Sample records for grade social science

  1. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades? (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew


    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  2. Map Resource Packet: Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven. (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This packet of maps is an auxiliary resource to the "World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven." The set includes: outline, precipitation, and elevation maps; maps for locating key places; landform maps; and historical maps. The list of maps are…

  3. Use of Jigsaw Technique to Teach the Unit "Science within Time" in Secondary 7th Grade Social Sciences Course and Students' Views on This Technique (United States)

    Yapici, Hakki


    The aim of this study is to apply the jigsaw technique in Social Sciences teaching and to unroll the effects of this technique on learning. The unit "Science within Time" in the secondary 7th grade Social Sciences text book was chosen for the research. It is aimed to compare the jigsaw technique with the traditional teaching method in…

  4. `Hard science': a career option for socially and societally interested students? Grade 12 students' vocational interest gap explored (United States)

    Struyf, Annemie; Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter


    A key theme in science education research concerns the decline in young peoples' interest in science and the need for professionals in hard science. Goal Congruity Theory posits that an important aspect of the decision whether to pursue hard science for study or as a career is the perception that hard science careers do not fulfil social (working with people) and societal (serving or helping others) interests. In this qualitative study, we explore grade 12 students' perceptions about the social and societal orientation of hard science careers. Furthermore, we investigate the variation in students' social and societal interests. Six focus groups were conducted with 58 grade 12 students in Flanders. Our results indicate that a number of students hold stereotypical views about hard science careers' social orientation, while others believe cooperation with others is an important aspect of hard science careers nowadays. Furthermore, our results show that students believe hard science careers can be societally oriented in the sense that they often associate them with innovation or societal progress. Finally, our results indicate that students may differentiate direct versus indirect societal orientation. These findings contribute to literature regarding social and societal interests and students' perceptions of hard science careers.

  5. Socially situated activities and identities: Second-grade dual language students and the social construction of science (United States)

    Bryce, Nadine

    Latina and Latino American students are among the lowest achievers in science, when compared to European and Asian American students, and are highly underrepresented in science careers. Studies suggested that a part of this problem is students' lack of access to science, due to their status as English language learners and their perceived status as deficient students. This study investigated the social construction of science in a second grade dual language urban classroom that offered bilingual students access to science, while positioning them as competent, capable learners. What participants valued in science was interpreted from their stated beliefs and attitudes, as well as their patterned ways of reading, writing, and talking. A bilingual European American teacher and three Latina and Latino focal students were observed over the course of 10 weeks, as they enacted a science unit, in English, on habitats. Science lessons were videotaped, documented with field notes, and transcribed. Interviews with the teacher and students were audiotaped and transcribed, and relevant curriculum documents, and teacher- and student-generated documents, copied. Gee's (1999) d/Discourse analysis system was applied to the transcripts of science lessons and interviews as a way to understand how participants used language to construct situated activities and identities in science. Curriculum documents were analyzed to understand the positioning of the teacher and students by identifying the situated activities and roles recommended. Students' nonfiction writing and published nonfiction texts were analyzed for linguistic structures, semantic relationships and conventions of science writing. Results indicated that the teacher drew on traditional and progressive pedagogical practices that shaped her and her students' science activities and situated identities. The teacher employed traditional talk strategies to build science themes, while students enacted their roles as compliant

  6. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education. (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  7. "Hard Science": A Career Option for Socially and Societally Interested Students? Grade 12 Students' Vocational Interest Gap Explored (United States)

    Struyf, Annemie; Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter


    A key theme in science education research concerns the decline in young peoples' interest in science and the need for professionals in hard science. Goal Congruity Theory posits that an important aspect of the decision whether to pursue hard science for study or as a career is the perception that hard science careers do not fulfil social (working…

  8. Values Education in 4th Grade Social Science Courses from the Perspectives of Teachers (United States)

    Turan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Eyüp


    In today's changing and developing world, the most important elements that enable people to live together in society are values. The education of such values start in the family and the social environment that they are in, from the moment a person is born and do continue in school as the child starts to study. Schools teach values to their…

  9. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications. (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  10. Teaching about Israel in the Seventh Grade: How It Relates to the History/Social Science Framework. (United States)

    Benson, Cecile


    Describes an eight-week unit on Israel for seventh graders and shows how the unit relates to the 1981 "California History/Social Science Framework." The unit introduces students to framework content goals in history and the humanities. Activities include journal writing, artifact building, archaeological simulations, and a geographical…

  11. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.


    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

  12. Perceptions of preparedness of LBS I teachers in the state of Illinois and graduates of Illinois State University's LBS I program to collaborate in teaching grade 7--12 math, science, and social science (United States)

    Caldwell, Janet E.

    The expectations for no child to be left behind are leading to increased emphasis on teaching math, science, and social science effectively to students with disabilities. This study utilized information collected from online surveys to examine how current LBS I teachers and individuals graduating from the Illinois State University teacher certification program in LBS I perceive their preparedness to teach these subjects. Participants provided information about coursework and life experiences, and they made suggestions about teacher preparation and professional development programs. Six key items forming the composite variable focused on level of preparation in (a) best practices, (b) selecting materials, (c) selecting objectives, (d) adapting instructional strategies, (e) planning lessons, and (f) and evaluating outcomes. Only 30 LBS I teachers of the 282 contacted by e-mail completed surveys. Of 115 graduates contacted, 71 participated in the original survey and 23 participated in a follow-up survey. Data were analyzed to learn more about the teachers' self-perceptions regarding preparedness to teach math, science, or social science. There was a correlation between perceived level of knowledge and the composite preparation variable for all subjects, but no correlation with length of teaching. Both groups indicated high school content courses were important in preparation to teach. Teachers also indicated collaboration and graduates indicated grade school learning. The most frequent recommendation for both teacher preparation and professional development was additional methods courses. A survey distributed to math, science, and social science teachers of Grades 7--12 asked about their perceptions of the preparedness of LBS I teachers to teach their area of content. Few surveys were completed for each subject so they were examined qualitatively. There was variability among participants, but generally the content area teachers rated themselves as more prepared than

  13. Social science that matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent


    Social science is headed down a dead end toward mere scientism, becoming a second-rate version of the hard sciences. We neeed to recognise and support a different kind of social science research - and so should those who demand accountability from researchers. This paper asks what kind of social...... science we - scholars, policy makers, administrators - should and should not promote in democratic societies, and how we may hold social scientists accountable to deliver what we ask them for....

  14. Social Work and Science (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah


    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  15. Evaluation of Life Sciences and Social Sciences Course Books in Term of Societal Sexuality (United States)

    Aykac, Necdet


    This study aims to evaluate primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books in terms of gender discrimination. This study is a descriptive study aiming to evaluate the primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books…

  16. Ghana and Mali. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.4. World History and Geography: Medieval Sub-Saharan Africa. California History-Social Science Course Models. (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.4 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. Seventh-grade students focus on the Niger River and the growth of the Mali and Ghana empires; analyze the importance…

  17. Medieval Japan. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.5. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models. (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.5 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of medieval Japan." Seventh-grade students describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the influence of these countries on Japan; discuss the reign of…

  18. Medieval Europe. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.6. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models. (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.6 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe." Seventh-grade students study the geography of Europe and the Eurasian land mass; describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and…

  19. Complementary Social Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Pedersen, Morten Axel


    of measurement device deployed. At the same time, however, we also expect new interferences and polyphonies to arise at the intersection of Big and Small Data, provided that these are, so to speak, mixed with care. These questions, we stress, are important not only for the future of social science methods......The rise of Big Data in the social realm poses significant questions at the intersection of science, technology, and society, including in terms of how new large-scale social databases are currently changing the methods, epistemologies, and politics of social science. In this commentary, we address...

  20. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew


    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  1. Social Dynamics of Science (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo


    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several ``science of science'' theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.

  2. Digital Social Science Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Michael; Lauersen, Christian Ulrich


    At the Faculty Library of Social Sciences (part of Copenhagen University Library) we are currently working intensely towards the establishment of a Digital Social Science Lab (DSSL). The purpose of the lab is to connect research, education and learning processes with the use of digital tools...... at the Faculty of Social Sciences. DSSL will host and facilitate an 80 m2 large mobile and intelligent study- and learning environment with a focus on academic events, teaching and collaboration. Besides the physical settings DSSL has two primary functions: 1. To implement relevant social scientific software...... and hardware at the disposal for students and staff at The Faculty of Social Sciences along with instruction and teaching in the different types of software, e.g. Stata, Nvivo, Atlas.ti, R Studio, Zotero and GIS-software. 2. To facilitate academic events focusing on use of digital tools and analytic software...

  3. Teaching Grade Eight Science with Reference to the Science Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasel Babu


    Full Text Available A mixed methodological approach was used to explore to what extent the science curriculum was being reflected in science teaching-learning of grade VIII students in Bangladesh. 160 students were randomly selected and 10 science teachers were purposively selected as study respondents. Fifteen science lessons were observed. Data were collected via student questionnaires, teacher interviews, and classroom observation checklists. Grade VIII science teaching-learning activities were not conducted according to the instructions of the science curriculum. Most teachers did not adhere to the curriculum and teacher's guide. Teachers mainly depended on lecture methods for delivering lessons. Learning by doing, demonstrating experiments, scientific inquiry, rational thinking, and analysing cause-effect relationships were noticeably absent. Teachers reported huge workloads and a lack of ingredients as reasons for not practising these activities. Teachers did not use teaching aids properly. Science teaching-learning was fully classroom centred, and students were never involved in any creative activities. 

  4. Philosophy of the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Kimelyev


    Full Text Available Philosophy of social science is a branch of philosophy where relations between philosophy and social sciences are traced and investigated. The main functions of philosophy of social science are: to work out social ontology, methodology and metatheory of social science.

  5. A Forgotten Social Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet


    The post–World War II era was one of great triumph for American linguists—and yet linguistics is all but absent from the historical literature on postwar social science. This paper aims to illuminate this curious situation: to understand its provenance, evaluate its merits, and contextualize...... of linguistics has led to a parallel isolation in the historical literature. Ultimately, this paper poses a pivotal and timely question: How is the postwar social science space construed within the existing historiographic framework, and how should it be construed in order to maximize understanding? I propose...... it broadly. I argue that the historiographic lacuna results from two factors: (1) the opt-out of linguists from the wider American social science community, and (2) historical-developmental and -orientational factors that stand linguistics apart from the social science mainstream. The resultant isolation...

  6. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI) (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov


    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized)…

  7. Risk in social science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zinn, Jens; Taylor-Gooby, Peter


    ... for control. Advances in social science improve understanding of how people perceive and prioritise risks, broaden awareness of the bearing of a range of other issues (trust, experience during the life course, democratic expectations) on people's capacity to manage risks, and facilitate exploration of the ways in which people communicate abo...

  8. Tabla de Especificaciones e Instructivo sobre Elaboracion de Pruebas Objetivas en la Ensenanza Primaria, para las asignaturas de Estudios Sociales, Idioma Espanol, Matematicas y Ciencias Naturales (Specification Tables and Instructions for the Construction of Objective Tests in the Primary Grades in Social Studies, Spanish, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences). (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Direccion de Bienestar Estudiantil y Educacion Especial.

    This booklet presents specification tables illustrating the relative importance given to topics on tests within a particular subject area. The general subject areas are social studies, Spanish, mathematics, and natural sciences. Tables are provided for final exams in each of these areas for several primary grades, illustrating the importance of…

  9. Science Teaching Methods Preferred by Grade 9 Students in Finland (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Uitto, Anna; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo


    Students find science relevant to society, but they do not find school science interesting. This survey study analyzes Finnish grade 9 students' actual experiences with science teaching methods and their preferences for how they would like to study science. The survey data were collected from 3,626 grade 9 students (1,772 girls and 1,832 boys)…

  10. Quantum social science

    CERN Document Server

    Haven, Emmanuel


    Written by world experts in the foundations of quantum mechanics and its applications to social science, this book shows how elementary quantum mechanical principles can be applied to decision-making paradoxes in psychology and used in modelling information in finance and economics. The book starts with a thorough overview of some of the salient differences between classical, statistical and quantum mechanics. It presents arguments on why quantum mechanics can be applied outside of physics and defines quantum social science. The issue of the existence of quantum probabilistic effects in psychology, economics and finance is addressed and basic questions and answers are provided. Aimed at researchers in economics and psychology, as well as physics, basic mathematical preliminaries and elementary concepts from quantum mechanics are defined in a self-contained way.

  11. Seventh-Grade Social Studies versus Social Meliorism (United States)

    Greiner, Jeff A.


    The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), in the state of North Carolina, has gone through considerable recent effort to revise, support, and assess their seventh-grade social studies curriculum in an effort to serve three goals: comply with the Common Core State Standards (Common Core), comply with the North Carolina Essential Standards…

  12. Information Science: Science or Social Science?


    Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.


    Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...

  13. Interactive whiteboards in third grade science instruction (United States)

    Rivers, Grier

    Strategies have been put into place to affect improvement in science achievement, including the use of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in science instruction. IWBs enable rich resources, appropriate pacing, and multimodal presentation of content deemed as best practices. Professional development experiences, use of resources, instructional practices, and changes in professional behavior in science teachers were recorded. Also recorded were differences in the engagement and motivation of students in IWB classrooms versus IWB-free classrooms and observed differences in students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration. Using a mixed-method research design quantitative data were collected to identify achievement levels of the target population on the assumption that all students, regardless of ability, will achieve greater mastery of science content in IWB classrooms. Qualitative data were collected through observations, interviews, videotapes, and a survey to identify how IWBs lead to increased achievement in third grade classrooms and to develop a record of teachers' professional practices, and students' measures of engagement and motivation. Comparative techniques determined whether science instruction is more effective in IWB classroom than in IWB-free classrooms. The qualitative findings concluded that, compared to science teachers who work in IWB-free settings, elementary science teachers who used IWBs incorporated more resources to accommodate learning objectives and the varied abilities and learning styles of their students. They assessed student understanding more frequently and perceived their classrooms as more collaborative and interactive. Furthermore, they displayed willingness to pursue professional development and employed different engagement strategies. Finally, teachers who used IWBs supported more instances of critical thinking and problem-solving. Quantitative findings concluded that students of all ability levels were more motivated

  14. Extensive Graded Reading in the Liberal Arts and Sciences (United States)

    Poulshock, Joseph


    For this research, learners did extensive graded reading (EGR) with traditional graded readers, and they also interacted with short graded stories in the liberal arts and sciences (LAS). This study describes the purpose and format of the LAS stories used by hundreds of university students and adult learners in Japan. It summarizes the results of…

  15. Who's Who in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. (United States)

    Norman, Colin


    Faculty members in social/behavioral science programs at the Universities of Chicago and California at Berkeley have been given the highest overall "grades" for quality by their academic peers in a survey published by the National Academy of Sciences. Includes scores for anthropology, geography, history, political science, psychology and sociology…

  16. Communicating science in social settings. (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A


    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

  17. Communicating science in social settings (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.


    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  18. Teacher Tweets Improve Achievement for Eighth Grade Science Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Van Vooren


    Full Text Available In the Digital Age teachers have fallen far behind the technical skills of their "digital native" students. The implementation of technology as a tool for classroom communication is foreign for most teachers, but highly preferred by students. While teenagers are using Facebook, Twitter, and other social networks to communicate, teachers continue to respond through face-to-face conversations, telephone calls, and email messaging. Twitter, a platform for short message service text, is an online social network site that allows users to send and receive messages using 140 characters or less called Tweets. To analyze the relationship of the teacher's use of Twitter with student academic achievement, a correlation study conducted by Bess collected data from two matched samples of eighth grade science students: one utilizing Twitter and one not utilizing Twitter to reinforce classroom instruction. Two tests matching the science standards were given to both samples of students. The results of the tests were used as primary data. The findings suggested a positive correlation between the use of Twitter and student performance on the standardized tests. Implications for this study indicate that young teenagers may prefer Twitter as a mode of communication with their teacher, resulting in higher academic achievement in a middle school science class.

  19. Social Anthropology and Social Science History (United States)


    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914

  20. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level (United States)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  1. Memorization techniques: Using mnemonics to learn fifth grade science terms (United States)

    Garcia, Juan O.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mnemonic instruction could assist students in learning fifth-grade science terminology more effectively than traditional-study methods of recall currently in practice The task was to examine if fifth-grade students were able to learn a mnemonic and then use it to understand science vocabulary; subsequently, to determine if students were able to remember the science terms after a period of time. The problem is that in general, elementary school students are not being successful in science achievement at the fifth grade level. In view of this problem, if science performance is increased at the elementary level, then it is likely that students will be successful when tested at the 8th and 10th grade in science with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in the future. Two research questions were posited: (1) Is there a difference in recall achievement when a mnemonic such as method of loci, pegword method, or keyword method is used in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary as compared to the traditional-study method? (2) If using a mnemonic in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary was effective on recall achievement, would this achievement be maintained over a span of time? The need for this study was to assist students in learning science terms and concepts for state accountability purposes. The first assumption was that memorization techniques are not commonly applied in fifth-grade science classes in elementary schools. A second assumption was that mnemonic devices could be used successfully in learning science terms and increase long term retention. The first limitation was that the study was conducted on one campus in one school district in South Texas which limited the generalization of the study. The second limitation was that it included random assigned intact groups as opposed to random student assignment to fifth-grade classroom groups.

  2. Performative Social Science and Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gergen


    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of "Performative Social Science," which is defined as the deployment of different forms of artistic performance in the execution of a scientific project. Such forms may include art, theater, poetry, music, dance, photography, fiction writing, and multi-media applications. Performative research practices are in their developmental stage, with most of the major work appearing in the last two decades. Frequently based on a social constructionist metatheory, supporters reject a realist, or mapping view of representation, and explore varieties of expressive forms for constructing worlds relevant to the social sciences. The performative orientation often relies on a dramaturgical approach that encompasses value-laden, emotionally charged topics and presentations. Social scientists invested in social justice issues and political perspectives have been especially drawn to this approach. Performative social science invites productive collaborations among various disciplinary fields and between the sciences and arts. URN:

  3. Physics Laws of Social Science


    Wayne, James J.


    Economics, and other fields of social science are often criticized as unscientific for their apparent failures to formulate universal laws governing human societies. Whether economics is truly a science is one of the oldest questions. This paper attempts to create such universal laws, and asserts that economics is a branch of quantum physics just like chemistry. Choice is a central concept in economics and other fields of social science, yet there is no corresponding concept of choice in mode...

  4. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research (United States)

    Rand, Jane


    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  5. Instructional quality of lower grades natural science classes: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... classes: the case of primary schools linked to Kemise College of Teacher Education. ... the quality of natural science education classroom instruction in lower grade ... on pedagogical and subject matter issue, closer support and supervision.

  6. Newspapers in Science Education: A Study Involving Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Lai, Ching-San; Wang, Yun-Fei


    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning performance of sixth grade elementary school students using newspapers in science teaching. A quasi-experimental design with a single group was used in this study. Thirty-three sixth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The research instruments consisted of three…

  7. Comparisons between students' learning achievements of their conventional instruction and the science, technology and social conceptual instructional design on digestion system issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level (United States)

    Wichalek, Supattra; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul


    The purposes of this action research study were 1) to develop learning activities according to the instructional designing model of science, technology, and social (STS) on Digestion Issue, 2) to compare students' learning achievements between their learning activities with the conventional instructional (CIM) and conceptual instructional designing methods of science, technology, and social (STS) on digestion system of secondary students at the 10th grade level with a sample size of 35 experimental student group of their STS learning method, and 91 controlling group in two classes in the first semester in academic year 2016. Using the 4-Instructional Innovative Lesson Plans, the Students' Learning Behaviour Observing Form, the Questionnaire on Teacher Behaviour Interaction (QTBI), the Researcher's Recording Form, the Learning Activity Form, and the Parallel Learning Achievement Test (LAT) were assessed. The results of this research have found that; the Index of Item Objective Congruence (IOC) value ranged from 0.67 to 1.00; the difficulty values were 0.47 and 0.79 for the CIM and STS methods, respectively, the discriminative validity for the LAT was ranged from 0.20 to 0.75. The reliability of the QTBI was 0.79. Students' responses of their learning achievements with the average means scores indicted of the normalized gain values of 0.79 for the STS group, and 0.50 and 0.36 for the CIM groups, respectively. Students' learning achievements of their post-test indicated that of a higher than pre-test, the pre-test and post-test assessments were also differentiated evidence at the 0.05 levels for the STS and CIM groups, significantly. The 22-students' learning outcomes from the STS group evidences at a high level, only of the 9-students' responses in a moderate level were developed of their learning achievements, responsibility.

  8. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.


    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During…

  9. Science's social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil


    like Science in the City in which the science institutions communicate and discuss science with interested citizens. It can be done in relation to strategic plans: solving medical, environmental, socio-political problems for which the state or commercial actors provide funding. But it can also be what...... this is kind of funny, it has some kind of serious core to it in that part of science responsibility to society is to figure out the meaning of the questions that we want to pose – and furthermore: which questions can be asked. Doing this may not be limited to short-term processes, to strategic considerations...

  10. Mapping "Social Responsibility" in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Maja; Glerup, Cecilie

    The paper investigates the discourse on social responsibility in science as it appears in academic journals. Through database searches a collection of more than 300 papers have been analysed in order to map their answers to the following three questions: - What is the central problem that threatens...... responsibility in science? - What are the central aspects of science or its relation to society that need to be regulated or changed? - What kinds of solutions are imagined and how are these solutions supposed to be put into place? On this basis the paper explores how different interpretations of the notion...... of social responsibility of science imply different forms of governance of and within science. The paper employs a Foucaldian discourse analysis to understand how a particular conceptualisation of responsibility implies a political rationality, i.e. a particular form of governance of science. The analysis...

  11. The Behavioral and Social Sciences. (United States)

    Simon, Herbert A.


    This article reviews some recent technical progress in the social sciences and three frontier areas including evolutionary theory as related to sociobiology, the theory of human rational choice, and cognitive science. These areas offer explanations for broad areas of human behavior. (Author/SA)

  12. Effects of an intensive middle school science experience on the attitude toward science, self-esteem, career goal orientation, and science achievement of eighth-grade female students (United States)

    Williams, Tammy Kay

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.

  13. Contextualizing Social Science in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Raj Dahal


    Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the

  14. Social Status Profiles among First Grade Children (United States)

    Acquah, Emmanuel O.; Palonen, Tuire; Lehtinen, Erno; Laine, Kaarina


    The focus of our study is social status among first graders. In particular, we will consider the relationship between acceptance and rejection, and how these are connected to three social behavioral traits: bullying, victimization, and social withdrawal. The data set is from peer nominations of 748 children from 49 classrooms in the southwest of…

  15. Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G


    In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised.

  16. Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.


    In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised

  17. Pluralizing social science


    Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus


    The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations (C of I) was not a book that I had any long-standing plans to write. The manuscript did, however, grow out of two related and long-standing frustrations that I had with discussions in Political Science in general and International Relations in particular about research design, causation, and the basic contours of knowledge-production. First of all, people seemed to invariably conflate questions of method or technique with questions of methodol...

  18. Time representations in social science. (United States)

    Schulz, Yvan


    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

  19. Poster "Maladies rares & sciences sociales"


    Duysens, Fanny


    Le poster "Maladies rares & sciences sociales" visait à présenter la recherche doctorale de l'auteure au grand public dans le cadre de la Journée des Maladies Rares du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège dont le thème était "la recherche sur les maladies rares". Réalisé spécialement pour l'occasion, le poster explicitait de manière synthétique le sujet de recherche, la méthodologie, certains résultats, ainsi que les apports possibles des échanges entre chercheurs en sciences et sociales...

  20. Grade six students' understanding of the nature of science (United States)

    Cochrane, Donald Brian

    The goal of scientific literacy requires that students develop an understanding of the nature of science to assist them in the reasoned acquisition of science concepts and in their future role as citizens in a participatory democracy. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the range of positions that grade six students hold with respect to the nature of science and to investigate whether gender or prior science education was related to students' views of the nature of science. Two grade six classes participated in this study. One class was from a school involved in a long-term elementary science curriculum project. The science curriculum at this school involved constructivist epistemology and pedagogy and a realist ontology. The curriculum stressed hands-on, open-ended activities and the development of science process skills. Students were frequently involved in creating and testing explanations for physical phenomena. The second class was from a matched school that had a traditional science program. Results of the study indicated that students hold a wider range of views of the nature of science than previously documented. Student positions ranged from having almost no understanding of the nature of science to those expressing positions regarding the nature of science that were more developed than previous studies had documented. Despite the range of views documented, all subjects held realist views of scientific knowledge. Contrary to the literature, some students were able to evaluate a scientific theory in light of empirical evidence that they had generated. Results also indicated that students from the project school displayed more advanced views of the nature of science than their matched peers. However, not all students benefited equally from their experiences. No gender differences were found with respect to students' understanding of the nature of science.

  1. University Rankings and Social Science (United States)

    Marginson, Simon


    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  2. Navigating middle grades: role of social contexts in middle grade school climate. (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Schwartz, Kate; Cappella, Elise; Seidman, Edward


    During early adolescence, most public school students undergo school transitions, and many students experience declines in academic performance and social-emotional well-being. Theories and empirical research have highlighted the importance of supportive school environments in promoting positive youth development during this period of transition. Despite this, little is known about the proximal social and developmental contexts of the range of middle grade public schools US students attend. Using a cross-sectional dataset from the eighth grade wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-1999, the current study examines the middle grade school social context from the perspectives of administrators and teachers in public schools with typical grade configurations (k-8 schools, middle schools, and junior high schools) and how it relates to students' perceptions of school climate. We find that administrators and teachers in k-8 schools perceive a more positive school social context, controlling for school structural and demographic characteristics. This school social context, in turn, is associated with students' perceptions of their schools' social and academic climate. Implications for educational policy and practice are discussed.

  3. Science teacher orientations and PCK across science topics in grade 9 earth science (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Goodwin, Dawne


    While the literature is replete with studies examining teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), few studies have investigated how science teacher orientations (STOs) shape classroom instruction. Therefore, this research explores the interplay between a STOs and the topic specificity of PCK across two science topics within a grade 9 earth science course. Through interviews and observations of one teacher's classroom across two sequentially taught, this research contests the notion that teachers hold a single way of conceptualising science teaching and learning. In this, we consider if multiple ontologies can provide potential explanatory power for characterising instructional enactments. In earlier work with the teacher in this study, using generic interview prompts and general discussions about science teaching and learning, we accepted the existence of a unitary STO and its promise of consistent reformed instruction in the classroom. However, upon close examination of instruction focused on different science topics, evidence was found to demonstrate the explanatory power of multiple ontologies for shaping characteristically different epistemological constructions across science topics. This research points to the need for care in generalising about teacher practice, as it reveals that a teacher's practice, and orientation, can vary, dependent on the context and science topics taught.

  4. Mapping 'Social Responsibility' in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja


    This article employs the Foucauldian notion of ‘political rationality’ to map discussions and ideals about the responsibility of science toward society. By constructing and analyzing an archive of 263 journal papers, four political rationalities were identified: the Demarcation rationality, which......, which insists that responsible science should live up to public demands for innovation and democracy; and the Integration rationality, which advocates that science should be co-constructed with societal actors in order to be socially responsible. While each rationality is distinct, the article argues...... that all of them address the issue of a boundary (or integration) between science and society. Hence, it is not possible for scientists to avoid ‘a relationship’ with society. The political question is how this relationship is to be defined and regulated....

  5. Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation (United States)

    Gomez, Kimberley


    This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

  6. Using WebQuests in the Social Sciences Classroom (United States)

    Kachina, Olga A.


    This article investigates if WebQuests have been an effective instructional tool for teaching Social Sciences subjects. In order to obtain an answer to this question, a review of scholarly literature from 1995 to the present has been undertaken and action research in 8th grade U.S. history course was conducted. The literature investigation has…

  7. Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guides for Social Studies, English, Science, Mathematics. (United States)

    MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice

    These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…

  8. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Socialism. Grade Ten, Unit Two, 10.2. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City. (United States)

    Malone, Helen

    The socialism unit of the tenth grade level of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) explores a selected history of socialist thought and the theoretical model of socialism. Three case studies of socialism are explored: Great Britain, Sweden, and Israel. The case studies are designed to answer questions concerning…

  10. Achievement of Serbian eighth grade students in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Radovan


    Full Text Available The paper considers the main results and some educational implications of the TIMSS 2003 assessment conducted in Serbia in the fields of the science achievement of Serbian eighth grade students and the science curriculum context of their achievement. There were 4264 students in the sample. It was confirmed that Serbian eighth graders had made average scale score of 468 points in the science, and with this achievement they are placed in the zone of the top of low international benchmarking level, very close to the point of intermediate benchmark. The average science achievement of the Serbian eighth graders is somewhat below the general international science achievement. The best results were achieved in the science content domain of "chemistry", and the lower results in the content domain of "environmental science". Across the defined science cognitive domains, it was confirmed that the Serbian students had achieved the best results in cognitive domain of "factual knowledge" and weaker results in "reasoning and analysis". The achieved results raise many questions about contents of the science curriculum in Serbia, its overall quality and basic characteristics of its implementation. These results can be eligibly used to improve the science curricula and teaching in Serbian primary school. .

  11. Social Sciences and Space Exploration (United States)


    The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

  12. Science, Society, and Social Networking (United States)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.


    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website ( These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (, Working with Congress ( and Science Careers ( also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  13. University Rankings and Social Science


    Marginson, S.


    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real outputs are of no common value. It is necessary that rankings be soundly based in scientific terms if a virtuous relationship between performance and...

  14. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation. (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo


    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  15. An Investigation of Science and Technology Teachers’ Views on the 5th Grade Science Course


    İkramettin Daşdemir


    This study was conducted to explore the science and technology teachers’ views on the implementation of 5th grade science course. Open-ended questions were used as a data collection tool. The study sample consisted of 28 science and technology teachers working in Erzurum in 2012-2013 education year. The data gathered were analysed via content analysis method. According to the results obtained from the open-ended questions, a great majority of science and technology teache...

  16. Enacting the social relations of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt


    This article investigates the writings of Danish science journalist Børge Michelsen from 1939 to 1956. As part of the international social relations of science movement in the period, Michelsen transformed science journalism from mere reporting on issues pertaining to science into performing...... the social function of science journalism: advancing and enacting the social relations of science. Based on analyses of Michelsen's articles and other initiatives, this study suggests that the social function of science journalism practiced by Michelsen showed many new and conflicting aspects. From...... new links to reinforce mutual relations between scientists and policy-makers, between scientists and journalists, and between science and the public. Finally, in the concluding remarks, the contemporary significance of Michelsen's social function of science journalism is discussed....

  17. Performance in grade 12 mathematics and science predicts student nurses' performance in first year science modules at a university in the Western Cape. (United States)

    Mthimunye, Katlego D T; Daniels, Felicity M


    The demand for highly qualified and skilled nurses is increasing in South Africa as well as around the world. Having a background in science can create a significant advantage for students wishing to enrol for an undergraduate nursing qualification because nursing as profession is grounded in scientific evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. A quantitative research method using a cross-sectional predictive design was employed in this study. The participants included first year Bachelor of Nursing students enrolled at a university in the Western Cape, South Africa. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to analyse the data by using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences versions 24. Descriptive analysis of all variables was performed as well as the Spearman's rank correlation test to describe the relationship among the study variables. Standard multiple linear regressions analysis was performed to determine the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. The results of this study showed that grade 12 physical science is not a significant predictor (p > 0.062) of performance in first year science modules. The multiple linear regression revealed that grade 12 mathematics and life science grades explained 37.1% to 38.1% (R2 = 0.381 and adj R2 = 0.371) of the variation in the first year science grade distributions. Based on the results of the study it is evident that performance in grade 12 mathematics (β = 2.997) and life science (β = 3.175) subjects is a significant predictor (p < 0.001) of the performance in first year science modules for student nurses at the university identified for this study.

  18. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health. (United States)

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R; Brown, Phil


    Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science-environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social science collaboration with environmental health. Environ Health

  19. African American eighth-grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy (United States)

    Crim, Sharan R.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) reports an achievement gap between male and female students and majority and minority students in science literacy. Rutherford and Algren (2000) describe a scientifically literate person as one who is aware that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent human enterprises with strengths and limitations; understands key concepts and principles of science; is familiar with the natural world and recognizes both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to investigate African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy. A social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1977) served as a guide for the researcher. Two questions were explored: (1) What are African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy? (2) In what ways do the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students influence their learning of science literacy? Purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998) was used with four African American eighth grade female students selected as participants for the study. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and August in a single year. Data sources included an open-ended questionnaire, two in-depth interviews with each participant (Seidman, 1991); classroom observations, participant reflective journals, student artifacts, and a researcher's log. Data were analyzed through the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and richly descriptive participant portraits and qualitative case studies (Merriam, 1998) were used to report the findings. Three themes emerged from the study that positively affected the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students as

  20. Grade 7 students' normative decision making in science learning about global warming through science technology and society (STS) approach (United States)

    Luengam, Piyanuch; Tupsai, Jiraporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai


    This study reported Grade 7 students' normative decision making in teaching and learning about global warming through science technology and society (STS) approach. The participants were 43 Grade 7 students in Sungkom, Nongkhai, Thailand. The teaching and learning about global warming through STS approach had carried out for 5 weeks. The global warming unit through STS approach was developed based on framework of Yuenyong (2006) that consisted of five stages including (1) identification of social issues, (2) identification of potential solutions, (3) need for knowledge, (4) decision-making, and (5) socialization stage. Students' normative decision making was collected during their learning by questionnaire, participant observation, and students' tasks. Students' normative decision making were analyzed from both pre-and post-intervention and students' ideas during the intervention. The aspects of normative include influences of global warming on technology and society; influences of values, culture, and society on global warming; and influences of technology on global warming. The findings revealed that students have chance to learn science concerning with the relationship between science, technology, and society through their giving reasons about issues related to global warming. The paper will discuss implications of these for science teaching and learning through STS in Thailand.

  1. Examining Social Studies and Science and Technology Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs Regarding Different Variables (United States)

    Topkaya, Yavuz


    The purpose of this study is to determine epistemological beliefs of pre-service teachers who attend social studies and science and technology teaching programs; and to investigate how these beliefs varies regarding grade level, gender and departments. The sample of the study is composed of 300 social studies, 260 science and technology…

  2. Social Science Curriculum Guide and Selected Multi-Media, K-6. (United States)

    Gaydosh, Ronald; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Social science. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material includes an explanation of the rationale, definitions of the social science core disciplines, glossary of terms, guidelines for teaching, and descriptions of concepts. The main body of the guide is designed in a five-column…

  3. [Information flow between medical and social sciences]. (United States)

    Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó


    In order to reveal impacts of natural and social sciences on each other, the authors examined connections between fields of medical and social sciences using a search for references and citations of scientific publication. 1. The largest affinity between the medical and social sciences was found between neurosciences and psychology, but there was a significant affinity between clinical sciences and general social sciences, as well. 2. The example of General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes" suggests that in the period 2001-2010 the share of references to social sciences was significantly increased. In the meantime, social science papers in the same topics contained references to Clinical Medicine papers in a constantly high percentage. 3. In the sample under study, the age distribution of social science papers in the references did not differ significantly from that of the other sources. 4. Share of references to social science papers was found to be extremely high among Hungarian General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes". This finding still requires clarification, nevertheless, since e.g. it was not supported by an institutional comparison including the largest Hungarian medical research university. 5. The intensity of the reference/citation mediated information flows between the Hungarian Medical Journal, Orvosi Hetilap and social sciences appears to be in accordance with the current international trends.

  4. Imaginative methodologies in the social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imaginative Methodologies develops, expands and challenges conventional social scientific methodology and language by way of literary, poetic and other alternative sources of inspiration. Sociologists, social workers, anthropologists, criminologists and psychologists all try to rethink, provoke...... and reignite social scientific methodology. Imaginative Methodologies challenges the mainstream social science methodological orthodoxy closely guarding the boundaries between the social sciences and the arts and humanities, pointing out that authors and artists are often engaged in projects parallel to those...... of the social sciences and vice versa, and that artistic and cultural productions today do not constitute a specialist field, but are integral to our social reality. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in the social sciences and across the arts and humanities working with questions...

  5. Ninth Grade Student Responses to Authentic Science Instruction (United States)

    Ellison, Michael Steven

    This mixed methods case study documents an effort to implement authentic science and engineering instruction in one teacher's ninth grade science classrooms in a science-focused public school. The research framework and methodology is a derivative of work developed and reported by Newmann and others (Newmann & Associates, 1996). Based on a working definition of authenticity, data were collected for eight months on the authenticity in the experienced teacher's pedagogy and in student performance. Authenticity was defined as the degree to which a classroom lesson, an assessment task, or an example of student performance demonstrates construction of knowledge through use of the meaning-making processes of science and engineering, and has some value to students beyond demonstrating success in school (Wehlage et al., 1996). Instruments adapted for this study produced a rich description of the authenticity of the teacher's instruction and student performance. The pedagogical practices of the classroom teacher were measured as moderately authentic on average. However, the authenticity model revealed the teacher's strategy of interspersing relatively low authenticity instructional units focused on building science knowledge with much higher authenticity tasks requiring students to apply these concepts and skills. The authenticity of the construction of knowledge and science meaning-making processes components of authentic pedagogy were found to be greater, than the authenticity of affordances for students to find value in classroom activities beyond demonstrating success in school. Instruction frequently included one aspect of value beyond school, connections to the world outside the classroom, but students were infrequently afforded the opportunity to present their classwork to audiences beyond the teacher. When the science instruction in the case was measured to afford a greater level of authentic intellectual work, a higher level of authentic student performance on

  6. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.L.


    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  7. International Conference on Data Science & Social Research

    CERN Document Server

    Amaturo, Enrica; Grassia, Maria; Aragona, Biagio; Marino, Marina


    This edited volume lays the groundwork for Social Data Science, addressing epistemological issues, methods, technologies, software and applications of data science in the social sciences. It presents data science techniques for the collection, analysis and use of both online and offline new (big) data in social research and related applications. Among others, the individual contributions cover topics like social media, learning analytics, clustering, statistical literacy, recurrence analysis and network analysis. Data science is a multidisciplinary approach based mainly on the methods of statistics and computer science, and its aim is to develop appropriate methodologies for forecasting and decision-making in response to an increasingly complex reality often characterized by large amounts of data (big data) of various types (numeric, ordinal and nominal variables, symbolic data, texts, images, data streams, multi-way data, social networks etc.) and from diverse sources. This book presents selected papers from...

  8. Social Media, Open Science, and Data Science Are Inextricably Linked. (United States)

    Voytek, Bradley


    Should scientists use social media? Why practice open science? What is data science? Ten years ago, these phrases hardly existed. Now they are ubiquitous. Here I argue that these phenomena are inextricably linked and reflect similar underlying social and technological transformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Teaching 5th grade science for aesthetic understanding (United States)

    Girod, Mark A.

    Many scientists speak with great zeal about the role of aesthetics and beauty in their science and inquiry. Few systematic efforts have been made to teach science in ways that appeal directly to aesthetics and this research is designed to do just that. Drawing from the aesthetic theory of Dewey, I describe an analytic lens called learning for aesthetic understanding that finds power in the degree to which our perceptions of the world are transformed, our interests and enthusiasm piqued, and our actions changed as we seek further experiences in the world. This learning theory is contrasted against two other current and popular theories of science learning, that of learning for conceptual understanding via conceptual change theory and learning for a language-oriented or discourse-based understanding. After a lengthy articulation of the pedagogical strategies used to teach for aesthetic understanding the research is described in which comparisons are drawn between students in two 5th grade classrooms---one taught for the goal of conceptual understanding and the other taught for the goal of aesthetic understanding. Results of this comparison show that more students in the treatment classroom had aesthetic experiences with science ideas and came to an aesthetic understanding when studying weather, erosion, and structure of matter than students in the control group. Also statistically significant effects are shown on measures of interest, affect, and efficacy for students in the treatment class. On measures of conceptual understanding it appears that treatment class students learned more and forgot less over time than control class students. The effect of the treatment does not generally depend on gender, ethnicity, or prior achievement except in students' identity beliefs about themselves as science learners. In this case, a significant interaction for treatment class females on science identity beliefs did occur. A discussion of these results as well as elaboration and


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    subject to a series of rigorous testing, self-scrutiny and the verification of facts as ... the social sciences cannot be subject to such tests and verification. The social sciences ... until such a time when that hypothesis or theory is scrutinized and.

  11. Science Textbooks' Use of Graphical Representation: A Descriptive Analysis of Four Sixth Grade Science Texts (United States)

    Slough, Scott W.; McTigue, Erin M.; Kim, Suyeon; Jennings, Susan K.


    Middle school teachers tend to rely heavily on texts that have become increasing more visual. There is little information available about the graphical demands of general middle grades' science texts. The purpose of this study was to quantify the type and quality of the graphical representations and how they interacted with the textual material in…

  12. Introduction to the Social Sciences: Teacher's Manual. (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.; Spangehl, Stephen D.

    A competency-based, introductory social science course for college students is described. Objectives of the manual are twofold--first, to present the complete set of materials which have served as the basis of a one semester social sciences course at the University of Louisville over three years, and, second, to offer suggestions regarding…

  13. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  14. The Courts, Social Science, and School Desegregation. (United States)

    Levin, Betsy, Ed.; Hawley, Willis D., Ed.

    A conference on the courts, social science, and school desegregation attempted to clarify how social science research has been used and possibly misused in school desegregation litigation. The symposium issue addressed in this book is a product of that conference. First, the judicial evolution of the law of school desegregation from Brown V. the…

  15. The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science. (United States)

    Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M


    Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.

  16. Personality traits predicting children's social behaviour in the first grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Horvat


    Full Text Available The paper presents concurrent predictive relations of personality traits with social behaviour of children at the transition from early to middle childhood. Personality ratings of firstgraders (N = 316 were collected using the Inventory of Child and Adolescent Individual Differences (Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and the Social Competence and Behaviour Evaluation Scale (La Freniere et al., 2001 was employed to obtain assessments on the children's social competence, internalizing behaviour, and externalizing behaviour. To account for the same rater bias, the children's personality and social behaviour were rated by both teachers and assisstent teachers in the first grade of a nine-year compulsory school; the predictions were based on two sets of their cross-ratings. The firstgraders' social competentnce was consistently (over the cross-ratings predicted by high conscientiousness, mainly due to ratings of child compliance, whereas low conscientiousness was predictive of internalizing behaviour, especially due to low ratings of subjectively perceived child intelligence. Disagreeableness (both antagonism and strong will and low neuroticism contributed to assessments of the observed children's externalizing behaviour. In regard to neuroticism, ratings of child fear/insecurity were positively related to externalizing and ratings of child shyness were negatively associated with the observed incidence of externalizing behaviour.

  17. Social science in the Cold War. (United States)

    Engerman, David C


    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  18. You and Man in the Western World. A Cultural Approach. Eighth Grade Social Studies. (United States)

    Parsippany - Troy Hills Board of Education, Parsippany, NJ.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 8. SUBJECT MATTER: Social Studies--You and Man in the Western World. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide contains five units: 1) cultural orientation; 2) social studies dimensions in Western Europe; 3) social studies dimensions in Eastern Europe and Soviet Union; 4) social studies dimensions in Latin America; and…

  19. Applied modelling and computing in social science

    CERN Document Server

    Povh, Janez


    In social science outstanding results are yielded by advanced simulation methods, based on state of the art software technologies and an appropriate combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This book presents examples of successful applications of modelling and computing in social science: business and logistic process simulation and optimization, deeper knowledge extractions from big data, better understanding and predicting of social behaviour and modelling health and environment changes.

  20. Applied Computational Mathematics in Social Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Damaceanu, Romulus-Catalin


    Applied Computational Mathematics in Social Sciences adopts a modern scientific approach that combines knowledge from mathematical modeling with various aspects of social science. Special algorithms can be created to simulate an artificial society and a detailed analysis can subsequently be used to project social realities. This Ebook specifically deals with computations using the NetLogo platform, and is intended for researchers interested in advanced human geography and mathematical modeling studies.

  1. The effects of school policies and practices on eighth-grade science achievement: A multilevel analysis of TIMSS (United States)

    Smyth, Carol Ann Mary

    Identifying the relative importance of both alterable school policies and fairly stable contextual factors as they relate to middle level science achievement, a domain of identified national concern, requires simultaneous investigation of multilevel predictors (i.e., student level and school level) specific to the grade level and academic subject area. The school level factors are predictors associated with both the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status, tracking, and instructional time) and the classroom (e.g., average academic press of peers, teacher collaboration, and instructional strategies). The current study assessed the effects of school policies, practices, and contextual factors on the science achievement of eighth grade students. These influences were considered to be both additive (i.e., influencing the mean achievement in a school after controlling for student characteristics) and interactive (i.e., affecting the relationships between student background characteristics and individual achievement). To account for the nested structure of predictors and cross level interactions among predictors, a multilevel model for middle level science achievement was estimated using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) with data collected from eighth grade students, science teachers, and administrators in 1995 as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The major findings of this research suggest that although average eighth grade science achievement in a school was primarily associated with the contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status and average academic press), both the academic differentiating influence of prior achievement and the social differentiating influence of parental education on the science achievement of eighth grade students were related not only to contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school, but also to the instructional policies of the classroom

  2. Trimodernism and Social Sciences: A Note (United States)

    Snell, Joel C.


    The issues of premodern, modern, and postmodern can often confuse the social scientists because so much is drawn from modernism as the foundation of the social methodologies. Briefly, the author would like to differentiate the three modernism philosophies and indicate how a coalition of the three may apply to social sciences.

  3. Social Work Science and Knowledge Utilization (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena


    Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…

  4. Community centrality and social science research. (United States)

    Allman, Dan


    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  5. Social Validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the Primary Grades (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-Wa


    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings…

  6. An emerging action science of social settings. (United States)

    Seidman, Edward


    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  7. Social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the primary grades. (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa


    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings indicated that teachers generally perceived the SSIS-CIP as a socially valid and feasible intervention for primary grades; however, teachers' ratings regarding ease of implementation and relevance and sequence demonstrated differences across grade levels in the second year of implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science. (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C


    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues.

  9. Employment & the Unity of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus


    Full Text Available Employment and the unity of social sciences are discussed. The paper argues that employment is the simplest and the best indicator of human-centered sustainable and secure development.

  10. The Social Science of Carl von Clausewitz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klinger, Janeen


    .... At the risk of adding to the veritable cottage industry of distortion, this article attempts to add conceptual clarity by demonstrating that Clausewitz was formulating a social science approach...

  11. Directory of Research in Social Studies/Social Sciences. (United States)

    Barret, Anna R.; Carnett, George S.

    Described are current trends in the social and behavioral sciences intended to meet the needs of the educational community. The projects listed include studies in anthropology, sociology, political science, history, geography, foreign area studies, economics, international relations, and environmental education. Part I of the directory lists…

  12. The aurora, Mars, and more! Increasing science content in elementary grades through art and literacy programs in earth and space science (United States)

    Renfrow, S.; Wood, E. L.


    Although reading, writing, and math examinations are often conducted early in elementary school, science is not typically tested until 4th or 5th grade. The result is a refocus on the tested topics at the expense of the untested ones, despite that standards exist for each topic at all grades. On a national level, science instruction is relegated to a matter of a few hours per week. A 2007 Education Policy study states that elementary school students spend an average of 178 minutes a week on science while spending 500 minutes on literacy. A recent NSTA report in July of elementary and middle school teachers confirms that teachers feel pressured to teach math and literacy at the expense of other programs. One unintended result is that teachers in grades where science is tested must play catch-up with students for them to be successful on the assessment. A unique way to combat the lack of science instruction at elementary grades is to combine literacy, social studies, and math into an integrated science program, thereby increasing the number of science contact hours. The Dancing Lights program, developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, is a science, art, and literacy program about the aurora designed to easily fit into a typical 3rd-5th grade instructional day. It mirrors other successful literacy programs and will provide a basis for the literacy program being developed for the upcoming MAVEN mission to Mars. We will present early findings, as well as "lessons learned" during our development and implementation of the Dancing Lights program and will highlight our goals for the MAVEN mission literacy program.

  13. International Conference "Social Sciences: Achievements and Prospects"


    Open European Academy of Public Sciences


    The Organizing Committee of the International Scientific and Practical Conference of the Open European Academy of Social Sciences(Spain, Barcelona), in partnership with the Barcelona University (Spain, Barcelona), the Berlin University (Germany, Berlin) Conference sections: Anthropology, Demography and Ethnography, Journalism, Art History and Culturology History and archeology, Political science, Psychology, Pedagogy Regional studies and socio-economic geography, Relig...

  14. Scientific Competencies in the Social Sciences (United States)

    Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit


    The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…

  15. Research on same-gender grouping in eighth-grade science classrooms (United States)

    Friend, Jennifer Ingrid

    This study examined two hypotheses related to same-gender grouping of eighth-grade science classes in a public middle-school setting in suburban Kansas City. The first hypothesis, male and female students enrolled in same-gender eighth-grade science classes demonstrate more positive science academic achievement than their male and female peers enrolled in mixed-gender science classes. The second hypothesis, same-gender grouping of students in eighth-grade science has a positive effect on classroom climate. The participants in this study were randomly assigned to class sections of eighth-grade science. The first experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-male students (n = 20) taught by a male science teacher. The control group used for comparison to the male same-gender class consisted of the male students (n = 42) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same male teacher. The second experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-female students (n = 23) taught by a female science teacher. The control group for the female same-gender class consisted of female students (n = 61) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same female teacher. The male teacher and the female teacher did not vary instruction for the same-gender and mixed-gender classes. Science academic achievement was measured for both groups through a quantitative analysis using grades on science classroom assessment and overall science course grades. Classroom climate was measured through qualitative observations and through qualitative and quantitative analysis of a twenty-question student survey administered at the end of each trimester grading period. The results of this study did not indicate support for either hypothesis. Data led to the conclusions that same-gender grouping did not produce significant differences in student science academic achievement, and that same-gender classes did not create a more positive

  16. Girls Doing Science: A Case Study of Science Literacy in All-Female Middle Grade Classrooms (United States)

    Faller, Susan Elisabeth

    In the face of low adolescent literacy rates (NCES, 2012), concerns about the nation's prospects of remaining competitive in science and technology (Hill, Corbett, & St. Rose, 2010), a persistent gender gap in science (NCES, 2012; Reilly, 2012), and the continued rollout of college- and career-ready standards, there is a need to focus on adolescent girls' science literacy. Such science literacy involves not only general knowledge about science, but also the ability to engage in the advanced reading and writing practices fundamental to doing science (Norris & Phillips, 2003). In this thesis, I present three articles with findings that respond to this need. They are the results of a multiple-case embedded (Yin, 2009) study that I conducted over the course of 7 months in four science classrooms (grades 5 through 8; 50 students) taught by a single teacher in a small all-female middle school. I collected in-depth data focused on science literacy from multiple sources, including (a) fieldnotes (Emerson, Fretz & Shaw, 2011), (b) videorecorded classroom observations (102 classes, 113 hours, recorded on 29 days), (c) a survey of all students, (d) semi-structured interviews with the subsample of 12 focal students (ranging from 18 to 37 minutes) and (e) photographs of classroom artifacts and student work. In the first article, I provide a window into standard literacy practices in science classrooms by examining the reading and writing genres to which students are exposed. In the second article, I examine how a teacher's language and instructional practices within her classrooms, and popular images of science from the world beyond their classrooms might shape adolescent girls' science identities. Finally, in the third article, I explore different aspects of science identity using the words of three case study students. Taken together, these studies fill gaps in the literature by investigating science literacy in an understudied context, all-female classrooms. In addition


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwanti Darwanti


    Full Text Available There are three objectives that shape the study, first, the study is aimed at identifying different problem-solving skills of the students' who were acquainted with quiz team, lecture and MURDER method. Secondly, the study is to point out the difference of students' problem-solving skills when they are exposed to the three methods in a high, moderate, and low intensity. The third objective is to determine interactions among learning methods, learning activities and problem-solving skills. Quasi experiment is used as a method of the study by applying two experiment classes, and one controlled factorial designed class. In analyzing the data, a two-way Anova analysis and variants analysis are implemented to measure the interaction level among the three variables. The results of the study indicate that (1 there are differences in students' problem-solving skills who were exposed to quiz team, lecture and MURDER method; (2 there are also differences in students' problem-solving skills when they were exposed by the mentioned methods in a high, moderate, and low intensity; there are no relevant interactions among learning methods, learning activities and problem-solving skills. The current results are presented such that they can be used as an aid to the methods of social science learning.

  18. Fire social science research–selected highlights. (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; Richard W. Haynes; Sarah McCaffrey; Evan Mercer; Alan Watson


    Forest Service Research and Development has a long-standing component of social fire science that since 2000 has expanded significantly. Much of this new work focuses on research that will increase understanding of the social and economic issues connected with wildland fire and fuels management. This information can enhance the ability of agencies and communities to...

  19. Social Science Disciplines. Fundamental for Curriculum Development. (United States)

    McLendon, Johathan C., Ed.

    This guide is written for the social studies curriculum developer interested in developing a structured multidisciplinary program based on the concepts, methodology, and structure of social science disciplines and history. Seven 15-29 page chapters are included on each discipline: Anthropology and Psychology, by Charles R. Berryman; Economics, by…

  20. A new foundation for the social sciences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn


    The aim of John Searle’s philosophy of society is to provide a foundation for the social sciences. Arguing that the study of social reality needs to be based on a philosophy of language, Searle claims that sociology has little to offer, since no sociologist ever took language seriously. Attacking...

  1. Effects of Engineering Design-Based Science on Elementary School Science Students' Engineering Identity Development across Gender and Grade (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.


    The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about children's earliest identification with engineering. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which engineering identity differed among preadolescents across gender and grade, when exposing students to engineering design-based science learning activities. Five hundred fifty preadolescent participants completed the Engineering Identity Development Scale (EIDS), a recently developed measure with validity evidence that characterizes children's conceptions of engineering and potential career aspirations. Data analyses of variance among four factors (i.e., gender, grade, and group) indicated that elementary school students who engaged in the engineering design-based science learning activities demonstrated greater improvements on the EIDS subscales compared to those in the comparison group. Specifically, students in the lower grade levels showed substantial increases, while students in the higher grade levels showed decreases. Girls, regardless of grade level and participation in the engineering learning activities, showed higher scores in the academic subscale compared to boys. These findings suggest that the integration of engineering practices in the science classroom as early as grade one shows potential in fostering and sustaining student interest, participation, and self-concept in engineering and science.

  2. Big Data and historical social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bearman


    Full Text Available “Big Data” can revolutionize historical social science if it arises from substantively important contexts and is oriented towards answering substantively important questions. Such data may be especially important for answering previously largely intractable questions about the timing and sequencing of events, and of event boundaries. That said, “Big Data” makes no difference for social scientists and historians whose accounts rest on narrative sentences. Since such accounts are the norm, the effects of Big Data on the practice of historical social science may be more limited than one might wish.

  3. Are Flunkers Social Outcasts? A Multilevel Study of Grade Retention Effects on Same-Grade Friendships (United States)

    Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke


    We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school's proportion of retained students on these friendships and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel…

  4. Student explanations of their science teachers' assessments, grading practices and how they learn science (United States)

    del Carmen Gomez, María


    The current paper draws on data generated through group interviews with students who were involved in a larger ethnographic research project performed in three science classrooms. The purpose of the study from which this data was generated, was to understand science teachers' assessment practices in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. During group interviews students were asked about their conceptions of what were the assessment priority of teachers, why the students were silent during lecturing and their experiences regarding peer- and self-assessments. The research design and analysis of the findings derives from what students told us about their assessments and learning sciences experiences. Students related that besides the results of the written test, they do not know what else teachers assessed and used to determine their grades. It was also found that students did not participate in the discussion on science because of peer-pressure and a fear of disappointing their peers. Student silence is also linked with student conceptions of science learning and student experiences with methodologies of teaching and learning sciences.

  5. Editorial: Challenges of Social Science Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Weber


    Full Text Available Since international tests compare the performance of students in different subjects, the issue of literacy in the social science subject is becoming more pressing. The successes and failures in international tests influence the national education policies considerably. First, the inclusion of subjects in international comparisons has consequences for their importance. Second, the race in the Olympics of education leads to an increasing focus on the output of educational processes, also measured in the central exams. Social Sciences can refuse to take part in the national comparison studies with the price of losing much more importance; they can participate with the danger of undermining their goals. This raises a lot of questions: What competences students need in this social world to reason about it und to act responsibly? What is the foundation of concepts from social science students need for guidance and understanding their place and role as an individual in society? The social science disciplines, as sociology, political science and economics in a narrow sense, history, law and geography in a broader sense, supported by philosophy, pedagogy and psychology are able to select them for educational purposes or determine such educational aims. This Journal wants to resume und discuss competences and core con¬cepts for political and economic teaching and learning as Social Science Literacy”. Contributions in this issue do not only discuss and recommend competences and core concepts from a domain specific political or economic point of view, but also from an interdisciplinary or psychological point of view. They analyse preconditions and interdependencies as well as obstacles und problems of development and diagnosis core concepts and competences of Social Science Literacy.

  6. Effects of Engineering Design-Based Science on Elementary School Science Students' Engineering Identity Development across Gender and Grade (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.


    The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about…

  7. Into the Curriculum. Art: Whistler's Mother; Reading/Language Arts: Finding My Voice; Science: Where on My Tongue? Taste; Social Studies/Science: Volcanoes; Social Studies: Pompeii. (United States)

    Reed-Mundell, Charlie


    Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, reading, language arts, science, and social studies. Describes library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up for each activity. (LRW)

  8. The understandings and meanings eight seventh and eighth grade Latinas gave to science (United States)

    Parker, Carolyn Ann

    My study examined the experiences of eight seventh and eighth grade girls of Central American descent, in and out of the science classroom. The study was interpretive in design and explored the question, "How did the eight participants understand and make meaning of science?" Guided by a sociocultural perspective and a socially critical stance, I explored issues of educational access, particularly to science, mediated by the relationships and experiences formed by families, peers, science classrooms, schools, and society. Data sources included monthly individual interviews, regular focus group meetings, school observations, and interviews with teachers and family members. Findings include the importance of school science experiences that emphasize hands-on activities and the study of topics relevant to students' everyday lives. School influences that I discuss include English-as-a-Second Language learning, English language ability and its effect on classroom interactions, ability grouping, standardized testing, and teachers' instructional practices. Out-of-school influences I examine include the national science education reform movement, familial expectations, and society and the media's portrayal of science and the scientist. The implications and recommendations of the study are particularly germane to practice. Recommendations for the science classroom include a continued emphasis on hands-on science experiences that incorporate high academic expectations for all students, including second-language learners. Moreover, curriculum should be connected and relevant to students' everyday experiences. Recommendations for outside-the-science classroom include a thoughtful examination of the educational environment created by a school's tracking policy and continued support of meaningful professional development experiences for teachers. Future research and the subsequent development of theory should include a further analysis of the influence of gender, ethnicity

  9. Citing Journal Articles in Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Jamali


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations of scholarly journal articles are good indicators for the societal impact of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. An existing categorization scheme was used and modified inductively. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty-one (22.68% of all journals cited were from the category of social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy-five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited was 5.8 years. The most frequent (38, 12.67% motivation was to ‘neutrally presenting details of a study’. Overall, social science blogs were rather subject-oriented than article oriented. This means a considerable number of blog posts were not driven simply by writing about an article, instead bloggers tend to write about their subject of interest and use references to support their argument. The study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact.

  10. Equity in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enbar, M.


    This review suggests that many social scientists and philosophers are increasingly sensitive to the ethical and moral dimensions of analytic endeavors and of normative policymaking, in particular to the fact that no purely technical fix exists for problems whose solutions impinge upon the political process. The presence of equity issues widens the scope of the decision making process, requiring the consideration of a broader field of options and consequences and an awareness of the institutional and social fabrics from which solutions to previous analogous problems were fashioned. Current policy must reflect greater sensitivity to the distributional outcomes of major collective decisions and to the moral and ethical foundations which underlie them. 85 references

  11. Exploring Social Dynamics in School Science Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet C. Ayar


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-cultural practices and interactions of learning science in a science classroom within the concept of communities of practice. Our qualitative data were collected through observing, taking field notes, and conducting interviews in a public science classroom during an entire school year. The study occurred in a seventh-grade classroom with a veteran physical science teacher, with more than 10 years teaching experience, and 22 students. For this article, we presented two classroom vignettes that reflect a sample of the participation, practice, and community that was observed in the science classroom on a daily basis. The first vignette illustrated a typical formula of Initiation–Response–Feedback (I-R-F that transfers knowledge to students through a teacher-led discussion with the entire class. The second vignette described a laboratory activity designed to allow students to apply or discover knowledge through practical experience, while taking responsibility for their learning through small-group work. The normative practices and routine behaviors of the science classroom are highlighted through the description of material resources, and different modes of participation accompanied by assigned roles and responsibilities. What we observed was that laboratory activities reproduced the epistemic authority of the I-R-F rather than creating collective cognitive responsibility where students have the independence to explore and create authentic science experiences.

  12. How fifth grade Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma R.


    This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a fifth grade science class entirely comprised of language minority students transitioning out of bilingual education. Therefore, English was the means of instruction in science, supported by informal peer-to-peer Spanish-language communication. This study is grounded in a social constructivist paradigm. From this standpoint, learning science is a social process where social, cultural, and linguistic factors are all considered crucial to the process of acquiring scientific knowledge. The study was descriptive in nature, examining specific linguistic behaviors with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the linguistic functions of students' utterances while participating in science learning. The results suggest that students purposefully adapt their use of linguistic resources in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. What is underscored in this study is the importance of explicitly acknowledging, supporting, and incorporating bilingual students' linguistic resources both in Spanish and English into the science classroom in order to optimize students' participation and facilitate their understanding.

  13. Science Teacher Orientations and PCK across Science Topics in Grade 9 Earth Science (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Goodwin, Dawne


    While the literature is replete with studies examining teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), few studies have investigated how science teacher orientations (STOs) shape classroom instruction. Therefore, this research explores the interplay between a STOs and the topic specificity of PCK across two science topics within a grade…

  14. Regression analysis for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A


    The book provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of both SAS and Stata "side-by-side" and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set and course exercises in which students can choose their own research questions and data set.

  15. Integration of Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G.


    In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised

  16. Social sciences via network analysis and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanduc, Tadej


    In recent years information and communication technologies have gained significant importance in the social sciences. Because there is such rapid growth of knowledge, methods and computer infrastructure, research can now seamlessly connect interdisciplinary fields such as business process management, data processing and mathematics. This study presents some of the latest results, practices and state-of-the-art approaches in network analysis, machine learning, data mining, data clustering and classifications in the contents of social sciences. It also covers various real-life examples such as t

  17. Middle school science curriculum design and 8th grade student achievement in Massachusetts public schools (United States)

    Clifford, Betsey A.

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) released proposed Science and Technology/Engineering standards in 2013 outlining the concepts that should be taught at each grade level. Previously, standards were in grade spans and each district determined the method of implementation. There are two different methods used teaching middle school science: integrated and discipline-based. In the proposed standards, the Massachusetts DESE uses grade-by-grade standards using an integrated approach. It was not known if there is a statistically significant difference in student achievement on the 8th grade science MCAS assessment for students taught with an integrated or discipline-based approach. The results on the 8th grade science MCAS test from six public school districts from 2010 -- 2013 were collected and analyzed. The methodology used was quantitative. Results of an ANOVA showed that there was no statistically significant difference in overall student achievement between the two curriculum models. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference for the various domains: Earth and Space Science, Life Science, Physical Science, and Technology/Engineering. This information is useful for districts hesitant to make the change from a discipline-based approach to an integrated approach. More research should be conducted on this topic with a larger sample size to better support the results.

  18. Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level (United States)

    Roberts, Patrice Helen

    This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual

  19. Social science in a stem cell laboratory: what happened when social and life sciences met. (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil


    We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.

  20. The Conceptual Complexity of Vocabulary in Elementary-Grades Core Science Program Textbooks (United States)

    Fitzgerald, W. Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Kung, Melody; Stenner, A. Jackson


    The researchers explored the conceptual complexity of vocabulary in contemporary elementary-grades core science program textbooks to address two research questions: (1) Can a progression of concepts' complexity level be described across grades? (2) Was there gradual developmental growth of the most complex concepts' networks of associated concepts…

  1. The Influence of Documentary Films on 8th Grade Students' Views about Nature of Science (United States)

    Seckin Kapucu, Munise; Cakmakci, Gultekin; Aydogdu, Cemil


    This quasi-experimental study aims to investigate the documentary films' influence on 8th grade students' nature of science views. The study's participants were 113 8th grade students from two different schools taught by two different teachers. The study was completed over a 6-week period, during which topics related to "Cell Division and…

  2. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research (United States)

    Drost, Ellen A.


    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  3. Globalisation and Social Sciences in Africa | Nieftagodien ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation and Social Sciences in Africa. Noor Nieftagodien. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · FAQ's · News · AJOL jobs · More about AJOL ...

  4. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science. (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.


    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  5. Virtual Games in Social Science Education (United States)

    Lopez, Jose M. Cuenca; Caceres, Myriam J. Martin


    The new technologies make the appearance of highly motivating and dynamic games with different levels of interaction possible, in which large amounts of data, information, procedures and values are included which are intimately bound with the social sciences. We set out from the hypothesis that videogames may become interesting resources for their…

  6. Pedagogical Relationship in Secondary Social Science Classrooms (United States)

    Girard, Brian James


    This study investigates two high school social science classrooms in order to better understand the pedagogical relationships among teachers, students, and disciplinary content, and how teachers can influence students' opportunities to learn disciplinary literacy. Drawing on conceptual resources from sociocultural theories of learning and…

  7. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.


    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social

  8. Michael Polanyi and the Social Sciences (United States)

    Poirier, Maben Walter


    In this article, the author attempts three things: (a) to describe the main beliefs of the "continental empiricist" epistemology that dominated the study of the social sciences in North America since the mid 1930s; (b) to speak of the influence of this epistemology on the dominant or mainstream school in the study of politics; and (c) to…

  9. Using Social Media to Communicate Science (United States)

    Bohon, W.


    Social media (SM) is a popular and ubiquitous communication method and as such offers scientists an opportunity to directly interface with the public, improve public perception of science and scientists, and combat the growing tide of scientific misunderstanding and misinformation. It's become increasingly critical for scientists to use their voice and influence to communicate science and address misinformation. More than 60% of US adults get news from SM (1) but studies find that scientists infrequently post about science (2), missing a rich opportunity to combat scientific disinformation. While it may seem like a futile exercise to educate over SM, even passive exposure to new information can change public perceptions and behavior (3). Additionally, scientists, especially early career scientists, have social networks populated largely by non-scientists (2), allowing them an opportunity to speak to an audience that already trusts and values their scientific judgment. Importantly, these networks are often ideologically and politically diverse (4). However, science communication isn't as simple as a presentation of facts, and effective science communication via SM requires both SM competence and science communication proficiency. Thus, a discussion of best practices for both topics would benefit the scientific community. The range of potential topics for discussion is broad and could include scientific storytelling, empathetic communication, crafting a message, using SM to "humanize science", tips and tricks for broad SM information dissemination and how to run an effective SM campaign. (1) Gottfried J, Shearer E. New use across social media platforms: Pew Research Center; 2016. Available from: (2) McClain, Craig R., Practices and promises of Facebook for science outreach:Becoming a "Nerd of Trust". PLOS Biology 15(6). 2017; Messing S

  10. Mode-2 social science knowledge production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer; Blok, Anders


    The notion of mode-2 knowledge production points to far-reaching transformations in science-society relations, but few attempts have been made to investigate what growing economic and political demands on research may entail for the social sciences. This case study of new patterns of social science...... knowledge production outlines some major institutional and cognitive changes in Danish academic sociology during 'mode-2' times, from the 1980s onwards. Empirically, we rely on documentary sources and qualitative interviews with Danish sociologists, aiming to reconstruct institutional trajectories...... show how a particular cognitive modality of sociology — 'welfare reflexivity' — has become a dominant form of Danish sociological knowledge production. Welfare reflexivity has proven a viable response to volatile mode-2 policy conditions....

  11. On the Governance of Social Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nørreklit, Hanne; Schröder, Philipp J.H.


    The majority of social science research is conducted within public or semi-public institutions, such as universities. Over the past decades, these institutions have experienced substantial changes in governance structures and an increased focus on performance contracts. Obviously, the new...... structures do not enter into a governance vacuum but replace existing profession-based governance structures. The present paper has a two-fold purpose. First, we map the key features and problems of a profession-based governance system focussing on principal-agent issues and motivational drivers. Second, we...... study the implications of the current changes in the social science research landscape along with central aspects of mechanism design, validity, employee motivation as well as the ability to establish socially optimal resource allocations. We identify a number of potential problems that may come along...

  12. Rural science education as social justice (United States)

    Eppley, Karen


    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  13. Social representations of science and gender in Science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Heerdt


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Social Representations (SR of teachers regarding the Nature of Science (NoS, gender issues in society, Science and in the teaching context. The theoretical approach is Moscovici’s SR associated to NoS discussions, Science feminist theories and Teaching of Science. A number of twenty-two teachers were part of this research. Data were collected through the filmic record. The lexical analysis was performed using the Alceste software. Four classes were formed: NoS, Gender and women in Science, Gender and teaching context, and Gender and society. In the areas of the teachers’ education, it was not possible to find significant differences in SR. Through empirical data, the distinct argumentation of men and women is noticed. The SR of men, naturalized, discriminatory and of gender issue denial in society and Science, is more forceful than of women. It is necessary, in the initial and continued education, the problematization of gender issues in Science.

  14. Senator Fred Harris's National Social Science Foundation proposal: Reconsidering federal science policy, natural science-social science relations, and American liberalism during the 1960s. (United States)

    Solovey, Mark


    During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."

  15. Teachers' Obstacles in Implementing Numbered Head Together in Social Science Learning (United States)

    Widyaningtyas, Harini; Winarni, Retno; Murwaningsih, Tri


    This study is aimed at describing teachers' obstacles in applying Numbered Head Together learning model in social science learning. The type of research is qualitative descriptive. The subject of the research is the third-grade teacher of elementary school in Sukoharjo Sub-district. The findings of the research were analyzed using interactive…

  16. Cooperative Learning and Learning Achievement in Social Science Subjects for Sociable Students (United States)

    Herpratiwi; Darsono; Sasmiati; Pujiyatli


    Purpose: The research objective was to compare students' learning achievement for sociable learning motivation students in social science (IPS) using cooperative learning. Research Methods: This research used a quasi-experimental method with a pre-test/post-test design involving 35 fifth-grade students. The learning process was conducted four…

  17. Literature, Science, and Cooking in the Primary Grades. (United States)

    Donoghue, Mildred R.

    Since the balanced literacy program presently mandated in California makes literature an integral part of the curriculum and leaves even less time for study of the sciences, this annotated bibliography provides some recommended literature together with the science concepts that evolve from those books. The bibliography also offers cooking recipes…

  18. Prueba de Ciencia Primer Grado (Science Test for the First Grade). [In Spanish (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey.

    This document consists of three parts: (1) a manual for administering the science test to first graders (in Spanish), (2) a copy of the test itself (pictorial), and (3) a list of expected competencies in science for the first three grades (in English). The test consists of 25, four-choice items. For each item, the administrator reads a statement…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model (United States)

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.


    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  20. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene


    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  1. Too Close for (Brain) Comfort: Improving Science Vocabulary Learning in the Middle Grades (United States)

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Goolkasian, Paula


    This article describes how researchers take a multidisciplinary approach to investigating how middle grades students learn science vocabulary. The authors investigated teaching strategies for increasing retention of science vocabulary with seventh graders and stumbled upon an interesting finding that was not even a target for their study, yet it…

  2. Electromagnetic Spectrum. 7th and 8th Grade Agriculture Science Curriculum. Teacher Materials. (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This curriculum guide, the second in a set of six, contains teacher and student materials for a unit on the electromagnetic spectrum prepared as part of a seventh- and eighth-grade agricultural science curriculum that is integrated with science instruction. The guide contains the state goals and sample learning objectives for each goal for…

  3. Framework for Disciplinary Writing in Science Grades 6-12: A National Survey (United States)

    Drew, Sally Valentino; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Faggella-Luby, Michael; Welsh, Megan E.


    This study investigated the current state of writing instruction in science classes (Grades 6-12). A random sample of certified science teachers from the United States (N = 287) was electronically surveyed. Participants reported on their purposes for teaching writing, the writing assignments most often given to students, use of evidence-based…

  4. Science, Technology, and Society: Some Philosophical Reflections on a Grade 11 Course. (United States)

    Gardner, Paul L.


    Speculates on factors that may influence the lack of status of a "Science and Technology" course for grade 11 in British Columbia. Suggests that Aristotelian conceptions of the superiority of pure science over practical knowledge affect the status of school subjects. Questions the course's portrayal of the nature of technology and…

  5. Grade 8 students' capability of analytical thinking and attitude toward science through teaching and learning about soil and its' pollution based on science technology and society (STS) approach (United States)

    Boonprasert, Lapisarin; Tupsai, Jiraporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai


    This study reported Grade 8 students' analytical thinking and attitude toward science in teaching and learning about soil and its' pollution through science technology and society (STS) approach. The participants were 36 Grade 8 students in Naklang, Nongbualumphu, Thailand. The teaching and learning about soil and its' pollution through STS approach had carried out for 6 weeks. The soil and its' pollution unit through STS approach was developed based on framework of Yuenyong (2006) that consisted of five stages including (1) identification of social issues, (2) identification of potential solutions, (3) need for knowledge, (4) decision-making, and (5) socialization stage. Students' analytical thinking and attitude toward science was collected during their learning by participant observation, analytical thinking test, students' tasks, and journal writing. The findings revealed that students could gain their capability of analytical thinking. They could give ideas or behave the characteristics of analytical thinking such as thinking for classifying, compare and contrast, reasoning, interpreting, collecting data and decision making. Students' journal writing reflected that the STS class of soil and its' pollution motivated students. The paper will discuss implications of these for science teaching and learning through STS in Thailand.

  6. Assessing Prinary School; Second Cycle Social Science Textbooks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Prinary School; Second Cycle Social Science Textbooks in ... second cycle primary level social science textbooks vis-à-vis the principles of multiculturalism. ... Biases were disclosed in gender, economic and occupational roles.

  7. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Political diversity will improve social psychological science. (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E


    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  10. Seventh Grade Social Studies. A Program in Sociology and American History. (United States)

    Clancy, Patricia; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Seventh grade. SUBJECT MATTER: Sociology and American history. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide covers five units: "Biological Basis of Human Behavior,""How We Become Human,""The Family and Other Socializing Institutions,""Man's Behavior in Groups and Crowds," and "Minority Group Problems." The presentation of the…

  11. Man's Basic Needs. Resource Units, Grade 1. Providence Social Studies Curriculum Project. (United States)

    Providence Public Schools, RI.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 1. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies; man's basic needs. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 11 chapters, five of which outline the basic curriculum subunits. These five chapters are laid out in three columns, one each for topics, activities, and materials. Other chapters are in list form. The guide…

  12. A pedagogical approach to socially just relations in a Grade 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    namely sustainable development, equity (including equality) and economic development, ... working towards education for social justice in an Economics Grade 11 classroom is a ...... Mansfield, OH: Book Masters. ... Harvard University Press.

  13. Regression analysis for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A


    Provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of Stata and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set. A separate set of exercises allows students to select a data set to apply the concepts learned in each chapter to a research question of interest to them, all updated for this edition.

  14. Integration of Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G


    In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised.

  15. Economics through Inquiry: Creating Social Businesses in Fifth Grade (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon


    The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework from the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS) features an inquiry approach to teaching K-12 social studies in which social studies standards are organized into an "inquiry arc." Inquiry in elementary economics is often underused in practice (Laney 2001). This study describes how a…

  16. In defense of forensic social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goldberg


    Full Text Available Like the navigation tools that freed ancient sailors from the need to stay close to the shoreline—eventually affording the discovery of new worlds—Big Data might open us up to new sociological possibilities by freeing us from the shackles of hypothesis testing. But for that to happen we need forensic social science: the careful compilation of evidence from unstructured digital traces as a means to generate new theories.

  17. The Social Science Curriculum of the Two-Year College. (United States)

    Friedlander, Jack


    Describes a nationwide study to identify: (1) the representation of different areas within the social sciences (i.e. anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, social/ethnic studies, sociology, and interdisciplinary social sciences) in the two-year college curriculum, and (2) which courses were offered for transfer,…

  18. Cognitive self-regulation and social functioning among French children: A longitudinal study from kindergarten to first grade. (United States)

    Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Florin, Agnès


    This study adds to the body of research examining the links between two components of cognitive self-regulation (inhibitory control and verbal working memory) and social functioning (social integration, social problem solving, and prosocial skills) and focuses on children's sex as a moderator of the association between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. The participants (N = 131) were French schoolchildren followed from kindergarten (Mage = 68.36 months, SD = 3.33 months) through Grade 1. Using hierarchical regression analyses, three major findings were revealed: (1) inhibitory control was a better predictor than verbal working memory of prosocial skills assessed by peers using the sociometric technique as well as by teachers using questionnaires, after controlling for sex, mother's education, and verbal and non-verbal IQ; (2) the prosocial skills assessed by teachers in kindergarten contributed more to explaining the prosocial skills and peer acceptance assessed in Grade 1 than cognitive self-regulation; and (3) sex did not moderate the relationship between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. These results suggest that developing strong cognitive self-regulation, especially inhibitory control and prosocial skills, in young children schooled in France could be beneficial for their social development. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Developing Elementary Science PCK for Teacher Education: Lessons Learned from a Second Grade Partnership (United States)

    Bradbury, Leslie U.; Wilson, Rachel E.; Brookshire, Laura E.


    In this self-study, two science educators partnered with two elementary teachers to plan, implement, and reflect on a unit taught in second grade classrooms that integrated science and language arts. The researchers hoped to increase their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for elementary science teaching so that they might use their experiences working in an elementary context to modify their practices in their elementary science method instruction. The research question guiding the study was: What aspects of our PCK for elementary science teaching do we as science educators develop by co-planning, co-teaching, and reflecting with second grade teachers? Data include transcripts of planning meetings, oral reflections about the experience, and videos of the unit being enacted. Findings indicate that managing resources for science teaching, organizing students for science learning, and reflecting on science teaching were themes prevalent in the data. These themes were linked to the model of PCK developed by Park and Oliver (Research in Science Education, 38, 261-284, 2008) and demonstrate that we developed PCK for elementary science teaching in several areas. In our discussion, we include several proposed changes for our elementary science methods course based on the outcomes of the study.

  20. Climate change adaptation and social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, L.


    Climate change subjects societies to a large range of uncertainties concerning the future and their development orientation. It came up as a scientific global problem, extended to political concerns first at a global and then national scales. Though it has long been the object of economic approaches which have notably contributed to its recognition, particularly the Stern Report, social sciences have hardly been mobilized as part of policies to counteract it. Social sciences strongly question the notion of climate change being built as a global scale transcendent phenomenon, analyzed by several authors. With the rise of adaptation policies, the question becomes even more important. Adaptation first comes up as a spontaneous behaviour, independent of policy, in close relationship to social dimensions as a basic way through which climate change is grasped collectively. Thus adaptation policies' social aspects need to be carefully worked in relation with more general goals for adaptation policies to be implemented efficiently, on the basis of wide interactions between local and global scales. (author)

  1. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences (United States)

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.


    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  2. The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Practice (United States)

    Anastas, Jeane W.


    As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work. This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…

  3. Sex, grade, and course differences in attitudes that are related to cognitive performance in secondary science (United States)

    Levin, James; Seymour Fowler, H.

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on sexual differences in secondary school students' attitudes towards science. Attitudinal differences were also analyzed for the independent variables of science programs and grade levels. Data were collected from 988 students using a modified version of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales to represent attitudes toward science. Reliabilities of the modified science subscales were all high ( > 0.83). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data for the main and interaction effects of the independent variables of sex (male, female), grade level (10th, 11th, 12th), and science program (advanced placement, academic, general, terminal). Significant differences (p Scale, Science as a Male Domain Scale, and Teacher Scale. Although not significant, males evidenced more positive attitudes on all the remaining five subscales. Eleventh graders evidenced significantly more positive attitudes than tenth graders on all but the Effectance Motivation Scale. Students in 11th grade had more positive attitudes than 12th-grade students on all scales but Science as a Male Domain Scale; however, these differences were not significant. Tenth graders differed significantly from 12th graders on three subscales; Science Usefulness Scale, Confidence in Learning Science Scale, and Teacher Scale. Positive attitudes decreased from advanced placement to terminal programs. Academic students did not differ significantly from general students except on the Father Scale; however, they were significantly different (more positive) from the terminal students for all subscales. General students were also significantly different from terminal students except on the three subscales of Attitudes Toward Success in Science, Science as a Male Domain, and Effectance Motivation.

  4. The South Carolina Amazing Coast Program: Using Ocean Sciences to Address Next Generation Science Standards in Grades 3-5 (United States)

    Bell, E. V.; Thomas, C.; Weiss, B.; Bliss, A.; Spence, L.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are more inclusive of ocean sciences than the National Science Standards and respective state science standards. In response, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-SouthEast (COSEE SE) is piloting the South Carolina's Amazing Coast (SCAC) program: a three-year initiative that incorporates ocean science concepts in grades 3-5 with the goals of addressing NGSS, STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) disciplines, and inquiry skills. The SCAC program targeted two Charleston County, South Carolina elementary schools that were demographically similar: Title 1 status (75% free or reduced lunch), > 90% African American student population, grade level size inquiry skills. Specifically, third grade students learn about coastal habitats, animal and plant adaptations, and human impacts to the environment, and engage in a salt marsh restoration capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSS Core Ideas 3-LS1, 3-LS3, 3-LS4, 3-ESS3. The fourth grade students learn about weather, organism responses to the environment, and engage in a weather buoy construction capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSSS Core Ideas 4-LS1, 4-ESS2, 4-ESS3, 3-5-ETS1. In 5th grade, students focus specifically on the ocean ecosystem, human impacts on the environment and engage in a capstone project of designing and constructing remotely operated vehicles. This part of the curriculum aligns with NGSS Core Ideas 5-PS2, 5-LS1, 5-LS2, 5-ESS2, 3-5-ETS1. Initial evaluation results indicate that the SCAC teachers value the coach mentor approach for teacher professional development as well as the impact of field based experiences, place-based learning, and a culminating capstone project on student learning. Teacher feedback also indicates elements of sustainability that extend beyond the scope of the pilot project.These initial evaluation results poise the SCAC curriculum to be replicated in other

  5. Social Science Boot Camp: Development and Assessment of a Foundational Course on Academic Literacy in the Social Sciences (United States)

    Eaton, Judy; Long, Jennifer; Morris, David


    We developed a course, as part of our institution's core program, which provides students with a foundation in academic literacy in the social sciences: how to find, read, critically assess, and communicate about social science research. It is not a research methods course; rather, it is intended to introduce students to the social sciences and be…

  6. Natural science textbooks for the fourth grade and their text difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libuše Hrabí


    Full Text Available This paper presents findings regarding an assessment of the difficulty of text in six current Czech natural science textbooks for the fourth grade. The textual analysis was carried out according to a modified Průcha method. The results indicate that textual difficulty varies in the textbooks examined (19 - 31 points. Textbooks published by the Alter, Fortuna and SPN publishing companies are suitable for teaching in the fourth grade.

  7. A content analysis of sixth-grade, seventh-grade, and eighth-grade science textbooks with regard to the nature of science (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne C.

    Science teachers rely heavily on their textbooks; for many, it is the only curriculum they use (Weiss, 1993). Therefore, it is important these materials convey an accurate conception of the nature of science. Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) call for teaching students about the nature of science. Including the nature of science throughout science textbooks will produce scientifically literate citizens (Driver and others, 1993) with an improved ability to make informed decisions (McComas, 1998). Teaching the nature of science supports the successful learning of science content and process (Driver and others, 1996), and bridges the gap between the two cultures of practicing scientists and school science (Sorsby, 2000). Do middle school science textbooks provide a balanced presentation of the nature of science throughout their text? To determine the answer, this investigation used a content analysis technique to analyze a random sample from the introduction chapter and the rest of the textbook chapters from twelve middle school science textbooks for the four aspects of the nature of science (Chiappetta, Fillman, & Sethna, 2004). Scoring procedures were used to determine interrater agreement using both Cohen's kappa (kappa) and Krippendorff's alpha (alpha). Kappa values were determined to be fair to excellent beyond chance among the three coders. The resulting values for Krippendorff's alpha ranged from acceptable (alpha > .80) to unacceptable (alpha imbalance is providing students with a rudimentary and fragmented view of how science works, despite the fact that science impacts every aspect of life (McComas, 1998). Given the impact of textbooks on learning, it is recommended that teachers be informed of these shortcomings to enable them to supplement content where it is lacking.

  8. Utilizing Multi-Modal Literacies in Middle Grades Science (United States)

    Saurino, Dan; Ogletree, Tamra; Saurino, Penelope


    The nature of literacy is changing. Increased student use of computer-mediated, digital, and visual communication spans our understanding of adolescent multi-modal capabilities that reach beyond the traditional conventions of linear speech and written text in the science curriculum. Advancing technology opens doors to learning that involve…

  9. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement (United States)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  10. A Primary Grade (K-3) Earth Science Program (United States)

    Schwartz, Maurice L.; Slesnick, Irwin L.


    Describes the rationale and structure of a newly developed earth science program for elementary school children (K-3). The activities involve pre-operational and concrete operational stages, progressing from one to the other. Children show sustained interest and enthusiasm as they investigate landforms, the moon, fossils, and weather phenomena.…

  11. The Delphi Technique in Identifying Learning Objectives for the Development of Science, Technology and Society Modules for Palestinian Ninth Grade Science Curriculum (United States)

    Abualrob, Marwan M. A.; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini


    This article outlines how learning objectives based upon science, technology and society (STS) elements for Palestinian ninth grade science textbooks were identified, which was part of a bigger study to establish an STS foundation in the ninth grade science curriculum in Palestine. First, an initial list of STS elements was determined. Second,…

  12. Perceived Social Relationships and Science Learning Outcomes for Taiwanese Eighth Graders: Structural Equation Modeling with a Complex Sampling Consideration (United States)

    Jen, Tsung-Hau; Lee, Che-Di; Chien, Chin-Lung; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Chen, Kuan-Ming


    Based on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007 study and a follow-up national survey, data for 3,901 Taiwanese grade 8 students were analyzed using structural equation modeling to confirm a social-relation-based affection-driven model (SRAM). SRAM hypothesized relationships among students' perceived social relationships in…

  13. Anticipation in Law and Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan


    Full Text Available This article explores a particular aspect of the role of anticipation in social and legal processes. The program begins by recognizing that social interaction happens within a time-space manifold of events. This means that society functions in terms of events located on the plane of time and the situation of space. This means that social process is a dynamic. As an ancient philosopher put it, change is so ubiquitous that you cannot jump into the same river twice. Since we tend to look at social dynamics in a more static way, one major theorist reminds us that the stable in social process is a special case of the unstable. The article underscores a point that the anticipatory perspective is a ubiquitous part of social dynamics and change. Indeed, it is a critical component of social coexistence. To briefly illustrate, if the members of a governing group come into power, they will immediately have to anticipate the security needs, the economic needs, the educational needs, the health and well-being needs, the skill and labor needs, the food needs of the body politic, the requirements of effective family relationships, the requirements of morality and ethics and the needs of aesthetics. The paper provides a framework in which anticipation is used to predict the problems that emerge from the social process. The value of a social science that facilitates anticipation before problems occur provides opportunities on the time-space manifold of society to develop problem-solving strategies with a better chance of those strategies being successful. To utilize this approach, the authors provide the sophisticated model of social process developed by WAAS Fellows Lasswell and McDougal: Human beings pursue values through institutions based on resources. Using this model the authors provide a provisional map of the social process with key markers at points likely to generate important problems. The markers in the maps are as follows: participators

  14. Project-Based Social Justice Mathematics: A Case Study of Five 6th Grade Students (United States)

    McHugh, Maighread L.


    The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore how five sixth grade female students navigated the process of project-based learning as they designed and implemented their own project centered on mathematics while using a social justice lens. The theoretical frameworks of Authentic Intellectual Work and Social Justice…

  15. Influences of Math Tracking on Seventh-Grade Students' Self-Beliefs and Social Comparisons (United States)

    Chiu, Donna; Beru, Yodit; Watley, Erin; Wubu, Selam; Simson, Emma; Kessinger, Robin; Rivera, Anahi; Schmidlein, Patrick; Wigfield, Allan


    The authors examined how math track placement and gender affected 7th-grade students' self-esteem, self-concepts, and social comparisons. Participants were 170 students who completed surveys that assessed their self-esteem, academic self-concepts of ability, and the kinds of social comparisons they make. Results showed that higher track students…

  16. Literacy events during science instruction in a fifth-grade classroom: Listening to teacher and student voices (United States)

    Deal, Debby

    Concern with science literacy and how to achieve it has a long history in our education system. The goals and definitions established by the National Science Education Standards (1996) suggest that if we are to successfully prepare students for the information age, science education must blend the natural and social sciences. However, research indicates that connections between hands-on science and literacy, as a tool for processing information, do not regularly occur during school science instruction. This case study explored the use of literacy by a second year teacher in a fifth grade class during consecutive science units on chemistry and liquids. The research questions focused on how and why the teacher and students used literacy during science and how and why the teacher and selected focus students believed literacy influenced their learning in science. Data was collected through classroom observations and multiple interviews with the teacher and selected focus students. Interview data was analyzed and coded using an iterative process. Field notes and student artifacts were used to triangulate the data. The study found that the teacher and students used reading and writing to record and acquire content knowledge, learn to be organized, and to facilitate assessment. Although the teacher had learned content literacy strategies in her pre-service program, she did not implement them in the classroom and her practice seemed to reflect her limited science content knowledge and understanding of the nature of science. The focus students believed that recording and studying notes, reading books, drawing, and reading study guides helped them learn science. The findings suggest the following implications: (1) More data is needed on the relationship between teaching approach, science content knowledge, and beliefs about science. (2) Elementary student voices make a valuable contribution to our understanding of science learning. (3) Pre-service candidates should have

  17. Social science. Publication bias in the social sciences: unlocking the file drawer. (United States)

    Franco, Annie; Malhotra, Neil; Simonovits, Gabor


    We studied publication bias in the social sciences by analyzing a known population of conducted studies--221 in total--in which there is a full accounting of what is published and unpublished. We leveraged Time-sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored program in which researchers propose survey-based experiments to be run on representative samples of American adults. Because TESS proposals undergo rigorous peer review, the studies in the sample all exceed a substantial quality threshold. Strong results are 40 percentage points more likely to be published than are null results and 60 percentage points more likely to be written up. We provide direct evidence of publication bias and identify the stage of research production at which publication bias occurs: Authors do not write up and submit null findings. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Commonly Shared Foundation of Mathematics, Information Science, Natural Science, Social Science, and Theology


    Wayne, James J.


    Through a simple thought experiment, this paper shows that there must be a shared foundation of mathematics, information science, natural science, social science, and theology. The thought experiment is to ask a volunteer to write down an arbitrary real number between 0 and 1 with many digits. For example, 0.19823765010367129462…. would be one of such numbers. Then we analyze this experiment result by asking five simple questions: Is the real number a random real? Can the observed real numbe...

  19. Supporting new science teachers in pursuing socially just science education (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel; Flohr, Linda


    This forum explores contradictions that arose within the partnership between Teach for America (TFA) and a university teacher education program. TFA is an alternate route teacher preparation program that places individuals into K-12 classrooms in low-income school districts after participating in an intense summer training program and provides them with ongoing support. This forum is a conversation about the challenges we faced as new science teachers in the TFA program and in the Peace Corps program. We both entered the teaching field with science degrees and very little formal education in science education. In these programs we worked in a community very different from the one we had experienced as students. These experiences allow us to address many of the issues that were discussed in the original paper, namely teaching in an unfamiliar community amid challenges that many teachers face in the first few years of teaching. We consider how these challenges may be amplified for teachers who come to teaching through an alternate route and may not have as much pedagogical training as a more traditional teacher education program provides. The forum expands on the ideas presented in the original paper to consider the importance of perspectives on socially just science education. There is often a disconnect between what is taught in teacher education programs and what teachers actually experience in urban classrooms and this can be amplified when the training received through alternate route provides a different framework as well. This forum urges universities and alternate route programs to continue to find ways to authentically partner using practical strategies that bring together the philosophies and goals of all stakeholders in order to better prepare teachers to partner with their students to achieve their science learning goals.

  20. Teacher Tweets Improve Achievement for Eighth Grade Science Students


    Carol Van Vooren; Corey Bess


    In the Digital Age teachers have fallen far behind the technical skills of their "digital native" students. The implementation of technology as a tool for classroom communication is foreign for most teachers, but highly preferred by students. While teenagers are using Facebook, Twitter, and other social networks to communicate, teachers continue to respond through face-to-face conversations, telephone calls, and email messaging. Twitter, a platform for short message service text, is an online...

  1. Online information services in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Neil


    Information professionals are increasingly responsible not only for running traditional information and library services but also for providing an online presence for their organisation. This book shows how best practice in delivering online information services should be based on actual user needs and behaviour. A series of case studies provide real life examples of how social science information is being used in the community. The book then draws on these case studies to outline the main issues facing service providers: such as usability, metadata and management. The book concludes with a lo

  2. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L


    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  3. Semiparametric regression for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Keele, Luke John


    An introductory guide to smoothing techniques, semiparametric estimators, and their related methods, this book describes the methodology via a selection of carefully explained examples and data sets. It also demonstrates the potential of these techniques using detailed empirical examples drawn from the social and political sciences. Each chapter includes exercises and examples and there is a supplementary website containing all the datasets used, as well as computer code, allowing readers to replicate every analysis reported in the book. Includes software for implementing the methods in S-Plus and R.

  4. Creativity, Pragmatism and the Social Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje


    In this discussion, Richard Sennett and Hans Joas elaborate on the role of both creativity and pragmatism in the social sciences. They pursue these topics from different perspectives: the role creativity played in the history of ideas and in classical pragmatism, what creativity means...... in the practice of the arts and how a creative pragmatist sociology might be possible. Pragmatism, they conclude, may not be a new idea, but the practice of pragmatism offers a new political vision beyond the traditional frontiers of left and right....

  5. Nonparametric statistics for social and behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Kraska-MIller, M


    Introduction to Research in Social and Behavioral SciencesBasic Principles of ResearchPlanning for ResearchTypes of Research Designs Sampling ProceduresValidity and Reliability of Measurement InstrumentsSteps of the Research Process Introduction to Nonparametric StatisticsData AnalysisOverview of Nonparametric Statistics and Parametric Statistics Overview of Parametric Statistics Overview of Nonparametric StatisticsImportance of Nonparametric MethodsMeasurement InstrumentsAnalysis of Data to Determine Association and Agreement Pearson Chi-Square Test of Association and IndependenceContingency

  6. Children's analogical reasoning in a third-grade science discussion (United States)

    May, David B.; Hammer, David; Roy, Patricia


    Expert scientific inquiry involves the generation and use of analogies. How and when students might develop this aspect of expertise has implications for understanding how and when instruction might facilitate that development. In a study of K-8 student inquiry in physical science, we are examining cases of spontaneous analogy generation. In the case we present here, a third-grader generates an analogy and modifies it to reconcile his classmates' counterarguments, allowing us to identify in these third-graders specific aspects of nascent expertise in analogy use. Promoting abilities and inclinations such as these children display requires that educators recognize and respond to them.

  7. Problem-based learning versus traditional science instruction: Achievement and interest in science of middle grades minority females (United States)

    Mungin, Rochelle E.

    This quantitative study examined science interest and achievement of middle school minority females in both traditional science classes and Problem-based Learning (PBL) science classes. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference between traditional teaching and the PBL teaching method. The researcher also looked for a significant relationship between interest in science and achievement in science. This study used survey data from parents of female middle school science students to measure student interest in science concepts. The population of interest for this study was 13--15 year old eighth grade females from various racial make-ups such as, African American, Hispanic, Bi-racial, Asian, and Other Pacific Islander. Student achievement data was retrieved from the 8th grade science fall common assessed benchmark exam of both test groups. The results of the survey along with the benchmark data was to shed light on the way adolescent females learn and come to embrace science. The findings may provide guidance for science educators seeking to reach their minority female students and guide their achievement levels higher than before. From the results of the t-test and Pearson correlation test of this study, it can be concluded that while this study did not show a significant difference in academic achievement or interest between the two teaching styles, it revealed that interest in science has a positive role to play in the academic success of minority girls in science. The practical implications for examining these issues are to further the research on solutions for closing the minority and gender achievement gaps. The results of this study have implications for researchers as well as practitioners in the field of education.

  8. Prospects and challenges for social media data in conservation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eDi Minin


    Full Text Available Social media data have been extensively used in numerous fields of science, but examples of their use in conservation science are still very limited. In this paper, we propose a framework on how social media data could be useful for conservation science and practice. We present the commonly used social media platforms and discuss how their content could be providing new data and information for conservation science. Based on this, we discuss how future work in conservation science and practice would benefit from social media data.

  9. Implications of a Cognitive Science Model Integrating Literacy in Science on Achievement in Science and Reading: Direct Effects in Grades 3-5 with Transfer to Grades 6-7 (United States)

    Romance, Nancy; Vitale, Michael


    Reported are the results of a multiyear study in which reading comprehension and writing were integrated within an in-depth science instructional model (Science IDEAS) in daily 1.5 to 2 h daily lessons on a schoolwide basis in grades 3-4-5. Multilevel (HLM7) achievement findings showed the experimental intervention resulted in significant and…

  10. Operationalizing Social Work Science through Research-Practice Partnerships: Lessons from Implementation Science (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Amy S.; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Hertel, Amy Locklear


    Recent efforts to identify and promote a distinct science for the discipline of social work have led to an ongoing debate regarding the nature and function of such a science. Central to this debate is a lack of consensus as to how to operationalize a social work science. Drawing from the field of implementation science and its application in…

  11. The Employment Outlook for Social Science Majors in the South. (United States)

    Galambos, Eva C.

    This assessment of the future job market for social science graduates is made both generically and separately for certain disciplines. The definition of the social sciences follows the USOE definition and includes: anthropology, archeology, economics, history, geography, political science, sociology, criminology, international relations, urban…

  12. How social science should complement scientific discovery: lessons from nanoscience (United States)

    Berube, David M.


    This article examines the state of social science of science, particularly nanoscience. It reviews what has been done and offers a series of constructive criticisms. It examines some of the problems associated with experts and expertise and itemizes challenges we confront dealing with them. It presages some of the social science research work that we may consider to embrace in the future.

  13. Collaboration in the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences in Australia (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Xia, Jianhong; Willson, Michele


    This paper reports on the first large-scale quantitative investigation into collaboration, demonstrated in co-authorship, by Australian humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) researchers. Web of Science data were extracted for Australian HASS publications, with a focus on the softer social sciences, over the period 2004-2013. The findings…

  14. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 1--2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons covering surface tension in water, the life cycle of plants, the protective function of the skeletal system, functions and behavior of the circulatory system and how to measure its activities, structure and functions of the digestive system, simple food chains, how that many foods come from different plant parts, importance of a good diet, distinguishing living and non-living things, and the benefits of composting. 8 figs.

  15. Response: Social Work, Science, Social Impact--Crafting an Integrative Conversation (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.


    Shifts in the ways that science is being undertaken and marshaled toward social change argue for a new kind of professional competence. Taking the view that the science of social work is centrally about the relationship of research to social impact, the authors extend Fong's focus on transdisciplinary and translational approaches to science,…

  16. The Social Science Teacher. 1972. Collected Conference Papers: Social Science Concepts Classroom Methods. (United States)

    Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three…

  17. Science, Innovation, and Social Work: Purpose: Clash or Convergence? (United States)

    Flynn, Marilyn L.


    Social work as a human services profession has been distinctive for its inclusion of research as a required element of practice and instrument in instigating reform. At the present time, the relationship of social work to science and a redefinition of social work as a science have reentered our national dialogue with new force. This expansion of…

  18. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Improving Students' Achievement in Third Grade's Science in Bani Kenana (United States)

    Khader, Nisreen Saleh Khader


    The study aimed at identifying the effectiveness of blended learning in improving students' achievement in the third grade's science in the traditional method. The study sample consisted of (108) male and female students, who were divided into two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group studied the units and changes of the…

  19. An Analysis of Global Problems Issues in Sixth and Seventh Grade Science Textbooks. (United States)

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth and seventh grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages…

  20. An Analysis of Science Textbooks for Grade 6: The Electric Circuit Lesson (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle


    Textbooks are a major tool in the teaching and learning process. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Finnish and Thai 6th grade science textbooks: electric circuit lesson. Textual and pictorial information from the textbooks were analyzed under four main categories: 1) introduction of the concepts, 2) type of knowledge, 3)…

  1. Exploring the Effects of Concreteness Fading across Grades in Elementary School Science Education (United States)

    Jaakkola, Tomi; Veermans, Koen


    The present study investigates the effects that concreteness fading has on learning and transfer across three grade levels (4-6) in elementary school science education in comparison to learning with constantly concrete representations. 127 9- to 12-years-old elementary school students studied electric circuits in a computer-based simulation…

  2. Teaching for Creativity by Science Teachers in Grades 5-10 (United States)

    Al-Abdali, Nasser S.; Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.


    This classroom observation study explored how science teachers (N = 22) teach for creativity in grades 5-10 in Oman. We designed an observation form with 4 main categories that targeted the instructional practices related to teaching for creativity: questioning strategy, teacher's responses to students' ideas, classroom activities to support…

  3. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 2000: Secondary Science, Released Items, Grade 10. (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This assessment sample provides information on the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) for grade 10 science. The sample consists of six items taken from the test booklet and scoring guides for the six items. The items assess ecosystems, mechanics, and data analysis. (MM)

  4. Relations among Grade 4 Students' Perceptions of Autonomy, Engagement in Science, and Reading Motivation (United States)

    Taboada Barber, Ana; Buehl, Michelle M.


    The authors extend previous work on students' perceptions of teachers' autonomy-enhancing and autonomy-suppressing behaviors in relation to students' engagement to a more situated context (i.e., two Grade 4 science instructional conditions instead of school in general) and a linguistically diverse population (i.e., Hispanic students). They also…

  5. Testing the Theory of Successful Intelligence in Teaching Grade 4 Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Jarvin, Linda; Birney, Damian P.; Naples, Adam; Stemler, Steven E.; Newman, Tina; Otterbach, Renate; Parish, Carolyn; Randi, Judy; Grigorenko, Elena L.


    This study addressed whether prior successes with educational interventions grounded in the theory of successful intelligence could be replicated on a larger scale as the primary basis for instruction in language arts, mathematics, and science. A total of 7,702 4th-grade students in the United States, drawn from 223 elementary school classrooms in…

  6. Development of a Large-Format Science-Grade CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, for Extreme Ultra Violet Spectroscopy and Imaging in Space Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltham, N. R; Prydderch, M; Mapson-Menard, H; Morrissey, Q; Turchetta, R; Pool, P; Harris, A


    We describe our programme to develop a large-format science-grade CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultra-violet spectrograph for solar physics...

  7. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training, Grades 3--4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references with annotations in English. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: the identification of primary and secondary colors in the environment; recognizing the basic food tastes; the variety of colors that can be made by crushing plant parts; the variety of animal life present in common soil; animal tracks; evidence of plant and animal life in the local environment; recycling, reducing, and composting as alternative means of garbage disposal; waste associated with packaging; paper- recycling principles; and how organic waste can be composted into usable soil. 2 figs.

  8. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 5--6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: safe and unsafe conditions for chemical combinations; growth rates and environmental needs of plants; photosynthesis and effects of ozone-layer depletion; the circulatory system, the importance of exercise to the heart, and selected circulatory diseases; the nervous system; specific nutritional values of the different food groups; significance of including, reducing, or eliminating certain foods for a healthy diet; effects of some common chemicals on plant growth and animal life; plants` and animals` natural habitats; and dangers of non-biodegradable garbage.

  9. Infusing gerontology into grades 7-12 social studies curricula. (United States)

    Krout, John A; Wasyliw, Zenon


    This paper describes a model process to increase the exposure of middle and high school students to information on aging so they better understand the implications of an aging population and the stereotypes of older adults. A college Gerontology Institute, a social studies teacher education faculty member, and middle/high school social studies teachers collaborated on a program to develop and implement lesson plans that incorporate information on aging into existing courses. Institute staff provided expertise on gerontology and student teachers assisted in writing lesson plan objectives. Teachers developed about a dozen lessons covering from one class to two weeks in subjects such as global history, participation in government, Western civilizations, economics, and government. This experience suggests a number of issues that should be addressed when developing a gerontology infusion initiative with school teachers. Information on aging can be successfully incorporated into existing school curricula within the constraints of mandated learning objectives.

  10. Story Telling: Research and Action to Improve 6th Grade Students' Views about Certain Aspects of Nature of Science (United States)

    Kahraman, Feray; Karatas, Faik Özgür


    This study is a four-week section of ongoing attempts that aim to improve 6th grade students' understandings of the nature of science. The study was carried out in a sixth grade science and technology class at a rural middle school with 15 students on the basis of action research methodology. During the study, four different stories based on the…

  11. Quantum Mechanics and the Social Sciences: After Hermeneutics. (United States)

    Heelan, Patrick A.


    An analysis of the hermeneutical aspect of quantum mechanical measurement reveals close analogs with the hermeneutical social/historical sciences. Suggests that the hermeneutical analysis of science requires the move from the epistemological attitude to an ontological view. (LZ)

  12. Grade Level Differences in High School Students' Conceptions of and Motives for Learning Science (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Students' conceptions of learning science and their relations with motive for learning may vary as the education level increases. This study aimed to compare the quantitative patterns in students' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and motives for learning science (MLS) across grade levels by adopting two survey instruments. A total of 768 high school students were surveyed in Taiwan, including 204 eighth graders, 262 tenth graders, and 302 12th graders. In the current research, memorizing, testing, and calculating and practicing were categorized as reproductive conceptions of learning science, while increase of knowledge, applying, understanding and seeing-in-a-new-way were regarded as constructivist conceptions. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed that conceptions of learning science are more constructivist as education level increases. Both tenth graders and 12th graders endorsed understanding, seeing-in-a-new-way, and the constructivist COLS composite more strongly than the eighth graders did. In addition, the results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that the positive relations between testing and reproductive COLS were stronger as the grade level increased, while the negative relations between reproductive COLS and deep motive were tighter with the increase in grade level.

  13. Citizen Data Science for Social Good in Complex Systems


    Soumya Banerjee


    The confluence of massive amounts of openly available data, sophisticated machine learning algorithms and an enlightened citizenry willing to engage in data science presents novel opportunities for crowd sourced data science for social good. In this submission, I present vignettes of data science projects that I have been involved in and which have impact in various spheres of life and on social good. Complex systems are all around us: from social networks to transportation systems, cities, e...

  14. Winch, Wittgenstein and the Idea of a Critical Social Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jens Christian

    such phenomena. In the light of new uses ofWittgenstein within social theory and recent philosophical research on Wittgenstein (that challenge the orthodoxWinchian reception of Wittgenstein), the paper discusses the prospects of a critical social science after Wittgenstein.......In "The Idea of a Social Science" and in the article "Understanding a Primitive Society" Peter Winch develops what he believes to be the implications ofWittgenstein's late philosophy for the social sciences. Inspired byWittgenstein,Winch argues for a linguistic turn. Winch's basic ontological claim...... is that social life is conceptually organised: it is organised by the ways in which language is used by members of social life. This claim has methodological implications: the social sciences are, according to Winch, conceptual studies, that is, they are studies of the concepts possessed by members of social...

  15. Sharing experiences about developing a regional social science virtual library


    Babini, Dominique


    Why and how a Latin American and the Caribbean social sciences network (Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, CLACSO) started a cooperative open access digital library to disseminate research results (journal articles, books, working documents)

  16. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society

  17. Using food as a tool to teach science to 3 grade students in Appalachian Ohio. (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene


    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007-2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3(rd)-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk and cheese; meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; fats; grains; and meal management. Students in four other classrooms served as the control group. Mainstream 3(rd)-grade students were targeted because of their receptiveness to the subject matter, science standards for upper elementary grades, and testing that the students would undergo in 4(th) grade. Teachers and students alike reported that the hands-on FoodMASTER curriculum experience was worthwhile and enjoyable. Our initial classroom observation indicated that the majority of students, girls and boys included, were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations.

  18. Applied statistics for social and management sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Miah, Abdul Quader


    This book addresses the application of statistical techniques and methods across a wide range of disciplines. While its main focus is on the application of statistical methods, theoretical aspects are also provided as fundamental background information. It offers a systematic interpretation of results often discovered in general descriptions of methods and techniques such as linear and non-linear regression. SPSS is also used in all the application aspects. The presentation of data in the form of tables and graphs throughout the book not only guides users, but also explains the statistical application and assists readers in interpreting important features. The analysis of statistical data is presented consistently throughout the text. Academic researchers, practitioners and other users who work with statistical data will benefit from reading Applied Statistics for Social and Management Sciences. .

  19. A critical hermeneutic study: Third grade elementary African American students' views of the nature of science (United States)

    Walls, Leon

    Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third grade children reported in this study contribute to efforts to make science equitable for all students. Conducted in two Midwest urban settings, within the students' regular classrooms, three instruments were employed: Views of Nature of Science Elementary (an interview protocol), Elementary Draw a Scientist Test (a drawing activity supplemented by an explicating narrative), and Identify a Scientist (a simple select-a-photo technique supported by Likert-measured sureness). The responses provided by twenty-three students were coded using qualitative content analysis. The findings are represented in three main categories: Science - is governed by experimentation, invention and discovery teach us about the natural world, school is not the only setting for learning science; Scientists - intelligent, happy, studious men and women playing multiple roles, with distinct physical traits working in laboratories; Students - capable users and producers of science and who view science as fun. This study advocates for: use of such instruments for constant monitoring of student views, using the knowledge of these views to construct inquiry based science lessons, and increased research about students of color.

  20. Immersion francaise precoce: Sciences de la nature 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Natural Sciences for Grades 1-7). (United States)

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This curriculum guide for the natural sciences is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. The guide presents the following topics: (1) a list of general objectives; (2) a list of simple skills for children aged 5-8 and for children aged 8-12; (3) activities dealing with matter and its properties, space-time, and human…

  1. Research on historical environments in elementary schools’ social sciences textbooks taught in Northern Cyprus


    Nazım Kaşot; Mete Özsezer


    A comprehensive study has yet to be carried out depending on the historical environment particular to the Elementary Schools in Northern Cyprus. The aim of this study is hence to determine whether the coverage of historical environment subjects in elementary school social sciences textbooks is absorbed or not by the 4th and 5th Grades in the context of both content and visuals. The method of study analysed has been organised in accordance with the qualitative research. The population was not ...

  2. Using Robots to Motivate At-Risk Learners in Science over the Ninth Grade Hurdle (United States)

    Cerge, Dora

    The ninth grade is a pivotal year in an adolescent's academic career; however, educators have failed to find a remedy for the high failure and dropout rates at this grade level. Students who lack basic skills and support as they enter high school can experience repeated failures, which often lead to a decrease in motivation and dropping out of school. Up to 15% of all ninth graders repeat ninth grade and 36% of all U. S. dropouts are ninth graders. It is imperative that researchers and educators find new ways to motivate at-risk students and augment basic skills in order to mitigate the dropout problem at this grade level. Robot teachers could be a viable solution to increase student motivation and achievement. However, before such strategies could be recommended for implementation, information about their efficacy in a high school setting is needed. The purpose of this quantitative, two-group experimental, pretest-posttest study was to determine the effects of a robot teacher/instructor on science motivation and science achievement in ninth grade at-risk learners. Approximately 40 at-risk, repeating ninth graders, ranging in age from 13 to 17 years old from one high school in the United States Virgin Islands, participated in the study. Half of the students received a robot teacher/instructor manipulation whereby a robot taught a science lesson for physical science assessments (experimental group), and the other half received the same instruction from a human teacher (control group). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the science achievement posttest scores, as measured by test scores, and science motivation posttest scores, as measured by the SMTSL, between the experimental and the control groups, while controlling for the pretest scores (covariate). The results demonstrated that posttest motivation and achievement scores in the human teacher condition were not significantly different than posttest motivation scores in the robot teacher

  3. The long-term impact of a math, science and technology program on grade school girls (United States)

    Sullivan, Sandra Judd

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a math, science, and technology intervention program improved grade school girls' attitudes and stereotypes toward science and scientists, as well as participation levels in science-related activities, two years after their participating in the program. The intervention program evaluated was Operation SMART, developed by Girls Incorporated. Participants were recruited from the 6th and 7th grades from two public middle schools in Northern California. One hundred twenty-seven girls signed up for the survey and were assigned to either the SMART group (previous SMART participants) or Non-SMART group (no previous experience with SMART). The survey consisted of five parts: (1) a background information sheet, (2) the Modified Attitudes Toward Science Inventory, (3) the What Do You Do? survey, (4) the Draw-A-Scientist Test-Revised, and (5) a career interests and role models/influencer survey. Results indicated that there were no significant differences between the SMART and Non-SMART groups on any of the test measures. However, middle school attended did have a significant effect on the outcome variables. Girls from Middle School A reported more positive attitudes toward science, while girls from Middle School B reported higher participation levels in extracurricular science activities. Possible explanations for these findings suggest too much time had passed between treatment effect and time of measurement as well as the strong influence of teacher and school environment on girls' attitudes and stereotypes. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  4. The Hawaiian Monarchy: Instructional Materials/Resources for Grade 7 Social Studies. Draft. (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Materials in this curriculum guide for a seventh grade social studies course focus on the development of the monarchy period in Hawaii's history. Following a course outline, 10 study units cover map skills, early historical background, and the reigns of the following kings and queens: Kamehameha, Liholiho, Kauikeaouli, Alexander Liholiho, Lot,…

  5. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad: Bringing a Second-Grade Social Studies Curriculum Online. (United States)

    Strangman, Nicole


    Includes an interview with second-grade teacher Patty Taverna and computer teacher Terry Hongell. Explains that their collaboration on social studies projects yielded some remarkable activities. Outlines the first such project--the "Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad" website. (PM)

  6. The Auto Industry. Grade Nine. Resource Unit (Unit IV). Project Social Studies. (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Unit four of this curriculum plan for ninth grade social studies outlines a study of the automobile industry in the United States. Objectives state the desired generalizations, skills, and attitudes to be developed. A condensed outline of course content precedes expanded guidelines for teaching procedures and suggested resource materials. A…

  7. A pedagogical approach to socially just relations in a Grade 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article focuses on investigating how the learning goals for Grade 11 Economics with the aid of an educational technology, in particular Facebook, engender opportunities for socially just relations in the classroom. The researcher is concerned with how these learning goals are related to three underlying aspects of ...

  8. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Grades 1 to 6: Prediction from Early Parenting, Attachment, and Temperament (United States)

    Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Oxford, Monica L.


    From 1,092 children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors identified 3 trajectory patterns of social withdrawal from teacher reports in Grades 1-6: a normative consistently low group (86%), a decreasing group (5%) with initially high withdrawal that decreased, and an increasing group (9%) with initially low…

  9. Black Girls' Achievement in Middle Grades Mathematics: How Can Socializing Agents Help? (United States)

    Young, Jemimah L.; Young, Jamaal Rashad; Capraro, Mary Margaret


    The middle grades mathematics classroom is full of transitions that students must overcome to become successful long-term learners of mathematics. This transition can be exorbitantly more tumultuous for Black girls who must overcome gender and racial mathematics achievement stereotypes. Mathematics identities and achievement socialization trends…

  10. Madison Public Schools. La Follette Careers Program. Tenth Grade Social Studies Guide. (United States)

    Morrissey, Jim; Waity, Charles

    A social studies course for a tenth grade career program is outlined in this curriculum and teaching guide. A calendar plots the time sequence for the nine units which cover prehistory to the present. The format of each unit is in three sections. The interrelated concepts, behavior goals, and teaching methods and learning activities are presented,…

  11. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Social Studies. (United States)

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Described is the Social Studies component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades seven through twelve. Aspects of the energy situation addressed in these lessons include resource finiteness, exponential growth, standard of living,…

  12. Physical and Social Contexts of Physical Activity Behaviors of Fifth and Seventh Grade Youth (United States)

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Dowda, Marsha; Mciver, Kerry; McDonald, Samantha M.; Pate, Russell R.


    Background: The purpose of this study was to characterize the temporal, social, and physical contexts for physical activities commonly reported in a diverse cohort of 753 boys and girls from fifth to seventh grade. Methods: Data were obtained from a multilevel longitudinal study, the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids. The Physical Activity…

  13. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Four: Revolutionary America. Grade Six. Project Social Studies. (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Revolution is the theme of this resource unit, which is the fourth in a social studies series designed for sixth grade students. In the first part of the unit, case studies are used to examine 18th century Boston, Williamsburg, and Philadelphia, contrasting them to 17th century Jamestown and Plymouth settlements. Emphasis is upon examining causes…

  14. Student Empowerment in an Environmental Science Classroom: Toward a Framework for Social Justice Science Education (United States)

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel


    Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…

  15. Relationship of Family Particulars with Mental Health in Tehran Girls\\' Students at Third Grade in the Field of Experimental Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Shoja'ei-Zadeh


    Full Text Available Objective: Personality development is a complicated phenomenon. Several external and internal factors such as hereditary background, congenital status, events afterbirth, individual differences, positive and negative promoting behaviors, and other cultural and social factors alone or in combination affect individual personality. Based on the theory of psychological analysis, experiences at childhood, especially interaction with parents have an undeniable effect on individual personality in adulthood. The subject of the present study is to investigate the relationship of family particulars with mental health in high school girls' students in Tehran at third grade in the field of experimental sciences. The present study is a case-study and its purpose is to study theories on dissatisfaction of students at disorganized families and its relationship with anxiety, depression, violence, and obsession. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 80 girl students studying at third grade in field of experimental sciences at Tehran high schools. Half of these students were selected as case group and half of them as control group. The subjects were selected with screening method and the SCL-90 test was used to study hypothesis. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant difference between case and control group. The quality of family relationship had a strong correlation with mental growth of child.   Conclusion: Based on obtained results, the atmosphere around the control group was happier than the case group. The members of the case group usually did not talk about their problems with father.

  16. Integration of Place-Based Education Into Science Classes From Prekindergarten Through Grade 5 (United States)

    Wade-Lyles, Terri A.

    In a large urban district in Ohio, 29.2% of Grade 5, 28.7% of Grade 8, and 45.7% of Grade 10 students passed the state test in science. School district administrators formed a community partnership with local science institutions in order to provide students with hands-on place-based learning experiences intended to improve science academic achievement in PK-Grade 5. The purpose of this qualitative program evaluation was to determine the level of implementation of that place-based program by examining the efficacy of the teachers' embedded professional development and their experiences with the training components. Bruner's theory of cognitive development was used to examine teachers' needs in facilitating the program. A stratified random sample of 659 PK-Grade 5 teachers from 73 district elementary schools was selected, and 57 teachers responded to an anonymous online survey of 5 open-ended questions. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to identity factors that enhanced or impeded the implementation of place-based education programming based on their professional development. The key findings indicated that over half of the participants viewed resources as lacking, training as limited, and planning that is too time consuming, and complicated. Participants expressed the need for clarity regarding resources and more training on how to plan for and integrate the placed-based approach. The resulting project was an executive summary and interactive workshop for program stakeholders, such as administrators, teachers, and ultimately students, who would benefit from this project by improving the place-based program.

  17. GIS and the Social Sciences : Theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballas, Dimitris; Clarke, Graham; Franklin, Rachel S.; Newing, Andy


    GIS and the Social Sciences offers a uniquely social science approach on the theory and application of GIS with a range of modern examples. It explores how human geography can engage with a variety of important policy issues through linking together GIS and spatial analysis, and demonstrates the

  18. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three ... Outputs. Journal articles. Problems of the national and the ethnic/sectarian in Iraq [Arabic language]. Download PDF. Reports. State of social sciences in Iraq ...

  19. The present state of social science research in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieten, G.K.


    The first pan-Asia conference ‘Status and Role of Social Science Research in Asia, Emerging Challenges and Policy Issues’ (New Delhi, 13-15 March 2014), with representatives from 24 countries in Asia and some non-Asian countries, was intended to assess the present state of social science research in

  20. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton


    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  1. Kant or Marx? Philosophy and the Origins of Social Science. (United States)

    Scaff, Lawrence A.

    The origins of social science as a discipline are analyzed in terms of the German scientific community before 1920, which tended to define itself according to the theories of Karl Marx or Immanuel Kant. Following a brief introduction about the nature of social science debates in intellectual Germany, section 2 of the paper considers whether the…

  2. Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23 (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme


    This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

  3. Social Science in the Making: An Economist's View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.; van Lange, P.A.M.


    Recent developments in economics and psychology suggest that productivity in the social sciences will benefit from crossing existing academic barriers, and that such crossing is more and more likely. Social science is in the making, but its success seems particularly conditioned on the willingness

  4. The research trends of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bibliometric method was used to analyse the trends and challenges of Humanities and Social Sciences research by using research data reflecting on ongoing and completed Arts, Humanities and Social Science research publications submitted by staff and students from 1994 – 2008 to the university's Research Office.

  5. Critical Debates in Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew


    This paper explores some of the critical debates in social science research methods education and is set out in three parts. The first section introduces the importance and relevance of research methods to the social sciences. It then outlines the problems and challenges experienced in the teaching and learning of research methods, which are…

  6. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Academic and Social-Emotional Screening Assessments for Measuring Academic and Social-Emotional Success at the End of First Grade (United States)

    Erhart, Amber C.


    By the end of the kindergarten, students are expected to possess early academic skills as well as the social maturity to be successful in first grade. Students leaving kindergarten without these readiness skills are sometimes held back in first grade or referred for a special education evaluation in later grades if they fail to make adequate…

  7. The Value of Supplementing Science Education with Outdoor Instruction for Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Jackson, Devin Joseph Guilford

    Science education is moving away from memorization of facts to inquiry based learning. Adding outdoor instruction can be an effective way to promote this exploratory method of learning. The limited number of empirical studies available have shown significant increase in attitudes and learning with outdoor science instruction. An eight-week quasi-experimental teacher research study was conducted to further this research and assess the value of schoolyard science instruction on student engagement and learning. Participants were 60 students in two sixth grade middle school Earth Science classes. A crossover study design was used with two classes alternating as experimental and control groups. NASA Global Precipitation Measurement mission curriculum was used (NASA/GPM, 2011). While the results did not show a clear increase in student engagement and content knowledge, the study adds to the body of knowledge on outdoor instruction and identifies limitations to consider in future studies.

  8. Developing and Validating a Science Notebook Rubric for Fifth-Grade Non-Mainstream Students (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.


    We present the development and validation of a science notebook rubric intended to measure the academic language and conceptual understanding of non-mainstream students, specifically fifth-grade male and female economically disadvantaged Hispanic English language learner (ELL) and African-American or Hispanic native English-speaking students. The science notebook rubric is based on two main constructs: academic language and conceptual understanding. The constructs are grounded in second-language acquisition theory and theories of writing and conceptual understanding. We established content validity and calculated reliability measures using G theory and percent agreement (for comparison) with a sample of approximately 144 unique science notebook entries and 432 data points. Results reveal sufficient reliability estimates, indicating that the instrument is promising for use in future research studies including science notebooks in classrooms with populations of economically disadvantaged Hispanic ELL and African-American or Hispanic native English-speaking students.

  9. Enhancing Social Studies Vocabulary and Comprehension for Seventh-Grade English Language Learners: Findings from Two Experimental Studies (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Martinez, Leticia R.; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.


    Two experimental studies to improve vocabulary knowledge and comprehension were conducted in 7th-grade social studies classes with English language learners (ELLs). Two different nonoverlapping samples of classes of 7th-grade students (N = 381 and N = 507) were randomly assigned at the classroom (i.e., section) level to a social studies…

  10. Using Inquiry-Based Instructional Strategies to Increase Student Achievement in 3rd Grade Social Studies (United States)

    McRae-Jones, Wanda Joycelyn


    21st Century skills such as critical-thinking and problem-solving skills are very important when it comes to Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics or STEM. But those same skills should be integrated in social studies. The impact of students' learning in social studies as a result of implementing inquiry-based instructional strategies was…

  11. The comparison between science virtual and paper based test in measuring grade 7 students’ critical thinking (United States)

    Dhitareka, P. H.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.


    This research is comparing science virtual and paper-based test in measuring grade 7 students’ critical thinking based on Multiple Intelligences and gender. Quasi experimental method with within-subjects design is conducted in this research in order to obtain the data. The population of this research was all seventh grade students in ten classes of one public secondary school in Bandung. There were 71 students within two classes taken randomly became the sample in this research. The data are obtained through 28 questions with a topic of living things and environmental sustainability constructed based on eight critical thinking elements proposed by Inch then the questions provided in science virtual and paper-based test. The data was analysed by using paired-samples t test when the data are parametric and Wilcoxon signed ranks test when the data are non-parametric. In general comparison, the p-value of the comparison between science virtual and paper-based tests’ score is 0.506, indicated that there are no significance difference between science virtual and paper-based test based on the tests’ score. The results are furthermore supported by the students’ attitude result which is 3.15 from the scale from 1 to 4, indicated that they have positive attitudes towards Science Virtual Test.

  12. Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A A


    Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences provides graduate students in the social and health sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish statistical models using contemporary standards. The book targets the social and health science branches such as human development, public health, sociology, psychology, education, and social work in which students bring a wide range of mathematical skills and have a wide range of methodological affinities. For these students, a successful course in statistics will not only offer statistical content

  13. Assessing predictors of science grades and career goals in university undergraduates (United States)

    Patanella, Daniel Francis

    The utility of traditional predictors of both science grades and career goals (SAT and GPA) was compared to psychological predictors such as Piagetian stage (as measured by the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking), sex-role schema (as measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, and self-schema in students enrolled in either psychology classes (n = 123) or biology classes (n = 56). While the overall predictive ability of the model was high (R = .73), the strongest predictors of grade in science class were traditional variables and not psychological ones as predicted. Prediction of career goal, while more modest (R = .19), was best served by the psychological variable of self-schema. Subsequent analyses indicated that Piagetian stage was best conceptualized as a mediating variable and that sex-role schema as measured played almost no role in either grade or career goal, as well as verifying the internal validity of the self-schema measure used. Biology students were more likely to possess a science self-schema than psychology students (chi2 (1,179) = 7.34, p < .01) and outperformed psychology students on the Piagetian questions (t(177) = 3.01, p < .01). Response latency was recorded for all participants' answer to the Piagetian questions; contrary to prediction however, the inclusion of response latency did not add to the predictive ability of the Piagetian measure used.

  14. Critical bioethics: beyond the social science critique of applied ethics. (United States)

    Hedgecoe, Adam M


    This article attempts to show a way in which social science research can contribute in a meaningful and equitable way to philosophical bioethics. It builds on the social science critique of bioethics present in the work of authors such as Renee Fox, Barry Hoffmaster and Charles Bosk, proposing the characteristics of a critical bioethics that would take social science seriously. The social science critique claims that traditional philosophical bioethics gives a dominant role to idealised, rational thought, and tends to exclude social and cultural factors, relegating them to the status of irrelevancies. Another problem is they way in which bioethics assumes social reality divides down the same lines/categories as philosophical theories. Critical bioethics requires bioethicists to root their enquiries in empirical research, to challenge theories using evidence, to be reflexive and to be sceptical about the claims of other bioethicists, scientists and clinicians. The aim is to produce a rigorous normative analysis of lived moral experience.

  15. Evolution and the Human Population. Science In a Social CONtext. (United States)

    Solomon, Joan

    Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

  16. Analyzing the Scientific Evolution of Social Work Using Science Mapping (United States)

    Martínez, Ma Angeles; Cobo, Manuel Jesús; Herrera, Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique


    Objectives: This article reports the first science mapping analysis of the social work field, which shows its conceptual structure and scientific evolution. Methods: Science Mapping Analysis Software Tool, a bibliometric science mapping tool based on co-word analysis and h-index, is applied using a sample of 18,794 research articles published from…

  17. Social Science Research Findings and Educational Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller


    Full Text Available The article attempts to raise several distinctions regarding the presumed relationship of social science research findings to social policy making. The distinctions are made using Glymour's critique of the Bell Curve. An argument is made that (1 social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policy makers and (2 what is relevant, but overlooked by Glymour, is how ideological factors mediate the process. The forms that ideological mediation may take are indicated.

  18. Confidence in Science and Achievement Outcomes of Fourth-Grade Students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment (United States)

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.


    Findings from assessments of fourth-grade science have indicated that students in Korea scored higher than international averages. Research results have also shown that attitudes toward science were related to achievement outcomes for Korean students. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between confidence in science and…

  19. Shoring Up Math and Science in the Elementary Grades: Schools Enlist Specialists to Teach Science Lessons (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda


    As science gets squeezed in the elementary curriculum, at least two Florida districts are trying a new approach to keeping hands-on lessons a part of pupils' experiences. This article reports how Broward and Palm Beach county districts have increased the number of science specialists working in their elementary schools--teachers who, like physical…

  20. Student Explanations of Their Science Teachers' Assessments, Grading Practices and How They Learn Science (United States)

    del Carmen Gomez, María


    The current paper draws on data generated through group interviews with students who were involved in a larger ethnographic research project performed in three science classrooms. The purpose of the study from which this data was generated, was to understand science teachers' assessment practices in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. During…

  1. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences. (United States)

    Wensing, Michel


    Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. Commentary. Contributions of social science to the health sciences are not always recognized as such. It may help if the professional profile of social science in the health sciences would be higher and if its focus would be more on making useful predictions. Clinical epidemiologists may assume that their discipline includes all relevant methods and that social science is largely based on qualitative research. These perceptions need to be challenged in order to widen the scope of clinical epidemiology and include relevant methods from other sciences. New methods help to ask new research questions and to provide better to old questions. This paper has sketched challenges for both social science researchers and clinical epidemiologists.

  2. Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for English Language Learners (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.


    This volume in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Learners series was designed to deepen teacher's knowledge and provides instructional approaches and practices for supporting grades 6-12 ELLs as they meet the ambitious expectations of the CCSS for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. This…

  3. Increasing ocean sciences in K and 1st grade classrooms through ocean sciences curriculum aligned to A Framework for K-12 Science Education, and implementation support. (United States)

    Pedemonte, S.; Weiss, E. L.


    Ocean and climate sciences are rarely introduced at the early elementary levels. Reasons for this vary, but include little direct attention at the national and state levels; lack of quality instructional materials; and, lack of teacher content knowledge. Recent recommendations by the National Research Council, "revise the Earth and Space sciences core ideas and grade band endpoints to include more attention to the ocean whenever possible" (NRC, 2012, p. 336) adopted in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), may increase the call for ocean and climate sciences to be addressed. In response to these recommendations' and the recognition that an understanding of some of the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) would be incomplete without an understanding of processes or phenomena unique to the ocean and ocean organisms; the ocean Literacy community have created documents that show the alignment of NGSS with the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts (Ocean Literacy, 2013) as well as the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for Grades K-12 (Ocean Literacy, 2010), providing a solid argument for how and to what degree ocean sciences should be part of the curriculum. However, the percentage of science education curricula focused on the ocean remains very low. This session will describe a new project, that draws on the expertise of curriculum developers, ocean literacy advocates, and researchers to meet the challenges of aligning ocean sciences curriculum to NGSS, and supporting its implementation. The desired outcomes of the proposed project are to provide a rigorous standards aligned curricula that addresses all of the Life Sciences, and some Earth and Space Sciences and Engineering Design Core Ideas for Grades K and 1; and provides teachers with the support they need to understand the content and begin implementation. The process and lessons learned will be shared.

  4. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  5. Learning to write in science: A study of English language learners' writing experience in sixth-grade science classrooms (United States)

    Qi, Yang

    Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood

  6. Social Networking among Library and Information Science Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Alakpodia, Onome Norah


    The purpose of this study was to examine social networking use among Library and Information Science students of the Delta State University, Abraka. In this study, students completed a questionnaire which assessed their familiarity with social networking sites, the purpose for which they use social networking site and their most preferred sites to…

  7. Does STES-Oriented Science Education Promote 10th-Grade Students' Decision-Making Capability? (United States)

    Levy Nahum, Tami; Ben-Chaim, David; Azaiza, Ibtesam; Herskovitz, Orit; Zoller, Uri


    Today's society is continuously coping with sustainability-related complex issues in the Science-Technology-Environment-Society (STES) interfaces. In those contexts, the need and relevance of the development of students' higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as question-asking, critical-thinking, problem-solving and decision-making capabilities within science teaching have been argued by several science educators for decades. Three main objectives guided this study: (1) to establish "base lines" for HOCS capabilities of 10th grade students (n = 264) in the Israeli educational system; (2) to delineate within this population, two different groups with respect to their decision-making capability, science-oriented (n = 142) and non-science (n = 122) students, Groups A and B, respectively; and (3) to assess the pre-post development/change of students' decision-making capabilities via STES-oriented HOCS-promoting curricular modules entitled Science, Technology and Environment in Modern Society (STEMS). A specially developed and validated decision-making questionnaire was used for obtaining a research-based response to the guiding research questions. Our findings suggest that a long-term persistent application of purposed decision-making, promoting teaching strategies, is needed in order to succeed in affecting, positively, high-school students' decision-making ability. The need for science teachers' involvement in the development of their students' HOCS capabilities is thus apparent.

  8. Longitudinal, reciprocal effects of social skills and achievement from kindergarten to eighth grade. (United States)

    Caemmerer, Jacqueline M; Keith, Timothy Z


    Previous research suggests that students' social skills and achievement are interrelated, and some findings support bi-directional effects between the two constructs. The purpose of this research study was to estimate the possible longitudinal and reciprocal effects of social skills and achievement for kindergarten through eighth grade students. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study program were analyzed; teachers' ratings of students' social skills and students' standardized math and reading achievement performance were collected 4 and 5 times, respectively. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used to test a panel model of reciprocal, longitudinal effects of social skills and achievement. The results suggest that the effects of students' social skills and achievement are bi-directional, but the effects of students' achievement on their later social skills are stronger than the effects of social skills on achievement. The significant effects of students' social skills on their later achievement are mostly indirect. These findings suggest that the future social skills of students who struggle academically may be of particular concern to educators, and intervention and prevention efforts aimed to address both social and achievement skills may help remediate the other skill in the future. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of notetaking instruction on 3rd grade student's science learning and notetaking behavior (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    The research examined effects of notetaking instruction on elementary-aged students' ability to recall science information and notetaking behavior. Classes of 3rd grade students were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions, strategic notetaking, partial strategic notetaking, and control, for 4 training sessions. The effects of the notetaking instruction were measured by their performances on a test on science information taught during the training, a long-term free recall of the information, and number of information units recalled with or without cues. Students' prior science achievement was used to group students into two levels (high vs. low) and functioned as another independent variable in analysis. Results indicated significant treatment effect on cued and non-cued recall of the information units in favor of the strategy instruction groups. Students with higher prior achievement in science performed better on cued recall and long-term free recall of information. The results suggest that students as young as at the third grade can be instructed to develop the ability of notetaking that promotes their learning.

  10. Investigation of 9th Grade High School Students’ Attitudes towards Science Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Karamustafaoglu


    Full Text Available In this study, ninth grade students’ attitudes towards science were investigated in terms of self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs and gender variables. The sample of this study includes 322 male and 296 female in total 618 students from 3 different high schools (Science high school, Anatolian high school, and Vocational high school in center district of Amasya city. To collect the data, the researchers employed “Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire” which has been developed by Pintrich and De Groot in 1990, adapted into Turkish by Uredi in 2005 and consists of 44 items and “Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS” has been developed by Adams and others in 2006, adapted into Turkish by Bayar and Karamustafaoğlu in 2015 and consists of 36 items. For data analysis, mean, standard deviation, independent t-test and correlation were addressed. The results of this study show that there are statistically significant relationships between 9th grade students’ attitudes towards science and self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, and gender.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santiago Quintal


    Full Text Available In its origins, the social sciences have focused on technological issues. Social scientists have devoted much attention to the subject affects the action of technological progress on the conformation of human life in General, as well as keeping an eye on more concreteness about the aspects related to the way the technique is acquired, the ways employed to protect her and the tools used to Exchange and protection. In this context, the article aims to identify the contributions of social sciences-notably of the applied social sciences-to discussions involving science, technology and innovation. The survey used the inductive method, applied to the literature review. The findings point to multidisciplinarity of significant thematic affects to science, technology and innovation. Keywords: Scientific knowledge; Social Sciences; Technology and society.

  12. Science Informational Trade Books: An Exploration of Text-based Practices and Interactions in a First-grade Classroom (United States)

    Schreier, Virginia A.

    Although scholars have long advocated the use of informational texts in the primary grades, gaps and inconsistencies in research have produced conflicting reports on how teachers used these texts in the primary curriculum, and how primary students dealt with them during instruction and on their own (e.g., Saul & Dieckman, 2005). Thus, to add to research on informational texts in the primary grades, the purpose of this study was to examine: (a) a first-grade teacher's use of science informational trade books (SITBs) in her classroom, (b) the ways students responded to her instruction, and (c) how students interacted with these texts. My study was guided by a sociocultural perspective (e.g., Bakhtin, 1981; Vygotsky, 1978), providing me a lens to examine participants during naturally occurring social practices in the classroom, mediated by language and other symbolic tools. Data were collected by means of 28 observations, 6 semi-structured interviews, 21 unstructured interviews, and 26 documents over the course of 10 weeks. Three themes generated from the data to provide insight into the teacher's and students' practices and interactions with SITBs. First, the first-grade teacher used SITBs as teaching tools during guided conversations around the text to scaffold students' understanding of specialized vocabulary, science concepts, and text features. Her instruction with SITBs included shared reading lessons, interactive read-alouds and learning activities during two literacy/science units. However, there was limited use of SITBs during the rest of her reading program, in which she demonstrated a preference for narrative. Second, students responded to instruction by participating in guided conversations around the text, in which they used prior knowledge, shared ideas, and visual representations (e.g., illustrations, diagrams, labels, and captions) to actively make meaning of the text. Third, students interacted with SITBs on their own to make sense of science, in

  13. Resource Handbook--Space Beyond the Earth. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6. (United States)

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; space. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four units: 1) the sun, earth, and moon; 2) stars and planets; 3) exploring space; 4) man's existence in space. Each unit includes initiatory and developmental activities. There are also sections on evaluation, vocabulary,…

  14. The Effects of Using Diorama on 7th Grade Students' Academic Achievement and Science Learning Skills (United States)

    Aslan Efe, Hulya


    This study aims to investigate the effects of using diorama on 7th grade students' academic achievement and science learning skills in "human being and environment relation" unit. The participants were 49 (E:25, C:24) 7th grade students studying during 2015-16 academic year in Diyarbakir, Turkey. An achievement test and "science…

  15. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists. (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah


    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. The relationship between nature of science understandings and science self-efficacy beliefs of sixth grade students (United States)

    Parker, Elisabeth Allyn

    Bandura (1986) posited that self-efficacy beliefs help determine what individuals do with the knowledge and skills they have and are critical determinants of how well skill and knowledge are acquired. Research has correlated self-efficacy beliefs with academic success and subject interest (Pajares, Britner, & Valiante, 2000). Similar studies report a decreasing interest by students in school science beginning in middle school claiming that they don't enjoy science because the classes are boring and irrelevant to their lives (Basu & Barton, 2007). The hypothesis put forth by researchers is that students need to observe models of how science is done, the nature of science (NOS), so that they connect with the human enterprise of science and thereby raise their self-efficacy (Britner, 2008). This study examined NOS understandings and science self-efficacy of students enrolled in a sixth grade earth science class taught with explicit NOS instruction. The research questions that guided this study were (a) how do students' self-efficacy beliefs change as compared with changes in their nature of science understandings?; and (b) how do changes in students' science self-efficacy beliefs vary with gender and ethnicity segregation? A mixed method design was employed following an embedded experimental model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). As the treatment, five NOS aspects were first taught by the teachers using nonintegrated activities followed by integrated instructional approach (Khishfe, 2008). Students' views of NOS using the Views on Nature of Science (VNOS) (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, & Schwartz, 2002) along with their self-efficacy beliefs using three Likert-type science self-efficacy scales (Britner, 2002) were gathered. Changes in NOS understandings were determined by categorizing student responses and then comparing pre- and post-instructional understandings. To determine changes in participants' self-efficacy beliefs as measured by the three subscales, a multivariate

  17. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick


    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  18. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom (United States)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  19. Analysis Science Process Skills Content in Chemistry Textbooks Grade XI at Solubility and Solubility Product Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Antrakusuma


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the analysis of science process skills in textbooks of chemistry grade XI in SMA N 1 Teras, Boyolali. This research used the descriptive method. The instruments were developed based on 10 indicators of science process skills (observing, classifying, finding a conclusion, predicting, raising the question, hypothesizing, planning an experiment, manipulating materials, and equipment, Applying, and communicating. We analyzed 3 different chemistry textbooks that often used by teachers in teaching. The material analyzed in the book was solubility and solubility product concept in terms of concept explanation and student activity. The results of this research showed different science process skill criteria in 3 different chemistry textbooks. Book A appeared 50% of all aspects of science process skills, in Book B appeared 80% of all aspects of science process skills, and in Book C there was 40% of all aspects of the science process skills. The most common indicator in all books was observing (33.3%, followed by prediction (19.05%, classifying (11.90%, Applying (11.90% , planning experiments (9.52%, manipulating materials and equipment (7.14%, finding conclusion (4.76%, communicating (2.38%. Asking the question and hypothesizing did not appear in textbooks.

  20. Increasing participation and improving the quality of discussions in seventh-grade social studies classes


    Smith, Burleigh M.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Schaeffer, Janae; Sherman, James A.


    An experiment was conducted to evaluate procedures to improve classroom discussions in seventh-grade social studies classes. An increased number of students participated in discussions when rules were stated for discussions, students were praised for their contributions, the teacher restated or paraphrased students' contributions aloud or on the blackboard, the teacher planned an outline of discussion questions, student contributions to discussions were recorded and were used to determine par...

  1. The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students' math and science anxiety and self-efficacy. (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L


    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Scientific inquiry as social and linguistic practice: Language socialization pathways in a ninth-grade physics class (United States)

    Braden, Sarah Katherine

    English Language Learners (ELLs) in K-12 schools in the United States. have lower standardized test scores and lower high school graduation rates than their native-English speaking peers. Similar performance gaps exist for Latino/a students when compared to White non-Latino/a students, even if they are not identified as English learners and were schooled in the United States. Language minority students are also underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. Equity in access to STEM degrees and professions is a social justice issue with economic implications. STEM careers provide economic security for individuals and growth in STEM industries is important for the United States economy. As the demographics in the United States change to include more workers from language minority backgrounds, it has become even more imperative to ensure equitable access to STEM careers. Traditional approaches to studying equity for K-12 language minority students in the sciences focus on narrowly defined pedagogical methods aimed at improving the performance of language learners on science assessments. However, language socialization research using ethnographic methods suggests that students' classroom-based social positioning shapes their learning and their affiliation or disaffiliation with particular disciplines. Thus, this dissertation explores science expertise as a discursively constructed stance not as a set of acquired facts. In this dissertation research, I use ethnography and classroom discourse analysis to study peer group interactions and explore how language minority students either achieve or do not achieve science expert status in their physics lab groups. In order to trace the language socialization pathways of three Spanish-English bilingual Latina students, it was also necessary to document community-level norms related to academic success. The findings in this dissertation center on these two phenomena: classroom

  3. Shaping a Science of Social Work (United States)

    Brekke, John S.


    Social workers provide more social services to populations across the life span than any other human service profession, including psychiatry, nursing, and psychology. The scientific methodologies and the scientific knowledge relevant to social services have expanded dramatically in the last 30 years. Using the two indicators of the total number…

  4. Incentivising social science perspectives in the SADC water sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M


    Full Text Available Addressing the governance challenges facing the water sector necessitates expertise from a diverse set of interdisciplinary backgrounds. Creating a balance between technical, natural and social science is critical to developing relevant and impact...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. O. O. Umoh, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom. State, Nigeria .... research may be lost through misunderstanding ..... advertisement, the media also should be used to ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO. ... media. From the over fifty tertiary institutions in the country graduates are churned .... few were collected at the contact addresses, ... acquisition is paramount for successful job hunting.

  7. Social Climate Science: A New Vista for Psychological Science. (United States)

    Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer


    The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Basic mathematics for the biological and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Marriott, F H C


    Basic Mathematics for the Biological and Social Sciences deals with the applications of basic mathematics in the biological and social sciences. Mathematical concepts that are discussed in this book include graphical methods, differentiation, trigonometrical or circular functions, limits and convergence, integration, vectors, and differential equations. The exponential function and related functions are also considered. This monograph is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of basic algebra, followed by an introduction to infinitesimal calculus, scalar and vector quantities, co

  9. Eight statements on environmental research in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prittwitz, V.


    Social science research on environmental problems has two main tasks: (1) to provide critical practice-oriented contributions to present and threatening environmental problems, and (2) to draw the humans-and-nature problematique into social science concepts and theoretical frameworks. In this paper, the prerequisites for achieving both tasks as well as the theoretical, political, and institutional aspects that affect them are discussed. The focus of the discussion is the interdependence between practical problem solving and development of theory. (orig.) [de

  10. The socializing workshop and the scientific appraisal in pedagogical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos, Eneida Catalina


    Full Text Available The systematization of the authors' experiences as agents of the process of Ph. D. formative process in Pedagogical Sciences leads them to propose The Socialization Workshop, as a valid alternative for scientific valuation of pedagogical investigations, supported in the epistemic nature of this science, as well as the author’s previous contributions about epistemic communication. The definition of The Socialization Workshop, its rationale and corresponding methodological stages are presented.

  11. Project first and eye on the sky: strategies for teaching space science in the early grades (United States)

    Paglierani, R.; Hawkins, I.

    Elementary educators typically have only limited opportunity to teach substantive science units. This is due, in great part, to the current primary focus on literacy and mathematics instruction in the early grades. It is not surprising then, that the time and resources allocated to science teaching are significantly less than those allocated to language arts and mathematics. The integration of elementary science curricula with language arts provides one means of addressing the challenge of maintaining a robust science presence in the elementary classroom. Project FIRST's Eye on the Sky suggests a model for the successful integration of science instruction with language arts through inquiry-based learning. The model has been adopted by other Education/Public Outreach efforts, most recently, the Cassini- Huygens Mission and the Space Telescope Institute. We will present Eye on the Sky: Our Star the Sun, a suite of integrated, inquiry-based lessons designed specifically for K-4 students and discuss data showing the program's impact on the user audience. These materials offer an exciting opportunity to explore the dynamic Sun and share research discoveries of NASA's Sun-Earth Connection with the elementary education community. The lessons were developed and tested by UC Berkeley educators and NASA scientists in partnership with classroom teachers. We will review the program components and examine the benefits and challenges inherent in implementing such a program in the elementary school setting.

  12. Representation of Science Process Skills in the Chemistry Curricula for Grades 10, 11 and 12 / Turkey


    Abdullah Aydin


    In one study conducted in Turkey, Berberoğlu et al. (2002) stressed that methods of designing and implementing especially laboratory experiments should inevitably be focused on developing one’s higher-level mental skills. (Berberoğlu et al., 2002). It was suggested in a study by Koray et al. (2006) entitled as “Conditions of Representing Science Process Skills in 9th grade Chemistry Course Books and Chemistry Curriculums” that scientific process abilities should be given more place in Chemist...

  13. Gender differences in tenth-grade students' attitudes toward science: The effect of school type (United States)

    Ndakwah, Ernestine Ajame

    The focus of this mixed methods study was on 10th grade students' attitudes towards science. Its purpose was to examine the effect of gender and school-type on attitudes toward science. Research on attitudes toward science has focused on gender, school level, and classroom environment. Relatively little has been done on the effect of school type. In the present study, school type refers to the following variables; private vs. public, single-sex vs. coeducational and high vs. low-achieving schools. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there are gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the school type variables being investigated. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was the instrument used to provide quantitative data for this aspect of the study. TOSRA is a Likert scale consisting of seven subscales measuring different aspects of science attitudes. The qualitative component, on the other hand, explored students' perspectives on the factors, which were influential in the development of the attitudes that they hold. The events and experiences of their lives in and out-of-school, with respect to science, and the meanings that they make of these provided the data from which their attitudes toward science could be gleaned. Data for this component of the study was gathered by means of in-depth focus group interviews. The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Statistical treatment of the questionnaire data involved the use of t tests and ANOVA. Findings did not reveal any gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were some differences on some of the subscales. School type did not appear to be a significant variable in students' attitudes to science. The results of both quantitative and qualitative components show that instructional strategy and teacher characteristics, both of which are components of the classroom environment are

  14. Implementation of the Social Decision-Making Skills Curriculum on Primary Students (Grades 1-3) in Lebanon (United States)

    El Hassan, Karma; Mouganie, Zeina


    This study investigated the effect of the Social Decision-Making Skills Curriculum (SDSC) on the emotional intelligence and the prosocial behaviors of primary students in Grades 1-3, in a private school in Lebanon. Students were trained in social problem-solving and social decision-making skills through the implementation of the SDSC. Participants…

  15. How the “Queen Science” Lost Her Crown: A Brief Social History of Science Fairs and the Marginalization of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Marx


    Full Text Available Science fairs at one time started out with an interest of increasing participation in the sciences. But as time has passed, the definition of science has been narrowed to the point where any possible social science project has been eliminated in favor of the bench sciences only. Even here, natural curiosity of students has been deemphasized. It is not surprising that science majors in the USA are becoming fewer and fewer given the narrowing of the disciplines. Young people are discouraged from majoring in science by the science establishment.

  16. A systematic review of US rangeland social science (United States)

    Rangeland science aims to create knowledge to sustain rangeland social-ecological systems over the long term. Range science has made substantial progress on understanding ecological dynamics of rangeland systems and the management practices that sustain them, and these findings have been systematica...

  17. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences generally aims to foster progressive partnerships between different stake holders towards sustainable Agriculture. Papers in Animal husbandry, Fisheries, wild life, crop and Soil Science, agricultural economics, Extension, Forestry, environment and papers with a ...

  18. Can pre-grade R be the stepping stone to social equality in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeli Kotze


    Full Text Available Investment in Early Childhood Development (ECD has the prospect of cultivating potential within individuals and can assist in bridging the social equity gap from a very young age. Over the past decade Grade R has been the strongest policy lever used by the Department of Basic Education to improve early learning. The National Development Plan calls for universal access to two years of early childhood development prior to entering Grade 1. This paper explores the merits of this proposal, given the specific South African context. More specifically, this analysis intents to bring new information to bear on three matters. The first relates to the demand-side and aims to identify participation trends among four and five year olds. The second objective is to consider the supply-side and aims to understand the policy space in which pre-Grade R will function, the quality and quantity of infrastructure already in place, and the expertise of ECD practitioners. The final question considers the implementation of a universally accessible pre-Grade R within a constrained system and the requirements to ensure that it will have a significant impact on those children most in need.

  19. Attitudes toward Science among Grades 3 through 12 Arab Students in Qatar: Findings from a Cross-Sectional National Study (United States)

    Said, Ziad; Summers, Ryan; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Wang, Shuai


    This study assessed students' attitudes toward science in Qatar. A cross-sectional, nationwide probability sample representing all students enrolled in grades 3 through 12 in the various types of schools in Qatar completed the "Arabic Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey" (ASSASS). The validity and reliability of the…

  20. Investigating the Effects of a DNA Fingerprinting Workshop on 10th Grade Students' Self Efficacy and Attitudes toward Science. (United States)

    Sonmez, Duygu; Simcox, Amanda

    The purpose of this study was investigate the effects of a DNA Fingerprinting Workshop on 10th grade students' self efficacy and attitudes toward science. The content of the workshop based on high school science curriculum and includes multimedia instruction, laboratory experiment and participation of undergraduate students as mentors. N=93…

  1. Women, Men, and Academic Performance in Science and Engineering: The Gender Difference in Undergraduate Grade Point Averages (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard; Fox, Mary Frank


    Using longitudinal and multi-institutional data, this article takes an innovative approach in its analyses of gender differences in grade point averages (GPA) among undergraduate students in biology, the physical sciences, and engineering over a 16-year period. Assessed are hypotheses about (a) the gender ecology of science/engineering and (b) the…

  2. Metaconceptually-Enhanced Simulation-Based Inquiry: Effects on Eighth Grade Students' Conceptual Change and Science Epistemic Beliefs (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Ge, Xun; Eseryel, Deniz


    This study investigated the effects of metaconceptually-enhanced, simulation-based inquiry learning on eighth grade students' conceptual change in science and their development of science epistemic beliefs. Two experimental groups studied the topics of motion and force using the same computer simulations but with different simulation guides: one…

  3. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences (United States)


    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  4. An Examination of Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes towards Social Studies Course in Terms of Severable Variables (United States)

    Ilgaz, Selçuk


    The aim of this research is to investigate the 5th grade students' attitude towards social studies course regarding several variables. The population of the study consisted of 4435 fifth grade students studying in public schools in Malatya, Yesilyurt. The sample group consisted of 362 students from 10 schools in the same district. The data used in…

  5. Pollution: Problems and Solutions. Grade Nine, Unit One, 9.1 Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City. (United States)

    Jamison, Sandra; Campbell, Bruce

    The ninth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) studies the economic and political realities of the inner city. This document, the first unit of the 9th grade section, deals with the ecological crises involving pollution and its causes. Specific problems include air pollution, pesticides, herbicides,…

  6. Experts and consensus in social science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, C.; Boumans, M.


    This book brings together the research of philosophers and social scientists. It examines those areas of scientific practice where reliance on the subjective judgment of experts and practitioners is the main source of useful knowledge to address, and, possibly, bring solutions to social problems. A

  7. Health and environment: social science perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.; Keune, H.


    In this new book the authors examine the contribution of social scientists to the topics of health and environment. They present diverse perspectives on classical and contemporary debates by focusing on social scientific framing of environment and health, as well as on the potential contribution of

  8. Information-seeking behavior of social sciences scholars: A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...

  9. Leyla and Mahmood--Emotions in Social Science Education (United States)

    Blennow, Katarina


    Purpose: The paper explores what emotions do in social science education through two specific cases and discusses the relation between emotion and politicization in the subject education. Method/approach: The cases are selected from an on-going dissertation project that uses interviews, video and observations in examining how social science…

  10. Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism: Recommendations for Social Science Research. (United States)

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that…

  11. Against integration - Why evolution cannot unify the social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M

    A lack of integration is often identified as a fundamental problem in psychology and the social sciences. It is thought that only through increased cooperation among the various disciplines and subdisciplines, and integration of their different theoretical approaches, can psychology and the social

  12. The Social Science Teacher; Vol. 4, No. 1, Summer 1974. (United States)

    Townley, Charles, Ed.

    This new British journal is a medium of communication for those involved in teaching social science and social studies at the secondary and elementary levels. The first article in this issue, Ian Shelton's "The Sociology of Everyday Life," describes an experimental short course in secondary sociology. The course is designed to produce an…

  13. Science Fiction in Social Education: Exploring Consequences of Technology (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.


    An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…

  14. Shaping Social Work Science: What Should Quantitative Researchers Do? (United States)

    Guo, Shenyang


    Based on a review of economists' debates on mathematical economics, this article discusses a key issue for shaping the science of social work--research methodology. The article describes three important tasks quantitative researchers need to fulfill in order to enhance the scientific rigor of social work research. First, to test theories using…

  15. Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJOSSAH is a peer-reviewed journal of the social sciences and humanities specializing on social, political, economic and cultural development in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. It is a biannual journal open to all interested contributors. Vol 13, No 1 (2017). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  16. Social studies of science and us. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.


    The author discusses some social impacts related with nuclear wastes, nuclear energy, nuclear weapons and radioanalytical chemistry. They are based on the talks delivered at the meeting of the Society for the Social Studies of Science (4S) in November 1983. (The first part of the publication does not contain references to nuclear problems). (A.L.)

  17. Mapping Social Interactions: The Science of Proxemics. (United States)

    McCall, Cade

    Interpersonal distance and gaze provide a wealth of information during face-to-face social interactions. These "proxemic" behaviors offer a window into everyday social cognition by revealing interactants' affective states (e.g., interpersonal attitudes) and cognitive responses (e.g., social attention). Here we provide a brief overview of the social psychological literature in this domain. We focus on new techniques for experimentally manipulating and measuring proxemics, including the use of immersive virtual environments and digital motion capture. We also discuss ways in which these approaches can be integrated with psychophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. Throughout, we argue that contemporary proxemics research provides psychology and neuroscience with a means to study social cognition and behavior as they naturally emerge and unfold in vivo.

  18. Mothers' Early Depressive Symptoms Predict Children's Low Social Competence in First Grade: Mediation by Children's Social Cognition (United States)

    Wang, Yiji; Dix, Theodore


    Background: This study examined whether social-cognitive processes in children mediate relations between mothers' depressive symptoms across the first 3 years and children's first-grade social competence. Three maladaptive cognitions were examined: self-perceived social inadequacy, hostile attribution, and aggressive response generation.…

  19. Adapting computational text analysis to social science (and vice versa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul DiMaggio


    Full Text Available Social scientists and computer scientist are divided by small differences in perspective and not by any significant disciplinary divide. In the field of text analysis, several such differences are noted: social scientists often use unsupervised models to explore corpora, whereas many computer scientists employ supervised models to train data; social scientists hold to more conventional causal notions than do most computer scientists, and often favor intense exploitation of existing algorithms, whereas computer scientists focus more on developing new models; and computer scientists tend to trust human judgment more than social scientists do. These differences have implications that potentially can improve the practice of social science.

  20. Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal strives to enable a sound balance between theory and practice and will ... conceptual, viewpoint, case study, literature review nature in broad topics in the ... Library and Information Science education in Anglophone Africa: Past, ...

  1. The Methodological Socialization of Social Science Doctoral Students in China and the USA (United States)

    Rhoads, Robert A.; Zheng, Mi; Sun, Xiaoyang


    This qualitative study reports findings from a comparative analysis of the methodological socialization of doctoral students in the social sciences at two universities: one in China and one in the USA. Relying primarily on theories of organizational socialization, the study focuses on formal and informal processes students report as part of…

  2. A Sample Application for Use of Biography in Social Studies; Science, Technology and Social Change Course (United States)

    Er, Harun


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the opinions of social studies teacher candidates on use of biography in science, technology and social change course given in the undergraduate program of social studies education. In this regard, convergent parallel design as a mixed research pattern was used to make use of both qualitative and quantitative…

  3. Learning to teach science for social justice in urban schools (United States)

    Vora, Purvi

    This study looks at how beginner teachers learn to teach science for social justice in urban schools. The research questions are: (1) what views do beginner teachers hold about teaching science for social justice in urban schools? (2) How do beginner teachers' views about teaching science for social justice develop as part of their learning? In looking at teacher learning, I take a situative perspective that defines learning as increased participation in a community of practice. I use the case study methodology with five teacher participants as the individual units of analysis. In measuring participation, I draw from mathematics education literature that offers three domains of professional practice: Content, pedagogy and professional identity. In addition, I focus on agency as an important component of increased participation from a social justice perspective. My findings reveal two main tensions that arose as teachers considered what it meant to teach science from a social justice perspective: (1) Culturally responsive teaching vs. "real" science and (2) Teaching science as a political act. In negotiating these tensions, teachers drew on a variety of pedagogical and conceptual tools offered in USE that focused on issues of equity, access, place-based pedagogy, student agency, ownership and culture as a toolkit. Further, in looking at how the five participants negotiated these tensions in practice, I describe four variables that either afforded or constrained teacher agency and consequently the development of their own identity and role as socially just educators. These four variables are: (1) Accessing and activating social, human and cultural capital, (2) reconceptualizing culturally responsive pedagogical tools, (3) views of urban youth and (4) context of participation. This study has implications for understanding the dialectical relationship between agency and social justice identity for beginner teachers who are learning how to teach for social justice. Also

  4. Exploring Social Learning through Upstream Engagement in Science and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose

    This discussion paper deliberates on how the concept of social learning can be used for evaluating upstream engagement initiatives in science and technology.  The paper briefly introduces to the concept of upstream engagement and a concrete case, the UK Citizen Science for Sustainability project...... (SuScit), as an outset for discussing how the concept of social learning can be used for analysing and understanding relations between citizen participation, Science and research, and sustainability. A number of relevant research questions and methodological considerations are distilled...

  5. ``I Just Want The Credit!'' - Perceived Instrumentality as the Main Characteristic of Boys' Motivation in a Grade 11 Science Course (United States)

    Nieswandt, Martina; Shanahan, Marie-Claire


    This case study examines the motivational structure of a group of male students ( n = 10) in a grade 11 General Science class at an independent single-sex school. We approach the concept of motivation through the integration of three different theoretical approaches: sociocultural theory, future time perspective and achievement goal theory. This framework allows us to stress the dialectical interdependence of motivation, as expressed through individual goals, and the socially and culturally influenced origins of these goals. Our results suggest that the boys internalised the administrative description of the course as meeting a diploma requirement, which they expressed in their perception of the course as being for “non-science” people who “just need a credit.” However, we also found situational changes in students’ motivational structure towards more intrinsic orientations when they were engaged in topics with personal everyday and future relevance. These situational changes in students’ goal structures illustrate that our participants did not internalise classroom and school goal messages wholly and, instead, selectively and constructively transformed these goal messages depending on their own motivational structure and beliefs. These results stress the importance of teachers scaffolding not only for conceptual learning but also for student motivation in science classes, especially those that purposefully teach towards scientific literacy.

  6. Eighth-grade science teachers use of instructional time: Examining questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and comparing TIMSS and National Science Foundation questionnaires (United States)

    Davidson, Anne Burgess

    Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? Part I of this 2-part study used the TIMSS database to answer the question: Do 8th grade science teachers in the U.S., Czech Republic, Hungary, Japan, and Korea differ significantly in their perceived use of instructional time? Using the instructional activities in the TIMSS teacher question "How did the lesson proceed?" the teacher-reported times were analyzed using a repeated measures multivariate analysis. Significant differences were found between teacher-reported times in the U.S. and the other 4 TIMSS countries, whose 8th grade students outperformed U.S. students on TIMSS achievement tests. Post-hoc analysis indicated that TIMSS U.S. 8th grade science teachers report spending more time on homework in class, on group activities, and on lab activities, but less time on topic development, than TIMSS teachers from some or all of the other countries. Part II of this study further examined the question "How did the lesson proceed?" by videotaping 6 classes of 8th grade science in Alabama and Virginia and comparing observer coding of the video to the teachers' recalled descriptions of the same class. The difference between observer and teacher responses using TIMSS categories was not significant; however, 43% of the total variance was explained by whether the teacher or the observer reported the times for the instructional activities. The teachers also responded to questions from the NSF Local Systemic Change Through Teacher Enhancement K--8 Teacher Questionnaire to describe the same class. The difference found between the teacher and the observer coding was not significant, but the amount of variance explained by the data source (observer or teacher) dropped to 33% when using NSF student activity categories and to 26% when using NSF teacher activity categories. The conclusion of this study was that questionnaires to

  7. Social Water Science Data: Dimensions, Data Management, and Visualization (United States)

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Flint, C.; Jackson-Smith, D.


    Water systems are increasingly conceptualized as coupled human-natural systems, with growing emphasis on representing the human element in hydrology. However, social science data and associated considerations may be unfamiliar and intimidating to many hydrologic researchers. Monitoring social aspects of water systems involves expanding the range of data types typically used in hydrology and appreciating nuances in datasets that are well known to social scientists, but less understood by hydrologists. We define social water science data as any information representing the human aspects of a water system. We present a scheme for classifying these data, highlight an array of data types, and illustrate data management considerations and challenges unique to social science data. This classification scheme was applied to datasets generated as part of iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Arid region Hydro-sustainability), an interdisciplinary water research project based in Utah, USA that seeks to integrate and share social and biophysical water science data. As the project deployed cyberinfrastructure for baseline biophysical data, cyberinfrastructure for analogous social science data was necessary. As a particular case of social water science data, we focus in this presentation on social science survey data. These data are often interpreted through the lens of the original researcher and are typically presented to interested parties in static figures or reports. To provide more exploratory and dynamic communication of these data beyond the individual or team who collected the data, we developed a web-based, interactive viewer to visualize social science survey responses. This interface is applicable for examining survey results that show human motivations and actions related to environmental systems and as a useful tool for participatory decision-making. It also serves as an example of how new data sharing and visualization tools can be developed once the

  8. Determination of Motivations towards Science Learning of Eighth Grade Turkish and German Students (A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, eighth grade students’ motivations towards science learning in Turkey and Germany were determined and compared on the basis of countries. The sample of the research was consisted of 393 8th grade students of public schools in the city centre of Turkey/Adana and in Germany/Berlin who were selected through a basic random sample during the 2013-2014 education period. In the research in which the survey model was used “Science Motivation Questionnaire” as data collection tool. In the analysis of the sub-problems of the study, descriptive statistics like frequency (f-percentage (% and independent groups t-test were used. On the other hand, in the adaptation of the scale to the German, item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach Alpha coefficient were performed. As a result of the factor analysis, we could accept the scale as compatible with the original form, acceptably reliable and valid. Since the items inside the Turkish and German forms indicated differences, mean scores were considered during the analysis of the sub-problems. Results exposed that there are differences between the total motivational scores of students and these differences were in favor of the students in Germany. Moreover, we confirmed that the distribution of total motivation scores of the male and female students in each country was close to each other

  9. Invitations to Life's Diversity. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series. (United States)

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about diversity and classification of living things which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in…

  10. Determination of Motivation of 5th Grade Students Living in Rural and Urban Environments towards Science Learning and Their Attitudes towards Science-Technology Course (United States)

    Kenar, Ismail; Köse, Mücahit; Demir, Halil Ibrahim


    In this research, determination of motivation of 5th grade students living in rural and urban environments towards science learning and their attitudes towards science-technology course is aimed. This research is conducted based on descriptive survey model. Samples are selected through teleological model in accordance with the aim of this…

  11. Development of Analytical Thinking Ability and Attitudes towards Science Learning of Grade-11 Students through Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM Education) in the Study of Stoichiometry (United States)

    Chonkaew, Patcharee; Sukhummek, Boonnak; Faikhamta, Chatree


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the analytical thinking abilities and attitudes towards science learning of grade-11 students through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education integrated with a problem-based learning in the study of stoichiometry. The research tools consisted of a pre- and post-analytical…

  12. Science Students and the Social Sciences: Strange Bedfellows? (United States)

    Yeong, Foong May


    With various internet resources available to students, the main aim of a good university education today should not merely be to provide students with content knowledge, but rather to equip them with essential skills necessary to develop into lifelong learners. Among science educators, repeated calls have been made to promote a more holistic…

  13. A pedagogical approach to socially just relations in a Grade 11 Economics class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayd Waghid


    Full Text Available Post-apartheid schooling in South Africa is challenged with the task of contributing towards social justice, as has been evident from the emergence of a plethora of education policies following the promulgation of the South African Schools Act in 1996. One of the most significant ways in which social justice can be cultivated in schools, especially where exclusion and marginalisation have been in ascendancy for decades, is through improved pedagogical activities, which receive focus in this article. The article focuses on investigating how the learning goals for Grade 11 Economics with the aid of an educational technology, in particular Facebook, engender opportunities for socially just relations in the classroom. The researcher is concerned with how these learning goals are related to three underlying aspects of Economics education, namely sustainable development, equity (including equality and economic development, and how they may or may not engender opportunities for social justice. Critical discourse analysis is the research approach used to analyse learners' comments on Facebook in relation to their understandings of three films. It was found that it is possible to teach and learn education for social justice in the classroom. Learners treated one another equally; enacted their pedagogical relations equitably; and learnt to become economically aware of their society's developmental needs. Thus, it is recommended that education for social justice be cultivated in school classrooms through the use of Facebook.

  14. Social anxiety and attitude towards conspicuous consumption in sixth and seventh grade primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukičević Leposava


    Full Text Available Our previous research was aimed at psychological underpinnings of the attitude towards conspicuous consumption (displayed through use of designer clothes in high school and university students, aged 17 to 25. This study examined the relationship between the attitude towards designer clothes and social anxiety in 205 sixth and seventh grade primary school children, aged 12 to 13. Their attitude towards designer clothes was assessed by an abridged version of our standard questionnaire (CC - 28. Social anxiety was evaluated by a psychometric scale SA - 34 that was modeled after the social anxiety scale SA - 32 (Tovilović, 2004 in order to comply with our respondents' age and vocabulary. The data indicated that social anxiety at age 12 -13 is primarily manifested as shyness and the importance placed on the impression that one makes on his/her social environment. Both factors were positively correlated with the positive attitude towards designer clothes indicating that among 12 to 13 year old Serbian children wearing designer clothes enhances personal esteem and attractiveness in the eyes of other group members. At this age, the attitude towards designer clothes can be, at least partially, explained by a belief that conspicuous consumption contributes to increased social acceptance and the feelings of personal respect and safety.

  15. Science during crisis: the application of social science during major environmental crises (United States)

    Machlis, Gary; Ludwig, Kris; Manfredo, Michael J.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Rechkemmer, Andreas; Duke, Esther


    Historical and contemporary experience suggests that science plays an increasingly critical role in governmental and institutional responses to major environmental crises. Recent examples include major western wildfires (2009), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). The application of science during such crises has several distinctive characteristics, as well as essential requirements if it is to be useful to decision makers. these include scope conditions that include coupled natural/human systems, clear statement of uncertainties and limitations, description of cascading consequences, accurate sense of place, estimates of magnitude of impacts, identification of beneficiaries and those adversely affected, clarity and conciseness, compelling visualization and presentation, capacity to speak "truth to power", and direct access to decision makers. In this chapter, we explore the role and significance of science – including all relevant disciplines and focusing attention on the social sciences – in responding to major environmental crises. We explore several important questions: How is science during crisis distinctive? What social science is most useful during crises? What distinctive characteristics are necessary for social science to make meaningful contributions to emergency response and recovery? How might the social sciences be integrated into the strategic science needed to respond to future crises? The authors, both members of the Department of the Interior's innovative Strategic Sciences Group, describe broad principles of engagement as well as specific examples drawn from history, contemporary efforts (such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill), and predictions of environmental crises still to be confronted.

  16. entrepreneurship opportunities in social and management sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    most manufacturing and service-providing organizations is ... manufacturing concerns of the .... security needs for protection and safety; (iii) .... as religion, social class, belief, income bracket .... other apart from general exposure to the world of.

  17. What is taking place in science classrooms?: A case study analysis of teaching and learning in seventh-grade science of one Alabama school and its impact on African American student learning (United States)

    Norman, Lashaunda Renea

    district for better educational opportunities; and (7) Teachers were not familiar with the term "culturally responsive teaching," but there was evidence that several aspects of it were present in the seventh-grade science classroom environment. Critical Race Theory (CRT) was the framework for analysis and interpretation of this research study. The findings support the following tenets of CRT: (a) racism is normal, (b) interest-convergence or colorblindness, (c) contextual-historical analysis, (d) storytelling or counterstorytelling, and (e) social transformation. These findings indicate that racial inequalities remain an issue in the underachievement of African Americans and may be the solution to improving science learning of African Americans. The outcome of this study contributes to the limited research on utilizing culturally responsive teaching along with best teaching strategies to improve academic achievement of African American students, and CRT exposes the issues that contribute to the Black-White achievement gap in science widening.

  18. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.


    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  19. Constitutions of Nature by Teacher Practice and Discourse in Ontario Grade 9 and 10 Academic Science (United States)

    Hoeg, Darren Glen

    This thesis presents an ethnographic study, based broadly on principles and methods of institutional ethnography, on the constitution of nature by nine Ontario Grade 9 and 10 Academic Science teachers. The intent of this methodological approach is to examine how the daily practice of participants works toward constituting nature in specific ways that are coordinated by the institution (Ontario public school and/or school science). Critical Discourse Analysis and general inductive analysis were performed on interview transcripts, texts related to teaching science selected by participants, and policy documents (i.e. curriculum; assessment policy) that coordinate science teacher practice. Findings indicate specific, dominant, and relatively uniform ontological and epistemological constitutions of nature. Nature was frequently constituted as a remote object, distant from and different than students studying it. More complex representations included constituting nature as a model, machine, or mathematical algorithm. Epistemological constitutions of nature were enacted through practices that engaged students in manipulating nature; controlling nature, and dominating nature. Relatively few practices that allow students to construct different constitutions of nature than those prioritized by the institution were observed. Dominant constitutions generally assume nature is simply the material to study, from which scientific knowledge can be obtained, with little ethical or moral consideration about nature itself, or how these constitutions produce discourse and relationships that may be detrimental to nature. Dominant constitutions of nature represent a type of objective knowledge that is prioritized, and made accessible to students, through science activities that attain a position of privilege in local science teacher cultures. The activities that allow students to attain the requisite knowledge of nature are collected, collated, and shared among existing science teachers

  20. Dualism of Social Conditions: Religion, Morality and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Levickaitė


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the topic of social dualism through religion, morality and science. The paper refers to one of the most original works uncovering the social roots of religion – The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life by Emile Durkheim (1858–1917 who is considered to be the founder of modern sociology. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life develops the coherent theory of religion as well as ventilates different aspects of the religious life. The message of the paper is: is religion the generative essence of social aspect, does a state of constant dependence stimulate a sense of religious piety, is a moral social order able to stabilize dualism of human energy. The paper proposes an assertion that science as a social phenomenon reflects knowledge and the values of its perception which are impacted by imagination and classified codes of cultural forms. As a result a thesis is proposed – a cultural (influenced by environment and a personal (influenced by internal factors desire for differentiation and its provoked conflict is of a social character. The second part of the paper deals with relation between science and social phenomena with inherent dualism. A short discussion is presented on L’ Année Sociologique (a group of scientists initiated by Durkheim representing a new sociological paradigm, the beginning of scientific social culture giving sense to cooperation of sociological theory and practice. 

  1. [Effect of the capacity of emotion management on the social anxiety and aggressive behavior among 4 -6 grade pupils]. (United States)

    Yao, Rongying; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Qin; Peng, Wenjia; Fu, Lianguo


    To explore the effect of emotion management ability on the social anxiety and aggressive behavior among 4 - 6 grade pupils. The grade four, five and six pupils from Bengbu City were investigated using stratified cluster random sampling. The questionnaire contents included general condition, emotion management ability, aggressive behavior and social anxiety, and the relationships of which were analyzed using partial correlation and hierarchical regression method. The score of aggressive behavior in boys (72. 74 ± 18. 09) was higher than that in girls (66. 31 ± 17. 53) (P behaviors in grade five students (71. 76 ± 18. 06) were higher than that in grade four (69. 24 ± 18. 95) and six students (68. 40 ± 17. 19) (P behaviors were negatively correlated with emotion management ability (r = - 0. 463, P social anxiety (r = 0. 229, P social anxiety ( r = - 0. 234, P social anxiety and aggressive behavior (P social anxiety and aggressive behavior in 4 - 6 grade pupils. Improving the emotion management abilities can reduce their social anxieties and aggressive behaviors.

  2. Use of images in Social Studies and Science lessons: Teaching through visual semiotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Haas Prieto


    Full Text Available Learners access the school curriculum through meanings created among a variety of semiotic modes (diagrams, photographs, drawings, writing, etc., this learning enables them to join a worldview as they do in each curricular discipline. From a pedagogical and semiotic gaze to classroom interaction, we focus on the use of images in teaching, in relation to their potential to create meaning in social studies and science lessons. This article is part of Fondecyt 1130684 and systematizes methodological tools from Social Semiotics and multimodality used to explore the semiotic potential of a set images used by teachers of elementary and secondary in a public school. From an audiovisual corpus of lessons of a complete curricular unit, we analyze Social Studies and Science videos from the two subjects in 3rd, 6th grade of elementary and 1st grade of secondary school. Through a Multimodal Discourse Analysis using the concepts of ideational or representational metafunction and the categories of Visual Grammar Design, we show examples of situated images anylisis. The results show how the meaning in the image is modified when teachers use them in face to face interaction. This analysis should help teachers to select and deploy images in terms of improving the learning process and teaching materials they prepare for students.

  3. Using social impact borrowing to expand preschool through third grade programs in urban public schools. (United States)

    Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J

    Budget constraints and difficulty raising taxes limit school districts from expanding education programming even when research shows that additional expenditures would generate economic benefits that are greater than costs. Recently, coalitions of private investors, philanthropists, education practitioners, and government finance analysts have emerged to create opportunities to expand education services that promise high rates of social net benefits without raising taxes or reducing other expenditures. These collaborators have a strong interest in obtaining careful estimates of educational program effectiveness. We describe the use of social-impact borrowing to increase access to the Child-Parent Center preschool-through-third-grade intervention for at-risk students in the Chicago Public School District. The partners include the city, school district, investors, nonprofit organizations, and a university. The key to the feasibility of social-impact borrowing is the ability to document that early intervention can reduce the need for later special-education services. With the help of private investors and nonprofit organizations, it is possible for public school districts to finance services with funds from private sources and use future cost savings to repay this debt. We discuss how social-impact borrowing is being used in Chicago and in Salt Lake County as the nation's first two instances of using pay-for-performance social-impact borrowing to support early education.

  4. Predicting weight status stability and change from fifth grade to eighth grade: the significant role of adolescents' social-emotional well-being. (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Gable, Sara


    The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Science, Equity and the Sustainable Development Goals (United States)

    Liverman, D.


    The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.

  6. A data discovery index for the social sciences. (United States)

    Krämer, Thomas; Klas, Claus-Peter; Hausstein, Brigitte


    This paper describes a novel search index for social and economic research data, one that enables users to search up-to-date references for data holdings in these disciplines. The index can be used for comparative analysis of publication of datasets in different areas of social science. The core of the index is the da|ra registration agency's database for social and economic data, which contains high-quality searchable metadata from registered data publishers. Research data's metadata records are harvested from data providers around the world and included in the index. In this paper, we describe the currently available indices on social science datasets and their shortcomings. Next, we describe the motivation behind and the purpose for the data discovery index as a dedicated and curated platform for finding social science research data and gesisDataSearch, its user interface. Further, we explain the harvesting, filtering and indexing procedure and give usage instructions for the dataset index. Lastly, we show that the index is currently the most comprehensive and most accessible collection of social science data descriptions available.

  7. Embedding Literacy Strategies in Social Studies for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alishia Gaston


    Full Text Available This action research study evaluated the effects of literacy strategies on academic achievement, motivation, and engagement of eighth-grade social studies students. Incorporating literacy strategies included teaching students to construct meaning, think critically, and build content knowledge, while stimulating their interests, using multiple texts and technology, and providing collaborative opportunities and high engagement during instructional activities. Students were divided into a literacy group and a direct instruction group with each class being taught the same content. Literacy strategies were incorporated in one class, and direct instruction activities were used in the other class. Results were determined using pre and posttest scores, a student motivation questionnaire, and a student engagement checklist. Results indicated significantly higher student achievement and engagement when literacy strategies were a part of the social studies instruction. Motivation also increased when literacy strategies were used. Literacy instruction was a beneficial strategy to improve student achievement, motivation, and engagement.

  8. Social science findings in the United States (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler


    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  9. Qualitative Data Sharing Practices in Social Sciences (United States)

    Jeng, Wei


    Social scientists have been sharing data for a long time. Sharing qualitative data, however, has not become a common practice, despite the context of e-Research, information growth, and funding agencies' mandates on research data archiving and sharing. Since most systematic and comprehensive studies are based on quantitative data practices, little…

  10. Science and social responsibility in public health. (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E


    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  11. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing. (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  12. Closing the science achievement gap for ninth grade English learners through standards- and inquiry-based science instruction (United States)

    Estrada, Myrna Hipol

    In light of the need to close the achievement gap among our culturally and linguistically diverse students, more specifically the Hispanics and the Hispanic English Learners (ELs), the effects of teacher professional development (2 year PD vs. 1 Year PD vs. no PD) on the implementation of a standards-aligned and inquiry-based science curriculum program---the Integrated Coordinated Science for the 21st Century published by It's About Time, Inc. (ICS-IAT)---on the LAUSD ninth graders science scores were examined. Participants included 8,937 9th grade students (7,356 Hispanics). The primary outcome measurement was scaled scores from the California Standard Test (CST) in Integrated Coordinated Science (CST_ICS1). Correlations between California English Language Development Test (CELDT) component subscores (reading, listening and speaking) and CST scores were also examined. Results indicated that the science scores of the students of teachers who participated in two year PD were significantly higher compared to the scores of students of the one year PD group and the control group. The results show that all ethnic groups benefited from two years of teacher PD, except the African American group. Among Hispanics, students classified as IFEP, RFEP and EO gained from the teachers having two years of professional development. But the target population, ELs did not benefit from two years of teacher PD. The correlations between the CELDT and CST_ELA were much higher than the CELDT and CST_ICS1 correlations. This finding validates Abedi's claim (2004) that EL students are disadvantaged because of their language handicap on tests that have a greater language load. Two year PD participation significantly enhanced the accessibility of science to the ninth graders. The essential features in the PD were classroom simulation of all the activities identified in the storyboard with the actual and correct use of needed equipment and materials; creation and presentation of sample or model

  13. 77 FR 24228 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of...; Division of Social and Economic Sciences, Room 990, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard... Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site visit review of the Nanoscale Science and...

  14. Understanding Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment within Eighth Grade Science Classrooms for Special Needs Students (United States)

    Riedell, Kate Elizabeth

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) cemented the fact that students with disabilities must be placed in the least restrictive environment and be given the necessary supports to help them succeed (Lawrence-Brown, 2004). This provides significant challenges for general education teachers, especially in an era of standards based reform with the adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSSI, 2014) by most states, along with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, 2013). While a variety of methods, strategies, and techniques are available to teachers, there is a dearth of literature that clearly investigates how teachers take into account the ability and motivation of students with special needs when planning and implementing curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Thus, this study sought to investigate this facet through the lens of differentiation, personalization, individualization and universal design for learning (UDL) (CAST, 2015), all of which are designed to meet the needs of diverse learners, including students with special needs. An embedded single-case study design (Yin, 2011) was used in this study with the case being differentiated and/or personalized curriculum, instruction and/or assessment, along with UDL for students with special needs, with each embedded unit of analysis being one eighth grade general education science teacher. Analyzing each sub-unit or case, along with a cross-case analysis, three eighth grade general education science teachers were observed over the course of two 10-day units of study in the fall and spring, as they collected artifacts and completed annotations within their electronic portfolios (ePortfolios). All three eighth grade general education science teachers collected ePortfolios as part of their participation in a larger study within California, "Measuring Next Generation Science Instruction Using Tablet-Based Teacher Portfolios," funded by the National Science Foundation. Each teacher

  15. Stop and Freeze: The Negotiation of Social and Physical Space in a Kindergarten/First Grade Classroom. (United States)

    Shultz, Jeffrey; Florio, Susan


    In addition to learning academic content, school children learn to become socially competent members of the classroom community. This study uses microethnographic techniques to discover and describe important aspects of the social competence acquired by kindergarten and first-grade children. (Author/RLV)

  16. A Cluster Randomized Trial of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in First Grade (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Cheng, Weiyi; Hart, Susan Crandall; Bellinger, Jillian


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal social skills program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007), for students in first grade. Classrooms from 6 elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment or business-as-usual control conditions.…

  17. The Contributions of Teachers' Emotional Support to Children's Social Behaviors and Self-Regulatory Skills in First Grade (United States)

    Merritt, Eileen G.; Wanless, Shannon B.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Cameron, Claire; Peugh, James L.


    The present observational study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine predictors of children's social and self-regulatory outcomes in first-grade classrooms. Specifically, goals were the following: (1) to explore relations between emotionally supportive teacher-child interactions and children's social behaviors (aggression with peers,…

  18. Social sciences and humanities contribution to tackle the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Sandøe, Peter; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    for identifying, describing, and discussing future potential in obesity research, to establish new and to nurture existing networks and collaborations between researchers across the social sciences and humanities and the natural sciences with an interest in obesity research, and thereby to mobilise significant......To address the obesity epidemic, European researchers need to come together to find the best solutions and use their combined knowledge to provide the most innovative research ideas. By gathering more than 50 researchers and stakeholders from around Europe, we took an important step towards...... establishing strong networks and building bridges between the natural sciences and social sciences and humanities that can address obesity as a complex societal challenge and help minimise the gap between research, markets, and citizens. The objectives of the workshop were to create a cross‐European forum...

  19. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    education research to question whether conventional research approaches, foci and theoretical approaches are sufficient in a world of science education that is neither politically neutral, nor free of cultural values. Attention is not only on the individual learner but on the cultural, social and political......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...

  20. Social Thinking®: Science, Pseudoscience, or Antiscience? (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Kassardjian, Alyne; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L; Cihon, Joseph H; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John


    Today, there are several interventions that can be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Most of these interventions have limited to no empirical evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, yet they are widely implemented in home, school, university, and community settings. In 1996, Green wrote a chapter in which she outlined three levels of science: evidence science, pseudoscience, and antiscience; professionals were encouraged to implement and recommend only those procedures that would be considered evidence science. Today, an intervention that is commonly implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is Social Thinking®. This intervention has been utilized by behaviorists and non-behaviorists. This commentary will outline Social Thinking® and provide evidence that the procedure, at the current time, qualifies as a pseudoscience and, therefore, should not be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, especially given the availability of alternatives which clearly meet the standard of evidence science.

  1. The Effect of Online Collaboration on Adolescent Sense of Community in Eighth-Grade Physical Science (United States)

    Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.


    Using a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest/posttest control group design, the researchers examined the effects of online collaborative learning on eighth-grade student's sense of community in a physical science class. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative activities in a face-to-face learning environment, whereas students in the experimental group participated in online collaborative activities using the Edmodo educational platform in a hybrid learning environment. Students completed the Classroom Community Scale survey as a pretest and posttest. Results indicated that the students who participated in the face-to-face classroom had higher overall sense of community and learning community than students who participated in collaborative activities in the online environment. Results and implications are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  2. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason


    Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students' opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Data were collected from the Universitas 21 "Use of social media in health education" survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media "almost always" reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education. ©Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Emily Cutts, Sushma Kavikondala, Alejandra Salcedo, Karan D'Souza, Martin Hernandez-Torre, Claire Anderson, Agnes Tiwari, Kendall


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Marcela Ríos Rincón


    Full Text Available El texto abarca el problema de la enseñanza de las ciencias sociales -en particular de la historia- a través del arte pictórico. En este propósito, describe una propuesta de interpretación de la obra artística como parte de un sistema comunicativo que se puede leer desde el discurso semiótico que se incorpora a su vez en un sistema de interiorización cognitiva de conceptos sociales. Se discute la posibilidad de encontrar en el arte pictórico una fuente de formación en valores por encima de ilustración realista de la realidad social. Por último, se propone el tema de la violencia política en Colombia en la segunda mitad del siglo XX a través de obras artísticas como espacio de enseñanza de la historia en los términos discutidos previamente.

  4. Analyzing Turkey's data from TIMSS 2007 to investigate regional disparities in eighth grade science achievement (United States)

    Erberber, Ebru

    Turkey is expected to be a full member of the European Union (EU) by 2013. In the course of its integration into the EU, Turkey has been simultaneously facing access, quality, and equity issues in education. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made on increasing the access. However, improving the country's low level of education quality and achieving equity in quality education across the regions continue to be a monumental challenge in Turkey. Most recently, results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 indicated that Turkey's educational achievement at the eighth grade, the end of compulsory primary education in Turkey, was far below that of other countries in the EU. Considering Turkey's long standing socioeconomic disparities between the western and eastern parts of the country, the challenges of improving overall education quality are coupled with the challenges of achieving equity in learning outcomes for students across the regions. This dissertation used data from TIMSS 2007 to document the extent of Turkey's regional differences in science achievement at the eighth grade and to investigate factors associated with these differences. Findings from a series of analyses using hierarchical linear models suggested that attempts to increase Turkish students' achievement and close the achievement gaps between regions should target the students in the undeveloped regions, particularly in Southeastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia. Designing interventions to improve competency in Turkish and to compensate for the shortcomings of insufficient parental education, limited home educational resources, poor school climate for academic achievement, and inadequate instructional equipment and facilities might be expected to close the regional achievement gaps as well as raise the overall achievement level in Turkey.

  5. The social status of aggressive students across contexts: the role of classroom status hierarchy, academic achievement, and grade. (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C


    This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade level as the main predictors of interest as well as classroom aggression and ethnic composition as controls. Multilevel analyses were conducted on an ethnically diverse sample of 968 fourth- and fifth-graders from 46 classrooms in 9 schools. Associations between aggression and status varied greatly from one classroom to another. Aggressive students were more popular and better liked in classrooms with higher levels of peer status hierarchy. Aggressive students had higher social status in Grade 5 than in Grade 4 and lower social preference in classrooms of higher academic level. Classroom aggression and ethnic composition did not moderate aggression-status associations. Limitations and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Review Essay: Mirror Neurons in the Discourse of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Pätzold


    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the mid-1990s, mirror neurons have been the subject of continuous discussions in neurosciences as well as in the social sciences. The interest of scientists outside the life sciences in mirror neurons is primarily based on the fact that mirror neurons not only have epistemological meaning, but also seem to play an important role in processes of social insights and emotions, like empathy. With her book, Nadia ZABOURA provides a new contribution from a social and cultural sciences point of view, which critically reflects the discussion on mirror neurons and its consequences on the social sciences and humanities. Starting off from philosophical approaches to the mind-matter-dualism and the question of intersubjectivity, she explores the meaning of mirror neurons for the debate on empathy and communication. By discussing concepts of philosophy and communication sciences as well as current knowledge on mirror neurons, she concludes that they do not provide a stable basis for any material reductionism, which would explain phenomena like intersubjectivity only by recordable neuronal processes. The book refers to a variety of related theories (ranging from DESCARTES through to MEAD and TOMASELLO; these references are inspiring, yet they stay cursory for the most part. All in all the book offers avenues for further inquiry on the issues in focus, and can rather be taken as "tour of suggestions" through the topical field of mirror neurons and the related research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003245

  7. Fifty years of sociological leadership at Social Science and Medicine. (United States)

    Timmermans, Stefan; Tietbohl, Caroline


    In this review article, we examine some of the conceptual contributions of sociology of health and illness over the past fifty years. Specifically, we focus on research dealing with medicalization, the management of stigma, research on adherence and compliance, and patient-doctor interaction. We show how these themes that originated within sociology, diffused in other disciplines. Sociology in Social Science and Medicine started as an applied research tradition but morphed into a robust, stand-alone social science tradition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The “Second” Vienna School as Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Verstegen


    Full Text Available This paper addresses Kunstwollen, not as a historicized concept, but as a social scientific construct open to reinterpretation and input from the evolving sciences. Emphasizing especially the contributions of Hans Sedlmayr in his Introduction to Riegl’s Collected Works (1929 and Otto Pächt’s article on Riegl (1962, attention departs from Riegl to set the stage regarding the meaning of Kunstwollen. Emphasizing its roots in materialistic social history, inspired by evolution, the article undertakes vignettes of paired art historians and social theorists: Dvorak and Karl Mannheim, Sedlmayr and Alfred Vierkandt, and Otto Pächt and Wolfgang Metzger. It can be seen that Kunstwollen is interpreted with the tools of social science as the sociology of knowledge (Mannheim, Vierkandt with refinements from Gestalt psychology (Metzger. As the career of Pächt progresses, the Austrian art historian looks for ways to stress continuous evolution, historical determinism and compulsion, and the super-individuality of artistic tradition.

  9. Social Media and Science: where do we go from here? (United States)

    Bohon, W.; Robinson, S.; Arrowsmith, R.; Semken, S. C.


    What is black and white and 'read' all over? Facebook, that's what. As of December 2012 Facebook had over 618 million daily users, and over a billion monthly users from around the world ( Twitter has more than 130 million active users and generates as many as 340 million Tweets a day ( Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter are not the future of communication, they are the reality, and scientists (and science organizations) need to become part of the conversation. More than half of the teenage and adult population of the US belongs to a social network or are using another form of social media on a regular basis. This creates an opportunity for organizations to use the well-established functionality and pervasiveness of social media platforms to communicate important scientific information and discoveries. In addition, the informal environment of social media allows scientists to interact with non-scientists in a friendly and non-threatening way that can be used to create engagement scenarios that continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify science. Social media also provides scientists with the means and opportunity to improve the way science is viewed by the public while improving general science literacy and integrating scientific discoveries into the fabric of the lives of non-scientists. Many questions remain regarding the best way to utilize the opportunities that social media present. For instance, how can we reach a broader, more diverse audience? What are realistic expectations about the effects of social media? How do we improve the quality of content? How can we use social media to communicate scientific information in innovative ways? And perhaps most importantly, how do we know if we are communicating successfully? The EarthScope National Office will share our experiences creating a social media program from the

  10. The Social Sciences and their compromisse with truth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro W. Barbosa de Almeida


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the social scientists responsability in relation to justice and truth, based in the practical and theoretical experiences of the author in the field of Social Anthropology. Although the text adresses the Social Sciences from the perspective of Social Anthropology, it deals with topics in which the researchers and ativists activities require a cooperative action of lawyers, engineers and biologists among the work of sociologists and geographers – all that is involved in the situations when it is necessary to tell the truth and also to judge about justice and injustice in social life. Justice and truth notions are social scientists weapons and they can not be abandoned in the hands of conservative thought.

  11. Social Justice and Out-of-School Science Learning: Exploring Equity in Science Television, Science Clubs and Maker Spaces (United States)

    Dawson, Emily


    This article outlines how social justice theories, in combination with the concepts of infrastructure access, literacies and community acceptance, can be used to think about equity in out-of-school science learning. The author applies these ideas to out-of-school learning via television, science clubs, and maker spaces, looking at research as well…

  12. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    conditions and contexts in science education. The different chapters review debates and research in teacher education, school teaching and learning including when external stakeholders are involved. Even though the chapters are contextualized in Nordic settings there will be similarities and parallels...... that will be informative to the international science education research community.......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...

  13. Do Perceptions of Gifted Intelligence and Normal Intelligence Participants Differ about Social Science and Social Scientists? (United States)

    Selvi, Sezgin; Demir, Selçuk Besir


    This qualitative study was conducted to compare the perceptions of students with gifted intelligence and students with those of normal intelligence about social science and social scientists. The data obtained from 23 gifted intelligent and 23 normal participants within the same age group was analysed using content analysis and results were…

  14. Longitudinal Study of Career Cluster Persistence from 8th Grade to 12th Grade with a Focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math Career Cluster (United States)

    Wagner, Judson

    Today's technology driven global economy has put pressure on the American education system to produce more students who are prepared for careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Adding to this pressure is the demand for a more diverse workforce that can stimulate the development of new ideas and innovation. This in turn requires more female and under represented minority groups to pursue future careers in STEM. Though STEM careers include many of the highest paid professionals, school systems are dealing with exceptionally high numbers of students, especially female and under represented minorities, who begin but do not persist to STEM degree completion. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) framework that attributes student motivation to a combination of intrinsic, utility, and attainment values, this study analyzed readily available survey data to gauge students' career related values. These values were indirectly investigated through a longitudinal approach, spanning five years, on the predictive nature of 8 th grade survey-derived recommendations for students to pursue a future in a particular career cluster. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that this 8 th grade data, particularly in STEM, provides significantly high probabilities of a 12th grader's average grade, SAT-Math score, the math and science elective courses they take, and most importantly, interest in the same career cluster.

  15. Safety: Science and technique in social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, W.A.


    The author describes in a simple and clearly written Dutch text the relationship between scientific and technical knowledge and the social problems concerning the safety of nuclear energy. He begins with the cooling system of reactors and the safety aspects of the associated pumps. He uses this example to illustrate that the quantative determination of failure risks need not necessarily be relevant for judging the acceptance of the risk but is always relevant as a method of judging the effect of technical improvements on safety values. The author then considers the radiological effects of the operation of a nuclear plant by presenting the doses of radioactivity released if a reactor is operating normally, if there are technical problems and in the case of accidents. The corresponding biological effects on man are also presented and in an appendix the radiological consequences of reactor accidents are considered in some detail. He describes a number of models used in such calculations - for metereological distribution, dosimetry for internal radiation, cancer induction - to illustrate the margins of uncertainty in the predictions. According to the author safety aspects should not just be seen as a purely technical problem, starting with the fact that nuclear energy is desirable and then ensuring that all required safety regulations are met. Safety aspects are a social problem and should be considered by first discussing whether nuclear energy is acceptable, taking into consideration such consequences as the effects of possible accidents and the long term effects of reactor operation. (C.F.)

  16. The Essential Connection between Modern Science and Utopian Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Redpath


    Full Text Available The chief aim of this paper is to demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt how, through an essential misunderstanding of the nature of philosophy, and science, over the past several centuries, the prevailing Western tendency to reduce the whole of science to mathematical physics unwittingly generated utopian socialism as a political substitute for metaphysics. In short, being unable speculatively, philosophically, and metaphysically to justify this reduction, some Western intellectuals re-conceived the natures of philosophy, science, and metaphysics as increasingly enlightened, historical and political forms of the evolution of human consciousness toward creation of systematic science, a science of clear and distinct ideas. In the process they unwittingly wound up reducing contemporary philosophy and Western higher education largely into tools of utopian socialist political propaganda.

  17. Linguistic Resources Used in Grade 8 Students' Submicro Level Explanations—Science Items from TIMSS 2007 (United States)

    Frändberg, Birgitta; Lincoln, Per; Wallin, Anita


    Explanations involving submicro levels of representation are central to science education, but known to be difficult for students in secondary school. This study examines students' written explanations of physical and chemical phenomena regarding matter and changes in matter, in a large-scale test. This is done in order to understand linguistic challenges in constructing submicro level explanations involving the particle model of matter. Drawing from systemic functional linguistics, the lexicogrammatics used in explanations for realising experiential meaning in student explanations were analysed. We used answers to two partly constructed response items from the Swedish part of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies 2007, grade 8, to sort out explanations referring to the particle model of matter. These answers (86 from 954) were analysed regarding choices of vocabulary and grammar to distinguish between macro and submicro level of representation. The results show that students use a wide variety of lexicogrammatical resources to realise what happens on both macro and submicro level of representation, with greater diversity of verbs on the submicro level of explanation. The results suggest an uncertainty about the distinction between macro and submicro level of explanation.

  18. The correlation between physical activity and grade point average for health science graduate students. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eugenia C; Hernandez, Erika C; Coltrane, Ambrosia K; Mancera, Jayme M


    Researchers have reported positive associations between physical activity and academic achievement. However, a common belief is that improving academic performance comes at the cost of reducing time for and resources spent on extracurricular activities that encourage physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported physical activity and grade point average (GPA) for health science graduate students. Graduate students in health science programs completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and reported their academic progress. Most participants (76%) reported moderate to vigorous physical activity levels that met or exceeded the recommended levels for adults. However, there was no significant correlation between GPA and level of physical activity. Negative findings for this study may be associated with the limited range of GPA scores for graduate students. Future studies need to consider more sensitive measures of cognitive function, as well as the impact of physical activity on occupational balance and health for graduate students in the health fields. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. The effects of inquiry-based science on the social and communicative skills of students with low-incidence disabilities (United States)

    D'Angelo, Heather Hopkins

    This research utilized inquiry based science as a vehicle to implement and maintain social skills training for secondary students, ages 14 to 20, with low-incidence disabilities in a self-contained classroom. This three year action research study examined the effects of an inquiry based science curriculum on the level and quantity of social skills used by students with one or more of the following challenges: significant learning disability (functioning more than two grade levels below grade level), emotional/social disability, mental retardation, Autism, and/or varying degrees of brain damage. Through the use of video recording, the students in the study were analyzed based on the level of social interaction and the amount of socialization that took place during inquiry based science. The skills sought were based on the social and communication skills earmarked in the students' weekly social skills training class and their Individualized Education Plans (IEP). Based on previous research in social skills training it has been determined that where social skills training is lacking are in the areas of transfer and maintenance of skills. Due to the natural social behavior that must take place in inquiry based science this group of students were found to exhibit gains in (1) quantity of social interactions on topic; (2) developing higher levels of social interactions (sharing, taking other's suggestions, listening and responding appropriately, etc.); and (3) maintenance of social skills taught outside of formal social skills training. These gains were seen overall in the amount of student involvement during inquiry based science verses teacher involvement. Such increases are depicted through students' verbal exchanges, excerpts from field notes, and student reflections. The findings of this research is expected to guide special educators, administrators and directors of curriculum as to how to better create curriculum for this specific population where social skills

  20. 77 FR 24227 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of... Engineering Center (NSEC) at Arizona State University by the Division Social and Economic Sciences ( 10748... Kronz, Program Director; Science, Technology and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic...

  1. Perceived social support among students of medical sciences. (United States)

    Zamani-Alavijeh, Freshteh; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Raeesi; Shahry, Parvin


    Social support is emotional and instrumental assistance from family, friends or neighbors, and has an important but different impact on individuals, mainly depending on contextual factors. To determine the status of perceived social support and related personal and family characteristics of medical sciences students in Ahvaz, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the target population included the students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in the second semester of 2013-2014, of whom 763 were selected by cluster random sampling method. The study tool was a two-part questionnaire containing 48 self-administered questions including 25 questions of measurements of personal and family characteristics and a Persian modified version of Vaux's social support scale (Cronbach's α=0.745). Data were analyzed with T test, ANOVA and chi-square and using SPSS version 16 and 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. The mean score of the perceived social support was 17.06±3.6 and 60.3% of them reported low social support. There was a significant relationship among the perceived social support and sex (p=0.02), faculty (psocial support and importance of social support in reducing stress and academic failure, the planners need to provide efficient supportive interventions for students.

  2. Hierarchical Effects of School-, Classroom-, and Student-Level Factors on the Science Performance of Eighth-Grade Taiwanese Students (United States)

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Yang, Chih-Chien


    This study was conducted to understand the effect of student-, classroom-, and school-level factors on the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 by using multilevel analysis. A total of 5,042 students from 153 classrooms of 150 schools participated in the TIMSS 2011 study, in which they were required to complete questionnaires. A 3-level multilevel analysis was used to assess the influence of factors at 3 levels on the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students. The results showed that the provision of education resources at home, teachers' level of education, and school climate were the strongest predictor of science performance at the student, classroom, and school level, respectively. It was concluded that the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students is driven largely by individual factors. Classroom-level factors accounted for a smaller proportion of the total variance in science performance than did school-level factors.

  3. On Using GIS to Teach in the Social Sciences (United States)

    Harris, Jill S.


    In this article, the author discusses how a professor can harness the power of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and use GIS to teach in the social sciences. She shows examples of how GIS can illustrate concepts during lecture or discussion, and provides two specific GIS assignments: one for undergraduate students and the other for graduate…

  4. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq - phase ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    appuyer sur le travail accompli au cours de la première phase du projet (103936) pour concevoir et offrir une formation en méthodes et techniques de recherche en sciences sociales destinée à de jeunes intellectuels et réaliser des recherches sur ...

  5. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three regions: Baghdad, southern Iraq and Kurdistan. In doing so, the Institute will identify strengths and weaknesses, gaps in the literature, themes of current interest to ...

  6. The Treatment of Wife Abuse in Recent Social Science Literature. (United States)

    Wardell, Laurie; And Others

    This paper reviews the social science literature dealing with gender relations in marriage and the issues of wife abuse. It is argued that the old anti-woman biases of the literature have not really diminished under the impact of feminism. The sexist assumptions and victim-blaming focus of the new battery literature are examined through…

  7. Priors & prejudice : using existing knowledge in social science research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wesel, F.


    Researchers in the social sciences usually start their research with the formulation of research goals and questions, which, together with studying the existing literature, lead to the formulation of hypotheses. Next, data is collected using experiments or questionnaires and is subsequently

  8. Interviewing for Education and Social Science Research: The Gateway Approach (United States)

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford


    This volume introduces a fresh approach to research, using strategies adapted from oral history and educational criticism to traverse the boundaries of human experience, and bring to light matters of concern to education and social science researchers. This narrator-centered method, a by-product of the author's award-winning investigation into the…

  9. Psychology, Social Science and the Management of Violent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the salient aspects of an eight – year experience in the Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Abuja – Nigeria, where the author ... matter of psychology and rivalry emanating from subtle competition among sub disciplines of the social science for hegemonic role in conflict management, (b) many of ...

  10. Wilderness values: Perspectives from non-economic social science (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Alan E. Watson


    The concept of “values” is one of the most widely used to characterize the human dimensions of natural resources. Yet, clearly it means many different things in different disciplines and in everyday discourse. Background information regarding values from a non-economic social science perspective is provided, with an aim towards stretching the dominant economic paradigm...

  11. Popper's Fact-Standard Dualism Contra "Value Free" Social Science. (United States)

    Eidlin, Fred H.


    Noncognitivism, the belief that normative statements (unlike empirical statements) do not convey objective knowledge is contrasted to Karl Popper's "critical dualism," which maintains that science is imbued with values and value judgments. Noncognitivism impedes the development of a social scientific method which would integrate…

  12. Thinking Political Emancipation and the Social Sciences in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central to their limitations if not their failure to comprehend emancipation in a manner ... aligning their thinking with that of the state (either in its current or forthcoming form). Given the lack of success of the social sciences in thinking human ...

  13. Causal Inference for Statistics, Social, and Biomedical Sciences: An Introduction (United States)

    Imbens, Guido W.; Rubin, Donald B.


    Most questions in social and biomedical sciences are causal in nature: what would happen to individuals, or to groups, if part of their environment were changed? In this groundbreaking text, two world-renowned experts present statistical methods for studying such questions. This book starts with the notion of potential outcomes, each corresponding…

  14. Mathematics and social science : a statistical mechanics approach to immigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contucci, P.; Giardinà, C.


    Is modern science able to study social matters like those related to immigration phenomena on solid mathematical grounds? Can we for instance determine cultural robustness and the causes behind abrupt changes from cultural legacies? Can we predict, cause or avoid swings? A novel approach is under

  15. Globalising Service-Learning in the Social Sciences (United States)

    Limoncelli, Stephanie A.


    The increasing internationalisation of social science curricula in undergraduate education along with the growth of service-learning has provided new opportunities to join the two. This article offers a refection and discussion of service-learning with placements in international nongovernmental organisations (INGOs), drawing from its application…

  16. Recreation, protected areas, and social science: where are we going? (United States)

    Brian R. Payne


    I am new in my job as coordinator for USDA Forest Service research in recreation, social sciences, and wilderness. I predict that we will be giving greater attention and resources to this area in the near future, despite recent budget cuts and personnel reductions. Researchers should cooperate with each other nation-wide, and involve resource managers and users in the...

  17. Attitudes toward Information Competency of University Students in Social Sciences (United States)

    Pinto, María; Fernández-Pascual, Rosaura; Gómez-Hernández, José A.; Cuevas, Aurora; Granell, Ximo; Puertas, Susana; Guerrero, David; Gómez, Carmen; Palomares, Rocío


    This paper examines students' self-assessment of their information literacy, presenting a study involving 1,575 social science students at five Spanish universities. Data were collected and analyzed through a validated instrument that measures the variables of (1) the students' belief in the importance of information literacy skills; (2)…

  18. A Science of Social Work? Response to John Brekke (United States)

    Shaw, Ian


    I take the opportunity provided by John Brekke's (2012) article to respond to the general assumptions and approaches that may be brought when considering the question of a science of social work. I consider first, what should be our frames of reference, our communities of interest, or our boundaries of inclusion, for such a discussion?…

  19. The Limitations of Quantitative Social Science for Informing Public Policy (United States)

    Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert


    Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.

  20. Integrating Social Science and Ecosystem Management: A National Challenge (United States)

    Cordell; H. Ken; Linda Caldwell


    These proceedings contain the contributed papers and panel presentations, as well as a paper presented at the National Workshop, of the Conference on Integrating Social Sciences and Ecosystem Management, which was held at Unicoi Lodge and Conference Center, Helen, GA, December 12-14, 1995. The overall purpose of this Conference was to improve understanding, integration...

  1. Mathematics education giving meaning to Social Science students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Annica; Valero, Paola

    Compulsory mathematics for social science students is problematic. We discuss the case of a group of students in Sweden who met a mathematics course inspired on the ideas of critical mathematics education and ethnomathematics. The evidence collected about students' experiences on this course...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Polaski, S., 2008. Rising Food Prices, Poverty and Doha Round. Carnegie endowment for international Peace. Udoh, E. J., and Sunday B. A., 2007. Estimating. Exportable Tree Crop Relative Price. Variability and Inflation Movement under different Policy Regimes in Nigeria. European Journal of social Science. 5(2):. 17-26.

  3. The Perspective of Women Managing Research Teams in Social Sciences (United States)

    Tomas, Marina; Castro, Diego


    This article presents a research study that focuses on how women manage research teams. More specifically, the study aims to ascertain the perception of female researchers who are leaders of research groups in social sciences with regard to the formation, operation and management of their research teams. Fifteen interviews were carried out, eight…

  4. Social Science Methods Used in the RESTORE Project (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Cristy Watkins; Paul H. Gobster; Liam Heneghan; Kristen Ross; Laurel Ross; Madeleine Tudor; Alaka Wali; David H. Wise; Joanne Vining; Moira. Zellner


    The RESTORE (Rethinking Ecological and Social Theories of Restoration Ecology) project is an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional research endeavor funded by the National Science Foundation's Dynamics of Coupled Natural Human Systems program. The goal of the project is to understand the links between organizational type, decision making processes, and...

  5. Ranciere and the Poetics of the Social Sciences (United States)

    Pelletier, Caroline


    This article reviews the significance of Jacques Ranciere's work for methodological debates in the social sciences, and education specifically. It explores the implications of constructing research as an aesthetic, rather than primarily a methodological, endeavour. What is at stake in this distinction is the means by which research intervenes in…

  6. Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television. (United States)

    MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.

    Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…

  7. Women and Spatial Change: Learning Resources for Social Science Courses. (United States)

    Rengert, Arlene C., Ed.; Monk, Janice J., Ed.

    Six units focusing on the effects of spatial change on women are designed to supplement college introductory courses in geography and the social sciences. Unit 1, Woman and Agricultural Landscapes, focuses on how women contributed to landscape change in prehistory, women's impact on the environment, and the hypothesis that women developed…

  8. The challenge of the social sciences: The impact of Sociology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge of the social sciences: The impact of Sociology among first year students. JF Graaff. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  9. Social Science Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers. (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Three papers on the nonconventional literature and social science libraries were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "Grey Material: A Scandinavian View," Birgitta Bergdahl (Sweden) outlines the etymology and meaning of the concept of "grey literature" (which can include…

  10. Study of Application for Excursion Observation Method in Primary School 2nd Grade Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali GAZEL


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how field trips are conducted at 2nd grade of primary schools as a part of social studies course. Data for this research is compiled from 143 permanent Social Studies teachers working throughout 2011–2012 Education Year in the primary schools of central Kütahya and its districts. Data is compiled by using descriptive search model. In the research, after taking expert opinions, a measuring tool developed by the researcher is used. Data obtained from the research were transferred to computer, and analyses were made. In the analysis of the data, frequency and percentage values have been used to determine the distribution. Also a single factor variance analysis and t-test for independent samples have been used to determine the significance of difference between the variables. As a result of the research, it has been realized that insufficient importance is given to field trip method in Social Studies lessons. Most of the teachers using this method apply it in spring months. Teachers usually make use of field trips independent from unit/topic to increase the students’ motivation, and they generally use verbal expression in the class after tours. The biggest difficulty teachers encounter while using tour-observation method is the students’ undisciplined behavior.

  11. Response: From Fish and Bicycles to a Science of Social Work (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne Cay


    John Brekke challenges the field and profession of social work to define and develop the "science of social work". This response to Brekke's paper identifies the premises undergirding a discussion of the science of social work related to (1) a definition of "science";; (2 ) an organizing principle for social work; (3) a…

  12. Changing Curriculum: A Critical Inquiry into the Revision of the British Columbia Science Curriculum For Grades K-9 (United States)

    Searchfield, Mary A.

    In 2010 British Columbia's Ministry of Education started the process of redesigning the provincial school curriculum, Kindergarten to Grade 12. Mandatory implementation of the new curriculum was set for the 2016/17 school year for Grades K-9, and 2017/18 for Grades 10-12. With a concerted emphasis on personalized learning and through the frame of a Know-Do-Understand curriculum model, the new curriculum aims to meet the needs of today's learners, described as living in a technology-rich, fast-paced and ever-changing world, through a concept-based and competency-driven emphasis. This thesis is a critical analysis of the BC K-9 Science curriculum as written and published, looking specifically at how science is treated as a form of knowledge, its claimed presentation as a story, and on whether the intentions claimed by the designers are matched in the curriculum's final form.

  13. The intellectual and social organization of the sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Whitley, Richard


    In a rapidly changing and inter-disciplinary world it is important to understand the nature and generation of knowledge, and its social organization. Increasing attention is paid in the social sciences and management studies to the constitution and claims of different theories, perspectives, and 'paradigms'. This book is one of the most respected and robust analyses of these issues. For this new paperback edition Richard Whitley - a leading figure in European business education - has written a new introduction which addresses the particular epistemological issues presented by management and business studies. He approaches the sciences as differently organized systems for the production and validation of knowledge - systems which become established in particular contexts and which generate different sorts of knowledge. He identifies seven major types of scientific field and discusses the establishment and growth of these sciences, including the major consequences of the nineteenth-century expansion of employme...

  14. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science. (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N


    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing Multiple Intelligences Approach with Traditional Teaching on Eight Grade Students' Achievement in and Attitudes toward Science (United States)

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev; Gokcek, Nur; Kilic, Ziya; Kilic, Esma


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences (MI) teaching approach on 8th Grade students' achievement in and attitudes toward science. This study used a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. While the experimental group (n=30) was taught a unit on acids and bases using MI teaching approach, the…

  16. Creepy Critters (Snakes). [Aids to Individualize the Teaching of Science, Mini-Course Units for Grades 7, 8, and 9. (United States)

    Best, Terrence

    This booklet, one of a series developed by the Frederick County Board of Education, Frederick, Maryland, provides an instruction module for an individualized or flexible approach to 7th, 8th, and 9th grade science teaching. Subjects and activities in this series of booklets are designed to supplement a basic curriculum or to form a total…

  17. Analyzing Entrepreneurship Skill Levels of the 3rd Grade Primary School Students in Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables (United States)

    Polat, Hüseyin


    The purpose of this study is to investigate Life Sciences course entrepreneurship skills of the 3rd grade primary school students as evaluated by their parents. The study was conducted with the screening model. The participants of the study were the parents (47 mothers and 23 fathers) of the students (32 girls, 38 boys) who study in the center of…

  18. 3D Visualization Types in Multimedia Applications for Science Learning: A Case Study for 8th Grade Students in Greece (United States)

    Korakakis, G.; Pavlatou, E. A.; Palyvos, J. A.; Spyrellis, N.


    This research aims to determine whether the use of specific types of visualization (3D illustration, 3D animation, and interactive 3D animation) combined with narration and text, contributes to the learning process of 13- and 14- years-old students in science courses. The study was carried out with 212 8th grade students in Greece. This…

  19. Interest of Grade Ten Students toward Physics among Other Science Subjects, Case of Wolaita Soddo Town Governmental Secondary Schools, Ethiopia (United States)

    Hamelo, Shewangzaw


    This paper has proposed to investigate the interest in students towards physics among other science subjects. The investigation was carried out with 490 samples of grade ten students in Wolaita Soddo town governmental schools. Thus, overall result indicates that the interest in students towards physics is low and students hate to learn physics in…

  20. Technology and Man: The Humanities and Science (Selected Study Topics for Gifted Students in Grades 9-12). (United States)

    Abbott, Barbara; Diers, Russell

    One in a series of units of instruction for gifted students, the booklet focuses on humanities and science. Three sample units are offered for students in grades 9-12. In "Man's Origins: Where Did He Come From?" students examine the conflicts over evolution versus creationism, impacts of genetic control, and the ecomonics and politics of the…

  1. Using person factors in social science research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K. Burger


    Full Text Available El análisis factorial es el método utilizado frecuentemente para la identificación de las dimensiones y estructuras que constituyen la base de un conjunto de medidas, lo cual es importante para la investigación. Mientras el análisis factorial de tipo R, produce los factores presentes en las variables, es conocido por muchos investigadores que el análisis de tipo Q describe los factores presentes en las personas, y ha sido utilizado con menor frecuencia. En el presente trabajo se describe el análisis factorial de tipo Q y lo distingue del análisis factorial de tipo R. Entonces, se examinan tres usos de factores derivados del análisis factorial tipo Q: para describir el perfil de los resultados de pruebas de individuos, para dar más opciones al análisis convencional de los datos y para investigar las cualidades del individuo en los instrumentos de medición. Se propone que los factores personales resultan útiles para estos propósitos, en las investigaciones de las ciencias sociales.

  2. 76 FR 65219 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: November 3, 2011; 1 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. November 4, 2011; 8..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  3. 77 FR 25207 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: May 17, 2012; 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; May 18, 2012; 8:30..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  4. 75 FR 25886 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: May 20, 2010; 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. May 21, 2010; 8:30..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  5. 75 FR 50783 - Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ADVISORY Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: September 7, 2010; 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. September 8... Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation...

  6. 76 FR 24062 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: May 19, 2011; 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. May 20, 2011; 9 a.m. to..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  7. Persistent Confusions about Hypothesis Testing in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Thron


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes common confusions involving basic concepts in statistical hypothesis testing. One-third of the social science statistics textbooks examined in the study contained false statements about significance level and/or p-value. We infer that a large proportion of social scientists are being miseducated about these concepts. We analyze the causes of these persistent misunderstandings, and conclude that the conventional terminology is prone to abuse because it does not clearly represent the conditional nature of probabilities and events involved. We argue that modifications in terminology, as well as the explicit introduction of conditional probability concepts and notation into the statistics curriculum in the social sciences, are necessary to prevent the persistence of these errors.

  8. Misunderstood misunderstanding: social identities and public uptake of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.


    This paper draws general insights into the public reception of scientific knowledge from a case study of Cumbrian sheep farmers' responses to scientific advice about the restrictions introduced after the Chernobyl radioactive fallout. The analysis identifies several substantive factors which influence the credibility of scientific communication. Starting from the now-accepted point that public uptake of science depends primarily upon the trust and credibility public groups are prepared to invest in scientific institutions and representatives, the paper observes that these are contingent upon the social relationships and identities which people feel to be affected by scientific knowledge, which never comes free of social interests or implications. The case study shows laypeople capable of extensive informal reflection upon their social relationships towards scientific experts, and on the epistemological status of their own 'local' knowledge in relation to 'outside' knowledge. Public uptake of science might be improved if scientific institutions expressed an equivalent reflexive discourse in the public domain. (author)

  9. A Mixed-Methods Study on the Impact of Socratic Seminars on Eighth Grade Students' Comprehension of Science Texts (United States)

    Roncke, Nancy

    This formative, convergent-mixed methods research study investigated the impact of Socratic Seminars on eighth grade science students' independent comprehension of science texts. The study also highlighted how eighth grade students of varying reading abilities interacted with and comprehended science texts differently during and after the use of Socratic Seminars. In order to document any changes in the students' overall comprehension of science texts, this study compared the experimental and control groups' pre- and post-test performances on the Content Area Reading Assessment (Leslie & Caldwell, 2014) and self-perception surveys on students' scientific reading engagement. Student think-alouds and interviews also captured the students' evolving understandings of the science texts. At the conclusion of this sixteen-week study, the achievement gap between the experimental and control group was closed in five of the seven categories on the Content Area Reading Assessment, including supporting an inference with textual evidence, determining central ideas, explaining why or how, determining word meaning, and summarizing a science text. Students' self-perception surveys were more positive regarding reading science texts after the Socratic Seminars. Finally, the student think-alouds revealed that some students moved from a literal interpretation of the science texts to inquiries that questioned the text and world events.

  10. Enhance Your Science With Social Media: No ... Really (United States)

    Goss, H.; Aiken, A. C.; Sams, A.


    The ability to communicate the societal value of basic research to nonacademic audiences is morphing from an optional soft skill to a crucial tool for scientists who are competing over finite or shrinking resources for research. Former National Academy of Sciences President Ralph Cicerone argued as early as 2006 that "scientists themselves must do a better job of communicating directly to the public," taking advantage of "new, non-traditional outlets" on the Internet. Findings suggest that scientists have begun to embrace social media as a viable tool for communicating research and keeping abreast of advancements in their fields. Social media is changing the way that scientists are interacting with each other and with the global community. Scientists are taking to popular social media (Twitter, Facebook, etc.) to challenge weak research, share replication attempts in real time, and counteract hype. Incorporating social media into the different stages of a scientific publication: Accelerates the pace of scientific communication and collaboration Facilitates interdisciplinary collaboration Makes it possible to communicate results to a large and diverse audience Encourages post-publication conversations about findings Accelerates research evaluation Makes science more transparent Amplifies the positive effects of scientists' interactions with more traditional media Our presentation will demonstrate how scientists can use social media as a tool to support their work, collaborate with peers around the world, and advance the cause of science. Information will be presented by communications experts and research librarians in collaboration with scientists who are already active on social media. Content will focus on pragmatic best practices for engaging peers, other stakeholders, promoting science and scientific research, and measuring success.

  11. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure (United States)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  12. Classification of Living Things. A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development. Grades 7 and 8. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/55. (United States)

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    This manual is one of a series designed to assist junior high school teachers in developing general level or non-academic science programs which focus on the relationship between science and society. Although designed primarily for grades 7 and 8, the content is also suitable for students in grade 6. The major portion of the manual consists of six…

  13. Establishing cross-curricular links between Science and English in ninth grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chala Bejarano Pedro Antonio


    Full Text Available For many years, English has been studied apart from the other subjects in nonbilingual centres, isolating it from other knowledge areas, underestimating its nature as a vehicle for communication. English has thus been considered just as a set of rules to be memorized with no communicative purpose. As English teachers our objective to design this proposal, was to show this language as a useful tool, not only to be practiced in the classroom, but also in the context of other areas, in this case, science. Throughout the piloting of this project at Gustavo Restrepo school, in the south of Bogotá, English was used to learn science and science was used to practice English during the performance of some tasks with a communicative purpose so that the students of ninth grade had the opportunity to learn by doing. Key Words: English-High School-Teaching, Sciences-High School-Teaching, English-Teaching-Methods Por muchos años, el inglés ha sido estudiado aparte de las otras materias en instituciones no bilingües, aislándolo de otras áreas del conocimiento y menospreciando su naturaleza como vehículo de comunicación. El inglés ha sido entonces considerado simplemente un conjunto de reglas que se memorizan sin un propósito comunicativo. Como profesores de inglés nuestro objetivo al diseñar esta propuesta fue mostrar este idioma como una herramienta útil, no sólo para ser usada en el aula, sino también en el contexto de otras áreas; en este caso ciencias naturales. A través del pilotaje de este proyecto en el colegio Gustavo Restrepo en el sur de Bogotá, el inglés fue usado para aprender ciencias naturales y las ciencias naturales fueron usadas para practicar inglés durante el desarrollo de algunas actividades, con un propósito comunicativo de manera que los estudiantes de noveno grado tuvieran la oportunidad de aprender haciendo. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza Secundaria, Ciencias Naturales-Enseñanza Secundaria, Inglés-Enseñanza-Métodos

  14. Social and behavioral science priorities for genomic translation. (United States)

    Koehly, Laura M; Persky, Susan; Spotts, Erica; Acca, Gillian


    This commentary highlights the essential role of the social and behavioral sciences for genomic translation, and discusses some priority research areas in this regard. The first area encompasses genetics of behavioral, social, and neurocognitive factors, and how integration of these relationships might impact the development of treatments and interventions. The second area includes the contributions that social and behavioral sciences make toward the informed translation of genomic developments. Further, there is a need for behavioral and social sciences to inform biomedical research for effective implementation. The third area speaks to the need for increased outreach and education efforts to improve the public's genomic literacy such that individuals and communities can make informed health-related and societal (e.g., in legal or consumer settings) decisions. Finally, there is a need to prioritize representation of diverse communities in genomics research and equity of access to genomic technologies. Examples from National Institutes of Health-based intramural and extramural research programs and initiatives are used to discuss these points. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  15. Performative Social Science: A Consideration of Skills, Purpose and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Roberts


    Full Text Available This article reviews recent work applying a notion of "performance" in the study and representation of lives. It tries to clarify some of the issues involved—including the meaning of "performance"—and "performative"—the range of possible approaches (e.g., in addition to drama—other arts and the relationship between "subjects", "researcher" and "audience". An immediate concern is the nature of the researcher—as having the necessary skills and abilities or knowledge involved in "performance" (in researching, writing, recording and representing, as engaged (to some extent in "artistic" endeavour, and moving between a number of "roles" and social relations in "performing" with/to others (the "researched" group, audience and society. An important issue for social science in crossing or bridging the social science-arts, in taking up "performative approaches", is "What remains distinctive about the social science if it becomes involved with performance approaches?" As a source for comparison (and inspiration, some brief reference will be made to the work of KANDINSKY—who moved across disciplinary boundaries and artistic practices—as ethnographer, painter, teacher, designer, theorist and poet. Finally, perhaps, there is a deeper "turn" indicated by the "turn to performance" in the study of lives, a more "complete" portrait of the individual as an active, communicative and sensual being. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802588

  16. The Effect of Blended Learning and Social Media-Supported Learning on the Students' Attitude and Self-Directed Learning Skills in Science Education (United States)

    Akgunduz, Devrim; Akinoglu, Orhan


    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of blended learning and social media supported learning on the students' attitude and self-directed learning skills in Science Education. This research took place with the 7th grade 74 students attending to a primary school in Kadikoy, Istanbul and carried out "Our Body Systems"…

  17. Examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade: A hierarchical analysis of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (United States)

    Stemler, Steven Edward

    This study explored school effectiveness in mathematics and science at the fourth grade using data from IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Fourteen of the 26 countries participating in TIMSS at the fourth grade possessed sufficient between-school variability in mathematics achievement to justify the creation of explanatory models of school effectiveness while 13 countries possessed sufficient between-school variability in science achievement. Exploratory models were developed using variables drawn from student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The variables were chosen to represent the domains of student involvement, instructional methods, classroom organization, school climate, and school structure. Six explanatory models for each subject were analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and were compared to models using only school mean SES as an explanatory variable. The amount of variability in student achievement in mathematics attributable to differences between schools ranged from 16% in Cyprus to 56% in Latvia, while the amount of between-school variance in science achievement ranged from 12% in Korea to 59% in Latvia. In general, about one-quarter of the variability in mathematics and science achievement was found to lie between schools. The research findings revealed that after adjusting for differences in student backgrounds across schools, the most effective schools in mathematics and science had students who reported seeing a positive relationship between hard work, belief in their own abilities, and achievement. In addition, more effective schools had students who reported less frequent use of computers and calculators in the classroom. These relationships were found to be stable across explanatory models, cultural contexts, and subject areas. This study has contributed a unique element to the literature by examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade across two subject areas and across 14

  18. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (United States)

    Pokhrel, Subhash; Reidpath, Daniel; Allotey, Pascale


    The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39%) were social science related while 41 projects (61%) were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million) went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  19. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. Method A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39% were social science related while 41 projects (61% were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. Conclusion The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  20. Evolution and the American social sciences: An evolutionary social scientist's view. (United States)

    Thayer, Bradley A


    American social scientists rarely ever use evolutionary concepts to explain behavior, despite the potential of such concepts to elucidate major social problems. I argue that this observation can be understood as the product of three influences: an ideologically narrowed political liberalism; a fear of ''Social Darwinism'' as a scientific idea, rather than a scientific apostasy; and a widely believed criticism of evolutionary thinking as deterministic, reductionistic, and Panglossian. I ask what is to be done to encourage social scientists to learn and to apply evolutionary lessons. I answer with four solutions. First, evolutionary social scientists should more effectively educate their non-evolutionary students and colleagues. Second, they should publicize, even popularize, accessible refutations of perennially misleading criticisms. Third, they should more credibly assure skeptics that evolutionary theory not only keeps the ''social'' in social science but better explains social behavior than can any individual-level theory, such as rational-choice theory. Fourth, they should recall that biology took generations to become Darwinian, and they must understand that the social sciences may take as long to become evolutionary.

  1. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability. (United States)

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia


    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches to resea......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...... conditions and contexts in science education. The different chapters review debates and research in teacher education, school teaching and learning including when external stakeholders are involved. Even though the chapters are contextualized in Nordic settings there will be similarities and parallels...

  3. Attitude towards technology, social media usage and grade-point average as predictors of global citizenship identification in Filipino University Students. (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito; Maria, Madelene Sta; Reysen, Stephen


    We examine the influence of a positive attitude towards technology, number of social media network memberships and grade-point average (GPA) on global citizenship identification antecedents and outcomes. Students (N = 3628) at a university in the Philippines completed a survey assessing the above constructs. The results showed that attitude towards technology, number of social network site memberships and GPA-predicted global citizenship identification, and subsequent prosocial outcomes (e.g. intergroup helping, responsibility to act for the betterment of the world), through the perception that valued others prescribe a global citizen identity (normative environment) and perceived knowledge of the world and felt interconnectedness with others (global awareness). The results highlight the associations between technology and academic performance with a global identity and associated values. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Austria announces new money for research infrastructure and social sciences

    CERN Multimedia


    Austria's Minister for Science and Research, Johannes Hahn, has announced funding for research infrastructures and the social sciences, amounting to EUR 6.9 million in total. The largest chunk of the money will go to a new data processing centre for the analysis of data from the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The idea is that the new centre will provide Austria with access to the key technology for solving highly complex scientific and technological problems, while strengthening Austria's domestic research infrastructure in the field of 'advanced communication networks'.

  5. Emphaty as the foundation of the social sciences and of social life: a reading of Husserl's phenomenology of transcendental intersubjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Vandenberghe


    Full Text Available Starting with an overview of possible solutions to the problem of social order, the author presents a non-acritical reconstruction of Edmund Husserl's transcendental phenomenology of intersubjectivity as a sympathetic alternative to Habermas's theory of communicative action. By means of a detailed analysis of the concept of empathy (Einfühlung, he shows that Husserl's phenomenology of intersubjectivity offers a triple foundation of the sciences. As a warrant of the objectivity of the world, it grounds the natural sciences; as a presupposition of sociality, it founds the social sciences; as mediated by culture, it grounds the social sciences as human sciences.

  6. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals... (United States)


    ...] Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals... announcing a public workshop entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science... constructive dialogue and information-sharing among regulators, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry...

  7. Time series analysis in the social sciences the fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Youseop


    Times Series Analysis in the Social Sciences is a practical and highly readable introduction written exclusively for students and researchers whose mathematical background is limited to basic algebra. The book focuses on fundamental elements of time series analysis that social scientists need to understand so they can employ time series analysis for their research and practice. Through step-by-step explanations and using monthly violent crime rates as case studies, this book explains univariate time series from the preliminary visual analysis through the modeling of seasonality, trends, and re


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan KAYA


    Full Text Available This study aims at determining primary education seventh grade students’ opinions on teaching of history topics in social science cources and significance of history in their lives. The population of the study comprises of 20 pieces seventh grade classes in 4 primary schools with medium socio-economic levels in the city center of Erzurum. As the sample of the study, a total of 200 students (10 students from each class were chosen via random sampling from seventh grade classes of these schools according to the appropriate sampling method. Required data for this qualitative research was acquired by a 4-item questionnaire comprising of open-ended questions. Content analysis method was adopted in analysis of the obtained data in this study. Findings shows that methods in line with constructivist approach remain limited in teaching of the topics; students like methods in which they are more active; such as drama and acting they like learning history, and, in general, they think that learning history makes a great contribution to their lives. Bu araştırmanın amacı, İlköğretim yedinci sınıf öğrencilerinin sosyal bilgiler dersinde tarih konularının işlenişi ve tarihin yaşamlarındaki değeri ile ilgili görüşlerini tespit edebilmektir.Araştırmanın evrenini, Erzurum merkezde sosyo-ekonomik bakımdan orta düzeyde 4 ilköğretim okulundaki toplam 20 tane yedinci sınıf şubesi oluşturmaktadır. Örneklem olarak uygun örnekleme yöntemine göre seçilen bu okulların yedinci sınıflarından tesadüfî örneklem yoluyla her sınıftan 10’ar öğrenci olmak üzere toplam 200 öğrenci seçilmiştir. Nitel araştırma yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilen bu araştırma için gerekli olan veriler, 4 adet açık uçlu sorudan oluşan bir anket vasıtasıyla edinilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen verilerin çözümlenmesinde içerik analizi yöntemi benimsenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre derslerin işlenişinde yap

  9. Expedition Zenith: Experiences of eighth grade girls in a non-traditional math/science program (United States)

    Ulm, Barbara Jean


    This qualitative study describes the experiences of a group of sixteen, eighth grade girls participating in a single-sex, math/science program based on gender equity research and constructivist theory. This phenomenological case study highlights the individual changes each girl perceives in herself as a result of her involvement in this program which was based at a suburban middle school just north of New York City. Described in narrative form is what took place during this single-sex program. At the start of the program the girls worked cooperatively in groups to build canoes. The canoes were then used to study a wetland during the final days of the program. To further immerse the participants into nature, the girls also camped during these final days. Data were collected from a number of sources to uncover, as fully as possible, the true essence of the program and the girls' experiences in it. The data collection methods included direct observation; in-depth, open-ended interviews; and written documentation. As a result of data collection, the girls' perceived outcomes and assessment of the program, as well as their recommendations for future math/science programs are revealed. The researcher in this study also acted as teacher, directing the program, and as participant to better understand the experiences of the girls involved in the program. Thus, unique insights could be made. The findings in this study provide insight into the learning of the participants, as well as into the relationships they formed both inside and outside of the program. Their perceived experiences and assessment of the program were then used to develop a greater understanding as to the effectiveness of this non-traditional program. Although this study echoed much of what research says about the needs of girls in learning situations, and therefore, reinforces previously accepted beliefs, it also reveals significant findings in areas previously unaddressed by gender studies. For example

  10. Schizotypy as An Organizing Framework for Social and Affective Sciences (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S.; Mohr, Christine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Park, Sohee


    Schizotypy, defined in terms of commonly occurring personality traits related to the schizophrenia spectrum, has been an important construct for understanding the neurodevelopment and stress-diathesis of schizophrenia. However, as schizotypy nears its sixth decade of application, it is important to acknowledge its impressively rich literature accumulating outside of schizophrenia research. In this article, we make the case that schizotypy has considerable potential as a conceptual framework for understanding individual differences in affective and social functions beyond those directly involved in schizophrenia spectrum pathology. This case is predicated on (a) a burgeoning literature noting anomalies in a wide range of social functioning, affiliative, positive and negative emotional, expressive, and social cognitive systems, (b) practical and methodological features associated with schizotypy research that help facilitate empirical investigation, and (c) close ties to theoretical constructs of central importance to affective and social science (eg, stress diathesis, neural compensation). We highlight recent schizotypy research, ie providing insight into the nature of affective and social systems more generally. This includes current efforts to clarify the neurodevelopmental, neurobiological, and psychological underpinnings of affiliative drives, hedonic capacity, social cognition, and stress responsivity systems. Additionally, we discuss neural compensatory and resilience factors that may mitigate the expression of stress-diathesis and functional outcome, and highlight schizotypy’s potential role for understanding cultural determinants of social and affective functions. PMID:25810057

  11. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research. (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron


    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The imagework method in health and social science research. (United States)

    Edgar, I R


    Existing alongside the traditional forms of qualitative social science research, there is a set of potential research methods that derive from experiential groupwork and the humanistic human potential movement and are only slightly used by researchers. Social science research has barely begun to use these powerful strategies that were developed originally for personal and group change but that are potentially applicable to the research domain. This article will locate these methods within the qualitative research domain and propose a novel view of their value. The study of the actual and potential use of one of these methods, imagework, will be the particular focus of this article. References to the use of artwork, sculpting, psychodrama, gestalt, and dreamwork will also be made. The hypothesis underpinning the author's approach is that experiential research methods such as imagework can elicit implicit knowledge and self-identifies of respondents in a way that other methods cannot.

  13. An Investigation of Social Behaviors of Primary School Children in Terms of Their Grade, Learning Disability and Intelligence Potential (United States)

    Yukay Yuksel, Muge


    In this study, to what extent 7-9-year old primary school children's' social behaviors at school vary depending on their grade, gender and learning disability was investigated. In addition, the predictive value of the intelligence scores of children with normal development and with learning disability was explored for their negative and positive…

  14. Viet Nam. Grade Six, Unit One. 6.1. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City. (United States)

    Thompson, Fred

    This sixth grade unit is one of a sequential learning series of the Focus On Inner City Social Studies (FICSS) project developed in accordance with the needs and problems of an urban society. A description of the project is provided in SO 008 271. The units are designed to help students investigate the conditions under which people in other…

  15. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  16. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  17. [Digitizing Human and Social Sciences Journals. Recent History and Perspectives]. (United States)

    Parisot, Thomas


    Recent years have seen the emergence and the gradual rise of French journals digital offers in the fields of human and social sciences. In this article, we will both reconsider the conditions of occurrence of these services and discuss the evolution of their environment. Through the example of several emerging initiatives in the field of scientific publishing, in a context marked by continuity but also rupture, we will try to glimpse the role journals could play in the new digital world being created.

  18. Articulating social science in the wild of global natures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders


    Building on multisited ethnographic case studies, this paper seeks to contrastively compare the demonstration and articulation formats of two social science expert cultures—economics and anthropology—enrolled ‘in the wild’ of transnational environmental politics. How, the paper asks, do different......) similarities, related to credible expert demonstrations in transnational environmental contexts. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of this claim for STS self-reflection on its politics of methods....

  19. Manufacturing Consistency: Social Science, Rhetoric and Chomsky’s Critique


    Edgley, Alison


    Chomsky’s critique of US foreign policy – and the media coverage it generates – has significant theoretical merit, and deserves to be of considerable interest within the social sciences. His analysis rests upon two distinctive positions. First, he claims that capitalism only survives because of the role played by the state, legislatively and administratively, controversially adding that it operates as an economic agent providing welfare for the rich. While the political and corporate elite ca...

  20. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) (United States)


    ... public meeting to promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (Opp... . Background: The Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) is a trans-NIH initiative to expand the agency's funding of basic behavioral and social sciences research (b-BSSR). OppNet prioritizes...

  1. Reversals of national fortune, and social science methodologies. (United States)

    Diamond, Jared


    Among non-European regions colonized by Europeans, regions that were relatively richer five centuries ago (like Mexico, Peru, and India) tend to be poorer today, while regions that originally were relatively poorer (like the United States, Chile, and Australia) tend now to be richer. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (abbreviated AJR) established the generality of this reversal of fortune. Chanda, Cook, and Putterman (abbreviated CCP) have now reanalyzed it, taking as a unit of analysis populations rather than geographic regions. That is, India's population was Indian 500 y ago and is still overwhelmingly Indian today, whereas the United States' population was Native American 500 years ago but is overwhelmingly Old World (especially European) today. Reversals of fortune disappeared when CCP analyzed populations rather than geographic regions: for instance, the geographic region of the modern United States has become relatively richer since AD 1500, but the predominantly European population now occupying the United States was already relatively rich in AD 1500. Evidently, European colonists carried ingredients of wealth with them. I discuss the biological and cultural baggage transported by European immigrants and associated with wealth. Among that baggage, AJR emphasize institutions, CCP emphasize social capital, and I identify many different elements only loosely coupled to each other. This paper discusses the problem, especially acute in the social sciences, of "operationalizing" intuitive concepts (such as mass, temperature, wealth, and innovation) so that they can be measured. Basic concepts tend to be harder to define, operationalize, and measure in the social sciences than in the laboratory sciences.

  2. Science Student Role: Evidence of Social Structural Norms Specific to School Science (United States)

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire; Nieswandt, Martina


    Sociocultural studies of science education have consistently recognized the dialectic nature of students' agency to create and author positions for themselves and the structural constraints that may influence them. This mixed-methods study explores one particular aspect of these potential constraints: the possibility of a social structure specific…

  3. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science. (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca


    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  4. Early career researchers and PhD students from the social sciences use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) for science communication: an affordances approach


    Manco Vega, Alejandra


    This research aims to understand the different practices and strategies early career researchers and PhD students from the social sciences have in Social Networking Sites (SNSs) for science communication in one particular country: Brazil. Following this purpose, the central research question is which are the motives and rationale of the researchers for using social networking sites for science communication. Two sub-questions arise from this general research question: How do practices and str...

  5. Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercilia García-Álvarez


    Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.

  6. Social and ethical dimensions of nanoscale science and engineering research. (United States)

    Sweeney, Aldrin E


    Continuing advances in human ability to manipulate matter at the atomic and molecular levels (i.e. nanoscale science and engineering) offer many previously unimagined possibilities for scientific discovery and technological development. Paralleling these advances in the various science and engineering sub-disciplines is the increasing realization that a number of associated social, ethical, environmental, economic and legal dimensions also need to be explored. An important component of such exploration entails the identification and analysis of the ways in which current and prospective researchers in these fields conceptualize these dimensions of their work. Within the context of a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in nanomaterials processing and characterization at the University of Central Florida (2002-2004), here I present for discussion (i) details of a "nanotechnology ethics" seminar series developed specifically for students participating in the program, and (ii) an analysis of students' and participating research faculty's perspectives concerning social and ethical issues associated with nanotechnology research. I conclude with a brief discussion of implications presented by these issues for general scientific literacy and public science education policy.

  7. 78 FR 25309 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ADVISORY Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: May 20, 2013; 9:00 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. May 21, 2013; 9:00 a..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  8. 78 FR 15745 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of... Science Foundation (NSF) announces the following Site Visit. Name: Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences, 10748. Date and Time: March 21, 2013 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., March 22, 2013 8:00 a.m. to...

  9. Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8: Climate Change Curriculum Developed Through a Collaboration Between Scientists and Educators (United States)

    Weiss, E.; Skene, J.; Tran, L.


    Today's youth have been tasked with the overwhelming job of addressing the world's climate future. The students who will become the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow must gain a robust understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, as well as possible adaptation strategies. Currently, there are few high quality curricula available to teachers that address these topics in a developmentally appropriate manner. The NOAA-funded Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 aims to address this gap by providing teachers with scientifically accurate climate change curriculum that hits on some of the most salient points in climate science, while simultaneously developing students' science process skills. The Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 is developed through a collaboration between some of the nation's leading ocean and climate scientists and the Lawrence Hall of Science's highly qualified GEMS (Great Explorations in Math & Science) curriculum development team. Scientists are active partners throughout the whole development process, from initial brainstorming of key concepts and creating the conceptual storyline for the curriculum to final review of the content and activities. As with all GEMS Sequences, the Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 is designed to provide significant scientific and educational depth, systematic assessments and informational readings, and incorporate new learning technologies. The goal is to focus strategically and effectively on the core concepts within ocean and climate sciences that students need to understand. This curriculum is designed in accordance with the latest research from the learning sciences, and provides numerous opportunities for students to develop inquiry skills and abilities as they learn about the practice of science through hands-on activities. The Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 addresses in depth a significant number of national, state, and district standards and benchmarks. It

  10. Social technologies : Cross-disciplinary reflections on technologies in and from the social sciences Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten; Vikkelso, Signe; Beaulieu, Anne

    In this introduction, we explore the relevance to critical psychology of the ideas about technology that have come from science and technology studies (STS), which we argue allow a new look at a classic theme in critical approaches in psychology. Rather than seeing psychical and social reality as

  11. The social practice of psychology and the social sciences in a liberal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the relevance of psychology and the social and human sciences in a changing South Africa. The new South Africa embraces a liberal democratic approach to government. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) is a policy document that articulates the goals of this liberal democratic ...

  12. The effects of contextual learning instruction on science achievement of male and female tenth-grade students (United States)

    Ingram, Samantha Jones

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the contextual learning method on science performance, attitudes toward science, and motivational factors that influence high school students to learn science. Gender differences in science performance and attitudes toward science were also investigated. The sample included four tenth-grade classes of African-American students enrolled in Chemistry I. All students were required to review for the Alabama High School Graduation Exam in Science. Students were administered a science pretest and posttest to measure science performance. A two-way analysis of covariance was performed on the test data. The results showed a main effect of contextual learning instruction on science achievement and no significant differences between females' and males' performance in science. The Science Attitude and the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE) Review Class Surveys were administered to assess students' beliefs and attitudes toward science. The Science Attitude Survey results indicated a control effect in three subscales: perception of guardian's attitude, attitude toward success in science, and perception of teacher's attitude. No significant differences resulted between males and females in their beliefs about science from the attitude survey. However, students' attitudes toward science were more favorable in the contextual learning classes based on the results of the Review Class Survey. The survey data revealed that both males and females in the contextual classes had positive attitudes toward science and toward being active participants in the learning process. Qualitative data on student motivation were collected to examine the meaningfulness of the contextual learning content and materials. The majority of the students in the treatment (96%) and the control groups (86%) reported high interest in the lesson on Newton's three laws of motion. Both the treatment and the control groups indicated their interest

  13. On the Methodology of Islamizing the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Ragab


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 It is argued in this paper that the Islamization of the social sciences should be seen-for conceptual and for pragmatic reasons-as the heart of the Islamization of Knowledge (IOK movement. If that position is accepted, the importance of efforts to clarify the specific methodology for the Islamization of the social sciences becomes self-evident. An attempt is made here to suggest an outline for such a methodology, building on the pioneer work of Ismā‘īl al-Fārūqī and on mainstream writings on IOK. The issue of the "starting point" for actual efforts at the Islamization of the social sciences is discussed in detail, particularly along with two major phases of this work, i.e., (a generating an "integral theoretical framework" that combines insights gleaned from Islamic revealed knowledge and from the human sciences; and (b validating that theoretical framework in well-designed research projects and professional practice field demonstrations. The implications of the suggested methodology for research and for theory building are discussed. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  14. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.


    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  15. Declines in peer conflict from preschool through first grade: influences from early attachment and social information processing. (United States)

    Raikes, H Abigail; Virmani, Elita A; Thompson, Ross A; Hatton, Holly


    The transition from preschool to early school years is critical for the growth of social skills. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (for this study N = 942), the purpose of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of attachment security and social information processing skills (social problem-solving and hostile attribution biases) on normative changes in peer conflict over the transition from preschool to first grade. Using latent growth curve modeling (LGM), this study found that children exhibited progressive declines in peer conflict over this period. Security of attachment (assessed via the Attachment Q-Set at 24 months) was related to lower rates of peer conflict in first grade, and steeper declines in peer conflict from 54 to 84 months. Differences in children's social information processing (assessed at 54 months) were marginally related to steeper declines in peer conflict. These findings suggest that the social skills and social expectations associated with early attachment security, together with subsequent advances in social information processing, are related to changes in peer conflict during the transition to school.

  16. Research on historical environments in elementary schools’ social sciences textbooks taught in Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım Kaşot


    Full Text Available A comprehensive study has yet to be carried out depending on the historical environment particular to the Elementary Schools in Northern Cyprus. The aim of this study is hence to determine whether the coverage of historical environment subjects in elementary school social sciences textbooks is absorbed or not by the 4th and 5th Grades in the context of both content and visuals. The method of study analysed has been organised in accordance with the qualitative research. The population was not indicated pursuant to qualitative research and so purposive sampling was implemented. The textbooks used were mainly selected from the afore-mentioned grades and classes. All the data collected were based on the textbooks used during the assessment process. The data was gathered in accordance with the document analysis technique and everything was analysed in detail. The categories used were generated after the authors performed analysis by utilising textbooks. To ensure the validity of the categories, literature scanning was undertaken and expert opinion was taken. The category definitions were written for public access. Moreover, units, titles and sub-titles were chosen as registration units and studied accordingly. Thus, the texts in the textbooks were guaranteed to cover the sufficient coverage and dimension for teaching the subject. The frequency of categories used under the text in historical environment was given and the number of words for the scope was also indicated. The size of visuals used in textbooks was given in accordance with the categories. As a result of the study, while 5th Grade textbooks cover historical environment subjects, there was no indication for the 4th Grade textbooks.

  17. On art and science: an epistemic framework for integrating social science and clinical medicine. (United States)

    Wasserman, Jason Adam


    Calls for incorporating social science into patient care typically have accounted for neither the logistic constraints of medical training nor the methodological fallacies of utilizing aggregate "social facts" in clinical practice. By elucidating the different epistemic approaches of artistic and scientific practices, this paper illustrates an integrative artistic pedagogy that allows clinical practitioners to generate social scientific insights from actual patient encounters. Although there is no shortage of calls to bring social science into medicine, the more fundamental processes of thinking by which art and science proceed have not been addressed to this end. As such, the art of medical practice is conceptualized as an innate gift, and thus little is done to cultivate it. Yet doing so is more important than ever because uncertainty in diagnosing and treating chronic illnesses, the most significant contemporary mortality risks, suggests a re-expanding role for clinical judgment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. On the almost inconceivable misunderstandings concerning the subject of value-free social science. (United States)

    Black, Donald


    A value judgment says what is good or bad, and value-free social science simply means social science free of value judgments. Yet many sociologists regard value-free social science as undesirable or impossible and readily make value judgments in the name of sociology. Often they display confusion about such matters as the meaning of value-free social science, value judgments internal and external to social science, value judgments as a subject of social science, the relevance of objectivity for value-free social science, and the difference between the human significance of social science and value-free social science. But why so many sociologists are so value-involved - and generally so unscientific - is sociologically understandable: The closest and most distant subjects attract the least scientific ideas. And during the past century sociologists have become increasingly close to their human subject. The debate about value-free social science is also part of an epistemological counterrevolution of humanists (including many sociologists) against the more scientific social scientists who invaded and threatened to expropriate the human subject during the past century. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  19. The field of medical anthropology in Social Science & Medicine. (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Eggerman, Mark


    Conceptually and methodologically, medical anthropology is well-positioned to support a "big-tent" research agenda on health and society. It fosters approaches to social and structural models of health and wellbeing in ways that are critically reflective, cross-cultural, people-centered, and transdisciplinary. In this review article, we showcase these four main characteristics of the field, as featured in Social Science & Medicine over the last fifty years, highlighting their relevance for an international and interdisciplinary readership. First, the practice of critical inquiry in ethnographies of health offers a deep appreciation of sociocultural viewpoints when recording and interpreting lived experiences and contested social worlds. Second, medical anthropology champions cross-cultural breadth: it makes explicit local understandings of health experiences across different settings, using a fine-grained, comparative approach to develop a stronger global platform for the analysis of health-related concerns. Third, in offering people-centered views of the world, anthropology extends the reach of critical enquiry to the lived experiences of hard-to-reach population groups, their structural vulnerabilities, and social agency. Finally, in developing research at the nexus of cultures, societies, biologies, and health, medical anthropologists generate new, transdisciplinary conversations on the body, mind, person, community, environment, prevention, and therapy. As featured in this journal, scholarly contributions in medical anthropology seek to debate human health and wellbeing from many angles, pushing forward methodology, social theory, and health-related practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SMART social science? Examining the nature and role of social scientific expertise in institutional design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan C. Tait


    Full Text Available Daniel Bromley argues against Oran Young's FIT model as a basis for environmental governance, on the grounds that humans cannot manage nature and that attempts to do so are based on a scientistic, modernist conceit. At issue is the role of natural and social scientists in adjudicating questions about what we ought to do to close governance gaps and address unsustainable behaviors. If Bromley is right, then the lessons of the American pragmatist tradition recommend against attempts to "fit" social institutions to the natural world. The first objective of this paper is to argue that Bromley's view is not in keeping with the pragmatism of C. S. Peirce and John Dewey, which actually places a high value on natural and social scientific modes of inquiry in the service of social ends. I argue that Young's proposal is in fact a development of the pragmatist idea that social institutions must be fit in the sense of fitness, i.e., resilient and able to navigate uncertainty. Social institutions must also evolve to accommodate the emerging values of the agents who operate within them. The second objective of this paper is to examine the role of social science expertise in the design of social policies. Governance institutions typically rely on the testimony of natural scientists, at least in part, to understand the natural systems they operate within. However, natural systems are also social systems, so it seems pertinent to ask whether there is a role for social systems experts to play in helping to design environmental governance institutions. I argue that social scientists can make a unique contribution as experts on social institutions, and as such, are necessary to bring about a transformation of the unsustainable institutions that are preventing us from achieving stated sustainable development goals.