood elements by the hinge flows. Relating hinge flow features to design features is, therefore, essential to ultimately design BMHVs with lower TEC rates. This study aims at simulating the pulsatile three-dimensional hinge flows of three BMHVs and estimating the TEC potential associated with each hinge design. Hinge geometries are constructed from micro-computed tomography scans of BMHVs. Simulations are conducted using a Cartesian sharp-interface immersed-boundary methodology combined with a second-order accurate fractional-step method. Leaflet motion and flow boundary conditions are extracted from fluid-structure-interaction simulations of BMHV bulk flow. The numerical results are analyzed using a particle-tracking approach coupled with existing blood damage models. The gap width and, more importantly, the shape of the recess and leaflet are found to impact the flow distribution and TEC potential. Smooth, streamlined surfaces appear to be more favorable than sharp corners or sudden shape transitions. The developed framework will enable pragmatic and cost-efficient preclinical evaluation of BMHV prototypes prior to valve manufacturing. Application to a wide range of hinges with varying design parameters will eventually help in determining the optimal hinge design.

  8. Incorporation of a hinge domain improves the expansion of chimeric antigen receptor T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple iterations of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs have been developed, mainly focusing on intracellular signaling modules. However, the effect of non-signaling extracellular modules on the expansion and therapeutic efficacy of CARs remains largely undefined. Methods We generated two versions of CAR vectors, with or without a hinge domain, targeting CD19, mesothelin, PSCA, MUC1, and HER2, respectively. Then, we systematically compared the effect of the hinge domains on the growth kinetics, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity of CAR T cells in vitro and in vivo. Results During in vitro culture period, the percentages and absolute numbers of T cells expressing the CARs containing a hinge domain continuously increased, mainly through the promotion of CD4+ CAR T cell expansion, regardless of the single-chain variable fragment (scFv. In vitro migration assay showed that the hinges enhanced CAR T cells migratory capacity. The T cells expressing anti-CD19 CARs with or without a hinge had similar antitumor capacities in vivo, whereas the T cells expressing anti-mesothelin CARs containing a hinge domain showed enhanced antitumor activities. Conclusions Hence, our results demonstrate that a hinge contributes to CAR T cell expansion and is capable of increasing the antitumor efficacy of some specific CAR T cells. Our results suggest potential novel strategies in CAR vector design.

  9. Reassessing the Plastic Hinge Model for Energy Dissipation of Axially Loaded Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Korol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy dissipation potential of axially loaded columns and evaluates the use of a plastic hinge model for analysis of hi-rise building column collapse under extreme loading conditions. The experimental program considered seven axially loaded H-shaped extruded aluminum structural section columns having slenderness ratios that would be typical of floor-to-ceiling heights in buildings. All seven test specimens initially experienced minor-axis overall buckling followed by formation of a plastic hinge at the mid-height region, leading to local buckling of the flanges on the compression side of the plastic hinge, and eventual folding of the compression flanges. The experimental energy absorption, based on load-displacement relations, was compared to the energy estimates based on section plastic moment resistance based on measured yield stress and based on measured hinge rotations. It was found that the theoretical plastic hinge model underestimates a column’s actual ability to absorb energy by a factor in the range of 3 to 4 below that obtained from tests. It was also noted that the realizable hinge rotation is less than 180°. The above observations are based, of course, on actual columns being able to sustain high tensile strains at hinge locations without fracturing.

  10. Functional anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle and its connective tissue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, A; Priglinger, S; Kramer, J; Koornneef, L

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: The connective tissue system of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle (LPS) consists of the septa surrounding its muscle sheath, the superior transverse ligament (STL) commonly referred to as 'Whitnall's ligament' and the common sheath which is the fascia between the LPS and the superior rectus muscle (SRM). The anterior band-like component of the common sheath is called transverse superior fascial expansion (TSFE) of the SRM and LPS. It mainly extends from the connective tissue of the trochlea to the fascia of the lacrimal gland. A detailed description of the relation between the LPS and its connective tissue is presented. Furthermore, the course of the LPS in the orbit is described. The study was conducted to provide a morphological basis for biomechanical and clinical considerations regarding ptosis surgery. METHODS: Postmortem dissections were performed in 16 orbits from eight cadavers. The microscopical anatomy was demonstrated in six formalin preserved orbits from six cadavers which had been sectioned in the frontal and sagittal plane and stained with haematoxylin and azophloxin. Surface coil magnetic resonance imaging in the sagittal and coronal plane was performed in five orbits from five normal volunteers using a T1 weighted spin echo sequence. RESULTS: The STL and the TSFE surround the LPS to form a fascial sleeve around the muscle which has attachments to the medial and lateral orbital wall. The TSFE, which is thicker than the STL, blends with Tenon's capsule. The STL and the fascial sheath of the LPS muscle are suspended from the orbital roof by a framework of radial connective tissue septa. MR images show that the TSFE is located between the anterior third of the superior rectus muscle and the segment of the LPS muscle where it changes its course from upwards to downwards. In this area, the LPS reaches its highest point in the orbit (culmination point). The culmination point is located a few millimetres posterior to the equator and

  11. Does age affect visualization of the levator ani in nulliparous women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; Shobeiri, S Abbas; White, Dena; Wild, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Our aim was to assess whether differences in the ages of nulliparous women affect: (1) interobserver reliability, and (2) visualization of the levator ani (LA) muscle subdivisions in nulliparous women using 3D endovaginal ultrasound (3D-EVUS). This was a cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling nulliparous women ages 21-70 years were recruited. Participants underwent a standard examination and a 3D-EVUS. LA subdivisions of interest included the puboperinealis, puboanalis, pubococcygeus, puborectalis, and ileococcygeus muscles. Each ultrasound (US) volume was scored using a validated scale and assessed by two observers. Defect severity was scored for each muscle from 0 (no defect) to 6 (complete muscle loss). A summed score of the two sides was grouped as normal (0), minor (1-3), or major (4-6). Bias was examined using Bland-Altman plots. Intraclass coefficients were calculated to report agreement of total scores. Spearman's rank correlation was used to evaluate the association between age and LA scores. Eighty nulliparous women were evaluated. Exact agreement for bilateral scoring of each LA subdivision ranged from 82 % to 84 %. Bilateral scoring of the puboperinealis, puborectalis, and ileococcygeus showed moderate to substantial agreement. Bilateral scores of the puboperinealis demonstrated substantial agreement between observers, with an ICC of 0.8 and a mean difference of -0.2 using the Bland-Altman analysis. When women were analyzed by age decade, reader agreement was overall good to excellent. There was no significant correlation between increasing age and total LA muscle scores (r = 0.179, p = 0.113). Interobserver reliability or visualization of the LA muscle in nulliparous women was not affected by a woman's age.

  12. Exogenous skeletal muscle satellite cells promote the repair of levator palpebrae superioris mechanical damage in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Yao, Yuanyuan; Guo, Hui; Peng, Yun

    2018-04-13

    Blepharoptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid, usually due to dysfunction of the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS). Recently, skeletal muscle satellite cells (SSCs) have been reported to promote the repair of damaged skeletal muscle. This study aims to investigate the potential contribution of exogenous SSCs to the regeneration of mechanically damaged LPS. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups, including control group, SSCs-treated group, SSCs-treated injury group and non-treated injury group. After rats in injury groups were artificially lacerated on both the left and right LPS, HBBS (Hank's Balanced Salt Solution) containing SSCs was injected into upper eyelid tissue. After 7 days, the LPS muscle tissues were excised. In addition, skeletal muscle cells (SMCs) and SSCs were co-cultured for use as an in vitro model, and the protective effects of SSCs on cultured SMCs were also investigated. Histological staining revealed that exogenous SSCs repaired the damaged muscle fibers and attenuated the fibrosis of LPS, possibly due to the increased level of IGF-1. In contrast, the level of IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β1 and Smad2/3(phospho-T8) were significantly reduced in the SSCs-treated group. The in vitro model using co-culture of skeletal muscle cells (SMCs) and SSCs also revealed an increased level of IGF-1 and reduced level of inflammatory factors, resulting in a better cell survival rate. This study found that exogenous SSCs can promote the repair of LPS mechanical damage and provides new insight into the development of novel therapeutic approaches for blepharoptosis.

  13. The Magnetic Levator Prosthesis for Temporary Management of Severe Blepharoptosis: Initial Safety and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Kevin E.; Tomasi, Matteo; Amaral, Christina; Finch, Nicole; Yoon, Michael K.; Lee, Hang; Paschalis, Eleftherios I.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We further optimized and evaluated the safety of the magnetic levator prosthesis (MLP) for temporary management of severe blepharoptosis, and compared efficacy and comfort against the ptosis crutch. Methods The interpalpebral fissure (IPF) of participants (n = 12) with ptosis was measured during attempted eyelid opening, volitional closing, and spontaneous closing with no device, ptosis crutch, or the MLP. A 10-point scale documented comfort. Additionally, a 20 minute and then 1 week trial of the MLP was offered. Safety measures were skin erythema rating, change in visual acuity, and change in corneal staining. Results The MLP and crutch opened the eye (IPF 11.2 and 9.3 mm), but the MLP allowed better volitional closure (IPF 1.0 vs. 4.9 mm, P = 0.009), but was no better in allowing spontaneous blink (IPF 7.5 vs. 7.7 mm, P = 0.722). Both devices were equally comfortable (both median 8/10 comfort, P = 0.46). With extended use, opening with the MLP showed IPF 9.24 mm at 20 minutes and 9.46 mm at 1 week, and volitional closure was IPF 0.95 and 0.52 mm, respectively. Closure on spontaneous blink improved with extended wear to IPF 5.14 and 5.18 mm, respectively (P = 0.002). Two participants exhibited moderate skin erythema and one had increased corneal staining without change in acuity. Conclusions The MLP is safe and feasible for temporary correction of severe ptosis. Translational Relevance First group data in patients showing successful reanimation of the eyelid with magnetic force. PMID:29367892

  14. A pilot randomized trial of levator injections versus physical therapy for treatment of pelvic floor myalgia and sexual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, Dani; South, Mary; Karram, Mickey; Sroga, Julie; Maxwell, Rose; Shah, Aparna; Whiteside, James

    2015-06-01

    Our aim was to determine the effects of pelvic floor physical therapy (PT) and levator-directed trigger-point injections (LTPI) on sexual function and levator-related pelvic pain. A randomized trial among women with pelvic floor myalgia (PFM) was performed wherein participants received either PT or LTPI. Pain was assessed and 1 month posttreatment completion. Levator-based pain was assessed using a numeric rating scale (NRS) and the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) scale. Sexual function was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Twenty-nine women completed the study (17 had PT, 12 had LTPI). Both groups reported reduction in vaginal pain: mean NRS change from baseline of 4.47 [standard deviation (SD) 2.12) for PT and 4.67 (SD 1.72) for LTPI (p = 0.8)]. A >50 % improvement in NRS was documented among 59 % of women receiving PT and 58 % receiving LTPI (p = 1.0). Consistent with NRS scores, mean PGI-I score was 2.50 (SD 1.17) for PT and 2.17 (SD 1.01) for LTPI (p = 0.5). Mean change in FSFI favored PT [PT +8.87 (SD 5.60), LTPI +4.00 (SD 5.24), p = 0.04], reflecting improvement in the sexual pain domain favoring PT (p = 0.02). However, the time in weeks to effect improvement favored LTPI if controlling for the degree of change in NRS (p = 0.01) and FSFI (p = 0.01). Vaginal myalgia and sex-related pain improved with pelvic floor PT and LTPI. Time-to-effect improvement and significance of therapy are dependent on treatment type.

  15. Outcomes of levator advancement and Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection for the repair of upper eyelid ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G N; Chan, J; Sundar, G; Amrith, S

    2017-02-01

    Both the Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection (MMCR) and levator advancement (LA) procedures can be used to manage ptosis in patients with good levator function. The aim of this article is to evaluate the efficacy and cosmetic outcomes of the two procedures. The clinical records of 29 consecutive eyelids of 26 patients undergoing MMCR and 30 eyelids of 23 patients undergoing LA were analysed. Eleven (42%) in the LA group and 9 (39%) in the MMCR group were male. The preoperative eyelid measurements were significantly different in the LA compared to the MMCR groups, in terms of palpebral aperture (PA) (6.3 vs 7.4, p = 0.01), marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) (-0.1 vs 1.5, p MRD1 1 month post-surgery was slightly less in the LA group compared to the MMCR group (2.6 vs 3.18 mm, p = 0.047) but not significantly different at months 3 and 6. The final change in MRD1 was significantly higher in the LA group (2.93 vs 1.76, p = 0.004). The MMCR group had a lower incidence of lid contour abnormalities (0% vs 20%, p = 0.01) and overcorrection (0% vs 13%, p = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of undercorrection in either group. Both the MMCR as well as LA procedures are effective for mild to moderate ptosis in patients with good levator function. Patients undergoing MMCR had higher success rates, better preservation of the natural lid contour, and a lower incidence of overcorrection than patients undergoing LA.

  16. Borderline to Moderate Blepharoptosis Correction Using Retrotarsal Tucking of Müller Muscle: Levator Aponeurosis in Asian Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seungil; Ahn, Byungjoon; Yang, Wonyong; Burm, Jansik; Bum, Jinsik; Kim, Kiyup; Kang, Sangyoon

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the outcome of retrotarsal tucking of Müller muscle-levator aponeurosis for the correction of borderline to moderate ptosis in conjunction with esthetic blepharoplasty in Asian eyelids and to explore the relationship between the extent of advancement and change in the eyelid position (MRD1). The medical records of 290 consecutive patients who underwent retrotarsal tucking of Müller muscle-levator aponeurosis from February 2005 to November 2011 were reviewed. Of those, 26 patients (51 eyelids) were statistically analyzed. The correction was performed through an external upper blepharoplasty approach. Once the orbital septum was opened, the Müller muscle-levator aponeurosis was advanced and tucked under the posterior surface of the tarsus by a single lifting suture. The average follow-up period was 20.6 months, with a range of 3-68 months. In 26 patients (51 eyelids), satisfactory results were recorded for 49 of 51 eyelids (96.1 %). The margin reflex distance-1 (MRD1) increased from 1.56 ± 0.70 mm preoperatively to 3.86 ± 0.94 mm postoperatively (p MRD1 of 1 mm was achieved. For 7.2 and 8.3 mm of advancement, the average MRD1 achieved was 2 and 3 mm each. A noteworthy complication, although not included in statistical analysis, was one patient who had developed corneal irritation caused by the conjunctival exposure to the non-absorbable suture 3 years after the surgery, which led the subject to have the suture removed. The author concludes that this procedure is one of the most effective surgical options in correcting borderline to moderate blepharoptosis in conjunction with esthetic blepharoplasty. The main advantage of such a method is that once the orbital septum is opened, Müller muscle-levator aponeurosis is easily advanced and tucked under the posterior surface of the tarsal plate without extensive dissection or resection, which is less traumatic and gives a more vertical lifting vector, thus producing excellent

  17. Comparison of custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints and off-the-shelf ankle braces in preventing ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winson C C; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Choy, Barton T S; Leung, Aaron K L

    2012-06-01

    A custom moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints potentially offers a better control over the subtalar joint and the ankle joint during lateral cutting movements, due to total contact design and increase in material strength. To test the above hypothesis by comparing it to three other available orthoses. Repeated measures. Eight subjects with a history of ankle sprains (Grade 2), and 11 subjects without such history performed lateral cutting movements in four test conditions: 1) non-orthotic, 2) custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges, 3) Sport-Stirrup, and 4) elastic ankle sleeve with plastic support. A VICON motion analysis system was used to study the motions at the ankle and subtalar joints. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis significantly lowered the inversion angle at initial contact (p = 0.006) and the peak inversion angle (p = 0.000) during lateral cutting movements in comparison to non-orthotic condition, while the other two orthoses did not. The three orthoses did not affect the plantarflexion motions, which had been suggested by previous studies to be important in shock wave attenuation. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges could better control inversion and thus expected to better prevent ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements. Custom-moulded ankle orthoses are not commonly used in preventing ankle sprains. This study raises the awareness of the use of custom-moulded ankle orthoses which are expected to better prevent ankle sprains.

  18. Analysis of intelligent hinged shell structures: deployable deformation and shape memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Guang-Hui; Yang, Qing-Sheng; He, X Q

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of intelligent materials with the ability to recover their initial shape from a temporarily fixable state when subjected to external stimuli. In this work, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a deployable SMP-based hinged structure is modeled by the finite element method using a 3D constitutive model with shape memory effect. The influences of hinge structure parameters on the nonlinear loading process are investigated. The total shape memory of the processes the hinged structure goes through, including loading at high temperature, decreasing temperature with load carrying, unloading at low temperature and recovering the initial shape with increasing temperature, are illustrated. Numerical results show that the present constitutive theory and the finite element method can effectively predict the complicated thermo-mechanical deformation behavior and shape memory effect of SMP-based hinged shell structures. (paper)

  19. Effect of the hinge protein on the heme iron site of cytochrome c1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.; Yencha, A.J.; Bunker, G.; Zhang, G.; Chance, B.; King, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) studies on cytochrome c 1 from beef heart mitochondria were conducted to identify the effect of the hinge protein on the structure of the heme site in cytochrome c 1 . A comparison of XAS data of highly purified one-band and two-band cytochrome c 1 demonstrates that the hinge protein exerts a rather pronounced effect on the heme environment of the cytochrome c 1 : a conformational change occurs within a radius of approximately 5 angstrom from the heme iron in cytochrome c 1 when the hinge protein is bound to cytochrome c 1 . This result may be correlated with the previous observations that the structure and reactivity of cytochrome c 1 are affected by the hinge protein

  20. The Stress Analysis and Tests on the Hinge Beam of the Diamond Synthesis Cubic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of the lug fractures of hinge beam caused by the fatigue and overload during the operation of the cubic press, the analysis methods of finite element are applied to the analysis of the internal stress distributions of the hinge beam. The simulation results show that the internal stress of the hinge beam mainly concentrates on the upper surface of the lug roots connecting the outer cylinder with the both lugs. According to the data of simulation and analysis as well as the actual fracture situations, considering the strain-test methods we have designed the schemes of testing the strain on the lugs of hinge beam. And the strain measurements of the lugs are completed by the repeated loading experiments. Comparing the data of simulation and analysis with the measured data has verified their consistency. It also confirms the model established by the simulation and analysis is reasonable and accurate at the same time.

  1. Simulations of the hinge micro flow field of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Helene; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2006-11-01

    Studies have shown that bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHV) promote blood cell damage and thromboembolic events due to their non-physiologic hemodynamics. Clinical reports and recent in-vitro experiments suggest that these complications are mainly associated with the hemodynamic stresses of flow through the valve hinge regions. To date, hinge hemodynamics has been largely studied using experimental approaches. This study aims at numerically simulating the pulsatile flow through the hinge region of a BMHV. The numerical technique uses a Cartesian sharp interface immersed boundary methodology and a hybrid staggered/non staggered control volume method. The hinge and leaflet dimensions are obtained from Micro Computed Tomography of an actual clinical bileaflet valve and the leaflet motion is provided as prescribed boundary conditions based on experimental measurements. Calculations will be presented for pulsatile flow conditions and reveal a complex three dimensional flow pattern throughout the entire cardiac cycle.

  2. Functionalisation of the hinge region in receptor molecules for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2003-01-01

    The functionalisation of the hinge region in a molecular tweezer molecule showing a strong binding to explosives is presented. Two versatile functional groups are introduced, a carboxylic acid and a bromine atom. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......The functionalisation of the hinge region in a molecular tweezer molecule showing a strong binding to explosives is presented. Two versatile functional groups are introduced, a carboxylic acid and a bromine atom. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Design of Hierarchically Cut Hinges for Highly Stretchable and Reconfigurable Metamaterials with Enhanced Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Han, Lin; Qiu, Songgang; Yang, Shu; Yin, Jie

    2015-11-25

    Applying hierarchical cuts to thin sheets of elastomer generates super-stretchable and reconfigurable metamaterials, exhibiting highly nonlinear stress-strain behaviors and tunable phononic bandgaps. The cut concept fails on brittle thin sheets due to severe stress concentration in the rotating hinges. By engineering the local hinge shapes and global hierarchical structure, cut-based reconfigurable metamaterials with largely enhanced strength are realized. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Surgical anatomy and histology of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle for blepharoptosis correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Boban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The detailed knowledge of the architecture of the upper eyelid is very important in numerous upper eyelid corrective surgeries. The article deals with the detailed anatomy of the major components of the upper lid, which are commonly seen in surgical practice. Methods. This study was conducted on 19 human cadavers (12 adults and 7 infants without pathologic changes in the orbital region and eyelids. Anatomic microdissection of the contents of the orbita was performed bilaterally on 12 orbits from 6 unfixed cadavers (3 male and 3 female. Micromorphologic investigations of the orbital tissue were performed on 8 en bloc excised and formalin-fixed orbits of infant cadavers. Specimens were fixed according to the Duvernoy method. An intra-arterial injection of 5% mixture of melt formalin and black ink was administered into the carotid arterial system. Using routine fixation, decalcination, dehydration, illumination, impregnation and molding procedures in paraplast, specimens were prepared for cross-sections. Results. The measurement of the muscle length and diameter in situ in 6 nonfixed cadavers (12 orbits showed an average length of the levator palpbrae superioris (LPS muscle body of the 42.0 ± 1.41 mm on the right, and 40.3 ± 1.63 mm on the left side. In all the cases, the LPS had blood supply from 4 different arterial systems: the lacrimal, supratrochlear, and supraorbital artery and muscle branches of the ophthalmic artery. The LPS muscle in all the specimens was supplied by the superior medial branch of the oculomotor nerve. The connective tissue associated with the LPS muscle contains two transverse ligaments: the superior (Whitnall’s and intermuscular transverse ligaments (ITL. The orbital septum in all the specimens originated from the arcus marginalis of the frontal bone, and consisted of two layers - the superficial and the inner layer. In addition, a detailed histological analysis revealed that the upper eyelid

  5. Surgical anatomy and histology of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle for blepharoptosis correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Boban; Novaković, Marijan; Milisavljević, Milan; Milićević, Sasa; Maliković, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    The detailed knowledge of the architecture of the upper eyelid is very important in numerous upper eyelid corrective surgeries. The article deals with the detailed anatomy of the major components of the upper lid, which are commonly seen in surgical practice. This study was conducted on 19 human cadavers (12 adults and 7 infants) without pathologic changes in the orbital region and eyelids. Anatomic microdissection of the contents of the orbita was performed bilaterally on 12 orbits from 6 unfixed cadavers (3 male and 3 female). Micromorphologic investigations of the orbital tissue were performed on 8 en bloc excised and formalin-fixed orbits of infant cadavers. Specimens were fixed according to the Duvernoy method. An intra-arterial injection of 5% mixture of melt formalin and black ink was administered into the carotid arterial system. Using routine fixation, decalcination, dehydration, illumination, impregnation and molding procedures in paraplast, specimens were prepared for cross-sections. The measurement of the muscle length and diameter in situ in 6 nonfixed cadavers (12 orbits) showed an average length of the levator palpbrae superioris (LPS) muscle body of the 42.0 +/- 1.41 mm on the right, and 40.3 +/- 1.63 mm on the left side. In all the cases, the LPS had blood supply from 4 different arterial systems: the lacrimal, supratrochlear, and supraorbital artery and muscle branches of the ophthalmic artery. The LPS muscle in all the specimens was supplied by the superior medial branch of the oculomotor nerve. The connective tissue associated with the LPS muscle contains two transverse ligaments: the superior (Whitnall's) and intermuscular transverse ligaments (ITL). The orbital septum in all the specimens originated from the arcus marginalis of the frontal bone, and consisted of two layers--the superficial and the inner layer. In addition, a detailed histological analysis revealed that the upper eyelid's crease was formed by the conjoined fascia including the

  6. FlexOracle: predicting flexible hinges by identification of stable domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Samuel C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein motions play an essential role in catalysis and protein-ligand interactions, but are difficult to observe directly. A substantial fraction of protein motions involve hinge bending. For these proteins, the accurate identification of flexible hinges connecting rigid domains would provide significant insight into motion. Programs such as GNM and FIRST have made global flexibility predictions available at low computational cost, but are not designed specifically for finding hinge points. Results Here we present the novel FlexOracle hinge prediction approach based on the ideas that energetic interactions are stronger within structural domains than between them, and that fragments generated by cleaving the protein at the hinge site are independently stable. We implement this as a tool within the Database of Macromolecular Motions, MolMovDB.org. For a given structure, we generate pairs of fragments based on scanning all possible cleavage points on the protein chain, compute the energy of the fragments compared with the undivided protein, and predict hinges where this quantity is minimal. We present three specific implementations of this approach. In the first, we consider only pairs of fragments generated by cutting at a single location on the protein chain and then use a standard molecular mechanics force field to calculate the enthalpies of the two fragments. In the second, we generate fragments in the same way but instead compute their free energies using a knowledge based force field. In the third, we generate fragment pairs by cutting at two points on the protein chain and then calculate their free energies. Conclusion Quantitative results demonstrate our method's ability to predict known hinges from the Database of Macromolecular Motions.

  7. Rotating hinge prosthesis for complex revision total knee arthroplasty: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouk, Shalen; Rathod, Parthiv A; Maheshwari, Aditya V; Deshmukh, Ajit J

    2018-01-01

    The rotating hinge prosthesis was originally used and designed as a primary total knee arthroplasty implant, but was hampered due to poor outcomes and catastrophic failures. Newer rotating hinge implants can be utilized in complex revision total knee arthroplasties when appropriately indicated, but their outcome data is very difficult to interpret due to the strict and varied indications for use and subsequently small number of procedures performed. The goal of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on large cohort, rotating hinge knee prostheses used in the revision setting, in order to provide a clearer understanding of the indications, outcomes and complications. The PubMed database was utilized to search the available literature regarding "hinged knee," or "rotating hinge" devices. Exclusion criteria included papers focusing on primary arthroplasty, revision for oncologic issues, one-stage revision for infection or studies with less than fifty cases. Review of 115 abstracts after initial search, led to ten studies in the literature that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data shows that rotating hinge knee implants have good survivorship ranging from 51% to 92.5% at 10 years post-operatively. Complication rates range from 9.2% to 63% with infection and aseptic loosening as the most common complications. Rotating hinge knee prostheses are most commonly indicated for infection, aseptic loosening, instability and bone loss in the literature. They have good outcome scores and survivorship, but continue to have high complication and revision rates. The implant is a good option when utilized appropriately for patients that are not candidates for less constrained devices.

  8. Dexmedetomidine-based monitored conscious sedation combined local anesthesia for levator resection in a 10-year-old child with Marcus Gunn jaw-winking synkinesis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ye; Gao, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Levator resection has become a routine procedure for patients with severe Marcus Gunn jaw-winking synkinesis (MGJWS). To optimize the surgical outcome, adult patients need to be kept awake, or easily aroused and responsive to verbal commands during the operation. However, levator resection is commonly performed under general anesthesia in pediatric patients. In the present case, we described a successful anesthetic protocol of conscious sedation with local anesthesia for levator resection in a child. A 10-year-old boy with MGJWS was admitted to our hospital and scheduled for levator resection. The patient was born through a normal delivery and had no previous history of allergy, no comorbidity, and no history of receiving anesthesia or operation. The laboratory tests of the patient were unremarkable. The diagnosis of MGJWS was made by two experienced ophthalmologists. A 10-year-old boy with MGJWS was admitted to our hospital and scheduled for levator resection. The levator resection was performed under monitored conscious sedation with dexmedetomidine and local anesthesia. Patient with spontaneous breathing responded normally to verbal commands throughout the operation, and no adverse events occurred. The patient and ophthalmologist reported high satisfaction with anesthesia management. Dexmedetomidine-based monitored conscious sedation with local anesthesia is a feasible alternative to general anesthesia for levator resection in collaborative patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MRI suggests increased tonicity of the levator ani in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, A Lenore; Lee, Una J; Jellison, Forrest C; Tan, Nelly; Patel, Maitraya; Raman, Steven S; Rodriguez, Larissa V

    2016-01-01

    In interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), pelvic floor dysfunction may contribute significantly to pelvic pain. To determine if pelvic floor hypertonicity manifests alterations on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with IC/BPS, we retrospectively compared pelvic measurements between patients and controls. Fifteen women with IC/BPS and 15 age-matched controls underwent pelvic MRI. Two blinded radiologists measured the pelvic musculature, including the H- and M lines, vaginal length, urethral length and cross-sectional area, levator width and length, and posterior puborectalis angle. MRI measures and clinical factors, such as age, parity, and duration of symptoms, were compared using a paired, two-tailed t test. There were no significant differences in age, parity, or symptom duration between groups. Patients with IC/BPS exhibited shorter levator muscles (right: 5.0 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.8, left: 5.0 ± 0.8 vs. 5.7 ± 0.8 cm, P < 0.002) and a wider posterior puborectalis angle (35.0 ± 8.6 vs. 26.7 ± 7.9°, P < 0.01) compared with controls. The H line was shorter in patients with IC/BPS (7.8 ± 0.8 vs. 8.6 ± 0.9 cm, P < 0.02), while M line did not differ. Total urethral length was similar, but vaginal cuff and bladder neck distances to the H line were longer in patients with IC/BPS (5.7 ± 0.6 vs. 5.1 ± 0.9 cm, P < 0.02; 1.9 ± 0.4 vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 cm, P < 0.001, respectively). Patients with IC/BPS have pelvic floor hypertonicity on MRI, which manifests as shortened levator, increased posterior puborectalis angles, and decreased puborectal distances. We identified evidence of pelvic floor hypertonicity in patients with IC/BPS, which may contribute to or amplify pelvic pain. Future studies are necessary to determine the MRI utility in understanding pelvic floor hypertonicity in patients with IC/BPS.

  10. The treatment of intra-articular calcaneus fractures with severe soft tissue damage with a hinged external fixator or internal stabilization: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besch, Lutz; Waldschmidt, Jan Soeren; Daniels-Wredenhagen, Mark; Varoga, Deike; Mueller, Michael; Hilgert, Ralf-Erik; Mathiak, Guenther; Oestern, Stefanie; Lippross, Sebastian; Seekamp, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We developed a hinged external fixator for the treatment of dislocated intra-articular calcaneus fractures with severe soft tissue damage. The external fixation was performed with a known external fixator system. The screw insertion points were biomechanically tested by defining a virtual rotation axis through the center of the talus to allow early active motion in the ankle joint. Long-term follow-up was performed after an average of 7.3 years. Results were graded with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Radiographs were reviewed according to Sanders classification. Four open fractures and 33 cases with extremely swollen soft tissue, blisters, or compartment syndromes were treated. In 24 cases (64.9%), the hinged fixator was the final method of treatment (group I). A change to open reduction with internal fixation was performed in 13 fractures (35.1%) when soft tissue problems were minimal (group II). There were no late amputations, osteomyelitis, or malunions. According to Sanders classification, group I consisted of 14 type II, 8 type III, and 2 type IV fractures. Pin loosening or pin infection was seen in 4 cases, but there was no redislocation. The Böhler's angle improved in 43%, gaps in the posterior facet were closed in 41%, and any shortening or deviation of the axis was corrected in 82% of the cases. The AOFAS score for the group averaged 66.5. According to Sanders classification, group II consisted of 8 type II and 5 type III fractures. The Böhler's angle improved in 88%, and gaps in the posterior facet were closed in 87%. Any shortening or deviation of the axis was corrected in 95%, and the AOFAS score averaged 61.3. Significant differences in patient outcome scores between open reduction with internal fixation and hinged fixator were not found. P value was > .05. The hinged external fixator frame can be used in all calcaneus fracture types without soft tissue limitation. The hinged fixator allows early movement in the ankle

  11. Kinematics analysis on hinges of robot arm gripper for harmful chemical handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Zol Bahri; Kader, Mohamed Mydin M. Abdul; Mustafa, Nurul Fahimah; Daud, Mohd Hisam

    2017-09-01

    The development of manufacturing industry is booming the application of industrial robot, and proportional to the use of robot arm. Some of the purpose of robot arm gripper is to sort things and place to the proper place. And some of the things are harmful to human, such as harmful chemical. By using robot arm to do picking and placing, it is expected to replace human tasks, as well as to reduce human from the harmful job. The problem of the robot arm gripper, most likely the problem of hinge, thus the analysis on the hinges of robot arm gripper to prevent claw is essential. By using robot arm, instead of human, is labored to do the harmful tasks and unexpected accident happen, costs and expenses in handling injured employee due to the harmful chemicals can be minimized. Thus the objective of this project is to make a kinematics analysis on the hinges of the robot arm gripper. Suitable material such as steel structure has also been selected for the construction of this hinges. This material has properties associated with compressive strength, fire resistance, corrosion and has a shape that is easy to move. Solid Works and ANSYS software is used to create animated movement on the design model and to detect deficiencies in the hinges. Detail methodology is described in this paper.

  12. A numerical investigation of blood damage in the hinge area of bileaflet mechanical heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min; Wu, Jingshu; Simon, Helene; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Aidun, Cyrus; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2010-11-01

    Studies have shown that high shear stress and large recirculation regions have a strong impact on thromboembolic complications in Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHV). This study quantitatively compares the hinge flow field and blood damage of the 23mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) regent with different hinge gap widths and the 23mm CarboMedics (CM) valves. The lattice-Boltzmann method with external boundary force (LBM-EBF) [Wu and Aidun, Int. J Num. Methods Fluids, 62, 7, 2009] was implemented to simulate the flow and capture the dynamics and the surface shear stress of the platelets with realistic geometry. The velocity boundary conditions for the small-scale hinge flow are obtained from previous 3D large-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations [Simon et al, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 38, 3, 2009]. The flow patterns of three hinges that were studied were similar during diastole. However, velocity magnitudes and shear stresses at the hinge gap were different, which may explain the higher blood damage index (BDI) value for the CM valve and lower BDI value for the SJM valve with a larger gap width. The multiscale computational method used to quantitatively measure the BDI during a full cardiac cycle will be discussed.

  13. Topographic Anatomy of the Anal Sphincter Complex and Levator Ani Muscle as It Relates to Intersphincteric Resection for Very Low Rectal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Yuichiro; Ito, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Kumiko; Kojima, Motohiro; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Akita, Keiichi; Saito, Norio

    2016-05-01

    Intersphincteric resection has become a widely used treatment for patients with rectal cancer. However, the detailed anatomy of the anal canal related to this procedure has remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the detailed anatomy of the anal canal. This is a descriptive study. Histologic evaluations of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens were conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Tissue specimens were obtained from cadavers of 5 adults and from 13 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. Sagittal sections from 9 circumferential portions of the cadaveric anal canal (histologic staining) and 3 circumferential portions from patients were studied (immunohistochemistry for smooth and skeletal muscle fibers). Longitudinal fibers between the internal and external anal sphincters consisted primarily of smooth muscle fibers that continued from the longitudinal muscle of the rectum. The levator ani muscle attached directly to the lateral surface of the longitudinal smooth muscle of the rectum. The length of the attachment was longer in the anterolateral portion and shorter in the posterior portion of the anal canal. In the lateral and posterior portions, the levator ani muscle partially overlapped the external anal sphincter; however, there was less overlap in the anterolateral portion. In the posterior portion, thick smooth muscle was present on the surface of the levator ani muscle and it continued to the longitudinal muscle of the rectum. We observed only limited portions in some surgical specimens because of obstruction by tumors. The levator ani muscle attaches directly to the longitudinal muscle of the rectum. The spatial relationship between the smooth and skeletal muscles differed in different portions of the anal canal. For intersphincteric resection, dissection must be performed between the longitudinal muscle of the rectum and the levator ani muscle/external anal sphincter, and the appropriate surgical lines

  14. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S. L. Cheung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient’s diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis.

  15. Intensive mutagenesis of the nisin hinge leads to the rational design of enhanced derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Healy

    Full Text Available Nisin A is the most extensively studied lantibiotic and has been used as a preservative by the food industry since 1953. This 34 amino acid peptide contains three dehydrated amino acids and five thioether rings. These rings, resulting from one lanthionine and four methyllanthionine bridges, confer the peptide with its unique structure. Nisin A has two mechanisms of action, with the N-terminal domain of the peptide inhibiting cell wall synthesis through lipid II binding and the C-terminal domain responsible for pore-formation. The focus of this study is the three amino acid 'hinge' region (N 20, M 21 and K 22 which separates these two domains and allows for conformational flexibility. As all lantibiotics are gene encoded, novel variants can be generated through manipulation of the corresponding gene. A number of derivatives in which the hinge region was altered have previously been shown to possess enhanced antimicrobial activity. Here we take this approach further by employing simultaneous, indiscriminate site-saturation mutagenesis of all three hinge residues to create a novel bank of nisin derivative producers. Screening of this bank revealed that producers of peptides with hinge regions consisting of AAK, NAI and SLS displayed enhanced bioactivity against a variety of targets. These and other results suggested a preference for small, chiral amino acids within the hinge region, leading to the design and creation of producers of peptides with hinges consisting of AAA and SAA. These producers, and the corresponding peptides, exhibited enhanced bioactivity against Lactococcus lactis HP, Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 13813, Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2155 and Staphylococcus aureus RF122 and thus represent the first example of nisin derivatives that possess enhanced activity as a consequence of rational design.

  16. Experimental investigation of hinged and spring loaded rolling piston compressors pertaining to a turbo rotary engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okur, Melih; Akmandor, Ibrahim Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Hinged rolling piston compressor of a new thermodynamic cycle Pars engine promises high performance figures such as single stage high compression levels and higher volume flow discharge with competitively low input power and torque. The pumping characteristic of the present engine compressor unit has been increased by the implementation of a spring less vane configuration. The reciprocating vane which is usually operated by spring compression in air conditioning and refrigeration unit has been replaced by a hinge vane mechanism. At high speeds, the conventional spring loaded vane which is forced against the eccentrically moving rotor periphery does disconnect and starts rocking. With the new configuration, this mishap has been eliminated and subsequently resulting compressor pressure leaks have been avoided. Compressor experiments have been carried out at predetermined rotor speeds and compressed volume flow amounts and required shaft powers have been measured and derived accordingly. Experimentally determined pressure-volume relations have been compared with isentropic, isothermal, isochoric compressions as well as isobaric process. It is seen that at lower speeds, hinged vane compression is half way between isentropic and isochoric compressions whereas at high speed the compression process approaches further isochoric compression behavior. The isentropic compression efficiency of the hinged vane compressor is around 85% for pressures reaching 9 atm. - Research highlights: → Volume flow rate of rotary vane compressor unit has been increased by a hinged vane mechanism. → Hinged compressor pressure output is almost twice the performance of a spring loaded compressor. → The slipping and rocking of the spring loaded vane against the rolling piston have been eliminated.

  17. A hinged-pad test structure for sliding friction measurement in micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, M.P. de; Redmond, J.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    The authors describe the design, modeling, fabrication and initial testing of a new test structure for friction measurement in MEMS. The device consists of a cantilevered forked beam and a friction pad attached via a hinge. Compared to previous test structures, the proposed structure can measure friction over much larger pressure ranges, yet occupies one hundred times less area. The placement of the hinge is crucial to obtaining a well-known and constant pressure distribution in the device. Static deflections on the device were measured and modeled numerically, Preliminary results indicate that friction pad slip is sensitive to friction pad normal force.

  18. Hinged and sectional complete dentures for restricted mouth opening: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Restricted mouth opening is a definite prosthodontic hindrance to carry out treatment successfully. Restricted mouth opening can be due to many reasons such as microstomia, oral submucous fibrosis, some genetic disorder, and as a result of some surgical treatment. In the past, various techniques for prosthetic rehabilitation of limited oral opening have been tried such as surgeries, use of dynamic opening devices, magnetic devices, and modification of denture design. Here we present; a simplified technique and simple design for fabrication of maxillary hinged and mandibular hinged and sectional complete denture for a patient with restricted mouth opening due to oral submucous fibrosis.

  19. Comparison of hinge microflow fields of bileaflet mechanical heart valves implanted in different sinus shape and downstream geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yee Han; Kabinejadian, Foad; Nguyen, Vinh-Tan; Su, Boyang; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of the bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) hinge microflow fields is a crucial step in heart valve engineering. Earlier in vitro studies of BMHV hinge flow at the aorta position in idealized straight pipes have shown that the aortic sinus shapes and sizes may have a direct impact on hinge microflow fields. In this paper, we used a numerical study to look at how different aortic sinus shapes, the downstream aortic arch geometry, and the location of the hinge recess can influence the flow fields in the hinge regions. Two geometric models for sinus were investigated: a simplified axisymmetric sinus and an idealized three-sinus aortic root model, with two different downstream geometries: a straight pipe and a simplified curved aortic arch. The flow fields of a 29-mm St Jude Medical BMHV with its four hinges were investigated. The simulations were performed throughout the entire cardiac cycle. At peak systole, recirculating flows were observed in curved downsteam aortic arch unlike in straight downstream pipe. Highly complex three-dimensional leakage flow through the hinge gap was observed in the simulation results during early diastole with the highest velocity at 4.7 m/s, whose intensity decreased toward late diastole. Also, elevated wall shear stresses were observed in the ventricular regions of the hinge recess with the highest recorded at 1.65 kPa. Different flow patterns were observed between the hinge regions in straight pipe and curved aortic arch models. We compared the four hinge regions at peak systole in an aortic arch downstream model and found that each individual hinge did not vary much in terms of the leakage flow rate through the valves.

  20. Comparison of platelet activation through hinge vs bulk flow in mechanical heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Mohammadali; Borazjani, Iman

    2017-11-01

    Bileaflet mechanical heart valves increase the risk of thrombus formation in patients which is believed to be initiated by platelet activation. Platelets can be activated by the elevated shear stresses in the bulk flow during the systole phase or the flow through the hinge during the diastole. However, the importance of platelet activation by the bulk flow vs the hinge in MHVs has yet to be studied. Here, we investigate the contribution of each of the above mechanisms to the activation of platelets in MHs by performing simulation of the flow through a 25mm St. Jude Medical valve placed in a straight aorta. Two different gap sizes (250 and 150 micrometer) are used in this study. The simulations are done using a sharp interface curvilinear immersed boundary method along with a strong-coupling algorithm for FSI solver on overset grids. The platelet activation through the hinge for different gap sizes is compared to the activation in the bulk flow using two platelet activation models to ensure the consistency of the results. Our results for all gap sizes using different activation models show that the integration of platelet activation caused by the bulk flow is several times higher in comparison to the activation through the hinge. This work is supported by the American Heart Association Grant 13SDG17220022, and the computational resources were partly provided by Center for Computational Research (CCR) at University at Buffalo.

  1. Delta-n Hinge: rotation-invariant features for writer identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Sheng; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for extracting rotation-invariant features from images of handwriting samples that can be used to perform writer identification. The proposed features are based on the Hinge feature [1], but incorporating the derivative between several points along the ink contours.

  2. Basic properties and application of shape memory polymer composite to deployable hinge for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2007-07-01

    This paper is concerned about the basic properties of deployment of shape memory polymer composite (SMPC) and its application to deployable hinge for solar arrays. Shape memory polymer (SMP) used in this study is a thermoset styrene-based shape memory resin in contrast to normal thermoplastic SMPs. Carbon fiber fabric reinforced SMPC is discussed here. In order to investigate the basic performances of deployment for SMPC hinge, the experimental methods are used as follows: dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), three point bending test and deployment tests. Results indicate that the glass transition temperature (T g) of SMPC is approximate 63°C. SMPC shows typical linear elasticity and high bending modulus before glass transition in SMP, while exhibits apparent nonlinear viscoelasticity and low bending modulus within the range of glass transition in SMP. The shape recovery ratio of SMPC is above 90% at/above T g, while drops sharply at below T g. The deployment properties of SMPC depend strongly on the number of thermomechanical cycles, which become relatively stable after some packaging/deployment cycles. Moreover, deployment velocity and shape recovery ratio rise remarkably with the increase of temperature of SMPC. In the end, a prototype of solar array actuated by SMPC hinge, which is heated by passing an electrical current, deploys from about 180° to 0° in one minute. This SMPC hinge performs good deployment performances during numerous thermomechanical cycles.

  3. Angular motion equations for a satellite with hinged flexible solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Tkachev, S. S.; Roldugin, D. S.; Nuralieva, A. B.; Mashtakov, Y. V.

    2016-11-01

    Non-linear mathematical model for the satellite with hinged flexible solar panel is presented. Normal modes of flexible elements are used for motion description. Motion equations are derived using virtual work principle. A comparison of normal modes calculation between finite element method and developed model is presented.

  4. Effect of plate thickness on bending radius and energy dissipation at the subduction zone hinge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irvine, D. N.; Schellart, W. P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the thickness of subducting oceanic plates being identified as a control on slab and hinge behavior during subduction, there have been few attempts to quantify its effect with fully dynamic models. This paper presents a series of dynamic laboratory experiments of progressive subduction of a

  5. Solar array deployment analysis considering path-dependent behavior of a tape spring hinge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Solar array deployment analysis is conducted considering the path-dependent nonlinear behavior of tape spring hinge. Such hinges offer many advantages over rigid hinges; they are self-deployable, self-locking, lightweight, and simple. However, they show strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to rotation angle, making deployment analysis difficult. To accurately consider the characteristics of tape spring hinges for deployment analysis, a path-dependent path identification (PI) method for tracing the previous path of the moment is introduced. To analyze the deployment motion, the governing equation for solar array deployment is derived within the framework of Kane's dynamic equation for three deployable solar panels. The numerical solution is compared with the Recurdyn's multi-body dynamics analysis solution using experimentally measured moment-rotation profiles. Solar array deployment analysis is conducted by considering and not considering the path-dependent PI method. This simulation example shows that the proposed path-dependent PI method is very effective for accurately predicting the deployment motion.

  6. Capillary origami of micro-machined micro-objects: Bi-layer conductive hinges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrain, A.B.H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Abelmann, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated controllable 3D self-folding by means of capillary forces of silicon-nitride micro-objects made of rigid plates connected to each other by flexible hinges (Legrain et al., 2014). In this paper, we introduce platinum electrodes running from the substrate to the plates over

  7. The effect of middle and lower trapezius strength exercises and levator scapulae and upper trapezius stretching exercises in upper crossed syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Won-Sik; Lee, Hyun-Ok; Shin, Jae-Wook; Lee, Keon-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of strength and stretching exercises on upper crossed syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] After measuring cervical alignment using the Global Posture System, 30 students with forward head posture were selected and divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=15) participated in strength and stretching exercises, three times per week for 4 weeks. The control group (n=15) did not participate in the exercises. The exercise program comprised middle and lower trapezius strength exercises and levator scapulae and upper trapezius stretching exercises. The temperature of the posterior neck was then measured using digital infrared thermographic imaging. [Results] There was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest results in the experimental group, and a significant difference in posterior neck temperature between the two groups. [Conclusion] This study showed that middle and lower trapezius strength exercises and levator scapulae and upper trapezius stretching exercises are more effective for upper crossed syndrome.

  8. A study to evaluate the effect of manual therapy and exercise on the levator plate in women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Maeve

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms, severity and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength have been shown to improve significantly with pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). In this study, a new approach to conservative treatment of POP was investigated by the addition of manual physiotherapy to conventional PFMT. Aim & Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of internal manual therapy and PFMT on the levator plate angle (LPA) in women with stage I or I...

  9. Short-term outcome after gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap reconstruction of the pelvic floor following extra-levator abdominoperineal excision of the rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderin, C; Martling, A; Lagergren, J; Ljung, A; Holm, T

    2012-09-01

    Extra-levator abdominoperineal excision (APE) of the rectum has been introduced with the aim of improving the oncological outcome of low rectal cancer. The procedure includes resection of the levator muscles en bloc with the mesorectum, leaving a larger perineal defect than after conventional APE. This study reports short-term outcome of gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap reconstruction on perineal wound healing. Sixty-five patients were studied after extra-levator APE and a one-sided myocutaneous flap for a low or locally recurrent rectal cancer at the Karolinska University Hospital from January 2002 to December 2008. Fifty-nine had received neoadjuvant radio- or radiochemotherapy. All perineal complications occurring within 30 days after surgery were registered. In addition, the status of the perineal reconstruction at 6 months and 1 year after surgery was assessed based on medical records from outpatient visits. Twenty-seven (41.5%) patients had one or more perineal wound complications. A minor wound infection occurred in 15, while 12 had either a more severe infection with dehiscence or a pelvic abscess. The reconstruction was completely healed in 91% of the patients at 1 year. Although the vast majority of the perineal reconstructions were healed at 1 year, the short-term perineal wound complication rate of gluteus maximus flap reconstruction was high. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Quantitative analysis of motor neurons of the levator ani muscle in fetal rats with spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Yuan, Zheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Lin

    2009-12-01

    With the combination of microsurgery and microinjection techniques, we investigated the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord of fetal rats with spina bifida occulta by injecting the retrograde trace FG into the levator ani muscle. The fetal rats were divided into 3 groups. On the day 9 of gestation, 6 mature Wistar rats (weighing 250-300 g) in the control group (group 1) were subcutaneously injected with 0.5 mL of normal saline at their hind limbs at 9:00 am and 4:00 pm. At these 2 time points, 15 rats in the treatment group (group 2 and group 3) were subcutaneously injected with 20% sodium valproate solution (400 mg/kg of body weight) at their hind limbs, too. On the day 20 of gestation, pregnant rats were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate (300 mg/kg of body weight) intraperitoneally, and then fetal microsurgery and microinjection were performed to expose the levator ani muscle, whereas 5% FG was administered with microinjector. Twenty-four hours later, transcardial perfusion of 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was given to the operated fetus. After the spine sample was stained with Alcian blue GX, the image of stained spine was measured using a computer system for the distance of the 2 cartilaginous ends of the vertebra arch. Then, the lumbosacral spinal cord was cryopreserved in 20% sucrose in PBS for a later serial transverse cryosection after 24 hours. The FG-labeled motor neurons were visualized with a wide-band ultraviolet-fluorescent filter, and the number of the FG-labeled motor neurons was recorded. Nine fetal rats survived in group 1. Eighteen fetal rats survived in the treatment group, including 7 (with no malformation) of 18 fetuses in group 2 and 11 fetuses with spina bifida occulta in group 3. The FG-labeled motor neurons in the ventral horn of normal spinal cord clustered at the dorsolateral and dorsomedial corner of the ventral horn. The FG-labeled motor neurons in the ventral horn of deformed spinal cord were

  11. Analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced PEEK Hinge Mechanism Articulation Components in a Rotating Hinge Knee Design: A Comparison of In Vitro and Retrieval Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronja A. Schierjott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK represents a promising alternative material for bushings in total knee replacements, after early clinical failures of polyethylene in this application. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the damage modes and the extent of damage observed on CFR-PEEK hinge mechanism articulation components after in vivo service in a rotating hinge knee (RHK system and to compare the results with corresponding components subjected to in vitro wear tests. Key question was if there were any similarities or differences between in vivo and in vitro damage characteristics. Twelve retrieved RHK systems after an average of 34.9 months in vivo underwent wear damage analysis with focus on the four integrated CFR-PEEK components and distinction between different damage modes and classification with a scoring system. The analysis included visual examination, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, as well as surface roughness and profile measurements. The main wear damage modes were comparable between retrieved and in vitro specimens (n=3, whereby the size of affected area on the retrieved components showed a higher variation. Overall, the retrieved specimens seemed to be slightly heavier damaged which was probably attributable to the more complex loading and kinematic conditions in vivo.

  12. Myotomy of the levator labii superioris muscle and lip repositioning: a combined approach for the correction of gummy smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Luis H; Ishida, Luiz C; Ishida, Jorge; Grynglas, Julio; Alonso, Nivaldo; Ferreira, Marcus C

    2010-09-01

    Treatment of excessive gingival display usually involves procedures such as Le Fort impaction or maxillary gingivectomies. The authors propose an alternative technique that reduces the muscular function of the elevator of the upper lip muscle and repositioning of the upper lip. Fourteen female patients with excessive gingival exposure were operated on between February of 2008 and March of 2009. They were filmed before and at least 6 months after the procedure. They were asked to perform their fullest smile, and the maximum gingival exposures were measured and analyzed using ImageJ software. Patients were operated on under local anesthesia. Their gingival mucosa was freed from the maxilla using a periosteum elevator. Skin and subcutaneous tissue were dissected bluntly from the underlying musculature of the upper lip. A frenuloplasty was performed to lengthen the upper lip. Both levator labii superioris muscles were dissected and divided. The postoperative course was uneventful in all of the patients. The mean gingival exposure before surgery was 5.22 +/- 1.48 mm; 6 months after surgery, it was 1.91 +/- 1.50 mm. The mean gingival exposure reduction was 3.31 +/- 1.05 mm (p smile in all patients in this series.

  13. DETERMINING THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF A VENTILATED HINGED FACADE SYSTEM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagarin Vladimir Gennad'evich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enveloping structures with hinged façade systems are nowadays widely used for moisture control of enveloping structures, prevention of overheating of the structures by insolation, saving the constructions from atmospheric moisture and also for correspondence with the raised requirements to thermal protection of the enveloping structures, aimed also at reducing energy consumption. In the winter conditions the influence of air layer on the thermal insulation parameters is usually neglected. In the article the thermal resistance of an air gap and is considered and its effect in the calculation of the heat resistance of a building envelope with hinged facade system is analyzed in the conditions of cold weather. The thermal resistance of the air layer determines how the heat losses decrease.

  14. Method for identification of rigid domains and hinge residues in proteins based on exhaustive enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jaehyun; Sim, Jun; Park, Eunsung; Lee, Julian

    2015-06-01

    Many proteins undergo large-scale motions where relatively rigid domains move against each other. The identification of rigid domains, as well as the hinge residues important for their relative movements, is important for various applications including flexible docking simulations. In this work, we develop a method for protein rigid domain identification based on an exhaustive enumeration of maximal rigid domains, the rigid domains not fully contained within other domains. The computation is performed by mapping the problem to that of finding maximal cliques in a graph. A minimal set of rigid domains are then selected, which cover most of the protein with minimal overlap. In contrast to the results of existing methods that partition a protein into non-overlapping domains using approximate algorithms, the rigid domains obtained from exact enumeration naturally contain overlapping regions, which correspond to the hinges of the inter-domain bending motion. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on several proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Synthetic study on derivatives of dimeric peptide from human IgG1 hinge region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Hulačová, Hana; Maloň, Petr; Slaninová, Jiřina; Hlaváček, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, Supplement (2006), s. 110 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /29./. 03.09.2006-08.09.2006, Gdansk] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : hinge region * PEG syntheses * vaccination study Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Influence of the subducting plate velocity on the geometry of the slab and migration of the subduction hinge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Wouter P.

    2005-01-01

    Geological observations indicate that along two active continental margins (East Asia and Mediterranean) major phases of overriding plate extension, resulting from subduction hinge-retreat, occurred synchronously with a reduction in subducting plate velocity. In this paper, results of fluid

  17. Topography and landmarks for the nerve supply to the levator ani and its relevance to pelvic floor pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Joseph, Shamfa; Etienne, Denzil; Linganna, Sanjay; Hallner, Barry; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the anatomical variations of the nerve to the levator ani (LA) and to relate these findings to LA dysfunction. One hundred fixed human female cadavers were dissected using transabdominal, gluteal, and perineal approaches, resulting in two hundred dissections of the sacral plexus. The pudendal nerve and the sacral nerve roots were traced from their origin at the sacral foramina to their termination. All nerves contributing to the innervation of the LA were considered to be the nerve to the LA. Based on the spinal nerve components, the nerve to the LA was classified into the following categories: 50% (n = 100) originated from S4 and S5 (type I); 19% (n = 38) originated from S5 (type II); 16% (n = 32) originated from S4 (type III); 11% (n = 22) originated from S3 and S4 (type IV); 4% (n = 8) originated from S3, S4, and S5 (type V). Two patterns of nerve termination were observed. In 42% of specimens, the nerve to the LA penetrated the coccygeus muscle and assumed an external position along the inferior surface of the LA muscle. In the remaining 58% of specimens, the nerve crossed the superior surface of the coccygeus muscle and continued along the superior surface of the iliococcygeus muscle. Damage to the nerve to LA has been associated with various pathologies. In order to minimize injuries during surgical procedures, a thorough understanding of the course and variations of the nerve to the LA is extremely important. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of SEC and CE-SDS methods for monitoring hinge fragmentation in IgG1 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Rao, Romesh; Jones, Natalie; Jaya, Nomalie; Salas-Solano, Oscar

    2017-10-25

    Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies is a critical quality attribute routinely monitored to assess the purity and integrity of the product from development to commercialization. Cleavage in the upper hinge region of IgG1 monoclonal antibodies is a common fragmentation pattern widely studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Capillary electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate (CE-SDS) is a well-established technique commonly used for monitoring antibody fragments as well, but its comparability to SEC in monitoring hinge fragments has not been established until now. We report a characterization strategy that establishes the correlation between hinge region fragments analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. Monoclonal antibodies with elevated hinge fragments were generated under low pH stress conditions and analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. The masses of the fragments generated were determined by LC-MS. Electrophoretic migration of the hinge fragmentation products in CE-SDS were determined based on their mass values. Comparative assessment of fragments by SEC, and CE-SDS showed similar correlation with incubation time. This study demonstrates that CE-SDS can be employed as a surrogate technique to SEC for monitoring hinge region fragments. Most importantly, combination of these techniques can be used to obtain comprehensive understanding of fragment related characteristics of therapeutic protein products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of hinged ankle-foot orthoses on sit-to-stand transfer in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Park, Chang Il; Chang, Hyun Jung; Choi, Jong Eun; Lee, Don Shin

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of the hinged ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on sit-to-stand (STS) transfers in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Before-after trial. University-affiliated hospital. Nineteen spastic diplegic children (age range, 2-6 y). Not applicable. The transitional movement of STS was tested in random order with children while wearing the barefoot and hinged AFOs. The temporal, kinematic, and kinetic data during the task were collected by using a motion analyzer (with 6 infrared cameras). Statistical comparison between barefoot and hinged AFO was done with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Total duration of STS transfer was significantly shortened with the hinged AFO (P AFO, compared with when barefoot (P AFO. The maximal moment and power of hip and knee joints were significantly increased with the AFO (P AFO. Although proximal compensatory strategy of increased pelvic tilt and hip flexion did not change with the hinged AFO, some improvements of temporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were identified during the task. These findings suggest that a hinged AFO is beneficial for STS transfer activity for children with spastic diplegia.

  20. Open radical retropubic prostatectomy using high anterior release of the levator fascia and constant haptic feedback in bilateral neurovascular bundle preservation plus early postoperative phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition: a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubanks, J Mikel; Umbreit, Eric C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Myers, Robert P

    2012-05-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer who choose surgery want cure and decent quality of life, namely, pad-free urinary control and, often, erectile function satisfactory for sexual intercourse. Determine in a prospective study the positive surgical margin rate and functional outcomes for a consecutive series of patients undergoing open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORRP) with bilateral neurovascular bundle preservation (BNVBP) performed by one experienced surgeon. Of 197 consecutive patients undergoing BNVBP during 2008, 123 were evaluable, allowing both immediate postoperative phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition (PDE5i) and a third-party questionnaire with validated urinary and erectile function domains provided preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 mo postoperatively. Two interventions were used: (1) ORRP with ×4.3 optical loupes and constant digital tactile monitoring during BNVBP preceded by high anterior release (HAR) of levator fascia and neurovascular bundles and (2) early postoperative PDE5i. Age; biopsy Gleason score; clinical stage; preoperative prostate-specific antigen level; pathologic grade; stage; margin status; University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index domain for urinary pad use and bother; and International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) were used. Surgical margins were positive in 1 of the 123 evaluable patients (1%). At 1 yr, 95% of patients were pad-free. Satisfactory erectile function was achieved by 109 patients (89%): 82 (67%) scored an IIEF-5 of 22-25, and 27 (22%) scored erection within the first year. Mean hospital stay was 1.3 d. Limitations were (1) observational, noncomparative, single-surgeon series and (2) in third-party methodology, failure to capture patient answers for all questionnaire intervals with resultant inability to address durability of functional results for all patients. ORRP using ×4.3 optical loupe magnification, constant haptic feedback in BNVBP with HAR, and immediate

  1. Outcomes of vaginal hysterectomy and constricting colporrhaphy with concurrent levator myorrhaphy and high perineorrhaphy in women older than 75 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Töz E

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emrah Töz, Aykut Özcan, Nesin Apaydin, İbrahim Uyar, Betül Kocakaya, Gülin Okay Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey Objectives: We performed constricting anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, levator myorrhaphy, and high perineorrhaphy with concurrent hysterectomy, and investigated the intraoperative complications, and short-term outcomes of these constricting procedures in patients aged 75 years or older.Methods: We searched our hospital database for cases, between January 2011 and January 2014, of women aged over 75 years who underwent surgery for pelvic organ prolapse of stage 2 or higher, via vaginal hysterectomy, constricting anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, levator myorrhaphy, and high perineorrhaphy, with or without treatment of urinary incontinence. All volunteers were evaluated via pelvic examination using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, the modified Decision Regret Scale–Pelvic Floor Disorders form, the Satisfaction Decision Scale–Pelvic Floor Disorders form, and the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory form.Results: Fifty-four patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up time was 24.4 months after constricting surgery (range: 8–44 months. There were four cases (7% of de novo urge incontinence (the symptoms resolved upon prescription of anticholinergic medication. Two patients developed de novo stress urinary incontinence after the procedure and were treated via transobturator sling surgery using Safyre T® polypropylene monofilament slings. No anatomical or subjective recurrence of prolapse was noted during the follow-up period. No patient required additional surgery for recurrence of prolapse.Conclusion: Constricting anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, levator myorrhaphy, and high perineorrhaphy with concurrent hysterectomy is a feasible, safe, and effective surgical option in elderly patients at low anesthesiological risk. The decision

  2. Interest of retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy in selected cases of descending perineum syndrome with positive anti-sagging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beco Jacques

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levator plate sagging (LPS, usually called descending perineum syndrome, is one of the main defects encountered in perineology. This defect is classically associated with colo-proctologic functional troubles (dyschesia and anal incontinence but can also induce perineodynia, gynaecological and lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods A retrospective case series of nine female patients (mean age: 44.3 underwent an isolated retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy (RLPM to treat symptomatic LPS confirmed by rectal examination and/or Perineocaliper®. An anti-sagging test (support of the posterior perineum must significantly improve the symptoms that were resistant to conservative treatment. The effect of the procedure on the symptoms of the 3 axes of the perineum (urological, colo-proctologic and gynecological and on perineodynia was evaluated during a follow up consultation more than 9 months after surgery. The effect of RLPM on the position of the anal margin and on the levator plate angle was studied using rectal examination, Perineocaliper® and retro-anal ultrasound. Results Before surgery, anti-sagging tests were positive for dyschesia, urinary urgency and pain. After a mean follow-up of 16.1 months, RLPM resolved or improved 2/2 cases of stress urinary incontinence, 3/5 of urinary urgency, 3/4 of dysuria, 3/3 of anal incontinence, 7/8 of dyschesia, 3/4 of cystocele, 4/5 of rectocele, 5/8 of dyspareunia and 6/7 of perineodynia. Rectal examination showed a complete suppression of sagging in 4 patients and an improvement in the 5 others. The mean reduction of perineal descent was 1.08 cm (extremes: 0–1.5. Using retro-anal ultrasound of the levator plate, the mean reduction of sagging was 12.67 degrees (extremes: 1 – 21. Conclusion Anti-sagging tests can be used before surgery to simulate the effect of RLPM. This surgical procedure seems to improve stress urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturia, urgency, dysuria, anal

  3. Electric multipole moments, topological multipole moment pumping, and chiral hinge states in crystalline insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2017-12-01

    We extend the theory of dipole moments in crystalline insulators to higher multipole moments. As first formulated in Benalcazar et al. [Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442], we show that bulk quadrupole and octupole moments can be realized in crystalline insulators. In this paper, we expand in great detail the theory presented previously [Benalcazar et al., Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442] and extend it to cover associated topological pumping phenomena, and a class of three-dimensional (3D) insulator with chiral hinge states. We start by deriving the boundary properties of continuous classical dielectrics hosting only bulk dipole, quadrupole, or octupole moments. In quantum mechanical crystalline insulators, these higher multipole bulk moments manifest themselves by the presence of boundary-localized moments of lower dimension, in exact correspondence with the electromagnetic theory of classical continuous dielectrics. In the presence of certain symmetries, these moments are quantized, and their boundary signatures are fractionalized. These multipole moments then correspond to new symmetry-protected topological phases. The topological structure of these phases is described by "nested" Wilson loops, which we define. These Wilson loops reflect the bulk-boundary correspondence in a way that makes evident a hierarchical classification of the multipole moments. Just as a varying dipole generates charge pumping, a varying quadrupole generates dipole pumping, and a varying octupole generates quadrupole pumping. For nontrivial adiabatic cycles, the transport of these moments is quantized. An analysis of these interconnected phenomena leads to the conclusion that a new kind of Chern-type insulator exists, which has chiral, hinge-localized modes in 3D. We provide the minimal models for the quantized multipole moments, the nontrivial pumping processes, and the hinge Chern insulator, and describe the topological invariants that protect them.

  4. Timing of tensor and levator veli palatini force application determines eustachian tube resistance patterns during the forced-response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Samir N; Bell, E David; Swarts, J Douglas

    2010-12-01

    The forced-response test (FRT) is used to assess eustachian tube (ET) function in patients with middle ear disease (otitis media). This test often documents a dynamic pattern of luminal dilation and constriction during swallowing which can be quantified as a function relating active tubal resistance with time. The goal of this study is to use a generalized finite element model (FEM) to test the hypothesis that the relative timing of muscle force application by the tensor veli palatini muscle (mTVP) and levator veli palatini muscle (mLVP) on the ET determines the form of active resistance functions. Seven resistance waveforms were obtained during the FRT in five adult subjects. A 2D FEM of the ET was constructed from an adult histological specimen and viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties were specified based on measurements obtained in each subject. Least-squared regression routines were used to vary the timing and magnitude of mTVP and mLVP force applications to the ET in order to match the active resistance functions recorded during the FRT. Variation of muscle force timing and magnitude in the FEM simulations reproduced the seven active resistance waveforms with high fidelity. Early application of mTVP force in combination with mLVP force produced a waveform characterized by an initial dilation (low resistances) followed by lumen constriction (higher resistances), while delayed mTVP force application caused an initial lumen constriction followed by dilation. These results indicate that the active resistance waveforms observed during the FRT reflect differences in the temporal pattern of mLVP and mTVP force application to the ET and emphasize that, like the mTVP, the mLVP functionally interacts with the ET. Results also indicate that in normal adults contraction of the mLVP promotes lumen constriction and that the initial lumen constriction is highly sensitive to the relative delay timing of mTVP and mLVP force application. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland

  5. Efficacy of Minor Lateral Tarsorrhaphy in Conjunction with Levator Muscle Recession in Improvement of Superior Lid Retraction of Thyroid Ophthalmopathic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Attarzade

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of minor lateral tarsorrhaphy in conjunction with levator muscle recession in thyroid ophthalmopathic patients with severe lid retraction in order to correct the temporal flare in these patients Methods: In a before-after clinical trial study, 22 eyelids of 12 patients with severe lid retraction underwent surgery by this method and the lid height in a 6 months follow up was evaluated. Lid height before and after operation were measured on basis of Margin Reflex distance (MRD1 and recorded in a special form for analysis. All of these patients were in the silent phase of disease and if a strabismus or orbital surgery was indicated, it was performed before the study. Results: After a six months follow-up, mean MRD1 decreased in the right eye from 7.76±0.55 to 4.86±0.32 mm and in the left eye from 7.81±0.64 to 4.75±0.35mm (p<0.0001. In all patients, satisfactory response was achieved and corneal surface discomfort was relieved. No serious complication was seen. Conclusion: Minor lateral tarsorrhaphy in conjunction with levator recession procedure in thyroid ophthalmic patients can have satisfactory results and result in correction of temporal flare.

  6. Integrin activation dynamics between the RGD-binding site and the headpiece hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puklin-Faucher, Eileen; Vogel, Viola

    2009-12-25

    Integrins form mechanical links between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Although integrin activation is known to be regulated by an allosteric conformational change, which can be induced from the extracellular or intracellular end of the molecule, little is known regarding the sequence of structural events by which signals propagate between distant sites. Here, we reveal with molecular dynamics simulations of the FnIII(10)-bound alpha(V)beta(3) integrin headpiece how the binding pocket and interdomain betaA/hybrid domain hinge on the distal end of the betaA domain are allosterically linked via a hydrophobic T-junction between the middle of the alpha1 helix and top of the alpha7 helix. The key results of this study are: 1) that this T-junction is induced by ligand binding and hinge opening, and thus displays bidirectionality; 2) that formation of this junction can be accelerated by ligand-mediated force; and 3) how formation of this junction is inhibited by Ca(2+) in place of Mg(2+) at the site adjacent to the metal ion-dependent adhesion site ("ADMIDAS"). Together with recent experimental evidence that integrin complexes can form catch bonds (i.e. become strengthened under force), as well as earlier evidence that Ca(2+) at the ADMIDAS results in lower binding affinity, these simulations provide a common structural model for the dynamic process by which integrins become activated.

  7. Integrin Activation Dynamics between the RGD-binding Site and the Headpiece Hinge*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puklin-Faucher, Eileen; Vogel, Viola

    2009-01-01

    Integrins form mechanical links between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Although integrin activation is known to be regulated by an allosteric conformational change, which can be induced from the extracellular or intracellular end of the molecule, little is known regarding the sequence of structural events by which signals propagate between distant sites. Here, we reveal with molecular dynamics simulations of the FnIII10-bound αVβ3 integrin headpiece how the binding pocket and interdomain βA/hybrid domain hinge on the distal end of the βA domain are allosterically linked via a hydrophobic T-junction between the middle of the α1 helix and top of the α7 helix. The key results of this study are: 1) that this T-junction is induced by ligand binding and hinge opening, and thus displays bidirectionality; 2) that formation of this junction can be accelerated by ligand-mediated force; and 3) how formation of this junction is inhibited by Ca2+ in place of Mg2+ at the site adjacent to the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (“ADMIDAS”). Together with recent experimental evidence that integrin complexes can form catch bonds (i.e. become strengthened under force), as well as earlier evidence that Ca2+ at the ADMIDAS results in lower binding affinity, these simulations provide a common structural model for the dynamic process by which integrins become activated. PMID:19762919

  8. Design and Analysis of Wind Turbine Rotors Using Hinged Structures and Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongya; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2018-03-01

    Light weight and high stiffness are key design factors in ensuring cost effectiveness and reliability of wind turbines, especially for the inboard region of the rotor blades. In this study, several novel designs were developed to improve the mechanical performance of the rotor. Experiments were performed on an isolated blade incorporating the new features of a hinged structure and rods. The results validated the effectiveness of these features at alleviating the root-bending moment of the blade under varying wind loads and enhancing the stiffness of the blade. A numerical investigation was carried out to further examine the bending moment distribution, shear and axial force, and rod tension of these novel rotor designs under uniform loads. Longitudinal geometrical variations of the blade were considered in the model. Results showed that two designs realized a favorable bending moment distribution and improved the modal frequencies of the edgewise modes: bisymmetrical rods on a single-hinged structure and interveined symmetrical rods on a cantilevered structure. However, these designs have different deformation mechanisms. In addition, the first group of edgewise modal frequencies of these two designs were improved compared with the traditional rotor design. Their potential values in the application to the design of a lightweight, high-stiffness, and reliable wind turbine rotor were discussed.

  9. A hinged plate equation and iterated Dirichlet Laplace operator on domains with concave corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Sergueï A.; Sweers, Guido

    Fourth order hinged plate type problems are usually solved via a system of two second order equations. For smooth domains such an approach can be justified. However, when the domain has a concave corner the bi-Laplace problem with Navier boundary conditions may have two different types of solutions, namely u with u,Δu∈H and u∈H∩H. We will compare these two solutions. A striking difference is that in general only the first solution, obtained by decoupling into a system, preserves positivity, that is, a positive source implies that the solution is positive. The other type of solution is more relevant in the context of the hinged plate. We will also address the higher-dimensional case. Our main analytical tools will be the weighted Sobolev spaces that originate from Kondratiev. In two dimensions we will show an alternative that uses conformal transformation. Next to rigorous proofs the results are illustrated by some numerical experiments for planar domains.

  10. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eZhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyllanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g. in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called hinge region of nisin (residues NMK was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  11. Mid-term results after implantation of rotating-hinge knee prostheses: primary versus revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Efe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the mid-term clinical results and survivorship of a rotating-hinge knee prosthesis (LINK® Endo-Model in difficult primary and complex revision situations. Results after primary implantation were compared with those of revision procedures. Forty-nine prostheses in 45 patients were reviewed clinically during follow up. Twenty-one of these were implanted in primary and 28 in revision situations. Outcome was evaluated using commonly used scores (Knee Society, UCLA Activity, Lequesne and a visual analog scale after a mean follow up of 56±37 months for 49 prostheses. Implant survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. There were no significant differences in clinical examination and evaluation scores between the two groups (P>0.05. Survival rates at final follow up were 95% after primary implantation and 76% in revision procedures. The risk of prosthesis loss (odds ratio 5.7 was significantly higher after revision procedures (P=0.004. These data suggest that rotating-hinge knee prostheses provided good clinical and functional results in selected cases of advanced primary gonarthrosis associated with severe bone loss, ligamentous instability or comminuted fractures. They also provide good results in revision situations. However, the failure rate was significantly higher in cases of revision surgery.

  12. Deployment Analysis of a Simple Tape-Spring Hinge Using Probabilistic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Horta, Lucas G.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance of new deployable structures architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology validation flight testing. Deployable concepts for large lightweight spacecraft include booms, antennae, and masts. This paper explores the implementation of probabilistic methods in the design process for the deployment of a strain-energy mechanism, specifically a simple tape-spring hinge. Strain-energy mechanisms are attractive for deployment in very lightweight systems because they do not require the added mass and complexity associated with motors and controllers. However, designers are hesitant to include free deployment, strain-energy mechanisms because of the potential for uncontrolled behavior. In the example presented here, the tapespring cross-sectional dimensions have been varied and a target displacement during deployment has been selected as the design metric. Specifically, the tape-spring should reach the final position in the shortest time with the minimal amount of overshoot and oscillations. Surrogate models have been used to reduce computational expense. Parameter values to achieve the target response have been computed and used to demonstrate the approach. Based on these results, the application of probabilistic methods for design of a tape-spring hinge has shown promise as a means of designing strain-energy components for more complex space concepts.

  13. Free Vibrations of a Trapezoidal Plate with an Internal Line Hinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Quintana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a general variational formulation for the determination of natural frequencies and mode shapes of free vibrations of laminated thin plates of trapezoidal shape with an internal line hinge restrained against rotation. The analysis was carried out by using the kinematics corresponding to the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT. The eigenvalue problem is obtained by employing a combination of the Ritz method and the Lagrange multipliers method. The domain of the plate is transformed into a rectangular domain in the computational space by using nonorthogonal triangular coordinates and the transverse displacements are approximated with a set of simple polynomials automatically generated and expressed in the triangular coordinates. The developed algorithm allows obtaining approximate analytical solutions for mentioned plate with different geometries, aspect ratio, position of the line hinge, and boundary conditions including translational and rotational elastically restrained edges. It allows studying the influence of the mentioned line on the vibration frequencies and respective mode shapes. The algorithm can easily be programmed and it is numerically stable. Additionally, as a particular case, the results of triangular plates can be easily generated.

  14. Determination of Elevator and Rudder Hinge Forces on the Learjet Model 55 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, R. R.; Padmanabhan, V.

    1983-01-01

    The empennage structure on the Learjet 55 aircraft was quite similar to the empennage structure on earlier Learjet models. However, due to an important structural change in the vertical fin along with the new loads environment on the 50 series aircraft, a structural test was required on the vertical fin, but the horizontal tail was substantiated by a comparative analysis with previous tests. NASTRAN analysis was used to investigate empennage deflections, stress levels, and control surface hinge forces. The hinge force calculations were made with the control surfaces in the deflected as well as undeflected configurations. A skin panel buckling analysis was also performed, and the non-linear effects of buckling were simulated in the NASTRAN model to more accurately define internal loads and stress levels. Comparisons were then made between the Model 55 and the Model 35/36 stresses and internal forces to determine which components were qualified by previous tests. Some of the methods and techniques used in this analysis are described.

  15. Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wambugu, SN; Towett, PK; Kiama, SG

    2010-01-01

    by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 microL) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant......Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced...... decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control...

  16. Formation of vortex pairs with hinged rigid flaps at the nozzle exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prashant; Govardhan, Raghuraman; Arakeri, Jaywant

    2013-11-01

    Biological flows related to aquatic propulsion using pulsed jets, or flow through the valves in a human heart, have received considerable attention in the last two decades. Both these flows are associated with starting jets that occur through biological tissue/membranes that are flexible. Motivated by these flows, we explore in the present work, the effect of passive flexibility of the nozzle exit on vortex generation from a starting jet. The starting jet is generated using a two-dimensional piston cylinder mechanism, the cross-section of the cylinder being rectangular with large aspect ratio. The fluid is pushed out of this cylinder or channel using a computer controlled piston. We introduce flexibility at the channel exit by hinging rigid flaps, which are initially parallel to the channel. The hinge used is such that it provides negligible stiffness or damping, thus allowing for the maximum opening of the flaps due to fluid forces. Using this system, we study both the flap kinematics and the vorticity dynamics downstream of the channel exit. Visualizations show large flap motions as the piston starts and this dramatically changes the vorticity distribution downstream of the flaps, with the formation of up to three different kinds of vortex pairs. This idealized configuration opens new opportunities to look at the effect of flexibility in such biological flows.

  17. The impacts of hinged and solid ankle-foot orthoses on standing and walking in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Hamid; Dehghan, Leila; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Amirsalari, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of hinged and solid anklefoot orthoses (AFOs) on standing and walking abilities in children with spastic diplegia. In a quasi-experimental design, 30 children with spastic diplegia, aged 4-6 years were recruited. They were matched in terms of age, IQ, and level of GMFCS E&R. Children were randomly assigned into 3 groups: a hinged AFO group (n=10) plus occupational therapy (OT), a solid AFO group (n=10) plus OT, a control group who used only OT for three months. Gross motor abilities were measured using Gross Motor Measure Function (GMFM). We obtained statistically significant differences in the values between baseline and after treatment in all groups. The groups were also significantly different in total GMFM after intervention. Furthermore, there were differences between hinged AFOs and solid AFOs groups, and between hinged AFOs and control groups. We concluded that gross motor function was improved in all groups; however, hinged AFOs group appears to improve the gross motor function better than solid AFOs and control groups.

  18. A comparison of gait with solid and hinged ankle-foot orthoses in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtka, Sandra A; Skinner, Stephen R; Johanson, M Elise

    2005-04-01

    This study compared the effects of solid and hinged ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) on the gait of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) who ambulate with excessive ankle plantar flexion during stance. Twelve children with spastic diplegic CP wore no AFOs for an initial 2-week period, solid AFOs for 1 month, no AFOs for 2 weeks, and hinged AFOs for 1 month. Lower extremity muscle timing, knee and ankle joint motions, moments and powers, and temporal-distance characteristics were measured during ambulation for an initial barefoot baseline test, and with solid and hinged AFOs for the other two tests. Both orthoses increased stride length, reduced abnormal ankle plantar flexion during initial contact, midstance and terminal stance (TST), and increased ankle plantar flexor moments closer to normal during TST. Hinged AFOs increased ankle dorsiflexion at TST and increased ankle power generation during preswing (PSW) as compared to solid AFOs, and increased ankle dorsiflexion at loading compared to no AFOs. No other significant differences were found for the gait variables when comparing these orthoses. Either AFO could be used to reduce the excessive ankle plantar flexion without affecting the knee position during stance. The hinged AFO would be recommended to produce more normal dorsiflexion during TST and increased ankle power generation during PSW in children with spastic diplegic CP.

  19. Deployment shock attenuation of a solar array tape hinge by means of the Martensite detwinning of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Ho; Jeong, Ju-Won; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new tape hinge for attenuating the deployment shock of a satellite solar array. This hinge uses the Martensite detwinning of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). To attenuate the deployment shock, a NiTi SMA strip is assembled between two curved steel strips. The attenuation performance of the hinge is analyzed using a SMA detwinning constitutive equation. A prototype of the hinge is manufactured and its characteristics are measured in a bending test and in a deployment test. Finally, the deployment performance of the prototype hinge is investigated on a satellite model. It is shown that the new SMA damped tape hinge can effectively minimize the deployment shock and dynamic perturbation while also maintaining suitable deployment performance.

  20. Modification of Baksi sloppy hinge elbow to minimize the stresses at the humeral bone cement interface- An early experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baksi D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Baksi sloppy hinge elbow is an all metal prosthesis having 7 0 - 10 0 varus - valgus inherent laxity at the hinge section with minimal motion bearing contact area. Due to the presence of laxity at it′s hinge section, any strain on the prosthesis dissipates primarily to the surrounding soft tissues thus protecting the cement bone interfaces. However, from our long term clinical experiences on the use of our sloppy hinge design since 1984 and the knowledge of literature review of the results of using other semi-constrained (sloppy or unconstrained designs, it was observed that radiolucency or loosening at the bone-cement interface occurred mainly around the humeral stem in the long run due to the continued effect of rotational torque of forearm and hand. Hence, an attempt in the improvement of the design concept is being made. Methods : In this respect one flange each of one cm height and breadth and three mm thickness has been incorporated on either sides of the shank of humeral stem of the sloppy hinge at medio-lateral (coronal plane which will be seated in the corresponding longitudinal groove cut on either side of humeral shaft extending from its transverse cut end to become single assembly during the rotation of humerus. Results : The preliminary results of clinical application of the modified sloppy hinge elbow in ten cases are found satisfactory. Conclusion : The cyclical compression and distraction forces during flexion and extension of the elbow will be distributed over the larger bony area of lower end of humerus where flanges of the humeral shank being seated. The rotational torque effect of forearm and hand particularly with the arm in abduction will be minimised at the humeral bone cement interface as the humerus and the prosthetic stem act as a single assembly by the snugly fitting of the prosthetic flange in the humural shaft

  1. Adjoint-based optimization of flapping plates hinged with a trailing-edge flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the impact of wing-morphing on aerodynamic performance in the study of flapping-wing flight of birds and insects. We use a flapping plate hinged with a trailing-edge flap as a simplified model for flexible/morphing wings in hovering. The trailing-edge flapping motion is optimized by an adjoint-based approach. The optimized configuration suggests that the trailing-edge flap can substantially enhance the overall lift. Further analysis indicates that the lift enhancement by the trailing-edge flapping is from the change of circulation in two ways: the local circulation change by the rotational motion of the flap, and the modification of vortex shedding process by the relative location between the trailing-edge flap and leading-edge main plate.

  2. K-B microfocusing system using monolithic flexure-hinge mirrors for synchrotron X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S J; Tseng, P C; Kuan, C K; Wang, D J; Chen, C T

    2001-01-01

    A Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirror system is designed while considering gain, efficiency, and focal spot size to theoretically achieve a spot size of 6.7x2.9 mu m sup 2 and a gain of 6.2x10 sup 3 in the elliptical polarization undulator (EPU) soft X-ray beamline. This mirror system, which contains two high order polynomial corrected cylindrical mirrors (i.e., horizontal microfocusing mirror, HMFM, and vertical microfocusing mirror, VMFM) with a monolithic flexure-hinge design, can collect and microfocus the undulator source into a nearly perfect point image. To ensure that the mirrors are easily mounted and adjusted, a modular system on a rotatable CF flange is designed to independently motorize each mirror with four degrees of freedom.

  3. Optimization of bottom-hinged flap-type wave energy converter for a specific wave rose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hamed; Panahi, Roozbeh

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we conducted a numerical analysis on the bottom-hinged flap-type Wave Energy Convertor (WEC). The basic model, implemented through the study using ANSYS-AQWA, has been validated by a three-dimensional physical model of a pitching vertical cylinder. Then, a systematic parametric assessment has been performed on stiffness, damping, and WEC direction against an incoming wave rose, resulting in an optimized flap-type WEC for a specific spot in the Persian Gulf. Here, stiffness is tuned to have a near-resonance condition considering the wave rose, while damping is modified to capture the highest energy for each device direction. Moreover, such sets of specifications have been checked at different directions to present the best combination of stiffness, damping, and device heading. It has been shown that for a real condition, including different wave heights, periods, and directions, it is very important to implement the methodology introduced here to guarantee device performance.

  4. Design of a Shape Memory Alloy deployment hinge for reflector facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, W. S.; Rogers, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept for a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated hinge mechanism for deploying segmented facet-type reflector surfaces on antenna truss structures is presented. The mechanism uses nitinol, a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, as a displacement-force micro-actuator. An electrical current is used to resistively heat a 'plastically' elongated SMA actuator wire, causing it to contract in response to a thermally-induced phase transformation. The resulting tension creates a moment, imparting rotary motion between two adjacent panels. Mechanical stops are designed into the device to limit its range of motion and to establish positioning accuracy at the termination of deployment. The concept and its operation are discussed in detail, and an analytical dynamic simulation model is presented. The model has been used to perform nondimensionalized parametric design studies.

  5. Large Negative Linear Compressibility in InH(BDC)₂ from Framework Hinging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingxin; Wang, Kai; Zou, Bo

    2017-11-08

    Materials with negative linear compressibility (NLC) counterintuitively expand along one specific direction coupled to the volume reduction when compressed uniformly. NLC with a large value is desired for compression and materials science. However, NLC is generally smaller than -20 TPa -1 . High-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments reveal that the β-quartz-like InH(BDC) 2 generates an extreme NLC (-62.4 TPa -1 ) by framework hinging. InH(BDC) 2 is much safer and lower-cost than Au + /Ag + and CN - -containing materials that dominated the fields of large NLC. This work reconfirms that a negative thermal expansion flexible framework could likely exhibit large NLC. Moreover, a large NLC could be anticipated to arise from β-quartz-like or related frameworks composed of rigid linear ligands and flexible framework angles.

  6. A Radial Return Algorithm Application in Elastoplastic Frame Analysis Using Plastic Hinge Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Taylor Matias Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented for first-order elastoplastic analysis of framed structures using a radial return predictor/corrector solution strategy. The proposed method assumes plastic hinge formation coupled with a yield surface. The yield surface is defined as a general function of axial force, shear forces, twisting, and biaxial bending moments on the cross-section of the frame. The material is regarded as linear and elastic-perfect plastic. The plastic deformations are governed by the normality criterion. Combining the Newton-Raphson method and the radial return algorithm, a consistent tangent modular matrix is proposed and fast and converging algorithms are presented. Examples demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... may require immediate or more aggressive treatment. The importance of tumor grade in planning treatment and determining ...

  8. A stepwise approach for the management of capsular contraction syndrome in hinge-based accommodative intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy P; Whitman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to define the various stages of capsular contraction syndrome (CCS) and its effect on refractive error with hinge-based accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs) and to describe a systematic approach for the management of the different stages of CCS. Hinge-based accommodative IOLs function via flexible hinges that vault the optic forward during accommodation. However, it is the flexibility of the IOL that makes it prone to deformation in the event of CCS. The signs of CCS are identified and described as posterior capsular striae, fibrotic bands across the anterior or posterior capsule, and capsule opacification. Various degrees of CCS may affect hinge-based accommodating IOLs in a spectrum from subtle changes in IOL appearance to significant increases in refractive error and loss of uncorrected visual acuity. The signs of CCS and its effect on IOL position and the resulting changes in refractive error are matched to appropriate treatment plans. A surgeon can avoid CCS and manage the condition if familiar with the early signs of CCS. If CCS is identified, yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser capsulotomy should be considered. If moderate CCS occurs, it may be effectively treated with insertion of a capsular tension ring. If CCS is allowed to progress to advanced stages, an IOL exchange may be necessary. Surgeons should be familiar with the stages of CCS and subsequent interventions. The steps outlined in this article help to guide surgeons in the prevention and management of CCS with hinge-based accommodative IOLs in order to provide improved refractive outcomes for patients.

  9. A stepwise approach for the management of capsular contraction syndrome in hinge-based accommodative intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page TP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy P Page,1 Jeffrey Whitman2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, 2Key-Whitman Eye Center, Dallas, TX, USA Purpose: The aims of this study are to define the various stages of capsular contraction syndrome (CCS and its effect on refractive error with hinge-based accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs and to describe a systematic approach for the management of the different stages of CCS. Methods: Hinge-based accommodative IOLs function via flexible hinges that vault the optic forward during accommodation. However, it is the flexibility of the IOL that makes it prone to deformation in the event of CCS. The signs of CCS are identified and described as posterior capsular striae, fibrotic bands across the anterior or posterior capsule, and capsule opacification. Various degrees of CCS may affect hinge-based accommodating IOLs in a spectrum from subtle changes in IOL appearance to significant increases in refractive error and loss of uncorrected visual acuity. The signs of CCS and its effect on IOL position and the resulting changes in refractive error are matched to appropriate treatment plans. Results: A surgeon can avoid CCS and manage the condition if familiar with the early signs of CCS. If CCS is identified, yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser capsulotomy should be considered. If moderate CCS occurs, it may be effectively treated with insertion of a capsular tension ring. If CCS is allowed to progress to advanced stages, an IOL exchange may be necessary. Conclusion: Surgeons should be familiar with the stages of CCS and subsequent interventions. The steps outlined in this article help to guide surgeons in the prevention and management of CCS with hinge-based accommodative IOLs in order to provide improved refractive outcomes for patients. Keywords: z-syndrome, pseudophakic tilt, IOL subluxation, CTR, capsular tension ring, capsular fibrosis

  10. Outcomes of Varus Valgus Constrained Versus Rotating-Hinge Implants in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Tennison L; Bederman, S Samuel; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a total knee arthroplasty is determined by the ability of the prosthesis components in concert with supportive bone and soft tissue structures to sufficiently resist deforming forces transmitted across the knee joint. Constrained prostheses are used in unstable knees due to their ability to resist varus and valgus transformative forces across the knee. Constraint requires inherent rigidity, which can facilitate early implant failure. The purpose of this study was to describe the comparative indications for surgery and postoperative outcomes of varus valgus constrained knee (VVK) and rotating-hinge knee (RHK) total knee arthroplasty prostheses. Seven retrospective observational studies describing 544 VVK and 254 RHK patients with an average follow-up of 66 months (range, 7-197 months) were evaluated. Patients in both groups experienced similar failure rates (P=.74), ranges of motion (P=.81), and Knee Society function scores (P=.29). Average Knee Society knee scores were 4.2 points higher in VVK patients compared with RHK patients, indicating minimal mid-term clinical differences may exist (Pknee, and, when performed, similar postoperative outcomes can be achieved with VVK and RHK prostheses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Custom rotating hinge total knee arthroplasty in patients with poliomyelitis affected limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Jeeshan; Hanna, Sammy A; Kayani, Babar; Miles, Jonathan; Pollock, Robin C; Skinner, John A; Briggs, Timothy W; Carrington, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in limbs affected by poliomyelitis is a technically challenging procedure. These patients often demonstrate acquired articular and metaphyseal angular deformities, bone loss, narrowness of the intramedullary canals, impaired quadriceps strength, flexion contractures and ligamentous laxity producing painful hyperextension. Thus, using condylar knee designs in these patients will likely result in early failure because of instability and abnormal load distribution. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes associated with use of the customised (SMILES) rotating-hinge knee system at our institution for TKA in poliomyelitis-affected limbs. We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 14 TKAs using the (SMILES) prosthesis in 13 patients with limbs affected by poliomyelitis. All patients had painful unstable knees with hyperextension. There were ten females and three males with a mean age of 66 years (range 51-84) at time of surgery. Patients were followed up clinically, radiologically and functionally with the Oxford knee score (OKS). Mean follow-up was 72 months (16-156). There were no immediate or early complications. One patient fell and sustained a peri-prosthetic fracture at seven months requiring revision to a longer stem. Radiological evaluation showed satisfactory alignment with no signs of loosening in all cases. Mean OKS improved from 11.6 (4-18) to 31.5 (18-40) postoperatively (p poliomyelitis. The device compensates well for ligamentous insufficiency as well as for any associated bony deformity.

  12. Generating Sub-nanometer Displacement Using Reduction Mechanism Consisting of Torsional Leaf Spring Hinges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Makoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent demand on the measurement resolution of precise positioning comes up to tens of picometers. Some distinguished researches have been performed to measure the displacement in picometer order, however, few of them can verify the measurement performance as available tools in industry. This is not only because the picometer displacement is not yet required for industrial use, but also due to the lack of standard tools to verify such precise displacement. We proposed a displacement reduction mechanism for generating precise displacement using torsional leaf spring hinges (TLSHs that consist of four leaf springs arranged radially. It has been demonstrated that a prototype of the reduction mechanism was able to provide one-nanometer displacement with 1/1000 reduction rate by a piezoelectric actuator. In order to clarify the potential of the reduction mechanism, a displacement reduction table that can be mounted on AFM stage was newly developed using TLSHs. This paper describes the design of the reduction mechanism and the sub-nanometer displacement performance of the table obtained from its dynamic and static characteristics measured by displacement sensors and from the AFM images

  13. Interaction of the S6 Proline Hinge with N-Type and C-Type Inactivation in Kv1.4 Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Bett, Glenna C.L.; Lis, Agnieszka; Guo, Hong; Liu, MiMi; Zhou, Qinlian; Rasmusson, Randall L.

    2012-01-01

    Several voltage-gated channels share a proline-valine-proline (proline hinge) sequence motif at the intracellular side of S6. We studied the proline hinge in Kv1.4 channels, which inactivate via two mechanisms: N- and C-type. We mutated the second proline to glycine or alanine: P558A, P558G. These mutations were studied in the presence/absence of the N-terminal to separate the effects of the interaction between the proline hinge and N- and C-type inactivation. Both S6 mutations slowed or remo...

  14. Synthetic study on cystinyl peptides using solution and solid phase metodology: human IgG1 hinge region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Ježek, Jan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Kašička, Václav; Wünsch, Erich; Hlaváček, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2010), s. 641-650 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/1362; GA ČR GA203/07/1517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : hinge region * immunoglobulin * prion protein * solution synthesis * solid phase synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.106, year: 2010

  15. Investigation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Moment Characteristics Generated by the ONERA-M6 Wing with an Aileron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hinge moment characteristics for ONERA-M6 wing with aileron configuration have been investigated numerically based on the different gaps and deflecting angles. The results show that the effects on the wing made by the deflecting aileron are notable. Comparing with the nonaileron case, the chordwise pressure coefficient distribution for the wing with aileron has shown the totally different trends. The small gap can force the air flow through and form the extremely strong spraying flow. It can directly destroy the previously formed leading edge vortex (LEV. Due to the presence of the positive deflecting angle, the trailing edge vortex (TEV will begin to generate at the trailing edge of the aileron. The induced secondary LEV will be mixed with the developing TEVs and form the stronger TEVs at the downstream position. Comparing with the subsonic flow, the curve for the supersonic flow has shown a good linear. The corresponding hinge moments are also extremely sensitive to the changing angle of attack, and the slope of curves is also bigger than that of the subsonic flow. The bigger gap and deflecting angle can result in the curve of hinge moment bending upward at high angle of attack. The corresponding pressure cloud and streamlines have also been obtained computationally and analyzed in detail.

  16. Single-pedicle hinge flap performed by shelter medicine team resolves chronic antebrachial wound in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M Richardson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary An approximately 3-year-old, male domestic longhair cat was presented to a mobile veterinary unit for routine neuter. Preoperative physical examination revealed an approximately 5 cm × 2 cm scab on the craniolateral portion of the left antebrachium. The cat was anesthetized for the neuter using an injectable anesthesia protocol. After castration, the wound area on the antebrachium was clipped, copiously lavaged and the wound edges were surgically debrided. Injectable antibiotics and analgesic management were instituted. The wound was conservatively managed using sugar bandaging and antibiotic dressings until the progression of healing plateaued. Procedures for closing the defect were explored, and it was decided that a single-pedicle hinge flap would be ideal. The procedure was performed on the mobile veterinary unit and managed postoperatively with pain control and biweekly bandage changes. After 3 weeks, the single-pedicle hinge flap was released to create a skin graft, which successfully filled the defect. Relevance and novel information Single-pedicle hinge flaps performed in feline patients have been minimally reported. This case report serves to provide detailed information on the surgical procedure and aftercare required for a successful outcome. Furthermore, this procedure was performed by a shelter medicine team in a mobile veterinary unit with no specialty equipment or instruments. This report documents an alternative procedure that may be used in a shelter environment for distal forelimb wounds rather than amputation or euthanasia.

  17. Amino acid changes within the E protein hinge region that affect dengue virus type 2 infectivity and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butrapet, Siritorn; Childers, Thomas; Moss, Kelley J.; Erb, Steven M.; Luy, Betty E.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen mutant dengue viruses were engineered and used to identify AAs in the molecular hinge of the envelope protein that are critical to viral infection. Substitutions at Q52, A54, or E133 reduced infectivity in mammalian cells and altered the pH threshold of fusion. Mutations at F193, G266, I270, or G281 affected viral replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, but only I270W had reduced fusion activity. T280Y affected the pH threshold for fusion and reduced replication in C6/36 cells. Three different mutations at L135 were lethal in mammalian cells. Among them, L135G abrogated fusion and reduced replication in C6/36 cells, but only slightly reduced the mosquito infection rate. Conversely, L135W replicated well in C6/36 cells, but had the lowest mosquito infection rate. Possible interactions between hinge residues 52 and 277, or among 53, 135, 170, 186, 265, and 276 required for hinge function were discovered by sequence analysis to identify compensatory mutations.

  18. Rolling Hinge Formation of S and Overlying Crustal Blocks at the Galicia Rifted Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Pappano, P.; Henning, A. T.

    2003-12-01

    The last stage of continental breakup in the Galicia Bank Basin and Iberia Abyssal Plain appears to have involved "rolling hinge" style extension in forming the S detachment and the allocthonous continental blocks that overly S. We support this assertion using seismic examples from the Iberia Seismic Experiment, conducted in 1997 by U.S., German, Portuguese, and Spanish scientists, using the R/V Ewing's 4 km streamer and deep penetration airgun array. Profile ISE-5 is a north/south strike line across the Galicia Bank basin and over the area where S is well developed and studied. S is clearly seen, but is not the relatively simple, laterally continuous, reflector seen in dip lines. It is offset by one or more north-dipping mantle-penetrating faults and its reflection character changes at several points along the profile. Fault bounded blocks interpreted to consist of continental crust, prerift sediments, and postrift sediments overly S. In one location it appears that S may be directly overlain by postrift sediment. In strike cross-section, the continental blocks have a "pod-like" shape, thick (1-3 km) in the center and pinching out to both sides. The continental crustal section over S varies laterally and consists of a stack of one to three of these overlapping pods. In dip-section these blocks are bounded top and bottom by down-to-the-west normal faults that sole into S. We suggest that this geometry is consistent with margin formation as a rolling hinge detachment. The detachment had two major parts. To the west, the detachment fault dipped at high angle to the west into the upper mantle. The roughly horizontal detachment, imaged as the reflector S, is the continuation of this fault to the east. The upper mantle rocks forming the footwall of the detachment fault were pulled to the east, out from under the hanging wall along the high angle portion of the fault. They were then flexed and rotated so that the detachment became roughly horizontal. As substantial

  19. Effect of pelvic floor muscle contraction on vesical and rectal function with identification of puborectalis-rectovesical inhibitory reflex and levator-rectovesical excitatory reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, A; El-Sibai, O

    2001-08-01

    The effects of pelvic floor muscle contraction on rectal and vesical function were studied in 19 healthy volunteers with the aim of shedding light on some of the hitherto vague aspects of the mechanisms involved in micturition and defecation and their disorders. Rectal and vesical pressures were recorded during puborectalis (PR) and levator ani (LA) muscle stimulation with the rectum or urinary bladder empty and full. Muscle stimulation was effected by needle EMG electrode. The pressure responses to stimulation of the PR and LA muscles were also recorded with these muscles and the rectum and urinary bladder individually anesthetized in 12 of the 19 subjects. The test was repeated using saline instead of xylocaine. PR and LA muscle stimulation produced no pressure response in the empty rectum or bladder. Upon rectal balloon distension with a mean of 156.6+/-34.2 ml of carbon dioxide the mean rectal pressure was 64.6+/-18.7 cm H2O, the subject felt the urge to evacuate and the balloon was expelled to the exterior. On PR muscle stimulation at rectal distension with the above volume, the subject did not feel the urge to evacuate, the rectal pressure was 8.2+/-1.6 cm H2O and the balloon was not expelled. Upon LA stimulation at the same volume, the urge persisted, the rectal pressure was higher and the balloon was expelled. Vesical filling with a mean of 378.2+/-23.6 ml of saline initiated the urge to urinate and elevated the vesical pressure. PR muscle stimulation at this volume aborted the urge and pressure elevation, while LA stimulation caused more elevation of the vesical pressure and spontaneous micturition. Bladder filling with a mean of 423.6+/-38.2 ml produced high vesical pressure and spontaneous urination, both of which were prevented by PR muscle stimulation but not by LA muscle stimulation. Stimulation of the PR and LA muscles during individual anesthetization of the rectum, bladder or PR and LA muscles resulted in no significant rectal or vesical pressure

  20. Floating Characteristics of Rudders and Elevators in Spinning Attitudes as Determined From Hinge-Moment-Coefficient Data With Application to Personal-Owner-Type Airplanes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bihrle, William

    1950-01-01

    A study was made of available rudder and elevator hinge-moment-coefficient-coefficient data in order to determine the floating characteristics of various types of rudders and elevators in spinning attitudes...

  1. Levator plate movement during voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction in subjects with incontinence and prolapse: a cross-sectional study and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Judith A; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2003-06-01

    Transabdominal ultrasound was used to assess 104 women with incontinence and prolapse. The bladder was used as a marker of levator plate (LP) movement. The women were asked to draw in and lift the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and a change in position of the LP in a cranial or caudal direction during contraction was documented. Three different patterns of movement of the LP were identified, with 38% of subjects elevating and 43% of subjects depressing the LP; 19% had no change in LP movement. In the stress incontinence group there was a higher than expected number that elevated the LP. In the urgency and prolapse groups there was a higher than expected number of subjects that depressed the LP ( P=0.008).The results highlight three different subgroups based on the patients' attempt to initiate elevation of the LP. Subjects who depressed the LP when instructed to elevate it appeared to adopt straining strategies via the generation of intra-abdominal pressure. Depression of the LP may have long-term negative implications for prolapse and incontinence.

  2. The value of posterior levator repair in the treatment of anorectal incontinence due to rectal prolapse--a clinical and manometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, A; Athanasiadis, S

    2001-04-01

    When treating a complete rectal prolapse, the most important objective is elimination of the prolapse. In addition, restoration of sufficient anorectal continence is extremely important for the patients. We examined the value of posterior levator repair with respect to stabilization of the pelvic floor and to improvement in anorectal incontinence. In patients with disabling anorectal incontinence, a posterior levatorplasty can be concomitantly performed during operative removal of the prolapse. To facilitate evaluation of the operative results, we implemented a scoring system to judge the patients' subjective symptoms of incontinence; in addition, we performed manometric measurements of resting and squeezing pressures of the anal sphincter to objectify the anorectal incontinence. From 1991 to 1997, 84 patients (mean age 65+/-10 years, 38-91 years; 79 women, 5 men) with complete rectal prolapse and severe incontinence were operatively treated; corresponding follow-ups were done. The following procedures were performed: Frykmann-Goldberg, 28 patients; Wells, 18 patients; Ripstein, 22 patients; and perineal proctectomy, 16 patients. Incontinence for liquid and solid stools was present in all of these patients. Posterior levatorplasty was implemented in 38 patients, and in this group we found significantly better postoperative results, both clinically and in the manometric measurements. Continence was improved by 84% in the group with levatorplasty, but improvement was only 67% in the other group (Pdisadvantages. For this reason, levatorplasty can be part of operative procedures implemented in the treatment of a complete rectal prolapse accompanied by disabling anorectal incontinence.

  3. Functional interactions between the fossa ischioanalis, levator ani and gluteus maximus muscles of the female pelvic floor: a prospective study in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljanik, Irina; Janssen, Udo; May, Florian; Fritsch, Helga; Stief, Christian G; Weissenbacher, Ernst R; Friese, Klaus; Lienemann, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the role of the fossa ischioanalis (FI) in functional relations between the levator ani (LA) and gluteus maximus muscles (GM) in healthy female volunteers. Twenty-three nulliparae were examined. Electromyogramms of LA and GM were simultaneously recorded during voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and at rest in six body positions. The surface areas of LA (LAA), FI (FIA) and GM (GMA) were evaluated using MRI. Simultaneous LA and GM contractions were electromyographically observed irrespectively of body position in 97.2 %. MRI revealed synchronous movement of all structures: while LAA (-7.4 %) reduced, GMA increased (+6.8 %), FIA changed significantly (+3.4 %). The LA, FI and GM are morphologically and functionally connected. We recommend considering these structures as the 'LFG-Complex', emphasising the importance of this unit for functional integration of the pelvic floor. The findings of this study may contribute to understanding of urinary continence mechanism and disorders after pelvic floor surgery and obstetrical trauma.

  4. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor M Bolger

    Full Text Available The purposes of the current study were to 1 test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2 investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA. Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05. The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  5. Tectonic origin for polygonal normal faults in pelagic limestones of the Cingoli anticline hinge (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracchini, Lorenzo; Antonellini, Marco; Billi, Andrea; Scrocca, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Polygonal faults are a relatively-recent new class of normal faults which are thought to be formed during early burial and diagenesis as a consequence of heterogeneous lateral volume changes. Polygonal faults are non-systematically oriented and, in map view, they form rhombus-, pentagon-, or hexagon-like pattern, suggesting a non-tectonic origin. Furthermore, polygonal faults are layer bound and they are restricted to particular stratigraphic level. Predicting the pattern of polygonal normal fault results crucial for geofluid exploration and exploitation, but, despite the large number of studies, the origin of these faults remains still largely controversial. One of the main reason for this uncertainty is that they are poorly known in outcrops. Polygonal faults have been identified in few localities within Mesozoic chalk (United Kingdom, France, and Egypt), in Paleogene claystone (Belgium), and in the Cretaceous Khoman Formation (Egypt) where polygonal faults have been observed in an extensive exposure of chalk. In this study, we describe an outcrop in the Cingoli anticline hinge, which is located at external front of the northern Apennines fold-thrust belt (Italy), showing normal faults that we interpreted as syn-tectonically (syn-thrusting) polygonal faults. The outcrop shows three vertical exposures of sub-horizontal fine-grained marly limestones with chert interlayers of Albian-Turonian age. Intraformational short normal faults affect the carbonate and chert beds. These faults are poorly-systematic and they cut through the carbonate beds whereas usually stop against the chert layers. The fault surfaces are often characterized by slickolites, clayey residue, and micro-breccias including clasts of chert and carbonate. Fault displacement is partly or largely accommodated by pressure solution. At the fault tips, the displacement is generally transferred, via a lateral step, to an adjacent similar fault segment. The aim of our study is to understand the nucleation

  6. Identification of a regulatory phosphorylation site in the hinge 1 region of nitrate reductase from spinach (Spinacea oleracea) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Morrice, N; MacKintosh, C

    1995-12-18

    Purified nitrate reductase (NR) from spinach leaves was phosphorylated in vitro by NR-inactivating kinase on Ser-543 which is located in the hinge 1 region between the molybdenum-cofactor and haem-binding domains. Phosphorylation of Ser-543 allowed NR to be inhibited by the inhibitor, NIP. Degraded NR preparations in which a proportion of the subunits had lost 45 amino acids from the N-terminus during purification could be phosphorylated by NR kinase on Ser-543, but could not subsequently be fully inhibited by NIP, suggesting a role for the N-terminal tail of NR in NIP binding.

  7. MRI role in morphological and functional assessment of the levator ani muscle: Use in patients affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before and after pelvic floor rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia; Vecchia, Nicoletta Della; Giurazza, Francesco; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunctions affect a very high proportion of female population. Magnetic resonance imaging is the only technique able to provide a multiplanar overview of pelvic organs and muscles without the use of ionizing radiation. The aim of our prospective study is to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of perineal re-education applying MR technique. Materials and methods: 22 patients affected by stress urinary incontinence were enrolled in our prospective study. They underwent urogynaecological, urodynamic examinations, and a questionnaire about symptoms (ICIQ-UI) to investigate the degree of their interference with daily activities. Then they underwent a morphological and dynamic MR exam. Results: The pre-perineal rehabilitation MR examinations showed an asymmetry of the levator ani muscle in 87% of patients; the remaining 13% showed a muscular bilateral volume reduction. In the group with unilateral defect, the muscle total volume had values between 15 and 21 cm 3 . Its overall volume was 34.2% smaller on the defective side (9.28 ± 0.26 cm 3 ) compared to the normal side (12.64 ± 12.31 cm 3 , P < 0.001). In patients with a bilateral impairment, the muscle was replaced by fibro-fatty tissue, without a significant asymmetry between the two sides. The post-perineal rehabilitation MR tests showed three different degrees of response to therapy, with a “complete response” found in 67% of patients and no response in 13%. Conclusions: MR is an useful tool in the management of patients affected by stress urinary incontinence with indication for perineal rehabilitation. Its objective data allow to distinguish different types of response to therapy and, consequently, different outcomes in terms of additional treatments

  8. MRI role in morphological and functional assessment of the levator ani muscle: Use in patients affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before and after pelvic floor rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Vescovo, Riccardo, E-mail: r.delvescovo@unicampus.it; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia, E-mail: c.piccolo@unicampus.it; Vecchia, Nicoletta Della, E-mail: nico.dvecchia@libero.it; Giurazza, Francesco, E-mail: f.giurazza@unicampus.it; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: r.cazzato@unicampus.it; Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte, E-mail: b.zobel@unicampus.it

    2014-03-15

    Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunctions affect a very high proportion of female population. Magnetic resonance imaging is the only technique able to provide a multiplanar overview of pelvic organs and muscles without the use of ionizing radiation. The aim of our prospective study is to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of perineal re-education applying MR technique. Materials and methods: 22 patients affected by stress urinary incontinence were enrolled in our prospective study. They underwent urogynaecological, urodynamic examinations, and a questionnaire about symptoms (ICIQ-UI) to investigate the degree of their interference with daily activities. Then they underwent a morphological and dynamic MR exam. Results: The pre-perineal rehabilitation MR examinations showed an asymmetry of the levator ani muscle in 87% of patients; the remaining 13% showed a muscular bilateral volume reduction. In the group with unilateral defect, the muscle total volume had values between 15 and 21 cm{sup 3}. Its overall volume was 34.2% smaller on the defective side (9.28 ± 0.26 cm{sup 3}) compared to the normal side (12.64 ± 12.31 cm{sup 3}, P < 0.001). In patients with a bilateral impairment, the muscle was replaced by fibro-fatty tissue, without a significant asymmetry between the two sides. The post-perineal rehabilitation MR tests showed three different degrees of response to therapy, with a “complete response” found in 67% of patients and no response in 13%. Conclusions: MR is an useful tool in the management of patients affected by stress urinary incontinence with indication for perineal rehabilitation. Its objective data allow to distinguish different types of response to therapy and, consequently, different outcomes in terms of additional treatments.

  9. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  10. Three-dimensional micro assembly of a hinged nickel micro device by magnetic lifting and micro resistance welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Wei; Hsu, Wensyang

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional micro assembly of hinged nickel micro devices by magnetic lifting and micro resistance welding is proposed here. By an electroplating-based surface machining process, the released nickel structure with the hinge mechanism can be fabricated. Lifting of the released micro structure to different tilted angles is accomplished by controlling the positions of a magnet beneath the device. An in situ electro-thermal actuator is used here to provide the pressing force in micro resistance welding for immobilizing the tilted structure. The proposed technique is shown to immobilize micro devices at controlled angles ranging from 14° to 90° with respect to the substrate. Design parameters such as the electro-thermal actuator and welding beam width are also investigated. It is found that there is a trade-off in beam width design between large contact pressure and low thermal deformation. Different dominated effects from resistivity enhancement and contact area enlargement during the welding process are also observed in the dynamic resistance curves. Finally, a lifted and immobilized electro-thermal bent-beam actuator is shown to displace upward about 27.7 µm with 0.56 W power input to demonstrate the capability of electrical transmission at welded joints by the proposed 3D micro assembly technique

  11. A bridge column with superelastic NiTi SMA and replaceable rubber hinge for earthquake damage mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sebastian; ‘Saiid' Saiidi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a unique concept for resilient bridge columns that can undergo intense earthquake loading and remain functional with minimal damage and residual drift. In this concept, the column is designed so that its components can be easily disassembled and reassembled to facilitate material recycling and component reuse. This is meant to foster sustainability of bridge systems while minimizing monetary losses from earthquakes. Self-centering and energy dissipation in the column were provided by unbonded superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy bars placed inside a plastic hinge element made of rubber. This replaceable plastic hinge was in turn attached to a concrete-filled carbon fiber-reinforced polymer tube and a precast concrete footing that were designed to behave elastically. The proposed concept was evaluated experimentally by testing a ¼-scale column model under simulated near-fault earthquake motions on a shake table. After testing, the model was disassembled, reassembled and tested again. The seismic performance of the reassembled model was found to be comparable to that of the ‘virgin’ model. A relatively simple computational model of the column tested that was developed in OpenSees was able to match some of the key experimental response parameters.

  12. The effect of hinged ankle-foot orthosis on gait and energy expenditure in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Birol; Yasar, Evren; Dal, Ugur; Yazicioglu, Kamil; Mohur, Haydar; Kalyon, Tunc Alp

    2007-01-30

    To assess the effectiveness of a hinged ankle-foot orthoses on gait impairments and energy expenditure in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) whom orthoses were indicated to control equines. Eleven children (seven males, four females) who had a diagnosis of hemiplegic cerebral palsy were included in the study. Each child underwent gait analysis and energy consumption studies with and without ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). The AFOs were all custom-made for the individual child and had plantarflexion stop at 0 degrees with no dorsoflexion stop. The Vicon 512 Motion analysis system was used for gait analysis. Walking energy expenditure measurements were done with breath by breath method using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter (Vmax 29c, Sensormedics, USA). All tests were carried out on the same day with enough resting period. AFO application, as compared with the barefoot condition improved walking speed, stride length and single support time. Double support time was decreased significantly with AFOs and no change in cadance. Ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact, midstance and midswing showed significiant increase. Knee flexion at initial contact was decreased and no significant change in maximum knee extension at stance and maximum knee flexion at swing was obtained. The oxygen consumption was significantly reduced during AFO walking. The hinged AFO is useful in controlling dynamic equinus deformity and reducing the energy expenditure of gait in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy.

  13. Low-dimensional, hinged bar-code metal oxide layers and free-standing, ordered organic nanostructures from turbostratic vanadium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Colm; Lavayen, Vladimir; Fuenzalida, David; Lozano, Harold; Santa Ana, Maria A; Benavente, Eglantina; González, Guillermo; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2008-07-01

    Both low-dimensional bar-coded metal oxide layers, which exhibit molecular hinging, and free-standing organic nanostructures can be obtained from unique nanofibers of vanadium oxide (VO(x)). The nanofibers are successfully synthesized by a simple chemical route using an ethanolic solution of vanadium pentoxide xerogel and dodecanethiol resulting in a double bilayered laminar turbostratic structure. The formation of vanadium oxide nanofibers is observed after hydrothermal treatment of the thiol-intercalated xerogel, resulting in typical lengths in the range 2-6 microm and widths of about 50-500 nm. We observe concomitant hinging of the flexible nanofiber lamina at periodic hinge points in the final product on both the nanoscale and molecular level. Bar-coded nanofibers comprise alternating segments of organic-inorganic (thiols-VO(x)) material and are amenable to segmented, localized metal nanoparticle docking. Under certain conditions free-standing bilayered organic nanostructures are realized.

  14. The influence of forces of viscous resistance on the efficiency of damping in hinges with large gaps in the crane-manipulator installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev I.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers regularities of the influence of forces of viscous resistance generated by the damper device in the cylindrical hinges of the nodes connect the links of the crane-manipulator units mobile transport-technological ma-chines. The specified effect is considered on the efficiency of the damping of oscillations of the metal in the process of operation, due to the presence of increased clearances due to wear of the holes of the hinge eyes. It is shown that the force of viscous resistance should be considered in addition to the generated damping devices forces of elastic resis-tance, as the latter determine the effectiveness of damping in general. The main role of forces of viscous resistance is the dissipation of energy of an oscillatory turning movement of the mating parts of the metal structures due to oscilla-tory displacement of the hinge pin within the hinge gap until the complete decay of oscillations. Considered in relation to the crane-manipulator installing mobile transport-technological machines AST-4-A the effect of the action of forces of viscous resistance is almost not observed when the coefficient of viscous damping less than 0.01 MN∙s/m, in the range 0,01...0,05 MN∙s/m this influence begins to manifest itself more and more noticeable, in the range of 0,05...0,4 MN∙s/m has a lot of damping vibrational displacement of the hinge pin within the gap, while the coefficient of viscous damping more than 0.4 MN∙s/m oscillatory process becomes aperiodic with an almost complete attenuation in the range of one oscillation of the hinged finger.

  15. The Impact of the ‘Austrian’ Mutation of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Transmembrane Helix is Communicated to the Hinge Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelzer, Walter; Scharnagl, Christina; Leurs, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane helix of the amyloid precursor protein is subject to proteolytic cleavages by γ-secretase at different sites resulting in Aβ peptides of different length and toxicity. A number of point mutations within this transmembrane helix alter the cleavage pattern thus enhancing production...... destabilizes amide hydrogen bonds in the hinge which connects dimerization and cleavage regions. Weaker intrahelical hydrogen bonds at the hinge may enhance helix bending and thereby affect recognition of the transmembrane substrate by the enzyme and/or presentation of its cleavage sites to the catalytic cleft....

  16. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  17. Temperature and velocity conditions of air flow in vertical channel of hinged ventilated facade of a multistory building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statsenko, Elena; Ostrovaia, Anastasia; Pigurin, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    This article considers the influence of the building's tallness and the presence of mounting grooved lines on the parameters of heat transfer in the gap of a hinged ventilated facade. A numerical description of the processes occurring in a heat-gravitational flow is given. The average velocity and temperature of the heat-gravitational flow of a structure with open and sealed rusts are determined with unchanged geometric parameters of the gap. The dependence of the parameters influencing the thermomechanical characteristics of the enclosing structure is derived depending on the internal parameters of the system. Physical modeling of real multistory structures is performed by projecting actual parameters onto a reduced laboratory model (scaling).

  18. Modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour by clonidine and yohimbine in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makau, C M; Towett, P K; Abelson, K S P

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour...... reduction in the duration of the formalin-induced pain-related behaviour. The effect of clonidine was reversed by intrathecal administration of yohimbine at a dose of 26.7 μg/kg. The effect of yohimbine at a dose of 50 μg/kg was reversed by intrathecal injection of 20 μg/kg of the serotonergic receptor...... in tortoises. The data also suggest that testudines have noradrenergic and serotonergic systems that appear to play a role in the modulation of pain in this species....

  19. Effect of glycosylation on cis/trans isomerization of prolines in IgA1-hinge peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Kubota, Tomomi; Furukawa, Sanae; Morii, Hisayuki; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko

    2010-04-28

    The hinge region of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), connecting the Fab and Fc regions, is mostly composed of Ser, Thr, and Pro (VPSTPPTPSPSTPPTPSPS); hinge peptide (HP). O-Glycans are naturally attached on only particular five Ser/Thr residues in this region. NMR was employed for analysis of the structural changes in HP upon the glycosylation, especially focusing on the cis/trans isomerization of Pro residues. A series of HP containing (13)C,(15)N-labeled Pro residues were chemically synthesized and enzymatically glycosylated. The signals from cis and trans forms of the labeled Pro were identified by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Cis/trans ratios of the Pro residues at the C-terminal side of the glycosylated Ser/Thr were reduced from 9-10% to 2-3% by the glycosylation. Thermodynamic analyses indicated that the decrease in the cis/trans ratio was enthalpy-driven. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments and NOE-based structure determination revealed that the intraresidue hydrogen bonds between the amide group of GalNAc and carbonyl oxygen of the peptide backbone of GalNAc-Thr are formed in the major trans conformers, which is consistent with the thermodynamic parameters. These hydrogen bonds largely restrict the psi angle of the peptide backbone and, thereby, should make the trans conformation of the C-terminal Pro residue more stable than the cis conformation. Namely, it is predicted that the restricted psi angle causes interresidue steric hindrance for the cis conformation. The appropriate glycosylation of HP probably contributes to the decrease in the unfavorable variety of relative orientations between Fab and Fc in IgA1, through stabilizing the conformation of HP.

  20. Multi-functional hinge equipped with a magneto-rheological rotary damper for solar array deployment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Mingfu; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Wu, Zhengzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the design and simulation of a novel multi-functional hinge equipped with a rotary magnetorheological damper for solar array deployment system, which is comprised of a hinge, an angular sensor, a positioning and locking mechanism and a rotary damper. In order to achieve the compact design in structure, some components were reused in different function modules. It's the first to use magnet-rheological fluid (MRF) to dissipate the energy in solar array deployment system. The main advantage in using MR rotary damper instead of a viscous fluid rotary damper is that the damping force of MR damper can be adjusted according to the external magnetic field environment excited. A mechanic model was built and the structure design was focused on the MR rotary damper, a damping force model of this damper is deduced based on hydromechanics with Bingham plastic constitutive model. A simulation of deployment motion was taken to validate the motion sequence of various components during the unfolding and locking process. It can be obtained that a constant damping coefficient can hardly balance the different performance of solar deployment system, then a simulation of the proposed deployment system equipped with rotary MR damper was carried out. According to the simulation, it can be obtained that the terminal velocity decreased by 75.81% and the deployment time decreased by 72.37% compared with a given constant damping coefficients. Therefore, the proposed new type of rotary damper can reach a compromise with different performance utilizing an on-off control strategy.

  1. Comprehensive Analysis of the Therapeutic IgG4 Antibody Pembrolizumab: Hinge Modification Blocks Half Molecule Exchange In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Fengqiang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Larry; Antonenko, Svetlana; Zhang, Shuli; Zhang, Yi Wei; Tabrizifard, Mohammad; Ermakov, Grigori; Wiswell, Derek; Beaumont, Maribel; Liu, Liming; Richardson, Daisy; Shameem, Mohammed; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    IgG4 antibodies are evolving as an important class of cancer immunotherapies. However, human IgG4 can undergo Fab arm (half molecule) exchange with other IgG4 molecules in vivo. The hinge modification by a point mutation (S228P) prevents half molecule exchange of IgG4. However, the experimental confirmation is still expected by regulatory agencies. Here, we report for the first time the extensive analysis of half molecule exchange for a hinge-modified therapeutic IgG4 molecule, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) targeting programmed death 1 (PD1) receptor that was approved for advanced melanoma. Studies were performed in buffer or human serum using multiple exchange partners including natalizumab (Tysabri) and human IgG4 pool. Formation of bispecific antibodies was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, exchange with Fc fragments, mixed mode chromatography, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The half molecule exchange was also examined in vivo in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the hinge modification in pembrolizumab prevented half molecule exchange, whereas the unmodified counterpart anti-PD1 wt showed active exchange activity with other IgG4 antibodies or self-exchange activity with its own molecules. Our work, as an example expected for meeting regulatory requirements, contributes to establish without ambiguity that hinge-modified IgG4 antibodies are suitable for biotherapeutic applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Transporditöötajate ametiühing ärkas pärast blokaadiähvardust / Tanel Mazur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazur, Tanel, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Narvskaja Gazeta 2. sept. lk. 7. Transporditöötajate ametiühing kavatseb pöörduda Eesti-Vene piiripunktides valitsevate ülipikkade järjekordade pärast välisministeeriumi ja Vene saatkonna poole, kaaludes ühtlasi ka Euroopa Komisjonilt abi palumist

  3. Differences in signal activation by LH and hCG are mediated by the LH/CG receptor`s extracellular hinge region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGrzesik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD, as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10 deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region s. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge region

  4. Differences in Signal Activation by LH and hCG are Mediated by the LH/CG Receptor's Extracellular Hinge Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Paul; Kreuchwig, Annika; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schuelein, Ralf; Kleinau, Gunnar; Gromoll, Joerg; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The human lutropin (hLH)/choriogonadotropin (hCG) receptor (LHCGR) can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG) - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH) - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich-repeat domain (LRRD), as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting) mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone-induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10-deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge

  5. Differences in Signal Activation by LH and hCG are Mediated by the LH/CG Receptor’s Extracellular Hinge Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Paul; Kreuchwig, Annika; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schuelein, Ralf; Kleinau, Gunnar; Gromoll, Joerg; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The human lutropin (hLH)/choriogonadotropin (hCG) receptor (LHCGR) can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG) – secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH) – produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor’s leucine-rich-repeat domain (LRRD), as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting) mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone-induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10-deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the

  6. Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  7. Transposição da rima palpebral em ptose miogênica mitocondrial Tarsal switch levator for mitochondrial myogenic ptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Miriam Dumont Lucci

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o uso da ressecção do tarso da pálpebra superior e enxerto na pálpebra inferior para a elevação da rima palpebral e liberação do eixo visual, sem causar complicações corneanas em pacientes portadores de ptose miogênica mitocondrial. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo. A técnica cirúrgica consiste na tarsectomia da pálpebra superior e autoenxerto do tarso na lamela posterior da pálpebra inferior. As cirurgias foram realizadas sob anestesia local. No caso de diplopia, a cirurgia foi realizada em apenas um olho. RESULTADOS: O procedimento foi realizado em 9 olhos de 6 pacientes com miopatia mitocondrial. Cinco pacientes eram do sexo feminino, a média de idade foi de 59,8 anos e o seguimento variou de 30 a 60 meses. A rima palpebral elevou em todos os pacientes, descobrindo o eixo visual na posição primária do olhar e melhorando a posição viciosa de cabeça. Não houve complicações decorrentes da exposição do globo ocular. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de transposição da rima palpebral é útil na correção do mau posicionamento das pálpebras em pacientes sem mecanismos de proteção porque eleva a pálpebra superior e a inferior, diminuindo ou eliminando o risco de causar lagoftalmo com complicações corneanas.PURPOSE: To report the use of tarsal switch levator resection procedures that lift the palpebral fissure to visual axis without causing corneal complications in patients with mitochondrial myogenic ptosis. METHODS: Prospective study. The technique consists of an upper eyelid tarsectomy, with transfer of the autologous tarsoconjunctival graft to the posterior lamella of the lower eyelid. The surgeries were performed under local anesthesia. In case of diplopia, the surgery was performed in one eye. RESULTS: Tarsal switch procedure was performed in 9 eyes of 6 patients with mitochondrial myopathy. There were 5 women; the average age was 59.8 years and the follow-up ranged from 30 to 60 months. The palpebral

  8. Hinge and chromoshadow of HP1α participate in recognition of K9 methylated histone H3 in nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Yuichi; Watanabe, Makoto; Kawakami, Toru; Jayasinghe, Chanika D; Otani, Junji; Kikugawa, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Osamu; Aimoto, Saburo; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2013-01-09

    The majority of the genome in eukaryotes is packaged into transcriptionally inactive chromatin. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a major player in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin. HP1 specifically recognizes a methylated lysine residue at position 9 in histone H3 through its N-terminal chromo domain (CD). To elucidate the binding properties of HP1α to nucleosomes in vitro, we reconstituted nucleosomes containing histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9. HP1α exhibited high-affinity binding to nucleosomes containing methylated histone H3 in a nucleosome core-number-dependent manner. The hinge region (HR) connecting the CD and C-terminal chromoshadow domain (CSD), and the CSD contributed to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 with trimethylated lysine 9 through weak DNA binding and by suppressing the DNA binding, respectively. We propose that not only the specific recognition of lysine 9 methylation of histone H3 by the CD but also the HR and the CSD cooperatively contribute to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 lysine 9 methylated nucleosomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RTM Production Monitoring of the A380 Hinge Arm Droop Nose Mechanism: A Multi-Sensor Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Chiesura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a case study of production monitoring on an aerospace composite component: the hinge arm of the droop nose mechanism on the Airbus A380 wing leading edge. A sensor network composed of Fibre Bragg Gratings, capacitive sensors for cure monitoring and thermocouples was embedded in its fibre reinforced lay-up and measurements were acquired throughout its Resin Transfer Moulding production process. Two main challenges had to be overcome: first, the integration of the sensor lines in the existing Resin Transfer Moulding mould without modifying it; second, the demoulding of the component without damaging the sensor lines. The proposed embedding solution has proved successful. The wavelength shifts of the Fibre Bragg Gratings were observed from the initial production stages, over the resin injection, the complete curing of the resin and the cooling-down prior to demoulding. The sensors proved to be sensitive to detecting the resin flow front, vacuum and pressure increase into the mould and the temperature increase caused by the resin curing. Measurements were also acquired during the post-curing cycle. Residual strains during all steps of the process were derived from the sensors’ wavelength shift, showing values up to 0.2% in compression. Moreover, the capacitive sensors were able to follow-up the curing degree during the production process. The sensors proved able to detect the resin flow front, whereas thermocouples could not measure an appreciable increase of temperature due to the fact that the resin had the same temperature as the mould.

  10. A method for producing uniform dose distributions in the junction regions of large hinge angle electrol fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavgorodni, S.F.; Beckham, W.A.; Roos, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The planning problems presented by abutting electron fields are well recognised. Junctioning electron fields with large hinge angle compounds the problems because of the creation of closely situated 'hot' and 'cold' spots. The technique involving a compensated superficial x-ray (SXR) field to treat the junction region between electron fields was developed and used in a particular clinical case (treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma of the forehead/scalp). The SXR beam parameters were chosen and the compensator was designed to make the SXR field complementary to the electron fields. Application of a compensated SXR field eliminated 'cold' spots in the junction region and minimised 'hot' spots to (110%). In the clinical case discusses the 'hot' spots due to the SXR field would not appear because of increased attenuation of the soft x-rays in bone. The technique proposed produces uniform dose distribution up to 3 cm deep and can be considered as an additional tool for dealing with electron fields junctioning problems. (author)

  11. Modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour by clonidine and yohimbine in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kiniskys spekii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makau, C M; Towett, P K; Abelson, K S P; Kanui, T I

    2017-10-01

    The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (hindlimb withdrawal) that lasted for a mean time of 19.28 min (monophasic response). Intrathecal administration of clonidine (α 2 -adrenergic receptor agonist) and yohimbine (α 2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) at a dose of 40 μg/kg and 37.5 μg/kg or 50 μg/kg, respectively, caused a highly significant reduction in the duration of the formalin-induced pain-related behaviour. The effect of clonidine was reversed by intrathecal administration of yohimbine at a dose of 26.7 μg/kg. The effect of yohimbine at a dose of 50 μg/kg was reversed by intrathecal injection of 20 μg/kg of the serotonergic receptor antagonist methysergide maleate. When performing antagonistic reactions, the administration of the antagonist was followed immediately by that of the agonist. The study indicates that for experimental purposes, intrathecal route of drug administration through the atlanto-occipital joint is effective in tortoises. The data also suggest that testudines have noradrenergic and serotonergic systems that appear to play a role in the modulation of pain in this species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of permafrost thaw on carbon emissions under aerobic and anaerobic environments in the Great Hing'an Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changchun; Wang, Xianwei; Miao, Yuqing; Wang, Jiaoyue; Mao, Rong; Song, Yanyu

    2014-07-15

    The carbon (C) pool of permafrost peatland is very important for the global C cycle. Little is known about how permafrost thaw could influence C emissions in the Great Hing'an Mountains of China. Through aerobic and anaerobic incubation experiments, we studied the effects of permafrost thaw on CH4 and CO2 emissions. The rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured at -10, 0 and 10°C. Although there were still C emissions below 0°C, rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions significantly increased with permafrost thaw under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The C release under aerobic conditions was greater than under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that permafrost thaw and resulting soil environment change should be important influences on C emissions. However, CH4 stored in permafrost soils could affect accurate estimation of CH4 emissions from microbial degradation. Calculated Q10 values in the permafrost soils were significantly higher than values in active-layer soils under aerobic conditions. Our results highlight that permafrost soils have greater potential decomposability than soils of the active layer, and such carbon decomposition would be more responsive to the aerobic environment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The structure of gene product 6 of bacteriophage T4, the hinge-pin of the baseplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Leiman, Petr G; Shneider, Mikhail M; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V; Rossmann, Michael G

    2009-06-10

    The baseplate of bacteriophage T4 is a multicomponent protein complex, which controls phage attachment to the host. It assembles from six wedges and a central hub. During infection the baseplate undergoes a large conformational change from a dome-shaped to a flat, star-shaped structure. We report the crystal structure of the C-terminal half of gene product (gp) 6 and investigate its motion with respect to the other proteins during the baseplate rearrangement. Six gp6 dimers interdigitate, forming a ring that maintains the integrity of the baseplate in both conformations. One baseplate wedge contains an N-terminal dimer of gp6, whereas neighboring wedges are tied together through the C-terminal dimer of gp6. The dimeric interactions are preserved throughout the rearrangement of the baseplate. However, the hinge angle between the N- and C-terminal parts of gp6 changes by approximately 15 degrees , accounting for a 10 A radial increase in the diameter of the gp6 ring.

  14. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  15. Defining the mechanical properties of a spring-hinged ankle foot orthosis to assess its potential use in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkum, Yvette L; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap

    2014-12-01

    A rigid ventral shelf ankle foot orthosis (AFO) may improve gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) whose gait is characterized by excessive knee flexion in stance. However, these AFOs can also impede ankle range of motion (ROM) and thereby inhibit push-off power. A more spring-like AFO can enhance push-off and may potentially reduce walking energy cost. The recent development of an adjustable spring-hinged AFO now allows adjustment of AFO stiffness, enabling tuning toward optimal gait performance. This study aims to quantify the mechanical properties of this spring-hinged AFO for each of its springs and settings. Using an AFO stiffness tester, two AFO hinges and their accompanying springs were measured. The springs showed a stiffness range of 0.01-1.82 N · m · deg(-1). The moment-threshold increased with increasing stiffness (1.13-12.1 N · m), while ROM decreased (4.91-16.5°). Energy was returned by all springs (11.5-116.3 J). These results suggest that the two stiffest available springs should improve joint kinematics and enhance push-off in children with SCP walking with excessive knee flexion.

  16. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  17. Negative density dependence of sympatric Hinge-back Tortoises (Kinixys erosa and K. homeana in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Luiselli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of 59 transect surveys was conducted in selected wet forest habitats, along the coast of West Africa, to estimate the density distribution of African Hinge-back tortoises (Kinixys homeana and K. erosa. Line transect data were fed into a simple model to derive a detection function. The parameters estimated by the model produced an elaborate characterisation of tortoise distribution, which proved to be useful in the formulation of hypotheses about tortoise densities. Line transect data were analysed by DISTANCE, with a series of key and the series adjustment: the uniform function, the 1-parameter half-normal function, and the 2-parameter hazard-rate function were considered as key functions; the cosine series, simple polynomials, and Hermite polynomials were considered as series expansions. The detection function was estimated separately for Kinixys homeana and K. erosa, and for transects grouped for each study area by considering all the combinations of the above key functions and series expansions. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC was computed for each candidate model and used for model selection. The best model of the detection function, for both the tortoise species was the uniform function with no series expansion. Model results indicated that the density of the two species was inversely related at the local scale, and complementary across the region; such that the density of one species increases from West to East while the other one declines. Overall, the comparison of density estimates between the two tortoises is consistent with a former hypothesis suggesting inter-specific competition and consequent resource partitioning. Other causes may contribute to explain the observed patterns, including the low productivity of rainforest habitats and long-term human perturbation.

  18. Influence of the hinge region and its adjacent domains on binding and signaling patterns of the thyrotropin and follitropin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHR have a large extracellular domain (ECD divided into the leucine rich repeat (LRR domain for binding of the glycoprotein hormones and the hinge region (HinR, which connects the LRR domain with the transmembrane domain (TMD. Understanding of the activation mechanism of GPHRs is hindered by the unknown interaction of the ECD with the TMD and the structural changes upon ligand binding responsible for receptor activation. Recently, our group showed that the HinR of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR can be replaced by those of the follitropin (FSHR and lutropin receptor (LHCGR without effects on surface expression and hTSH signaling. However, differences in binding characteristics for bovine TSH at the various HinRs were obvious. To gain further insights into the interplay between LRR domain, HinR and TMD we generated chimeras between the TSHR and FSHR. Our results obtained by the determination of cell surface expression, ligand binding and G protein activation confirm the similar characteristics of GPHR HinRs but they also demonstrate an involvement of the HinR in ligand selectivity indicated by the observed promiscuity of some chimeras. While the TSHR HinR contributes to specific binding of TSH and its variants, no such contribution is observed for FSH and its analog TR4401 at the HinR of the FSHR. Furthermore, the charge distribution at the poorly characterized LRR domain/HinR transition affected ligand binding and signaling even though this area is not in direct contact with the ligand. In addition our results also demonstrate the importance of the TMD/HinR interface. Especially the combination of the TSHR HinR with the FSHR-TMD resulted in a loss of cell surface expression of the respective chimeras. In conclusion, the HinRs of GPHRs do not only share similar characteristics but also behave as ligand specific structural and functional entities.

  19. God and Hinge Proposition

    OpenAIRE

    Fronda, Earl Stanley

    2003-01-01

    The issues in traditional Western philosophy of religion revolve around theism and its counterview. At the heart of theism is a belief in God, a personal being and creator of but organically different from the universe. And this God is believed to be knowable through revelation, or reason, or both. A counterview of theism would be the position that denies that there is such a being as God, and that the universe came to be by means other than what is narrated by theism....

  20. Learning from Graded Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodinsky, Marilyn; Nation, Paul

    1988-01-01

    A word frequency study of two graded readers and an unsimplified text indicated that graded readers facilitated better foreign-language reading and vocabulary learning than did unsimplified texts. It was found that students needed to read several same-level texts to master vocabulary, and that vocabulary mastery was not necessary for successful…

  1. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  2. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  3. Evidence on How a Conserved Glycine in the Hinge Region of HapR Regulates Its DNA Binding Ability: LESSONS FROM A NATURAL VARIANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Dongre; N Singh; C Dureja; N Peddada; A Solanki; F Ashish; S Raychaudhuri

    2011-12-31

    HapR has been recognized as a quorum-sensing master regulator in Vibrio cholerae. Because it controls a plethora of disparate cellular events, the absence of a functional HapR affects the physiology of V. cholerae to a great extent. In the current study, we pursued an understanding of an observation of a natural protease-deficient non-O1, non-O139 variant V. cholerae strain V2. Intriguingly, a nonfunctional HapR (henceforth designated as HapRV2) harboring a substitution of glycine to aspartate at position 39 of the N-terminal hinge region has been identified. An in vitro gel shift assay clearly suggested the inability of HapRV2 to interact with various cognate promoters. Reinstatement of glycine at position 39 restores DNA binding ability of HapRV2 (HapRV2G), thereby rescuing the protease-negative phenotype of this strain. The elution profile of HapRV2 and HapRV2G proteins in size-exclusion chromatography and their circular dichroism spectra did not reflect any significant differences to explain the functional discrepancies between the two proteins. To gain insight into the structure-function relationship of these two proteins, we acquired small/wide angle x-ray scattering data from samples of the native and G39D mutant. Although Guinier analysis and indirect Fourier transformation of scattering indicated only a slight difference in the shape parameters, structure reconstruction using dummy amino acids concluded that although HapR adopts a 'Y' shape similar to its crystal structure, the G39D mutation in hinge drastically altered the DNA binding domains by bringing them in close proximity. This altered spatial orientation of the helix-turn-helix domains in this natural variant provides the first structural evidence on the functional role of the hinge region in quorum sensing-related DNA-binding regulatory proteins of Vibrio spp.

  4. Exclusive occurrence of an extracellular protease capable of cleaving the hinge region of human immunoglobulin A1 in strains of Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, M; Freundt, E A

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to further investigate the occurrence of a specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease among mycoplasmas of various origin. Fifty-two strains representing the genera Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Acholeplasma and Spiroplasma were examined. The ability to cause specific cleavage of human IgA1 in the hinge region resulting in intact Fab and Fc fragments was exclusively associated with strains of U. urealyticum. Thus, this trait may be used as a valuable differential characteristic of U. urealyticum. A more pronounced proteolytic activity capable of causing extensive degradation of both human and bovine IgA was demonstrated in the type strain of U. diversum.

  5. Extended hormone binding site of the human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: distinctive acidic residues in the hinge region are involved in bovine thyroid stimulating hormone binding and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra; Kleinau, Gunnar; Jaeschke, Holger; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2008-06-27

    The human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR) belongs to the glycoprotein hormone receptors that bind the hormones at their large extracellular domain. The extracellular hinge region of the TSHR connects the N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain with the membrane-spanning serpentine domain. From previous studies we reasoned that apart from hormone binding at the leucine-rich repeat domain, additional multiple hormone contacts might exist at the hinge region of the TSHR by complementary charge-charge recognition. Here we investigated highly conserved charged residues in the hinge region of the TSHR by site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acids interacting with bovine TSH (bTSH). Indeed, the residues Glu-297, Glu-303, and Asp-382 in the TSHR hinge region are essential for bTSH binding and partially for signal transduction. Side chain substitutions showed that the negative charge of Glu-297 and Asp-382 is necessary for recognition of bTSH by the hTSHR. Multiple combinations of alanine mutants of the identified positions revealed an increased negative effect on hormone binding. An assembled model suggests that the deciphered acidic residues form negatively charged patches at the hinge region resulting in an extended binding mode for bTSH on the hTSHR. Our data indicate that certain positively charged residues of bTSH might be involved in interaction with the identified negatively charged amino acids of the hTSHR hinge region. We demonstrate that the hinge region represents an extracellular intermediate connector for both hormone binding and signal transduction of the hTSHR.

  6. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhe; Jiang, Hanlun; Sheong, Fu Kit; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin; Wang, Yanli; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-03-17

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Ago's but rigid for eukaryotic Ago's.

  7. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Lizhe

    2016-02-24

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Agos but rigid for eukaryotic Agos. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  8. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  9. MOOC and mechanized grading

    OpenAIRE

    Queinnec, Christian

    2013-01-01

    4 pages; As many others, we too are developping a Massive Online Open Course or MOOC. This MOOC will teach recursive programming for beginnners and makes an heavy use of an already existing infrastructure for mechanical grading. This paper presents some ideas on how to combine these two components along with some (untested) incentives in order to increase students' involvement.

  10. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  11. Purpose-Driven Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  12. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  13. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  14. Grading Classroom Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, John C.; Peterson, Dean

    1998-01-01

    Grading class participation can send positive signals to college students about the kind of learning and thinking an instructor values. Various structures for participation (whole-class discussion, cold-calling on students, collaborative learning, electronic mail, journals, student-faculty conferences) call for different approaches to assessment.…

  15. Estimation of intermediate-grade uranium resources II. Proposed method for estimating intermediate-grade uranium resources in roll-front deposits. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambie, F.W.; Yee, S.N.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this and a previous project was to examine the feasibility of estimating intermediate grade uranium (0.01 to 0.05% U 3 O 8 ) on the basis of existing, sparsely drilled holes. All data are from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. DOE makes preliminary estimates of endowment by calculating an Average Area of Influence (AAI) based on densely drilled areas, multiplying that by the thickness of the mineralization and then dividing by a tonnage factor. The resulting tonnage of ore is then multiplied by the average grade of the interval to obtain the estimate of U 3 O 8 tonnage. Total endowment is the sum of these values over all mineralized intervals in all wells in the area. In regions where wells are densely drilled and approximately regularly spaced this technique approaches the classical polygonal estimation technique used to estimate ore reserves and should be fairly reliable. The method is conservative because: (1) in sparsely drilled regions a large fraction of the area is not considered to contribute to endowment; (2) there is a bias created by the different distributions of point grades and mining block grades. A conservative approach may be justified for purposes of ore reserve estimation, where large investments may hinge on local forecasts. But for estimates of endowment over areas as large as 1 0 by 2 0 quadrangles, or the nation as a whole, errors in local predictions are not critical as long as they tend to cancel and a less conservative estimation approach may be justified.One candidate, developed for this study and described is called the contoured thickness technique. A comparison of estimates based on the contoured thickness approach with DOE calculations for five areas of Wyoming roll-fronts in the Powder River Basin is presented. The sensitivity of the technique to well density is examined and the question of predicting intermediate grade endowment from data on higher grades is discussed

  16. Computational study of the Risø-B1-18 airfoil with a hinged flap providing variable trailing edge geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive computational study, in both steady and unsteady flow conditions, has been carried out to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the Risø-B1.18 airfoil equipped with variable trailing edge geometry as produced by a hinged flap. The function of such flaps should...... on the baseline airfoil showed excellent agreement with measurements on the same airfoil with the same specified conditions. Furthermore, a more widespread comparison with an advanced potential theory code is presented. The influence of various key parameters, such as flap shape, flap size and oscillating...... frequencies, was investigated so that an optimum design can be suggested for application with wind turbine blades. It is concluded that a moderately curved flap with flap chord to airfoil curve ratio between 0.05 and 0.10 would be an optimum choice....

  17. The venous hinge - an objective sign for the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment in patients with intracranial hypotension syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Jai Jai Shiva; Chakraborty, Santanu; Lum, Cheemun

    2009-01-01

    In patients with Intracranial Hypotension Syndrome (IHS), we observed reduction of the angle between vein of the Galen (VOG) and internal cerebral vein (ICV), which returns to the baseline after treatment. We coin the term ''venous hinge'' to describe this dynamic process and discuss its importance in IHS. A midsagittal T1W image showing both VOG and ICV in the same plane was reterospectively analyzed by three different neuroradiologists in 17 patients with IHS. The angle between the lines drawn along the main axis of VOG and ICV (venous hinge angle (VHA)) was measured and documented. This angle measured from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the 50 normal controls was also recorded. Paired t tests were used to compare the VHA between male and female controls and between patients of IHS and normal controls. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. The VHA was also calculated after treatment of these patients and paired t test was done to look for significant change in the VHA after treatment. The mean VHA formed by the veins in the IHS and control groups were 65 (35-98 ) and 91 (76-124 ) respectively (P < 0.0001). At a VHA of 79 , the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for diagnosis of IHS were 88.24%, 92%, 78.95%, and 95.83% respectively. In ten patients, follow-up MRI demonstrated normalization of the collapsing angle following appropriate treatment (p = 0.003). We report a previously undescribed imaging finding in patients with IHS. Recognition of this sign may aid in the diagnosis of IHS. (orig.)

  18. Roles of the β subunit hinge domain in ATP synthase F1 sector: Hydrophobic network formed by introduced βPhe174 inhibits subunit rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Kashiwagi, Sachiko; Kojima, Masaki; Nonaka, Takamasa; Futai, Masamitsu

    2010-01-01

    The ATP synthase β subunit hinge domain (βPhe148 ∼ βGly186, P-loop/α-helixB/loop/β-sheet4, Escherichia coli residue numbering) dramatically changes in conformation upon nucleotide binding. We previously reported that F 1 with the βSer174 to Phe mutation in the domain lowered the γ subunit rotation speed, and thus decreased the ATPase activity [M. Nakanishi-Matsui, S. Kashiwagi, T. Ubukata, A. Iwamoto-Kihara, Y. Wada, M. Futai, Rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F 1 sector. Stochastic fluctuation and a key domain of the β subunit, J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 20698-20704.]. Homology modeling indicates that the amino acid replacement induces a hydrophobic network, in which the βMet159, βIle163, and βAla167 residues of the β subunit are involved together with the mutant βPhe174. The network is expected to stabilize the conformation of β DP (nucleotide-bound form of the β subunit), resulting in increased activation energy for transition to β E (empty β subunit). The modeling further predicts that replacement of βMet159 with Ala or Ile weakens the hydrophobic network. As expected, these two mutations experimentally suppressed the ATPase activities as well as subunit rotation of βS174F. Furthermore, the rotation rate decreased with the increase of the strength in the hydrophobic network. These results indicate that the smooth conformational change of the β subunit hinge domain is pertinent for the rotational catalysis.

  19. Surgical treatment of choanal atresia with transnasal endoscopic approach with stentless single side-hinged flap technique: 5 year retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Saraniti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Choanal atresia is a rare congenital malformation of the nasal cavity characterized by the complete obliteration of the posterior choanae. In 67% of cases choanal atresia is unilateral, affecting mainly (71% the right nasal cavity. In contrast to the unilateral form, bilateral choanal atresia is a life-threatening condition often associated with respiratory distress with feeding and intermittent cyanosis exacerbated by crying. Surgical treatment remains the only therapeutic option. Objective: To report our experience in the use of a transnasal endoscopic approach with stentless single side-hinged flap technique for the surgical management of choanal atresia. Methods: A 5 year retrospective analysis of surgical outcomes of 18 patients treated for choanal atresia with a transnasal technique employing a single side-hinged flap without stent placement. All subjects were assessed preoperatively with a nasal endoscopy and a Maxillofacial computed tomography scan. Results: Ten males and eight females with a mean age at the time of surgery of 20.05 ± 11.32 years, underwent surgery for choanal atresia. Fifteen subjects (83.33% had a bony while 3 (26.77% a mixed bony-membranous atretic plate. Two and sixteen cases suffered from bilateral and unilateral choanal atresia respectively. No intra- and/or early postoperative complications were observed. Between 2 and 3 months after surgery two cases (11.11% of partial restenosis were found. Only one of these presented a relapse of the nasal obstruction and was subsequently successfully repaired with a second endoscopic procedure. Conclusion: The surgical technique described follows the basic requirements of corrective surgery and allows good visualization, evaluation and treatment of the atretic plate and the posterior third of the septum, in order to create the new choanal opening. We believe that the use of a stent is not necessary, as recommended in case of other surgical techniques

  20. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  1. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  2. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral...

  3. A Biological Micro Actuator: Graded and Closed-Loop Control of Insect Leg Motion by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Li, Yao; Sangi, Daniyal Haider; Koh, Jie Sheng; Huynh, Ngoc Anh; Aziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin; Choo, Hao Yu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Abbeel, Pieter; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Sato, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle) and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect–machine hybrid legged robot). PMID:25140875

  4. A biological micro actuator: graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cao

    Full Text Available In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect-machine hybrid legged robot.

  5. Normal-Force and Hinge-Moment Characteristics at Transonic Speeds of Flap-Type Ailerons at Three Spanwise Locations on a 4-Percent-Thick Sweptback-Wing-Body Model and Pressure-Distribution Measurements on an Inboard Aileron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Hieser, Gerald

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the loading characteristics of flap-type ailerons located at inboard, midspan, and outboard positions on a 45 deg. sweptback-wing-body combination. Aileron normal-force and hinge-moment data have been obtained at Mach numbers from 0.80 t o 1.03, at angles of attack up to about 27 deg., and at aileron deflections between approximately -15 deg. and 15 deg. Results of the investigation indicate that the loading over the ailerons was established by the wing-flow characteristics, and the loading shapes were irregular in the transonic speed range. The spanwise location of the aileron had little effect on the values of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against aileron deflection, but the inboard aileron had the greatest value of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against angle of attack and the outboard aileron had the least. Hinge-moment and aileron normal-force data taken with strain-gage instrumentation are compared with data obtained with pressure measurements.

  6. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades, U.S. Nos...

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of Air Escape through a Hospital Isolation Room Single Hinged Doorway--Validation by Using Tracer Gases and Simulated Smoke Videos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka E Saarinen

    Full Text Available The use of hospital isolation rooms has increased considerably in recent years due to the worldwide outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases. However, the passage of staff through isolation room doors is suspected to be a cause of containment failure, especially in case of hinged doors. It is therefore important to minimize inadvertent contaminant airflow leakage across the doorway during such movements. To this end, it is essential to investigate the behavior of such airflows, especially the overall volume of air that can potentially leak across the doorway during door-opening and human passage. Experimental measurements using full-scale mock-ups are expensive and labour intensive. A useful alternative approach is the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modelling using a time-resolved Large Eddy Simulation (LES method. In this study simulated air flow patterns are qualitatively compared with experimental ones, and the simulated total volume of air that escapes is compared with the experimentally measured volume. It is shown that the LES method is able to reproduce, at room scale, the complex transient airflows generated during door-opening/closing motions and the passage of a human figure through the doorway between two rooms. This was a basic test case that was performed in an isothermal environment without ventilation. However, the advantage of the CFD approach is that the addition of ventilation airflows and a temperature difference between the rooms is, in principle, a relatively simple task. A standard method to observe flow structures is dosing smoke into the flow. In this paper we introduce graphical methods to simulate smoke experiments by LES, making it very easy to compare the CFD simulation to the experiments. The results demonstrate that the transient CFD simulation is a promising tool to compare different isolation room scenarios without the need to construct full-scale experimental models. The CFD model is

  8. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  9. Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

  10. Zn graded differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of differential algebras generated by an operator d satisfying the property d N = 0 instead of d 2 = 0 as in the usual case were investigated. The commutation relations for the generalized differentials ensuring the desired property can be put into the cyclic form a 1 a 2 a 3 ... a N = q a N a 1 a 2 ... a N-1 , where q is a primitive N-th root of unity. Examples of realizations of such differential algebras are given, either in the space of Z N -graded N x N matrix algebras, or as generalized differential calculus on manifolds. A generalization of gauge theories based on such differential calculus is briefly discussed. (author). 10 refs

  11. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses...... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...... the causal effect of blind grading, exploiting two separate identification strategies. The first derives from a unique full cohort natural experiment with a grading reform, providing exogenous variation in blind grading. The other strategy derives from a field experiment where the exact same exam papers...

  12. Grade Retention and Unobserved Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Gary-Bobo; Marion Gousse; Jean-Marc Robin

    2014-01-01

    We study the treatment effect of grade retention using a panel of French junior high-school students, taking unobserved heterogeneity and the endogeneity of grade repetitions into account. We specify a multistage model of human-capital accumulation with a finite number of types representing unobserved individual characteristics. Class-size and latent student-performance indices are assumed to follow finite mixtures of normal distributions. Grade retention may increase or decrea...

  13. Use of CE-SDS gel for characterization of monoclonal antibody hinge region clipping due to copper and high pH stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Richard R; Wang, Yang

    2011-11-01

    CE-SDS gel technique has been used extensively in the field of monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a tool for product purity, stability, and characterization. It offers many advantages over the traditional labor-intensive SDS-PAGE slab gel technology with respect to speed and resolution. Monoclonal antibodies are known to cleave in the hinge region due to extreme pH, high temperature and in the presence of metals, especially copper. This cleavage will impact the shelf lifetime of mAb product hence its quality. CESDS gel method using Beckman PA800 with UV detection is used to characterize the effects of copper and other metals such as iron and zinc on mAb clipping. In addition, mAb integrity under high temperature and high pH stress conditions was also evaluated and the results clearly show that CE-SDS gel can distinguish clipping due to copper versus heat and/or high pH. The data presented illustrate the power of this simple CESDS gel technique in supporting the development of mAb from product quality and stability to the final product characterization.

  14. Better Outcomes in Severe and Morbid Obese Patients (BMI>35 kg/m2 in Primary Endo-Model Rotating-Hinge Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Lozano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Endo-Model rotating-hinge prosthesis is preferably indicated as a primary implant in patients with advanced axial deviation of the lower limbs or unstable knees with severe bone defects. Outcomes were studied in 111 knees, operated in a three-year period; the mean followup was 28 months. Joint balance enhancement and limbs mechanical axis correction were achieved after surgery. There were 6 deep infections and 16 patients referred postoperative anterior knee pain. WOMAC index scores disaggregated by gender and BMI showed better outcomes in obese patients (specifically, those with a BMI of 35–40 kg/m2 and in men. Although the lack of a control group did not allow definite conclusions and despite a nonnegligible complication rate, our results reveal that the Endo-Model total knee arthroplasty can be a useful tool to deal with severe and morbid obese patients affected of severe gonarthrosis associated with marked axial deviations, ligament instability, or bone defects.

  15. Understanding the formation of ancient intertropical disjunct distributions using Asian and Neotropical hinged-teeth snakes (Sibynophis and Scaphiodontophis: Serpentes: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Huang, Song; Guo, Peng; Colli, Guarino R; Nieto Montes de Oca, Adrián; Vitt, Laurie J; Pyron, R Alexander; Burbrink, Frank T

    2013-01-01

    Numerous taxa show ancient intertropical disjunct distributions. Many can be explained by well-known processes of historical vicariance, such as the breakup of Gondwanaland. Others, such as Asian-Neotropical divergences are not as well understood. To clarify the phylogenetic position and understand biogeographic and temporal origins of the geographically disjunct and morphologically unique genera of hinged-teeth snakes, Scaphiodontophis (n=1) and Sibynophis (n=9; Colubridae), we inferred a time-calibrated phylogeny with additional 107 taxa representing the superfamily Colubroidea using four genes (c-mos, cyt-b, ND2, RAG-1; 3085 bp). We used this tree to estimate ancestral areas for the group. The results show that Scaphiodontophis is sister to Sibynophis, both originated in the late Eocene/Oligocene in Asia and likely dispersed through Beringia to the New World, but unlike other snake groups left no extant species in temperate North America. Current recognition of Scaphiodontophiinae renders Colubrinae paraphyletic, and we resurrect the previously named subfamily Sibynophiinae to encompass both genera and use the tribes Sibynophiini (Sibynophis) and Scaphiodontophiini (Scaphiodontophis) to highlight the geographically distinct areas occupied by these taxa. These results suggest that intercontinental dispersal with extinction in intermediate areas can explain puzzling patterns of ancient intertropical disjunct distributions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Geological Controls on High-Grade Iron Ores from Kiriburu-Meghahatuburu Iron Ore Deposit, Singhbhum-Orissa Craton, Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Prasad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous iron ore deposits are hosted within the Meso to Neo-Archean banded iron formations (BIFs extending across the Singhbhum-Orissa Craton, eastern India. Despite the widespread distribution of BIFs, which forms part of the iron ore group (IOG, heterogeneity in their grade and mineral composition is occasionally observed even within a single ore deposit. Kiriburu-Meghahatuburu iron ore deposit (KMIOD, west Singhbhum district, Jharkhand, eastern India is characterized by a dominant hematite (often martitized occurrence with a total resource of >150 million tonnes (MT at 62.85 wt % Fe. Very high-grade blue dust ore (friable and powdery hematitewith~67% Fe, high-grade massive, hard laminated hematitic ores (~66% Fe and medium to low grade goethitic/lateritic ores (50%–60% Fe are the common iron-ore lithologies in KMIOD. These ores can be distinguished in the field from their physical appearance, meso-scale texture and spatial occurrences with the host rocks along with the variation in chemical composition. The high-grade ores are characterized by high Fe (>62 wt %, low Al2O3 (1.5–2.5 wt %, low SiO2 (2.0–4.5 wt % and low P (<0.06 wt %. Detailed field studies and laboratory investigations on the ore mineral assemblages suggest that the mineralization of high-grade iron ores at KMIOD is controlled by three major parameters, i.e., lithological, paleoclimatic and structural controls. High-grade iron ores such as blue dust seem to be formed during leaching processes through inter-bedded ferruginous shale and banded hematite jasper (BHJ occurring within BIFs. Structural elements such as folds, joint network, fracture arrays, local faults and steeply dipping bedding planes are surmised as strong controls for the evolution of different iron ore types from the BHJ. Most of the high-grade ores are concentrated at the hinge portions of second generation folds (F2 owing to the easy access for circulation of meteoric solution along the fractures

  17. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (design of miniature filters and power converters.

  18. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  19. Nonpunitive Grading Practices and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Paul A.; Brydon, Charles W.

    Information pertaining to the overall grading standards and practices within the five Peralta Colleges is compiled and analyzed here. The report is presented in three parts. The first part deals with the historical background of traditional and non-punitive grading, the national trends toward innovation and experimentation with various forms of…

  20. [Long-term effects of different management strategies on Larix gmelinii forests in Great Hing' an Mountains after the catastrophic fire in 1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-gao; Li, Xiu-zhen; He, Hong-shi

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, LANDIS model was used to study the effects of different management strategies on the larch (Larix gmelinii) forests of Tuqiang Forest Bureau on the northern slopes of Great Hing' an Mountains after the catastrophic fire in 1987. Three management strategies, i. e., natural regeneration if the catastrophic fire in 1987 was not happened (M1), natural regeneration after the catastrophic fire in 1987 (M2), and current management strategy after the catastrophic fire in 1987 (M3), were compared over a 300-year period. The results showed that the abundance of larch forests over 300 simulation years under the three management strategies had significant difference. In the whole Bureau, the abundance of larch forests under M2 was obviously lower than that under M1 and M3 over 300 years, and the abundance under M3 was lower than that under M1 at the beginning. Due to the reforestation after the catastrophic fire in 1987, the abundance of larch under M3 increased rapidly, and caught up with that under M1 after about 100 years. In addition, different forest management strategies also had significant influence on the age structure of larch forests, especially for mature and over-matured larch forests. The abundance of mature and over-matured larch forests under M1 was higher than that under M2. This abundance under M3 had tremendous decrease because of forest harvesting for about 10 years, and then, increased with time and would exceed that under M1 and M2 for over 100 years. Furthermore, in unburned areas and burned areas, the abundance of mature and over-matured larch forests also had significant difference over 300 simulation years under the three management strategies.

  1. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available material is needed that will serve the purpose of the original bio-tissue. The ideal candidate for this application is functionally graded material. FGM has find wide range of application in dental [36] and orthopedic applications for teeth and bone... of Aluminium/Steel functionally graded material,? Materials Sciences and Applications, vol. 2, (2011), pp. 1708-1718. [15] F. Watari, A. Yokoyama, H. Matsuno, R. Miyao, M. Uo, T. Kawasaki, M. Omori, and T. Hirai, ?Fabrication of functionally graded implant...

  2. Modeling high-grade serous carcinoma: how converging insights into pathogenesis and genetics are driving better experimental platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Michael Jones

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the study of epithelial ovarian cancer have called into question the traditional views regarding the site of tumor initiation. Histopathologic studies and genomic analyses suggest that extra-ovarian sites, like the fallopian tube, may harbor the coveted cell of origin and could therefore contribute significantly to the development of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HG-SOC. Our ability to validate these emerging genomic and pathologic observations and characterize the early transformation events of HG-SOC hinges on the development of novel model systems. Currently, there are only a handful of new model systems that are addressing these concerns. This review will chronicle the convergent evolution of these ovarian cancer model systems in the context of the changing pathologic and genomic understanding of HG-SOC.

  3. Hinge peegel - keha / Margit Adorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adorf, Margit, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    10. PÖFFi filmidest: "Suust suhu" (režissöör Björn Runge; Rootsi - Taani 2005), "Transamerica" (režissöör Duncan Tucer; USA 2005), "Ükski keha pole täiuslik" (režissöör Raphael Sibilla; Prantsusmaa 2006)

  4. Shape morphing hinged truss structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofla, A Y N; Elzey, D M; Wadley, H N G

    2009-01-01

    Truss structures are widely used for the support of structural loads in applications where minimum mass solutions are required. Their nodes are normally constructed to resist rotation to maximize their stiffness under load. A multi-link node concept has recently been proposed that permits independent rotation of tetrahedral trusses linked by such a joint. High authority shape morphing truss structures can therefore be designed by the installation of linear displacement actuators within the truss mechanisms. Examples of actuated structures with either linear or planar shapes are presented and their ability to bend, twist and undulate is demonstrated. An experimental device has been constructed using one-way shape memory wire actuators in antagonistic configurations that permit reversible actuated structures. It is shown that the actuated structure displacement response is significantly amplified by use of a mechanically magnified design

  5. Ava oma hing / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2016-01-01

    Näitus "Leonhard Lapin, Malle Leis, Villu Jõgeva. Popkunstikujundid nõukogude perioodi Eesti kunstis" Avangardi galeriis Pärnus ja rahvusvaheline linnaruumi projekt "Kilomeeter skulptuuri" Rakveres

  6. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  7. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  8. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  9. Zn3-graded colored supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, B.

    1997-01-01

    Generalizations of the Grassmann algebras are built based on a few simple assumptions as follows: the algebras are graded, maximally symmetric, and contain an ordinary Grassmann algebra as a subalgebra. These algebras are graded by Z n 3 and display surprising properties that indicate their possible application to the modeling of quark fields. The generalized supersymmetry generators are built based on these algebras and their derivation operators. These generators are cubic roots of the usual supersymmetry generators. (author). 1 tab., 9 refs

  10. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  11. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades U.S...

  12. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  13. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  14. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  15. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  16. Instructional and Grading Practices That Change Grading Fidelity: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, final course grades of sixth- through eighth-grade language arts, mathematics, and eighth grade science students at the primary research site, Site A (pseudonym), suggest a high degree of grade inflation or disassociation when grade point averages (GPA) were compared to actual student performance levels as measured by annual state…

  17. SCIENCE, KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE ONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno County Schools, CA.

    A GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE IS PRESENTED. THE PURPOSE IS TO HELP TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING THE COURSE REQUIREMENTS IN SCIENCE. THE MAJOR GOAL IS TEACHING CHILDREN TO THINK IN A SCIENTIFIC WAY. SUGGESTED UNITS FOR KINDERGARTEN ARE ANIMALS AND PLANTS, WEATHER, DISCOVERY, AND THE FIVE SENSES. THE UNITS FOR GRADE…

  18. The Reliability of College Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  19. Social Studies Curriculum: Grade Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Arthur

    This document outlines the content of the grade 6 social studies curriculum of the Lebanon School District, Lebanon, New Hampshire. The program is essentially a chronological review of western civilization, which includes pre-historic man, early civilization, classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, Medieval period, and the Age of Expansion.…

  20. Science Equity in Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Kay; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Chu, Kwang-Lee

    2010-01-01

    The earliest national accountability tests occur at the fourth-grade level and the outcomes are aggregated. This national study exposes the depth of science education inequities a full year earlier by disaggregating third graders' demographic data with the science performance. A full 3-way ANOVA model was applied to test the 3 main effects…

  1. Seals. Grades 3-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Explanations of a marine mammal rescue program and information on seals and sea lions are presented in this curriculum package for intermediate grade teachers. Activities are highlighted which focus on the natural history of harbor seals. This unit contains: (1) pre-trip activities (including fact sheets and worksheets on the different types of…

  2. Identification of ballast grading for rail track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grading has long been recognised to critically influence the mechanical behaviour of ballast. To identify the ballast grading for heavy-haul rail track, monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to assess the performances of different gradings. Permanent deformations, aggregates degradation, resilience, shear resistance, maximum and minimum densities are recorded and analysed. The grading is found to affect the behaviour of ballast in that coarser gradings exhibit relatively better strength, resilience and therefore less permanent deformation. However, ballast degradation increases with the overall aggregate size. Therefore, to identify the grading for ballast with different performance objectives, a grey relational theory is used to convert the multi-objective into single-objective, i.e. grey relational grade. A relatively optimal grading that provides the highest grey relational grade is thus suggested for the improved ballast performance.

  3. Clinical outcomes of the KYOCERA Physio Hinge Total Knee System Type III after the resection of a bone and soft tissue tumor of the distal part of the femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumine, Akihiko; Ueda, Takafumi; Sugita, Takashi; Yazawa, Yasuo; Isu, Kazuo; Kawai, Akira; Abe, Satoshi; Yakushiji, Toshitake; Hiraga, Hiroaki; Sudo, Akihiro; Uchida, Atsumasa

    2011-03-01

    The KYOCERA Physio Hinge Total Knee System Type III (PHKIII) was developed to reconstruct bony defects of the distal femur. The PHKIII is originative in that the metallic parts are fully made of titanium alloy, and this prosthesis has a unique semi-rotating hinge joint and was designed especially for people with the Asian physical body-type. The clinical outcomes of the PHKIII after the resection of musculoskeletal tumors of the distal femur were evaluated. There were 41 males and 28 females with a median age of 48-years. The median duration of follow-up was 57 months. Eleven early complications and 37 late complications were observed, including 10 recurrences, 7 deep infections, 7 aseptic loosenings, 4 stem breakages, 4 displacements of shaft cap, and one wear of rotation sleeve. Twenty four prosthesis (35%) required a secondary operation because of complications. The five-year overall prosthetic survival rates, -prosthetic survival rate without aseptic loosening, and -limbs preservation rate were 85%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The mean functional score according to the classification system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society was 20.5 points (68%). Although continuous follow-up is required, reconstructions using PHKIII are considered to achieve more acceptable functional results. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  5. A Grade IV Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Hanney, William J

    2017-12-01

    A 15-year-old adolescent boy was referred by an orthopaedic surgeon for treatment of right gluteal and thigh pain. Following treatment that reduced his pain, he experienced acute onset of bilateral radiculopathy. He was referred back to the physician, who ordered radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging, which identified a grade IV isthmic spondylolisthesis at the L5-S1 level. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):971. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7547.

  6. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  7. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  8. The grading management of the quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaozheng; Han Shufang; Yu Bei; Tian Xuehang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the quality assurance grading management of the items, services and technology process on nuclear power plants (nuclear island, conventional island, BOP), such as the requirements and aim in the related code, guide, technical document, the requirements for the related units, the grading principle and grading, the considering method for the differences of QA requirements of the each QA grand, as well as the status and propositions in the QA grading management in China. (authors)

  9. The pathologist's mean grade is constant and individualizes the prognostic value of bladder cancer grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Bas W G; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Ooms, Bert C M; Kirkels, Wim J; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boevé, Egbert R; Jöbsis, Adriaan C; van der Kwast, Theo H

    2010-06-01

    A new grading system for bladder cancer (BCa) was adopted in 2004 to reduce observer variability and provide better prognostic information. We compared the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 systems for observer variability and prognosis. Slides of 173 primary non-muscle-invasive BCa were reviewed two times by four pathologists. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using κ statistics. We determined the mean grade (eg, G1/low malignant potential is 1 grade point, G2/low grade is 2 grade points) of the pathologists per grading cycle. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied for prediction of recurrence and progression. For WHO 2004 and 1973 grading, the agreement between the pathologists was 39-74% (κ: 0.14-0.58) and 39-64% (κ: 0.15-0.41), respectively. The intraobserver agreement varied from 71% to 88% (κ: 0.55-0.81). The mean grade of a pathologist was constant (difference below 0.1 grade point) irrespective of the grading system. Conversely, mean-grade differences among the pathologists were high, up to 0.7 grade point. The mean grades for the WHO 2004 system were 0.3-0.5 grade point higher than those of WHO 1973. Mean grade distinguished low and high graders among the pathologists and was strongly linked with risk of progression in each grade category. The variation in mean grade among individual pathologists exceeded the grade shift caused by WHO 2004 grading. Knowledge of the pathologist's mean grade allows a better assessment of the prognostic value of grading. Mean grade has the potential to become a tool for quality assurance in pathology. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  11. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  12. Mechanical grading of round timber beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Thomas M. Gorman; James W. Evans; Joseph F. Murphy

    2006-01-01

    Current procedures used to sort round timber beams into structural grades rely on visual grading methods and property assignments based on modification of clear wood properties. This study provides the technical basis for mechanical grading of 228 mm (9 in.) diameter round timbers. Test results on 225 round Engelmann spruce–alpine fir–lodgepole pine beams demonstrate...

  13. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  14. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  15. Association of Grade Configuration with School Climate for 7th and 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marisa; Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan

    2017-01-01

    Educational authorities have questioned whether middle schools provide the best school climate for 7th and 8th grade students, and proposed that other grade configurations such as K-8th grade schools may provide a better learning environment. The purpose of this study was to compare 7th and 8th grade students' perceptions of 4 key features of…

  16. High grade glioma: Imaging combined with pathological grade defines management and predicts prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, Neil G.; Lynch, Andrew G.; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Price, Stephen J.; Jones, Phil H.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Xuereb, John H.; Pohl, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is ambiguity in pathological grading of high grade gliomas within the WHO 2000 classification, especially those with predominant oligodendroglial differentiation. Patients and methods: All adult high grade gliomas treated radically, 1996-2005, were assessed. Cases in which pathology was grade III but radiology suggested glioblastoma (GBM) were classified as 'grade III/IV'; their pathology was reviewed. Results: Data from 245 patients (52 grade III, 18 grade III/IV, 175 GBM) were analysed using a Cox Proportional Hazards model. On pathology review, features suggestive of more aggressive behaviour were found in all 18 grade III/IV tumours. Oligodendroglial components with both necrosis and microvascular proliferation were present in 7. MIB-1 counts for the last 8 were all above 14%, mean 27%. Median survivals were: grade III 34 months, grade III/IV 10 months, GBM 11 months. Survival was not significantly different between grade III/IV and GBM. Patients with grade III/IV tumours had significantly worse outcome than grade III, with a hazard of death 3.7 times higher. Conclusions: The results highlight the current inconsistency in pathological grading of high grade tumours, especially those with oligodendroglial elements. Patients with histological grade III tumours but radiological appearances suggestive of GBM should be managed as glioblastoma

  17. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  18. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  19. Results of an investigation elevon hinge moments and dual panel elevon effectiveness using an .0405-scale model (16-0) of the configuration 140C space shuttle orbiter in the Rockwell International NAAL low speed wind tunnel (OA119B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted .0405-scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter in a 7.75 x 11.00 foot low speed wind tunnel during the time period from August 22, 1974 to September 6, 1974. The primary test objectives were to define dual panel elevon/aileron effectiveness and to investigate elevon hinge-moments for the 140C orbiter configuration with wing/elevon upper hingeline sealing flapper doors. The elevon parametric variations, consisting of the basic elevons with 6 inch gaps and flapper doors, elevons with no flapper doors and completely open upper hingeline gap, and an entirely sealed solid elevon, were tested with elevon deflections from +20 to -35 deg at various aileron deflections. Aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the body axis system by a 2.5 inch task type internal strain gage balance.

  20. Graded bandgap perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Onur; Gilbert, S. Matt; Pham, Thang; Turner, Sally J.; Tan, Mark Tian Zhi; Worsley, Marcus A.; Zettl, Alex

    2017-05-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials have emerged as attractive alternatives to conventional solar cell building blocks. Their high light absorption coefficients and long diffusion lengths suggest high power conversion efficiencies, and indeed perovskite-based single bandgap and tandem solar cell designs have yielded impressive performances. One approach to further enhance solar spectrum utilization is the graded bandgap, but this has not been previously achieved for perovskites. In this study, we demonstrate graded bandgap perovskite solar cells with steady-state conversion efficiencies averaging 18.4%, with a best of 21.7%, all without reflective coatings. An analysis of the experimental data yields high fill factors of ~75% and high short-circuit current densities up to 42.1 mA cm-2. The cells are based on an architecture of two perovskite layers (CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx), incorporating GaN, monolayer hexagonal boron nitride, and graphene aerogel.

  1. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  2. New similarity search based glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegler, Katrin; Wiesmann, Martin; Böhm, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica; Schnell, Oliver; Brückmann, Hartmut; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Linn, Jennifer

    2012-08-01

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone.

  3. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

  4. Low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A National Cancer Database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Brandon-Luke L; Shilpi, Arunima; Buchanan, Samuel; Goodman, Chelain; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2017-08-01

    To provide refined prognostic information from large cohorts of women with low-grade or high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). We performed an observational retrospective cohort analysis of women diagnosed with low-grade or high-grade ESS from the 1998-2013 National Cancer Database. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable accelerated failure time survival analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors after multiple imputation of missing data. Recursive partitioning methods were used to rank prognostic factors in high-grade ESS. Matched cohort analyses were performed to hypothesis-test effects of adjuvant treatments. We identified 2414 and 1383 women with low-grade or high-grade ESS, respectively. Women with high-grade ESS had markedly decreased survival compared to women with low-grade ESS (five-year survival (95% CI): 32.6 (30.1-35.3%) versus 90.5% (89.3-91.8%), PTR) (95% CI): 1.36 (1.17-1.58), PTR (95% CI): 1.57 (1.32-1.87), P<0.001) were associated with increased survival for high-grade ESS. The contrasting excellent versus poor prognosis of low-grade versus high-grade ESS, respectively, was confirmed. The best treatment of high-grade ESS is early and complete surgical resection including lymphadenectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy may increase survival of women with high-grade ESS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  6. Four-Dimensional Graded Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkisz, Jakub; Wierzchoń, Michał; Binder, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Both the multidimensional phenomenon and the polysemous notion of consciousness continue to prove resistant to consistent measurement and unambiguous definition. This is hardly surprising, given that there is no agreement even as regards the most fundamental issues they involve. One of the basic disagreements present in the continuing debate about consciousness pertains to its gradational nature. The general aim of this article is to show how consciousness might be graded and multidimensional at the same time. We therefore focus on the question of what it is, exactly, that is or could be graded in cases of consciousness, and how we can measure it. Ultimately, four different gradable aspects of consciousness will be described: quality, abstractness, complexity and usefulness, which belong to four different dimensions, these being understood, respectively, as phenomenal, semantic, physiological, and functional. Consequently, consciousness may be said to vary with respect to phenomenal quality, semantic abstraction, physiological complexity, and functional usefulness. It is hoped that such a four-dimensional approach will help to clarify and justify claims about the hierarchical nature of consciousness. The approach also proves explanatorily advantageous, as it enables us not only to draw attention to certain new and important differences in respect of subjective measures of awareness and to justify how a given creature may be ranked higher in one dimension of consciousness and lower in terms of another, but also allows for innovative explanations of a variety of well-known phenomena (amongst these, the interpretations of blindsight and locked-in syndrome will be briefly outlined here). Moreover, a 4D framework makes possible many predictions and hypotheses that may be experimentally tested (We point out a few such possibilities pertaining to interdimensional dependencies). PMID:28377738

  7. Halo effects in grading student projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian

    2007-07-01

    Halo effects in rating specific pieces of work, as in educational grading, have received little attention. Grades awarded by 2 independent graders to undergraduate projects were analyzed with a correlated uniqueness model. Grades showed substantial halo despite being awarded by expert assessors at the time of reading the work. There was greater halo between different grades applying to the same section of the project than between grades applying to different sections. Supervisors who had regular contact with the student whose work they were grading showed no more halo than other graders. More reliable graders showed less within-section halo than graders of lower reliability but equal between-sections halo. The halo effects observed cannot be entirely attributable to a unitary general impression.

  8. Does Relative Grading help Male Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czibor, Eszter; Onderstal, Sander; Sloof, Randolph

    The provision of non-pecuniary incentives in education is a topic that has received much scholarly attention lately. Our paper contributes to this discussion by investigating the effectiveness of grade incentives in increasing student performance. We perform a direct comparison of the two most...... for male students than absolute grading. In the full sample, we find weak support for our hypothesis. Among the more motivated students we find evidence that men indeed score significantly higher on the test when graded on a curve. Female students, irrespective of their motivation, do not increase...... their scores under relative grading. Since women slightly outperform men under absolute grading, grading on a curve actually narrows the gender gap in performance....

  9. Processing of low-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1975-01-01

    Four types of low grade ores are studied. Low grade ores which must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. It allows to obtain solutions or preconcentrates which may be delivered at the nearest plant. Normal grade ores contained in a low amplitude deposit which can be processed using leaching as far as the operation does not need any large expensive equipment. Medium grade ores in medium amplitude deposits to which a simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. Low grade ores in large deposits. The processing possibilities leading to use in place leaching are explained. The operating conditions of the method are studied (leaching agent, preparation of the ore deposit to obtain a good tightness with regard to the hydrological system and to have a good contact between ore and reagent) [fr

  10. Processing of low grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1978-10-01

    Four types of low-grade ores are studied: (1) Low-grade ores that must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal-grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. (2) Normal-grade ores contained in low-amplitude deposits. They can be processed using in-place leaching as far as the operation does not need any large and expensive equipment. (3) Medium-grade ores in medium-amplitude deposits. A simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. (4) Low-grade ores in large deposits. The report explains processing possibilities leading in most cases to the use of in-place leaching. The operating conditions of this method are laid out, especially the selection of the leaching agents and the preparation of the ore deposit

  11. Grades and Ranking: When Tenure Affects Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Filetti; Mary Wright; William M. King

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a faculty member's status-'either tenured or tenure-track-'might affect the grades assigned to students in a writing class. We begin with a brief review of the research surrounding faculty to student assessment practices and follow with specific controversies regarding faculty motivation pertaining to grading practices. We interpret the grade distributions of tenured and tenure-track faculty members teaching a sophomore-level writing course in an English Department...

  12. Improving listening in the elementary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinders, P M; Byers, V W

    1981-11-01

    A single stratagem was taught to 36 students: 12 each in the second grade, the fourth grade, and the sixth grade, to improve their listening skills. The basic six stratagem taught the children how to ask who, what, when, where, why, and how questions. The children were seen three times a week in groups of six. The results of a pre - post test showed statistically significant improvement for the children in the listening program. The second-grade group showed an average improvement of 3.92 correct answers, a 23% improvement. The fourth-grade group showed an average improvement of 5.75 correct answers, a 23% improvement. The sixth-grade group showed an average improvement of 4.55 correct answers, a 12% improvement. Their classmates in the fourth and sixth grades, who also took the pre - post test, show no improvement in their pre - post test scores. The second-grade classroom children showed a significant improvement of 1.55 correct answers, which was a 9% improvement. The listening skills of children in the elementary grades can be improved through a direct teaching of a specific stratagem in a small group setting.

  13. Resistor grading at the NSC Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.M.; Jayan, K.M.; Ahuja, R.; Chopra, S.; Kanjilal, D.

    1997-01-01

    The cheap and robust voltage grading system, based on the point to plane corona discharge, provided in the Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) Pelletron accelerator is replaced by a grading system using high-voltage high-value resistors with appropriate spark protection for the resistors. The accelerator has been operating for more than a year now with the new grading system and the performance of the resistors has been quite satisfactory. A brief introduction followed by the work done at NSC is given. The main features and the performance of the voltage grading at NSC with resistors are also included. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig

  14. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P bullied (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Both chronic and current bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  15. To Grade or Not to Grade: Student Perceptions of the Effects of Grading a Course in Work-Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddan, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the benefits of introducing the typical course grading process to a work-integrated learning course in exercise science in order to motivate students to produce their best efforts in assessment tasks relevant to their future employability. The course had incorporated a non-graded pass/fail system of assessment since…

  16. The Impact of Early Exposure of Eighth Grade Math Standards on End of Grade Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tonjai E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Cumberland County Schools district-wide issue surrounding the disproportional performance of eighth grade Math I students' proficiency scores on standardized end-of-grade and end-of-course assessments. The study focused on the impact of the school district incorporating eighth grade math standards in…

  17. Are Flunkers Social Outcasts? A Multilevel Study of Grade Retention Effects on Same-Grade Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school's proportion of retained students on these friendships and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel…

  18. GRADE Guidelines: 16. GRADE evidence to decision frameworks for tests in clinical practice and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schünemann, Holger J.; Mustafa, Reem; Brozek, Jan; Santesso, Nancy; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Guyatt, Gordon; Scholten, Rob; Langendam, Miranda; Leeflang, Mariska M.; Akl, Elie A.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Meerpohl, Joerg; Hultcrantz, Monica; Bossuyt, Patrick; Oxman, Andrew D.; Singh, Jasvinder; Lange, Stefan; Parmelli, Elena; Moberg, Jenny; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Davoli, Marina; Nowak, Artur; Dietl, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) interactive evidence to decision (EtD) frameworks for tests and test strategies for clinical, public health, or coverage decisions. Study Design and Setting: As part of the GRADE Working Group's

  19. GRADE Guidelines : 16. GRADE evidence to decision frameworks for tests in clinical practice and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schünemann, Holger J.; Mustafa, Reem A.; Brozek, Jan; Santesso, Nancy; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Guyatt, Gordon; Scholten, Rob; Langendam, Miranda W; Leeflang, Mariska; Akl, Elie A.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Meerpohl, Joerg; Hultcrantz, Monica; Bossuyt, Patrick Mm; Oxman, Andrew D.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Mustafa, Reem A.; Brozek, Jan; Santesso, Nancy; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Scholten, Rob; Langendam, Miranda W; Bossuyt, Patrick Mm; Leeflang, Mariska; Singh, Jasvinder; Meerpohl, Joerg; Hultcrantz, Monica; Guyatt, Gordon; Oxman, Andrew D.; Lange, Stefan; Parmelli, Elena; Moberg, Jenny; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Davoli, Marina; Nowak, Artur; Dietl, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) interactive evidence to decision (EtD) frameworks for tests and test strategies for clinical, public health, or coverage decisions. Study Design and Setting As part of the GRADE Working Group's

  20. [Reproducibility of Fuhrman nuclear grade: advantages of a two-grade system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneux, Hervé; Lindner, Véronique; Lang, Hervé; Massfelder, Thierry; Meyer, Nicolas; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2006-06-01

    The Fuhrman nuclear grade is the reference histoprognostic grading system routinely used all over the world for renal cell carcinoma. Studies measuring the inter-observer and intra-observer concordance of Fuhrman grade show poor results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. These variations are due to a certain degree of subjectivity of the pathologist in application of the definition of tumour grade, particularly nuclear grade. Elements able to account for this subjectivity in renal cell carcinoma are identified from a review of the literature. To improve the reliability of nuclear grade, the territory occupied by the highest grade must be specified and the grades should probably be combined. At the present time, regrouping of grade 1 and 2 tumours as low grade and grade 3 and 4 tumours as high grade would achieve better reproducibility, while preserving the prognostic: value for overall survival. The development of new treatment modalities and their use in adjuvant situations will imply the use of reliable histoprognostic factors to specify, indications.

  1. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  2. Teachers grading practices : an analysis of the reliability of teacher-assigned grade point average (GPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, R. M.; van de Grift, W. J. C. M.; van Veen, K.

    2015-01-01

    In previous research, teachers report that they use a hodgepodge of factors when grading students. This has led researchers to suspect that teacher-assigned grades are inflated by teacher-student interactions; the hodgepodge hypothesis. Teachers also are reported to differ in grading leniency; the

  3. Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

  4. The Psychology of Grading Skill Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Caryl

    Many teachers use grades as a weapon or a defense--not as the powerful learning tool they can be. A grading system in which students write papers over and over until they are fully acceptable, and in which they earn checkmarks for each piece of work accepted, serves as a powerful motivator. The checkmark system adheres to six primary learning…

  5. Chemistry, Grade 13. Curriculum S-17E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 13. SUBJECT MATTER: Chemistry. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 15 units, each of which is in list form. It is offset printed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. Topics to be covered are listed in each unit. Most units also list several…

  6. What's ahead in automated lumber grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses how present scanning technologies are being applied to automatic lumber grading. The presentation focuses on 1) what sensing and scanning devices are needed to measure information for accurate grading feature detection, 2) the hardware and software needed to efficiently process this information, and 3) specific issues related to softwood lumber...

  7. 7 CFR 29.6028 - No Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No Grade. 29.6028 Section 29.6028 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6028 No Grade. A designation applied to a lot of tobacco classified as...

  8. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  9. Ninth Grade Student Attendance: Teacher Perceptional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive student absenteeism among ninth graders was a major problem within a metropolitan Georgia high school. In order to solve the attendance problem and several other academic concerns, the school administration implemented a smaller learning community for ninth grade students. The Ninth Grade Academy concept implemented at the beginning of…

  10. Successful Transitions: The Sheyenne Ninth Grade Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brenda S.; Holland, Carol E. Buchholz; Karsh, Lisa; Wang, Ting

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we share outcomes from the implementation of a ninth-grade academy in a large, comprehensive, Northern Plains, United States, school district. The article discusses the effectiveness of this reform in terms of the academic and social preparedness for students during the ninth-grade year and transition to high school. Findings…

  11. Consumer Preference for Graded Maple Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Sendak

    1978-01-01

    The three grades of maple syrup and a commercial table syrup containing artificial flavor and 3 percent pure maple syrup were evaluated by 1,018 women in four cities. The results indicate that differences in preference for flavor are related to how close the respondents are to a maple syrup-production region. Differences in preference among grades of pure maple syrup...

  12. Contraction of graded su(2) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, M.K.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Inoenu-Wigner contraction scheme is extended to Lie superalgebras. The structure and representations of extended BRS algebra are obtained from contraction of the graded su(2) algebra. From cohomological consideration, we demonstrate that the graded su(2) algebra is the only superalgebra which, on contraction, yields the full BRS algebra. (orig.)

  13. Guiding Readers in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Denise N.; Williams, Jeffrey L.; Clark, Barbara; Hatteberg, Scott; Hauptman, Gayle Marek; Kozel, Claudia; Paris, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Guided reading is an instructional practice commonly used in primary and intermediate grades (Ford & Opitz, 2008; Fountas & Pinnell, 2001). It is used less in middle grades settings (Allen, 2000) where "one size-fits-all instruction" prevails (Allington, 2012). While teachers can read about the principles of guided reading in…

  14. Perceptions of restaurateurs on quality grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Roberson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A restaurateur's strategic focus is to maximise wealth for the owner(s. To achieve wealth maximisation, a restaurateur could implement one or more of the following strategies: focus strategy, cost-leadership strategy and/or differentiation strategy. A management intervention a restaurateur could implement to achieve this is quality differentiation. Grading of an establishment will assist a restaurateur in becoming a market leader. Currently there no national restaurant grading system exists in South Africa. As support and participation of restaurateurs in any future quality grading system are essential, it is imperative to test their perceptions of the implementation of a quality grading scale. The aim of this paper is to gather the perceptions of restaurateurs of an envisaged scale that could be used to grade independent full-service restaurants. In this study the researcher tested the perceptions of restaurateurs using nine possible outcomes of implementing quality grading in the independent fullservice restaurant segment. The outcomes to be tested were presented to restaurateurs in a questionnaire uploaded on "survey monkey". This was emailed to 3 286 restaurateurs and 265 responses were received. Respondents who were positive regarding grading indicated that they were enthusiastic about the impact grading would have on international tourism, as well as the fact that it could contribute to an increase in the value of their establishments.

  15. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  16. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  17. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  18. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  19. Geomorphic and Structural Evidence for Rolling Hinge Style Deformation in the Footwall of an Active Low Angle Normal Fault, Mai'iu Fault, Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, M.; Little, T.; Norton, K. P.; Webber, S.; Ellis, S. M.; Oesterle, J.

    2016-12-01

    While shown to operate in oceanic crust, rolling hinge style deformation remains a debated process in metamorpic core complexes (MCCs) in the continents. The model predicts that unloading and isostatic uplift during slip causes a progressive back-tilting in the upper crust of a normal fault that is more steeply dipping at depth. The Mai'iu Fault in the Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea, is one of the best-exposed and fastest slipping (probably >7 mm/yr) active low-angle normal faults (LANFs) on Earth. We analysed structural field data from this fault's exhumed slip surface and footwall, together with geomorphic data interpreted from aerial photographs and GeoSAR-derived digital elevation models (gridded at 5-30 m spacing), to evaluate deformational processes affecting the rapidly exhuming, domal-shaped detachment fault. The exhumed fault surface emerges from the ground at the rangefront near sea level with a northward dip of 21°. Up-dip, it is well-preserved, smooth and corrugated, with some fault remnants extending at least 29 km in the slip direction. The surface flattens over the crest of the dome, beyond where it dips S at up to 15°. Windgaps perched on the crestal main divide of the dome, indicate both up-dip tectonic advection and progressive back-tilting of the exhuming fault surface. We infer that slip on a serial array of m-to-km scale up-to-the-north, steeply S-dipping ( 75°) antithetic-sense normal faults accommodated some of the exhumation-related, inelastic bending of the footwall. These geomorphically well expressed faults strike parallel to the main Mai'iu fault at 110.9±5°, have a mean cross-strike spacing of 1520 m, and slip with a consistent up-to-the-north sense of throw ranging from <5 m to 120 m. Apparently the Mai'iu Fault was able to continue slipping despite having to negotiate this added fault-roughness. We interpret the antithetic faulting to result from bending stresses, and to provide the first clear examples of rolling hinge

  20. Automated tone grading of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalina Hernández, J.C.; Fernández Ramón, G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of a natural stone processing plant is subject to the intrinsic variability of the stone blocks that constitute its raw material, which may cause problems of lack of uniformity in the visual appearance of the produced material that often triggers complaints from customers. The best way to tackle this problem is to classify the product according to its visual features, which is traditionally done by hand: an operator observes each and every piece that comes out of the production line and assigns it to the closest match among a number of predefined classes, taking into account visual features of the material such as colour, texture, grain, veins, etc. However, this manual procedure presents significant consistency problems, due to the inherent subjectivity of the classification performed by each operator, and the errors caused by their progressive fatigue. Attempts to employ automated sorting systems like the ones used in the ceramic tile industry have not been successful, as natural stone presents much higher variability than ceramic tiles. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop classification systems specifically designed for the treatment of the visual parameters that distinguish the different types of natural stone. This paper describes the details of a computer vision system developed by AITEMIN for the automatic classification of granite pieces according to their tone, which provides an integral solution to tone grading problems in the granite processing and marketing industry. The system has been designed to be easily trained by the end user, through the learning of the samples established as tone patterns by the user. [es

  1. GRADE INFLATION: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. CARUTH,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: Ø student evaluations of professors, Ø student teacher dynamics, Ø merit-based financial aid, and Ø student expectations. Ø Among the reasons for higher student grades on the part of professors are: Ø fear of student evaluations, Ø avoidance of bad relations with students, Ø below average teaching skills,Ø lack of experience, Ø a lack of clearly stated objectives, and Ø job security. While grades are not a perfect answer to assessing student performance in a course they are still the best answer we have for evaluating students. In order to evaluate students more accurately, universities must identify the problems in grading and grading practices. Once this is accomplished new practices can be designed and policies implemented.

  2. Making the GRADE: CHEST Updates Its Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekemper, Rebecca L; Patel, Sheena; Mette, Stephen A; Ornelas, Joseph; Ouellette, Daniel R; Casey, Kenneth R

    2018-03-01

    The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) has been at the forefront of evidence-based clinical practice guideline development for more than 2 decades. In 2006, CHEST adopted a modified system of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) to support their rigorous guideline development methodology. The evolution of CHEST's Living Guidelines Model, as well as their collaborative efforts with other organizations, has necessitated improvements in their guideline development methodology. CHEST has made the decision to transition to the standard GRADE method for rating the certainty of evidence and grading recommendations in their evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, a deviation from the modified approach that was adopted in 2006. The standard GRADE approach will be used to grade recommendations in all CHEST guidelines, including updates to previously published guidelines. CHEST's adoption of a standard GRADE approach will ensure that its guideline development methodology is more consistent with that used by other organizations, will better align evidence synthesis methods, and will result in more explicit and easy to understand recommendations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  3. Power calculation of grading device in desintegrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, V. S.; Semikopenko, I. A.; Vavilov, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    This article describes the analytical method of measuring the secondary power consumption, necessitated by the installation of a grading device in the peripheral part of the grinding chamber in the desintegrator. There is a calculation model for defining the power input of the disintegrator increased by the extra power demand, required to rotate the grading device and to grind the material in the area between the external row of hammers and the grading device. The work has determined the inertia moments of a cylindrical section of the grading device with armour plates. The processing capacity of the grading device is adjusted to the conveying capacity of the auger feeder. The grading device enables one to increase the concentration of particles in the peripheral part of the grinding chamber and the amount of interaction between particles and armour plates as well as the number of colliding particles. The perforated sections provide the output of the ground material with the proper size granules, which together with the effects of armour plates, improves the efficiency of grinding. The power demand to rotate the grading device does not exceed the admissible value.

  4. Grades and Ranking: When Tenure Affects Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Filetti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how a faculty member's status-'either tenured or tenure-track-'might affect the grades assigned to students in a writing class. We begin with a brief review of the research surrounding faculty to student assessment practices and follow with specific controversies regarding faculty motivation pertaining to grading practices. We interpret the grade distributions of tenured and tenure-track faculty members teaching a sophomore-level writing course in an English Department at a small, public liberal arts university in Virginia, examine the relationship between grade distributions and faculty rank, and conclude that tenure-track faculty grade more leniently than their tenured colleagues, primarily in the number of - A- grades assigned. The results of this study suggest that tenured professors tend to award fewer - As- than tenure-track professors. We posit that at universities where emphasis is placed upon teaching, two specific patterns emerge: reciprocity may be an unspoken agreement between some faculty and students with regard to the exchange of good grades for good evaluations, or with experience comes rigor.

  5. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than Good...

  6. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than Leaf...

  7. Timing of isoclinal folds in multiply deformed high metamorphic grade region using FIA succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Cai, Zhihui

    2013-04-01

    Multiply deformed and isoclinally folded interlayered high metamorphic grade gneisses and schists can be very difficult rocks for resolving early formed stratigraphic and structural relationships. When such rocks contain porphyroblasts a new approach is possible because of the way in which porphyroblast growth is affected by crenulation versus reactivation of compositional layering. The asymmetries of the overprinting foliations preserved as inclusion trails that define the FIAs can be used to investigate whether an enigmatic isoclinal fold is an antiform or synform. This approach also reveals when the fold first formed during the tectonic history of the region. Isoclinally folded rocks in the Arkansas River region of Central Colorado contain relics of fold hinges that have been very difficult to ascertain whether they are antiforms or synforms because of younger refolding effects and the locally truncated nature of coarse compositional layering. With the realization that rocks with a schistosity parallel to bedding (S0 parallel S1) have undergone lengthy histories of deformation that predate the obvious first deformation came recognition that large scale regional folds can form early during this process and be preserved throughout orogenesis. This extensive history is lost within the matrix because of reactivational shear on the compositional layering. However, it can be extracted by measuring FIAs. Recent work using this approach has revealed that the trends of axial planes of all map scale folds, when plotted on a rose diagram, strikingly reflect the FIA trends. That is, although it was demonstrated that the largest scale regional folds commonly form early in the total history, other folds can form and be preserved from subsequent destruction in the strain shadows of plutons or through the partitioning of deformation due to heterogeneities at depth.

  8. The use of osteochondral allograft with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells and hinge joint distraction in the treatment of post-collapse stage of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagala, J; Tarczynska, M; Gaweda, K; Matuszewski, L

    2014-09-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is an entity which occurs mainly in young and active patients aged between 20 and 50. The success of hip joint preserving treatments ranges from 15% to 50% depending on the stage and amount of osteonecrotic lesion. Total hip replacement is indicated in late post-collapse hips but it has unsatisfactory survival because of the wear and osteolysis in young and active patients. Osteochondral allografts have been reported in the treatment of large articular lesions with defects in underlying bone in knee, talus and shoulder. By combining osteoconductive properties of osteochondral allograft with osteogenic abilities of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells it has a potential to be an alternative to an autologous graft. The adjunct of hinged joint distraction should minimize stresses in subchondral bone to promote creeping substitution and prevent femoral head collapse. Unlike current treatment modalities, it would provide both structural support and allow bony and articular substitution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does Relative Grading help Male Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czibor, Eszter; Onderstal, Sander; Sloof, Randolph

    for male students than absolute grading. In the full sample, we find weak support for our hypothesis. Among the more motivated students we find evidence that men indeed score significantly higher on the test when graded on a curve. Female students, irrespective of their motivation, do not increase......The provision of non-pecuniary incentives in education is a topic that has received much scholarly attention lately. Our paper contributes to this discussion by investigating the effectiveness of grade incentives in increasing student performance. We perform a direct comparison of the two most...

  10. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: lj94172350@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: ejhwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  11. Transition from low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma to high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Takao; Omatsu, Mutsuko; Hamatani, Shigeharu; Shiokawa, Akira; Kushima, Miki; Ota, Hidekazu

    2010-07-01

    We report on a case of a primary low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) that progressed to a secondary high-grade ESS. In the secondary tumor, the immunohistochemical profile and focal tumor cell proliferation pattern suggested that this tumor was not truly undifferentiated, but possessed features of endometrial stroma. Low-grade ESS of our patient's primary tumor showed p53 protein overexpression, which is unusual in low-grade ESS, and her secondary high-grade ESS showed more prominent p53 immunoreactivity. This indicates that low-grade ESS that shows p53 immunoreactivity might progress to high-grade ESS, and it is considered that such cases of low-grade ESS should pay attention to the prognosis. Immunoreactivity for epidermal growth factor receptor was observed in both tumors, suggesting a relationship between the primary and secondary tumors in our case. Further study requires more immunohistochemical data for cases in which low-grade ESS transitions to high-grade ESS; in particular, data on epidermal growth factor receptor expression are necessary to define new therapeutic strategies for ESS.

  12. Thermomechanical Behavior of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudnut, Steven

    2001-01-01

    This final report is to document a summary of Ph.D. Student, Mr. Steven Hudnut who was supported by this ASSERT Grant, working on design of Piezo Actuators with Functionally Graded Microstructure (FGM). Mr...

  13. Laboratory Characterization of Solid Grade SW Brick

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Erin M; Akers, Stephen A; Reed, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of solid Grade SW brick...

  14. High Performance Graded Index Polymer Optical Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garito, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    ...) plastic optical fibers (POF) and graded index (GI) POFs are reported. A set of criteria and analyses of physical parameters are developed in context to the major issues of POF applications in short-distance communication systems...

  15. Technological Innovation in Grade Crossing Protective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-01

    The constraints on innovative grade crossing protective systems are delineated and guidelines for development indicated. Inventory data has been arranged to permit an estimate of the classes of systems needed, the allowable costs, and contribution of...

  16. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children ( N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks - one narrative and two expository prompts. Children's written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications.

  17. Aerospace Grade Carbon Felt Preform, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop an aerospace-grade carbon felt preform by employing application specific materials with effective processes and fabrication...

  18. Grade Inflation: Impact on Graduate Program Entrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Norbert; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results confirm the existence of grade inflation and indicate recent graduates have an advantage over those who enter graduate school 13 to 27 years after undergraduate completion. A correctional factor should be considered. (JAC)

  19. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children (N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks – one narrative and two expository prompts. Children’s written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:25642118

  20. ENERGY STAR Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers that...

  1. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 – 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...

  2. An objective fingerprint quality-grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Drew P; Muhlberger, Sarah A; Williams, Stephanie F; Shaler, Robert C; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-09-10

    The grading of fingerprint quality by fingerprint examiners as currently practised is a subjective process. Therefore, an objective system was devised to remove the subjectivity. The devised grading system is quantitative and uses three separate, easily available, software packages to ultimately identify the portions of a fingerprint that correspond to low-, medium-, and high-quality definitive minutiae as defined on the Universal Latent Workstation of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  4. Z_n^3-graded colored supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Bertrand Le

    1996-01-01

    We build generalizations of the Grassmann algebras from a few simple assumptions which are that they are graded, maximally symmetric and contain an ordinary Grassmann algebra as a subalgebra. These algebras are graded by Z_{n}^{3} and display surprising properties that indicate their possible application to the modelization of quark fields. We build the generalized supersymmetry generators based on these algebras and their derivation operators. These generators are cubic roots of the usual su...

  5. Numerical Evaluations of Functionally Graded RC Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mastali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, using fibrous materials is used widely in strengthening applications such as cross-section enlargement and using functionally graded reinforced concrete. Functionally graded reinforced concrete is used as multireinforced concrete layers that can be reinforced by different fiber types. The objective of this research was to address the structural benefits of functionally graded concrete materials by performing analytical simulations. In order to achieve this purpose, in the first stage of this study, three functionally graded reinforced concretes by steel and polypropylene (PP were experimentally tested under flexural loading. Inverse analysis was applied to obtain the used material properties of reinforced concrete by FEMIX software. After obtaining the material properties, to assess the performance of proposed slabs, some other cases were proposed and numerically evaluated under flexural and shear loading. The results showed that increasing steel fiber in reinforced entire cross section led to achieve better shear and flexural performance while the best performance of reinforced functionally graded slabs was achieved for slab at 1% fiber content. In the second stage, nineteen reinforced functionally graded RC slabs with steel bars were simulated and assessed and some other cases were considered which were not experimentally tested.

  6. Cranial Chordoma: A New Preoperative Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito da Silva, Harley; Straus, David; Barber, Jason K; Rostomily, Robert C; Ferreira, Manuel; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2017-11-03

    Chordomas are rare but challenging neoplasms involving the skull base. A preoperative grading system will be useful to identify both areas for treatment and risk factors, and correlate to the degree of resection, complications, and recurrence. To propose a new grading system for cranial chordomas designed by the senior author. Its purpose is to enable comparison of different tumors with a similar pathology to clivus chordoma, and statistically correlate with postoperative outcomes. The numerical grading system included tumor size, site of the tumor, vascular encasement, intradural extension, brainstem invasion, and recurrence of the tumor either after surgery or radiotherapy with a range of 2 to 25 points; it was used in 42 patients with cranial chordoma. The grading system was correlated with number of operations for resection, degree of resection, number and type of complications, recurrence, and survival. We found 3 groups: low-risk 0 to 7 points, intermediate-risk 8 to 12 points, and high-risk ≥13 points in the grading system. The 3 groups were correlated with the following: extent of resection (partial, subtotal, or complete; P system itself correlated with the outcome (P = .005). The proposed chordoma grading system can help surgeons to predict the difficulty of the case and know which areas of the skull base will need attention to plan further therapy. © Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2017.

  7. Dynamics of graded-composition and graded-doping semiconductor nanowires under local carrier modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenjuan; Zou, Jijun; Peng, Xincun; Zhang, Jianbing; Wang, Weilu; Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Daoli

    2016-10-17

    Scanning photocurrent microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating charge transfer and internal fields, which strongly influence carrier statics and dynamics in semiconductor nanowires. We performed comprehensive numerical modeling of the carrier dynamics of graded-composition and graded-doping AlGaAs nanowires to achieve a greater understanding of these nanowires. The simulation results indicated that the built-in electric field changes the shape of the scanning photocurrent microscopy profiles, which helped us to judge the dopant level, Al composition range and doping type of the material. The simulation results also assess the potential of the scanning photocurrent techniques in graded-doping and graded-composition nanowire properties.

  8. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  9. Age-Related Grade Inflation Expectancies in a University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Loffredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation is a recognized problem in higher education in the United States. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in discrepancies between student reports of their expected grade in each course and their expectations for general university grading practices were explored in a survey of 166 (mostly female participants at a small upper-division university. Results revealed that while a small minority of students agreed that grading systems in college should only include A or B grades, a large majority of students expected A or B grades. Thus, student discrepancies between their expectations for grading systems and their expected class grades were in line with expectations that they should receive inflated grades. Results also revealed statistically significant age differences in grade expectation with students older than the age of 55 expecting lower grades relative to their younger counterparts.

  10. A Biological Micro Actuator: Graded and Closed-Loop Control of Insect Leg Motion by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Li, Yao; Sangi, Daniyal Haider; Koh, Jie Sheng; Huynh, Ngoc Anh; Aziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin; Choo, Hao Yu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Abbeel, Pieter; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Sato, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, ...

  11. Use of a split-thickness soft palate hinged flap and bilateral buccal mucosal rotation flaps for one-stage repair of a bilateral hypoplastic soft palate in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Ronan A; Guerin, Shane R; Pratschke, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    A 14-week-old 8.5-kg (18.7-lb) sexually intact female Springer Spaniel was evaluated because of chronic rhinitis with bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. The dog had a history since birth of sneezing and oronasal reflux of food and liquid. Oral examination under anesthesia revealed a short, incompletely formed soft palate with bilateral clefts. A pseudouvula was not a prominent feature of the condition in this dog. The dog underwent 1-stage reconstruction of the soft palate by means of a split-thickness soft palate hinged flap and bilateral buccal mucosal rotation flaps. Long-term follow-up obtained 3 years after surgery revealed the dog to be in good general health, with resolution of oronasal reflux; however, occasional episodes of mild sneezing and nasal discharge persisted. Oral examination under sedation revealed attenuation of the bilateral clefts; however, a normal soft palate length was not achieved. Compared with previously described techniques, this technique offered the possibility of 1-stage reconstruction of the soft palate in dogs, rather than having 2 staged procedures performed, and a robust tissue combination that was expected to be less prone to trauma. This technique may be particularly suitable for affected dogs where a pseudouvula is not a prominent feature and appears to be applicable to a variety of skull morphologies. Owners should be made aware that the absence of normal palatine muscle within the reconstructed palate may affect function, but even where normal function is not regained, a good quality of life with minimal clinical signs may be achieved.

  12. Cafeteria-Style Grading in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John A.; Gilbert, Brian D.

    2001-04-01

    Self-selected individual course-grade weighting schemes allow students personal choice of course components in the general chemistry sequence at Coastal Carolina University. With the availability of a wide range of commercial and academically produced pedagogical resources, students can select materials that best suit their own learning styles, social situations, and motivation level. Our students use a signed contract to indicate their preferred grade-weighting schemes for determination of the course grade. In doing so, they choose from course components that include peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the Workshop Chemistry (WSC) model, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using the ChemSkill Builder (CSB) software, a variety of in-class quizzes and group problem-solving exercises, written exams, and the final written exam. Minimum percentage values are required of all components except WSC and CSB, which have been completely optional graded course components at CCU since the summer of 1999. Comparison of student success in the course and content learning suggests that the improvements observed with introduction of a gamut of activities increase even more when the cafeteria-style grading is implemented.

  13. Developmental Changes in Cognitive Persistence and Academic Achievement between Grade 4 and Grade 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozsa, Krisztian; Morgan, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes changes in cognitive persistence, a key measure of mastery motivation, between the ages of 10 (grade 4) and 14 (grade 8). Prior research in the field of mastery motivation has focused mainly on early childhood. No longitudinal research findings have been published about age changes in mastery motivation during the school…

  14. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Discriminating Low-Grade From High-Grade Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.K.; Kobus, T.; Litjens, G.J.S.; Hambrock, T.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Maas, M.C.; Scheenen, T.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and validate the optimal combination of parameters derived from 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging for discriminating low-grade from high-grade prostate cancer (PCa).The study was

  15. Transition of low-grade to high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, M; Sonoyama, A; Hirano, H; Kizaki, T; Ohara, N

    2013-01-01

    The transition of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) to high-grade ESS remains a rare clinical event. A patient presented with abdominal pain and abnormal genital bleeding. She underwent a supracervical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and resection of peritoneal disseminated lesions. Pathological examination revealed low-grade ESS in the uterus and omentum. Immunohistochemical examination showed immunoreactivity for CD10 and Ki-67 (MIB1) in the uterus and omentum. However, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, alpha-SMA, desmin, h-caldesmon, and CAM5-2 were negative. P53 immunoreactivity was noted only in the omental lesion. Despite performing six courses of adjuvant chemotherapy, she recurred in the abdomen. She underwent ileostomy and resection of peritoneal disseminated lesions. Pathology showed high-grade ESS in the recurrent lesion of the ileum, which was characterized by severe cytologic atypia, high mitotic index, multifocal necrosis, increased Ki-67 index, and immunoreactivity for p53. Although rare, the transition of low-grade ESS to high-grade ESS may occur and suggests the worsening of the prognosis. Pathological examination and immunohistochemistry are useful for the diagnosis of the transition of low-grade ESS to high-grade ESS.

  16. Does Grade Inflation Affect the Credibility of Grades? Evidence from US Law School Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2009-01-01

    While the nature and causes of university grade inflation have been extensively studied, little empirical research on the consequence of this phenomenon is currently available. The present study uses data for 48 US law schools to analyze admission decisions in 1995, 2000, and 2007, a period during which university grade inflation appears to have…

  17. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  18. Grades and Incentives: Assessing Competing Grade Point Average Measures and Postgraduate Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael A.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Albert H.

    2016-01-01

    In many educational settings, students may have an incentive to take courses where high grades are easier to achieve, potentially corroding student learning, evaluation of student achievement, and the fairness and efficiency of post-graduation labor outcomes. A grading system that takes into account heterogeneity of teacher standards and student…

  19. Kui piiluda Res Publica hinge / Alar Oppar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oppar, Alar

    2005-01-01

    Autori sõnul soovib Res Publica Reformierakonna koalitsioonist eemaldada, et viia ellu oma projektid. Selleks on vaja lõplikult erastada riigi varad ja avalikud teenused ning viia avalik võim miinimumini

  20. Mida ihkab mu hing? / Toomas Raudam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudam, Toomas, 1947-

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: Joyce, James. Pagulased : [näidend] / tõlkinud Jaak Rähesoo. Tallinn : Varrak, 2003. Ilmunud ka: Raudam, Toomas. Väike äratundmiste raamat. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2006. Lk. 124-128

  1. Bilingual children's social preferences hinge on accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Hwang, Hyesung G; Dautel, Jocelyn B; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2017-12-01

    Past research finds that monolingual and bilingual children prefer native speakers to individuals who speak in unfamiliar foreign languages or accents. Do children in bilingual contexts socially distinguish among familiar languages and accents and, if so, how do their social preferences based on language and accent compare? The current experiments tested whether 5- to 7-year-olds in two bilingual contexts in the United States demonstrate social preferences among the languages and accents that are present in their social environments. We compared children's preferences based on language (i.e., English vs. their other native language) and their preferences based on accent (i.e., English with a native accent vs. English with a non-native [yet familiar] accent). In Experiment 1, children attending a French immersion school demonstrated no preference between English and French speakers but preferred American-accented English to French-accented English. In Experiment 2, bilingual Korean American children demonstrated no preference between English and Korean speakers but preferred American-accented English to Korean-accented English. Across studies, bilingual children's preferences based on accent (i.e., American-accented English over French- or Korean-accented English) were not related to their own language dominance. These results suggest that children from diverse linguistic backgrounds demonstrate social preferences for native-accented speakers. Implications for understanding the potential relation between social reasoning and language acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lugu on teksti hing / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Sellest, mis juhtub näidendi looga lavastusprotsessis. Tähelepanekuid nelja lavastuse kohta: Urmas Lennuki kirjutatud ja lavastatud näidend "Päeva lõpus" ja Andres Keili lavastatud John Osborne'i "Vaata raevus tagasi" Rakvere Teatris, Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo dokumentaallavastus "Sigma Tau-C705", lavastaja Merle Karusoo ja Uku Uusbergi William Shakespeare'i aineline diplomietendus "Head ööd, vend" Eesti Draamateatris

  3. What Is Wrong with Grade Inflation (If Anything)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finefter-Rosenbluh, Ilana; Levinson, Meira

    2015-01-01

    Grade inflation is a global phenomenon that has garnered widespread condemnation among educators, researchers, and the public. Yet, few have deliberated over the ethics of grading, let alone the ethics of grade inflation. The purpose of this paper is to map out and examine the ethics of grade inflation. By way of beginning, we clarify why grade…

  4. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  5. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant

    1986-01-01

    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  6. Effects of Instructions on Theme Grading: Grammatical vs. Holistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follman, John; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Twelve college seniors in an English methods course were assigned to three treatment groups, Grammatical, Holistic, and Both. Each group received different instructions but graded the same 10 themes. Themes graded for grammatical errors received lower grades than the same themes graded holistically. (NH)

  7. 7 CFR 56.31 - Report of grading work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of grading work. 56.31 Section 56.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Reports § 56.31 Report of grading work. Reports of grading work performed...

  8. Graded photonic crystals by optical interference holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

    2012-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of graded photonic crystals in dye doped dichromate gelatin emulsions using an optical interference holographic technique. The gradedness is achieved by imposing a gradient form factor in the interference intensity resulting from the absorption of the dye in the dichromate gelatin. Wider and deeper photonic bandgaps are observed for the dyed samples as compared to the un-dyed samples. Our method could open up a new direction in fabricating graded photonic crystals which cannot be achieved easily using other techniques.

  9. Graded associative conformal algebras of finite type

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider graded associative conformal algebras. The class of these objects includes pseudo-algebras over non-cocommutative Hopf algebras of regular functions on some linear algebraic groups. In particular, an associative conformal algebra which is graded by a finite group $\\Gamma $ is a pseudo-algebra over the coordinate Hopf algebra of a linear algebraic group $G$ such that the identity component $G^0$ is the affine line and $G/G^0\\simeq \\Gamma $. A classification of simple...

  10. Early Grade Writing Assessment: An Instrument Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization promoted the creation of a model instrument for individual assessment of students' foundational writing skills in the Spanish language that was based on a literature review and existing writing tools and assessments. The purpose of the "Early Grade Writing Assessment"…

  11. Ultrasonic scanning for pallet part grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed F. Kabir; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Mark E. Schafer; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Sorting and grading of wooden pallet parts are key factors for pallet manufacturing quality and pallet durability. The feasibility of ultrasonic scanning for defect detection in pallet manufacturing is examined in this report. Scanning was conducted by two pressure-contact rolling transducers in a pitch-catch arrangement. Pallet part deckboards were fed through the...

  12. Functionally graded materials produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  13. Developing Middle Grades Students' MP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassell, Janet; Stobaugh, Rebecca; Sheffield, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Middle grades are a critical time for capturing the interest and imagination and developing the potential of mathematically promising students. This is a time for students to make sense of mathematics, build a solid foundation and enthusiasm, and set the course for the highest levels of mathematics in the future. This is a time to explore their…

  14. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical ...

  15. Comparison between two differential graded algebras in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    76

    A differential calculus on a “space” means the specification of a differential graded algebra (dga), often interpreted as space of forms. In classical geometry the “space” is a manifold and we have the de-Rham dga, whereas in noncommutative geometry a “space” is described by a triple called spectral triple. A spectral triple is ...

  16. Rwandan grade 6 mathematics teachers' knowledge | Maniraho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwandan grade 6 mathematics teachers' knowledge. Jean Francois Maniraho, Iben Maj Christiansen. Abstract. Teachers' knowledge has been an interesting research topic, especially after the development of Shulman's teachers' knowledge categories in 1986. In this paper, we report on analysis of the knowledge of ...

  17. Higher Education's Grade for Data: "Incomplete"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebel, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The latest national report card on higher education, as in the past, handed out a lot of "incompletes." Like the student who keeps forgetting to turn in that lab report, the grades can't be computed without all the data. There's a lot policy makers don't know about their states' higher-education performance, and the gaps in information limit the…

  18. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…

  19. Influence of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Molecular Weight Grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2011-01-12

    Jan 12, 2011 ... weight grades (K4M and K15M) on drug release from diclofenac sodium matrix tablets. Methods: Tablets containing diclofenac sodium were prepared by direct compression method at various drug/HPMC ratios and evaluated in vitro for their water uptake, erosion and dissolution characteristics.

  20. Poetry in Third Grade: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Diane Carver; Gregg, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    Poetry should be an integral part of children's learning in elementary school. This article explains the classroom structures and routines through which third-grade students in an inner-city school became familiar with poetic language and learned to appreciate the artistry of poetry. Most of the students were struggling readers. Reading poetry…

  1. Elementary construction of graded lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.; Rittenberg, V.

    1977-06-01

    We show how the definitions of the classical Lie groups have to be modified in the case where Grassmann variables are present. In particular, we construct the general linear, the special linear and the orthosymplectic graded Lie groups. Special attention is paid to the question of how to formulate an adequate 'unitarity condition'. (orig.) [de

  2. Policy Statement on Grade Configuration. Issue 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, several large urban districts, including Cincinnati, Cleveland, Milwaukee, New York City, Philadelphia, Portland, and Kansas City, Missouri have converted their middle schools (generally grades 6-8) to K-8 schools in the hope of improving student achievement, attendance, and behavior, while also enhancing parental involvement. The…

  3. 7 CFR 29.6018 - Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade. 29.6018 Section 29.6018 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... to other characteristics when they are of sufficient importance to be treated separately. ...

  4. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  5. Diagnosing the Diagnostics: Misconceptions of Twelfth Grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosing the Diagnostics: Misconceptions of Twelfth Grade Students on Selected Chemistry Concepts in Two Preparatory Schools in Eastern Ethiopia. ... African Journal of Chemical Education ... To attain these goals, respective data were gathered through open-ended test and three-tier chemistry misconception test.

  6. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compressive behaviour of a new class of sandwich composite made up of jute fiber reinforced epoxy skins and piece-wise linear fly ash reinforced functionally graded (FG) rubber core is investigated in flat-wise mode. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified ...

  7. Student Perceptions of Middle Grades Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Uline, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers used student-generated photographs to mediate interviews with middle grades students about their school environment. Findings suggest that school leaders and facilities planners should be responsive to students' needs for both personal and social spaces and be aware of ways the built environment may shape the perceptions students hold…

  8. Ia diastolic dysfunction: an echocardiographic grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Anil; Mookadam, Farouk; Hakim, Fayaz A; Mulroy, Eoin; Saadiq, Rayya; Doherty, Mairead; Cha, Stephen; Seward, James; Wilansky, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate that a distinct group of patients with Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction who do not conform to present ASE/ESE diastolic grading exists. Echocardiographic and demographic data of the Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction were extracted and compared with that of Grades I and II in 515 patients. The mean of age of the cohort was 75 ± 9 years and body mass index did not differ significantly between the 3 groups (P = 0.45). Measurements of left atrial volume index (28.58 ± 7 mL/m(2) in I, 33 ± 10 mL/m(2) in Ia, and 39 ± 12 mL/m(2) in II P Ia, and 79 ± 15 msec in II P Ia, and 217 ± 57 msec in II P Ia, and 22 ± 8 in II), and lateral E/e' (8 ± 3 in I, 15 ± 6 in Ia, and 18 ± 9 in II P Ia compared with I and II. These findings remained significant even after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, and smoking. Patients with echocardiographic characteristics of relaxation abnormality (E/A ratio of Ia group. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. When Wrong Answers Receive Top Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur; Eisenkraft, Noah

    2011-01-01

    To find out whether the education community shares a collective understanding about how students should be evaluated, we surveyed 202 educators (from all grade levels) and scientists attending assessment workshops (Pennsylvania, California, and Massachusetts) or judging a national student competition (Washington, DC). The educators and scientists…

  10. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  11. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Developing newer and utilitarian functionally graded systems using ashes is an interesting and challenging task. Though the concept of FG core in a sandwich and its implication on mechanical performance of sandwich struc- tures is available in early literature (Mouritz and Thomson. 1999; Evans et al 2001; Najafizadeh ...

  12. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  13. Algebra task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  14. Geometry task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  15. Probabilistic Modeling of Graded Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established on ...

  16. Home Economics II. Basic Core. Tenth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Ann

    Seven home economics curriculum areas for grade 10 are presented in this guide, with each area consisting of one or more instructional units as follows: (1) Career Exploration (obtaining a job, progress on the job, business etiquette); (2) Child Development (guiding the preschool child, middle childhood); (3) Clothing and Textiles (labeling,…

  17. Getting Inside the EQA Inventory: Grade 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nolan F.

    The Secondary Form of the Educational Quality Assessment (EQA) Inventory is designed for 11th grade students in Commonwealth public schools. Test scales are designed to measure some facet of state quality assessment goals. Along with basic skills, the various instruments examine: (1) social and health habits, (2) feelings toward self and others,…

  18. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  19. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  20. The Distributive Property in Grade 3?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Christine C.; Wall, Jennifer J.; Malm, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) call for an in depth, integrated look at elementary school mathematical concepts. Some topics have been realigned to support an integration of topics leading to conceptual understanding. For example, the third-grade standards call for relating the concept of area (geometry) to multiplication…

  1. Middle Grades Transition Programs around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Colin; Bishop, Penny

    2012-01-01

    Transitions into and out of the middle grades can be challenging for many reasons. Students need to acclimate to new policies, practices, and buildings; teachers require accurate data about their new students' capacities; and families must navigate relationships with new personnel. All school transitions present different and, at times, puzzling…

  2. Rwandan grade 6 mathematics teachers' knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Abstract. Teachers' knowledge has been an interesting research topic, especially after the development of Shulman's teachers' knowledge categories in 1986. In this paper, we report on analysis of the knowledge of Rwandan grade 6 mathematics' teachers, sampled in 19 schools from 7 different districts through random ...

  3. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available . This paper describes the development of an automated analysis process and software that can run a multitude of separation scenarios. A key enabler for this software is the development of a quantitative grading algorithm that scores the outcome of each release...

  4. Ongoing trials in low-grade lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Burchardt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many therapies available for the management of low-grade lymphoma. With follicular lymphoma, for example, combination of chemotherapy and rituximab (immuno-chemo - therapy and consecutive maintenance therapy for 2 years is the current standard of care. To date, the most widely used regimen seems to be rituximab combined with cyclo phosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP. Substitution of liposomal doxorubicin in place of conventional doxorubicin may improve outcomes in this indication, although evidence for its use in low-grade lymphoma is not as relevant as in aggressive lymphoma. Bendamustine, in combination with rituximab, has shown very good efficacy and tolerability in several lymphoma types, particularly follicular lymphoma and other low-grade lymphomas. Other combinations, such as those including bortezomib and lenalidomide, are under investigation in low-grade lymphoma, and the duration of rituximab maintenance therapy following bendamustine−rituximab-containing induction is being researched by the German Study Group for Indolent Lymphoma (StiL.

  5. Does Attendance Enhance Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2007-01-01

    This article tests a relationship between class attendance and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Georgia, University of Vermont, and University of Central Arkansas between the Fall 2000 and Spring 2006 semesters. The study employs ordinary least square estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis.…

  6. Handicraft (Industrial Arts). Grades 4-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Xuan Thuy

    This is the second of two textbooks covering the elementary program in Vietnam on handicrafts and industrial arts. It is written for Vietnamese children at the fourth and fifth grade level. The four chapters are: (1) clay moulding, (2) use of ordinary carpentry tools, (3) book binding, and (4) miscellaneous. The course is designed to offer…

  7. Environmental Education. Teacher's Handbook, Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Prepared for use in the 5th grade, this teacher's handbook consists of 19 science units dealing with environmental education. Topics are ecology, language arts, rocks and fossils, soil, noise pollution, Nashville pioneers and American Indians, conservation, waste and litter, water pollution, compass and mapping, plants and trees, use of the…

  8. Lumber stress grades and design properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; David W. Green

    1999-01-01

    Lumber sawn from a log, regardless of species and size, is quite variable in mechanical properties. Pieces may differ in strength by several hundred percent. For simplicity and economy in use, pieces of lumber of similar mechanical properties are placed in categories called stress grades, which are characterized by (a) one or more sorting criteria, (b) a set of...

  9. High grade magnesium from waste bittern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Yamani, I.S.; Farah, M.Y.; Isaac, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The production of high grade magnesia for nuclear purposes from sea water by use of both aqueous and gaseous ammonia has been described. The effect of precipitating conditions on the settling rate and magnesium recovery, was thoroughly examined. Ammonia gas approach was recommended and justified

  10. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compressive behaviour of a new class of sandwich composite made up of jute fiber reinforced epoxy skins and piece-wise linear fly ash reinforced functionally graded (FG) rubber core is investigated in flat-wise mode. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified ...

  11. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  12. Reliability Estimates for Undergraduate Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate grade point average (GPA) is a commonly employed measure in educational research, serving as a criterion or as a predictor depending on the research question. Over the decades, researchers have used a variety of reliability coefficients to estimate the reliability of undergraduate GPA, which suggests that there has been no consensus…

  13. Robinson′s cytological grading on aspirates of breast carcinoma: Correlation with Bloom Richardson′s histological grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Cytological grading (CG on aspirates of breast carcinoma is a useful tool for surgical maneuver and prognosis. Aims : An endeavor was made to use CG on aspirates of breast carcinoma using Robinson′s grade and to correlate it with Bloom Richardsons′ histopathological grading. Materials and Methods : A total of 59 patients of breast carcinoma, aged 28-57 years, were aspirated and the smears were graded using Robinson′s criteria. All the cases were correlated with Bloom Richardson′s grade on histopathology in mastectomy specimens. Lymphadenopathy in 38 cases was aspirated and stained with Papanicolaou and Romanowsky stain. Results : Robinson′s CG correlated well with Bloom Richardson′s histopathological grading. For grade I and II tumors, there was substantial strength of agreement between cytology and histopathology, while in grade III, the concordance was nearly perfect. Lymph node metastasis was found in 27 of 32 axillary nodes, three of five cervical nodes and the only palpable supraclavicular node. Lymph node metastasis was observed in three with cytological grade II, 28 of grade III and none of grade I. All grade I had stage A, two of grade II had stage B, while all grade III had either stage B or stage C disease. Conclusions : Thus, CG of breast carcinoma correlates well with histopathological grading and may well be useful as a prognostic marker.

  14. 7 CFR 810.305 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Special Grades... canola. Canola that contains more than two green garlic bulblets or an equivalent quantity of dry or...

  15. Usage of subordinated and coordinated clauses in second grade and fourth grade narrative texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research examined selected aspects of language development in the context of narratives. The purpose of this study was to register and examine the usage of coordinated and subordinated clauses in narrative texts produced by second grade and fourth grade primary school students. It is assumed that possible differences within syntactic complexity between second graders and fourth graders show different levels of syntactic maturity. The children that participated in this study were attending the same primary school located in Belgrade, Serbia. Written text corpus was collected from 42 second graders and 44 fourth graders. The analysis of data included qualitative as well as quantitative parameters. The presence of both sentence types -compound and complex was registered in both grades. The prevailing usage of subordinated clauses in the fourth grade implies that they are more syntactically mature than second graders who produce more coordinated clauses. The analysis underscores the significance of subordination as an indicator of syntactic maturity.

  16. Improving reading in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Nell K; Block, Meghan K

    2012-01-01

    Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in prekindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by Nell Duke and Meghan Block first examines whether specific key recommendations from the report have been implemented in U.S. classrooms. They find that recommendations regarding increased access to kindergarten and greater attention to and improvement of students' word-reading skills have been widely adopted. Others have not. Vocabulary and comprehension, long neglected in the primary grades, still appear to be neglected. Contrary to the report's recommendations, attention to building conceptual and content knowledge in science and social studies has actually decreased in the past fifteen years. In other words, the easier-to-master skills are being attended to, but the broader domains of accomplishment that constitute preparation for comprehension and learning in the later grades--vocabulary knowledge, comprehension strategy use, and conceptual and content knowledge--are being neglected. Near stagnation in fourth-grade students' comprehension achievement is thus unsurprising. The authors then turn to research and reviews of research on improving primary-grade reading published since 1998, when Preventing Reading Difficulties was issued. They discuss several instructional approaches identified as effective in improving word-reading skill, vocabulary and conceptual knowledge, comprehension strategies, and reading outside of school; they discuss advances in interventions for struggling readers, and in whole-school literacy reform. Duke and Block then identify three key obstacles that have prevented widespread adoption of these best practices in teaching reading. The first obstacle is a short-term orientation toward instruction and

  17. Comparison of non-electrophoresis grade with electrophoresis grade BIS in NIPAM polymer gel preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khajeali, Azim; Farajollahi, Ali Reza; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Raeisi, Noorallah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The main objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing electrophoresis cross-linker with non-electrophoresis N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel and its possible effect on dose response. Methods: NIPAM polymer gel was prepared from non-electrophoresis grade BIS and the relaxation rate (R2) was measured by MR imaging after exposing the gel to gamma radiation from Co-60 source. To compare the response of this gel with the one that contains electrophoresis grade BIS, two sets of NIPAM gel were prepared using electrophoresis and non-electrophoresis BIS and irradiated to different gamma doses. Results: It was found that the dose–response of NIPAM gel made from the non-electrophoresis grade BIS is coincident with that of electrophoresis grade BIS. Conclusion:Taken all, it can be concluded that the non-electrophoresis grade BIS not only is a suitable alternative for the electrophoresis grade BIS but also reduces the cost of gel due to its lower price. PMID:26457250

  18. Grading of vesicoureteral reflux by radionuclide cystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fretzayas, A.; Karpathios, T.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1984-03-01

    Thirty-six children with urinary tract infection aged 6 months to 14 years (mean age 4 1/2 years) were studied sequentially using direct radionuclide (RNC) and conventional voiding cystourethrography (VCU). Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was detected equally well by both methods. Twenty-seven refluxing ureters were foand by RNC, 23 by VCU and 22 by both methods. Radiologic grade of reflux may be determined approximately with the isotope technique from the volume of regurgitating urine und duration of reflux, at a much decreased radiation exposure. Residual urine was also measured by RNC and found to be higher in children with VUR. RNC is a reliable method for detecting and grading VUR and should effectively replace VCU as the follow-up examination of choice.

  19. Metal recovery from high-grade WEEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Based on available data in the literature the recovery of aluminium, copper, gold, iron, nickel, palladium and silver from high-grade WEEE was modeled by LCA. The pre-treatment of WEEE included manual sorting, shredding, magnetic sorting, Eddy-current sorting, air classification and optical sorting...... and refining of ore. The resource recovery per tonne of high-grade WEEE ranged from 2 g of palladium to 386 kg of iron. Quantified in terms of person-equivalents the recovery of palladium, gold, silver, nickel and copper constituted the major environmental benefit of the recovery of metals from WEEE...... effect compared to the metallurgical treatment. However only 12-26% of silver, gold and palladium are recovered during pre-treatment, which suggest that the reduction of the apparent losses of precious metals as palladium, gold and silver during pre-treatment of WEEE is of environmental importance. Our...

  20. Graded nanowire ultraviolet LEDs by polarization engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Klie, Robert F.; Rajan, Siddharth; Myers, Roberto C.

    2012-10-01

    Given the large thermal activation energy of acceptors in high %Al AlGaN, a new approach is needed to control p-type conductivity in this material. One promising alternative to using impurity doping with thermal activation is using the intrinsic characteristics of the III-nitrides to activate dopants with polarization-induced charge in graded heterostructures. In this work polarization-induced activation of dopants is used in graded AlGaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy to form ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. Electrical and optical characterization is provided, showing clear diode behavior and electroluminescent emission at 336nm. Variable temperature electrical measurements show little change in device performance at cryogenic temperatures, proving that dopant ionization is polarizationinduced rather than thermally activated.

  1. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  2. Micromechanical models for graded composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, T; Dvorak, G.J.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    Elastic response of selected plane-array models of graded composite microstructures is examined under both uniform and linearly varying boundary tractions and displacements, by means of detailed finite element studies of large domains containing up to several thousand inclusions. Models consisting...... of piecewise homogeneous layers with equivalent elastic properties estimated by Mori-Tanaka and self-consistent methods are also analysed under similar boundary conditions. Comparisons of the overall and local fields predicted by the discrete and homogenized models are made using a C/SiC composite system...... with very different Young's moduli of the phases, and relatively steep composition gradients. The conclusions reached from these comparisons suggest that in those parts of the graded microstructure which have a well-defined continuous matrix and discontinuous second phase, the overall properties and local...

  3. Reliability Analysis for Safety Grade PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Chul; Hwang, Sung Jae; Jung, Tae Hyok; Kim, Tae Hee; Song, Seung Whan [POSCO ICT Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, describe reliability analysis for digital safety grade PLC which developed with the aim to use the operating nuclear power plants and new plants by POSCO ICT co., POSAFE-Q consist of the Sub Rack, power modules, processor modules, communication modules, digital input / output module (DI / DO), analog input / output modules (AI / AO), pulse counter module, TC (Thermocouple), RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector), Local Repeater

  4. Different grades MEMS accelerometers error characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachwicewicz, M.; Weremczuk, J.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents calibration effects of two different MEMS accelerometers of different price and quality grades and discusses different accelerometers errors types. The calibration for error determining is provided by reference centrifugal measurements. The design and measurement errors of the centrifuge are discussed as well. It is shown that error characteristics of the sensors are very different and it is not possible to use simple calibration methods presented in the literature in both cases.

  5. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects. 333. S 250 MK III were used to find out the particle size distributions in the final oxide products. 3. Results and discussion. 3.1 Phase identification. The dhkl values of all oxide products were compared with the JCPDS files: 24–81 and 25–1402. All were found to be mainly γ-Fe2O3 ...

  6. The relationship between grade and university prestige

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Sven-Olof; Smith, Elin

    2007-01-01

    The paper is dealing with the threat towards university standards in Sweden, when the university system is facing a decreasing demand on education. We claim that there is a pressure towards higher grades and less working load on the students. The effect could be a slight decline of prestige for universities, but a step decline in academic standards at the university colleges since they have weaker academic traditions, staff and students, and experience a stronger political pressure from the l...

  7. New examples of continuum graded Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    Several new examples of continuum graded Lie algebras which provide an additional elucidation of these algebras are given. Here, in particular, the Kac-Moody algebras, the algebra S 0 Diff T 2 of infinitesimal area-preserving diffeomorphisms of the torus T 2 , the Fairlie, Fletcher and Zachos sine-algebras, etc., are described as special cases of the cross product Lie algebras. 8 refs

  8. Spina bifida occulta in high grade spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbi, L; Terzi, S; Bandiera, S; Barbanti Brodano, G

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with symptomatic high-grade dysplastic type spondylolisthesis, with a presence of spina bifida occulta, not diagnosed by plain radiographs, but confirmed on preoperative CT and MR. Circumferential fusion with partial reduction of L5/S1 was performed. Awareness of the coexistence of spondylolisthesis and spina bifida by an accurate preoperative planning is paramount to avoid iatrogenic damage to neural elements during surgery.

  9. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  10. Vibration of Elastic Functionally Graded Thick Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration behaviors of functionally graded rings were investigated theoretically. The material graded in the thickness direction according to the power law rule and the rings were assumed to be in plane stress and plane strain states. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the kinetic relation of von Kárman type, the frequency equation for free vibration of functionally graded ring was derived. The derived results were verified by those in literatures which reveals that the present theory can be appropriate to predict the free vibration characteristics for quite thick rings with the radius-to-thickness ratio from 60 down to 2.09. Comparison between the plane stress case and the plane strain case indicates a slight difference. Meanwhile, the effects of the structural dimensional parameters and the material inhomogeneous parameter are examined. It is interesting that the value of the logarithmic form of vibration frequency is inversely proportional to the logarithmic form of the radius-to-thickness ratio or the mean radius.

  11. Standards for Clinical Grade Genomic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, Sophia L; Carter, Alexis B; Pfeifer, John D; Crawford, James M; Cushman-Vokoun, Allison; Caughron, Samuel; Leonard, Debra G B

    2015-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing performed in a clinical environment must meet clinical standards, which requires reproducibility of all aspects of the testing. Clinical-grade genomic databases (CGGDs) are required to classify a variant and to assist in the professional interpretation of clinical next-generation sequencing. Applying quality laboratory standards to the reference databases used for sequence-variant interpretation presents a new challenge for validation and curation. To define CGGD and the categories of information contained in CGGDs and to frame recommendations for the structure and use of these databases in clinical patient care. Members of the College of American Pathologists Personalized Health Care Committee reviewed the literature and existing state of genomic databases and developed a framework for guiding CGGD development in the future. Clinical-grade genomic databases may provide different types of information. This work group defined 3 layers of information in CGGDs: clinical genomic variant repositories, genomic medical data repositories, and genomic medicine evidence databases. The layers are differentiated by the types of genomic and medical information contained and the utility in assisting with clinical interpretation of genomic variants. Clinical-grade genomic databases must meet specific standards regarding submission, curation, and retrieval of data, as well as the maintenance of privacy and security. These organizing principles for CGGDs should serve as a foundation for future development of specific standards that support the use of such databases for patient care.

  12. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA grade).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Leonard B; Bernhardt, Peter; Devall, Margaret S; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Fan, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Liang-Chen; Williams, Joseph H

    2009-01-01

    The first three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ∼201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest flower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115-125 Mya) and identified to the Nymphaeales. The flowers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or starch bodies). Unlike many gymnosperms that secrete "pollination drops," ANITA-grade members examined thus far have a dry-type stigma. Copious secretions of stigmatic fluid are restricted to the Nymphaeales, but this is not nectar. Floral odors, floral thermogenesis (a resource), and colored tepals attract insects in deceit-based pollination syndromes throughout the first three branches of the phylogenetic tree. Self-incompatibility and an extragynoecial compitum occur in some species in the Austrobaileyales. Flies are primary pollinators in six families (10 genera). Beetles are pollinators in five families varying in importance as primary (exclusive) to secondary vectors of pollen. Bees are major pollinators only in the Nymphaeaceae. It is hypothesized that large flowers in Nymphaeaceae are the result of the interaction of heat, floral odors, and colored tepals to trap insects to increase fitness.

  13. A vision of graded hemispheric specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the process by which the cerebral hemispheres reach their mature functional organization remains challenging. We propose a theoretical account in which, in the domain of vision, faces and words come to be represented adjacent to retinotopic cortex by virtue of the need to discriminate among homogeneous exemplars. Orthographic representations are further constrained to be proximal to typically left-lateralized language-related information to minimize connectivity length between visual and language areas. As reading is acquired, orthography comes to rely more heavily (albeit not exclusively) on the left fusiform region to bridge vision and language. Consequently, due to competition from emerging word representations, face representations that were initially bilateral become lateralized to the right fusiform region (albeit, again, not exclusively). We review recent research that describes constraints that give rise to this graded hemispheric arrangement. We then summarize empirical evidence from a variety of studies (behavioral, evoked response potential, functional imaging) across different populations (children, adolescents, and adults; left handers and individuals with developmental dyslexia) that supports the claims that hemispheric lateralization is graded rather than binary and that this graded organization emerges dynamically over the course of development. Perturbations of this system either during development or in adulthood provide further insights into the principles governing hemispheric organization. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Optimum material gradient composition for the functionally graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Functionally graded piezoelectric actuators can produce not only large displacements but also reduce the internal stress concentrations and consequently improve significantly the lifetime of piezoelectric actuators. Now, the functionally graded piezoelectric materials, as intelligent materials, have been used extensively in.

  15. Micro and macro level safety analysis at railroad grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Railroad grade crossings are potential conflict points between train and highway vehicles, and train and pedestrians. Grade crossings pose a risk to all the travelers and the degree of risk depends on factors such as train and vehicle volumes, presen...

  16. The Better Beginnings, Better Futures project: findings from grade 3 to grade 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ray DeV; Bradshaw, Alison J; Petrunka, Kelly; Nelson, Geoffrey; Herry, Yves; Craig, Wendy M; Arnold, Robert; Parker, Kevin C H; Khan, Shahriar R; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Pancer, S Mark; Loomis, Colleen; Bélanger, Jean-Marc; Evers, Susan; Maltais, Claire; Thompson, Katherine; Rossiter, Melissa D

    2010-12-01

    Although comprehensive and ecological approaches to early childhood prevention are commonly advocated, there are few examples of long-term follow-up of such programs. In this monograph, we investigate the medium- and long-term effects of an ecological, community-based prevention project for primary school children and families living in three economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Ontario, Canada. The Better Beginnings, Better Futures (BBBF) project is one of the most ambitious Canadian research projects on the long-term impacts of early childhood prevention programming to date. Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development informed program planning, implementation, and evaluation. Using a quasi-experimental design, the BBBF longitudinal research study involved 601 children and their families who participated in BBBF programs when children were between 4 and 8 years old and 358 children and their families from sociodemographically matched comparison communities. We collected extensive child, parent, family, and community outcome data when children were in Grade 3 (age 8–9), Grade 6 (age 11–12), and Grade 9 (age 14–15). The BBBF mandate was to develop programs that would positively impact all areas of child's development; our findings reflect this ecological approach. We found marked positive effects in social and school functioning domains in Grades 6 and 9 and evidence of fewer emotional and behavioral problems in school across the three grades. Parents from BBBF sites reported greater feelings of social support and more positive ratings of marital satisfaction and general family functioning, especially at the Grade 9 follow-up. Positive neighborhood-level effects were also evident. Economic analyses at Grade 9 showed BBBF participation was associated with government savings of $912 per child. These findings provide evidence that an affordable, ecological, community-based prevention program can promote long-term development of children living

  17. Data-driven approaches to decision making in automated tumor grading. An example of astrocytoma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolles, H; von Wangenheim, A; Rahmel, J; Niedermayer, I; Feiden, W

    1996-08-01

    To compare four data-driven approaches to automated tumor grading based on morphometric data. Apart from the statistical procedure of linear discriminant analysis, three other approaches from the field of neural computing were evaluated. The numerical basis of this study was computed tomography-guided, stereotactically obtained astrocytoma biopsies from 86 patients colored with a combination of Feulgen and immunhistochemical Ki-67 (MIB1) staining. In these biopsies the cell nuclei in four consecutive fields of vision were evaluated morphometrically and the following parameters determined: relative nuclei area, secant lengths of the minimal spanning trees and relative volume-weighted mean nuclear volumes of the proliferating nuclei. Based on the analysis of these morphometric features, the multivariate-generated HOM grading system provides the highest correct grading rates (> 90%), whereas the two widely employed qualitative histologic grading systems for astrocytomas yield correct grading rates of about 60%. For automated tumor grading all approaches yield similar grading results; however, back-propagation networks provide reliable results only following an extensive training phase, which requires the use of a supercomputer. All other neurocomputing models can be run on simple UNIX workstations (AT&T, U.S.A). In contrast to discriminant analysis, backpropagation and Kohonen networks, the newly developed neural network architecture model of self-editing nearest neighbor nets (SEN3) provides incremental learning; i.e., the training phase does not need to be restarted each time when there is further information to learn. Trained SEN3 networks can be considered ready-to-use knowledge bases and are appropriate to integrating further morphometric data in a dynamic process that enhances the diagnostic power of such a network.

  18. Kajian Eksperimental Perubahan Posisi Telur pada Mesin Grading Telur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendra Suhendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Proses grading telur menggunakan mesin merupakan salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan kapasitas grading telur dengan hasil grading yang lebih seragam. Permasalahan yang sering terjadi dalam proses grading telur adalah posisi telur yang tidak sesuai. Hal ini menyebabkan telur tidak akan terbawa oleh konveyor grading sehingga dapat menghambat proses grading. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan membuat alat uji untuk mengubah posisi telur, selanjutnya menguji panjang lintasan rol pengarah, jarak sumbu rol pengarah dan grade telur terhadap perubahan posisi telur. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuktikan pengaruh panjang lintasan dan jarak sumbu rol pengarah serta grade telur terhadap perubahan posisi telur untuk mencapai posisi sejajar dengan rol pengarah. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa panjang lintasan dan jarak sumbu rol pengarah memiliki pengaruh yang sangat signifikan terhadap perubahan posisi telur, sedangkan grade telur memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap perubahan posisi telur. Jarak sumbu rol semakin lebar dan ukuran telur semakin kecil akan mendapatkan hasil yang semakin baik, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan perubahan posisi telur sejajar rol pengarah semakin cepat tercapai. Hasil terbaik untuk mendapatkan posisi telur sejajar dengan rol pengarah diperoleh pada perlakuan jarak sumbu rol pengarah 6 cm untuk telur grade C.   Experimental Study of Changes Position of Eggs on Eggs Grading Machine  Abstract. The grading process of using the eggs grading machine is one of the efforts to increase the capacity of the eggs grading with grading more uniform results. The problems that often occur in the process of grading eggs are the position of eggs is not perfect. That is causes the eggs will not be carried away by the grading conveyor so that can inhibit the process of grading. The method used in this research is to create a test tool to change the position of the eggs, then test the path distance of convey roller

  19. A Quantitative Study on the Correlation between Grade Span Configuration of Sixth Grade Students in Private Florida Schools and Academic Achievement on Standardized Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantin, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The applied dissertation was designed to investigate the three models of grade span configurations of sixth grade and the effects grade span configuration has on results of the standardized achievement scores of sixth grade students in private, Florida schools. Studies that have been conducted on sixth grade students and grade span configuration…

  20. Buckling of graded coatings: A continuum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tz-Cheng

    2000-12-01

    Requirements for the protection of hot section components in many high temperature applications such as earth-to-orbit winged planes and advanced turbine systems have led to the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that utilize ceramic coatings on metal substrates. An alternative concept to homogeneous ceramic coatings is the functionally graded materials (FGM) in which the composition of the coating is intentionally graded to improve the bonding strength and to reduce the magnitude of the residual and thermal stresses. A widely observed failure mode in such layered systems is known to be interface cracking that leads to spallation fracture. In most cases, the final stage of the failure process for a thin coating appears to be due to buckling instability under thermally or mechanically induced compressive stress. The objective of this study is to develop a solution to the buckling instability problem by using continuum elasticity rather than a structural mechanics approach. The emphasis in the solution will be on the investigation of the effect of material inhomogeneity in graded coatings on the instability load, the postbuckling behavior, and fracture mechanics parameters such as the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate. In this analysis, a nonlinear continuum theory is employed to examine the interface crack problem. The analytical solution of the instability problem permits the study of the effect of material inhomogeneity upon the inception of buckling and establishes benchmark results for the numerical solutions of related problems. To study the postbuckling behavior and to calculate the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate a geometrically nonlinear finite element procedure with enriched crack-tip element is developed. Both plane strain and axisymmetric interface crack problems in TBCs with either homogeneous or graded coating are then considered by using the finite element procedure. It is assumed that the

  1. Collegiate Grading Practices and the Gender Pay Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Dowd

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Extending research findings by R. Sabot and J. Wakeman-Linn (1991, this article presents a theoretical analysis showing that relatively low grading quantitative fields and high grading verbal fields create a disincentive for college women to invest in quantitative study. Pressures on grading practices are modeled using higher education production functions.

  2. Collegiate Grading Practices and the Gender Pay Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Alicia C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a theoretical analysis showing that relatively low grading quantitative fields and high grading verbal fields create a disincentive for college women to invest in quantitative study. Extends research by R. Sabot and J. Wakeman-Linn. Models pressures on grading practices using higher education production functions. (Author/SLD)

  3. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence of...

  4. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence of...

  5. 5 CFR 531.404 - Earning within-grade increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earning within-grade increase. 531.404 Section 531.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.404 Earning within-grade increase. An employee...

  6. Diamond lemma for the group graded quasi-algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mamta Balodi et al. In this paper, we prove the diamond lemma for the group graded quasi-algebras and to make the result more accessible, we apply it on some interesting group graded quasi-algebras like octonion algebra and generalized octonions. Explicitly, we prove the following: Let J = k〈X〉 be a free group graded ...

  7. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  8. 7 CFR 51.1901 - U.S. Grade A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Grades § 51.1901 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of tomatoes... from soft rot, freezing injury, and from damage caused by dirt, bruises, cuts, shriveling, sunscald... or other means. Tomatoes on the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size and quality of...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1902 - U.S. Grade B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Grades § 51.1902 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of tomatoes... are not overripe or soft and not badly misshapen; which are free from soft rot, freezing injury and..., growth cracks, scars, dry rot, other diseases, insects hail, or mechanical or other means Tomatoes on the...

  10. Assessing the Assessment Procedures and Grading of Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' performance in CBE courses should be evaluated regularly and grades are awarded accordingly. However, assessment and grading procedures can serve their purpose only if they are of good quality. It follows that the quality of CBE assessment and grading schemes should be examined through research so that ...

  11. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  12. Machine grading of lumber : practical concerns for lumber producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Galligan; Kent A. McDonald

    2000-01-01

    Machine lumber grading has been applied in commercial operations in North America since 1963, and research has shown that machine grading can improve the efficient use of wood. However, industry has been reluctant to apply research findings without clear evidence that the change from visual to machine grading will be a profitable one. For instance, mill managers need...

  13. 49 CFR 80.11 - Investment-grade ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investment-grade ratings. 80.11 Section 80.11... § 80.11 Investment-grade ratings. (a) At the time a project sponsor submits an application, the DOT... investment-grade rating. (b) The full funding of a secured (direct) loan, loan guarantee, or line of credit...

  14. 21 CFR 573.220 - Feed-grade biuret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feed-grade biuret. 573.220 Section 573.220 Food... Additive Listing § 573.220 Feed-grade biuret. The food additive feed grade biuret may be safely used in... resulting from the controlled pyrolysis of urea conforming to the following specifications: Percent Biuret...

  15. Illusions of a Good Grade: Effort or Luck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckelew, Susan P.; Byrd, Nikki; Key, Colin W.; Thornton, Jessica; Merwin, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among the accuracy of grade predictions, actual grades, self-enhancement bias, and attributions about academic performance. As a group, students anticipated higher grades than were earned. Individual differences in self-enhancement bias were measured using the discrepancy between anticipated and attained…

  16. The Relationship between Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between attendance policies and student grades in college courses was investigated. Specifically, a calculated grade point average was determined for all academic classes taught at Shelton State Community College between 2000 and 2008. These grade point averages were compared descriptively and statistically in an effort to…

  17. An Empirical Test of Oklahoma's A-F School Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Barnes, Laura L.; Khojasteb, Jam

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of 16 states electing to use an A-F letter grade as an indicator of school quality. On the surface, letter grades are an attractive policy instrument for school improvement; they are seemingly clear, simple, and easy to interpret. Evidence, however, on the use of letter grades as an instrument to rank and improve schools is scant…

  18. Influence of "Halo" and "Demon" Effects in Subjective Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Gerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon of "halo" effects in subjective grading was investigated. Two groups of three raters evaluated 20 term papers in introductory psychology. Term paper grades correlated significantly with course grades when information about previous academic performance was made available. When this information was not available, the…

  19. Extensive Graded Reading in the Liberal Arts and Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulshock, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    For this research, learners did extensive graded reading (EGR) with traditional graded readers, and they also interacted with short graded stories in the liberal arts and sciences (LAS). This study describes the purpose and format of the LAS stories used by hundreds of university students and adult learners in Japan. It summarizes the results of…

  20. Volume equalization method for land grading design: Uniform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land grading is an important procedure at accomplishing the efficient surface irrigation. This paper presents a new method (volume equalization method-VEM) which has been developed to perform land grading design in designing the uniform sloped grading in one direction. The main goal of this method was to minimize ...

  1. 76 FR 5120 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... efficiently before or shortly after leaving the point of origin, enabling them to avoid problem grade... average annual daily traffic (AADT) volume of all motor vehicles passing through the grade crossing and... motor vehicle trying to avoid suspect grade crossings was determined to be about on average 0.75 miles...

  2. College Students' Categorical Perceptions of Grades: It's Simply "Good" vs. "Bad"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright-Horowitz, Su L.; Arruda, Chris

    2013-01-01

    College students' categorical perceptions of numeric and alphabetic grades were examined by assigning participants to one of four conditions: numeric grades alphabetic grades, numeric non-grades and alphabetic non-grades. They were then asked to give ratings for each possible grade or non-grade, using a 10-point scale. Factor analysis revealed…

  3. Axisymmetrical analysis of functionally graded circular piezoelectric plate by graded element using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, B. L.; Xu, R. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Circular piezoelectric bimorph has been successfully used in numerous types of microdevices, such as actuators for flowcontrol applications, transducers for acoustic applications, and in locomotion of robotic systems, energy harvesting and active structural health monitoring applications. Recently, the concept of the functionally graded material (FGM) is introduced to improve properties and increase lifetime by selectively grading the elastic, piezoelectric, and/or dielectric properties along the thickness of a piezoceramic. However, even for the simple case of homogeneous circular piezoelectric geometry, analytical treatments are severely limited. This study established an axisymmetric and isoparametric graded element to model the functionally graded circular piezoelectric plates. All the material properties including elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, dielectric parameters and mass density are graded in the element and interpolated using the shape functions, which is also used to render the displacements and electric potential distribution in the element. Both static and dynamic cases can be considered in this element. MATLAB is used to implement the whole FEM code and gives some numerical examples to demonstrate the presented method.

  4. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  5. An Early Warning System: Predicting 10th Grade FCAT Success from 6th Grade FCAT Performance. Research Brief. Volume 0711

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly; Lapadula, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This Research Brief presents a method for predicting 10th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) success from 6th grade FCAT performance. A simple equation provides the most probable single score prediction, and give-or-take error margins define high and low probability zones for expected 10th grade scores. In addition, a double-entry…

  6. Girls' Spatial Skills and Arithmetic Strategies in First Grade as Predictors of Fifth-Grade Analytical Math Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Beth M.; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Pollock, Amanda; Fineman, Bonnie; Pezaris, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal pathways leading from early spatial skills in first-grade girls to their fifth-grade analytical math reasoning abilities (N = 138). First-grade assessments included spatial skills, verbal skills, addition/subtraction skills, and frequency of choice of a decomposition or retrieval strategy on the…

  7. Nuclear grade plus proliferation grading system for invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: validation in a tertiary referral hospital cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Maria; Kaptanis, Sarantos; Polymeropoulos, Evangelos; Mitsopoulos, Grigorios; Stogiannis, Dimitris; Caroni, Chrys; Vaiopoulos, George; Panayiotides, Joannis G; Karakitsos, Petros

    2015-12-01

    For patients with invasive breast cancer, management decisions are informed by tumor grade according to the Nottingham Grading System (NGS), either on its own or as part of the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). A system retaining the nuclear grade element but substituting the two subjective components, mitosis count and tubule formation, of the NGS with a proliferation index based on Ki-67 (MIB-1) has been proposed (nuclear grade plus proliferation [N+P] grading). We validated the prognostic value of this grading system on a population of 322 women. N+P grading resulted in more grade I tumors (47.9% vs 4.5%) and fewer grade II (32% vs 51.5%) and grade III (20.1% vs 44%) tumors compared with NGS. The NPI calculated based on N+P grade had a similar association with survival (P < .001; odds ratio, 1.729) as the NPI calculated on the basis of the NGS grade (P < .001; odds ratio, 1.668). The N+P system seems equivalent to the NGS system. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  8. Clinical management of grade III oligodendroglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetti G

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available G Simonetti, P Gaviani, A Botturi, A Innocenti, E Lamperti, A Silvani Neurooncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy Abstract: Oligodendrogliomas represent the third most common type of glioma, comprising 4%–15% of all gliomas and can be classified by degree of malignancy into grade II and grade III, according to WHO classification. Only 30% of oligodendroglial tumors have anaplastic characteristics. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO is often localized as a single lesion in the white matter and in the cortex, rarely in brainstem or spinal cord. The management of AO is deeply changed in the recent years. Maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT was considered as the standard of care since paramount findings regarding molecular aspects, in particular co-deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19, revealed that these subsets of AO, benefit in terms of overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS, from the addition of chemotherapy to RT. Allelic losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q occur in 50%–70% of both low-grade and anaplastic tumors, representing a strong prognostic factor and a powerful predictor of prolonged survival. Several other molecular markers have potential clinical significance as IDH1 mutations, confirming the strong prognostic role for OS. Malignant brain tumors negatively impacts on patients' quality of life. Seizures, visual impairment, headache, and cognitive disorders can be present. Moreover, chemotherapy and RT have important side effects. For these reasons, “health-related quality of life” is becoming a topic of growing interest, investigating on physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. Understanding the impact of medical treatment on health-related quality of life will probably have a growing effect both on health care strategies and on patients. Keywords: anaplastic oligodendroglioma, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

  9. Clinical management of grade III oligodendroglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, G; Gaviani, P; Botturi, A; Innocenti, A; Lamperti, E; Silvani, A

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas represent the third most common type of glioma, comprising 4%–15% of all gliomas and can be classified by degree of malignancy into grade II and grade III, according to WHO classification. Only 30% of oligodendroglial tumors have anaplastic characteristics. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) is often localized as a single lesion in the white matter and in the cortex, rarely in brainstem or spinal cord. The management of AO is deeply changed in the recent years. Maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT) was considered as the standard of care since paramount findings regarding molecular aspects, in particular co-deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19, revealed that these subsets of AO, benefit in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), from the addition of chemotherapy to RT. Allelic losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q occur in 50%–70% of both low-grade and anaplastic tumors, representing a strong prognostic factor and a powerful predictor of prolonged survival. Several other molecular markers have potential clinical significance as IDH1 mutations, confirming the strong prognostic role for OS. Malignant brain tumors negatively impacts on patients’ quality of life. Seizures, visual impairment, headache, and cognitive disorders can be present. Moreover, chemotherapy and RT have important side effects. For these reasons, “health-related quality of life” is becoming a topic of growing interest, investigating on physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. Understanding the impact of medical treatment on health-related quality of life will probably have a growing effect both on health care strategies and on patients

  10. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  11. The Fracture Toughness of Nuclear Graphites Grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Erdman, III, Donald L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowden, Rick R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunter, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hannel, Cara C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    New measurements of graphite mode I critical stress intensity factor, KIc (commonly referred to as the fracture toughness) and the mode II critical shear stress intensity, KIIc, are reported and compared with prior data for KIc and KIIc. The new data are for graphite grades PCEA, IG-110 and 2114. Variations of KIc and acoustic emission (AE) data with graphite texture are reported and discussed. The Codes and Standards applications of fracture toughness, KIc, data are also discussed. A specified minimum value for nuclear graphite KIc is recommended.

  12. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...... size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect...

  13. Nondestructive Strength Grading of Structural Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kuklík

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the investigation of the use of non-destructive testing methods for the grading of structural timber and for the determination of the performance of structural timber elements. The investigations dealt with the ultrasonic method and the methods of longitudinal and transverse vibrations. The usability of these methods was verified at samples with the structural dimensions. The principle of the work lies in the search for statistic relationships between parameters characterising the timber quality (e.g. bending strength, modulus of elasticity and magnitudes measured by the above mentioned non-destructive testing methods (e.g. natural frequency, dynamic modulus of elasticity.

  14. STEADY DISBALANCE ASPECT IN POSITION GRADING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potascheva Galina Anatol’evna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the steady system disbalance from the standpoint of getting resources from the outside and Chaos (Entropy to Order transformation. It has been demonstrated that all live beings and the System reach for steadiness and effectiveness, which are essential properties and qualities of activities. Maintaining such properties and qualities in public life requires continuous life quality improvement of the population. One of the basic measures to ensure the life quality growth is distributing incomes using the Position Grading System.

  15. Modeling of dimensionally graded magnetoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, R. V.; Petrov, V. M.; Bichurin, M. I.; Zhou, Y.; Priya, S.

    2015-06-01

    The magnetoelectric behavior of a dual-phase dimensionally graded magnetostrictive-piezoelectric composite is modeled in this article. The cantilever is formed by piezoelectric macro-fiber composite bonded to a Ni cantilever. Theoretical estimates show a large magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 100 V/(cm Oe) at electromechanical resonance frequency. An additive effect was realized when an acceleration and magnetic field was applied to the structure simultaneously. Applied magnetic field of 10 Oe and shaker acceleration of 0.02 g induce the approximately equal output voltage of 20-35 V.

  16. [Diagnosis and grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamilia, C; Feichter, G; Tzankov, A; Obermann, E C

    2012-03-01

    Diagnosing and grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) are part of the routine practice of pathologists. However, discriminating between reactive changes and CIN1 and determining the different degrees of CIN may be challenging. Aim of this study was the evaluation of the proliferation markers Ki-67 and Mcm2 as well as p16 for their potential to aid in the assessment of CIN. 297 samples of normal epithelium, CIN1, CIN2, and CIN3 were assessed for expression of the above mentioned markers using tissue microarrays. There was an increase in the expression of Ki67 and Mcm2 from normal epithelium, CIN1, CIN2 to CIN3 (pneoplasia.

  17. Contemporary management of high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hao-Wen; Morgan, Erin R; Mason, Warren P

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gliomas, including glioblastoma, are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Despite intensive efforts to develop new therapies for these diseases, treatment options remain limited and prognosis is poor. Recently, there have been important advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of glioma, leading to refinements in our diagnostic and management approach. There is new evidence to guide the treatment of elderly patients. A multitude of new agents have been investigated, including targeted therapies, immunotherapeutics and tumor-treating fields. This review summarizes the key findings from this research, and presents a perspective on future opportunities to advance the field.

  18. New Method of Solar Grade Silicon Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadde, V. V.; Pinov, A. B.; Strebkov, D. S.; Belov, E. P.; Efimov, N. K.; Lebedev, E. N.; Korobkov, E. I.; Blake, D.; Touryan, K.

    2002-08-01

    One of the main advantages of photovoltaic solar cells (PVC) is their ecological clarity of direct conversion of solar energy to electricity. For wide spreading of PV technologies it is necessary to ensure that there is no environment pollution at the stage of PVC-s manufacturing, beginning from producing of polysilicon feedstock. The objective of this project is creation of ecologically clean method for production of solar grade polysilicon feedstock (SGPF) as raw material for PVCs, and also raw material for producing monocrystalline silicon, which is used in electronic industry.

  19. Graded coatings for metallic implant alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Fujino, Shigeru; Gomez-Vega, Jose M.

    2002-08-01

    Graded glass and glass-hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been prepared using a simple enameling technique. The composition of the glasses has been tailored to match the thermal expansion of the alloys. By controlling the firing time, and temperature, it has been possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25 to 150 mu m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate, resistant to corrosion and able to precipitate hydroxyapatite during in vitro tests in simulated body fluid.

  20. Improvement of ASME NH for Grade 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard Riou

    2007-10-09

    This report has been prepared in the context of Task 3 of the ASME/DOE Gen IV material project. It has been identified that creep-fatigue evaluation procedures presently available in ASME (1) and RCC-MR (2) have been mainly developed for austenitic stainless steels and may not be suitable for cyclic softening materials such as mod 9 Cr 1 Mo steel (grade 91). The aim of this document is, starting from experimental test results, to perform a review of the procedures and, if necessary, provide recommendations for their improvements.